Sample records for transparent counter electrode

  1. Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells with transparent cobalt selenide alloy counter electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yanyan; Tang, Qunwei; He, Benlin; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Ling; Yu, Liangmin

    2015-06-01

    High power conversion efficiency and cost-effectiveness are two persistent objectives for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Electricity generation from either front or rear side of a bifacial DSSC has been considered as a facile avenue of bringing down the cost of solar-to-electric conversion. Therefore, the fabrication of a transparent counter electrode (CE) with a high electrocatalytic activity is a prerequisite to realize this goal. We present here the feasibility of utilizing transparent cobalt selenide (Co-Se) binary alloy counter electrode for bifacial DSSC application, in which binary Co-Se alloy electrode is synthesized by a mild solution strategy and the cell device is irradiated by either front or rear side. Due to the high optical transparency, charge-transfer ability, and electrocatalytic activity, maximum front and rear efficiencies of 8.30% and 4.63% are recorded under simulated air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) irradiation, respectively. The impressive efficiency along with fast start-up, multiple start capability, and simple preparation highlights the potential application of cost-effective and transparent Co-Se alloy CE in robust bifacial DSSCs.

  2. Cost-effective, transparent iron selenide nanoporous alloy counter electrode for bifacial dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juan; Tang, Qunwei; He, Benlin; Yu, Liangmin

    2015-05-01

    Pursuit of cost-effective and efficient counter electrodes (CEs) is a persistent objective for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We present here the design of transparent Fe-Se nanoporous alloy CEs for bifacial DSSC applications. Due to the superior charge-transfer ability for I-/I3- redox couples, electrocatalytic reduction toward I3- species, and optical transparency in visible-light region, the bifacial DSSC with FeSe alloy electrode yields maximum front and rear efficiencies of 9.16% and 5.38%, respectively. A fast start-up, high multiple start capability, and good stability of the FeSe alloy CE demonstrate the potential applications in driving solar panels. The impressive efficiency along with simple preparation of the cost-effective Fe-Se nanoporous alloy CEs highlights their potential application in robust bifacial DSSCs.

  3. MoS2 atomic layers with artificial active edge sites as transparent counter electrodes for improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Najmaei, Sina; Lin, Hong; Lou, Jun

    2014-05-21

    A novel MoS2 transparent counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells is reported. In order to enhance the catalytic activity of the electrode, active edge sites are created artificially by patterning holes on MoS2 atomic layers. Electrochemical analysis shows that the electrochemical activity is significantly improved after the patterning of holes. The photon-to-electron efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells based on MoS2 atomic layer counter electrodes is increased remarkably from 2% to 5.8% after the hole patterning. PMID:24695461

  4. MoS2 atomic layers with artificial active edge sites as transparent counter electrodes for improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Najmaei, Sina; Lin, Hong; Lou, Jun

    2014-04-01

    A novel MoS2 transparent counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells is reported. In order to enhance the catalytic activity of the electrode, active edge sites are created artificially by patterning holes on MoS2 atomic layers. Electrochemical analysis shows that the electrochemical activity is significantly improved after the patterning of holes. The photon-to-electron efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells based on MoS2 atomic layer counter electrodes is increased remarkably from 2% to 5.8% after the hole patterning.

  5. Electrochromic counter electrode

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Jorgensen, Gary J.

    2005-02-22

    The present invention discloses an amorphous material comprising nickel oxide doped with tantalum that is an anodically coloring electrochromic material. The material of the present invention is prepared in the form of an electrode (200) having a thin film (202) of an electrochromic material of the present invention residing on a transparent conductive film (203). The material of the present invention is also incorporated into an electrochromic device (100) as a thin film (102) in conjunction with a cathodically coloring prior art electrochromic material layer (104) such that the devices contain both anodically coloring (102) and cathodically coloring (104) layers. The materials of the electrochromic layers in these devices exhibit broadband optical complimentary behavior, ionic species complimentary behavior, and coloration efficiency complimentary behavior in their operation.

  6. An efficient and transparent copper sulfide nanosheet film counter electrode for bifacial quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Weijun; Fang, Guojia; Lei, Hongwei; Qin, Pingli; Tao, Hong; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2014-02-01

    Copper sulfide (CuS) with nanosheet structure has been synthesized at a low temperature in situ on copper (Cu) film coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass and bifacial quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) were herein developed by using these CuS as counter electrodes (CEs). CuS is an environmental compatible and low toxic material. The obtained two-dimensional CuS nanosheet film presents high carrier mobility and exhibits highly catalytic performance for the polysulfide-based electrolyte. The QDSSC based on a CuS CE presents a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.65% by optimizing the thickness of the Cu film under front illumination. The QDSSC based on a CuS CE prepared with a 200 nm thick Cu film shows a very close PCE under front and rear illuminations in which the values are as high as 2.70% and 2.40%, respectively. All the PCEs of the CuS CEs are much higher than that of the Pt CE (1.34%).

  7. Flexible transparent electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  8. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Goldhar, Julius (San Ramon, CA); Henesian, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A low pressure gas electrode utilizing ionized gas in a glow discharge regime forms a transparent electrode for electro-optical switches. The transparent electrode comprises a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the electrode is a transparent electrode. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. The plasma can be created either by the main high voltage pulser used to charge up the crystal or by auxiliary discharges or external sources of ionization. A typical configuration utilizes 10 torr argon in the discharge region adjacent to each crystal face.

  9. Ultra thin nickel transparent electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Giurgola; Anabel Rodriguez; Luis Martinez; Paolo Vergani; Federico Lucchi; Sarah Benchabane; Valerio Pruneri

    2009-01-01

    Transparent electrodes made of ultra thin metals have recently been demonstrated with performances comparable to those offered\\u000a by transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are traditionally used in applications such as photovoltaic cells, light emitting\\u000a devices, photodetectors and electro-optical modulators. In this work we report highly uniform, optically transparent and electrically\\u000a conductive nickel films. Their good performance, combined with low cost

  10. Fully solution-processed transparent conducting oxide-free counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells: spray-coated single-wall carbon nanotube thin films loaded with chemically-reduced platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Yong; Kim, Yesel; Lee, Kyung Moon; Yoon, Woo Sug; Lee, Ho Seok; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Seung-Joo; Ahn, Yeong Hwan; Park, Ji-Yong; Lee, Tai Kyu; Lee, Soonil

    2014-08-27

    We report fully solution-processed fabrication of transparent conducting oxide-free counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by combining spray-coating of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and chemical reduction of chloroplatinic acid precursor to platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) with formic acid. The power conversion efficiency of a semitransparent DSSC with such SWCNT-based CE loaded with Pt NPs is comparable to that of a control device with a conventional CE. Quantification of Pt loading shows that network morphology of entangled SWCNTs is efficient in forming and retaining chemically reduced Pt NPs. Moreover, electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results show that mainly Pt NPs, which are tens of nanometers in diameter and reside at the surface of SWCNT CEs, contribute to electrocatalytic activity for triiodide reduction, to which we attribute strong correlation between power conversion efficiency of DSSCs and time constant deduced from equivalent-circuit analysis of impedance spectra. PMID:25122074

  11. Grid type dye-sensitized solar cell module with carbon counter electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won Jae Lee; Easwaramoorthi Ramasamy; Dong Yoon Lee; Jae Sung Song

    2008-01-01

    To realize low cost, high-performance dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) technology on industrial scale, large area grid type DSSC module has been prepared on silver grid-embedded transparent conducting glass substrate. Commercial titanium dioxide (TiO2) and carbon powders were employed to make working and counter electrodes, respectively. Under simulated solar light (AM 1.5, Pin: 100mWcm?2), 5cm×5cm size carbon counter electrode module with

  12. Stabilization of metal counter electrodes for dye solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kati Miettunen; Imran Asghar; Xiaoli Ruan; Janne Halme; Tapio Saukkonen; Peter Lund

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify stable metal based counter electrodes (CE) for dye solar cells (DSC). Previous studies have shown that stainless steel (StS 304) suffers from corrosion when used as a counter electrode. Therefore metals which have inherently higher corrosion resistance, such as stainless steel types 321, 316 and 316L, Inconel 600 and titanium, were investigated

  13. Cu Mesh for Flexible Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Kyung; Lee, Seunghun; Hee Lee, Duck; Hee Park, In; Seong Bae, Jong; Woo Lee, Tae; Kim, Ji-Young; Hun Park, Ji; Chan Cho, Yong; Ryong Cho, Chae; Jeong, Se-Young

    2015-01-01

    Copper electrodes with a micromesh/nanomesh structure were fabricated on a polyimide substrate using UV lithography and wet etching to produce flexible transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs). Well-defined mesh electrodes were realized through the use of high-quality Cu thin films. The films were fabricated using radio-frequency (RF) sputtering with a single-crystal Cu target—a simple but innovative approach that overcame the low oxidation resistance of ordinary Cu. Hybrid Cu mesh electrodes were fabricated by adding a capping layer of either ZnO or Al-doped ZnO. The sheet resistance and the transmittance of the electrode with an Al-doped ZnO capping layer were 6.197 ohm/sq and 90.657%, respectively, and the figure of merit was 60.502?×?10–3/ohm, which remained relatively unchanged after thermal annealing at 200?°C and 1,000 cycles of bending. This fabrication technique enables the mass production of large-area flexible TCEs, and the stability and high performance of Cu mesh hybrid electrodes in harsh environments suggests they have strong potential for application in smart displays and solar cells. PMID:26039977

  14. Cu mesh for flexible transparent conductive electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Kyung; Lee, Seunghun; Hee Lee, Duck; Hee Park, In; Seong Bae, Jong; Woo Lee, Tae; Kim, Ji-Young; Hun Park, Ji; Chan Cho, Yong; Ryong Cho, Chae; Jeong, Se-Young

    2015-01-01

    Copper electrodes with a micromesh/nanomesh structure were fabricated on a polyimide substrate using UV lithography and wet etching to produce flexible transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs). Well-defined mesh electrodes were realized through the use of high-quality Cu thin films. The films were fabricated using radio-frequency (RF) sputtering with a single-crystal Cu target-a simple but innovative approach that overcame the low oxidation resistance of ordinary Cu. Hybrid Cu mesh electrodes were fabricated by adding a capping layer of either ZnO or Al-doped ZnO. The sheet resistance and the transmittance of the electrode with an Al-doped ZnO capping layer were 6.197 ohm/sq and 90.657%, respectively, and the figure of merit was 60.502?×?10(-3)/ohm, which remained relatively unchanged after thermal annealing at 200?°C and 1,000 cycles of bending. This fabrication technique enables the mass production of large-area flexible TCEs, and the stability and high performance of Cu mesh hybrid electrodes in harsh environments suggests they have strong potential for application in smart displays and solar cells. PMID:26039977

  15. Novel transparent electrodes allow sustainable production of electronic devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constant; Kristen

    2010-01-01

    A novel technique for fabricating inexpensive, transparent electrodes from common metals has been developed by engineers and scientists at Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory. They exhibit very high transparency and are very good electrical conductors. This is a combination of properties that is difficult to achieve with common materials. The most frequently used transparent electrode in today's high-technology devices

  16. Innovative transparent electrode for flexible displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents a new transparent electrode (TE) for flexible displays and energy saving windows. The TE is a room temperature vacuum-deposited multi-layer thin-film system. Both highly transparent rigid materials including glass and ceramics as well as flexible polymeric materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene can serve as substrates for the TE. The TE is deposited as a flexible coating that can be rolled around a 0.5cm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TE exhibits high visible transmittance without color. The transmission spectrum of the TE, which matches the eye sensitivity curve, allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. The photopic transmittance of the TE is 88% and it is a UV inhibiter. The new transparent conductor has 3-5 Ohm/sq of sheet resistance. The environmental stability of the TE was evaluated in a wedeometer with the coating on a PET substrate withstanding 150 hours at 50 °C, 95% humidity, and ultraviolet (UV), without changing its original performance. The coating can be patterned using standard etching procedures.. In this paper, the properties of the TE are compared with those of common transparent conductive oxides (TCO) including ITO, ZnO: Al and SnO2:F. In addition to the technical description, the paper analyzes potential markets and applications of the TE with emphasis on the replacing current TCO coatings, specifically ITO for flexible display electrode and energy saving window applications.

  17. Transparent electrode materials for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiss, Jan; Uhrich, Christian L.; Fehse, Karsten; Pfuetzner, Steffen; Riede, Moritz K.; Leo, Karl

    2008-04-01

    Alternatives for replacing the expensive ITO are explored and Poly(ethylene dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is introduced as one possibility. We present the first small-molecule organic solar cells employing only PEDOT:PSS as transparent electrode. Solar cells on glass and on flexible plastic foil were prepared, using a p-doped hole transporting material, zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and C60 as donor-acceptor heterojunction, and an exciton blocking layer. Different methods to structure the PEDOT:PSS electrodes were investigated and are presented. As proof of principle, non-optimized prototype cells with efficiencies of over 0.7% on glass and 0.9% on flexible plastic foil substrate were obtained.

  18. Flexible and transparent SWCNT electrodes for alternating current electroluminescence devices.

    PubMed

    Schrage, Christian; Kaskel, Stefan

    2009-08-01

    The application of transparent single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) electrodes in rigid and flexible alternating current electroluminescence (ACEL) devices is demonstrated. SWCNT thin-film electrodes (50-160 nm) were made using a spray-coating process suitable for adjusting the transparency and sheet resistance. The dispersing procedure was optimized by comparing the transparency to sheet resistance ratio (T/R) of the electrodes. The emission intensity was as high as that for indium-tin oxide (ITO)-based ACEL devices with transparencies comparable to those of ITO-coated polymer slides. PMID:20355777

  19. Solution-processed metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Yong; Connor, Stephen T; Cui, Yi; Peumans, Peter

    2008-02-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes are important components of thin-film solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and many display technologies. Doped metal oxides are commonly used, but their optical transparency is limited for films with a low sheet resistance. Furthermore, they are prone to cracking when deposited on flexible substrates, are costly, and require a high-temperature step for the best performance. We demonstrate solution-processed transparent electrodes consisting of random meshes of metal nanowires that exhibit an optical transparency equivalent to or better than that of metal-oxide thin films for the same sheet resistance. Organic solar cells deposited on these electrodes show a performance equivalent to that of devices based on a conventional metal-oxide transparent electrode. PMID:18189445

  20. An Electrochemical Experiment Using an Optically Transparent Thin Layer Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAngelis, Thomas P.; Heineman, William R.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a unified experiment in which an optically transparent thin layer electrode is used to illustrate the techniques of thin layer electrochemistry, cyclic voltammetry, controlled potential coulometry, and spectroelectrochemistry. (MLH)

  1. Laser perforated ultrathin metal films for transparent electrode applications.

    PubMed

    Theuring, Martin; Steenhoff, Volker; Geißendörfer, Stefan; Vehse, Martin; von Maydell, Karsten; Agert, Carsten

    2015-04-01

    Transmittance and conductivity are the key requirements for transparent electrodes. Many optoelectronic applications require additional features such as mechanical flexibility and cost-efficient fabrication at low temperatures. Here we demonstrate a simple method to fabricate high performance transparent electrodes that is based on perforation of thin silver layers using picosecond laser pulses. Transparent electrodes have been characterized optically and electrically in order to determine the influence of specific surface coverage. Special attention was paid to maintaining sufficient conductivity in the metal-free areas. As a result, transmittance of a much higher bandwidth was achieved as compared to unpatterned metal films. Transparent electrodes have been fabricated on glass and plastic foil, as well as wafer-based silicon heterojunction solar cells, demonstrating their applicability for most relevant cases. PMID:25968791

  2. A transparent electrode based on a metal nanotrough network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui; Kong, Desheng; Ruan, Zhichao; Hsu, Po-Chun; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Zongfu; Carney, Thomas J.; Hu, Liangbing; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2013-06-01

    Transparent conducting electrodes are essential components for numerous flexible optoelectronic devices, including touch screens and interactive electronics. Thin films of indium tin oxide--the prototypical transparent electrode material--demonstrate excellent electronic performances, but film brittleness, low infrared transmittance and low abundance limit suitability for certain industrial applications. Alternatives to indium tin oxide have recently been reported and include conducting polymers, carbon nanotubes and graphene. However, although flexibility is greatly improved, the optoelectronic performance of these carbon-based materials is limited by low conductivity. Other examples include metal nanowire-based electrodes, which can achieve sheet resistances of less than 10? ?-1 at 90% transmission because of the high conductivity of the metals. To achieve these performances, however, metal nanowires must be defect-free, have conductivities close to their values in bulk, be as long as possible to minimize the number of wire-to-wire junctions, and exhibit small junction resistance. Here, we present a facile fabrication process that allows us to satisfy all these requirements and fabricate a new kind of transparent conducting electrode that exhibits both superior optoelectronic performances (sheet resistance of ~2? ?-1 at 90% transmission) and remarkable mechanical flexibility under both stretching and bending stresses. The electrode is composed of a free-standing metallic nanotrough network and is produced with a process involving electrospinning and metal deposition. We demonstrate the practical suitability of our transparent conducting electrode by fabricating a flexible touch-screen device and a transparent conducting tape.

  3. Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes as Transparent Electrodes for Photovoltaics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorma Peltola; Igor Levitsky; Paul Glatkowski; Jao van de Lagemaat; Garry Rumbles; Teresa Barnes; Tim Coutts

    2006-01-01

    Transparent and electrically conductive coatings and films have a variety of uses in the fast-growing field of optoelectronic applications. Transparent electrodes typically include semiconductive metal oxides such as indium tin oxide (ITO), and conducting polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), doped and stabilized with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT\\/PSS). In recent years, Eikos, Inc. has conceived and developed technologies to deliver novel alternatives using single-wall

  4. Transparent conductive electrodes for electrochromic devices: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Granqvist

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the optical and electrical performance of thin films that are useful as transparent electrodes in electrochromic devices. The properties of certain heavily doped wide-bandgap semiconductor oxides (especially In2O3:Sn) and of certain coinage metal films are discussed.

  5. Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junbo Wu; Héctor A. Becerril; Zhenan Bao; Zunfeng Liu; Yongsheng Chen; Peter Peumans

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that solution-processed graphene thin films can serve as transparent conductive anodes for organic photovoltaic cells. The graphene electrodes were deposited on quartz substrates by spin coating of an aqueous dispersion of functionalized graphene, followed by a reduction process to reduce the sheet resistance. Small molecular weight organic solar cells can be directly deposited on such graphene anodes. The

  6. Transparent conductive electrodes for electrochromic devices: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granqvist, C. G.

    1993-07-01

    This paper reviews the optical and electrical performance of thin films that are useful as transparent electrodes in electrochromic devices. The properties of certain heavily doped wide-bandgap semiconductor oxides (especially In2O3:Sn) and of certain coinage metal films are discussed.

  7. Photovoltachromic device with a micropatterned bifunctional counter electrode.

    PubMed

    Cannavale, Alessandro; Manca, Michele; De Marco, Luisa; Grisorio, Roberto; Carallo, Sonia; Suranna, Gian Paolo; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2014-02-26

    A photovoltachromic window can potentially act as a smart glass skin which generates electric energy as a common dye-sensitized solar cell and, at the same time, control the incoming energy flux by reacting to even small modifications in the solar radiation intensity. We report here the successful implementation of a novel architecture of a photovoltachromic cell based on an engineered bifunctional counter electrode consisting of two physically separated platinum and tungsten oxide regions, which are arranged to form complementary comb-like patterns. Solar light is partially harvested by a dye-sensitized photoelectrode made on the front glass of the cell which fully overlaps a bifunctional counter electrode made on the back glass. When the cell is illuminated, the photovoltage drives electrons into the electrochromic stripes through the photoelectrochromic circuit and promotes the Li(+) diffusion towards the WO3 film, which thus turns into its colored state: a photocoloration efficiency of 17 cm(2) min(-1) W(-1) at a wavelength of 650 nm under 1.0 sun was reported along with fast response (coloration time <2 s and bleaching time <5 s). A fairly efficient photovoltaic functionality was also retained due to the copresence of the independently switchable micropatterned platinum electrode. PMID:24460118

  8. Hot-rolling nanowire transparent electrodes for surface roughness minimization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanowire transparent electrodes are a promising alternative to transparent conductive oxides. However, their surface roughness presents a problem for their integration into devices with thin layers such as organic electronic devices. In this paper, hot rollers are used to soften plastic substrates with heat and mechanically press the nanowires into the substrate surface. By doing so, the root-mean-square surface roughness is reduced to 7 nm and the maximum peak-to-valley value is 30 nm, making the electrodes suitable for typical organic devices. This simple process requires no additional materials, which results in a higher transparency, and is compatible with roll-to-roll fabrication processes. In addition, the adhesion of the nanowires to the substrate significantly increases. PMID:24994963

  9. Hot-rolling nanowire transparent electrodes for surface roughness minimization.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh Khaligh, Hadi; Goldthorpe, Irene A

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanowire transparent electrodes are a promising alternative to transparent conductive oxides. However, their surface roughness presents a problem for their integration into devices with thin layers such as organic electronic devices. In this paper, hot rollers are used to soften plastic substrates with heat and mechanically press the nanowires into the substrate surface. By doing so, the root-mean-square surface roughness is reduced to 7 nm and the maximum peak-to-valley value is 30 nm, making the electrodes suitable for typical organic devices. This simple process requires no additional materials, which results in a higher transparency, and is compatible with roll-to-roll fabrication processes. In addition, the adhesion of the nanowires to the substrate significantly increases. PMID:24994963

  10. Novel transparent electrodes allow sustainable production of electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Constant, Kristen

    2010-12-27

    A novel technique for fabricating inexpensive, transparent electrodes from common metals has been developed by engineers and scientists at Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory. They exhibit very high transparency and are very good electrical conductors. This is a combination of properties that is difficult to achieve with common materials. The most frequently used transparent electrode in today's high-technology devices (such as LCD screens) is indium tin oxide (ITO). While ITO performs well in these applications, the supply of indium is very limited. In addition, it is rapidly decreasing as consumer demand for flat-panel electronics is skyrocketing. According to a 2004 US Geological Survey report, as little as 14 years exploitation of known indium reserves remains. In addition to increasing prices, the dwindling supply of indium suggests its use is not sustainable for future generations of electronics enthusiasts. Solar cells represent another application where transparent electrodes are used. To make solar-energy collection economically feasible, all parts of solar photovoltaics must be made more efficient and cost-effective. Our novel transparent electrodes have the potential to do both. In addition, there is much interest in developing more efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly lighting. Incandescent light bulbs are very inefficient, because most of their energy consumption is wasted as heat. Fluorescent lighting is much more efficient but still uses mercury, an environmental toxin. An attractive alternative is offered by LEDs, which have very high efficiencies and long lifetimes, and do not contain mercury. If made bright enough, LED use for general lighting could provide a viable alternative. We have fabricated electrodes from more commonly available materials, using a technique that is cost effective and environmentally friendly. Most of today's electronic devices are made in specialized facilities equipped with low-particle-count clean-room facilities and multimillion-dollar equipment. On the other hand, the novel process we developed uses a method that makes use of polymer molds and standard deposition techniques in an ambient laboratory environment. The final structure consists of tall ribbons of metal (standing on edge) that are so thin that they do not block light but are very good conductors. The advantage of this design is that it avoids the competition between conductivity and transparency inherent in transparent oxide electrodes. By making the structure taller, conductivity can be increased without impacting transparency. We have measured both electrical conductivity and transparency for these structures. We performed two-wire electrical measurements to quantify the structures resistance using metal contacts deposited on each end. The total sample area was 4 x 4mm{sup 2}. We measured a resistance of structures with 40nm gold sidewalls of 7.3{Omega}, which is lower than that of ITO glass (which has a sheet resistance around 10O/square). We investigated the structures optical properties based on both specular- and total-transmission measurements. Specular transmission is measured by collecting the transmitted light at normal incidence, while total transmission is obtained by collecting transmitted light at normal incidence and diffracted light using an integrating sphere. Figure 3 shows the total transmission of a grating with 40nm gold or silver sidewalls on a glass substrate compared to that of ITO. Additionally, the transparency changes very little within 30{sup o} off normal incidence. This high visible-light transmission of our metal-patterned structures is very promising for their application as transparent electrodes, because most visible light was allowed to propagate through the patterned metallic/polymeric structures. Researchers in our group continue to refine the fabrication methods and are investigating methods to make large-scale structures for use in a variety of applications that require both transparency and high electrical conductivity. We are also applying these fab

  11. Anthocyanin-sensitized solar cells using carbon nanotube films as counter electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongwei Zhu; Haifeng Zeng; Venkatachalam Subramanian; Charan Masarapu; Kai-Hsuan Hung; Bingqing Wei

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) films have been used as counter electrodes in natural dye-sensitized (anthocyanin-sensitized) solar cells to improve the cell performance. Compared with conventional cells using natural dye electrolytes and platinum as the counter electrodes, cells with a single-walled nanotube (SWNT) film counter electrode show comparable conversion efficiency, which is attributed to the increase in short circuit current density due

  12. Carbon Nanotube Assemblies for Transparent Conducting Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Matthew P [ORNL] [ORNL; Gerhardt, Rosario [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to introduce readers to the fundamental and practical aspects of nanotube assemblies made into transparent conducting networks and discuss some practical aspects of their characterization. Transparent conducting coatings (TCC) are an essential part of electro-optical devices, from photovoltaics and light emitting devices to electromagnetic shielding and electrochromic widows. The market for organic materials (including nanomaterials and polymers) based TCCs is expected to show a growth rate of 56.9% to reach nearly 20.3billionin2015,whilethemarketfortraditionalinorganictransparentelectronicswillexperiencegrowthwithratesof6.7103 billion in 2015. Emerging flexible electronic applications have brought additional requirements of flexibility and low cost for TCC. However, the price of indium (the major component in indium tin oxide TCC) continues to increase. On the other hand, the price of nanomaterials has continued to decrease due to development of high volume, quality production processes. Additional benefits come from the low cost, nonvacuum deposition of nanomaterials based TCC, compared to traditional coatings requiring energy intensive vacuum deposition. Among the materials actively researched as alternative TCC are nanoparticles, nanowires, and nanotubes with high aspect ratio as well as their composites. The figure of merit (FOM) can be used to compare TCCs made from dissimilar materials and with different transmittance and conductivity values. In the first part of this manuscript, we will discuss the seven FOM parameters that have been proposed, including one specifically intended for flexible applications. The approach for how to measure TCE electrical properties, including frequency dependence, will also be discussed. We will relate the macroscale electrical characteristics of TCCs to the nanoscale parameters of conducting networks. The fundamental aspects of nanomaterial assemblies in conducting networks will also be addressed. We will review recent literature on TCCs composed of carbon nanotubes of different types in terms of the FOM.

  13. Electroluminescent Device Comprising a Transparent Structured Electrode Layer Made From a Conductive Polymer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aemilianus G. J. Staring; David Braun

    1998-01-01

    An electroluminescent (EL) device is (1) composed of polymeric LEDs comprising an active layer (7) of a conjugated polymer and a transparent polymeric electrode layer (5) having electroconductive areas (51) as electrodes. Like the active layer (7), the electrode layer (5) can be manufactured in a simple manner by spin coating. The electrode layer (5) is structured into conductive electrodes

  14. Fissile material transparency technology demonstration : neutron multiplicity counter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Bourret; W. C. Harker; P. A. Hypes; D. C. Langner; S. D. Salazar; R. Siebelist; M. K. Smith; M. R. Sweet; D. R. Mayo

    2001-01-01

    The Fissile Material Transparency Technology Demonstration occurred at Los Alamos National Laboratory, August 14-17, 2000. The demonstration showed the determination of six attributes (Pu presence, Pu isotopics, Pu mass, absence of oxide, symmetry, and age) on unclassified plutonium samples and a US nuclear weapons component. The demonstrations showed that a six-attribute measurement system with information barrier could be fabricated and

  15. Photosystem I on graphene as a highly transparent, photoactive electrode.

    PubMed

    Gunther, Darlene; LeBlanc, Gabriel; Prasai, Dhiraj; Zhang, Jamie R; Cliffel, David E; Bolotin, Kirill I; Jennings, G Kane

    2013-04-01

    We report the fabrication of a hybrid light-harvesting electrode consisting of photosystem I (PSI) proteins extracted from spinach and adsorbed as a monolayer onto electrically contacted, large-area graphene. The transparency of graphene supports the choice of an opaque mediator at elevated concentrations. For example, we report a photocurrent of 550 nA/cm(2) from a monolayer of PSI on graphene in the presence of 20 mM methylene blue, which yields an opaque blue solution. The PSI-modified graphene electrode has a total thickness of less than 10 nm and demonstrates photoactivity that is an order of magnitude larger than that for unmodified graphene, establishing the feasibility of conjoining these nanomaterials as potential constructs in next-generation photovoltaic devices. PMID:23506192

  16. Fabrication of high performance Pt counter electrodes on conductive plastic substrate for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lili Chen; Weiwei Tan; Jingbo Zhang; Xiaowen Zhou; Xiaoling Zhang; Yuan Lin

    2010-01-01

    Pt counter electrodes (CEs) with different platinum loading have been prepared using chemical reduced method on flexible indium-doped tin oxide coated polyethylene naphthalate (ITO-PEN) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). H2PtCl6·6H2O terpineol solutions were screen printed on the transparent ITO-PEN substrates. After drying, H2PtCl6 was reduced by treating it in NaBH4 solution followed by the hydrothermal treatment at 100°C. The obtained

  17. Fissile material transparency technology demonstration : neutron multiplicity counter /

    SciTech Connect

    Bourret, S. C.; Harker, W. C. (William C.); Hypes, P. A. (Philip A.); Langner, D. C. (Diana C.); Salazar, S. D. (Steven D.); Siebelist, R. (Richard); Smith, M. K. (Morag K.); Sweet, M. R. (Martin R.); Mayo, D. R. (Douglas R.)

    2001-01-01

    The Fissile Material Transparency Technology Demonstration occurred at Los Alamos National Laboratory, August 14-17, 2000. The demonstration showed the determination of six attributes (Pu presence, Pu isotopics, Pu mass, absence of oxide, symmetry, and age) on unclassified plutonium samples and a US nuclear weapons component. The demonstrations showed that a six-attribute measurement system with information barrier could be fabricated and was capable of protecting classified information. In order to measure the six attributes, a high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy system and neutron multiplicity system were developed. This talk discusses the neutron multiplicity system, along with data taken on the unclassified samples.

  18. Electroluminescent Device Comprising a Transparent Structured Electrode Layer Made From a Conductive Polymer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aemilianus G. J. Staring; David Braun

    1999-01-01

    A description is given of an electroluminescent (EL) device (1) composed of polymeric LEDs comprising an active layer (7) of a conjugated polymer and a transparent polymeric electrode layer (5) having electroconductive areas (51) as electrodes. Like the active layer (7), the electrode layer (5) can be manufactured in a simple manner by spin coating. The electrode layer (5) is

  19. Effects of counter electrodes on photovoltaic performance of all-solid-state TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Mingwei; Liu, Benjamin; Dong, Zhenhua; Dong, Zhenyu; Dong, Lifeng

    2015-03-01

    In order to analyse the effects of counter electrodes on photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), different electrodes were used as the counter electrodes for all-solid-state TiO2-based DSSCs. An inorganic solid-state electrolyte, CsSnI2.95F0.05, was selected to couple with N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays to fabricate the DSSCs. Fluorine doped tin oxide transparent conducting glass (FTO), platinum coated FTO (Pt/FTO), graphite coated FTO (graphite/FTO), and graphite coated common glass (graphite/glass) were investigated as the counter electrodes, and the cells composed of the corresponding electrodes above have power-conversion efficiencies of 2.17%, 9.84%, 7.62%, and 3.45%, respectively. Our findings indicate that due to its unique catalytic and conducting properties, graphite can replace both Pt and FTO as a counter electrode to reduce the fabrication cost of all-solid-state TiO2-based DSSCs.

  20. Graphene nanosheet counter-electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Zhang; X. D. Li; S. Chen; H. B. Li; Z. Sun; X. J. Yin; S. M. Huang

    2010-01-01

    Graphene nanosheets (GNs) have been investigated as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Mesoporous TiO2 films are prepared from the commercial TiO2 nano-powders by screen-printing technique on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) slides. GNs are applied to substitute for platinum as counter-electrode materials. GN films are screen printed on FTO glass using a paste based on GNs dispersed in

  1. Transparent electrodes fabricated via the self-assembly of silver nanowires using a bubble template.

    PubMed

    Tokuno, Takehiro; Nogi, Masaya; Jiu, Jinting; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2012-06-26

    To shore up the demand of transparent electrodes for wide applications such as organic light emitting diodes and solar cells, transparent electrodes are required as an alternative for indium tin oxide electrodes. Herein the self-assembly method with a bubble template paves the way for cost-effective fabrication of transparent electrodes with high conductivity and transparency using self-assembly of silver nanowires (AgNWs) in a bubble template. AgNWs were first dispersed in water that was bubbled with a surfactant and a thickening agent. Furthermore, these AgNWs were assembled by lining along the bubble ridges. When the bubbles containing the AgNWs were sandwiched between two glass substrates, the bubble ridges including the AgNWs formed continuous polygonal structures. Mesh structures were formed on both glass substrates after air-drying. The mesh structures evolved into mesh transparent electrodes following heat-treatment. The AgNW mesh structure exhibited a low sheet resistance of 6.2 ?/square with a transparency of 84% after heat treatment at 200 °C for 20 min. The performance is higher than that of transparent electrodes with random networks of AgNWs. Furthermore, the conductivity and transparency of the mesh transparent electrodes can be adjusted by changing the amount of the AgNW suspension and the space between the two glass substrates. PMID:22642559

  2. Ultrasmooth, extremely deformable and shape recoverable Ag nanowire embedded transparent electrode

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sanggil; Song, Myungkwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Cho, Byungjin; Lee, Hye Moon; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sung-Gyu; Nam, Kee-Seok; Jeong, Yongsoo; Kwon, Se-Hun; Park, Yun Chang; Jin, Sung-Ho; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jo, Sungjin; Kim, Chang Su

    2014-01-01

    Transparent electrodes have been widely used in electronic devices such as solar cells, displays, and touch screens. Highly flexible transparent electrodes are especially desired for the development of next generation flexible electronic devices. Although indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most commonly used material for the fabrication of transparent electrodes, its brittleness and growing cost limit its utility for flexible electronic devices. Therefore, the need for new transparent conductive materials with superior mechanical properties is clear and urgent. Ag nanowire (AgNW) has been attracting increasing attention because of its effective combination of electrical and optical properties. However, it still suffers from several drawbacks, including large surface roughness, instability against oxidation and moisture, and poor adhesion to substrates. These issues need to be addressed before wide spread use of metallic NW as transparent electrodes can be realized. In this study, we demonstrated the fabrication of a flexible transparent electrode with superior mechanical, electrical and optical properties by embedding a AgNW film into a transparent polymer matrix. This technique can produce electrodes with an ultrasmooth and extremely deformable transparent electrode that have sheet resistance and transmittance comparable to those of an ITO electrode. PMID:24763248

  3. Nanoimprinted transparent metal electrodes and their applications in organic optoelectronic devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myung-Gyu Kang

    2009-01-01

    A new type of transparent and conductive electrode (TCE) in the form of nanoscale periodically perforated metal mesh film by nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has been developed. The developed transparent metal electrodes have the characteristics of high optical transmittance and electrical conductivity, a combination of properties that makes them suitable as a replacement for indium-doped tin oxide (ITO), a predominant choice

  4. A tough and high-performance transparent electrode from a scalable and transfer-free method.

    PubMed

    He, Tianda; Xie, Aozhen; Reneker, Darrell H; Zhu, Yu

    2014-05-27

    Conductive metal films are patterned into transparent metal nanowire networks by using electrospun fibers as a mask. Both the transmittance and sheet resistance (6 ?/? at 83% transmittance and 24 ?/? at 92% transmittance) of the metal nanowire-based electrode out-perform commercial indium doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The metal nanowire-based transparent electrodes were fabricated on both rigid glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. In addition to state of art performance, the transparent electrodes also exhibit outstanding toughness. They can withstand repeated scotch tape peeling and various bending tests. The method for making the metal nanowire is scalable, and a touch screen on flexible substrate is demonstrated. PMID:24773271

  5. Polymer-assisted direct deposition of uniform carbon nanotube bundle networks for high performance transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hellstrom, Sondra L; Lee, Hang Woo; Bao, Zhenan

    2009-06-23

    Flexible transparent electrodes are crucial for touch screen, flat panel display, and solar cell technologies. While carbon nanotube network electrodes show promise, characteristically poor dispersion properties have limited their practicality. We report that addition of small amounts of conjugated polymer to nanotube dispersions enables straightforward fabrication of uniform network electrodes by spin-coating and simultaneous tuning of parameters such as bundle size and density. After treatment in thionyl chloride, electrodes have sheet resistances competitive with other reported carbon nanotube based transparent electrodes to date. PMID:19422197

  6. Rare-metal-free flexible counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar-cells produced using wet processes only.

    PubMed

    Okada, Issei; Shiratori, Seimei

    2013-05-22

    Dye-sensitized solar-cells (DSCs) are cheap because they are produced using low-cost materials and simple manufacturing processes. However, the substrates of DSC counter electrodes are sputtered with a transparent conductive oxide and platinum. This involves vacuum manufacturing processes and high-cost (rare-metal) materials, and increases the costs of DSCs. In this study, we used non-rare-metal low-cost materials and simple wet processes, using combined poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) and Ag network (Ag NW) substrates. To solve the problem of Ag NW corrosion by the iodine electrolyte, we hot-pressed the Ag NW substrate and covered with a PEDOT/PSS layer as a barrier against iodine. The PEDOT/PSS layer acted as a catalyst and cells using an Ag NW covered with PEDOT/PSS generated electricity with illumination from both sides. The cell performance was improved by using a PEDOT/PSS layer containing 20 wt % TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The performance of the DSSC cell with an Ag NW substrate covered with a PEDOT/PSS layer containing TiO2 NPs (5.13%) was higher than that of a cell using an indium tin oxide substrate covered with the same layer (4.91%). These values are very similar to those of cells using a platinum counter electrode (5.36%). This research showed the possibility of replacing conventional high-cost counter electrodes with low-cost materials, and using only simple wet processes. PMID:23566351

  7. Highly conductive transparent organic electrodes with multilayer structures for rigid and flexible optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyang; Liu, Xingyuan; Lin, Fengyuan; Li, Hailing; Fan, Yi; Zhang, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Transparent electrodes are essential components for optoelectronic devices, such as touch panels, organic light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is widely used as transparent electrode in optoelectronic devices. ITO has high transparency and low resistance but contains expensive rare elements, and ITO-based devices have poor mechanical flexibility. Therefore, alternative transparent electrodes with excellent opto-electrical performance and mechanical flexibility will be greatly demanded. Here, organics are introduced into dielectric-metal-dielectric structures to construct the transparent electrodes on rigid and flexible substrates. We show that organic-metal-organic (OMO) electrodes have excellent opto-electrical properties (sheet resistance of below 10?? sq(-1) at 85% transmission), mechanical flexibility, thermal and environmental stabilities. The OMO-based polymer photovoltaic cells show performance comparable to that of devices based on ITO electrodes. This OMO multilayer structure can therefore be used to produce transparent electrodes suitable for use in a wide range of optoelectronic devices. PMID:26014889

  8. Highly Conductive Transparent Organic Electrodes with Multilayer Structures for Rigid and Flexible Optoelectronics

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoyang; Liu, Xingyuan; Lin, Fengyuan; Li, Hailing; Fan, Yi; Zhang, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Transparent electrodes are essential components for optoelectronic devices, such as touch panels, organic light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is widely used as transparent electrode in optoelectronic devices. ITO has high transparency and low resistance but contains expensive rare elements, and ITO-based devices have poor mechanical flexibility. Therefore, alternative transparent electrodes with excellent opto-electrical performance and mechanical flexibility will be greatly demanded. Here, organics are introduced into dielectric–metal–dielectric structures to construct the transparent electrodes on rigid and flexible substrates. We show that organic-metal-organic (OMO) electrodes have excellent opto-electrical properties (sheet resistance of below 10?? sq?1 at 85% transmission), mechanical flexibility, thermal and environmental stabilities. The OMO-based polymer photovoltaic cells show performance comparable to that of devices based on ITO electrodes. This OMO multilayer structure can therefore be used to produce transparent electrodes suitable for use in a wide range of optoelectronic devices. PMID:26014889

  9. Vanadium oxide (VO) based low cost counter electrode in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, P.; Pandian, Muthu Senthil; Ramasamy, P.

    2015-06-01

    Vanadium oxide nanostars were synthesized by chemical method. The prepared Vanadium oxide nanostars are introduced into dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) as counter electrode (CE) catalyst to replace the expensive platinum (Pt). The products were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The photovoltaic performance of the VO as counter electrode based DSSC was evaluated under simulated standard global AM 1.5G sunlight (100 mW/cm2). The solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency (?) of the DSSC was found to be 0.38%.This work expands the Counter electrode catalyst, which can help to reduce the cost of DSSC and thereby encourage their fundamental research and commercial application.

  10. Carbon coated stainless steel as counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Shejale Kiran; Sharma, Rakesh K.; Roy, Mahesh S.; Kumar, Mahesh

    2014-10-01

    A new type of counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells has been fabricated using a stainless steel sheet as substrate and graphite, graphene and multiwall carbon nanotubes as the catalytic material which applied by screen printing technique. The sheet resistances of the substrates and there influence on the dye sensitized solar cells has been studied. The fabricated counter electrodes i.e. SS-graphite, SS-graphene SS-MWCNT and SS-platinum were tested for their photovoltaic response in the form of dye sensitized solar cells.

  11. Engineered porous silicon counter electrodes for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Erwin, William R; Oakes, Landon; Chatterjee, Shahana; Zarick, Holly F; Pint, Cary L; Bardhan, Rizia

    2014-06-25

    In this work, we demonstrate for the first time, the use of porous silicon (P-Si) as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with efficiencies (5.38%) comparable to that achieved with platinum counter electrodes (5.80%). To activate the P-Si for triiodide reduction, few layer carbon passivation is utilized to enable electrochemical stability of the silicon surface. Our results suggest porous silicon as a promising sustainable and manufacturable alternative to rare metals for electrochemical solar cells, following appropriate surface modification. PMID:24884149

  12. Nanostructured electrochromic films by inkjet printing on large area and flexible transparent silver electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layani, Michael; Darmawan, Peter; Foo, Wan Ling; Liu, Liang; Kamyshny, Alexander; Mandler, Daniel; Magdassi, Schlomo; Lee, Pooi See

    2014-04-01

    Printed electrochromic flexible films were obtained by combining transparent silver grid electrodes formed by self-assembly and inkjet printed WO3 nanoparticles. Concentrated dispersions of WO3 nanoparticles were inkjet printed on transparent plastic silver grid electrodes with a high transparency of 83% in the spectral range of 400-800 nm, and a low sheet resistance in the range of 1-5 ? sq-1. These electrodes were used for electrochromic applications for the first time. The resultant patterned nanostructured electrochromic films maintained their coloring and bleaching performance after bending of the flexible films.Printed electrochromic flexible films were obtained by combining transparent silver grid electrodes formed by self-assembly and inkjet printed WO3 nanoparticles. Concentrated dispersions of WO3 nanoparticles were inkjet printed on transparent plastic silver grid electrodes with a high transparency of 83% in the spectral range of 400-800 nm, and a low sheet resistance in the range of 1-5 ? sq-1. These electrodes were used for electrochromic applications for the first time. The resultant patterned nanostructured electrochromic films maintained their coloring and bleaching performance after bending of the flexible films. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06890k

  13. A novel counter electrode based on mesoporous carbon for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guiqiang wang; Liang Wang; Wei Xing; Shuping Zhuo

    2010-01-01

    A novel carbon counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell was fabricated by coating the mesoporous carbon paste on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. Mesoporous carbon with pore size of 6.8nm was distributed uniformly on the conductive substrate. The electrocatalytic activity of mesoporous carbon electrode for triiodide reduction was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. By optimizing the carbon loading and heating

  14. Characterization of transparent and conductive electrodes of indium tin oxide thin films by sequential reactive evaporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Penza; S Cozzi; M. A Tagliente; L Mirenghi; C Martucci; A Quirini

    1999-01-01

    ITO thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates by sequential reactive evaporation as transparent and conductive electrodes for devices. The method has the advantage of low enough temperatures (?200°C) for the processes of preparation and post-annealing, accurate control of single layer thickness, simplicity and low cost. ITO films with electrical resistivity of 10?2 ? cm and optical transparency greater

  15. Application of Vertically-Aligned SWNT Films for the Counter Electrode of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    [2] for counter electrodes (CEs) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Previously [3], we developedApplication of Vertically-Aligned SWNT Films for the Counter Electrode of Dye-Sensitized Solar a solar cell in which VA-SWNT films were used for a CE, in place of conventional sputtered Pt on fluorine

  16. Thermally exfoliated graphene based counter electrode for low cost dye sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaniyoor, Adarsh; Ramaprabhu, Sundara [Alternative Energy and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2011-06-15

    Graphene obtained from thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide are highly wrinkled and have large surface area. Their wrinkled nature is expected to give them excellent catalytic activity. Herein, we demonstrate the use of thermally exfoliated graphene (TEG) as cost effective electrocatalyst for the tri-iodide reduction in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). X-ray diffraction, Raman and Infra red spectroscopy and electron microscopy studies confirm the defective and wrinkled nature of TEG. BET surface area measurement show a large surface area of {approx} 470 m{sup 2}/g. The counter electrode was fabricated by drop casting a slurry of TEG dispersed in a Nafion:Ethanol solution on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The use of Nafion prevented film ''peel off,'' thus ensuring a good substrate adhesion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that TEG had a catalytic performance comparable to that of Pt, suggesting its use as counter electrode material. As expected, the DSSC fabricated with Nafion solubilized TEG/FTO as counter electrode shows an efficiency of about 2.8%, comparable to Pt counter electrode based DSSC which has an efficiency of about 3.4%.

  17. Hierarchical Porous Carbon Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gui-Qiang Wang; Cong-Cong Huang; Wei Xing; Shu-Ping Zhuo

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical porous carbon is prepared by a combination of self-organization and chemical activation and explored as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. Pore structure analysis shows that micropores generated within the mesopore wall and the pristine mesopore structure of mesoporous carbon are preserved during KOH activation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies demonstrate a relatively high electrocatalytic activity of hierarchical porous carbon

  18. Metal-mesh based transparent electrode on a 3-D curved surface by electrohydrodynamic jet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Baekhoon; Yoo, Hyunwoong; Dat Nguyen, Vu; Jang, Yonghee; Ryu, Changkook; Byun, Doyoung

    2014-09-01

    Invisible Ag mesh transparent electrodes (TEs), with a width of 7??m, were prepared on a curved glass surface by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing. With a 100??m pitch, the EHD jet printed the Ag mesh on the convex glass which had a sheet resistance of 1.49??/?. The printing speed was 30?cm?s-1 using Ag ink, which had a 10?000 cPs viscosity and a 70?wt% Ag nanoparticle concentration. We further showed the performance of a 3-D transparent heater using the Ag mesh transparent electrode. The EHD jet printed an invisible Ag grid transparent electrode with good electrical and optical properties with promising applications on printed optoelectronic devices.

  19. Transparent, Flexible, Low Noise Graphene Electrodes for Simultaneous Electrophysiology and Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Kuzum, Duygu; Takano, Hajime; Shim, Euijae; Reed, Jason C; Juul, Halvor; Richardson, Andrew G.; de Vries, Julius; Bink, Hank; Dichter, Marc A.; Lucas, Timothy H.; Coulter, Douglas A.; Cubukcu, Ertugrul; Litt, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Calcium imaging is a versatile experimental approach capable of resolving single neurons with single-cell spatial resolution in the brain. Electrophysiological recordings provide high temporal, but limited spatial resolution, due to the geometrical inaccessibility of the brain. An approach that integrates the advantages of both techniques could provide new insights into functions of neural circuits. Here, we report a transparent, flexible neural electrode technology based on graphene, which enables simultaneous optical imaging and electrophysiological recording. We demonstrate that hippocampal slices can be imaged through transparent graphene electrodes by both confocal and two-photon microscopy without causing any light-induced artifacts in the electrical recordings. Graphene electrodes record high frequency bursting activity and slow synaptic potentials that are hard to resolve by multi-cellular calcium imaging. This transparent electrode technology may pave the way for high spatio-temporal resolution electrooptic mapping of the dynamic neuronal activity. PMID:25327632

  20. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing,more »between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.« less

  1. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing, between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.

  2. Metal grid/conducting polymer hybrid transparent electrode for inverted polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jingyu; Yip, Hin-Lap; Hau, Steven K.; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2010-05-01

    A simple method was developed using metal grid/conducting polymer hybrid transparent electrode to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) for the fabrication of inverted structure polymer solar cells. The performance of the devices could be tuned easily by varying the width and separation of the metal grids. By combining the appropriate metal grid geometry with a thin conductive polymer layer, substrates with comparable transparency and sheet resistance to those of ITO could be achieved. Polymer solar cells fabricated using this hybrid electrode show efficiencies as high as ˜3.2%. This method provides a feasible way for fabricating low-cost, large-area organic solar cells.

  3. Dye-sensitized solar cells using graphene-based carbon nano composite as counter electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyonkwang Choi; Hyunkook Kim; Sookhyun Hwang; Wonbong Choi; Minhyon Jeon

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated a counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using the graphene-based multi-walled carbon nanotubes (GMWNTs) structure. Graphene layers were prepared by drop casting on a SiO2\\/Si substrate and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were synthesized on graphene layers using iron catalyst by chemical vapor deposition. The structural properties of GMWNTs were investigated by transmission electron microscope and field-emission scanning

  4. Comparison of dye solar cell counter electrodes based on different carbon nanostructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerttu Aitola; Janne Halme; Niina Halonen; Antti Kaskela; Minna Toivola; Albert G. Nasibulin; Krisztián Kordás; Geza Tóth; Esko I. Kauppinen; Peter D. Lund

    2011-01-01

    Three characteristically different carbon nanomaterials were compared and analyzed as platinum-free counter electrodes for dye solar cells: 1) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) random network films on glass, 2) aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) forest films on Inconel steel and quartz, and 3) pressed carbon nanoparticle composite films on indium tin oxide-polyethylene terephtalate plastic. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electron

  5. High-performance dye-sensitized solar cells with nanomaterials as counter electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoguang Mei; Benhu Fan; Kuan Sun; Jianyong Ouyang

    2009-01-01

    High-performance dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with nanocomposites as counter electrode are reported, since nanomaterials have high specific surface and could have high catalysis. Nanocomposites of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and conducting PEDOT:PSS (PEDOT:PSS = poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)) were prepared by dispersing CNTs in aqueous solution of PEDOT:PSS. The dispersion is related to the pi-pi interaction between CNTs and conjugated PEDOT, which is stabilized

  6. Interaction of niobium counter electrodes with aluminum oxide and rare-earth oxide tunnel barriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Ronay; E.-E. Latta

    1983-01-01

    With the use of rare-earth oxide and aluminum oxide barriers, low-leakage-current tunnel junctions can be made if the oxidation takes place in the presence of some humidity, and if the counter electrode is not niobium. It is proposed that when these oxides form in the presence of H2O, the pores of the oxides become sealed by surface O-H groups, by

  7. Expanded graphite\\/pencil-lead as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Shuang Wei; Qian-Qian Jin; Tie-Zhen Ren

    2011-01-01

    A kind of new carbon material – expanded graphite (EG) was prepared and then used with 5B pencil-lead as counter electrodes for the DSSCs. The EG\\/pencil-lead products were discussed following five different weight ratios of 1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 2:1, and 0:1. And flake graphite was employed for comparison. Commercial P25 TiO2 adsorbing dye N719 was used as photoanode and ionic

  8. Sol-Gel Synthesis of Vanadate-Based Thin Films as Counter Electrodes in Electrochromic Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riccardo Ceccato; Giovanni Carturan; Franco Decker; Florinda Artuso

    2003-01-01

    V2O5-based thin films were prepared via the sol-gel method in order to obtain semiconductive films suitable as counter electrodes in electrochemical devices (e.g. electrochromic windows). Different metal precursors (nickel 2,4-pentanedionate, NiCl2, BiCl3, SbCl3) were added, after dissolution, into the starting vanadium oxo-triisopropoxide solution in the presence of acetic acid as a chelating agent. Preventing different synthesis conditions due to the

  9. Performance characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells with counter electrode based on NiP-plated glass and titanium plate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guiqiang Wang; Yuan Lin

    2009-01-01

    The counter electrodes based on NiP-plated glass and titanium plate were prepared. The performance characteristics of the dye-sensitized solar cells with platinized NiP-plated glass electrode (Pt\\/NiP electrode) and platinized titanium plate electrode (Pt\\/TP electrode) were discussed. Pt\\/NiP electrode and Pt\\/TP electrode showed the same catalytic activity for triiodide reduction compared with platinized fluorine-doped tin oxide conducting glass electrode (Pt\\/FTO electrode).

  10. Ultra-Thin Optically Transparent Carbon Electrodes Produced from Layers of Adsorbed Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Alharthi, Sarah A.; Benavidez, Tomas E.; Garcia, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a simple, versatile, and inexpensive procedure to prepare optically transparent carbon electrodes, using proteins as precursors. Upon adsorption, the protein-coated substrates were pyrolyzed under reductive conditions (5% H2) to form ultra-thin, conductive electrodes. Because proteins spontaneously adsorb to interfaces forming uniform layers, the proposed method does not require a precise control of the preparation conditions, specialized instrumentation, or expensive precursors. The resulting electrodes were characterized by a combination of electrochemical, optical, and spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-concept, the optically-transparent electrodes were also used as substrate for the development of an electrochemical glucose biosensor. The proposed films represent a convenient alternative to more sophisticated, and less available, carbon-based nanomaterials. Furthermore, these films could be formed on a variety of substrates, without classical limitations of size or shape. PMID:23421732

  11. Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with transparent carbon nanotube electrodes: problems and solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liangbing Hu; Jianfeng Li; Jun Liu; George Grüner; Tobin Marks

    2010-01-01

    We study in detail here the application of transparent, conductive carbon single-wall nanotube (SWNT) networks as electrodes in flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs). Overall comparisons of these networks to the commonly used electrodes poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and indium tin oxide (ITO) are made, and SWNT networks are shown to have excellent optical and superior mechanical properties. The effects of protruding

  12. Toward Low-Cost, High-Efficiency, and Scalable Organic Solar Cells with Transparent Metal Electrode and Improved Domain Morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myung-Gyu Kang; Hui Joon Park; Se Hyun Ahn; Ting Xu; L. Jay Guo

    2010-01-01

    We review our recent progress toward realizing future low-cost, high-efficiency, and scalable organic solar cells (OSCs). First, we show that the transparent electrodes based on metallic nanostructure is a strong candidate as a replacement of conventional indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode due to their superior properties, such as high optical transparency, good electrical conductivity, and mechanical flexibility, and the versatility

  13. Silver nanowire based flexible electrodes with improved properties: High conductivity, transparency, adhesion and low haze

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran Kumar, A.B.V.; Wan Bae, Chang; Piao, Longhai, E-mail: piaolh@kongju.ac.kr; Kim, Sang-Ho, E-mail: sangho1130@kongju.ac.kr

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: This graphical abstract illustrates the schematic representation of the main drawbacks and rectifications for AgNWs based transparent electrodes. - Highlights: • Films exhibited low sheet resistance and optical properties with R{sub s} ? 30 ?/? and T ? 90%. • We decreased haze to 2% by controlling AgNWs length, diameter, and concentration. • We achieved good adhesion for AgNWs on PET film. • There is no significant change in resistance in the bending angle from 0° to 180°, and on twisting. - Abstract: Recent work has been focusing on solution processable transparent electrodes for various applications including solar cells and displays. As well as, the research aims majorly at silver nanowires (AgNWs) to replace ITO. We enhance the transparent electrode performance as a function of optical and mechanical properties with low sheet resistance, by controlling the AgNWs accept ratios, ink composition, and processing conditions. The nanowire network of transparent films agrees with the 2D percolation law. The film transmittance values at 550 nm are coping with a reference ITO film. Sheet resistance and haze values are suitable for flexible electronic applications. We fabricate transparent flexible film using a low-cost processing technique.

  14. Low-cost facile fabrication of flexible transparent copper electrodes by nanosecond laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Paeng, Dongwoo; Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Yeo, Junyeob; Lee, Daeho; Kim, Eunpa; Ko, Seung Hwan; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2015-05-01

    Low-cost Cu flexible transparent conducting electrodes (FTCEs) are fabricated by facile nanosecond laser ablation. The fabricated Cu FTCEs show excellent opto-electrical properties (transmittance: 83%, sheet resistance: 17.48 ? sq(-1)) with outstanding mechanical durability. Successful demonstration of a touch-screen panel confirms the potential applicability of Cu FTCEs to the flexible optoelectronic devices. PMID:25821011

  15. Utilization of graphene electrode in transparent microwell arrays for high throughput cell trapping and lysis.

    PubMed

    Ameri, S Kabiri; Singh, P K; Sonkusale, S

    2014-11-15

    Here we present a high-throughput, transparent microfluidic device with embedded microwell arrays sandwiched between transparent electrodes made from graphene (at the bottom) and indium tin oxide (at the top) for dielectrophoretic cell trapping and electrical lysis. Graphene suppresses unwanted faradaic reaction effects on the cells and the medium that is typically observed in ITO based electrodes from application of DC field for electrical lysis. This is because graphene is more electrochemically inert than indium tin oxide (ITO) where ITO undergoes reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction in the presence of electrolyte in most standard cell media. This redox process also compromises ITO's electrical properties and optical transparency over multiple use. The presented microfluidic device shows high efficiency for cell trapping and lysis and an electrochemically stable behavior for long operational life. PMID:24967752

  16. Graphene as a transparent electrode for amorphous silicon-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaianella, F.; Rosolen, G.; Maes, B.

    2015-06-01

    The properties of graphene in terms of transparency and conductivity make it an ideal candidate to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) in a transparent conducting electrode. However, graphene is not always as good as ITO for some applications, due to a non-negligible absorption. For amorphous silicon photovoltaics, we have identified a useful case with a graphene-silica front electrode that improves upon ITO. For both electrode technologies, we simulate the weighted absorption in the active layer of planar amorphous silicon-based solar cells with a silver back-reflector. The graphene device shows a significantly increased absorbance compared to ITO-based cells for a large range of silicon thicknesses (34.4% versus 30.9% for a 300 nm thick silicon layer), and this result persists over a wide range of incidence angles.

  17. Realization of ultrathin silver layers in highly conductive and transparent zinc tin oxide\\/silver\\/zinc tin oxide multilayer electrodes deposited at room temperature for transparent organic devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Winkler; Hans Schmidt; Harald Flügge; Fabian Nikolayzik; Ihno Baumann; Stephan Schmale; Hans-Hermann Johannes; Torsten Rabe; Sami Hamwi; Thomas Riedl; Wolfgang Kowalsky

    We report on transparent and highly conductive multilayer electrodes prepared at room temperature by RF sputtering of zinc tin oxide (ZTO) and thermal evaporation of ultrathin silver (Ag) as top contact for transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLED). Specifically, we study the morphological, electrical and optical properties of the multilayer structure in particular of the thin Ag film. The tendency

  18. Nanocarbon-copper thin film as transparent electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacs, R. A.; Zhu, H.; Preston, Colin; Mansour, A.; LeMieux, M.; Zavalij, P. Y.; Jaim, H. M. Iftekhar; Rabin, O.; Hu, L.; Salamanca-Riba, L. G.

    2015-05-01

    Researchers seeking to enhance the properties of metals have long pursued incorporating carbon in the metallic host lattice in order to combine the strongly bonded electrons in the metal lattice that yield high ampacity and the free electrons available in carbon nanostructures that give rise to high conductivity. The incorporation of carbon nanostructures into the copper lattice has the potential to improve the current density of copper to meet the ever-increasing demands of nanoelectronic devices. We report on the structure and properties of carbon incorporated in concentrations up to 5 wt. % (˜22 at. %) into the crystal structure of copper. Carbon nanoparticles of 5 nm-200 nm in diameter in an interconnecting carbon matrix are formed within the bulk Cu samples. The carbon does not phase separate after subsequent melting and re-solidification despite the absence of a predicted solid solution at such concentrations in the C-Cu binary phase diagram. This material, so-called, Cu covetic, makes deposition of Cu films containing carbon with similar microstructure to the metal possible. Copper covetic films exhibit greater transparency, higher conductivity, and resistance to oxidation than pure copper films of the same thickness, making them a suitable choice for transparent conductors.

  19. Flexible, metal-free composite counter electrodes for efficient fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shaocong; Cai, Xin; Wu, Hongwei; Lv, Zhibin; Wang, Dan; Fu, Yongping; Zou, Dechun

    2012-10-01

    Highly flexible metal-free fibrous electrodes are prepared using commercial carbon fiber (CF) and poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) aqueous solution. Multiple highly ordered CF monofilaments act as the conductive cores, while the PEDOT:PSS films act as the catalytic shell in the composite fibrous electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are carried out to systematically investigate the electrochemical performance, and the results indicate that the composite fibrous electrode is highly efficient in catalyzing I/I. The PEDOT:PSS conductive films also show excellent compatibility with CF and resistance to solvent. The low-cost composite electrodes are used as counter electrodes to fabricate fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells, and the highest conversion efficiency of 5.5% is achieved, which is comparable to the performance of platinized CF counter electrode-based device.

  20. Direct tri-constituent co-assembly of highly ordered mesoporous carbon counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tao; Sun, Weiwei; Sun, Xiaohua; Huang, Niu; Liu, Yumin; Bu, Chenghao; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Controlling over ordered porosity by self-assembly is challenging in the area of materials science. Materials with highly ordered aperture are favorable candidates in catalysis and energy conversion device. Here we describe a facile process to synthesize highly ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) by direct tri-constituent co-assembly method, which uses resols as the carbon precursor, tri-block copolymer F127 as the soft template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the inorganic precursor. The obtained products are characterized by small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen sorption-desorption measurement and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results indicate that the OMC possesses high surface areas of 1209 m(2) g(-1), homogeneous pore size of 4.6 nm and a large pore volume of 1.65 cm(3) g(-1). The advantages of high electrochemical active surface area and favorable accessible porosity of OMC benefit the catalysis of I(3)(-) to I(-). As a result, the OMC counter electrode displays a remarkable property when it was applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For comparison, carbon black (CB) counter electrode and Pt counter electrode have also been prepared. When these different counter electrodes were applied for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the power-conversion efficiency (?) of the DSSCs with CB counter electrode are measured to be 5.10%, whereas the corresponding values is 6.39% for the DSSC with OMC counter electrode, which is comparable to 6.84% of the cell with Pt counter electrode under the same experimental conditions. PMID:23165970

  1. Bragg stack-functionalized counter electrode for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Tae; Prosser, Jacob H; Kim, Dong Jun; Kim, Jong Hak; Lee, Daeyeon

    2013-05-01

    A highly reflective counter electrode is prepared through the deposition of alternating layers of organized mesoporous TiO(2) (om-TiO(2)) and colloidal SiO(2) (col-SiO(2)) nanoparticles. We present the effects of introducing this counter electrode into dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) for maximizing light harvesting properties. The om-TiO(2) layers with a high refractive index are prepared by using an atomic transfer radical polymerization and a sol-gel process, in which a polyvinyl chloride-g-poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate graft copolymer is used as a structure-directing agent. The col-SiO(2) layers with a low refractive index are prepared by spin-coating commercially available silica nanoparticles. The properties of the Bragg stack (BS)-functionalized counter electrode in DSSCs are analyzed by using a variety of techniques, including spectroscopic ellipsometry, SEM, UV/Vis spectroscopy, incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and intensity modulated photocurrent/voltage spectroscopy measurements, to understand the critical factors contributing to the cell performance. When incorporated into DSSCs that are used in conjunction with a polymerized ionic liquid as the solid electrolyte, the energy conversion efficiency of this solid-state DSSC (ssDSSC) approaches 6.6 %, which is one of the highest of the reported N719 dye-based ssDSSCs. Detailed optical and electrochemical analyses of the device performance show that this assembly yields enhanced light harvesting without the negative effects of charge recombination or electrolyte penetration, which thus, presents new possibilities for effective light management. PMID:23576320

  2. Highly stretchable and transparent nanomesh electrodes made by grain boundary lithography.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chuan Fei; Sun, Tianyi; Liu, Qihan; Suo, Zhigang; Ren, Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    Foldable photoelectronics and muscle-like transducers require highly stretchable and transparent electrical conductors. Some conducting oxides are transparent, but not stretchable. Carbon nanotube films, graphene sheets and metal-nanowire meshes can be both stretchable and transparent, but their electrical resistances increase steeply with strain <100%. Here we present highly stretchable and transparent Au nanomesh electrodes on elastomers made by grain boundary lithography. The change in sheet resistance of Au nanomeshes is modest with a one-time strain of ~160% (from ~21 ? per square to ~67 ? per square), or after 1,000 cycles at a strain of 50%. The good stretchability lies in two aspects: the stretched nanomesh undergoes instability and deflects out-of-plane, while the substrate stabilizes the rupture of Au wires, forming distributed slits. Larger ratio of mesh-size to wire-width also leads to better stretchability. The highly stretchable and transparent Au nanomesh electrodes are promising for applications in foldable photoelectronics and muscle-like transducers. PMID:24469072

  3. Transparent and tandem solar cells using solution-processed metal nanowire transparent electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Yong Lee; Seung-Bum Rim; Whitney Gaynor; Steve T. Connor; Brian E. Hardin; Han Sun Kim; Yi Cui; M. D. McGehee; P. Peumans

    2009-01-01

    Tandem architectures in which multiple energy gaps are combined in a series-connected stack of solar cells are seen as a promising approach to increasing the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells to commercially relevant values. Even higher efficiencies can be obtained if the photocurrent-matching requirement of such tandem cells is removed by the use of intermediate electrodes in multi-terminal

  4. Fabrication and characterization of cuprous oxide solar cell with net-shaped counter electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basuki, Stefanus; Uranus, Henri P.; Pangaribuan, Julinda

    2015-01-01

    In this work, simple solar cells using cuprous oxide were fabricated and characterized. The solar cells in this experiment used cuprous oxide plate as detecting electrode and copper wires which were woven into a net-shape with a gap size of 2 x 2 cm as a counter electrode. Twenty samples of solar cells were fabricated with oxide layer which were thermally grown in temperature up to 550 oC. Samples with variations in oxidation time (15 minutes, 30 minutes, 40 minutes, and 45 minutes) and distance between electrodes (2 cm, 3 cm, and 4 cm) with an electrolyte solution of NaCl with molarity of 2.188 mol/l were produced. The samples were characterized by measuring their V-I curve. For this purpose, a simple, own-made solar simulator were fabricated and characterized. Using curve fitting technique, parameters such as FF (Fill Factor), efficiency, open circuit voltage, short circuit current, internal resistance, and performance degradation as a function of time of the cells were extracted. The result shows optimum efficiency of 4.573. 10-4%, while optimum oxidation time is 40 minutes and optimum distance between electrodes is 3 cm.

  5. Broadband light absorption enhancement in polymer photovoltaics using metal nanowall gratings as transparent electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Zhuo; Chaudhary, Sumit; Kuang, Ping; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2012-05-15

    The authors investigate light absorption in organic solar cells in which indium tin oxide (ITO) is replaced by a new metallic architecture (grating) as a transparent electrode. Different from typical metal nanowire gratings, our gratings consist of metal nanowalls with nanoscale footprint and (sub)microscale height [Adv. Mater. 23, 2469 (2011)], thus ensuring high optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Simulations reveal that a broadband and polarization-insensitive light absorption enhancement is achieved via two mechanisms, when such silver nanowall gratings are employed in P3HT:PCBM based solar cells. Overall absorption enhanced by ~23% compared to a reference cell with ITO electrode.

  6. Ag nanowire percolating network embedded in indium tin oxide nanoparticles for printable transparent conducting electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Jin-A; Kim, Han-Ki, E-mail: imdlhkkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering for Information and Electronics, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-17

    Solution-based printable transparent conducting electrodes consisting of Ag nanowire (NW) and indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated by simple brush painting at room temperature under atmospheric ambient conditions. Effectively embedding the Ag NW percolating network into the ITO NPs provided a conduction path, led to a metallic conduction behavior of the ITO NPs/Ag NW/ITO NPs multilayer and supplied electrons into the ITO NPs. The optimized ITO NPs/Ag NW/ITO NPs multilayer showed a sheet resistance of 16.57??/sq and an optical transparency of 79.50% without post annealing. Based on high resolution transmission electron microscope analysis, we investigated the microstructure and interface structure of the ITO NPs/Ag NW/ITO NPs multilayer electrodes and suggested a possible mechanism to explain the low resistivity of the multilayers.

  7. Applications of Ytterbium in organic light-emitting devices as high performance and transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, S. L.; Chan, M. Y.; Fung, M. K.; Lee, C. S.; Hung, L. S.; Lee, S. T.

    2002-11-01

    Potential applications of Ytterbium (Yb) in cathode system for organic optoelectronic/electronic devices were explored in NPB/Alq 3 based bi-layer organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). When a thin (14.5 nm) Yb layer capped with a thicker (200 nm) Ag layer was used as the cathode, the OLEDs show enhanced electron injection over those using the standard Mg:Ag cathode. Performance of the OLEDs with the Yb/Ag cathode is comparable to that using LiF/Al cathode. Interestingly, we also found that Yb can also be used to prepare a highly transparent cathode by co-evaporating Yb and Ag to form a Yb:Ag alloy electrode. Surface-emitting (or top emission) and transparent (emission from both surfaces) OLEDs with low turn-on voltage (3.75 V) and high efficiency were prepared with the Yb:Ag electrode.

  8. Design of red, green, blue transparent electrodes for flexible optical devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungjun; Cho, Hyung Won; Hong, Kihyon; Son, Jun Ho; Kim, Kisoo; Koo, Bonhyeong; Kim, Sungjoo; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2014-08-25

    Controlling the wavelength of electrodes within a desirable region is important in most optoelectronic devices for enhancing their efficiencies. Here, we investigated a full-color flexible transparent electrode using a wavelength matching layer (WML). The WMLs were able to adjust the optical-phase thickness of the entire electrode by controlling refractive indices and were capable of producing desirable colors in the visible band from 470 to 610 nm. Electrodes with tungsten oxide (WO(3)) having a refractive index of 1.9 showed high transmittance (T = 90.5%) at 460 nm and low sheet resistance (R(s) = 11.08 ?/sq), comparable with those of indium tin oxide (ITO, T = 86.4%, R(s) = 12 ?/sq). The optimum structure of electrodes determined by optical simulation based on the characteristic matrix method agrees well with that based on the experimental method. Replacing the ITO electrode with the WO(3) electrode, the luminance of blue organic light-emitting diodes (? = 460 nm) at 222 mA/cm(2) increased from 7020 to 7200 cd/m(2). PMID:25322180

  9. Boron ion implantation on Al-doped ZnO films for OLEDs transparent conducting electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Jin Hong; Gi-Seok Heo; Bum-Ho Choi; Dong-Chan Shin

    2006-01-01

    B+-implanted Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films were fabricated by ion implantation with various ion energies and doses for transparent conducting oxide (TCO) electrodes of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The resistance of the B-implanted AZO films was decreased with increasing ion dose. The work function of the implanted films was increased compared to the un-implanted AZO films. All implanted films exhibited high

  10. Highly transparent Nb-doped indium oxide electrodes for organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jun Ho; Seong, Tae-Yeon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Seok-In [Professional Graduate School of Flexible and Printable Electronics, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, Deokjin-dong, Jeongju-si, Jellabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kwun-Bum [Department of Physics, Dankook University, Mt. 29, Anseo-Dong, Chenan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye-Min; Kim, Han-Ki, E-mail: imdlhkkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering for Information and Electronics, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The authors investigated the characteristics of Nb-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (INbO) films prepared by co-sputtering of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} for use in transparent anodes for organic solar cells (OSCs). To optimize the Nb dopant composition in the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix, the effect of the Nb doping power on the resistivity and transparency of the INbO films were examined. The electronic structure and microstructure of the INbO films were also investigated using synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction examinations in detail. At the optimized Nb co-sputtering power of 30?W, the INbO film exhibited a sheet resistance of 15??/sq, and an optical transmittance of 86.04% at 550?nm, which are highly acceptable for the use as transparent electrodes in the fabrication of OSCs. More importantly, the comparable power conversion efficiency (3.34%) of the OSC with an INbO anode with that (3.31%) of an OSC with a commercial ITO anode indicates that INbO films are promising as a transparent electrode for high performance OSCs.

  11. Palladium and platinum-palladium bi-layer based counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells with modified photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokurala, Krishnaiah; Kamble, Anvita; Nemala, Siva Sankar; Bhargava, Parag; Mallick, Sudhanshu

    2015-06-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated with palladium (Pd) and platinum-palladium (Pt-Pd) bi-layer as counter electrodes, respectively. Effects of photoanode thickness and morphology on device performance were studied. DSSCs fabricated with Pd and Pd-Pt as counter electrode (CE) showed photo conversion efficiency of 4.30% and 6.20%, respectively as compared to Platinum (Pt) based CE which showed 6.65% efficiency. Lower device performance was explained with help of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements of the cells.

  12. Transparent aluminium nanowire electrodes with optical and electrical anisotropic response fabricated by defocused ion beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repetto, Diego; Giordano, Maria Caterina; Martella, Christian; Buatier de Mongeot, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    Self-organized Al nanowire (NW) electrodes have been obtained by defocused Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) of polycrystalline Al films grown by sputter deposition. The electrical sheet resistance of the electrode has been acquired in situ during ion bombardment of the samples, evidencing an increase of the electronic transport anisotropy as a function of ion fluence between the two directions parallel and orthogonal to the NWs axis. Optical spectra in transmission also show a large dichroism between the two directions, suggesting the role of localized plasmons in the UV spectral range. The results show that Al NW electrodes, prepared under experimental conditions which are compatible with those of conventional industrial coaters and implanters, could represent a low cost alternative to the transparent conductive oxides employed in optoelectronic devices.

  13. Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyunsu; Yun, Changhun; Yoo, Seunghyup

    2010-02-15

    The optical properties of dielectric-metal-dielectric (DMD) transparent electrodes are investigated from the perspectives of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). A joint experimental and theoretical study showed that the optical characteristics of OLEDs based on DMD electrodes can be widely tuned to fulfill the requirements of a target application through careful control of the microcavity effect, transmittance of DMD electrodes, and a correlation of these two factors with the emission spectra of the emitted materials. Upon variation of the DMD structure, near-Lambertian emission and a 100% improvement in the luminous efficiency are demonstrated, respectively. Optimization strategies are also discussed that are relevant to forward luminous efficiency, total optical power, and angular/ spectral characteristics. PMID:20389350

  14. Nano-honeycomb structured transparent electrode for enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiao-Bo; Qian, Min; Wang, Zhao-Kui; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    A universal nano-sphere lithography method has been developed to fabricate nano-structured transparent electrode, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), for light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Perforated SiO2 film made from a monolayer colloidal crystal of polystyrene spheres and tetraethyl orthosilicate sol-gel is used as a template. Ordered nano-honeycomb pits on the ITO electrode surface are obtained by chemical etching. The proposed method can be utilized to form large-area nano-structured ITO electrode. More than two folds' enhancement in both current efficiency and power efficiency has been achieved in a red phosphorescent OLED which was fabricated on the nano-structured ITO substrate.

  15. Modified conducting polymer films having high catalytic activity for use as counter electrodes in rigid and flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Chun-Ren; Chang, Chih-Ching; Ting, Jyh-Ming

    2015-06-01

    We report replacing platinum based counter electrode (CE) in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with conducting polymer based CE. Conducting polymers are prepared through mixing poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythio phene):poly-(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) with Triton. The polymer mixture is spin-coated on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate and ITO-coated polyethylene naphthalate plastic substrate to form a CE for use in both rigid and flexible DSSCs, respectively. The PEDOT:PSS-Triton polymer not only is transparent (up to 93%) and highly conductive but also exhibits better catalytic activity than the expensive platinum. The DSSC fabricated using the PEDOT:PSS-Triton conducting polymer CE shows better performance or higher power conversion efficiency than that using Pt-based CE, either rigid or flexible.

  16. Graphene-silver nanowire hybrid structure as a transparent and current spreading electrode in ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoon Seo, Tae; Kyoung Kim, Bo; Shin, GangU; Lee, Changhyup; Jong Kim, Myung; Kim, Hyunsoo; Suh, Eun-Kyung

    2013-07-01

    We report a device that combines graphene film and Ag nanowires (AgNWs) as transparent and current spreading electrodes for ultra-violet (UV) light emitting diode (LED) with interesting characteristics for the potential use in the deep UV region. The current-voltage characteristics and electroluminescence (EL) performance show that graphene network on AgNWs well-operates as a transparent and current spreading electrode in UV LED devices. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and EL images exhibit that graphene film act as the protection layer of AgNWs layer as well as a transparent conducting network, by bridging AgNWs.

  17. Recent advances in alternative counter electrode materials for Co-mediated dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sining; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Taihong; Ahmad, Shahzada

    2015-07-28

    Recently, considerable attention has been paid to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) which are based on Co(2+)/Co(3+) redox shuttles, because of their unparalleled merits including higher redox potential, reduced corrosiveness towards metallic conductors, low costs and high power conversion efficiencies (PCE) (13%). The counter electrode (CE) is an essential component in DSSCs, and plays a crucial role in catalyzing Co(3+) ion reduction in Co-based DSSCs. In this mini-review, we review recent developments in CE materials for Co-mediated DSSCs including: noble metal platinum (Pt), carbon materials, transition metal compounds (TMCs), polymers, and their corresponding hybrids, highlighting important contributions worldwide that promise low cost, efficient, and robust Co-mediated DSSC systems. Additionally, the crucial challenges associated with employing these low-cost CE catalysts for Co-based redox couples in DSSCs are stressed. PMID:26132719

  18. Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells: A strategy to enhance overall efficiency based on transparent polyaniline electrode

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jihuai; Li, Yan; Tang, Qunwei; Yue, Gentian; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang; Meng, Lijian

    2014-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a promising solution to global energy and environmental problems because of its clean, low-cost, high efficiency, good durability, and easy fabrication. However, enhancing the efficiency of the DSSC still is an important issue. Here we devise a bifacial DSSC based on a transparent polyaniline (PANI) counter electrode (CE). Owing to the sunlight irradiation simultaneously from the front and the rear sides, more dye molecules are excited and more carriers are generated, which results in the enhancement of short-circuit current density and therefore overall conversion efficiency. The photoelectric properties of PANI can be improved by modifying with 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP). The bifacial DSSC with 4-ATP/PANI CE achieves a light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 8.35%, which is increased by ~24.6% compared to the DSSC irradiated from the front only. This new concept along with promising results provides a new approach for enhancing the photovoltaic performances of solar cells. PMID:24504117

  19. Highly efficient and bendable organic solar cells using a three-dimensional transparent conducting electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Bae, Tae-Sung; Park, Yeon Hyun; Kim, Dong Ho; Lee, Sunghun; Min, Guanghui; Lee, Gun-Hwan; Song, Myungkwan; Yun, Jungheum

    2014-06-21

    A three-dimensional (3D) transparent conducting electrode, consisting of a quasi-periodic array of discrete indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanoparticles superimposed on a highly conducting oxide-metal-oxide multilayer using ITO and silver oxide (AgOx) as oxide and metal layers, respectively, is synthesized on a polymer substrate and used as an anode in highly flexible organic solar cells (OSCs). The 3D electrode is fabricated using vacuum sputtering sequences to achieve self-assembly of distinct ITO nanoparticles on a continuous ITO-AgOx-ITO multilayer at room-temperature without applying conventional high-temperature vapour-liquid-solid growth, solution-based nanoparticle coating, or complicated nanopatterning techniques. Since the 3D electrode enhances the hole-extraction rate in OSCs owing to its high surface area and low effective series resistance for hole transport, OSCs based on this 3D electrode exhibit a power conversion efficiency that is 11-22% higher than that achievable in OSCs by means of conventional planar ITO film-type electrodes. A record high efficiency of 6.74% can be achieved in a bendable OSC fabricated on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate. PMID:24835145

  20. Selective-area van der Waals epitaxy of topological insulator grid nanostructures for broadband transparent flexible electrodes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yunfan; Aisijiang, Mahaya; Zhang, Kai; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Yulin; Zheng, Wenshan; Song, Zehao; Cao, Jie; Liu, Zhongfan; Peng, Hailin

    2013-11-01

    Broadband transparent electrodes based on a two-dimensional grid of topological insulator Bi2Se3 are synthesized by a facile selective-area van der Waals epitaxy method. These two-dimensional grid electrodes exhibit high uniformity over large area, outstanding mechanical durability, and excellent chemical resistance to environmental perturbations. Remarkably, the topological grid electrode has high transmittance of more than 85% from the visible to the near-infrared region. PMID:24038418

  1. Effects of hydrazine hydrate treatment on the performance of reduced graphene oxide film as counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Leifei; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Wenguang; Chen, Yiming; Wang, Rong

    2014-11-01

    The reduced graphene oxide (RGO) counter electrodes were prepared by drop casting method and followed by heat treatment. The as-prepared RGO counter electrodes were used as substitution for Pt counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of hydrazine hydrate in graphene oxide (GO) suspension on the performance of RGO counter electrodes were investigated. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements revealed that a moderate amount of hydrazine hydrate can enhance the catalytic activity of the RGO film toward the reduction of I3- and decrease the sheet resistance of the film. The efficiency (?) of DSSC based on the RGO counter electrodes with optimum addition of hydrazine hydrate increased from 1.826% to 2.622% under a simulated solar illumination of 100 mW cm-2 (AM 1.5).

  2. Highly flexible and transparent multilayer MoS2 transistors with graphene electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jongwon; Park, Woojin; Bae, Ga-Yeong; Kim, Yonghun; Jang, Hun Soo; Hyun, Yujun; Lim, Sung Kwan; Kahng, Yung Ho; Hong, Woong-Ki; Lee, Byoung Hun; Ko, Heung Cho

    2013-10-11

    A highly flexible and transparent transistor is developed based on an exfoliated MoS2 channel and CVD-grown graphene source/drain electrodes. Introducing the 2D nanomaterials provides a high mechanical flexibility, optical transmittance (?74%), and current on/off ratio (>10(4)) with an average field effect mobility of ?4.7 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), all of which cannot be achieved by other transistors consisting of a MoS2 active channel/metal electrodes or graphene channel/graphene electrodes. In particular, a low Schottky barrier (?22 meV) forms at the MoS2 /graphene interface, which is comparable to the MoS2 /metal interface. The high stability in electronic performance of the devices upon bending up to ±2.2 mm in compressive and tensile modes, and the ability to recover electrical properties after degradation upon annealing, reveal the efficacy of using 2D materials for creating highly flexible and transparent devices. PMID:23420782

  3. Rapid atmospheric pressure plasma jet processed reduced graphene oxide counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsiao-Wei; Liang, Sheng-Ping; Wu, Ting-Jui; Chang, Haoming; Kao, Peng-Kai; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Chen, Jian-Zhang; Chou, Pi-Tai; Cheng, I-Chun

    2014-09-10

    In this work, we present the use of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as the counter electrode materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). rGO was first deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate by screen-printing, followed by post-treatment to remove excessive organic additives. We investigated the effect of atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) treatment on the DSSC performance. A power conversion efficiency of 5.19% was reached when DSSCs with an rGO counter electrode were treated by APPJs in the ambient air for a few seconds. For comparison, it requires a conventional calcination process at 400 °C for 15 min to obtain comparable efficiency. Scanning electron micrographs show that the APPJ treatment modifies the rGO structure, which may reduce its conductivity in part but simultaneously greatly enhances its catalytic activity. Combined with the rapid removal of organic additives by the highly reactive APPJ, DSSCs with APPJ-treated rGO counter electrode show comparable efficiencies to furnace-calcined rGO counter electrodes with greatly reduced process time. This ultrashort process time renders an estimated energy consumption per unit area of 1.1 kJ/cm(2), which is only one-third of that consumed in a conventional furnace calcination process. This new methodology thus saves energy, cost, and time, which is greatly beneficial to future mass production. PMID:25127290

  4. Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells with high efficiency.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sining; Hagfeldt, Anders; Ma, Tingli

    2014-09-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted widespread attention in recent years as potential cost-effective alternatives to silicon-based and thin-film solar cells. Within typical DSSCs, the counter electrode (CE) is vital to collect electrons from the external circuit and catalyze the I3- reduction in the electrolyte. Careful design of the CEs can improve the catalytic activity and chemical stability associated with the liquid redox electrolyte used in most cells. In this Progress Report, advances made by our groups in the development of CEs for DSSCs are reviewed, highlighting important contributions that promise low-cost, efficient, and robust DSSC systems. Specifically, we focus on the design of novel Pt-free CE catalytic materials, including design ideas, fabrication approaches, characterization techniques, first-principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations, ab-initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations, and stability evaluations, that serve as practical alternatives to conventional noble metal Pt electrodes. We stress the merits and demerits of well-designed Pt-free CEs, such as carbon materials, conductive polymers, transition metal compounds (TMCs) and their corresponding hybrids. Also, the prospects and challenges of alternative Pt catalysts for their applications in new-type DSSCs and other catalytic fields are discussed. PMID:25080873

  5. A novel hierarchical Pt- and FTO-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xing; Li, Meicheng; Song, Dandan; Cui, Peng; Zhang, Zhirong; Zhao, Yan; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Zhaohuang

    2014-05-01

    A novel hierarchical Pt- and FTO-free counter electrode (CE) for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was prepared by spin coating the mixture of TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) solution onto the glass substrate. Compared with traditional Pt/FTO CE, the cost of the new CE is dramatically reduced by the application of bilayer TiO2-PEDOT:PSS/PEDOT:PSS film and the glass substrate. The sheet resistance of this composite film is 35 ? sq-1 and is low enough to be used as an electrode. The surface morphologies of TiO2-PEDOT:PSS layer and modified PEDOT:PSS layer were characterized by scanning electron microscope, which shows that the former had larger surface areas than the latter. Electrochemical impedance spectra and Tafel polarization curves prove that the catalytic activity of TiO2-PEDOT:PSS/PEDOT:PSS/glass CE is higher than that of PEDOT:PSS/FTO CE and is similar to Pt/FTO CE's. This new fabricated device with TiO2-PEDOT:PSS/PEDOT:PSS/glass CE achieves a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.67%, reaching 91.39% of DSSC with Pt/FTO CE (5.11%).

  6. Monolithic quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on graphene modified mesoscopic carbon counter electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Yaoguang; Li, Xiong; Liu, Guanghui; Wang, Heng; Ku, Zhiliang; Xu, Mi; Liu, Linfeng; Hu, Min; Yang, Ying; Han, Hongwei

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a monolithic quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on graphene modified mesoscopic carbon counter electrode (GC-CE), which offers a promising prospect for commercial applications. Based on the design of a triple layer structure, the TiO2 working electrode layer, ZrO2 spacer layer and carbon counter electrode (CE) layer are constructed on a single conducting glass substrate by screen-printing. The quasi-solid-state polymer gel electrolyte employs a polymer composite as the gelator and could effectively infiltrate into the porous layers. Fabricated with normal carbon counter electrode (NC-CE) containing graphite and carbon black, the device shows a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.09% with the fill factor (FF) of 0.63 at 100 mW cm-2 AM1.5 illumination. When the NC-CE is modified with graphene sheets, the PCE and FF could be enhanced to 6.27% and 0.71, respectively. This improvement indicates excellent conductivity and high electrocatalytic activity of the graphene sheets, which have been considered as a promising platinum-free electrode material for DSSCs.

  7. Monolithic quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on graphene-modified mesoscopic carbon-counter electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Yaoguang; Han, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    A monolithic quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on graphene-modified mesoscopic carbon-counter electrode is developed. A TiO2-working electrode layer, ZrO2 spacer layer, and carbon counter electrode layer were constructed on a single conducting glass substrate by screen printing. The quasi-solid-state polymer gel electrolyte employed a polymer composite as the gelator, and effectively infiltrated the porous layers. Fabricated with normal carbon-counter electrode (NC-CE) containing graphite and carbon black, the DSSC had a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.09% with the fill factor of 0.63 at 100 mW cm-2 AM1.5 illumination. When the NC-CE was modified with graphene sheets, the PCE and fill factor were enhanced to 6.27% and 0.71, respectively. This improvement indicates excellent conductivity and high electrocatalytic activity of the graphene sheets, which have been considered as a promising platinum-free electrode material for DSSCs.

  8. Highly flexible, hybrid-structured indium tin oxides for transparent electrodes on polymer substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Triambulo, Ross E.; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Min-Young; Chang, Hye-Jung [Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-17

    We developed highly flexible, hybrid-structured crystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) for use as transparent electrodes on polymer substrates by embedding Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) into the substrate. The hybrid ITO consists of domains in one orientation grown on the AgNPs and a matrix of the other orientation. The domains are stronger than the matrix and function as barriers to crack propagation. As a result, both the critical bending radius (r{sub c}) (under which the resistivity change ({Delta}{rho}) is less than a given value) and the change in {Delta}{rho} with decreasing r significantly decreased in the hybrid ITO compared with homogenous ITO.

  9. A study of fullerene-quantum dot composite structure on substrates with a transparent electrode layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, S. I.; Kirilenko, D. A.; Nashchekin, A. V.; Sokolov, R. V.; Konnikov, S. G.

    2015-02-01

    We have studied the structure of films consisting of fullerene clusters and a related fullerene-based composite with incorporated quantum dots. The films were obtained by electrophoretic deposition from solution onto glass substrates with a transparent indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrode layer. The average cluster size, as measured by electron microscopy, amounts to 300 nm in pure fullerene films and 800 nm in the composite material. Electron diffraction measurements showed that pure fullerene clusters had an fcc lattice, while the introduction of quantum dots rendered the fullerene matrix predominantly amorphous.

  10. N-doped graphene nanoribbons as efficient metal-free counter electrodes for disulfide/thiolate redox mediated DSSCs.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuhua; Baek, Janice M; Chen, Hao; Qu, Jia; Dai, Liming

    2015-04-28

    Nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons (N-GNRs) were prepared by thermal treatment of the as-zipped graphene oxide nanoribbons in NH3 gas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements revealed a high nitrogen content up to 6.5 atom% for the as-prepared N-GNRs. This, together with the high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of about 751 cm(2) g(-1), prompted us to use the N-GNR as the first low-cost, metal-free counter electrode for disulfide/thiolate redox mediated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared with the widely-used platinum electrode, the newly-developed N-GNR counter electrode showed a dramatically improved power conversion efficiency for DSSCs based on the thiolate/disulfide redox shuttle. The observed superior cell performance was attributed to the enhanced charge transfer capability and electrocatalytic activity induced by N-doping of the graphene nanoribbon. PMID:25611156

  11. Substrate effects on the transmittance of 1D metal grid transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kilbock; Ahn, Jinho

    2014-08-11

    The effect of the presence of substrates below metal grids on light transmission is investigated through finite-different time-domain (FDTD) simulations. Comparing grids on substrates with suspended grids, we identify the effects of the presence of substrates on the transmittances of metal grids. The presence of substrates below micron-scale grids has no specific effect on their transmittances; however, unexpected dips and flattened peaks in transmission spectra were observed in nano-scale grids. The figures of merits (FoMs) of metal grids are calculated using estimated transmittances and grid sheet resistances. Due to their lower resistances and higher transmittances, micron-scale grids show higher FoMs than nano-scale grids and, are thus promising transparent conducting electrode candidates. The best 1D grid electrode in this work exhibited a figure of merit, ?(dc)/?(op), > 1000. PMID:25320988

  12. Organic electro-optic modulator using transparent conducting oxides as electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guoyang; Liu, Zhifu; Ma, Jing; Liu, Boyang; Ho, Seng-Tiong; Wang, Lian; Zhu, Peiwang; Marks, Tobin J.; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K. Y.

    2005-09-01

    A novel organic electro-optic (EO) modulator using transparent conducting oxides (ZnO and In2O3) as electrodes is demonstrated for the first time. The modulator employs the poled guest-host chromophore/polymer material AJL8/APC having r33=35pm/V and is able to achieve a low V?=2.8 V switching voltage for an 8mm-long device at a wavelength of 1.31ìm. This corresponds to a V?=1.1 V switching voltage for a 1cm-long device in a push-pull configuration. The push-pull V?L figure of merit normalized for the EO coefficient is thus 1.1V-cm/(35pm/V), which is 3-4x lower than that can be achieved with a convetional modulator structure. The bottom electrode is ZnO grown by Metal-Organic Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) and top electrode In2O3 deposited using ionbeam assisted deposition. The top electrode is directly deposited on the guest-host organic material. The design and fabrication considerations for the modulator are also discussed.

  13. Highly efficient and bendable organic solar cells using a three-dimensional transparent conducting electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Bae, Tae-Sung; Park, Yeon Hyun; Kim, Dong Ho; Lee, Sunghun; Min, Guanghui; Lee, Gun-Hwan; Song, Myungkwan; Yun, Jungheum

    2014-05-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) transparent conducting electrode, consisting of a quasi-periodic array of discrete indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanoparticles superimposed on a highly conducting oxide-metal-oxide multilayer using ITO and silver oxide (AgOx) as oxide and metal layers, respectively, is synthesized on a polymer substrate and used as an anode in highly flexible organic solar cells (OSCs). The 3D electrode is fabricated using vacuum sputtering sequences to achieve self-assembly of distinct ITO nanoparticles on a continuous ITO-AgOx-ITO multilayer at room-temperature without applying conventional high-temperature vapour-liquid-solid growth, solution-based nanoparticle coating, or complicated nanopatterning techniques. Since the 3D electrode enhances the hole-extraction rate in OSCs owing to its high surface area and low effective series resistance for hole transport, OSCs based on this 3D electrode exhibit a power conversion efficiency that is 11-22% higher than that achievable in OSCs by means of conventional planar ITO film-type electrodes. A record high efficiency of 6.74% can be achieved in a bendable OSC fabricated on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate.A three-dimensional (3D) transparent conducting electrode, consisting of a quasi-periodic array of discrete indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanoparticles superimposed on a highly conducting oxide-metal-oxide multilayer using ITO and silver oxide (AgOx) as oxide and metal layers, respectively, is synthesized on a polymer substrate and used as an anode in highly flexible organic solar cells (OSCs). The 3D electrode is fabricated using vacuum sputtering sequences to achieve self-assembly of distinct ITO nanoparticles on a continuous ITO-AgOx-ITO multilayer at room-temperature without applying conventional high-temperature vapour-liquid-solid growth, solution-based nanoparticle coating, or complicated nanopatterning techniques. Since the 3D electrode enhances the hole-extraction rate in OSCs owing to its high surface area and low effective series resistance for hole transport, OSCs based on this 3D electrode exhibit a power conversion efficiency that is 11-22% higher than that achievable in OSCs by means of conventional planar ITO film-type electrodes. A record high efficiency of 6.74% can be achieved in a bendable OSC fabricated on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: FE-SEM images of Ar plasma-treated PET surfaces, curve deconvolution of XPS Ag 3d5/2 spectra, refractive indices and extinction coefficients of the Ag and AgOx (O/Ag = 10 at%), changes in the specular reflections of the IAOI-NPA and IAI-NPA electrodes for different O/Ag atomic ratios and thicknesses of the AgOx layer, and comparisons between the Jsc values determined from simulated AM 1.5G illumination and IPCE spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06755f

  14. Ga-Doped ZnO Film as a Transparent Electrode for Phthalocyanine\\/Perylene Heterojunction Solar Cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuki Yoshida; Senku Tanaka; Ichiro Hiromitsu; Yasuhisa Fujita; Katsumi Yoshino

    2008-01-01

    The photovoltaic properties of Zn-phthalocyanine (ZnPc)\\/3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxyl-bis-benzimidazole (PTCBI) heterojunction solar cells using Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) film as a transparent electrode are studied. When GZO is the electrode in contact with the donor layer, i.e., ZnPc, the energy conversion efficiency eta is only 1\\/4 of that for the cell using indium-tin-oxide (ITO) as the electrode. When GZO is the electrode in contact

  15. Fabrication of highly efficient transparent metal thin film electrodes using Direct Laser Interference Patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, S.; Müller-Meskamp, L.; Loeser, M.; Siebold, M.; Lasagni, A. F.

    2015-03-01

    The demand of highly efficient transparent electrodes without the use of rare earth materials such as indium requires a new generation of thin metallic films with both high transparency and electrical conductivity. For this purpose, Direct Laser interference Patterning was used to fabricate periodic hole-like surface patterns on thin metallic films in order to improve their optical transparency by selective laser ablation of the material and at the same time keeping the electrical properties at an acceptable level. Metallic films consisting of aluminum and copper with film thicknesses ranging between 5 and 40 nm were deposited on glass substrates and treated with nanosecond and picosecond pulse laser system. In order to analyze the processability of the films, the laser ablation threshold for each material as function of the layer thickness and pulse duration was firstly determined. After analyzing these initial experiments, the samples were structured with a 1.7 ?m spatial period hole-like-pattern using three beam direct laser interference patterning. The structural quality of the fabricated structures was analyzed as function laser energy density (laser fluence) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atom force microscopy (AFM). Finally, optical and electrical properties of the films were characterized using optical spectroscopy, as well as surface impedance measurements.

  16. Morphological and opto-electrical properties of a solution deposited platinum counter electrode for low cost dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Thalluri, Gopala Krishna V V; Décultot, Marc; Henrist, Catherine; Dewalque, Jennifer; Colson, Pierre; Habraken, Serge; Spoltore, Donato; Manca, Jean; Cloots, Rudi

    2013-12-01

    Although platinum (Pt) is a rare and very expensive material, Pt counter electrodes are still very commonly used for reaching high efficiencies in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The use of alternative cheaper catalyst materials did not yet yield equivalent efficiencies. In this work, we tried to understand how to reduce the amount of deposited Pt-material and simultaneously deliver higher DSC performances. We systematically compared the properties of Pt-counter electrodes prepared by simple solution deposition methods such as spray-coating, dip-coating, brushing with reference to the Pt-electrodes prepared by sputtering onto fluorine doped-tin oxides (FTOs). The morphological and structural characterizations of the deposited Pt-layers were performed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition of Pt-material was quantified using SEM electron dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping measurements which were further compared with optical transmission measurements. Also contact angle and sheet resistance measurements were performed. By taking Pt-layers composition, morphology and structural factors into account, 9.16% efficient N3 dye based DSCs were assembled. The DSCs were subjected to various opto-electrical characterization techniques like current-voltage (I-V), external quantum efficiency (EQE), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and transient photo voltage (TPV) measurements. The obtained experimental data suggest that the Pt counter electrodes prepared by solution deposition methods can also reach high DSC device performances with a consumption of very little amount of Pt material as compared with sputtered Pt-layers. This process also proves that higher DSC performances are not limited to the usage of sputtered Pt-layer as counter electrode. PMID:24146075

  17. Highly Conductive and Transparent Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):p-Toluene Sulfonate Films as a Flexible Organic Electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Yeol Kim; Tae-Wook Kim; Jung-Hyun Lee; Si-Joong Kwon; Woo-Gwang Jung; Sung-Hoo Ju

    2009-01-01

    Highly transparent and conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):p-toluene sulfonate (PEDOT:PTS) films were prepared by gas-phase polymerization using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique for flexible organic electrodes. These conductive PEDOT:PTS films have a high transparency (up to 80%), and possess a very low sheet resistance of a 100 Omega\\/\\\\square (up to 2500 S cm-1) at 150 nm thickness. Their sheet resistance attained 27

  18. Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Characterization of Nanostructured Optically-Transparent Carbon Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Benavidez, Tomas E.; Garcia, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper describes the results related to the optical and electrochemical characterization of thin carbon films fabricated by spin coating and pyrolysis of AZ P4330-RS photoresist. The goal of this paper is to provide comprehensive information allowing for the rational the selection of the conditions to fabricate optically-transparent carbon electrodes (OTCE) with specific electro-optical properties. According to our results, these electrodes could be appropriate choices as electrochemical transducers to monitor electrophoretic separations. At the core of this manuscript is the development and critical evaluation of a new optical model to calculate the thickness of the OTCE by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). Such data was complemented with topography and roughness (obtained by AFM), electrochemical properties (obtained by cyclic voltammetry), electrical properties (obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), and structural composition (obtained by Raman spectroscopy). Although the described OTCE were used as substrates to investigate the effect of electrode potential on the real-time adsorption of proteins by ellipsometry, these results could enable the development of other biosensors that can be then integrated into various CE platforms. PMID:23595607

  19. Multiscale transparent electrode architecture for efficient light management and carrier collection in solar cells.

    PubMed

    Boccard, Mathieu; Battaglia, Corsin; Hänni, Simon; Söderström, Karin; Escarré, Jordi; Nicolay, Sylvain; Meillaud, Fanny; Despeisse, Matthieu; Ballif, Christophe

    2012-03-14

    The challenge for all photovoltaic technologies is to maximize light absorption, to convert photons with minimal losses into electric charges, and to efficiently extract them to the electrical circuit. For thin-film solar cells, all these tasks rely heavily on the transparent front electrode. Here we present a multiscale electrode architecture that allows us to achieve efficiencies as high as 14.1% with a thin-film silicon tandem solar cell employing only 3 ?m of silicon. Our approach combines the versatility of nanoimprint lithography, the unusually high carrier mobility of hydrogenated indium oxide (over 100 cm(2)/V/s), and the unequaled light-scattering properties of self-textured zinc oxide. A multiscale texture provides light trapping over a broad wavelength range while ensuring an optimum morphology for the growth of high-quality silicon layers. A conductive bilayer stack guarantees carrier extraction while minimizing parasitic absorption losses. The tunability accessible through such multiscale electrode architecture offers unprecedented possibilities to address the trade-off between cell optical and electrical performance. PMID:22332666

  20. Polypyrrole thin films decorated with copper nanostructures as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghani, Sheeba; Sharif, Rehana; Bashir, Saima; Zaidi, Azhar A.; Rafique, M. S.; Ashraf, Ayesha; Shahzadi, Shamaila; Rafique, Shaista; Kamboh, Afzal H.

    2015-05-01

    A two-step electrochemical polymerization method for the fabrication of polypyrrole (PPY) thin films decorated with copper nanostructures on a stainless steel has been employed. The PPY film thickness affects the size, shape, and the number density of the copper nanostructures and provides an easy approach to control the morphology of these nanostructures. SEM images show nanorod like structures of copper on 200 nm PPY film. By employing this composite film as counter electrode (CE), a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) achieves a conversion efficiency of 7.42%, which is greater than Pt CE based DSSC (5.63%). The superior photovoltaic efficiency for the Cu-PPY film is attributed to unique porous PPY thin film and copper nanorods structure that leads to higher cathodic current density (5.38 mA/cm2), large electrocatalytic activity, and small charge transfer resistance(1.92 ? cm-2). Therefore, Cu-PPY composite can be considered a competitive and promising CE material with the traditional and expensive Pt CE, for large-scale DSSCs production.

  1. Expanded graphite/pencil-lead as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yan-Shuang; Jin, Qian-Qian; Ren, Tie-Zhen

    2011-09-01

    A kind of new carbon material - expanded graphite (EG) was prepared and then used with 5B pencil-lead as counter electrodes for the DSSCs. The EG/pencil-lead products were discussed following five different weight ratios of 1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 2:1, and 0:1. And flake graphite was employed for comparison. Commercial P25 TiO 2 adsorbing dye N719 was used as photoanode and ionic liquid was adopted as electrolyte to compose the cell. Using green light-emitting diode (525 nm, LED) as the light source, J- V curves were recorded using the Zahner Zennium CIMPS system based on an IM6x electrochemical workstation. When the mass ratio of the mixture was 1:1, the overall conversion efficiency of DSSCs reached to highest value 7.7% ( Jsc = 0.441 mA cm -2, Voc = 683 mV, fill factor = 0.637) under green-light intensity.

  2. Graphene quantum-dot-doped polypyrrole counter electrode for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lijia; Guo, Chun Xian; Zhang, Qiaoming; Lei, Yanlian; Xie, Jiale; Ee, Shujing; Guai, Guanhong; Song, Qunliang; Li, Chang Ming

    2013-03-01

    Herein graphene quantum dot (GQD), a graphene material with lateral dimension less than 100 nm, is explored to dope PPy on F-doped tin oxide glass as an efficient counter electrode for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The GQDs-doped PPy film has a porous structure in comparison to the densely structured plain PPy, and displays higher catalytic current density and lower charge transfer resistance than the latter toward I3(-)/I(-) redox reaction. The highest power conversion efficiency (5.27%) for DSSCs is achieved with PPy doped with10% GQDs, which is comparable to that of Pt counter electrode-based DSSCs. This work provides an inexpensive alternative to replace platinum for DSSCs. PMID:23448248

  3. Pockels effect of water in the electric double layer at the interface between water and transparent electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Tokunaga; Yugo Nosaka; Masashi Hirabayashi; Takayoshi Kobayashi

    2007-01-01

    We have obtained the first experimental evidence for the Pockels effect of water, which is induced by a high electric field in the electric double layer (EDL) on the water–transparent electrode interface. The electric-field induced energy shift of the visible interference fringes of a 300nm indium–tin–oxide (ITO) electrode layer is observed, indicating a negative refractive index change at the interface.

  4. Micro–meso hierarchical porous carbon as low-cost counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guiqiang Wang; Congcong Huang; Wei Xing; Shuping Zhuo

    2011-01-01

    A micro–meso hierarchical porous carbon with low crystallinity was prepared by a combination of self-assembly and post activation and explored as a counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. Pore structure analysis showed that the pristine mesopores were basically preserved during activation and the micropores were mainly generated within the mesopore wall. Due to its low crystallinity and unique pore-structure including

  5. Counter-ion Dependent, Longitudinal Unzipping of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to Highly Conductive and Transparent Graphene Nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Dhanraj B.; Majumder, Mainak; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K.

    2014-03-01

    Here we report for the first time, a simple hydrothermal approach for the bulk production of highly conductive and transparent graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) using several counter ions from K2SO4, KNO3, KOH and H2SO4 in aqueous media, where, selective intercalation followed by exfoliation gives highly conducting GNRs with over 80% yield. In these experiments, sulfate and nitrate ions act as a co-intercalant along with potassium ions resulting into exfoliation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in an effective manner. The striking similarity of experimental results in KOH and H2SO4 that demonstrates partially damaged MWCNTs, implies that no individual K+, SO42- ion plays a key role in unwrapping of MWCNTs, rather this process is largely effective in the presence of both cations and anions working in a cooperative manner. The GNRs can be used for preparing conductive 16 k?sq-1, transparent (82%) and flexible thin films using low cost fabrication method.

  6. Investigation on new CuInS2/carbon composite counter electrodes for CdS/CdSe cosensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Huang, Xiaoming; Yang, Yueyong; Wang, Shen; Gong, Yun; Luo, Yanhong; Li, Dongmei; Meng, Qingbo

    2013-07-10

    The search for semiconductor-sensitized solar cell (SSC) counter electrode alternatives has been a continuous effort and long ongoing work, while the studies in counter electrode kinetic performance and stability are important to improve the overall efficiency. Here, a ternary chalcopyrite compound CuInS2 is first employed as counter electrode (CE) material for CdS/CdSe cosensitized solar cells. Besides, in order to increase the electron transfer activity at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface and stability, an appropriate amount of active carbon/carbon black mixture is introduced to afford CuInS2/carbon composite electrodes. Electron transfer processes in CuInS2-based electrodes are investigated in detail with the aid of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and I-E measurement. Up to 4.32% of the light-to-electricity conversion efficiency has been achieved for the CdS/CdSe SSCs with the CuInS2/carbon composite electrode. Besides, a preliminary long-term stability test reveals that the new CuInS2/carbon composite counter electrode exhibits good stability after being kept in the dark at room temperature and without current flow for 1000 h. PMID:23734873

  7. Pt-free and efficient counter electrode with nanostructured CoNi2S4 for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhiwei; Deng, Kaimo; Li, Liang

    2015-03-01

    The counter electrode has a great influence on the performance of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The research and development of Pt-free counter electrode is becoming one of the hot areas in the field of DSSCs. Herein, we successfully synthesized a ternary metal sulfide (CoNi2S4) nanostructure on FTO substrate by hydrothermal method and investigated its application as counter electrode. The as-synthesized sample could exhibit better electrocatalystic property than that of Pt, and corresponding DSSCs have comparable conversion efficiency with typical Pt catalyzed cells. The easy synthesis, low cost and excellent electrocatalytic property may help the CoNi2S4 nanostructure stand out as an alternative counter electrode in DSSCs.

  8. Atomic Physics Effects on Convergent, Child-Langmuir Ion Flow between Nearly Transparent Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, John F. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Emmert, Gilbert A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] [University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2013-11-07

    Research during this project at the University of Wisconsin Fusion Technology Institute (UW FTI) on ion and neutral flow through an arbitrary, monotonic potential difference created by nearly transparent electrodes accomplished the following: (1) developed and implemented an integral equation approach for atomic physics effects in helium plasmas; (2) extended the analysis to coupled integral equations that treat atomic and molecular deuterium ions and neutrals; (3) implemented the key deuterium and helium atomic and molecular cross sections; (4) added negative ion production and related cross sections; and (5) benchmarked the code against experimental results. The analysis and codes treat the species D0, D20, D+, D2+, D3+, D and, separately at present, He0 and He+. Extensions enhanced the analysis and related computer codes to include He++ ions plus planar and cylindrical geometries.

  9. Organic solar cells using few-walled carbon nanotubes electrode controlled by the balance between sheet resistance and the transparency

    E-print Network

    Liu, Jie

    Organic solar cells using few-walled carbon nanotubes electrode controlled by the balance between; published online 25 March 2009 Organic photovoltaic devices OPD using high conductive transparent few of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.3103557 Organic photovoltaic devices OPDs are being pursued as a viable

  10. Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applications in light emitting and absorbing devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyong; Avrutin, V.; Izyumskaya, N.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.

    2010-11-01

    In both light emitting devices such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), and light absorbing devices such as solar cells (also photodetectors), which are gaining considerable interest for their energy saving and energy production capability, respectively, a compromise must be struck between the need to increase the light emitting/absorbing area/potential and the need for low series resistance of the metal contact grid. This undesirable compromise can be mitigated by using transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), which heretofore have been dominated by ITO (indium tin oxide—an In-rich alloy of indium oxide and tin oxide). Due to the expected scarcity of Indium used in ITO, efforts are underway to develop indium-free TCOs for the above-mentioned devices as well as flat panel displays. ZnO heavily doped with Ga or Al (GZO or AZO) is becoming a very attractive candidate for future generation TCOs. GZO and AZO as well as multilayer TCOs consisting of two TCO layers with a thin metal layer in between have been widely investigated for LEDs and solar cells to enhance device performance. This article succinctly reviews the latest developments in and properties of TCOs, particularly in relation to thin film transparent electrode applications for LEDs and solar cells. Pertinent critical issues and possible solutions are provided as well.

  11. Fully-sprayed and flexible organic photodiodes with transparent carbon nanotube electrodes.

    PubMed

    Falco, Aniello; Cinà, Lucio; Scarpa, Giuseppe; Lugli, Paolo; Abdellah, Alaa

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of TCO-free, fully sprayed organic photodiodes on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. Transparent conducting films of single-wall carbon nanotubes are spray deposited from aqueous solutions. Low roughness is achieved, and films with sheet resistance values of 160 ?/sq at 84% in transmittance are fabricated. Process issues related to the wetting of CNTs are then examined and solved, enabling successive spray depositions of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) layer and a blend of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The active layer is then optimized, achieving a process yield above 90% and dark currents as low as 10(-4) mA/cm(2). An external quantum efficiency of 65% and high reproducibility in the performance of the devices are obtained. Finally, the impact of the characteristics of the transparent electrode (transmittance and sheet resistance) on the performances of the device are investigated and validated through a theoretical model and experimental data. PMID:24914700

  12. Centimeter scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Byung Hee

    2009-03-01

    Large scale pattern growth of graphene is one of the most awaiting problems to be solved in order to bring this material for device application. Recently, macroscopic scale graphene films have been prepared by two-dimensional assembly of graphene sheets chemically derived from graphite crystals and graphene oxides. However, the sheet resistance of these films is found to be much larger than theoretically expected values. Here, we report the direct synthesis of centimeter-scale graphene films using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on thin Ni layers, where the overall structures are connected by lateral electric connections. As a result, the transferred graphene films show very low sheet resistance with excellent optical transparency. At low temperatures, the single layers transferred on SiO2 substrates show high electron mobility with the signature of quantum Hall effect, implying that the quality of CVD-grown graphene is as high as mechanically cleaved graphenes. Employing these outstanding mechanical properties of graphenes, we also demonstrate the macroscopic usage of the highly conducting and transparent electrodes for flexible/stretchable/foldable electronics.

  13. N-doped graphene nanoribbons as efficient metal-free counter electrodes for disulfide/thiolate redox mediated DSSCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yuhua; Baek, Janice M.; Chen, Hao; Qu, Jia; Dai, Liming

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons (N-GNRs) were prepared by thermal treatment of the as-zipped graphene oxide nanoribbons in NH3 gas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements revealed a high nitrogen content up to 6.5 atom% for the as-prepared N-GNRs. This, together with the high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of about 751 cm2 g-1, prompted us to use the N-GNR as the first low-cost, metal-free counter electrode for disulfide/thiolate redox mediated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared with the widely-used platinum electrode, the newly-developed N-GNR counter electrode showed a dramatically improved power conversion efficiency for DSSCs based on the thiolate/disulfide redox shuttle. The observed superior cell performance was attributed to the enhanced charge transfer capability and electrocatalytic activity induced by N-doping of the graphene nanoribbon.Nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons (N-GNRs) were prepared by thermal treatment of the as-zipped graphene oxide nanoribbons in NH3 gas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements revealed a high nitrogen content up to 6.5 atom% for the as-prepared N-GNRs. This, together with the high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of about 751 cm2 g-1, prompted us to use the N-GNR as the first low-cost, metal-free counter electrode for disulfide/thiolate redox mediated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared with the widely-used platinum electrode, the newly-developed N-GNR counter electrode showed a dramatically improved power conversion efficiency for DSSCs based on the thiolate/disulfide redox shuttle. The observed superior cell performance was attributed to the enhanced charge transfer capability and electrocatalytic activity induced by N-doping of the graphene nanoribbon. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06969b

  14. Ag-Pd-Cu alloy inserted transparent indium tin oxide electrodes for organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyo-Joong; Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Han-Ki, E-mail: imdlhkkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering for Information and Electronics, Kyung-Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Yong-Jin; Na, Seok-In [Graduate School of Flexible and Printable Electronics, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, Deokjin-dong, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    The authors report on the characteristics of Ag-Pd-Cu (APC) alloy-inserted indium tin oxide (ITO) films sputtered on a glass substrate at room temperature for application as transparent anodes in organic solar cells (OSCs). The effect of the APC interlayer thickness on the electrical, optical, structural, and morphological properties of the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer were investigated and compared to those of ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer electrodes. At the optimized APC thickness of 8?nm, the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer exhibited a resistivity of 8.55?×?10{sup ?5} ? cm, an optical transmittance of 82.63%, and a figure-of-merit value of 13.54?×?10{sup ?3} ?{sup ?1}, comparable to those of the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer. Unlike the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer, agglomeration of the metal interlayer was effectively relieved with APC interlayer due to existence of Pd and Cu elements in the thin region of the APC interlayer. The OSCs fabricated on the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer showed higher power conversion efficiency than that of OSCs prepared on the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer below 10?nm due to the flatness of the APC layer. The improved performance of the OSCs with ITO/APC/ITO multilayer electrodes indicates that the APC alloy interlayer prevents the agglomeration of the Ag-based metal interlayer and can decrease the thickness of the metal interlayer in the oxide-metal-oxide multilayer of high-performance OSCs.

  15. Potential-Assisted Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumin onto Optically-Transparent Carbon Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Benavidez, Tomás E.; Garcia, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript describes the effect of the applied potential on the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to optically transparent carbon electrodes (OTCE). To decouple the effect of the applied potential from the high affinity of the protein for the bare surface, the surface of the OTCE was initially saturated with a layer of BSA. Experiments described in the manuscript show that potential values higher than +500 mV induced a secondary adsorption process (not observed at open-circuit potentials), yielding significant changes in the thickness (and adsorbed amount) of the BSA layer obtained. Although the process showed a significant dependence on the experimental conditions selected, the application of higher potentials, selection of pH values around the isoelectric point (IEP) of the protein, high concentrations of protein, and low ionic strengths yielded faster kinetics and the accumulation of larger amounts of protein on the substrate. These experiments, obtained around the IEP of the protein, contrast with the traditional hypothesis that enhanced electrostatic interactions between the polarized substrate and the (oppositely charged) protein are solely responsible for the enhanced adsorption. These results suggest that the potential applied to the electrode is able to polarize the adsorbed layer and induce dipole-dipole interactions between the adsorbed and the incoming protein. This mechanism could be responsible for the potential-dependent oversaturation of the surface and could bolster to the development of surfaces with enhanced catalytic activity and implants with improved biocompatibility. PMID:24156567

  16. A comparative study of the electrochemical behavior of complementary polymer electrochromic devices based on different counter-electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qing; Mi, Sai; Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Chunye

    2013-12-01

    8,11-di-(4-thiophen-2-yl)acenaphtho[1,2-b]quinoxaline (DTAQ) was successfully synthesized via a Stille coupling reaction and the corresponding polymer (PDTAQ) was prepared electrochemically. The spectroelectrochemical and electrochromic properties of the polymer film reveal that PDTAQ film shows distinct color states (purple in the neutral state and blue in the oxidized state), and optical contrast (?T%) of 45.16% at 772 nm and 49.39% at 1100 nm with switching times of 2.5 and 0.5 s. Complementary electrochromic devices, which are based on the PDTAQ film as the working electrode, Prussian blue (PB) and V2O5 as counter-electrodes, respectively, and LiClO4/PC solution as the electrolyte, were assembled and characterized. The results illustrate that the properties of the PDTAQ/PB and PDTAQ/V2O5 devices (including the absorption, color changes, ?T% and response times) can be modified by the counter-electrodes. Furthermore, the PDTAQ/V2O5 device exhibits a significantly higher contrast ratio in the visible region (34.92% at 771 nm) and much faster response time (0.4 s) than the PDTAQ/PB device (21.32% at 552 nm).

  17. Reactively sputtered nickel nitride as electrocatalytic counter electrode for dye- and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Soo Kang, Jin; Park, Min-Ah; Kim, Jae-Yup; Ha Park, Sun; Young Chung, Dong; Yu, Seung-Ho; Kim, Jin; Park, Jongwoo; Choi, Jung-Woo; Jae Lee, Kyung; Jeong, Juwon; Jae Ko, Min; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Nickel nitride electrodes were prepared by reactive sputtering of nickel under a N2 atmosphere at room temperature for application in mesoscopic dye- or quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. This facile and reliable method led to the formation of a Ni2N film with a cauliflower-like nanostructure and tetrahedral crystal lattice. The prepared nickel nitride electrodes exhibited an excellent chemical stability toward both iodide and polysulfide redox electrolytes. Compared to conventional Pt electrodes, the nickel nitride electrodes showed an inferior electrocatalytic activity for the iodide redox electrolyte; however, it displayed a considerably superior electrocatalytic activity for the polysulfide redox electrolyte. As a result, compared to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), with a conversion efficiency (?)?=?7.62%, and CdSe-based quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs, ??=?2.01%) employing Pt counter electrodes (CEs), the nickel nitride CEs exhibited a lower conversion efficiency (??=?3.75%) when applied to DSCs, but an enhanced conversion efficiency (??=?2.80%) when applied to CdSe-based QDSCs. PMID:25994801

  18. Highly Stretchable and Mechanically Stable Transparent Electrode Based on Composite of Silver Nanowires and Polyurethane-Urea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Yu, Ki-Cheol; Kim, Youngmin; Kim, Jong-Woong

    2015-07-22

    Transparent electrodes based on conventional indium-tin oxide (ITO) can hardly meet the requirements of future generations of stretchable electronic devices, including artificial skins, stretchable displays, sensors, and actuators, because they cannot retain high conductivity under substantial stretching and bending deformation. Here we suggest a new approach for fabricating highly stretchable and transparent electrodes with good stability in environments where they would be stretched repeatedly. We designed polyurethane-urea (PUU), a urethane-based polymer, to enhance the adhesion between Ag nanowires (AgNWs) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The adhesion could be further improved when irradiated by intense pulsed light (IPL). After delicate optimization of the layered AgNW/PUU/PDMS structure, we fabricated a stretchable transparent electrode that could withstand 100 cycles of 50% stretching-releasing, with exceptionally high stability and reversibility. This newly developed electrode is therefore expected to be directly applicable to a wide range of high-performance, low-cost, stretchable electronic devices. PMID:26135228

  19. All-metal-electrode-type dye sensitized solar cells (transparent conductive oxide-less dye sensitized solar cell) consisting of thick and porous Ti electrode with straight pores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yohei Kashiwa; Yorikazu Yoshida; Shuzi Hayase

    2008-01-01

    Transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer-less dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are reported. The cell is composed of a glass substrate, TiO2 porous layer stained with dye molecules, porous Ti electrode, electrolyte, and a Pt sputtered Ti sheet. The cell exhibits an efficiency of 7.43% which was a little less than that of 8.44% for a DSC consisting of a TCO

  20. Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Citizens now expect access to information, particularly from public institutions like local school districts. They demand input and accountability. Cultural and technological changes, such as the Internet, make it possible for districts to comply. Yet transparency--the easily seen and understood actions of a school district and the thinking behind…

  1. Enhanced efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells by excimer laser irradiated carbon nanotube network counter electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yun-San; Yang, Po-Yu; Lee, I.-Che; Chu, Chih-Chieh; Chou, Chia-Hsin; Cheng, Huang-Chung; Fu, Wei-En

    2014-02-01

    The carbon nanotube network decorated with Pt nanoparticles (PtCNT) irradiated by excimer laser as counter electrode (CE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been systematically demonstrated. The conversion efficiency would be improved from 7.12% to 9.28% with respect to conventional Pt-film one. It was attributed to the enhanced catalytic surface from Pt nanoparticles and the improved conductivity due to the adjoining phenomenon of PtCNTs irradiated by laser. Moreover, the laser annealing could also promote the interface contact between CE and conductive glass. Therefore, such a simple laser-irradiated PtCNT network is promising for the future flexible DSSCs applications.

  2. Enhanced performance of supported HfO2 counter electrodes for redox couples used in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sining; Pu, Haihui; Chen, Junhong; Hagfeldt, Anders; Ma, Tingli

    2014-02-01

    Mesoporous-graphitic-carbon-supported HfO2 (HfO2 -MGC) nanohybrids were synthesized by using a soft-template route. Characterization and a systematic investigation of the catalytic properties, stability, and catalytic mechanism were performed for HfO2 -MGC counter electrodes (CEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The new HfO2 -MGC as a CE in DSSCs showed a surprisingly high efficiency of 7.75 % for the triiodide/iodide redox couple and 3.69 % for the disulfide/thiolate redox couple, greater than the Pt electrode in the corresponding electrolyte system, which opens up a possibility for its practical application. PMID:24399514

  3. Organic electro-optic modulator using transparent conducting oxides as electrodes

    E-print Network

    Ho, Seng-Tiong

    using ion- beam assisted deposition. The top electrode is directly deposited on the guest-host organic. The bottom electrode is ZnO grown by Metal-Organic Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) and top electrode In2O3 deposited

  4. Modification of carbon nanotube transparent conducting films for electrodes in organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jing; Mu, Xue; Li, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Wen-Yi; Meng, Yan; Xu, Xiao-Bing; Chen, Li-Ting; Cui, Li-Jun; Wu, Xiaoming; Geng, Hong-Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) transparent conducting films (TCFs) were fabricated for the electrodes of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs); three types of film were studied. The as-prepared SWCNT TCFs displayed a relatively low sheet resistance of 82.6 ?/sq at 80.7 T% with a relatively large surface roughness of 30 nm. The TCFs were top-coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to obtain PEDOT:PSS-coated TCFs. The PEDOT:PSS cover improved the conductivity and decreased the surface roughness to 12 nm at the cost of film transmittance. The SWCNT TCFs mixed with PEDOT:PSS (PM-TCFs) exhibited a high conductivity (70.6 ?/sq at 81 T%) and a low surface roughness (3 nm) and were thus selected as the best TCFs for OLEDs. Blue flexible OLEDs with 4,4?-bis(2,2?-diphenylvinyl)-1,1?-biphenyl (Dpvbi) as the emitting layer were fabricated on TCFs with the same structures to evaluate the performances of the different types of SWCNT films for use in OLEDs. Of these three types of OLEDs, the PM-TCF devices exhibited the optimal performance with a maximum luminance of 2587 cd m-2 and a current efficiency of 5.44 cd A-1. This result was explored using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to further study the mechanisms that are involved in applying SWCNT TCFs to OLEDs.

  5. Application of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes as Transparent Electrodes in Cu(In,Ga)Se2-Based Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, M.; Barnes, T.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Rumbles, G.; Coutts, T. J.; Weeks, C.; Glatkowski, P.; Levitsky, I.; Peltola, J.

    2006-05-01

    We present a new thin-film solar cell structure in which the traditional transparent conductive oxide electrode (ZnO) is replaced by a transparent conductive coating consisting of a network of bundled single-wall carbon nanotubes. Optical transmission properties of these coatings are presented in relation to their electrical properties (sheet resistance), along with preliminary solar cell results from devices made using CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin-film absorber materials. Achieving an energy conversion efficiency of >12% and a quantum efficiency of {approx}80% demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. A discussion of the device structures will be presented considering the physical properties of the new electrodes comparing current-voltage results from the new solar cell structure and those from standard ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo solar cells.

  6. Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Annual subcontract report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Transparent and reflecting electrodes are important parts of the structure of amorphous silicon solar cells. We report improved methods for depositing zinc oxide, deposition of tin nitride as a potential reflection-enhancing diffusion barrier between the a-Si and back metal electrodes. Highly conductive and transparent fluorine-doped zinc oxide was successfully produced on small areas by atmospheric pressure CVD from a less hazardous zinc precursor, zinc acetylacetonate. The optical properties measured for tin nitride showed that the back-reflection would be decreased if tin nitride were used instead of zinc oxide as a barrier layer over silver on aluminum. Niobium-doped titanium dioxide was produced with high enough electrical conductivity so that normal voltages and fill factors were obtained for a-Si cells made on it.

  7. In-situ electrochemically deposited polypyrrole nanoparticles incorporated reduced graphene oxide as an efficient counter electrode for platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Su Pei; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Lim, Yee Seng; Huang, Nay Ming; Lim, Hong Ngee

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports a rapid and in-situ electrochemical polymerization method for the fabrication of polypyrrole nanoparticles incorporated reduced graphene oxide (rGO@PPy) nanocomposites on a ITO conducting glass and its application as a counter electrode for platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The scanning electron microscopic images show the uniform distribution of PPy nanoparticles with diameter ranges between 20 and 30 nm on the rGO sheets. The electrochemical studies reveal that the rGO@PPy has smaller charge transfer resistance and similar electrocatalytic activity as that of the standard Pt counter electrode for the I3-/I- redox reaction. The overall solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC with the rGO@PPy counter electrode is 2.21%, which is merely equal to the efficiency of DSSC with sputtered Pt counter electrode (2.19%). The excellent photovoltaic performance, rapid and simple fabrication method and low-cost of the rGO@PPy can be potentially exploited as a alternative counter electrode to the expensive Pt in DSSCs.

  8. In-situ electrochemically deposited polypyrrole nanoparticles incorporated reduced graphene oxide as an efficient counter electrode for platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su Pei; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Lim, Yee Seng; Huang, Nay Ming; Lim, Hong Ngee

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a rapid and in-situ electrochemical polymerization method for the fabrication of polypyrrole nanoparticles incorporated reduced graphene oxide (rGO@PPy) nanocomposites on a ITO conducting glass and its application as a counter electrode for platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The scanning electron microscopic images show the uniform distribution of PPy nanoparticles with diameter ranges between 20 and 30 nm on the rGO sheets. The electrochemical studies reveal that the rGO@PPy has smaller charge transfer resistance and similar electrocatalytic activity as that of the standard Pt counter electrode for the I?(-)/I(-) redox reaction. The overall solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC with the rGO@PPy counter electrode is 2.21%, which is merely equal to the efficiency of DSSC with sputtered Pt counter electrode (2.19%). The excellent photovoltaic performance, rapid and simple fabrication method and low-cost of the rGO@PPy can be potentially exploited as a alternative counter electrode to the expensive Pt in DSSCs. PMID:24930387

  9. In-situ electrochemically deposited polypyrrole nanoparticles incorporated reduced graphene oxide as an efficient counter electrode for platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Su Pei; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Lim, Yee Seng; Huang, Nay Ming; Lim, Hong Ngee

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a rapid and in-situ electrochemical polymerization method for the fabrication of polypyrrole nanoparticles incorporated reduced graphene oxide (rGO@PPy) nanocomposites on a ITO conducting glass and its application as a counter electrode for platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The scanning electron microscopic images show the uniform distribution of PPy nanoparticles with diameter ranges between 20 and 30?nm on the rGO sheets. The electrochemical studies reveal that the rGO@PPy has smaller charge transfer resistance and similar electrocatalytic activity as that of the standard Pt counter electrode for the I3?/I? redox reaction. The overall solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC with the rGO@PPy counter electrode is 2.21%, which is merely equal to the efficiency of DSSC with sputtered Pt counter electrode (2.19%). The excellent photovoltaic performance, rapid and simple fabrication method and low-cost of the rGO@PPy can be potentially exploited as a alternative counter electrode to the expensive Pt in DSSCs. PMID:24930387

  10. Enhancement of the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell with multi-wall carbon nanotubes/polythiophene composite counter electrodes prepared by electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Niu, Hai-jun; Wu, Wen-jun; Wang, Cheng; Bai, Xu-duo; Wang, Wen

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of increasing the energy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polythiophene (PTh) composite film counter electrode has been fabricated by electrophoresis and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in sequence. The morphology and chemical structure have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy respectively. The overall energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC employing the MWCNT/PTh composite film has reached 4.72%, which is close to that of the DSSC with a platinum (Pt) counter electrode (5.68%). Compared with a standard DSSC with MWCNT counter electrode whose efficiency is 2.68%, the energy conversion efficiency has been increased by 76.12% for the DSSC with MWCNT/PTh counter electrode. These results indicate that the composite film with high conductivity, high active surface area, and good catalytic properties for I 3- reduction can potentially be used as the counter electrode in a high-performance DSSC.

  11. Optically transparent thin-film transistors based on 2D multilayer MoS? and indium zinc oxide electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Junyeon; Hong, Young Ki; Kwon, Hyuk-Jun; Park, Yu Jin; Yoo, Byungwook; Kim, Jiwan; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Oh, Min Suk; Kim, Sunkook

    2015-01-21

    We report on optically transparent thin film transistors (TFTs) fabricated using multilayered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as the active channel, indium tin oxide (ITO) for the back-gated electrode and indium zinc oxide (IZO) for the source/drain electrodes, respectively, which showed more than 81% transmittance in the visible wavelength. In spite of a relatively large Schottky barrier between MoS2 and IZO, the n-type behavior with a field-effect mobility (?(eff)) of 1.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) was observed in as-fabricated transparent MoS2 TFT. In order to enhance the performances of transparent MoS2 TFTs, a picosecond pulsed laser was selectively irradiated onto the contact region of the IZO electrodes. Following laser annealing, ?(eff) increased to 4.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and the on-off current ratio (I(on)/I(off)) increased to 10(4), which were attributed to the reduction of the contact resistance between MoS2 and IZO. PMID:25548952

  12. p-Type mesoscopic NiO as an active interfacial layer for carbon counter electrode based perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zonghao; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Xiaobao; Bu, Lingling; Zhang, Wenjun; Li, Wenhui; Zhao, Zhixin; Wang, Mingkui; Cheng, Yi-Bing; He, Hongshan

    2015-03-01

    Replacement of the ZrO2 insulator layer in the state-of-the-art TiO2/ZrO2/carbon structure by mesoscopic p-type NiO particles led to 39% increase of energy conversion efficiency of hole-conductor-free organometallic perovskite heterojunction solar cells with carbon counter electrodes. In these cells, the light absorber, CH3NH3PbI3, formed instantly inside the pores of the entire TiO2/NiO/carbon layer upon sequential deposition of PbI2 and CH3NH3I. Photoluminescence, impedance spectroscopy and transient photovoltage decay measurements have revealed that introduction of NiO extended the electron lifetime and augmented the hole extraction of the counter electrode. As a result, the photocurrent and open-circuit voltage both increased, resulting in a cell with impressive energy conversion efficiency of 11.4% under AM1.5G conditions. PMID:25406840

  13. Dye sensitized solar cell based on platinum decorated multiwall carbon nanotubes as catalytic layer on the counter electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Ambily [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 India (India)] [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 India (India); Rao, G. Mohan, E-mail: gmrao@isu.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 India (India); Munichandraiah, N. [Department of Inorgonic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 India (India)] [Department of Inorgonic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 India (India)

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: I-V characteristics of the DSSCs with Pt CE and Pt/MWCNT CE measured at 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. It shows relatively better performance with Pt/MWCNT counter electrodes. Highlights: {yields} Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by pyrolysis. {yields} Synthesis of Pt/MWCNT composite by chemical reduction. {yields} Fabrication DSSC using Pt/MWCNT as catalytic layer on the counter electrode. {yields} Study of catalytic activity by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. -- Abstract: In this study we have employed multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), decorated with platinum as catalytic layer for the reduction of tri-iodide ions in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). MWCNTs have been prepared by a simple one step pyrolysis method using ferrocene as the catalyst and xylene as the carbon source. Platinum decorated MWCNTs have been prepared by chemical reduction method. The as prepared MWCNTs and Pt/MWCNTs have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In combination with a dye adsorbed TiO{sub 2} photoanode and an organic liquid electrolyte, Pt/MWCNT composite showed an enhanced short circuit current density of 16.12 mA/cm{sup 2} leading to a cell efficiency of 6.50% which is comparable to that of Platinum.

  14. Responsivity and electrical characteristics of GaN based Schottky barrier UV detectors with transparent electrode in the near UV and VUV region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi Motogaito; Keiichi Ohta; H. Watanabe; K. Hiramatsu; Y. Ohuchi; K. Tadatomo; Y. Hamamura; K. Fukui

    2002-01-01

    Responsivity spectra and electrical characteristics of GaN based Schottky type ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors with transparent electrode from the near UV region to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region (3.4 to 25 eV) are described. In order to improve device performance in applying reverse bias, the annealed transparent Schottky electrode in N2 ambient is used. The dark current of samples after annealing

  15. Synthesis and characterization of natural dye and counter electrode thin films with different carbon materials for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho; Chen, Tien-Li; Kao, Mu-Jung; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chien, Shu-Hua; Jiang, Lii-Jenq

    2011-08-01

    This study aims to deal with the film of the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and the preparation, structure and characteristics of the extract of natural dye. This study adopts different commercial carbon materials such as black lead, carbon black and self-made TiO2-MWCNT compound nanoparticle as the film of the counter electrodes. Moreover, for the preparation of natural dyes, anthocyanins and chlorophyll dyes are extracted from mulberry and pomegranate respectively. Furthermore, the extracted anthocyanins and chlorophyll are blended into cocktail dye to complete the preparation of natural dye. Results show that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the single-layer TiO2-MWCNT counter electrode film and the cocktail dye of the DSSCs is 0.462%. PMID:22103229

  16. Conductive upconversion Er,Yb-FTO nanoparticle coating to replace Pt as a low-cost and high-performance counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Yang, Yulin; Fan, Ruiqing; Chen, Shuo; Wang, Ping; Yang, Bin; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-06-11

    F-doped SnO2 (FTO) nanocrystals modified by Er and Yb with upconversion capability and excellent catalytic properties have been designed and fabricated as an economic replacement for Pt for use as the counter electrode (CE) in dye-sensitized solar cells. The cost of the UC-FTO counter electrode is only ?(1)/20th of that for Pt. The upconverted luminescence-mediated energy transfer and the superior catalytic property for I3(-)/I(-) circulation overpowered the slight degradation caused by increased CE/electrolyte interface resistance. A 23.9% enhancement in photocurrent was achieved with little degradation in photovoltage, resulting in a 9.12% increase in solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency. Near-infrared (NIR) light-to-electricity has been directly observed by SPS and IPCE characterizations, showing the effect of the upconversion counter electrode. PMID:24810204

  17. Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G.; Kramer, K.; Liang, H.; Liu, X.; Pang, D.; Teff, D.

    1998-09-01

    Transparent conducting fluorine doped zinc oxide was deposited as thin films on soda lime glass substrates by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at substrate temperatures of 460 to 500 degrees C. The precursors diethylzinc, tetramethylethylenediamine and benzoyl fluoride were dissolved in xylene. This solution was nebulized ultrasonically and then flash vaporized by a carrier gas of nitrogen preheated to 150 degrees C. Ethanol was vaporized separately, and these vapors were then mixed to form a homogeneous vapor mixture. Good reproducibility was achieved using this new CVD method. Uniform thicknesses were obtained by moving the heated glass substrates through the deposition zone. The best electrically and optical properties were obtained when the precursor solution was aged for more than a week before use. The films were polycrystalline and highly oriented with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. More than 90% of the incorporated fluorine atoms were electrically active as n-type dopants. The electrical resistivity of the films was as low as 5 x 10/sup -4/ Omega cm. The mobility was about 45 cm ²/Vs. The electron concentration was up to 3 x 10 %sup20;/cm³. The optical absorption of the films was about 3-4% at a sheet resistance of 7 ohms/square. The diffuse transmittance was about 10% at a wavelength of 650 nm. Amorphous ilicon solar cells were deposited using the textured fluorine doped zinc oxide films as a front electrode. The short circuit current was increased over similar cells made with fluorine doped tin oxide, but the open circuit voltages and fill factors were reduced. The voltage was restored by overcoating the fluorine-doped zinc oxide with a thin layer of fluorine-doped tin oxide.

  18. Performance enhancement of metal nanowire-based transparent electrodes by electrically driven nanoscale nucleation of metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Yu-Jeng; Chiang, Kai-Ming; Lin, Hao-Wu

    2015-08-01

    Solution-processed silver nanowire (AgNW) electrodes have been considered to be promising materials for next-generation flexible transparent conductive electrodes. Despite the fact that a single AgNW has extremely high conductivities, the high junction resistance between nanowires limits the performance of the AgNW matrix. Therefore, post-treatments are usually required to approach better NW-NW contact. Herein, we report a novel linking method that uses joule heating to accumulate sol-gel ZnO near nanowire junctions. The nanoscale ZnO nucleation successfully restrained the thermal instability of the AgNW under current injection and acted as an efficient tightening medium to realize good NW-NW contacts. A low process temperature (<50 °C), and thus low energy consumption, are required for ZnO nucleation. This made the use of substrates with very low operating temperatures, such as PET and PEN, feasible. The optimized AgNW transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) fabricated using this promising linking method exhibited a low sheet resistance (13 ? sq(-1)), a high transmission (92% at 550 nm), a high figure of merit (FOM; up to ?DC/?Op = 340) and can be applied to wide range of next-generation flexible optoelectronic devices. PMID:26152810

  19. Carbonaceous materials and their advances as a counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells: challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Kouhnavard, Mojgan; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad; Ghaffari, Babak V; Sopian, Kamarozzaman; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2015-05-11

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) serve as low-costing alternatives to silicon solar cells because of their low material and fabrication costs. Usually, they utilize Pt as the counter electrode (CE) to catalyze the iodine redox couple and to complete the electric circuit. Given that Pt is a rare and expensive metal, various carbon materials have been intensively investigated because of their low costs, high surface areas, excellent electrochemical stabilities, reasonable electrochemical activities, and high corrosion resistances. In this feature article, we provide an overview of recent studies on the electrochemical properties and photovoltaic performances of carbon-based CEs (e.g., activated carbon, nanosized carbon, carbon black, graphene, graphite, carbon nanotubes, and composite carbon). We focus on scientific challenges associated with each material and highlight recent advances achieved in overcoming these obstacles. Finally, we discuss possible future directions for this field of research aimed at obtaining highly efficient DSSCs. PMID:25925421

  20. Optically passive counter electrodes for electrochromic devices: transition metal–cerium oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Azens; L Kullman; D. D Ragan; C. G Granqvist

    1998-01-01

    Films of W–Ce oxide and Ti–Ce oxide were made by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. Li+ intercalation\\/deintercalation showed that the electrochromic coloration efficiency depended on the Ce\\/W and Ce\\/Ti ratio, and at proper values of these ratios the films remained transparent irrespective of their ion content. Ti–Ce oxide combines this property with good electrochemical cycling durability, and this material can serve

  1. Development of a Novel Bidimensional Spectroelectrochemistry Cell Using Transfer Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Films as Optically Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Garoz-Ruiz, Jesus; Heras, Aranzazu; Palmero, Susana; Colina, Alvaro

    2015-06-16

    A really easy method to transfer commercial single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to different substrates is proposed. In this paper, a homogeneous transference of SWCNTs films to nonconductor and transparent supports, such as polyethylene terephthalate, glass, and quartz, and to conductor supports, such as indium tin oxide, aluminum, highly ordered pyrolytic graphite, and glassy carbon, was achieved using a very fast, reproducible, and clean methodology. In order to test these transferences, SWCNTs films transferred on quartz were used as working optically UV-vis transparent electrodes due to their optimal electrical and optical properties. A new easy-to-use, homemade optical fiber based cell for bidimensional spectroelectrochemistry was developed, offering the possibility to measure in normal and parallel configuration. The cell was tested with ferrocenemethanol, a compound widely used in electrochemistry but scarcely studied by spectroelectrochemistry, covering the UV-vis spectral region. PMID:25989247

  2. Diameter Dependence of Vertically-Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Use as Counter Electrodes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    for Use as Counter Electrodes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Ronald Hobson,1,2,3 Kehang Cui,1 Chiba TakaakiJapan Program, Rice University, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are electrochemical. In comparison to conventional Si-based solar cells, the manufacturing cost of DSSCs are substantially low

  3. Improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diode by indium-tin-oxide transparent electrode and vertical electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong-Jin Kim

    2005-01-01

    A sapphire-etched vertical-electrode nitride semiconductor (SEVENS) light-emitting diode (LED) is fabricated by means of a selective chemical wet-etching technique. The SEVENS-LED formed on sapphire substrate exhibits excellent device performance compared to a conventional NiAu lateral-electrode (LE) GaN-based LED formed on the same sapphire substrate. The integral light-output power of SEVENS-LED is ?7 mW, which is 1.75 times stronger than that

  4. GaN nanorod light emitting diodes with suspended graphene transparent electrodes grown by rapid chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Kun; Xu, Chen, E-mail: xuchen58@bjut.edu.cn; Deng, Jun; Zhu, Yanxu; Guo, Weiling; Mao, Mingming; Xun, Meng; Chen, Maoxing; Zheng, Lei [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China); Xie, Yiyang [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductor, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductor, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Sun, Jie, E-mail: jie.sun@chalmers.se [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China) [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China); Mikroteknologi och Nanovetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola AB, Göteborg 41296 (Sweden)

    2013-11-25

    Ordered and dense GaN light emitting nanorods are studied with polycrystalline graphene grown by rapid chemical vapor deposition as suspended transparent electrodes. As the substitute of indium tin oxide, the graphene avoids complex processing to fill up the gaps between nanorods and subsequent surface flattening and offers high conductivity to improve the carrier injection. The as-fabricated devices have 32% improvement in light output power compared to conventional planar GaN-graphene diodes. The suspended graphene remains electrically stable up to 300?°C in air. The graphene can be obtained at low cost and high efficiency, indicating its high potential in future applications.

  5. Effect of the rheological properties of carbon nanotube dispersions on the processing and properties of transparent conductive electrodes.

    PubMed

    Maillaud, Laurent; Poulin, Philippe; Pasquali, Matteo; Zakri, Cécile

    2015-06-01

    Transparent conductive films are made from aqueous surfactant stabilized dispersions of carbon nanotubes using an up-scalable rod coating method. The processability of the films is governed by the amount of surfactant which is shown to alter strongly the wetting and viscosity of the ink. The increase of viscosity results from surfactant mediated attractive interactions between the carbon nanotubes. Links between the formulation, ink rheological properties, and electro-optical properties of the films are determined. The provided guidelines are generalized and used to fabricate optimized electrodes using conductive polymers and carbon nanotubes. In these electrodes, the carbon nanotubes act as highly efficient viscosifiers that allow the optimized ink to be homogeneously spread using the rod coating method. From a general point of view and in contrast to previous studies, the CNTs are optimally used in the present approach as conductive additives for viscosity enhancements of electronic inks. PMID:25961667

  6. Large scale pattern graphene electrode for high performance in transparent organic single crystal field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Jackson, Biyun Li; Zhu, Jing; Miao, Cong-Qin; Chung, Choong-Heui; Chung, Choon-Heui; Park, Young-Ju; Sun, Ke; Woo, Jason; Xie, Ya-Hong

    2010-07-27

    High quality, large grain size graphene on polycrystalline nickel film on two inch silicon wafers was successfully synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamping method was used for graphene transferring in this experiment. The graphene transferred onto Al2O3/ITO substrates was patterned into macroscopic dimension electrodes using conventional lithography followed by oxygen plasma etching. Experimental results show that this graphene can serve as transparent source and drain electrodes in high performance organic semiconductor nanoribbon organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), facilitating high hole injection efficiency due to the preferred work function match with the channel material: single crystalline copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanoribbons. The nanoribbons were grown on top of the patterned graphene via evaporate-deposition to form the FET device. The carrier mobility and on/off current ratio of such devices were measured to be as high as 0.36 cm2/(V s) and 10(4). PMID:20536162

  7. Flexible transparent conducting composite films using a monolithically embedded AgNW electrode with robust performance stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Hyeon-Gyun; Jin, Jungho; Ko, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Jaemin; Lee, Jung-Yong; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2013-12-01

    We report on the performance of an all-in-one flexible hybrid conducting film employing a monolithically embedded AgNW transparent electrode and a high-performance glass-fabric reinforced composite substrate (AgNW-GFRHybrimer film). Specifically, we perform in-depth investigations on the stability of the AgNW-GFRHybrimer film against heat, thermal oxidation, and wet chemicals to demonstrate the potential of the hybrid conducting film as a robust electrode platform for thin-film optoelectronic devices. With the ease of large-area processability, smooth surface topography, and robust performance stability, the AgNW-GFRHybrimer film can be a promising platform for high-performance optoelectronic devices.We report on the performance of an all-in-one flexible hybrid conducting film employing a monolithically embedded AgNW transparent electrode and a high-performance glass-fabric reinforced composite substrate (AgNW-GFRHybrimer film). Specifically, we perform in-depth investigations on the stability of the AgNW-GFRHybrimer film against heat, thermal oxidation, and wet chemicals to demonstrate the potential of the hybrid conducting film as a robust electrode platform for thin-film optoelectronic devices. With the ease of large-area processability, smooth surface topography, and robust performance stability, the AgNW-GFRHybrimer film can be a promising platform for high-performance optoelectronic devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Further characteristics of AgNW-GFRHybrimer films and thermal oxidation of AgNW on glass. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05348b

  8. In situ synthesis of binary cobalt-ruthenium nanofiber alloy counter electrode for electrolyte-free cadmium sulfide quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Nan; Ren, Lei; Sun, Weifu; Jin, Xiao; Zhao, Qing; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Wei, Taihuei; Li, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    A facile, low-cost and low-temperature fabrication approach of counter electrode is essential for pursuing robust photovoltaic devices. Herein, we develop a hydrothermal in situ growth of Cobalt-Ruthenium (Co-Ru) alloy nanofiber electrode for quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) applications. Colloidal CdS QDs with tunable absorption band edge are synthesized and used as light absorber. After optimizing the QDs with the highest photoluminescence quantum yield accompanied by considerable solar light absorption ability, QDSC based on Co-Ru alloy electrode delivers a much higher power conversion efficiency than its counterparts, i.e., either pure Co or Ru metal electrodes. In detail, Co-Ru alloy electrode exhibits high specific area, excellent electrical behavior, intimate interface contact, and good stability, thus leading to notable improved device performances. The impressive robust function of Co-Ru alloy with simple manufacturing procedure highlights its potential applications in robust QDSCs.

  9. Flexible and transparent graphene films as acoustic actuator electrodes using inkjet printing.

    PubMed

    Shin, Keun-Young; Hong, Jin-Yong; Jang, Jyongsik

    2011-08-14

    Flexible and transparent graphene films have been fabricated via inkjet printing and vapor deposition (VDP) methods, and the graphene-based acoustic actuator could be used as an extremely thin and lightweight loudspeaker. PMID:21717029

  10. Delivery of molecules into cells using localized single cell electroporation on ITO micro-electrode based transparent chip.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Chiech; Santra, Tuhin Subhra; Chang, Chia-Jung; Chen, Tsung-Ju; Wang, Pen-Cheng; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2012-10-01

    Single cell electroporation is one of the nonviral method which successfully allows transfection of exogenous macromolecules into individual living cell. We present localized cell membrane electroporation at single-cell level by using indium tin oxide (ITO) based transparent micro-electrodes chip with inverted microscope. A focused ion beam (FIB) technique has been successfully deployed to fabricate transparent ITO micro-electrodes with submicron gaps, which can generate more intense electric field to produce very localized cell membrane electroporation. In our approach, we have successfully achieved 0.93 ?m or smaller electroporation region on the cell surface to inject PI (Propidium Iodide) dye into the cell with 60 % cell viability. This experiments successfully demonstrate the cell self-recover process from the injected PI dye intensity variation. Our localized cell membrane electroporation technique (LSCMEP) not only generates reversible electroporation process but also it provides a clear optical path for potentially monitoring/tracking of drugs to deliver in single cell level. PMID:22674171

  11. Amorphous Nb/Fe-oxide ion-storage films for counter electrode applications in electrochromic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Orel, B.; Macek, M.; Lavrencic-Stangar, U. [National Inst. of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pihlar, B. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    The electrochromic properties of mixed Nb/Fe-oxide films with amorphous structure which were prepared via the sol-gel route were determined. Films with Nb/Fe molar concentration ratios 0.2:1, 0.4:1, and 1:1 exhibit ion-storage capacities up to 18 mC/cm{sup 2} depending on Nb/Fe molar ratio. Electrochromically films behave as optically passive electrodes with a coloration efficiency of nearly zero at {lambda} > 480 nm, while at shorter wavelengths a relatively strong anodic coloring was observed, yielding negative coloration efficiencies up to {minus}20 cm{sup 2}/C. Coloring/bleaching changes of films are correlated with the ex situ IR spectroscopic measurements of charged/discharged films showing distortions of the film structure with Li{sup +} ion insertion/extraction reactions. Electrochemical stability of Nb/Fe (0.4:1)-oxide films was tested up to 2,000 cycles in a sol-gel electrochromic device consisting of sol-gel-derived WO{sub 3} films and hybrid organic/inorganic ionic conductor with ionic conductivity of about 10{sup {minus}4} S/cm serving for lamination of the electrodes.

  12. Time resolved optical emission images of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet with transparent electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Puac, N.; Maletic, D.; Lazovic, S.; Malovic, G.; Petrovic, Z. Lj. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Dordevic, A. [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bul. kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-07-09

    We study development of plasma packages in atmospheric pressure plasma jet from their formation as a discharge close to the instantaneous cathode, following their motion between and inside the electrodes up to their emergence at the edge of the glass tube and formation of a plasma bullet. Inside both electrodes, plasma is concentrated close to the walls and is bright, while outside it is located at the axis. This paper opens issues of the geometry of electrodes, fields, and atomic processes, allowing some predictions to be made about pertinent mechanisms.

  13. A dye-sensitized solar cell based on natural photosensitizers and a PEDOT:PSS/TiO2 film as a counter electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Fatemeh; Behjat, Abbas; Khoshroo, Ali R.; Ghoshani, Maral

    2015-02-01

    Poly(3, 4-ethylendioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) mixed with TiO2 nanoparticles (PEDOT:PSS/TiO2) was used as a catalyst for tri-iodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural photosensitizers. A PEDOT:PSS/TiO2 film was coated on a conductive glass substrate by the spin coating method. The solar cells were fabricated, having the PEDOT:PSS/TiO2 film as a counter electrode and Pomegranate juice dye-sensitized TiO2 as an anode. The morphology of PEDOT:PSS/TiO2 films was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was employed to characterize the catalytic activity of the PEDOT:PSS/TiO2 film. Based on the analysis of CV, the enhancements for the electrochemical and photochemical performance of the PEDOT:PSS/TiO2 electrode are attributed to the fact that the dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles in the PEDOT:PSS matrix provide an improved catalytic activity and a facilitated diffusion for tri-iodide ions. The energy conversion efficiency is significantly improved after TiO2 nanoparticle incorporation. This improvement might be attributed to an increase in the counter electrode catalytic activity. The highest efficiency of 0.73% was obtained by using 100 nm TiO2 nanoparticles in the counter electrode.

  14. Indium tin oxide-free semi-transparent inverted polymer solar cells using conducting polymer as both bottom and top electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven K. Hau; Hin-Lap Yip; Jingyu Zou; Alex K.-Y. Jen

    2009-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is investigated as a transparent cathode to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) in inverted polymer solar cells. Increasing the thickness of the PEDOT:PSS electrode leads to a reduction in transparency and sheet resistance which lowers the photocurrent but increases the fill factor of the solar cells. The offset of photocurrent and fill factor as the thickness is increased

  15. Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunho Jo; Minhyeok Choe; Chu-Young Cho; Jin Ho Kim; Woojin Park; Sangchul Lee; Woong-Ki Hong; Tae-Wook Kim; Seong-Ju Park; Byung Hee Hong; Yung Ho Kahng; Takhee Lee

    2010-01-01

    This work demonstrates a large-scale batch fabrication of GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with patterned multi-layer graphene (MLG) as transparent conducting electrodes. MLG films were synthesized using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique on nickel films and showed typical CVD-synthesized MLG film properties, possessing a sheet resistance of {\\\\sim }620~\\\\Omega \\/\\\\square with a transparency of more than 85% in the 400-800

  16. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodiodes With Transparent Conductor Electrodes

    E-print Network

    Rommel, Sean

    for the electrodes shadows much of the active region. Thus MSMs exhibit a low external quantum efficiency (EQE. This new model was fit to data obtained from S-parameter measurements, and incorporates both the transit

  17. Direct synthesis of graphene 3D-coated Cu nanosilks network for antioxidant transparent conducting electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hongmei; Wang, Huachun; Wu, Chenping; Lin, Na; Soomro, Abdul Majid; Guo, Huizhang; Liu, Chuan; Yang, Xiaodong; Wu, Yaping; Cai, Duanjun; Kang, Junyong

    2015-06-01

    Transparent conducting film occupies an important position in various optoelectronic devices. To replace the costly tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), promising materials, such as metal nanowires and graphene, have been widely studied. Moreover, a long-pursued goal is to consolidate these two materials together and express their outstanding properties simultaneously. We successfully achieved a direct 3D coating of a graphene layer on an interlacing Cu nanosilks network by the low pressure chemical vapor deposition method. High aspect ratio Cu nanosilks (13 nm diameter with 40 ?m length) were synthesized through the nickel ion catalytic process. Large-size, transparent conducting film was successfully fabricated with Cu nanosilks ink by the imprint method. A magnetic manipulator equipped with a copper capsule was used to produce high Cu vapor pressure on Cu nanosilks and realize the graphene 3D-coating. The coated Cu@graphene nanosilks network achieved high transparency, low sheet resistance (41 Ohm sq-1 at 95% transmittance) and robust antioxidant ability. With this technique, the transfer process of graphene is no longer needed, and a flexible, uniform and high-performance transparent conducting film could be fabricated in unlimited size.Transparent conducting film occupies an important position in various optoelectronic devices. To replace the costly tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), promising materials, such as metal nanowires and graphene, have been widely studied. Moreover, a long-pursued goal is to consolidate these two materials together and express their outstanding properties simultaneously. We successfully achieved a direct 3D coating of a graphene layer on an interlacing Cu nanosilks network by the low pressure chemical vapor deposition method. High aspect ratio Cu nanosilks (13 nm diameter with 40 ?m length) were synthesized through the nickel ion catalytic process. Large-size, transparent conducting film was successfully fabricated with Cu nanosilks ink by the imprint method. A magnetic manipulator equipped with a copper capsule was used to produce high Cu vapor pressure on Cu nanosilks and realize the graphene 3D-coating. The coated Cu@graphene nanosilks network achieved high transparency, low sheet resistance (41 Ohm sq-1 at 95% transmittance) and robust antioxidant ability. With this technique, the transfer process of graphene is no longer needed, and a flexible, uniform and high-performance transparent conducting film could be fabricated in unlimited size. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Photographs, transmission spectra, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01711d

  18. High-conductivity large-area semi-transparent electrodes for polymer photovoltaics by silk screen printing and vapour-phase deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørn Winther-Jensen; Frederik C. Krebs

    2006-01-01

    Transparent electrodes based on PEDOT were prepared using a variety of techniques suitable for large area applications from 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDT) and Fe(III)-tosylate. High conductivities were obtained (?20??1) with moderate transmission in the UV-visible range 350–600nm. We subsequently demonstrate the application of PEDOT electrodes to flexible polyethyleneterphthalate plastic substrates (PET) prepared by this procedure for polymer photovoltaic devices with active areas

  19. Direct synthesis of graphene 3D-coated Cu nanosilks network for antioxidant transparent conducting electrode.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongmei; Wang, Huachun; Wu, Chenping; Lin, Na; Soomro, Abdul Majid; Guo, Huizhang; Liu, Chuan; Yang, Xiaodong; Wu, Yaping; Cai, Duanjun; Kang, JunYong

    2015-06-28

    Transparent conducting film occupies an important position in various optoelectronic devices. To replace the costly tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), promising materials, such as metal nanowires and graphene, have been widely studied. Moreover, a long-pursued goal is to consolidate these two materials together and express their outstanding properties simultaneously. We successfully achieved a direct 3D coating of a graphene layer on an interlacing Cu nanosilks network by the low pressure chemical vapor deposition method. High aspect ratio Cu nanosilks (13 nm diameter with 40 ?m length) were synthesized through the nickel ion catalytic process. Large-size, transparent conducting film was successfully fabricated with Cu nanosilks ink by the imprint method. A magnetic manipulator equipped with a copper capsule was used to produce high Cu vapor pressure on Cu nanosilks and realize the graphene 3D-coating. The coated Cu@graphene nanosilks network achieved high transparency, low sheet resistance (41 Ohm sq(-1) at 95% transmittance) and robust antioxidant ability. With this technique, the transfer process of graphene is no longer needed, and a flexible, uniform and high-performance transparent conducting film could be fabricated in unlimited size. PMID:26018299

  20. Enhancement of the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell with multi-wall carbon nanotubes/polypyrrole composite counter electrodes prepared by electrophoresis/electrochemical polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Jun; Niu, Hai-jun; Wen, Hai-lin [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry (Heilongjiang University), Ministry of Education, Department of Macromolecular Material and Engineering, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150086 (China); Wu, Wen-jun; Zhao, Ping [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Cheng; Bai, Xu-duo [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry (Heilongjiang University), Ministry of Education, Department of Macromolecular Material and Engineering, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150086 (China); Wang, Wen, E-mail: haijunniu@hotmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: The overall energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC employing the MWCNT/PPy CE reached 3.78%. Compared with a reference DSSC using single MWCNT film CE with efficiency of 2.68%, the energy conversion efficiency was increased by 41.04%. Highlights: ? MWCNT/PPy composite film prepared by electrodeposition layer by layer was used as counter electrode in DSSC. ? The overall energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC was 3.78% by employing the composite film. ? The energy conversion efficiency increased by 41.04% compared with efficiency of 2.68% by using the single MWCNT film. ? We analyzed the mechanism and influence factor of electron transfer in the composite electrode by EIS. - Abstract: For the purpose of replacing the precious Pt counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with higher energy conversion efficiency, multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polypyrrole (PPy) double layers film counter electrode (CE) was fabricated by electrophoresis and cyclic voltammetry (CV) layer by layer. Atom force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) demonstrated the morphologies of the composite electrode and Raman spectroscopy verified the PPy had come into being. The overall energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC employing the MWCNT/PPy CE reached 3.78%. Compared with a reference DSSC using single MWCNT film CE with efficiency of 2.68%, the energy conversion efficiency was increased by 41.04%. The result of impedance showed that the charge transfer resistance R{sub ct} of the MWCNT/PPy CE had the lowest value compared to that of MWCNT or PPy electrode. These results indicate that the composite film with high conductivity, high active surface area, and good catalytic properties for I{sub 3}{sup ?} reduction can potentially be used as the CE in a high-performance DSSC.

  1. Dually functional, N-doped porous graphene foams as counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Long; Luo, Qiang; Zhao, Fei; Li, Yang; Lin, Hong; Qu, Liangti; Zhang, Zhipan

    2014-10-21

    A series of nitrogen-doped porous graphene foams (NPGFs) have been prepared by hydrothermally treating a mixed solution of graphite oxide (GO) and ammonia. The NPGFs are used as the counter electrode (CE) material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) in conjunction with the conventional iodide-based electrolyte and the recently developed sulfide-based electrolyte. Tafel-polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements confirmed that the NPGFs work efficiently in both electrolyte systems, and under air mass (AM) 1.5G 100 mW cm(-2) light illumination, optimal efficiencies of 4.5% and 2.1% were obtained for the iodide-based electrolyte and sulfide-based electrolyte, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on N-doped graphene CEs in conjunction with sulfide-based electrolytes and therefore, the current results are deemed to provide new insights into developing novel low-cost and metal-free CEs for DSCs. PMID:25199841

  2. Nitrogen-doped ordered cubic mesoporous carbons as metal-free counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Shao, Leng-Leng; Liu, Yu-Ping; Ren, Tie-Zhen; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2015-06-01

    N-doped ordered cubic mesoporous carbons (N-OCMCs) are synthesized by a one-pot aqueous route from resorcinol and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and applied as counter electrode (CE) materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The prepared N-OCMCs with ordered cubic mesoporous structure and large surface area offer appropriate electrolyte ions diffusion channels and abundant catalytically active sites for triiodide reduction. Moreover, the temperature dependence of nitrogen content and the nitrogen-doped types are demonstrated to play decisive roles in regulating the electrocatalytic activity of N-OCMC CEs and affecting the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. The DSSCs based on the N-OCMC CEs achieve an optimum power conversion efficiency of 5.60%, as high as 86.7% of the cell based on the traditional Pt CE, due to that high N-doping amount, and particularly favorable pyridinic-N and graphtitic-N types promote the charge transport and transfer process of the carbon CE. The good catalytic performance could render N-OCMC as a cost-effective CE candidate to Pt in DSSC.

  3. Sulfur-doped porous carbon as metal-free counter electrode for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wang; Ma, Xinlong; Xu, Xiuwen; Li, Yongfeng; Raj, S. Infant; Ning, Guoqing; Wang, Aijun; Chen, Shengli

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a high performance of sulfur-doped porous carbon (S-PC) as metal-free low-cost counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The S-PC material is synthesized by using pitch as carbon source and basic magnesium sulfate (BMS) whiskers as both template and S source. The doped sulfur is mainly present in the C-S-C configuration. The enhanced electrocatalytic performance can be attributed to the S atoms doped into the carbon framework which has large effective surface areas due to their porous or rough morphology. Therefore, it enhances the asymmetry of the atomic charge density in C atoms, leading to a large number of reduction sites and low charge transfer resistance. The S-PC significantly enhances the performance compared to the pure porous carbon (PC) due to the lower charge-transfer resistance. The DSSC with S-PC as the CE exhibits a high conversion efficiency of 6.97% which is comparable to that of the traditional Pt CE (7.28%).

  4. NH3-treated WO3 as low-cost and efficient counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dandan; Chen, Zhao; Cui, Peng; Li, Meicheng; Zhao, Xing; Li, Yaoyao; Chu, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    A novel low-cost and efficient counter electrode (CE) was obtained by treating catalytic inert tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanomaterial in NH3 atmosphere at elevated temperatures. The formation of tungsten oxynitride from WO3 after NH3 treatment, as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, increases the catalytic activity of the CE. Correspondingly, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSC is significantly increased from 0.9% for pristine WO3 CE to 5.9% for NH3-treated WO3 CE. The photovoltaic performance of DSC using NH3-treated WO3 CE is comparable to that of DSC using standard Pt CE (with a PCE of 6.0%). In addition, it is also shown that NH3 treatment is more efficient than H2 or N2 treatment in enhancing the catalytic performance of WO3 CE. This work highlights the potential of NH3-treated WO3 for the application in DSCs and provides a facile method to get highly efficient and low-cost CEs from catalytic inert metal oxides.

  5. ITO@Cu2S tunnel junction nanowire arrays as efficient counter electrode for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Xing; Ge, Qian-Qing; Yu, Bin-Bin; Zou, Yu-Gang; Jiang, Wen-Jie; Song, Wei-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun; Hu, Jin-Song

    2014-01-01

    Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) has been considered as an alternative to new generation photovoltaics, but it still presents very low power conversion efficiency. Besides the continuous effort on improving photoanodes and electrolytes, the focused investigation on charge transfer at interfaces and the rational design for counter electrodes (CEs) are recently receiving much attention. Herein, core-shell nanowire arrays with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowire core and Cu2S nanocrystal shell (ITO@Cu2S) were dedicatedly designed and fabricated as new efficient CEs for QDSSCs in order to improve charge collection and transport and to avoid the intrinsic issue of copper dissolution in popular and most efficient Cu/Cu2S CEs. The high-quality tunnel junctions formed between n-type ITO nanowires and p-type Cu2S nanocrystals led to the considerable decrease in sheet resistance and charge transfer resistance and thus facilitated the electron transport during the operation of QDSSCs. The three-dimensional structure of nanowire arrays provided high surface area for more active catalytic sites and easy accessibility for an electrolyte. As a result, the power conversion efficiency of QDSSCs with the designed ITO@Cu2S CEs increased by 84.5 and 33.5% compared to that with planar Au and Cu2S CEs, respectively. PMID:24350879

  6. Properties and microstructure of the Ru-coated carbon nano tube counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeungjo; Yu, Byungkwan; Noh, Yunyoung; Suh, Young Joon; Kim, Moon J; Yoo, Kicheon; Ko, Min Jae; Song, Ohsung

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with the ruthenium (Ru) coated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on the counter electrode (CE). High purity MWCNT (0.01~0.06 g) was sprayed on glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). Then 30 nm-thick Ru thin films were coated on a MWCNT template at low temperature by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using RuDi and O2 as precursor to prepare Ru-CNT CE and the 0.45 cm2 DSSC device of glass/FTO/TiO2/Dye (N719)/electrolyte (C6DMII, GSCN)/Ru-CNT CE was fabricated. The surface morphology of CEs and the energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC device were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and photocurrent-voltage (I-V) measurement. We confirmed that effective surface of the CE increased linearly as the amount of MWCNT spray increased and the crystallized Ru was deposited very conformally around the MWCNT nano template. Moreover, the efficiency of the DSSC increased up to 3.3% as the amount of MWCNT increased. PMID:25936072

  7. Laser synthesized super-hydrophobic conducting carbon with broccoli-type morphology as a counter-electrode for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Rohan; Agarkar, Shruti; Debgupta, Joyashish; Shinde, Deodatta; Lefez, Benoit; Banerjee, Abhik; Jog, Jyoti; More, Mahendra; Hannoyer, Beatrice; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2012-11-01

    A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode. PMID:23034799

  8. Effect of surface modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the fabrication and performance of carbon nanotube based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee Jung Choi; Jeong Eun Shin; Gi-Won Lee; Nam-Gyu Park; Kyungkon Kim; Sung Chul Hong

    2010-01-01

    A polymeric surface modifier for multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) was prepared through living radical polymerization technique and applied to CNT paste for the preparation of carbon based counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell. Poly(maleic anhydride-co-p-acetoxystyrene)-block-poly(p-acetoxystyrene) was first prepared through nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP) technique, followed by introduction of pyrene units to the polymer backbone through imidization reaction. Hydrolysis reaction was

  9. Optical anisotropy in single-walled carbon nanotube thin films: implications for transparent and conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Fanchini, Giovanni; Miller, Steve; Parekh, Bhavin B; Chhowalla, Manish

    2008-08-01

    Optical anisotropy in single-walled carbon nanotube thin film networks is reported. We obtain the real and imaginary parts of the in-(parallel) and out-of-plane (perpendicular) complex dielectric functions of the single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) thin films by combining transmission measurements at several incidence angles with spectroscopic ellipsometry data on different substrates. In sparse networks, the two components of the real part of the complex dielectric constant (epsilon1 parallel and epsilon1 perpendicular) were found to differ by 1.5 at 2.25 eV photon energy. The resulting angular dependence (from 0 to 70 degrees incidence angles) of transmittance is reflected in the conversion efficiency of organic solar cells utilizing SWNT thin films as the hole conducting electrodes. Our results indicate that, in addition to the transparency and sheet resistance, factors such as the optical anisotropy must be considered for optical devices incorporating SWNT networks. PMID:18642960

  10. Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sukang Bae; Hyeongkeun Kim; Youngbin Lee; Xiangfan Xu; Jae-Sung Park; Yi Zheng; Jayakumar Balakrishnan; Tian Lei; Hye Ri Kim; Young Il Song; Young-Jin Kim; Kwang S. Kim; Barbaros Özyilmaz; Jong-Hyun Ahn; Byung Hee Hong; Sumio Iijima

    2010-01-01

    The outstanding electrical, mechanical and chemical properties of graphene make it attractive for applications in flexible electronics. However, efforts to make transparent conducting films from graphene have been hampered by the lack of efficient methods for the synthesis, transfer and doping of graphene at the scale and quality required for applications. Here, we report the roll-to-roll production and wet-chemical doping

  11. Silver nanowire transparent electrodes for liquid crystal-based smart windows

    E-print Network

    Goldthorpe, Irene

    Polymer dispersed liquid crystal Smart window a b s t r a c t A significant manufacturing cost of polymer and are integrated into PDLC smart windows. Both the materials and fabrication costs of the nanowire electrodes are on the order of $0.1 m2 . Furthermore, the fabrication of smart windows on plastic substrates instead of glass

  12. Diffused transmission and texture-induced defect with transparent conducting oxide front electrode of amorphous silicon solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyeongsik; Iftiquar, S. M.; Kim, Hee Won; Lee, Jaehyeong; Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Yi, Junsin

    2013-11-01

    Highly textured transparent conducting front electrode (TFE) can enhance light trapping; however, we observed an improved performance of a solar cell by nanometer level modification of surface texture. A 40 nm thick aluminum doped zinc oxide was sputter deposited at an oblique flux on the textured fluorine doped tin oxide TFE, and a TFE double layer was used for the front electrode of solar cells. The cells fabricated on these modified TFEs exhibited an increased open circuit voltage, enhancement in short circuit current density and an increase in fill factor that reached up to 74% because of reduced series resistance of the cell. The surface texture of the TFE was modified with various angular fluxes of the zinc oxide sputter particle, which shows lower texture-induced-surface defect, higher work function. These are thought to have helped in improving the performance of the thin-film solar cells. However, at a near normal angular flux of the zinc oxide sputter particle, light trapping was observed to have reduced significantly, leading to a significant reduction in current density of the cell.

  13. Laser synthesized super-hydrophobic conducting carbon with broccoli-type morphology as a counter-electrode for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Rohan; Agarkar, Shruti; Debgupta, Joyashish; Shinde, Deodatta; Lefez, Benoit; Banerjee, Abhik; Jog, Jyoti; More, Mahendra; Hannoyer, Beatrice; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2012-10-01

    A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode.A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and equipment details, solar cell fabrication protocol, electrolyte spreading time measurement details, XPS spectra, electronic study, film adhesion test detailed analysis and field emission results. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32082g

  14. Low-cost solution processed nano millet like structure CoS2 film superior to pt as counter electrode for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S. Srinivasa; Punnosse, Dinah; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-05-01

    Cobalt Sulfide (CoS2) counter electrodes (CE) with uniform size distribution were obtained on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate as counter electrodes for polysulfide redox electrolyte in CdS/CdSe/ ZnS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. In this study, we optimized the cobalt source, deposition temperature and time in the preparation of CoS2 thin film to achieve greater conversion efficiency with strong adhesion on FTO. Relative to the platinum (Pt) electrodes, the CoS2 electrode shows a higher catalytic activity, faster electron transport and lower chargetransfer resistance, which can play a role in rendering higher power conversion efficiency. As a result, QDSSCs with the optimized CoS2 CE achieved a higher short-circuit current density of 13.08 mA cm-2, open-circuit voltage of 0.47 V, fill factor of 0.34 and overall photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 2.17% obtained under one sun illumination (100 mW cm-2). Therefore, CoS2 CE can be used as a promising CE in QDSSCs with efficiency exceeding that of high-cost Pt-based cells (1.64%). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Laser direct imaging of transparent indium tin oxide electrodes using high speed stitching techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Pi-Ying; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Chung, Chien-Kai; Tseng, Shih-Feng; Liao, Ien-Chang

    2014-09-01

    To accomplish an electrode patterning in large area, we present a high speed stitching technique used in an ultraviolet laser processing system and investigate the interaction between laser beams and indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on glass substrates. After optimizing the process parameters of the laser direct imaging (LDI) for the large-area electrode patterning, the ablated lines looked like regularly fish-scale marks of about a 40 ?m diameter and a 120 nm depth around the processing path. The parameters includes the laser power of 1W, the scanning speed of galvanometers of 800 mm/s, and the laser pulse repetition frequency of 50 kHz. Moreover, the resistance value of the ablated ITO thin film is larger than 200M? that is electrically insulated from the other regions of electrode structure. LDI technology with UV laser beam has great potential applications in patterning on wafer or sapphire substrates and patterning a conductive layer deposited on the touch panels for semiconductor and optoelectric industries, respectively.

  16. Incorporation of C in Cu for the Fabrication of Transparent Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacs, Romaine; Zhu, Hongli; Preston, Colin; Zavali, Peter; Mansour, Azzam; Lemieux, Melbs; Hu, Liangbing; Salamanca-Riba, Lourdes

    2015-03-01

    The incorporation of carbon nanostructures into the copper lattice has the potential to improve the current density of copper to meet the ever-increasing demands of nanoelectronic devices. We report on the structure and properties of a new material formed by the incorporation of carbon in concentrations up to 10 wt% into the crystal structure of copper that we refer to as ``Cu covetic''. The carbon does not phase separate after subsequent melting and re-solidification despite the absence of a predicted solid solution at such concentrations in the binary phase diagram. Bulk samples, as well as thin films grown at room temperature and high temperature are investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that C incorporates in the bulk of the Cu. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) shows that C forms a modulated structure in the crystal lattice, and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) indicates that C-K edge has graphitic nature with sp2 bonding. Copper covetic films exhibit greater transparency, higher conductivity, and resistance to oxidation than pure copper films of the same thickness, making them a suitable choice for transparent conductors. Supported by DARPA/ARL under Grant No. W911NF-13-1-0058 and ONR under Grant N000141410042.

  17. Study on Ag mesh/conductive oxide hybrid transparent electrode for film heaters.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Namyong; Kim, Kyohyeok; Heo, Jinhee; Yi, Insook; Chung, Ilsub

    2014-07-01

    Ag mesh-indium tin oxide (ITO) hybrid transparent conductive films were fabricated and evaluated for use in film heaters. PS monolayer templates were prepared using highly mono-dispersed PS spheres (11.2 ?m) obtained by a filtering process with micro-sieves. At first, three Ag meshes with different sheet resistances (20, 100, and 300 ? sq(-1)) and transmittances (70, 73, and 76%) were evaluated for film heaters in terms of voltage and long-term stability. Subsequently, in an effort to obtain better transmittance, Ag mesh-ITO hybrid heaters were fabricated utilizing finite ITO depositions. At the optimised ITO thickness (15 nm), the sheet resistance and the transmittance were 300 ? sq(-1) and 88%, respectively, which indicates that this material is a good potential candidate for an efficient defroster in vehicles. PMID:24916322

  18. Study on Ag mesh/conductive oxide hybrid transparent electrode for film heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Namyong; Kim, Kyohyeok; Heo, Jinhee; Yi, Insook; Chung, Ilsub

    2014-07-01

    Ag mesh-indium tin oxide (ITO) hybrid transparent conductive films were fabricated and evaluated for use in film heaters. PS monolayer templates were prepared using highly mono-dispersed PS spheres (11.2 ?m) obtained by a filtering process with micro-sieves. At first, three Ag meshes with different sheet resistances (20, 100, and 300 ? sq-1) and transmittances (70, 73, and 76%) were evaluated for film heaters in terms of voltage and long-term stability. Subsequently, in an effort to obtain better transmittance, Ag mesh-ITO hybrid heaters were fabricated utilizing finite ITO depositions. At the optimised ITO thickness (15 nm), the sheet resistance and the transmittance were 300 ? sq-1 and 88%, respectively, which indicates that this material is a good potential candidate for an efficient defroster in vehicles.

  19. Numerical and experimental study of SnOx | Ag | SnOx multilayer as indium-free transparent electrode for organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bou, Adrien; Torchio, Philippe; Barakel, Damien; Thierry, François; Thoulon, Pierre-Yves; Ricci, Marc

    2014-03-01

    We propose a SnOx | Ag | SnOx multilayer, deposited in a continuous vacuum atmosphere by E-beam evaporation, as transparent anode for a (poly-3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk heterojunction based Organic Solar Cell (OSC). Optical characterization of the deposited SnOx is performed to determine the dispersion of the complex refractive index. A Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) numerical optimization of the thicknesses of each layer of the electrode is realized to limit the number of manufactured samples. A numerical study using the morphology of the silver inserted between the oxide layers as input data is performed with a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method to improve the accordance between measurement and optical model. Multilayers are manufactured with the objective to give to the electrode its best conductivity and transparency in the visible spectral range by using the results of the optical optimization. These bare tri-layer electrodes show low sheet resistance (<10 ?/?) and mean transparency on [400-700] nm spectral band as high as 67 % for the whole Glass | SnOx | Ag | SnOx structure. The trilayer is then numerically studied inside a P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction based OSC structure. Intrinsic absorption inside the sole active layer is calculated giving the possibility to perform optical optimization on the intrinsic absorption efficiency inside the active area by considering the media embedding the electrodes.

  20. Improved open-circuit voltage in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with high work function transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Timo; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.; Bissig, Benjamin; Pianezzi, Fabian; Nishiwaki, Shiro; Reinhard, Patrick; Steinhauser, Jérôme; Schwenk, Johannes; Tiwari, Ayodhya N.

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogenated indium oxide (IOH) is implemented as transparent front contact in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells, leading to an open circuit voltage VOC enhanced by ˜20 mV as compared to reference devices with ZnO:Al (AZO) electrodes. This effect is reproducible in a wide range of contact sheet resistances corresponding to various IOH thicknesses. We present the detailed electrical characterization of glass/Mo/CIGS/CdS/intrinsic ZnO (i-ZnO)/transparent conductive oxide (TCO) with different IOH/AZO ratios in the front TCO contact in order to identify possible reasons for the enhanced VOC. Temperature and illumination intensity-dependent current-voltage measurements indicate that the dominant recombination path does not change when AZO is replaced by IOH, and it is mainly limited to recombination in the space charge region and at the junction interface of the solar cell. The main finding is that the introduction of even a 5 nm-thin IOH layer at the i-ZnO/TCO interface already results in a step-like increase in VOC. Two possible explanations are proposed and verified by one-dimensional simulations using the SCAPS software. First, a higher work function of IOH as compared to AZO is simulated to yield an VOC increase by 21 mV. Second, a lower defect density in the i-ZnO layer as a result of the reduced sputter damage during milder sputter-deposition of IOH can also add to a maximum enhanced VOC of 25 mV. Our results demonstrate that the proper choice of the front TCO contact can reduce the parasitic recombination and boost the efficiency of CIGS cells with improved corrosion stability.

  1. TiN nanoparticles on CNT-graphene hybrid support as noble-metal-free counter electrode for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Youn, Duck Hyun; Seol, Minsu; Kim, Jae Young; Jang, Ji-Wook; Choi, Youngwoo; Yong, Kijung; Lee, Jae Sung

    2013-02-01

    The development of an efficient noble-metal-free counter electrode is crucial for possible applications of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). Herein, we present TiN nanoparticles on a carbon nanotube (CNT)-graphene hybrid support as a noble-metal-free counter electrode for QDSSCs employing a polysulfide electrolyte. The resulting TiN/CNT-graphene possesses an extremely high surface roughness, a good metal-support interaction, and less aggregation relative to unsupported TiN; it also has superior solar power conversion efficiency (4.13 %) when applying a metal mask, which is much higher than that of the state-of-the-art Au electrode (3.35 %). Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, the enhancement is ascribed to a synergistic effect between TiN nanoparticles and the CNT-graphene hybrid, the roles of which are to provide active sites for the reduction of polysulfide ions and electron pathways to TiN nanoparticles, respectively. The combination of graphene and CNTs leads to a favorable morphology that prevents stacking of graphene or bundling of CNTs, which maximizes the contact of the support with TiN nanoparticles and improves electron-transfer capability relative to either carbon material alone. PMID:23303691

  2. Silver nanowires for transparent conductive electrode to GaN-based light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Gyu-Jae; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Han, Sang-Hyun; Jin, Won-Yong; Kang, Jae-Wook; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Transparent, conductive, and uniform Ag nanowires (NWs) were introduced to improve the optical performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by a spin-coating technique. The Ag NWs acted as a current spreading layer, exhibiting high transmittance and low sheet resistance, and ultimately leading to high performance GaN-based LEDs with an ultra large size of 5 × 5 mm2. Compared to the transmittance of conventional LEDs without Ag NWs, the relative transmittance of LEDs with Ag NWs was approximately 90% of the overall wavelength region. However, the electroluminescence (EL) intensity of LED with Ag NWs was much higher than that of conventional LEDs without Ag NWs for injection current above 45 mA. In addition, the EL full width at half maximum of LEDs with Ag NWs was much lower than that of conventional LEDs without Ag NWs. Based on these results, we believe that the enhanced optical performance of ultra large LEDs was due to an increase in the current spreading effect.

  3. The role of Mott-Schottky heterojunctions in Ag-Ag8SnS6 as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    He, Qingquan; Huang, Shoushuang; Wang, Cheng; Qiao, Qiquan; Liang, Na; Xu, Miao; Chen, Wenlong; Zai, Jiantao; Qian, Xuefeng

    2015-03-01

    Well-defined uniform pyramidal Ag-Ag8SnS6 heterodimers are prepared via a one-pot method. A plausible formation mechanism for the unique structures based on a seed-growth process and an etching effect due to oleylamine is proposed. The formed metal-semiconductor Mott-Schottky heterojunction promotes electron transfer from semiconducting Ag8 SnS6 to metallic Ag, which catalyzes the reduction of I3 (-) to I(-). When used as counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells, the heterodimers show comparable performance to platinum. PMID:25619568

  4. GaN schottky barrier MOSFET using transparent source/drain electrodes for UV-optoelectronic integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Byung-Kwon; Lee, Chang-Ju; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Seok; Lee, Myoung-Bok; Lee, Jung-Hee; Hahm, Sung-Ho

    2012-07-01

    We fabricated a normally-off mode n-channel schottky barrier metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (SB-MOSFET) with transparent electrodes (ITO, IZO) as source/drain (S/D) contact on a highly resistive GaN layer grown on silicon substrate. Fabricated SB-MOSFET with ITO S/D exhibited as high as 40 mA/mm of maximum drain current and a 12 mS/mm of maximum transconductance with the threshold voltage of 4.2 V, which is far better than that of SB-MOSFET with IZO S/D. The normalized off-current was as low as 10 nA/mm. The UV-visible extinction ratio of a MOSFET type UV-sensor was measured over 130 for VDS = 5 V. ITO was proved as a promising schottky barrier material for GaN MOSFET source and drain not only for the electronic but UV-sensing applications better than IZO for this purpose.

  5. Improved optoelectronics properties of ITO-based transparent conductive electrodes with the insertion of Ag/Ni under-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ahmad Hadi; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Shuhaimi; Hassan, Zainuriah

    2014-10-01

    ITO-based transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) with Ag/Ni thin metal under-layer were deposited on Si and glass substrates by thermal evaporator and RF magnetron sputtering system. Ceramic ITO with purity of 99.99% and In2O3:SnO2 weight ratio of 90:10 was used as a target at room temperature. Post-deposition annealing was performed on the TCE at moderate temperature of 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C under N2 ambient. It was observed that the structural properties, optical transmittance, electrical characteristics and surface morphology were improved significantly after the post-annealing process. Post-annealed ITO/Ag/Ni at 600 °C shows the best quality of TCE with figure-of-merit (FOM) of 1.5 × 10-2 ?-1 and high optical transmittance of 83% at 470 nm as well as very low electrical resistivity of 4.3 × 10-5 ?-cm. The crystalline quality and surface morphological plays an important role in determining the quality of the TCE multilayer thin films properties.

  6. Gravure printed hydrophobic templates onto PET films for guiding the assembly of nanowires: Towards the ultralow-cost transparent conductive electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayman N. M. Wong; Cheng Yang; Matthew M. F. Yuen

    2011-01-01

    We present our work of fabricating silver nanowires (Ag NWs) network with regularity and homogeneity as the transparent conductive electrodes for optoelectronic applications. Though patterning hydrophobic materials (e.g. PDMS) onto the substrate (polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) surface, we are able to adjust the surface energy level between the patterned and un-patterned area, which is crucial to the wetting\\/dewetting of the solution

  7. Studies on aluminum-doped ZnO films for transparent electrode and antireflection coating of ?-FeSi 2 optoelectronic devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teruhisa Ootsuka; Zhengxin Liu; Masato Osamura; Yasuhiro Fukuzawa; Ryo Kuroda; Yasuhito Suzuki; Naotaka Otogawa; Takahiro Mise; Shinan Wang; Yasushi Hoshino; Yasuhiko Nakayama; Hisao Tanoue; Yunosuke Makita

    2005-01-01

    ?-FeSi2 can be used for various optoelectronic devices owing to its superior material features including high optical absorption coefficient and direct band gap of about 0.8 eV. Due to its high refractive index (>5.6), however, suitable antireflection coating (ARC) is necessary for practical device applications. In order to increase the effective areas of optoelectronic devices, transparent electrodes should be also

  8. Enhancing light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using indium tin oxide-free low-index transparent electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Lu, Chun-Yang; Tsai, Shang-Ta; Tsai, Yu-Tang; Chen, Chien-Yu; Tsai, Wei-Lung; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chang, Hong-Wei; Lee, Wei-Kai; Jiao, Min; Wu, Chung-Chih, E-mail: wucc@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, and Innovative Photonics Advanced Research Center (i-PARC), National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-05

    With its increasing and sufficient conductivity, the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been capable of replacing the widely used but less cost-effective indium tin oxides (ITOs) as alternative transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). Intriguingly, PEDOT:PSS also possesses an optical refractive index significantly lower than those of ITO and typical organic layers in OLEDs and well matching those of typical OLED substrates. Optical simulation reveals that by replacing ITO with such a low-index transparent electrode, the guided modes trapped within the organic/ITO layers in conventional OLEDs can be substantially suppressed, leading to more light coupled into the substrate than the conventional ITO device. By applying light out-coupling structures onto outer surfaces of substrates to effectively extract radiation into substrates, OLEDs using such low-index transparent electrodes achieve enhanced optical out-coupling and external quantum efficiencies in comparison with conventional OLEDs using ITO.

  9. Large-scale synthesis of Cu2SnS3 and Cu(1.8)S hierarchical microspheres as efficient counter electrode materials for quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Yang, Xia; Wong, Tai-Lun; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2012-10-21

    Exploration of new catalytic semiconductors with novel structures as counter electrode materials is a promising approach to improve performances of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). In this work, nearly mono-disperse tetragonal Cu(2)SnS(3) (CTS) and rhombohedral Cu(1.8)S hierarchical microspheres with nanometer-to-micrometer dimensions have been synthesized respectively via a simple solvothermal approach. These microspheres are also demonstrated as efficient counter electrode materials in solar cells using ZnO/ZnSe/CdSe nanocables as photoanode and polysulfide (S(n)(2-)/S(2-)) solution as electrolyte. While copper sulfide is regarded as one of the most effective counter electrode materials in QDSSCs, we demonstrate the CTS microspheres to show higher electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of polysulfide electrolyte than the Cu(1.8)S microspheres. This contributes to obvious enhancement of photocurrent density (J(SC)) and fill factor (FF). Power conversion efficiency (PCE) is significantly enhanced from 0.25% for the cell using a pure FTO (SnO(2):F) glass as counter electrode, to 3.65 and 4.06% for the cells using counter electrodes of FTO glasses coated respectively with Cu(1.8)S and CTS microspheres. PMID:22968176

  10. Single wall carbon nanotubes deposited on stainless steel sheet substrates as novel counter electrodes for ruthenium polypyridine based dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Maragò, Onofrio M; Gucciardi, Pietro G; Di Marco, Gaetano

    2010-03-21

    We report on the implementation of stainless steel foils coated with dispersed Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes as novel, low cost and highly efficient counter electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We use commercially available non purified nanotubes dispersed in water by ultrasonication and drop cast on stainless steel substrates. When implemented on a ruthenium based DSSC we obtain a high short circuit current density (J(sc)= 9.21 mA cm(-2)), a good open circuit voltage (V(oc) = 0.660 V) and a solar energy conversion efficiency of 3.92%. The above cited values are measured under a light flux of 100 mW cm(-2) generated by a solar simulator equipped with a filter AM 1.5. The obtained results are comparable to those attained using a stainless steel counter electrode sputtered with a 2 microm thick platinum film (J(sc) 10.92 mA cm(-2), V(max) = 0.66 V and eta = 4.5%, AM 1.5). PMID:20200718

  11. Platinum-Free Counter Electrode Comprised of Metal-Organic-Framework (MOF)-Derived Cobalt Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shao-Hui; Li, Chun-Ting; Chien, Heng-Ta; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Suzuki, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Wu, Kevin C.-W.

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated a highly efficient (with a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 8.1%) Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The counter electrode was made of cobalt sulfide (CoS) nanoparticles synthesized via surfactant-assisted preparation of a metal organic framework, ZIF-67, with controllable particle sizes (50 to 320?nm) and subsequent oxidation and sulfide conversion. In contrast to conventional Pt counter electrodes, the synthesized CoS nanoparticles exhibited higher external surface areas and roughness factors, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) element mapping, and electrochemical analysis. Incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results showed an increase in the open circuit voltage (VOC) and a decrease in the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) for CoS-based DSSCs compared to Pt-based DSSCs, resulting in a similar power conversion efficiency. The CoS-based DSSC fabricated in the study show great potential for economically friendly production of Pt-free DSSCs. PMID:25382139

  12. Platinum-Free Counter Electrode Comprised of Metal-Organic-Framework (MOF)-Derived Cobalt Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shao-Hui; Li, Chun-Ting; Chien, Heng-Ta; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Suzuki, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Wu, Kevin C.-W.

    2014-11-01

    We fabricated a highly efficient (with a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 8.1%) Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The counter electrode was made of cobalt sulfide (CoS) nanoparticles synthesized via surfactant-assisted preparation of a metal organic framework, ZIF-67, with controllable particle sizes (50 to 320 nm) and subsequent oxidation and sulfide conversion. In contrast to conventional Pt counter electrodes, the synthesized CoS nanoparticles exhibited higher external surface areas and roughness factors, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) element mapping, and electrochemical analysis. Incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results showed an increase in the open circuit voltage (VOC) and a decrease in the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) for CoS-based DSSCs compared to Pt-based DSSCs, resulting in a similar power conversion efficiency. The CoS-based DSSC fabricated in the study show great potential for economically friendly production of Pt-free DSSCs.

  13. Platinum-free counter electrode comprised of metal-organic-framework (MOF)-derived cobalt sulfide nanoparticles for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shao-Hui; Li, Chun-Ting; Chien, Heng-Ta; Salunkhe, Rahul R; Suzuki, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Wu, Kevin C-W

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated a highly efficient (with a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 8.1%) Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The counter electrode was made of cobalt sulfide (CoS) nanoparticles synthesized via surfactant-assisted preparation of a metal organic framework, ZIF-67, with controllable particle sizes (50 to 320?nm) and subsequent oxidation and sulfide conversion. In contrast to conventional Pt counter electrodes, the synthesized CoS nanoparticles exhibited higher external surface areas and roughness factors, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) element mapping, and electrochemical analysis. Incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results showed an increase in the open circuit voltage (VOC) and a decrease in the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) for CoS-based DSSCs compared to Pt-based DSSCs, resulting in a similar power conversion efficiency. The CoS-based DSSC fabricated in the study show great potential for economically friendly production of Pt-free DSSCs. PMID:25382139

  14. Graphene-NiO nanohybrid prepared by dry plasma reduction as a low-cost counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Van-Duong; Larina, Liudmila L.; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Lee, Joong-Kee; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2013-12-01

    NiO nanoparticles (NPs) were hybridized on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by dry plasma reduction (DPR) at atmospheric pressure without any toxic chemicals and at a low temperature. NiO-NPs of 0.5-3 nm size, with a typical size of 1.5 nm, were uniformly hybridized on the surface of RGO. An XPS analysis and the Raman spectra also revealed the repair of some structural damage on the basal plane of the graphene. The material when applied to the counter electrode (CE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 7.42% (+/-0.10%), which is comparable to a conventional Pt-sputtered CE (8.18% (+/-0.08%)). This material outperformed CEs produced using NiO-NPs (1.53% (+/-0.15%)), GO (4.48% (+/-0.12%)) and RGO (5.18% (+/-0.11)) due to its high electrochemical catalytic activity and high conductivity. The charge transfer resistance for NiO-NP-RGO was as low as 1.93 ? cm2, while those of a NiO-NP-immobilized electrode and a GO-coated electrode were 44.39 ? cm2 and 12.19 ? cm2, respectively, due to a synergistic effect.NiO nanoparticles (NPs) were hybridized on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by dry plasma reduction (DPR) at atmospheric pressure without any toxic chemicals and at a low temperature. NiO-NPs of 0.5-3 nm size, with a typical size of 1.5 nm, were uniformly hybridized on the surface of RGO. An XPS analysis and the Raman spectra also revealed the repair of some structural damage on the basal plane of the graphene. The material when applied to the counter electrode (CE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 7.42% (+/-0.10%), which is comparable to a conventional Pt-sputtered CE (8.18% (+/-0.08%)). This material outperformed CEs produced using NiO-NPs (1.53% (+/-0.15%)), GO (4.48% (+/-0.12%)) and RGO (5.18% (+/-0.11)) due to its high electrochemical catalytic activity and high conductivity. The charge transfer resistance for NiO-NP-RGO was as low as 1.93 ? cm2, while those of a NiO-NP-immobilized electrode and a GO-coated electrode were 44.39 ? cm2 and 12.19 ? cm2, respectively, due to a synergistic effect. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04871c

  15. Highly transparent conductive electrode with ultra-low HAZE by grain boundary modification of aqueous solution fabricated alumina-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nian, Qiong; Callahan, Michael; Look, David; Efstathiadis, Harry; Bailey, John; Cheng, Gary J.

    2015-06-01

    Commercial production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) polycrystalline films requires high electrical conductivity with minimal degradation in optical transparency. Aqueous solution deposited TCO films would reduce production costs of TCO films but suffer from low electrical mobility, which severely degrades both electrical conductivity and optical transparency in the visible spectrum. Here, we demonstrated that grain boundary modification by ultra-violet laser crystallization (UVLC) of solution deposited aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals results in high Hall mobility, with a corresponding dramatic improvement in AZO electrical conductance. The AZO films after laser irradiation exhibit electrical mobility up to 18.1 cm2 V-1 s-1 with corresponding electrical resistivity and sheet resistances as low as 1 × 10-3 ? cm and 75 ?/sq, respectively. The high mobility also enabled a high transmittance (T) of 88%-96% at 550 nm for the UVLC films. In addition, HAZE measurement shows AZO film scattering transmittance as low as 1.8%, which is superior over most other solution deposited transparent electrode alternatives such as silver nanowires. Thus, AZO films produced by the UVLC technique have a combined figure of merit for electrical conductivity, optical transparency, and optical HAZE higher than other solution based deposition techniques and comparable to vacuumed based deposition methods.

  16. Indium tin oxide-free transparent and conductive electrode based on SnO{sub x} | Ag | SnO{sub x} for organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bou, A. [CROSSLUX, Immeuble CCE, Avenue Georges Vacher, ZI Rousset Peynier, 13106 Rousset Cedex (France); Institut Matériaux Microélectronique Nanosciences de Provence-IM2NP, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, UMR 7334, Domaine Universitaire de Saint-Jérôme, Service 231, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Torchio, Ph., E-mail: philippe.torchio@univ-amu.fr; Barakel, D.; Thierry, F. [Institut Matériaux Microélectronique Nanosciences de Provence-IM2NP, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, UMR 7334, Domaine Universitaire de Saint-Jérôme, Service 231, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Sangar, A. [Institut Matériaux Microélectronique Nanosciences de Provence-IM2NP, Université de Toulon, CNRS, UMR 7334, Bâtiment R, BP 132, 83957 La Garde Cedex (France); Thoulon, P.-Y.; Ricci, M. [CROSSLUX, Immeuble CCE, Avenue Georges Vacher, ZI Rousset Peynier, 13106 Rousset Cedex (France)

    2014-07-14

    A SnO{sub x} | Ag | SnO{sub x} multilayer deposited by E-beam evaporation is proposed as transparent anode for a (poly-3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk heterojunction based Organic Solar Cell (OSC). Such multilayers are studied and manufactured with the objective to give to the electrode its best conductivity and transparency in the visible spectral range. A transfer matrix method numerical optimization of the thicknesses of each layer of the electrode is developed to limit the number of test samples which would have been manufactured whether an empirical method was chosen. Optical characterization of the deposited SnO{sub x} and Ag thin films is performed to determine the dispersion of the complex refractive indices which are used as input parameters in the model. A satisfying agreement between numerical and experimental optical properties is found. The bare tri-layer electrodes show low sheet resistance (as low as 6.7 ?/?) and the whole Glass | SnO{sub x} | Ag | SnO{sub x} structure presents a mean transparency on 400–700 nm spectral band as high as 67%. The multilayer is then numerically studied as anode for a P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction based OSC. Intrinsic absorption inside the sole active layer is calculated giving the possibility to perform optical optimization on the intrinsic absorption efficiency inside the active area by considering the media embedding the electrodes. An additional study using the morphology of the silver inserted between both oxide layers as input data is performed with a finite difference time domain 3D-method to improve the accordance between optical measurements and numerical results.

  17. Indium tin oxide-free transparent and conductive electrode based on SnOx | Ag | SnOx for organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bou, A.; Torchio, Ph.; Barakel, D.; Thierry, F.; Sangar, A.; Thoulon, P.-Y.; Ricci, M.

    2014-07-01

    A SnOx | Ag | SnOx multilayer deposited by E-beam evaporation is proposed as transparent anode for a (poly-3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk heterojunction based Organic Solar Cell (OSC). Such multilayers are studied and manufactured with the objective to give to the electrode its best conductivity and transparency in the visible spectral range. A transfer matrix method numerical optimization of the thicknesses of each layer of the electrode is developed to limit the number of test samples which would have been manufactured whether an empirical method was chosen. Optical characterization of the deposited SnOx and Ag thin films is performed to determine the dispersion of the complex refractive indices which are used as input parameters in the model. A satisfying agreement between numerical and experimental optical properties is found. The bare tri-layer electrodes show low sheet resistance (as low as 6.7 ?/?) and the whole Glass | SnOx | Ag | SnOx structure presents a mean transparency on 400-700 nm spectral band as high as 67%. The multilayer is then numerically studied as anode for a P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction based OSC. Intrinsic absorption inside the sole active layer is calculated giving the possibility to perform optical optimization on the intrinsic absorption efficiency inside the active area by considering the media embedding the electrodes. An additional study using the morphology of the silver inserted between both oxide layers as input data is performed with a finite difference time domain 3D-method to improve the accordance between optical measurements and numerical results.

  18. Oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition for the low-temperature direct growth of graphitic nanofibers on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we report an oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method for the direct growth of graphitic nanofibers (GNFs) on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate at a low temperature (550 °C). By adding moderate concentrations of oxygen in a gas mixture of argon, ethylene, and hydrogen during LPCVD, an extremely dense GNF forest can be obtained on a nickel-coated FTO glass substrate. Though this process, the graphitic nanofibers are grown homogenously on a large area of FTO glass. It was observed that oxygen-assisted LPCVD leads to the direct growth of high-quality GNFs as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In combination with an N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with a GNF counter electrode showed a power conversion efficiency of 5.51% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm?2) illumination, which approached that of the DSSC with a Pt counter electrode (5.44%). The results demonstrated that our directly grown GNFs could be promising candidates for counter electrodes to achieve high performance in DSSCs.

  19. Light Induced Water Oxidation on Cobalt-Phosphate (Co-Pi) Catalyst Modified Semi-Transparent, Porous SiO2-BiVO4 Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Pilli, S. K.; Deutsch, T. G.; Furtak, T. E.; Turner, J. A.; Brown, L. D.; Herring, A. M.

    2012-04-21

    A facile and simple procedure for the synthesis of semi-transparent and porous SiO{sub 2}-BiVO{sub 4} electrodes is reported. The method involves a surfactant assisted metal-organic decomposition at 500 C. An earth abundant oxygen evolution catalyst (OEC), cobalt phosphate (Co-Pi), has been used to modify the SiO{sub 2}-BiVO{sub 4} electrode by electrodeposition (ED) and photoassisted electrodeposition (PED) methods. Modified electrodes by these two methods have been examined for light induced water oxidation and compared to the unmodified SiO{sub 2}-BiVO{sub 4} electrodes by various photoelectrochemical techniques. The PED method was a more effective method of OEC preparation than the ED method as evidenced by an increased photocurrent magnitude during photocurrent-potential (I-V) characterizations. Electrode surfaces catalyzed by PED exhibited a very large cathodic shift (420 mV) in the onset potential for water oxidation. The chopped-light I-V measurements performed at different intervals over 24-hour extended testing under illumination and applied bias conditions show a fair photostability for PED Co-Pi modified SiO{sub 2}-BiVO{sub 4}.

  20. Healable capacitive touch screen sensors based on transparent composite electrodes comprising silver nanowires and a furan/maleimide diels-alder cycloaddition polymer.

    PubMed

    Li, Junpeng; Liang, Jiajie; Li, Lu; Ren, Fengbo; Hu, Wei; Li, Juan; Qi, Shuhua; Pei, Qibing

    2014-12-23

    A healable transparent capacitive touch screen sensor has been fabricated based on a healable silver nanowire-polymer composite electrode. The composite electrode features a layer of silver nanowire percolation network embedded into the surface layer of a polymer substrate comprising an ultrathin soldering polymer layer to confine the nanowires to the surface of a healable Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymer and to attain low contact resistance between the nanowires. The composite electrode has a figure-of-merit sheet resistance of 18 ?/sq with 80% transmittance at 550 nm. A surface crack cut on the conductive surface with 18 ? is healed by heating at 100 °C, and the sheet resistance recovers to 21 ? in 6 min. A healable touch screen sensor with an array of 8×8 capacitive sensing points is prepared by stacking two composite films patterned with 8 rows and 8 columns of coupling electrodes at 90° angle. After deliberate damage, the coupling electrodes recover touch sensing function upon heating at 80 °C for 30 s. A capacitive touch screen based on Arduino is demonstrated capable of performing quick recovery from malfunction caused by a razor blade cutting. After four cycles of cutting and healing, the sensor array remains functional. PMID:25486240

  1. Platinum/titanium bilayer deposited on polymer film as efficient counter electrodes for plastic dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ikegami, M.; Miyoshi, K.; Miyasaka, T.; Teshima, K.; Wei, T. C.; Wan, C. C.; Wang, Y. Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toin University of Yokohama, Yokohama, Kanagawa 225-8502 (Japan); Peccell Technologies, Inc., Yokohama, Kanagawa 225-8502 (Japan); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan 30013 (China)

    2007-04-09

    A surface-rich platinum/titanium bilayer was deposited on poly(ethylene naphthalate) film by vacuum sputtering as counterelectrode for plastic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared to the electrodes made of pure Pt layer, this electrode maintained similar electrochemical catalytic effect at relative low Pt usage. Current-voltage characteristics of the plastic DSSC at this stage stand at 0.69 V on V{sub OC}, 9.97 mA/cm{sup 2} on I{sub SC}, 0.69 on fill factor, and 4.31% cell efficiency under AM1.5, 100 mW/cm{sup 2} illumination.

  2. Very long Ag nanowire synthesis and its application in a highly transparent, conductive and flexible metal electrode touch panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeeThese Two Authors Contributed Equally To This Article., Jinhwan; Lee, Phillip; Lee, Hyungman; Lee, Dongjin; Lee, Seung Seob; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2012-09-01

    The future electronics will be soft, flexible and even stretchable to be more human friendly in the form of wearable computers. However, conventional electronic materials are usually brittle. Recently, carbon based materials are intensively investigated as a good candidate for flexible electronics but with limited mechanical and electrical performances. Metal is still the best material for electronics with great electrical properties but with poor transparency and mechanical performance. Here we present a simple approach to develop a synthesis method for very long metallic nanowires and apply them as new types of high performance flexible and transparent metal conductors as an alternative to carbon nanotubes, graphene and short nanowire based flexible transparent conductors and indium tin oxide based brittle transparent conductors. We found that very long metallic nanowire network conductors combined with a low temperature laser nano-welding process enabled superior transparent flexible conductors with high transmittance and high electrical conductivity. Further, we demonstrated highly flexible metal conductor LED circuits and transparent touch panels. The highly flexible and transparent metal conductors can be mounted on any non-planar surfaces and applied for various opto-electronics and ultimately for future wearable electronics.The future electronics will be soft, flexible and even stretchable to be more human friendly in the form of wearable computers. However, conventional electronic materials are usually brittle. Recently, carbon based materials are intensively investigated as a good candidate for flexible electronics but with limited mechanical and electrical performances. Metal is still the best material for electronics with great electrical properties but with poor transparency and mechanical performance. Here we present a simple approach to develop a synthesis method for very long metallic nanowires and apply them as new types of high performance flexible and transparent metal conductors as an alternative to carbon nanotubes, graphene and short nanowire based flexible transparent conductors and indium tin oxide based brittle transparent conductors. We found that very long metallic nanowire network conductors combined with a low temperature laser nano-welding process enabled superior transparent flexible conductors with high transmittance and high electrical conductivity. Further, we demonstrated highly flexible metal conductor LED circuits and transparent touch panels. The highly flexible and transparent metal conductors can be mounted on any non-planar surfaces and applied for various opto-electronics and ultimately for future wearable electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31254a

  3. Organic electronic devices using graphene and highly purified thin films of carbon nanotubes as transparent conductive electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoghue, Evan Peter

    The impressive electrical, optical and mechanical properties of thin films of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphene have sparked intense interest and extensive research into these materials, with significant recent efforts seeking to incorporate them into organic electronic devices. Generally, this work has not taken full advantage of the unique properties of these materials, such as a low density of electronic states, mechanical flexibility and an enhanced surface area for charge injection. Progress has been further stymied by particulates in the SWNT material that creates vertical protrusions into the thin organic active layer. This dissertation will discuss applications in which the unique properties of these materials can be tested or exploited in practical organic electronic devices. The low density of electronic states found in SWNTs and graphene allows for modulation of their Fermi level, providing a new degree of freedom for tuning electronic transport that was recently demonstrated in carbon nanotube-enabled vertical field effect transistors (CNVFETs). Thin films of SWNTs or graphene were used to probe this Schottky barrier height and width modulation and demonstrate the first graphene-enabled VFET, as well as demonstrating solution processable and n-type CN-VFETs. Additionally, thin films of SWNTs were incorporated into organic light emitting diodes and organic light emitting electrochemical cells to study whether the properties of the carbon nanotube films offer any intrinsic advantages over more conventional electrodes. The mechanical flexibility of the SWNT film also makes possible a new dual emissive device structure in which a light emitting electrochemical cell that incorporates transparent SWNT films as both anode and cathode to emit light in both the forward and reverse direction. In addition to this device-based work, extensive research into carbon nanotube purification techniques will be discussed including the adaptation of a scalable purification technique not previously demonstrated with materials on this length scale. Material made available by this large-scale purification technique were incorporated into CN-VFETs that use the thinnest organic channels ever achieved in these devices. These projects offer insights into the special role that SWNTs can play in organic electronic devices.

  4. Synthesis of honeycomb-like mesoporous pyrite FeS2 microspheres as efficient counter electrode in quantum dots sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Xue, Hongtao; Yang, Xia; Wei, Huaixin; Li, Wenyue; Li, Zhangpeng; Zhang, Wenjun; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2014-11-01

    Honeycomb-like mesoporous pyrite FeS2 microspheres, with diameters of 500-800 nm and pore sizes of 25-30 nm, are synthesized by a simple solvothermal approach. The mesoporous FeS2 microspheres are demonstrated to be an outstanding counter electrode (CE) material in quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) for electrocatalyzing polysulfide electrolyte regeneration. The cell using mesoporous FeS2 microspheres as CE shows 86.6% enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) than the cell using traditional noble Pt CE. Furthermore, it also shows 11.4% enhancement in PCE than the cell using solid FeS2 microspheres as CE, due to the mesoporous structure facilitating better contact with polysulfide electrolyte and fast diffusion of redox couple species in electrolyte. PMID:24986216

  5. Electrochemical and structural properties of SnO[sub 2] and Sb:SnO[sub 2] transparent electrodes with mixed electronically conductive and ion-storage characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Orel; U. Lavrencic-Stangar; K. Kalcher

    1994-01-01

    Doped (F, Sb, Mo) tin(IV) oxide (SnO[sub 2]) films are used as transparent-conductive electrodes in electrochromic devices (ECD), and low-emitting (i.e, heat reflecting) coatings for advanced glazing in solar applications. Thin SnO[sub 2] and Sb-doped SnO[sub 2] films have been prepared from aqueous colloidal solutions containing SnCl[sub 4][center dot]5H[sub 2]O and SbCl[sub 3] precursors by the dip-coating technique. The films

  6. Very long Ag nanowire synthesis and its application in a highly transparent, conductive and flexible metal electrode touch panel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinhwan; Lee, Phillip; Lee, Hyungman; Lee, Dongjin; Lee, Seung Seob; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2012-10-21

    The future electronics will be soft, flexible and even stretchable to be more human friendly in the form of wearable computers. However, conventional electronic materials are usually brittle. Recently, carbon based materials are intensively investigated as a good candidate for flexible electronics but with limited mechanical and electrical performances. Metal is still the best material for electronics with great electrical properties but with poor transparency and mechanical performance. Here we present a simple approach to develop a synthesis method for very long metallic nanowires and apply them as new types of high performance flexible and transparent metal conductors as an alternative to carbon nanotubes, graphene and short nanowire based flexible transparent conductors and indium tin oxide based brittle transparent conductors. We found that very long metallic nanowire network conductors combined with a low temperature laser nano-welding process enabled superior transparent flexible conductors with high transmittance and high electrical conductivity. Further, we demonstrated highly flexible metal conductor LED circuits and transparent touch panels. The highly flexible and transparent metal conductors can be mounted on any non-planar surfaces and applied for various opto-electronics and ultimately for future wearable electronics. PMID:22952107

  7. Laser welding of nanoparticulate TiO2 and transparent conducting oxide electrodes for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Jonghyun; Lee, Myeongkyu

    2010-08-01

    Poor interfacial contact is often encountered in nanoparticulate film-based devices. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a representative case in which a nanoporous TiO2 electrode needs to be prepared on the transparent conducting oxide (TCO)-coated glass substrate. In this study, we demonstrate that the inter-electrode contact resistance accounts for a considerable portion of the total resistance of a DSSC and its efficiency can be greatly enhanced by welding the interface with a laser. TiO2 films formed on the TCO-coated glass substrate were irradiated with a pulsed ultraviolet laser beam at 355 nm this transmits through the TCO and glass but is strongly absorbed by TiO2. Electron microscopy analysis and impedance measurements showed that a thin continuous TiO2 layer is formed at the interface as a result of the local melting of TiO2 nanoparticles and this layer completely bridges the gap between the two electrodes, improving the current flow with a reduced contact resistance. We were able to improve the efficiency by 35-65% with this process. DSSCs fabricated using a homemade TiO2 paste revealed an efficiency improvement from ? = 3.3% to 5.4%, and an increase from 8.2% to 11.2% was achieved with the TiO2 electrodes made from a commercial paste.

  8. Near-infrared transparent electrodes for precision TengMan electro-optic measurements: In2O3 thin-film electrodes with tunable

    E-print Network

    Ho, Seng-Tiong

    grown by ion-assisted deposition at room temperature, and the optical and electrical properties and introduces significant systematic error 10% arising from its limited NIR transparency.4 Ion-assisted deposition IAD is a unique thin-film growth technique which employs two ion beams to simulta- neously effect

  9. Photoresist-Free Patterning by Mechanical Abrasion of Water-Soluble Lift-Off Resists and Bare Substrates: Toward Green Fabrication of Transparent Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Printz, Adam D.; Chan, Esther; Liong, Celine; Martinez, René S.; Lipomi, Darren J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of transparent electrodes based on grids of copper microwires using a non-photolithographic process. The process—“abrasion lithography”—takes two forms. In the first implementation (Method I), a water-soluble commodity polymer film is abraded with a sharp tool, coated with a conductive film, and developed by immersion in water. Water dissolves the polymer film and lifts off the conductive film in the unabraded areas. In the second implementation (Method II), the substrate is abraded directly by scratching with a sharp tool (i.e., no polymer film necessary). The abraded regions of the substrate are recessed and roughened. Following deposition of a conductive film, the lower profile and roughened topography in the abraded regions prevents mechanical exfoliation of the conductive film using adhesive tape, and thus the conductive film remains only where the substrate is scratched. As an application, conductive grids exhibit average sheet resistances of 17 ? sq–1 and transparencies of 86% are fabricated and used as the anode in organic photovoltaic cells in concert with the conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Compared to devices in which PEDOT:PSS alone serves as an anode, devices comprising grids of copper/nickel microwires and PEDOT:PSS exhibit lowered series resistance, which manifests in greater fill factor and power conversion efficiency. This simple method of forming micropatterns could find use in applications where cost and environmental impact should be minimized, especially as a potential replacement for the transparent electrode indium tin oxide (ITO) in thin-film electronics over large areas (i.e., solar cells) or as a method of rapid prototyping for laboratory-scale devices. PMID:24358321

  10. Rapid synthesis of ultra-long silver nanowires for tailor-made transparent conductive electrodes: proof of concept in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    José Andrés, Luis; Fe Menéndez, María; Gómez, David; Luisa Martínez, Ana; Bristow, Noel; Paul Kettle, Jeffrey; Menéndez, Armando; Ruiz, Bernardino

    2015-07-01

    Rapid synthesis of ultralong silver nanowires (AgNWs) has been obtained using a one-pot polyol-mediated synthetic procedure. The AgNWs have been prepared from the base materials in less than one hour with nanowire lengths reaching 195 ?m, which represents the quickest synthesis and one of the highest reported aspect ratios to date. These results have been achieved through a joint analysis of all reaction parameters, which represents a clear progress beyond the state of the art. Dispersions of the AgNWs have been used to prepare thin, flexible, transparent and conducting films using spray coating. Due to the higher aspect ratio, an improved electrical percolation network is observed. This allows a low sheet resistance (RS = 20.2 ?/sq), whilst maintaining high optical film transparency (T = 94.7%), driving to the highest reported figure-of-merit (FoM = 338). Owing to the light-scattering influence of the AgNWs, the density of the AgNW network can also be varied to enable controllability of the optical haze through the sample. Based on the identification of the optimal haze value, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have been fabricated using the AgNWs as the transparent electrode and have been benchmarked against indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Overall, the performance of OPVs made using AgNWs sees a small decrease in power conversion efficiency (PCE), primarily due to a fall in open-circuit voltage (50 mV). This work indicates that AgNWs can provide a low cost, rapid and roll-to-roll compatible alternative to ITO in OPVs, with only a small compromise in PCE needed. PMID:26056864

  11. Rapid synthesis of ultra-long silver nanowires for tailor-made transparent conductive electrodes: proof of concept in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Andrés, Luis; Menéndez, María Fe; Gómez, David; Martínez, Ana Luisa; Bristow, Noel; Kettle, Jeffrey Paul; Menéndez, Armando; Ruiz, Bernardino

    2015-07-01

    Rapid synthesis of ultralong silver nanowires (AgNWs) has been obtained using a one-pot polyol-mediated synthetic procedure. The AgNWs have been prepared from the base materials in less than one hour with nanowire lengths reaching 195 ?m, which represents the quickest synthesis and one of the highest reported aspect ratios to date. These results have been achieved through a joint analysis of all reaction parameters, which represents a clear progress beyond the state of the art. Dispersions of the AgNWs have been used to prepare thin, flexible, transparent and conducting films using spray coating. Due to the higher aspect ratio, an improved electrical percolation network is observed. This allows a low sheet resistance (RS = 20.2 ?/sq), whilst maintaining high optical film transparency (T = 94.7%), driving to the highest reported figure-of-merit (FoM = 338). Owing to the light-scattering influence of the AgNWs, the density of the AgNW network can also be varied to enable controllability of the optical haze through the sample. Based on the identification of the optimal haze value, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have been fabricated using the AgNWs as the transparent electrode and have been benchmarked against indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Overall, the performance of OPVs made using AgNWs sees a small decrease in power conversion efficiency (PCE), primarily due to a fall in open-circuit voltage (50 mV). This work indicates that AgNWs can provide a low cost, rapid and roll-to-roll compatible alternative to ITO in OPVs, with only a small compromise in PCE needed.

  12. 2D Graphene Oxide Nanosheets as an Adhesive Over-Coating Layer for Flexible Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Moon, In Kyu; Kim, Jae Il; Lee, Hanleem; Hur, Kangheon; Kim, Woon Chun; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2013-01-01

    In recent, highly transparent and flexible, two-dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet has been paid attention for various applications. Due to an existence of a large amount of oxygen functional groups, the single 2D GO nanosheet has an insulating, transparent, highly dispersible in the eco-friendly water, and hydrophilic property that has strong adhesion to the hydrophilic surface, which will be the best candidate for the use of an over-coating layer (OCL) and protecting layer for a conductive nanowire based indium-free transparent conductive film (TCF). The ultrathin 2D adhesive GO OCL nanosheet is expected to tightly hold silver nanowires (AgNWs), reduce sheet resistance and produce uniform TCF, providing complete solution that simultaneously solves a high haze, low transparency with a conventional OCL and mechanical instability in cases without a thick OCL. Our novel 2D insulating and hydrophilic GO OCL successfully provided a large-area, flexible, and highly transparent AgNW TCF.

  13. Efficient indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free top-absorbing organic photodetector with highly transparent polymer top electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Baierl; Bernhard Fabel; Paolo Lugli; Giuseppe Scarpa

    2011-01-01

    We report on an efficient solution-processable, top-absorbing organic photodetector with a polymer top electrode. The layer sequence is inverted, starting with the cathode as bottom electrode instead of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anode used in state-of-the-art organic detectors. The device comprises a bulk heterojunction of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as photoactive layer and a double

  14. Semi-transparent metal electrode of Cu–Ni as a replacement of an ITO in organic photovoltaic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Ghosh; R. Betancur; T. L. Chen; V. Pruneri; Jordi Martorell

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate an indium-free organic photovoltaic cell that incorporates an ultrathin metal film as a semitransparent anode. In the proposed device structure, the indium tin oxide electrode is replaced by an ultrathin Cu–Ni bilayer. When an NiO is used as the hole transporting layer, the characteristic photovoltaic parameters of the cell fabricated with the metal electrode are similar to those

  15. A spray-coating process for highly conductive silver nanowire networks as the transparent top-electrode for small molecule organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Selzer, Franz; Weiss, Nelli; Kneppe, David; Bormann, Ludwig; Sachse, Christoph; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander; Leo, Karl; Müller-Meskamp, Lars

    2015-02-14

    We present a novel top-electrode spray-coating process for the solution-based deposition of silver nanowires (AgNWs) onto vacuum-processed small molecule organic electronic solar cells. The process is compatible with organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic light emitting thin film transistors (OLETs) as well. By modifying commonly synthesized AgNWs with a perfluorinated methacrylate, we are able to disperse these wires in a highly fluorinated solvent. This solvent does not dissolve most organic materials, enabling a top spray-coating process for sensitive small molecule and polymer-based devices. The optimized preparation of the novel AgNW dispersion and spray-coating at only 30 °C leads to high performance electrodes directly after the deposition, exhibiting a sheet resistance of 10.0 ? ?(-1) at 87.4% transparency (80.0% with substrate). By spraying our novel AgNW dispersion in air onto the vacuum-processed organic p-i-n type solar cells, we obtain working solar cells with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.23%, compared to the air exposed reference devices employing thermally evaporated thin metal layers as the top-electrode. PMID:25584968

  16. Vertical ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets on a flexible substrate as an efficient counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shuai; Yin, Xiong; Zhang, Juntao; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Li, Jianye; He, Meng

    2015-06-01

    Vertical MoS2 nanosheets with both large specific surface areas and sharp, active edges are strongly desirable due to their potential applications as catalysts, sensors and field emitters. Nevertheless, the growth of vertical MoS2 nanosheets is still a challenge and has rarely been reported. In this contribution, vertical ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets were grown on diverse substrates via a facile chemical vapor deposition method using CS2 as the sulfur precursor. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that CS2 has been applied as the sulfur source for the CVD growth of MoS2. In comparison with sulfur powder, the conventional sulfur source, CS2, can be imported in the growth chamber by a carrying gas, which provides considerable convenience for controlling growth parameters. Vertical MoS2 nanosheets presented a comparable catalytic activity to Pt on triiodide reduction and were used as efficient counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells.Vertical MoS2 nanosheets with both large specific surface areas and sharp, active edges are strongly desirable due to their potential applications as catalysts, sensors and field emitters. Nevertheless, the growth of vertical MoS2 nanosheets is still a challenge and has rarely been reported. In this contribution, vertical ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets were grown on diverse substrates via a facile chemical vapor deposition method using CS2 as the sulfur precursor. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that CS2 has been applied as the sulfur source for the CVD growth of MoS2. In comparison with sulfur powder, the conventional sulfur source, CS2, can be imported in the growth chamber by a carrying gas, which provides considerable convenience for controlling growth parameters. Vertical MoS2 nanosheets presented a comparable catalytic activity to Pt on triiodide reduction and were used as efficient counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details of device fabrication and characterization, SEM images and schematic illustrations, equivalent circuit and fitted parameters of EIS. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00788g

  17. Impurity-doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Physical Deposition Methods Appropriate for Transparent Electrode Applications in Thin-film Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Miyata, Toshihiro; Nomoto, Jun-ichi

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the development of transparent conducting impurity-doped ZnO thin films that would be appropriate for applications as transparent electrodes in thin-film solar cells. Transparent conducting Al-, B- and Ga-doped ZnO (AZO, BZO and GZO) thin films were prepared in a thickness range from 500 to 2000 nm on glass substrates at 200°C using various physical deposition methods: BZO films with vacuum arc plasma evaporation, AZO and GZO films with different types of magnetron sputtering depositions (MSDs) and all films with pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The suitability and stability of the electrical properties and, in addition, the suitability of the light scattering characteristics and surface texture formation were investigated in the prepared thin films. In particular, the suitability and stability evaluation was focused on the use of AZO, BZO and GZO thin films prepared by doping each impurity at an appropriate content to attain the lowest resistivity. The higher Hall mobility obtained in impurity-doped ZnO thin films with a resistivity on the order of 10-4 ?cm was related more to the content, i.e., the obtained carrier concentration, rather than the kind of impurity doped into the films. The stability of resistivity of the BZO thin films in long-term moisture-resistance tests (in air at 85% relative humidity and 85°C) was found to be lower than that of the AZO and GZO thin films. The surface texture formation was carried out by wet-chemical etching (in a 0.1% HCl solution at 25°C) conducted either before or after being heat-treated either with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) or without RTA. The suitability of the light scattering characteristics and the surface texture formation obtainable by wet-chemical etching (for use in transparent electrode applications) was considerably dependent on the deposition method used as well as whether the wet-chemical etching was conducted with or without RTA. A significant improvement of both transmittance and haze value at wavelengths up to about 1200 nm in the near-infrared region was attained in surface-textured AZO films that were prepared by r.f. power superimposed d.c. MSD as well as etched after being heat treated with RTA at 500°C for 5 min in air. The obtained suitability and stability in impurity-doped ZnO thin films were related more to the content rather than the kind of impurity doped into the films as well as to the deposition method used.

  18. A room-temperature process for fabricating a nano-Pt counter electrode on a plastic substrate for efficient dye-sensitized cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tsung-Yu; Wei, Tzu-Chien; Zhai, Peng; Feng, Shien-Ping; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    We present a method for depositing polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped platinum nanoparticles (PVP-nPt) on a plastic substrate as the counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized cells. This method was implemented using a modified two-step dip-coating process performed under ambient conditions. In particular, a short UV-ozone exposure period was adopted to replace conventional annealing, rendering the whole process feasible for plastic substrates. The surfactant required for deposition was confirmed by analyzing a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum; however, we discovered that the surfactant jeopardized charge transfer between the PVP-nPt CE and the substrate. Furthermore, the UV-ozone treatment efficiently decomposed the surfactant, and the electrochemical-catalytic property improved considerably. When the CE was combined with a dye-sensitized photoanode fabricated on a plastic substrate, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) reached 6.24%. To further prove that the PCE is limited by the plastic photoanode instead of the proposed plastic PVP-nPt CE, a photoanode fabricated on FTO glass and the proposed plastic PVP-nPt CE with a PCE of 8.80% was demonstrated. Finally, thermal aging (conducted at 60 °C, 1000 h) test on this device indicated excellent durability, and the PCE was only 1% lower than its initial value.

  19. Efficient quasisolid dye- and quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells using thiolate/disulfide redox couple and CoS counter electrode.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ke; Thampi, K Ravindranathan

    2014-12-10

    For the first time, a quasisolid thiolate/disulfide-based electrolyte was prepared using succinonitrile as a matrix. An optimized configuration of the quasisolid electrolyte contains 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole N-tetramethylammonium/disulfide/LiClO4/N-methylbenzimidazole in the molar ratio of 0.8:0.8:0.1:0.1. Dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated using this quasisolid electrolyte, together with N719 dye-sensitized photoelectrode and CoS counter electrode, attained power conversion efficiencies of 4.25% at 1 sun and 6.19% at 0.1 sun illumination intensities. The optimized quasisolid electrolyte, when introduced to quasisolid CdS quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells, exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 0.94%, despite the fact that CdS absorbs only a small fraction of the visible light, unlike dyes. The encouraging results show the potential for the utilization of the quasisolid thiolate/disulfide-based electrolyte in sensitized solar cells. PMID:25380236

  20. Vertical ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets on a flexible substrate as an efficient counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuai; Yin, Xiong; Zhang, Juntao; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Li, Jianye; He, Meng

    2015-06-01

    Vertical MoS2 nanosheets with both large specific surface areas and sharp, active edges are strongly desirable due to their potential applications as catalysts, sensors and field emitters. Nevertheless, the growth of vertical MoS2 nanosheets is still a challenge and has rarely been reported. In this contribution, vertical ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets were grown on diverse substrates via a facile chemical vapor deposition method using CS2 as the sulfur precursor. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that CS2 has been applied as the sulfur source for the CVD growth of MoS2. In comparison with sulfur powder, the conventional sulfur source, CS2, can be imported in the growth chamber by a carrying gas, which provides considerable convenience for controlling growth parameters. Vertical MoS2 nanosheets presented a comparable catalytic activity to Pt on triiodide reduction and were used as efficient counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:26006102

  1. Performances of some low-cost counter electrode materials in CdS and CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Different counter electrode (CE) materials based on carbon and Cu2S were prepared for the application in CdS and CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The CEs were prepared using low-cost and facile methods. Platinum was used as the reference CE material to compare the performances of the other materials. While carbon-based materials produced the best solar cell performance in CdS QDSSCs, platinum and Cu2S were superior in CdSe QDSSCs. Different CE materials have different performance in the two types of QDSSCs employed due to the different type of sensitizers and composition of polysulfide electrolytes used. The poor performance of QDSSCs with some CE materials is largely due to the lower photocurrent density and open-circuit voltage. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy performed on the cells showed that the poor-performing QDSSCs had higher charge-transfer resistances and CPE values at their CE/electrolyte interfaces. PMID:24512605

  2. In situ growth of hierarchical NiS2 hollow microspheres as efficient counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Wan, Zhongquan; Jia, Chunyang; Wang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Hierarchical NiS2 hollow microspheres (HM-NiS2) were successfully in situ grown on FTO by a one-step hydrothermal method, and then tested as the counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) for the first time. The SEM images reveal that the hierarchical NiS2 microspheres were successfully grown on FTO substrate. It is worth noting that some of the shells are partially broken, which is advantageous for providing more electrolyte adsorptions and electrocatalytic active sites. The electrocatalytic ability and electrochemical properties of the HM-NiS2 were studied by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization. The power conversion efficiency of 7.84% is achieved for the DSSC based on HM-NiS2 CE, which is close to that of the DSSC using Pt CE (7.89%). The results indicate that the in situ fabricated HM-NiS2 CE may be a good candidate for high efficiency and low-cost DSSCs. PMID:26153640

  3. In situ synthesis of binded, thick and porous carbon nanoparticle dye sensitized solar cell counter electrode with nickel gel as catalyst source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Wei; Fang, Guojia; Han, Tianyang; Li, Borui; Liu, Nishuang; Zhao, Dongshan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Dianyuan; Zhao, Xingzhong; Zou, Dechun

    2014-01-01

    A TiO2-embedded NiCl2 gel is prepared and used as growth catalyst to in situ synthesize binded, thick and porous carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) on Ti foil substrate with a simple flame synthesis method for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) counter electrode (CE) applications. The viscous gel catalyst can hold sufficient NiCl2 coated on substrate to make CNP layer thick. The embedded TiO2 can effectively separate the abundant NiCl2 components to active the Ni catalyst for CNP growth and then make CNP layer become porous. In addition, the TiO2 components can bind the porous CNP products to make them conductive. With an optimized TiO2 fraction, the CE shows high catalytic ability and electrical conductivity. By applying this CNP CE for DSSC, a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 6.6% is achieved, which exceeds 6.5% of a reference cell using costly platinum as CE. Furthermore, the CNP structure is demonstrated beneficial to carrier transport by a mass transfer model. This easy and effective preparation method may have a potential application in general nanomaterial preparation.

  4. Cost-effective and morphology controllable PVP based highly efficient CuS counter electrodes for high-efficiency quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Je; Myung-Sik, Lee; Gopi, Chandu V V M; Venkata-Haritha, M; Rao, S Srinivasa; Kim, Soo-Kyoung

    2015-06-17

    Currently, copper sulfide (CuS) is the most commonly used counter electrode (CE) in high-efficiency quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) because of its superior electrocatalytic activity in the presence of polysulfide electrolyte. For the first time, CuS thin films were prepared by a facile chemical bath deposition method with different concentrations of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and directly used as CEs in QDSSCs without any further post treatment. The quantum dot photoanode with the optimized 0.25 mM PVP-based CuS CE exhibits higher short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.57 mA cm(-2), 0.578 V, 0.514, and 5.22%, respectively, which are much higher values than those of a bare CuS CE (Jsc: 12.36 mA cm(-2); Voc: 0.591 V; FF: 0.436; PCE: 3.18%) and Pt CE (Jsc: 11.25 mA cm(-2); Voc: 0.464 V; FF: 0.296; PCE: 1.54%) under one-sun illumination (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm(-2)). Moreover, the 0.25 mM PVP-based CuS CE produces a charge-transfer resistance of only 4.39 ? with the aqueous polysulfide electrolyte commonly applied in QDSSCs. This value is several orders of magnitude lower than that of a typical Pt electrode (69.75 ?) and bare CuS electrode (9.27 ?). This enhancement is mainly attributed to the improved morphology of the 0.25 mM CuS CE with high catalytic activity, which plays a main role in the reduction processes of the oxidized polysulfide electrolyte, as well as the increased sulfur atomic percentage with Cu vacancies. Cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Tafel polarization were performed to study the underlying reasons behind the efficient CE performance. PMID:26011676

  5. Ga-doped ZnO transparent electrodes with TiO2 blocking layer/nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ga-doped ZnO [GZO] thin films were employed for the transparent electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells [DSSCs]. The electrical property of the deposited GZO films was as good as that of commercially used fluorine-doped tin oxide [FTO]. In order to protect the GZO and enhance the photovoltaic properties, a TiO2 blocking layer was deposited on the GZO surface. Then, TiO2 nanoparticles were coated on the blocking layer, and dye was attached for the fabrication of DSSCs. The fabricated DSSCs with the GZO/TiO2 glasses showed an enhanced conversion efficiency of 4.02% compared to the devices with the normal GZO glasses (3.36%). Furthermore, they showed better characteristics even than those using the FTO glasses, which can be attributed to the reduced charge recombination and series resistance. PMID:22222148

  6. Roll-to-Roll Encapsulation of Metal Nanowires between Graphene and Plastic Substrate for High-Performance Flexible Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bing; Hsu, Po-Chun; Chen, Guanchu; Chandrashekar, B N; Liao, Lei; Ayitimuda, Zhawulie; Wu, Jinxiong; Guo, Yunfan; Lin, Li; Zhou, Yu; Aisijiang, Mahaya; Xie, Qin; Cui, Yi; Liu, Zhongfan; Peng, Hailin

    2015-06-10

    Transparent conductive film on plastic substrate is a critical component in low-cost, flexible, and lightweight optoelectronics. Industrial-scale manufacturing of high-performance transparent conductive flexible plastic is needed to enable wide-ranging applications. Here, we demonstrate a continuous roll-to-roll (R2R) production of transparent conductive flexible plastic based on a metal nanowire network fully encapsulated between graphene monolayer and plastic substrate. Large-area graphene film grown on Cu foil via a R2R chemical vapor deposition process was hot-laminated onto nanowires precoated EVA/PET film, followed by a R2R electrochemical delamination that preserves the Cu foil for reuse. The encapsulated structure minimized the resistance of both wire-to-wire junctions and graphene grain boundaries and strengthened adhesion of nanowires and graphene to plastic substrate, resulting in superior optoelectronic properties (sheet resistance of ?8 ? sq(-1) at 94% transmittance), remarkable corrosion resistance, and excellent mechanical flexibility. With these advantages, long-cycle life flexible electrochromic devices are demonstrated, showing up to 10000 cycles. PMID:26020567

  7. High performance electrocatalyst consisting of CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 film: its use as a counter electrode for Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Tae; Lee, Chang Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

    2015-01-14

    High energy conversion efficiencies of 6.6% and 7.5% are demonstrated in solid and liquid states, Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), respectively, based on CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 (om-SnO2) counter electrode. These results correspond to improvements of 14% and 9%, respectively, compared to a conventional Pt counter electrode and are among the highest values reported for Pt-free DSSCs. The om-SnO2 layer plays a pivotal role as a platform to deposit a large amount of highly electrocatalytically active CoS nanoparticles via a facile solvothermal reaction. The om-SnO2 platform with a high porosity, larger pores, and good interconnectivity is derived from a poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) graft copolymer template, which provides not only improved interaction sites for the formation of CoS nanoparticles but also enhanced electron transport. The structural, morphological, chemical, and electrochemical properties of CoS on the om-SnO2 platform are investigated using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The performance enhancement results from the excellent electron transport at the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/counter electrode/electrolyte interface, reduced resistance at the FTO/CoS interface, and better catalytic reduction at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface. PMID:25429695

  8. Highly efficient iodide/triiodide dye-sensitized solar cells with gel-coated reduce graphene oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube composites as the counter electrode exhibiting an open-circuit voltage of 0.90 V.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huiqin; Neo, Chin Yong; Ouyang, Jianyong

    2013-07-24

    To increase the open-circuit voltage (Voc) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), it is crucial to enhance the photovoltaic efficiency of DSCs. Here, we report an effective method to significantly improve the Voc and photovoltaic efficiency of DSCs by using gel-coated composites of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as the counter electrode. Gel-coated rGO-SWCNT composites outperform Pt, rGO and SWCNTs in catalyzing the reduction of I3(-) and functioning as the counter electrode of DSCs. The Voc and power conversion efficiency (PCE) are 0.86 V and 8.37% for fresh DSCs with the composite of 80 wt % rGO and 20 wt % SWCNTs, significantly higher than those (Voc = 0.77 V, PCE = 7.79%) of control DSCs with Pt fabricated by pyrolysis as the counter electrode. The Voc value of DSCs with rGO-SWCNT composites as the counter electrode further increases to 0.90 V after one week. The high Voc and PCE are ascribed to the synergetic effects of rGO and SWCNTs in reducing the overpotential of the I3(-) reduction. RGO with high specific surface area can have high electrocatalytic activity, whereas SWCNTs give rise to high conductivity for the composites and facilitate the penetration of the redox species into rGO sheets by preventing the agglomeration of the rGO sheets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report iodide/triiodide DSCs with both high Voc and PCE. PMID:23786582

  9. Zinc Oxide Modified with Benzylphosphonic Acids as Transparent Electrodes in Regular and Inverted Organic Solar Cell Structures

    E-print Network

    Ilja Lange; Sina Reiter; Juliane Kniepert; Fortunato Piersimoni; Michael Paetzel; Jana Hildebrandt; Thomas Brenner; Stefan Hecht; Dieter Neher

    2015-02-05

    An approach is presented to modify the WF of solution-processed sol-gel derived ZnOover an exceptionally wide range of more than 2.3 eV. This approach relies on the formation of dense and homogeneous self-assembled monolayers based on phosphonic acids with different dipole moments. This allows us to apply ZnO as charge selective bottom electrodes in either regular or inverted solar cell structures, using P3HT:PCBM as the active layer. These devices compete with or even exceed the performance of the reference cell on ITO/PEDOT:PSS. Our finding challenges the current view that bottom electrodes in inverted solar cells need to be electron-blocking for good device performance.

  10. Zinc oxide modified with benzylphosphonic acids as transparent electrodes in regular and inverted organic solar cell structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Ilja; Reiter, Sina; Kniepert, Juliane; Piersimoni, Fortunato; Pätzel, Michael; Hildebrandt, Jana; Brenner, Thomas; Hecht, Stefan; Neher, Dieter

    2015-03-01

    An approach is presented to modify the work function of solution-processed sol-gel derived zinc oxide (ZnO) over an exceptionally wide range of more than 2.3 eV. This approach relies on the formation of dense and homogeneous self-assembled monolayers based on phosphonic acids with different dipole moments. This allows us to apply ZnO as charge selective bottom electrodes in either regular or inverted solar cell structures, using poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester as the active layer. These devices compete with or even surpass the performance of the reference on indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate. Our findings highlight the potential of properly modified ZnO as electron or hole extracting electrodes in hybrid optoelectronic devices.

  11. Efficient p-type dye-sensitized solar cells with all-nano-electrodes: NiCo2S4 mesoporous nanosheet counter electrodes directly converted from NiCo2O4 photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhiwei; Lu, Hao; Liu, Qiong; Cao, Fengren; Guo, Jun; Deng, Kaimo; Li, Liang

    2014-11-01

    We report the successful growth of NiCo2S4 nanosheet films converted from NiCo2O4 nanosheet films on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates by a low-temperature solution process. Low-cost NiCo2S4 and NiCo2O4 nanosheet films were directly used for replacing conventional Pt and NiO as counter electrodes and photocathodes, respectively, to construct all-nano p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSSCs) with high performance. Compared to Pt, NiCo2S4 showed higher catalytic activity towards the I-/I3 - redox in electrolyte, resulting in an improved photocurrent density up to 2.989 mA/cm2, which is the highest value in reported p-DSSCs. Present p-DSSCs demonstrated a cell efficiency of 0.248 % that is also comparable with typical NiO-based p-DSSCs.

  12. Efficient p-type dye-sensitized solar cells with all-nano-electrodes: NiCo2S4 mesoporous nanosheet counter electrodes directly converted from NiCo2O4 photocathodes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report the successful growth of NiCo2S4 nanosheet films converted from NiCo2O4 nanosheet films on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates by a low-temperature solution process. Low-cost NiCo2S4 and NiCo2O4 nanosheet films were directly used for replacing conventional Pt and NiO as counter electrodes and photocathodes, respectively, to construct all-nano p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSSCs) with high performance. Compared to Pt, NiCo2S4 showed higher catalytic activity towards the I-/I3- redox in electrolyte, resulting in an improved photocurrent density up to 2.989 mA/cm2, which is the highest value in reported p-DSSCs. Present p-DSSCs demonstrated a cell efficiency of 0.248 % that is also comparable with typical NiO-based p-DSSCs. PMID:25489277

  13. ZnSnO/Ag/indium tin oxide multilayer films as a flexible and transparent electrode for photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Han-Kyeol; Na, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Yoo, Young-Zo; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2015-07-01

    To replace thick ITO single layer electrodes, ZnSnO (ZTO)/Ag/indium tin oxide (ITO) multilayer films were investigated as a function of Ag layer thickness. The ZTO/Ag/ITO films showed maximum transmittance in the range of 79.4-89.2%, depending on the Ag layer thickness. The relationship between transmittance and Ag thickness was simulated using the scattering matrix method to understand the high transmittance. As the Ag thickness increases from 6 to 14 nm, the carrier concentration increases from 4.12 × 1021 to 1.11 × 1022 cm-3 and the mobility increases from 8.14 to 17.4 cm2/V s. The ZTO (20 nm)/Ag (10 nm)/ITO (30 nm) multilayer films had a sheet resistance of 9 ?/sq. The ZTO/Ag/ITO multilayer had Haacke's figure of merit of 28.3 × 10-3 ?-1. The ZTO/Ag/ITO films deposited on PET substrates showed dramatically improved mechanical flexibility when subjected to bending test compared to 60 nm-thick ITO single layer electrodes.

  14. Liquid-phase exfoliation of chemical vapor deposition-grown single layer graphene and its application in solution-processed transparent electrodes for flexible organic light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chaoxing; Li, Fushan; Wu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Tailiang

    2014-12-01

    Efficient and low-cost methods for obtaining high performance flexible transparent electrodes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene are highly desirable. In this work, the graphene grown on copper foil was exfoliated into micron-size sheets through controllable ultrasonication. We developed a clean technique by blending the exfoliated single layer graphene sheets with conducting polymer to form graphene-based composite solution, which can be spin-coated on flexible substrate, forming flexible transparent conducting film with high conductivity (˜8 ?/?), high transmittance (˜81% at 550 nm), and excellent mechanical robustness. In addition, CVD-grown-graphene-based polymer light emitting diodes with excellent bendable performances were demonstrated.

  15. Nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon as optically transparent electrode for infrared attenuated total reflection spectroelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Menegazzo, Nicola; Kahn, Markus; Berghauser, Roswitha; Waldhauser, Wolfgang; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2011-05-01

    This contribution describes the development of nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (N-DLC) thin films for multi-reflection mid-infrared (MIR) attenuated total reflectance (IR-ATR) spectroelectrochemistry. N-DLC coatings were deposited using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) involving the ablation of a high purity graphite target. The DLC matrix was further modified by ablating the target in the presence of nitrogen gas. This technique offers the advantage of depositing thin films at room temperature, thereby enabling coating of temperature-sensitive substrates including e.g., MIR waveguides. The resulting films were analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and determined to be composed of carbon, nitrogen, and adventitious oxygen. Raman spectroscopic studies indicate that the addition of nitrogen induces further clustering and ordering of the sp(2)-hybridized carbon phase. The electrochemical activity of PLD fabricated N-DLC films was verified using the Ru(NH(3))(3+/2+) redox couple, and was determined to be comparable with that of other carbon-based electrodes. In situ spectroelectrochemical studies involving N-DLC coated zinc selenide (ZnSe) MIR waveguides provided evidence concerning the oxidation of N-DLC at anodic potentials in 1 M HClO(4) solutions. Finally, the electropolymerization of polyaniline (PAni) was performed at N-DLC-modified waveguide surfaces, which enabled spectroscopic monitoring of the electropolymerization, as well as in situ studying the structural conversion of PAni at different potentials. PMID:21373709

  16. Electrochemical deposition of ZnO nanorods on transparent reduced graphene oxide electrodes for hybrid solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zongyou; Wu, Shixin; Zhou, Xiaozhu; Huang, Xiao; Zhang, Qichun; Boey, Freddy; Zhang, Hua

    2010-01-01

    Monocrystalline ZnO nanorods (NRs) with high donor concentration are electrochemically deposited on highly conductive reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films on quartz. The film thickness, optical transmittance, sheet resistance, and roughness of rGO films are systematically studied. The obtained ZnO NRs on rGO films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and Raman spectra. As a proof-of-concept application, the obtained ZnO NRs on rGO are used to fabricate inorganic-organic hybrid solar cells with layered structure of quartz/rGO/ZnO NR/poly(3-hexylthiophene)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (P3HT/PEDOT:PSS)/Au. The observed power conversion efficiency (PCE, eta), approximately 0.31%, is higher than that reported in previous solar cells by using graphene films as electrodes. These results clearly demonstrate that rGO films with a higher conductivity have a smaller work function and show a better performance in the fabricated solar cells. PMID:20039255

  17. Low-temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanowires as the transparent electrodes for organic light emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kee, Yeh Yee; Tan, Sek Sean; Khok Yong, Thian; Nee, Chen Hon; Yap, Seong Shan; Tou, Teck Yong; Sáfrán, György; Endre Horváth, Zsolt; Moscatello, Jason P.; Khin Yap, Yoke

    2012-01-01

    Low-temperature growth of indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires (NWs) was obtained on catalyst-free amorphous glass substrates at 250?°C by Nd:YAG pulsed-laser deposition. These ITO NWs have branching morphology as grown in Ar ambient. As suggested by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), our ITO NWs have the tendency to grow vertically outward from the substrate surface, with the (400) plane parallel to the longitudinal axis of the nanowires. These NWs are low in electrical resistivity (1.6 × 10-4 ? cm) and high in visible transmittance (˜90-96%), and were tested as the electrode for organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). An enhanced current density of ˜30 mA cm-2 was detected at bias voltages of ˜19-21 V with uniform and bright emission. We found that the Hall mobility of these NWs is 2.2-2.7 times higher than that of ITO film, which can be explained by the reduction of Coulomb scattering loss. These results suggested that ITO nanowires are promising for applications in optoelectronic devices including OLED, touch screen displays, and photovoltaic solar cells.

  18. Counting Counters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem gives children an opportunity to explore an increasing pattern and then generalize the results with a rule. Students begin with a single counter, surround it by a ring of other counters and then each new ring is surrounded with more counters. Solvers record results as they replicate the pattern and make predictions about many counters there will be in any given ring. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, key discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

  19. Technology and Application of Transition Metal Oxide of W-V-O as Functional Layers and NiO Thin Films as Counter Electrode Material in Electrochromic "Smart Windows"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodurov, Georgi; Ivanova, Tatyana; Gesheva, Kostadinka

    The present study is related to preparation and investigation of mixed W-V-O films, deposited on conductive glass substrates by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. The presence of lower-temperature precursor V(CO)6 lead to faster growing of the mixed oxide film. The results show two times higher growth-rate compared to single oxide of WO3. The color efficiency calculated is 20 cm2/C, optical modulation 65.2%. Vibrational spectra studied by Raman and FTIR spectroscopy show Raman peaks and absorption bands revealing monoclinic WO3 and orthorhombic V2O5 phases, separately existing in the mixed oxide film structure. The surface morphology is observed by AFM. Films transmittance and reflectance characterization are performed. For the counter electrode in the EC, NiO films are deposited electrochemically. The UV-VIS-NIR optical measurements performed in the spectral range of 300 - 1000 nm show that films possess transmittance in the range of 70% - 85%. This high transmittance of the counter electrode film would contribute to the needed high initial optical transmittance of the "smart window".

  20. Transparency International

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With headquarters in Berlin, Transparency International (TI) is an international non-governmental organization dedicated to combating corruption in its many guises across the world. As their website notes, TI â??focuses on prevention and reforming systemsâ?. With a well-designed and rather elegant homepage, visitors will find much to admire here. The top of the homepage provides access to their â??In Focusâ? feature, which draws attention to some of TIâ??s more recent work, such as the Global Corruption Report for 2006. Below this feature, visitors will find links to recent news stories dealing with corruption, such as the recent Kenyan government scandal and anti-corruption initiatives in West Africa. Visitors can also utilize the â??Corruption: Learn About itâ? area, as it contains FAQs on corruption, and a number of indices, such as the global corruption barometer as well as a number of regional surveys. For pragmatic material, one need to look no further than their â??How to Fight Corruptionâ? section, which contains an anti-corruption handbook and a set of business principles for countering bribery.

  1. SnX (X = S, Se) thin films as cost-effective and highly efficient counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Yafeng; Zhou, Li; Li, Yi; Hu, Linhua; Yao, Jianxi; Dai, Songyuan

    2015-05-11

    Solution-deposited SnSe and SnS thin films demonstrate excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the triiodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), even better than that of the conventional noble Pt electrode used in DSCs. An enhanced photovoltaic efficiency with the maximum value of 9.4% was thus achieved, higher than that with Pt (9.0%). PMID:25869882

  2. Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous-silicon solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 May 1991--30 April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G.; Hu, J.; Lacks, D.; Musher, J.; Thornton, J.; Liang, H. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Fluorine-doped zinc oxide was shown to have the lowest absorption loss of any of the known transparent conductors. An apparatus was constructed to deposit textured, transparent, conductive, fluorine-doped zinc oxide layers with uniform thickness over a 10 cm by 10 cm area, using inexpensive, high-productivity atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. Amorphous silicon solar cells grown on these textured films show very high peak quantum efficiencies (over 90%). However, a significant contact resistance develops at the interface between the amorphous silicon and the zinc oxide. Transparent, conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films were grown by APCVD at a low enough temperature (260{degree}C) to be deposited on amorphous silicon as a final conductive back contact to solar cells. A quantum-mechanical theory of bonding was developed and applied to some metal oxides; it forms a basis for understanding TCO structures and the stability of their interfaces with silicon.

  3. A novel system of electrodes transparent to ultrasound for simultaneous detection of myoelectric activity and B-mode ultrasound images of skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, T. M. M.; Loram, I. D.; Merletti, R.; Hodson-Tole, E. F.

    2013-01-01

    Application of two-dimensional surface electrode arrays can provide a means of mapping motor unit action potentials on the skin surface above a muscle. The resulting muscle tissue displacement can be quantified, in a single plane, using ultrasound (US) imaging. Currently, however, it is not possible to simultaneously map spatio-temporal propagation of activation and resulting tissue strain. In this paper, we developed and tested a material that will enable concurrent measurement of two-dimensional surface electromyograms (EMGs) with US images. Specific protocols were designed to test the compatibility of this new electrode material, both with EMG recording and with US analysis. Key results indicate that, for this new electrode material, 1) the electrode-skin impedance is similar to that of arrays of electrodes reported in literature; 2) the reflection of US at the electrode-skin interface is negligible; 3) the likelihood of observing missing contacts, short-circuits, and artifacts in EMGs is not affected by the US probe; 4) movement of tissues sampled by US can be tracked accurately. We, therefore, conclude this approach will facilitate multimodal imaging of muscle to provide new spatio-temporal information regarding electromechanical function of muscle. This is relevant to basic physiology-biomechanics of active and passive force transmission through and between muscles, of motor unit spatio-temporal activity patterns, of their variation with architecture and task-related function, and of their adaptation with aging, training-exercise-disuse, neurological disease, and injury. PMID:23908313

  4. Spray deposition of water-soluble multiwall carbon nanotube and Cu2ZnSnSe4 nanoparticle composites as highly efficient counter electrodes in a quantum dot-sensitized solar cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xianwei; Xiong, Dehua; Zhang, Wenjun; Ming, Liqun; Xu, Zhen; Huang, Zhanfeng; Wang, Mingkui; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Yi-Bing

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, low-cost counter electrodes (CEs) based on water-soluble multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 nanoparticle (CZTSe NP) composites have been successfully introduced into a quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) system. Suitable surface modification allows the MWCNTs and CZTSe NPs to be homogeneously dispersed in water, facilitating the subsequent low-temperature spray deposition of high quality composite films with different composite ratios. The electrochemical catalytic activity of the composite CEs has been critically compared by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel-polarization analysis. It is found that the composite CE at the MWCNT : CZTSe ratio of 0.1 offers the best performance, leading to an optimal solar cell efficiency of 4.60%, which is 50.8% higher than that of the Pt reference CE. The as-demonstrated higher catalytic activity of the composite CEs compared to their single components could be ascribed to the combination of the fast electron transport of the MWCNTs and the high catalytic activity of CZTSe NPs.In this paper, low-cost counter electrodes (CEs) based on water-soluble multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 nanoparticle (CZTSe NP) composites have been successfully introduced into a quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) system. Suitable surface modification allows the MWCNTs and CZTSe NPs to be homogeneously dispersed in water, facilitating the subsequent low-temperature spray deposition of high quality composite films with different composite ratios. The electrochemical catalytic activity of the composite CEs has been critically compared by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel-polarization analysis. It is found that the composite CE at the MWCNT : CZTSe ratio of 0.1 offers the best performance, leading to an optimal solar cell efficiency of 4.60%, which is 50.8% higher than that of the Pt reference CE. The as-demonstrated higher catalytic activity of the composite CEs compared to their single components could be ascribed to the combination of the fast electron transport of the MWCNTs and the high catalytic activity of CZTSe NPs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Photographs, SEM, Raman, EDX and EDX-mapping results. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01564e

  5. Calorie Counter

    MedlinePLUS

    How can we help you? Search Live Chat 800-227-2345 Home Learn About ... Size American Cancer Society Calorie Counter Being at a healthy weight has a big impact on your health. The tool below can help you get there – ...

  6. RADIATION COUNTER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Jr

    1962-01-01

    A liquid scintillation counter is designed for commercial and industrial ; application. The scintillator liquid is contained within a casing, whlch is ; coated on lts outside with a white material for optimum light refiection. The ; casing may be sectionalized for particular application, e.g., discrimination of ; Co⁶° gamma radiation from background, and may be in the form of

  7. Transparent organic light-emitting diodes using metal acethylacetonate complexes as an electron injective buffer layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asuka Yamamori; Sachiko Hayashi; Toshiki Koyama; Yoshio Taniguchi

    2001-01-01

    We studied transparent organic light-emitting diodes, which had a transparent top electrode deposited by sputtering, for possible application to a transparent light-emitting display. In the fabrication of a transparent electrode on an organic layer, steps must be taken to reduce the damage incurred by the organic layer during the sputter deposition process. We report the results of our study where

  8. Conductive and transparent multilayer films for low-temperature TiO2/Ag/SiO2 electrodes by E-beam evaporation with IAD.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Po-Kai; Lee, Chao-Te; Chiang, Donyau; Cho, Wen-Hao; Hsiao, Chien-Nan; Chen, Yi-Yan; Huang, Bo-Ming; Yang, Jer-Ren

    2014-01-01

    Conductive and transparent multilayer thin films consisting of three alternating layers (TiO2/Ag/SiO2, TAS) have been fabricated for applications as transparent conducting oxides. Metal oxide and metal layers were prepared by electron-beam evaporation with ion-assisted deposition, and the optical and electrical properties of the resulting films as well as their energy bounding characteristics and microstructures were carefully investigated. The optical properties of the obtained TAS material were compared with those of well-known transparent metal oxide glasses such as ZnO/Ag/ZnO, TiO2/Ag/TiO2, ZnO/Cu/ZnO, and ZnO/Al/ZnO. The weathering resistance of the TAS film was improved by using a protective SiO2 film as the uppermost layer. The transmittance spectra and sheet resistance of the material were carefully measured and analyzed as a function of the layer thickness. By properly adjusting the thickness of the metal and dielectric films, a low sheet resistance of 6.5 ohm/sq and a high average transmittance of over 89% in the 400 to 700 nm wavelength regions were achieved. We found that the Ag layer played a significant role in determining the optical and electrical properties of this film. PMID:24433437

  9. Vacuum-free, maskless patterning of Ni electrodes by laser reductive sintering of NiO nanoparticle ink and its application to transparent conductors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daeho; Paeng, Dongwoo; Park, Hee K; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2014-10-28

    We introduce a method for direct patterning of Ni electrodes through selective laser direct writing (LDW) of NiO nanoparticle (NP) ink. High-resolution Ni patterns are generated from NiO NP thin films by a vacuum-free, lithography-free, and solution-processable route. In particular, a continuous wave laser is used for the LDW reductive sintering of the metal oxide under ambient conditions with the aid of reducing agents in the ink solvent. Thin (? 40 nm) Ni electrodes of glossy metallic surfaces with smooth morphology and excellent edge definition can be fabricated. By applying this method, we demonstrate a high transmittance (>87%), electrically conducting panel for a touch screen panel application. The resistivity of the Ni electrode is less than an order of magnitude higher compared to that of the bulk Ni. Mechanical bending test, tape-pull test, and ultrasonic bath test confirm the robust adhesion of the electrodes on glass and polymer substrates. PMID:25130917

  10. Electrospun TiC/C nano-felt surface-decorated with Pt nanoparticles as highly efficient and cost-effective counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Thapa, Amit; Feng, Quan; Xi, Min; Qiao, Qiquan; Fong, Hao

    2013-11-01

    Electrospun nano-felt consisting of overlaid TiC/C composite nanofibers was surface-decorated with Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) for use as highly efficient and cost-effective counter electrode (CE) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In the nanofibers, the self-generated TiC crystallites (~70 wt%) with sizes of ~20 nm were randomly embedded in carbon (~30 wt%). Upon surface-decoration, most Pt NPs were distributed on TiC crystallites, leading to substantial enhancement in the electrocatalytic activity/efficiency of Pt due to the strong interaction between Pt and TiC as well as the resulting synergetic effect on electrocatalysis. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the TiC/C-Pt CE exhibited low charge transfer resistance (Rct), large capacitance (C), and fast reaction rate towards the reduction of I3- ions, and the prototype DSSC exhibited a performance comparable to that with conventional Pt CE in terms of short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF), and energy conversion efficiency (?).

  11. Proportional Counters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Pfeffermann

    After the discovery of the first extra-solar X-ray source in 1962 with a gaseous detector, the proportional counter became\\u000a the workhorse instrument of soft X-ray astronomy for nearly four decades. The origin of gaseous detectors dates back to the\\u000a early twentieth century, when Rutherford and Geiger published in 1908: “An electrical method of counting the number of ?-particles\\u000a from radioactive

  12. One-step synthesis of carbon nanosheets converted from a polycyclic compound and their direct use as transparent electrodes of ITO-free organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Su-Young; Noh, Yong-Jin; Bok, Changsuk; Lee, Sungho; Kim, Byoung Gak; Na, Seok-In; Joh, Han-Ik

    2013-12-01

    Through a catalyst- and transfer-free process, we fabricated indium tin oxide (ITO)-free organic solar cells (OSCs) using a carbon nanosheet (CNS) with properties similar to graphene. The morphological and electrical properties of the CNS derived from a polymer of intrinsic microporosity-1 (PIM-1), which is mainly composed of several aromatic hydrocarbons and cycloalkanes, can be easily controlled by adjusting the polymer concentration. The CNSs, which are prepared by simple spin-coating and heat-treatment on a quartz substrate, are directly used as the electrodes of ITO-free OSCs, showing a high efficiency of approximately 1.922% under 100 mW cm-2 illumination and air mass 1.5 G conditions. This catalyst- and transfer-free approach is highly desirable for electrodes in organic electronics.Through a catalyst- and transfer-free process, we fabricated indium tin oxide (ITO)-free organic solar cells (OSCs) using a carbon nanosheet (CNS) with properties similar to graphene. The morphological and electrical properties of the CNS derived from a polymer of intrinsic microporosity-1 (PIM-1), which is mainly composed of several aromatic hydrocarbons and cycloalkanes, can be easily controlled by adjusting the polymer concentration. The CNSs, which are prepared by simple spin-coating and heat-treatment on a quartz substrate, are directly used as the electrodes of ITO-free OSCs, showing a high efficiency of approximately 1.922% under 100 mW cm-2 illumination and air mass 1.5 G conditions. This catalyst- and transfer-free approach is highly desirable for electrodes in organic electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental methods; chemical structure and 1H NMR spectra; AFM images; TGA spectra; shunt and series resistances; Raman spectra and optical images; atomic contents of the CNSs. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04828d

  13. Temperature-stable and optically transparent thin-film zinc oxide aerogel electrodes as model systems for 3D interpenetrating organic-inorganic heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Michael; Pawlitzek, Fabian; Weickert, Jonas; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas; Polarz, Sebastian

    2012-12-01

    Novel, nanostructured electrode materials comprising porous ZnO films with aerogel morphology are presented. Almost any substrate including polymers, metals, or ceramics can be coated using a method that is suitable for mass production. The thin, porous films can be prepared from the wet gels via conventional drying, supercritical drying is not necessary. The filigree ZnO network is thermally very stable and exhibits sufficient electrical conductivity for advanced electronic applications. The latter was tested by realizing a highly desired architecture of organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells. After sensitizing of the ZnO with a purely organic squarine dye (SQ2), a nanostructured, interpenetrating 3D network of the inorganic semiconductor (ZnO) and organic semiconductor (P3HT) was prepared. The solar cell device was tested under illumination with AM 1.5G solar light (100 mW/cm(2)) and exhibited an energy conversion efficiency (?(eff)) of 0.69%. PMID:23194020

  14. SMART COUNTER The smart counter can

    E-print Network

    Ouhyoung, Ming

    SMART COUNTER The smart counter can detect countertop cooking actions. We assume that all food with the smart counter and the smart stove to correctly infer the cooking actions. A Smart Kitchen to Promote Healthy Cooking Jen-hao Chen, Keng-hao Chang, Pei-yu Chi, Hao-hua Chu National Taiwan University SMART

  15. Electrodynamic Arrays Having Nanomaterial Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, Steven (Inventor); Biris, Alexandru S. (Inventor); Calle, Carlos I. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electrodynamic array of conductive nanomaterial electrodes and a method of making such an electrodynamic array. In one embodiment, a liquid solution containing nanomaterials is deposited as an array of conductive electrodes on a substrate, including rigid or flexible substrates such as fabrics, and opaque or transparent substrates. The nanomaterial electrodes may also be grown in situ. The nanomaterials may include carbon nanomaterials, other organic or inorganic nanomaterials or mixtures.

  16. Distributed performance counters

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Kristan D; Evans, Kahn C; Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L

    2013-11-26

    A plurality of first performance counter modules is coupled to a plurality of processing cores. The plurality of first performance counter modules is operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of processing cores respectively. A plurality of second performance counter modules are coupled to a plurality of L2 cache units, and the plurality of second performance counter modules are operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of L2 cache units respectively. A central performance counter module may be operable to coordinate counter data from the plurality of first performance counter modules and the plurality of second performance modules, the a central performance counter module, the plurality of first performance counter modules, and the plurality of second performance counter modules connected by a daisy chain connection.

  17. Optimization of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ag/Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} multilayers as transparent composite electrode on flexible substrate with high figure of merit

    SciTech Connect

    Dhar, Aritra [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Alford, T. L. [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Different multilayer structures of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ag/Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} have been deposited onto flexible substrates by sputtering at room temperature to develop an indium free transparent composite electrode. The effect of Ag thickness on the electrical and optical properties of the multilayer stack has been studied in accordance with the Ag morphology. The critical thickness of Ag to form a continuous conducting layer is found to be 9.5 nm. A new conduction mechanism has been proposed to describe the conduction before and after the critical thickness. The effective Hall resistivity of the optimized films is as low as 6.44 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Ohm-Sign -cm with a carrier concentration and mobility of 7.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} and 13.1 cm{sup 2} /V-s, respectively, at the critical Ag layer thickness. The multilayer stack has been optimized to obtain a sheet resistance of 7.2 Ohm-Sign /sq and an average optical transmittance of 86% at 550 nm without any substrate heating or post-annealing process. The Haacke figure of merit (FOM) has been calculated for the films, and the multilayer with a 9.5 nm thick Ag layer has the highest FOM at 31.5 Multiplication-Sign 10-3 {Omega}{sup -1}, which is one of the highest FOM values reported for TCE deposited at room temperature on a flexible substrate.

  18. Transparent and Conductive Carbon Nanotube Multilayer Thin Films Suitable as an Indium Tin Oxide Replacement

    E-print Network

    Park, Yong Tae

    2012-07-16

    Transparent electrodes made from metal oxides suffer from poor flexibility and durability. Highly transparent and electrically conductive thin films based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were assembled as a potential indium tin oxide (ITO) replacement...

  19. Completely transparent conducting oxide-free and flexible dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated on plastic substrates.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kicheon; Kim, Jae-Yup; Lee, Jin Ah; Kim, Jin Soo; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Kyungkon; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, BongSoo; Kim, Honggon; Kim, Won Mok; Kim, Jong Hak; Ko, Min Jae

    2015-04-28

    To achieve commercialization and widespread application of next-generation photovoltaics, it is important to develop flexible and cost-effective devices. Given this, the elimination of expensive transparent conducting oxides (TCO) and replacement of conventional glass substrates with flexible plastic substrates presents a viable strategy to realize extremely low-cost photovoltaics with a potentially wide applicability. To this end, we report a completely TCO-free and flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated on a plastic substrate using a unique transfer method and back-contact architecture. By adopting unique transfer techniques, the working and counter electrodes were fabricated by transferring high-temperature-annealed TiO2 and Pt/carbon films, respectively, onto flexible plastic substrates without any exfoliation. The fabricated working electrode with the conventional counter electrode exhibited a record efficiency for flexible DSSCs of 8.10%, despite its TCO-free structure. In addition, the completely TCO-free and flexible DSSC exhibited a remarkable efficiency of 7.27%. Furthermore, by using an organic hole-transporting material (spiro-MeOTAD) with the same transfer method, solid-state flexible TCO-free DSSCs were also successfully fabricated, yielding a promising efficiency of 3.36%. PMID:25769343

  20. Use of silica aerogels in Cherenkov counters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. N. Kharzheev

    2008-01-01

    Silica aerogel is widely used as a radiator for Cherenkov detectors. It is a highly porous, low-density, and transparent substance\\u000a with refractive index n ranging between the values of n n ? 1.3 for condensed phases. The review is devoted to the consideration of various factors affecting the identification of\\u000a particles in Cherenkov counters: the chromatic aberration, the number of

  1. Transparency International

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Transparency International (TI) is a non-governmental organization concerned with "increasing governmental accountability and curbing both international and national corruption." Best known for its Corruption Perceptions Index (see the February 26, 1998 Scout Report for Business and Economics), Transparency International also offers a host of other corruption-related resources, including the TI Bribers's Pay Survey and TI Bribers's Pay Index, two resources on bribe-paying in international trade; an anti-corruption directory which serves as a reference guide to efforts in central and eastern European countries to support anti-corruption programs; working papers; and other publications. Also worthy of note is TI's ten-point program directed at pressuring the World Bank Organization to help strengthen its anti-corruption programs. The layout of the TI Website is somewhat confusing, but most of the organization's research efforts can be found in the Info Centre.

  2. Transparent and conformal 'piezoionic' touch sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    us Sarwar, Mirza S.; Dobashi, Yuta; Scabeni Glitz, Ettore F.; Farajollahi, Meisam; Mirabbasi, Shahriar; Naficy, Sina; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Madden, John D. W.

    2015-04-01

    A polyurethane hydrogel based touch sensor with high transparency and conformability is demonstrated. Polyurethane hydrogels swollen with various electrolytes were compressed at a pressure of 30 kPa, simulating a fingertap on a conventional touch screen device. Unlike ionic polymer metal composite and conducting polymer trilayer sensors, where electrodes render the sensors opaque and relatively rigid, the electrodes used in this work are metal wires or strips, separated from each other by regions of transparent film, enabling transparency and compliance. The voltages and currents observed when the perturbation is above one electrode are on the order of 10-2 V and 10-7 A, relative to a second electrode that is approximately 1 cm away. The sign of voltage and current signals detected from perturbations made between electrodes is determined by relative proximity to each electrode, and the magnitude appears to decrease with increasing distance from the electrodes. These observations suggest that it may be possible to discriminate the location of touch based on signals transmitted to the edges of an ionically conductive film. A model to describe the inhomogeneous ionic distribution and predict the resultant voltage and current is presented to qualitatively explain the sensing, based on the Donnan potential.

  3. Control of edge effects of oxidant electrode

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Peter (Utica, MI); Chi, Chen H. (Sterling Heights, MI)

    1981-09-08

    Described is an electrode assembly comprising; a. a porous electrode having a first and second exterior face with a cavity formed in the interior between said exterior faces thereby having first and second interior faces positioned opposite the first and second exterior faces; b. a counter electrode positioned facing each of the first and second exterior faces of the porous electrode; c. means for passing an oxidant through said porous electrode; and d. screening means for blocking the interior face of the porous electrode a greater amount than the blocking of the respective exterior face of the porous electrode, thereby maintaining a differential of oxidant electrode surface between the interior face and the exterior face. The electrode assembly is useful in a metal, halogen, halogen hydrate electrical energy storage device.

  4. Manufacturability of lab-on-chip devices : dimensional variation analysis of electrode foils using visual technology

    E-print Network

    Namvari, Kasra

    2011-01-01

    Electrodes are necessary components for measuring changes in electrical properties in many microfluidic devices. Daktari CD4 Cell Counter system utilizes an interdigitated electrode foil in order to measure the concentration ...

  5. Transparent switchboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, H. P. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A tin oxide coating is formed on a plate of glass and the coating is then etched away from the glass in thin lines to form separate electrical conductors which extend to one end of the plate and connect to either a vertical (column) or horizontal (row) position sensing SCR circuit. A thin transparent insulating coating is formed over the oxide layer except at selected touch points which are positioned in a matrix pattern of vertical columns and horizontal rows. Touching one of these points with a finger bridges the thin line between adjacent conductors to activate trigger circuits in the particular row and column sensing circuits associated with the point touched. The row and column sensing circuits are similar and are powered with a low frequency, ac voltage source. The source for the row circuits is 180 out of phase with the source for the column circuits so that one circuit acts as ground for the other during half of the supply voltage cycle. The signals from the sensing circuits are input to a logic circuit which determines the presence of a valid touch, stores a binary matrix number associated with the touched point, signals a computer of the presence of a stored number and prevents storage of a new number before receiving an enable signal from the computer.

  6. GASEOUS SCINTILLATION COUNTER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Eggler; C. M. Huddleston

    1959-01-01

    A gaseous excitation counter for detecting the presence amd measuring ; the energy of subatomic particles and electromagnetic radiation is described. ; The counter includes a gas-tight chamber filled with an elemental gas capable of ; producing ultra-violet excitation quanta when irradiated with subatomic particles ; and electromagnetic radiation. The gas has less than one in a thousand parts ;

  7. Pyrochemical multiplicity counter development

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, D.G.; Dytlewski, N.; Krick, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Impure plutonium-bearing materials from pyrochemical processes often display both significant self-multiplication and variable ({alpha},n) reaction rates. Standard neutron coincidence counting techniques usually fail to accurately measure these materials. Neutron multiplicity counters measure the third moment of the neutron multiplicity distribution and thus make it possible to deduce the fertile plutonium mass of a sample even when both the self-multiplication and the ({alpha},n) reaction rate are unknown. A multiplicity counter suitable for measuring pyrochemical materials has been designed and built. This paper describes the results of characterization studies for the new counter. The counter consists of 126 helium-3 tubes arranged in 4 concentric rings in a polyethylene moderator; the average spacing between the tubes is 1.59 cm. The end plugs for the counter are made of graphite, and the 24.1- by 37.5-cm sample cavity is cadmium lined. The counter consists of two distinct halves from which the neutron counts are summed. The counter is capable of operation in either a freestanding mode with the two halves coupled together by an external cabinet or in a glove-box mode with the two halves placed around a glovebox well and then mated. For a {sup 252}Cf source centered in the sample cavity, the measured efficiency of the new multiplicity counter is 57.7% and its die-away time is 47.2{mu}s. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Efficient low-temperature transparent electrocatalytic layers based on graphene oxide nanosheets for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seon Hee; Jeong, Eun Ji; Han, Joong Tark; Kang, Hyon Chol; Cha, Seung I; Lee, Dong Yoon; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2015-05-27

    Electrocatalytic materials with a porous structure have been fabricated on glass substrates, via high-temperature fabrication, for application as alternatives to platinum in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Efficient, nonporous, nanometer-thick electrocatalytic layers based on graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared on plastic substrates using electrochemical control at low temperatures of ?100 °C. Single-layer, oxygen-rich GO nanosheets prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates were electrochemically deoxygenated in acidic medium within a narrow scan range in order to obtain marginally reduced GO at minimum expense of the oxygen groups. The resulting electrochemically reduced GO (E-RGO) had a high density of residual alcohol groups with high electrocatalytic activity toward the positively charged cobalt-complex redox mediators used in DSCs. The ultrathin, alcohol-rich E-RGO layer on ITO-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) was successfully applied as a lightweight, low-temperature counter electrode with an extremely high optical transmittance of ?97.7% at 550 nm. A cobalt(II/III)-mediated DSC employing the highly transparent, alcohol-rich E-RGO electrode exhibited a photovoltaic power conversion efficiency of 5.07%. This is superior to that obtained with conventionally reduced GO using hydrazine (3.94%) and even similar to that obtained with platinum (5.10%). This is the first report of a highly transparent planar electrocatalytic layer based on carbonaceous materials fabricated on ITO plastics for application in DSCs. PMID:25945810

  9. Portable multiplicity counter

    DOEpatents

    Newell, Matthew R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jones, David Carl (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-09-01

    A portable multiplicity counter has signal input circuitry, processing circuitry and a user/computer interface disposed in a housing. The processing circuitry, which can comprise a microcontroller integrated circuit operably coupled to shift register circuitry implemented in a field programmable gate array, is configured to be operable via the user/computer interface to count input signal pluses receivable at said signal input circuitry and record time correlations thereof in a total counting mode, coincidence counting mode and/or a multiplicity counting mode. The user/computer interface can be for example an LCD display/keypad and/or a USB interface. The counter can include a battery pack for powering the counter and low/high voltage power supplies for biasing external detectors so that the counter can be configured as a hand-held device for counting neutron events.

  10. High-Energy\\/Low-Energy Proportional Counter (HEPC\\/LEPC) detector systems on the SRG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl C. Budtz-Joergensen; Axel Bahnsen; M. M. Madsen; C. Olesen; P. Jonasson; Herbert W. Schnopper

    1994-01-01

    The low energy proportional counter LEPC (0.2 - 8 keV) and the high energy proportional counter HEPC (2 - 25 keV) for the Danish-Russian X-ray telescopes XSPECT\\/SODART are presently being tested at DSRI. The sensor principle of these detectors is based on the novel micro strip gas counter (MSGC) where the strip electrodes are deposited by photolithography onto a rigid

  11. Application of microstrip proportional counters at the Danish Space Research Institute

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Budtz-Jørgensen; A. Bahnsen; M. Møhl Madsen; C. Olesen; P. Jonasson; H. W. Schnopper

    1994-01-01

    The low energy proportional counter LEPC (0.2-8 keV) and the high energy proportional counter HEPC (2-25 keV) for the Danish-Russian X-ray telescopes XSPECT\\/SODART are presently being tested at DSRI. The sensor principle of these detectors is based on the novel microstrip proportional counter (MSPC) where the strip electrodes are deposited by photolithography onto a rigid substrate. The MSPC offers many

  12. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.; Fan, X.

    1998-10-27

    An electrode composition is described for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C{sub 8}-C{sub 15} alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5--4.5 volts.

  13. Soils. Transparency Masters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This document is a collection of 43 overhead transparency masters to be used as teaching aids in a course of study involving soils such as geology, agronomy, hydrology, earth science, or land use study. Some transparencies are in color. Selected titles of transparencies may give the reader a better understanding of the graphic content. Titles are:…

  14. Compressor surge counter

    DOEpatents

    Castleberry, Kimberly N. (Harriman, TN)

    1983-01-01

    A surge counter for a rotating compressor is provided which detects surging by monitoring the vibration signal from an accelerometer mounted on the shaft bearing of the compressor. The circuit detects a rapid increase in the amplitude envelope of the vibration signal, e.g., 4 dB or greater in less than one second, which is associated with a surge onset and increments a counter. The circuit is rendered non-responsive for a period of about 5 seconds following the detection which corresponds to the duration of the surge condition. This prevents multiple registration of counts during the surge period due to rapid swings in vibration amplitude during the period.

  15. Silver nanowire-based transparent, flexible, and conductive thin film

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication of transparent, conductive, and uniform silver nanowire films using the scalable rod-coating technique is described in this study. Properties of the transparent conductive thin films are investigated, as well as the approaches to improve the performance of transparent silver nanowire electrodes. It is found that silver nanowires are oxidized during the coating process. Incubation in hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor can eliminate oxidized surface, and consequently, reduce largely the resistivity of silver nanowire thin films. After HCl treatment, 175 ?/sq and approximately 75% transmittance are achieved. The sheet resistivity drops remarkably with the rise of the film thickness or with the decrease of transparency. The thin film electrodes also demonstrated excellent flexible stability, showing < 2% resistance change after over 100 bending cycles. PMID:21711602

  16. The art of transparency

    PubMed Central

    Sayim, Bilge; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Artists throughout the ages have discovered a number of techniques to depict transparency. With only a few exceptions, these techniques follow closely the properties of physical transparency. The two best known properties are X-junctions and the luminance relations described by Metelli. X-junctions are seen where the contours of a transparent material cross contours of the surface behind; Metelli's constraints on the luminance relations between the direct and filtered portions of the surface specify a range of luminance values that are consistent with transparency. These principles have been used by artists since the time of ancient Egypt. However, artists also discovered that stimuli can be seen as transparent even when these physical constraints are not met. Ancient Greek artists, for example, were able to depict transparent materials in simple black-and-white line drawings. Artists also learned how to represent transparency in cases where neither X-junctions nor Metelli's constraints could apply: for example, where no portions of the objects behind the transparent material extend beyond it. Many painters convincingly portrayed transparency in these cases by depicting the effects the transparent medium would have on material or object properties. Here, we show how artists employed these and other techniques revealing their anticipation of current formalizations of perceived transparency, and we suggest new, as-yet-untested principles. PMID:23145252

  17. Transparent electronic conductors in electrochromic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Misonou, M.; Kawahara, H. [Nippon Sheet Glass Co., Ltd., Hyogo (Japan). Central Research Lab.

    1990-12-31

    Materials with both high transparency and high electrical conductance have recently attracted growing technological interest. Applications of such materials include coatings for windows with ability of deicing and demisting, coatings, for electromagnetic shielding and antistatic coatings. Today, their application has been extended toward optoelectronic devices. They are being used for the fabrication of a variety of devices such as photovoltaic devices, display devices and light control devices which include electrochromic devices. Here, transparent electronic conductors are discussed with regard to their properties required by electrochromic devices at first. Since an electrochromic device is a so called current-driven device, it requires substantially low electrical resistance. In fact, the performance of transparent electrodes is one of the key factors to limit the performance of the electrochromic devices today. Next, materials having a potential to satisfy the device requirements are reviewed. Candidates are thin metals and heavily doped semiconductors with wide band gap. Among them wide gap semiconductors, especially metal oxides, are more relevant than metals with respect to chemical durability and electrical and optical performances. Coating technologies for large area transparent electrodes are presented for two special cases; one is chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology for tin oxide coating and the other is sputtering technology for indium tin oxide(ITO) coating. Both are widely recognized as materials showing superior performance, and in fact they are commonly used for the above mentioned applications.

  18. Organic solar cells with carbon nanotube network electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Rowell; Mark A. Topinka; Michael D. McGehee; Hans-Jürgen Prall; Gilles Dennler; Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci; Liangbing Hu; George Gruner

    2006-01-01

    We fabricated flexible transparent conducting electrodes by printing films of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks on plastic and have demonstrated their use as transparent electrodes for efficient, flexible polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells. The printing method produces relatively smooth, homogeneous films with a transmittance of 85% at 550 nm and a sheet resistance (Rs) of 200 Omega\\/□. Cells were fabricated on

  19. Magnetron cathodes in plasma electrode Pockels cells

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, M.A.

    1995-04-25

    Magnetron cathodes, which produce high current discharges, form greatly improved plasma electrodes on each side of an electro-optic crystal. The plasma electrode has a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the plasma is transparent. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. A typical configuration utilizes helium at 50 millitorr operating pressure and 2 kA discharge current. The magnetron cathode produces a more uniform plasma and allows a reduced operating pressure which leads to lower plasma resistivity and a more uniform charge on the crystal. 5 figs.

  20. Method for control of edge effects of oxidant electrode

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Peter (Utica, MI); Chi, Chen H. (Sterling Heights, MI)

    1980-12-23

    Described is an electrode assembly comprising; a. a porous electrode having a first and second exterior face with a cavity formed in the interior between said exterior faces thereby having first and second interior faces positioned opposite the first and second exterior faces; b. a counter electrode positioned facing each of the first and second exterior faces of the porous electrode; c. means for passing an oxidant through said porous electrode; and d. screening means for blocking the interior face of the porous electrode a greater amount than the blocking of the respective exterior face of the porous electrode, thereby maintaining a differential of oxidant electrode surface between the interior face and the exterior face. The electrode assembly is useful in a metal, halogen, halogen hydrate electrical energy storage device.

  1. Semitransparent Organic Photovoltaic Cells with Laminated Top Electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Yong Lee; Steve T. Connor; Yi Cui; Peter Peumans

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate semitransparent small molecular weight organic photovoltaic cells using a laminated silver nanowire mesh as a transparent, conductive cathode layer. The lamination process does not damage the underlying solar cell and results in a transparent electrode with low sheet resistance and high optical transmittance without impacting photocurrent collection. The resulting semitransparent phthalocyanine\\/fullerene organic solar cell has a power conversion

  2. Organic against inorganic electrodes grown onto polymer substrates for flexible organic electronics applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Logothetidis; A. Laskarakis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most challenging topics in the area of organic electronic devices is the growth of transparent electrodes onto flexible polymeric substrates that will be characterized by enhanced conductivity in combination with high optical transparency. An essential aspect for these materials is their synthesis and\\/or microstructure which define the transparency, the stability and the interfacial chemistry which in turn

  3. Transparent flexible plastic substrates for organic light-emitting devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongtaek Hong; Zhiqi He; Nancy S. Lennhoff; David A. Banach; Jerzy Kanicki

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the properties of flexible plastic substrates with a transparent conducting electrode (TCE), which\\u000a are important for organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). Specifically, we have evaluated the TCE electrical resistivity,\\u000a surface roughness, electrode patterning, optical transmission, and the substrate water vapor\\/oxygen transmission. We have\\u000a studied the effect of ultraviolet (UV)-ozone treatment on the TCE surface by using

  4. Highly transparent, conductive, flexible resin films embedded with silver nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yaqiu; Xi, Jun; Wu, Zhaoxin; Dong, Hua; Zhao, Zhixu; Jiao, Bo; Hou, Xun

    2015-05-01

    In this article, a low sheet resistance and highly transparent silver nanowire (AgNW) resin composite film was demonstrated, which was prepared by a simple and efficacious two-step spin-coating method. By burying the AgNWs below the surface of the transparent resin matrix which was cured at 150 °C in air, we achieved a uniform, highly transparent, conductive, flexible film. Compared to the reported transparent electrodes, this composite transparent and conductive film showed 10 ?/? sheet resistance and nearly 90% mean optical transmittance over the UV-visible range simultaneously. Undergoing hundreds of cycles of tensile and compression folding, the composite film slightly increased its sheet resistance by less than 5%, displaying good electromechanical flexibility. These characteristics of the composite AgNW-resin films were expected to be used in applications of flexible optoelectronics. PMID:25867173

  5. Direct-driven electrochromic displays based on nanocrystalline electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Pettersson; Tadeusz Gruszecki; Lars-Henrik Johansson; Mårten O. M. Edwards; Anders Hagfeldt; Tomasz Matuszczyk

    2004-01-01

    Electrochromic reflective displays based on nanocrystalline metal-oxide working electrodes with chemisorbed organic electrochromic molecules have been developed. We have combined such electrodes with nanocrystalline capacitive counter electrodes, a white reflector layer, and an electrochemically inert electrolyte. Device components and process technology have been developed, resulting in direct-driven displays with promising stability and attractive paper-like visual qualities. This paper describes the

  6. Countering the New Terrorism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arquilla, John.

    _Countering the New Terrorism_, a new 153-page book published by RAND, has recently been made available online. The book contains four chapters that address the changes, trends, and implications of the new terrorism. The introductory chapter, written by Ian O. Lesser, overviews the changes in terrorism in a changing world. The second chapter, "Terrorism Trends and Prospects," by Bruce Hoffman, looks at trends in international terrorism. Chapter three, "Networks, Netwar, and Information-Age Terrorism," by John Arquilla, David Ronfeldt, and Michele Zanini, examines the special problem of terrorism in the information age. The final chapter, "Countering the New Terrorism: Implications for Strategy," also by Lesser, suggests how to meet terrorist challenges to US interests. The book also includes three figures, one table, an index, and a foreword by Brian Michael Jenkins. Each part of the online book is provided as an individual .pdf file.

  7. Counter-Strike

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Jong

    In 1999, computer game developer Minh Le releases a free modification of Half-Life (Valve 1998) called Counter-Strike. He reworks the Half-Life “engine” to create a realistic multiplayer environment where players can play against each other — shooting “real” people\\u000a instead of bots. Before the battle starts, the player has to choose between acting as part of a terrorist group or

  8. Bean Counter Accounting Tutorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marshall, Dave

    Frustrated with the lack of free accounting information available on the internet, Dave Marshall, small business owner of Bean Counter accounting services, created a tutorial of his own. Designed for the lay person, the tutorial steps the user through the basics of accounting. The tutorial is split into seven lessons, starting with basic definitions and terminology and then introduces the user to topics such as double entry bookkeeping and property rights.

  9. Simple Coulter Counter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NSF CAREER Award and RET Program,

    Students build and use a very basic Coulter electric sensing zone particle counter to count an unknown number of particles in a sample of "paint" to determine if enough particles per ml of "paint" exist to meet a quality standard. In a lab experiment, student teams each build an apparatus and circuit, set up data acquisition equipment, make a salt-soap solution, test liquid flow in the apparatus, take data, and make graphs to count particles.

  10. Efficient Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells with Graphene Electrodes.

    PubMed

    You, Peng; Liu, Zhike; Tai, Qidong; Liu, Shenghua; Yan, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Semitransparent perovskite solar cells are prepared by laminating graphene transparent electrodes on the top for the first time. The device performance is optimized by improving the conductivity of the graphene electrodes and the contact between the graphene and the perovskite active layers during the lamination process. The devices show high power conversion efficiencies when they are illuminated from both sides. PMID:25969400

  11. Modeling of plasma behavior in a plasma electrode Pockels cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles D. Boley; Mark A. Rhodes

    1999-01-01

    We present three interrelated models of plasma behavior in a plasma electrode Pockels cell (PEPC). In a PEPC, plasma discharges are formed on both sides of a thin, large-aperture electro-optic crystal (typically KDP). The plasmas act as optically transparent, highly conductive electrodes, allowing uniform application of a longitudinal field to induce birefringence in the crystal. First, we model the plasma

  12. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  13. Vibrational spectroscopy at electrolyte/electrode interfaces with graphene gratings

    PubMed Central

    Bie, Ya-Qing; Horng, Jason; Shi, Zhiwen; Ju, Long; Zhou, Qin; Zettl, Alex; Yu, Dapeng; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic understanding of physical and electrochemical processes at electrolyte/electrode interfaces is critical for applications ranging from batteries, fuel cells to electrocatalysis. However, probing such buried interfacial processes is experimentally challenging. Infrared spectroscopy is sensitive to molecule vibrational signatures, yet to approach the interface three stringent requirements have to be met: interface specificity, sub-monolayer molecular detection sensitivity, and electrochemically stable and infrared transparent electrodes. Here we show that transparent graphene gratings electrode provide an attractive platform for vibrational spectroscopy at the electrolyte/electrode interfaces: infrared diffraction from graphene gratings offers enhanced detection sensitivity and interface specificity. We demonstrate the vibrational spectroscopy of methylene group of adsorbed sub-monolayer cetrimonium bromide molecules and reveal a reversible field-induced electrochemical deposition of cetrimonium bromide on the electrode controlled by the bias voltage. Such vibrational spectroscopy with graphene gratings is promising for real time and in situ monitoring of different chemical species at the electrolyte/electrode interfaces. PMID:26123807

  14. Vibrational spectroscopy at electrolyte/electrode interfaces with graphene gratings.

    PubMed

    Bie, Ya-Qing; Horng, Jason; Shi, Zhiwen; Ju, Long; Zhou, Qin; Zettl, Alex; Yu, Dapeng; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic understanding of physical and electrochemical processes at electrolyte/electrode interfaces is critical for applications ranging from batteries, fuel cells to electrocatalysis. However, probing such buried interfacial processes is experimentally challenging. Infrared spectroscopy is sensitive to molecule vibrational signatures, yet to approach the interface three stringent requirements have to be met: interface specificity, sub-monolayer molecular detection sensitivity, and electrochemically stable and infrared transparent electrodes. Here we show that transparent graphene gratings electrode provide an attractive platform for vibrational spectroscopy at the electrolyte/electrode interfaces: infrared diffraction from graphene gratings offers enhanced detection sensitivity and interface specificity. We demonstrate the vibrational spectroscopy of methylene group of adsorbed sub-monolayer cetrimonium bromide molecules and reveal a reversible field-induced electrochemical deposition of cetrimonium bromide on the electrode controlled by the bias voltage. Such vibrational spectroscopy with graphene gratings is promising for real time and in situ monitoring of different chemical species at the electrolyte/electrode interfaces. PMID:26123807

  15. Transparent, conducting films based on metal\\/dielectric photonic band gaps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. Bloemer; Michael Scalora; G. D'Aguanno; Charles M. Bowden; Salvatore Baglio; Concita Sibilia; M. Centini; Mario Bertolotti

    1999-01-01

    A transparent conductor has been developed based on 1D metal\\/dielectric photonic band gap structures. Laminated metal\\/dielectric filters containing 100 nm of silver have been fabricated with > 50% transmittance. Applications for transparent, conducting films include antennas embedded in windshields, electrodes on flat panel displays, electromagnetic shielding, and solar window panes.

  16. Talking about Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Rae

    2009-01-01

    In his inaugural address, U.S. President Barack Obama linked the need to demonstrate accountability and transparency to the earning of trust. His connection of these dots is not surprising, since taxpayers often expect accountability and transparency from their governments, just as governments, donors, alumni, and students expect accountability…

  17. Electro-optical switches with plasma electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1984-03-01

    A transparent electrode concept using low-pressure ionized gas in the glow discharge regime is proposed for large-aperture electro-optic switch applications. A longitudinal Pockels cell and an electro-optically tuned second-harmonic-generation cell using KDP have successfully demonstrated the concept. 4 references, 4 figures.

  18. Subdural Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Lesser, Ronald P.; Crone, Nathan E.; Webber, W.R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Subdural electrodes are frequently used to aid in the neurophysiological assessment of patients with intractable seizures. We review the indications for these, their uses for localizing epileptogenic regions and for localizing cortical regions supporting movement, sensation, and language. PMID:20573543

  19. Silver Nanowires (AgNWs) Embedded Electrodes for Gel Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Yuta; Gong, Jin; Hasnat Kabir, M.; Makino, Masato; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    In the field of electronic devices, the demand of polymer electrodes, which have high conductivity, high flexibility and transparence, is increasing. The polyelectrolyte of high-strength gels was made to improve the mechanical properties in our previous study [1]. In this study, we attempt to make a transparent polymer electrode by laminating polymer thin film and silver nanowires (AgNWs). High transparence poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film, which is produced by using solvent cast method. AgNWs are prepared by reacting Silver chloride (AgCl) with Silver nitrate (AgNO3) based on previous study[2]. The AgNWs taking on different shapes are obtained. Particle and fibrous AgNWs are formed by using low and high molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), respectively (Fig. 1). The possibility of developing the polymer electrode with high conductivity, high flexibility and transparence is shown from these results.

  20. Nanotube Film Electrodes in Electro-Optic Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhuangchun Wu; Jeremiah K. Mwaura; Maria Nikolou; Timothy Steckler; David B. Tanner; John R. Reynolds; Andrew G. Rinzler

    2006-01-01

    The interface between conjugated polymers and conducting electrodes is crucial for the operation of organic electronic devices such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), electrochromics and photovoltaics. Transparent electrodes in these devices have been based mostly on indium tin oxide (ITO). There have been efforts to develop conducting polymer electrodes, and some success has been realized with films based on poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene

  1. Monolithic Tandem Organic Photovoltaic Cell Utilizing Transparent Carbon Nanotube Interlayer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamil Mielczarek; Senku Tanaka; Raquel Ovalle Robles; Alexander Kuznetsov; Brian Wang; Dean Hsu; Ray Baughman; Anvar Zakhidov

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate an organic photovoltaic multijunction cell in a monolithic parallel tandem structure in which transparent multi and single-walled nanotube sheets are used as an interlayer electrode connecting two cells; polymeric photovoltaic (PPV) cell or organic low molecular PV (OPV). Each cell is characterized independently and the short circuit current density of the tandem is shown to be larger than

  2. Proportional counters using commercial equipment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Vinogradov; L. I. Chigarev; S. P. Rybak

    1961-01-01

    1.The use of the Moscow mains gas for the above counters and for the 4p counter [1] makes proportional flow counters more practical and easier to operate.2.When the gas is burnt on ordinary laboratory burners its consumption varies between 4 and 25 liter\\/hr. Since the efficiency of counting remains practically constant despite this variation, no additional devices for controlling the

  3. Low latency counter event indication

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY)

    2010-08-24

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events with interrupt indication includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each for counting signals representing event occurrences and providing a first count value representing lower order bits. An overflow bit device associated with each respective counter device is additionally set in response to an overflow condition. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits. An operatively coupled control device monitors each associated overflow bit device and initiates incrementing a second count value stored at a corresponding memory location in response to a respective overflow bit being set. The incremented second count value is compared to an interrupt threshold value stored in a threshold register, and, when the second counter value is equal to the interrupt threshold value, a corresponding "interrupt arm" bit is set to enable a fast interrupt indication. On a subsequent roll-over of the lower bits of that counter, the interrupt will be fired.

  4. In0.53Ga0.47As metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes with transparent cadmium tin oxide Schottky contacts

    E-print Network

    In0.53Ga0.47As metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes with transparent cadmium tin oxide Schottky August 1994 A metal-semiconductor-metal MSM In0.53Ga0.47As photodiode using a transparent cadmium tin oxide CTO layer for the interdigitated electrodes was investigated. The transparent contact prevents

  5. Effects of electrodes on space charge in low-density polyethylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hori; K. Kaneko; T. Mizutani; M. Ishioka

    2003-01-01

    The effects of electrode on space charge in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were measured with the pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method. The thickness of a specimen was about 100 ?m. The electrode materials used were aluminum and semiconductive (SC) polymer. Charge carriers were mainly injected from the SC electrode in a specimen of A1\\/LDPE\\/SC and they moved to the counter A1 electrode.

  6. Transparency and imaginary colors

    E-print Network

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    Unlike the Metelli monochrome transparencies, when overlays and their backgrounds have chromatic content, the inferred surface colors may not always be physically realizable, and are in some sense “imaginary.” In these ...

  7. Effect of the Mesh Transparency on the Electrical Characteristics of DC Pseudo Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. Abd Al-Halim, M.; Abu-Hashem, A.; I. Moubarak, D.

    2015-06-01

    A DC pseudo discharge for air has been studied. Air pressure is used in the range between 0.7 Torr and 12 Torr. The breakdown occurs between a plane cathode and a mesh anode at transparencies of 19%, 46%, and 65%. The current-voltage characteristic curves of the discharge, which are measured at different pressures, distances, and mesh transparences, take effect in the region of abnormal glow. The discharge voltage decreases as the air pressure increases, while more voltage is needed to maintain the discharge when either the mesh transparency or the inter-electrode distance is increased. An increment of mesh transparency causes high negative potential behind the mesh due to the high concentration of electrons, which accumulate and collide with neutral atoms. Paschen curves deviate from the expected regular one. The left side of Paschen curves appears at inter-electrode distance of 1 mm, whereas the right side appears at inter-electrode distance of 5 mm. The intermediate region is observed only at 3 mm distance between the two electrodes. For the transparency range used in this work, it is found that the decrement of the breakdown voltage, on the right side, depends on the mesh transparency. For different electrode separations, the measured Paschen curves are coincident and deviate from the standard ones of Paschen's law.

  8. California Science Explorer Transparencies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of transparencies features materials for life science, earth science, and physical sciences. The transparencies are downloadable and printable, or can be viewed on-screen. Earth Science topics include plate tectonics and the Earth's structure; landforms and weathering; water, hydrology, and weather; and ecosystems and food webs. Life science topics include, among others, evolution and the Earth's history, and structure and function in living things. Physical science topics include motion, forces, and energy; sound and light; and electricity and magnetism.

  9. Multi-layer electrode for high contrast electrochromic devices

    DOEpatents

    Schwendeman, Irina G. (Wexford, PA); Finley, James J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA); Boykin, Cheri M. (Wexford, PA)

    2011-11-01

    An electrochromic device includes a first substrate spaced from a second substrate. A first transparent conductive electrode is formed over at least a portion of the first substrate. A polymeric anode is formed over at least a portion of the first conductive electrode. A second transparent conductive electrode is formed over at least a portion of the second substrate. In one aspect of the invention, a multi-layer polymeric cathode is formed over at least a portion of the second conductive electrode. In one non-limiting embodiment, the multi-layer cathode includes a first cathodically coloring polymer formed over at least a portion of the second conductive electrode and a second cathodically coloring polymer formed over at least a portion of the first cathodically coloring polymer. An ionic liquid is positioned between the anode and the cathode.

  10. Over-the-Counter Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains and itches. Some prevent or cure ... the Food and Drug Administration decides whether a medicine is safe enough to sell over-the-counter. ...

  11. Plasmonic electrodes for bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaics: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petoukhoff, Christopher E.; Shen, Zeqing; Jain, Manika; Chang, AiMei; O'Carroll, Deirdre M.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress on the integration of plasmonic electrodes into bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices. Plasmonic electrodes, consisting of thin films of metallic nanostructures, can exhibit a number of optical, electrical, and morphological effects that can be exploited to improve performance parameters of ultrathin photovoltaic active layers. We review the various types of plasmonic electrodes that have been incorporated into organic photovoltaics such as nanohole, nanowire, and nanoparticle arrays and grating electrodes and their impact on various device performance parameters. The use of plasmonic back electrodes can impact device performance in a number of ways because the mechanisms of performance improvements are often a complex combination of optical, electrical, and structural effects. Inverted bulk heterojunction device architectures have been shown to benefit from the multifunctionality of plasmonic back electrodes as they can minimize space-charge effects and reduce hole carrier collection lengths in addition to providing improved light localization in the active layer. The use of semi-transparent plasmonic electrodes can also be beneficial for organic photovoltaics as they can exhibit a variety of optical properties such as light scattering, light localization, extraordinary transmission of light, and absorption-induced transparency, in addition to providing an alternative to metal oxide-based transparent electrodes.

  12. Synthesizing a Healable Stretchable Transparent Conductor.

    PubMed

    Li, Junpeng; Qi, Shuhua; Liang, Jiajie; Li, Lu; Xiong, Yan; Hu, Wei; Pei, Qibing

    2015-07-01

    We report the first demonstration of a healable stretchable transparent electrode comprising a silver nanowire (AgNW) network and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT) hybrid layer in the surface of a Diels-Alder elastomer substrate. The thin PEDOT layer solders the silver nanowires and confines the nanowire network in the substrate surface. The bonding between the nanowires and PEDOT is tuned via ethanol-water wetting, which allows for large-strain prestretching of the AgNW network. The composite electrode prepared via such a wetting and prestretching treatment has a figure-of-merit sheet resistance of 15 ohm/sq with 78% transmittance at 550 nm and can be stretched by 100% strain. Damages caused by razor blade cutting on the conductive surface could be healed, and the damaging-healing could be repeated for three times at the same location. The healed electrode exhibits similar resistance-strain response as the fresh electrode because of the PEDOT layer being capable of circumventing broken nanowire sites. Fatigue-induced damages after 100 cycles of 60% strain can also be healed by simple heating. PMID:26062004

  13. A portable neutron coincidence counter

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, A.J.; Bowyer, S.M.; Craig, R.A.; Dudder, G.B.; Knopf, M.A.; Panisko, M.E.; Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Sunberg, D.S.

    1996-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has designed and constructed a prototype portable neutron coincidence counter intended for use in a variety of applications, such as the verification and inspection of weapons components, safety measurements for novel and challenging situations, portable portal deployment to prevent the transportation of fissile materials, uranium enrichment measurements in hard-to-reach locations, waste assays for objects that cannot be measured by existing measurement systems, and decontamination and decommissioning. The counting system weighs less than 40 kg and is composed of parts each weighing no more than 5 kg. In addition, the counter`s design is sufficiently flexible to allow rapid, reliable assembly around containers of nearly arbitrary size and shape. The counter is able to discern the presence of 1 kg of weapons-grade plutonium within an ALR-8 (30-gal drum) in roughly 100 seconds and 10 g in roughly 1000 seconds. The counter`s electronics are also designed for maximum adaptability, allowing operation under a wide variety of circumstances, including exposure to gamma-ray fields of 1 R/h. This report provides a detailed review of the design and construction process. Finally, preliminary experimental measurements that confirm the performance capabilities of this counter are discussed. 6 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Recent advances in hybrids of carbon nanotube network films and nanomaterials for their potential applications as transparent conducting films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung Bo Yang; Byung-Seon Kong; Dae-Hwan Jung; Youn-Kyoung Baek; Chang-Soo Han; Sang-Keun Oh; Hee-Tae Jung

    2011-01-01

    The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as transparent conducting films is one of the most promising aspects of CNT-based applications due to their high electrical conductivity, transparency, and flexibility. However, despite many efforts in this field, the conductivity of carbon nanotube network films at high transmittance is still not sufficient to replace the present electrodes, indium tin oxide (ITO), due

  15. Two-Color-Counter Toss

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    In this probability lesson plan students explore the concept of probability and learn to use the language of probability to describe outcomes. Students conduct an experiment with a two color counter, making prediction ahead of time, collecting data as the experiment is conducted, and then reporting their results. A similar experiment is then conducted with two two-color counters. A student recording sheet and a worksheet on probability statements are included in PDF format.

  16. Contrast enhancement of transparencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shulman, A. R.; Lee, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    System can enhance or reduce contrast of photographic transparency for printing or projection by using constructive and destructive interference of collimated laser beam. System is potentially less expensive than electronic CRT methods and is more accurate than trial-and-error manual techniques.

  17. An impedimetric approach for accurate particle sizing using a microfluidic Coulter counter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashish V. Jagtiani; Joan Carletta; Jiang Zhe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design, impedimetric characterization and testing of a microfabricated Coulter counter for particle size measurement that uses a pair of thin film coplanar Au\\/Ti electrodes. An electrical equivalent circuit model of the designed device is analyzed. Accurate measurement of particle size was achieved by operating the device at a frequency for which the overall impedance

  18. Electromagnetically induced transparency by NMR

    E-print Network

    Son, HyungBin, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) is a quantum nonlinear optical interference effect in which light at a certain frequency makes normally opaque atomic systems transparent to light at another frequency. Recent ...

  19. Progress towards cavity induced transparency

    E-print Network

    Li, Tracy (Tracy Yang)

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), cavity induced transparency (CIT) uses a cavity rather than a laser to couple a ground state with the excited state of a three-level system. In this thesis, I ...

  20. EDITORIAL: On display with transparent conducting films On display with transparent conducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-03-01

    Transparent conducting films were already featuring in scientific literature over one hundred years ago. In 1894 Aryton and Mather described a conducting varnish for coating the screens of electric apparatus so they would not charge when accidentally brushed by a coat sleeve or other material [1]. Their method began with a similar approach to that used to make savoury jellies; by dissolving gelatine in vinegar, after which less palatable ingredients were incorporated including sulphuric acid and an antisulphuric enamel. While the search for transparent conducting films continued to attract other researchers, the same problem remained: the transparency would be compromised if the film was too thick, and the conductivity would be compromised if the film was too thin. In the early 1950s Gillham and Preston reported that thin gold films sputtered on bismuth oxide and heated resulted in a material that successfully combined the previously mutually exclusive properties of transparency and conductivity [2]. Other oxide films were also found to favourably combine these properties, including tin oxide, as reported by Ishiguro and colleagues in Japan in 1958 [3]. Today tin oxide doped with indium (ITO) has become the industry standard for transparent conducting films in a range of applications including photovoltaic technology and displays. It is perhaps the mounting ubiquity of electronic displays as a result of the increasingly digitised and computerised environment of the modern day world that has begun to underline the main drawback of ITO: expense. In this issue, a collaboration of researchers in Korea present an overview of graphene as a transparent conducting material with the potential to replace ITO in a range of electronic and optoelectronic applications [4]. One of the first innovations in optical microscopy was the use of dyes. This principle first came into practice with the use of ultraviolet light to reveal previously indistinguishable features. As explained by a researcher in the early 1930s, 'It is obvious that if the dyes used for selective staining in ordinary microscopical work are supplemented by substances which cause a particular detail of the structure to fluoresce with a specific colour in ultraviolet light, then many strings will be added to the bow of the practical microscopist' [3]. More recently, emphasis on the role of plasmons—collective oscillations of electrons in nanoscale metal structures—has received considerable research attention. Plasmons enhance the local electromagnetic field and can lead to increased fluorescence rates from nearby fluorophores depending on the efficiency of the counteracting process, non-radiative transfer [4]. Flat ITO films have been used extensively in photovoltaic studies as transparent electrodes [5]. Over the past few years, nanowire structures have recently been used to increase the surface area of the interface between dye and oxide in dye-sensitized solar cells [6]. A collaboration of researchers in China and Australia has recently extended the innovation of the nanowire structure to the ITO electrode [7]. Using cyclic voltammetry the researchers confirmed that using a 3D ITO-nanowire electrode significantly enhanced the reaction current. Despite its attractive properties, alternatives to ITO are now in high demand. The rise in devices requiring flat electronic displays has begun to overwhelm the legitimacy of using such a rare element as indium for transparent conducting films. ITO is also brittle, causing problems for flexible displays. Films of carbon nanotubes have been proposed for transparent conducting films but improvements to the sheet resistance are needed before they can compete with the performance of ITO. The effects of HNO3 treatment on the resistivity of carbon nanotube films has attracted some debate in the community, and stimulated the work of Ji-Beom Yoo and colleagues in Korea [8]. Their results suggest that p-type doping has a larger effect on the sheet resistance of HNO3 treated carbon-nanotube films than the removal of residual N-methylpy

  1. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-09-01

    One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.

  2. Solution-processed transparent blue organic light-emitting diodes with graphene as the top cathode

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jung-Hung; Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Wang, Po-Chuan; Taur, Jieh-I; Ku, Ting-An; Chen, Wei-Ting; Yan, Shiang-Jiuan; Wu, Chih-I

    2015-01-01

    Graphene thin films have great potential to function as transparent electrodes in organic electronic devices, due to their excellent conductivity and high transparency. Recently, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)have been successfully demonstrated to possess high luminous efficiencies with p-doped graphene anodes. However, reliable methods to fabricate n-doped graphene cathodes have been lacking, which would limit the application of graphene in flexible electronics. In this paper, we demonstrate fully solution-processed OLEDs with n-type doped multilayer graphene as the top electrode. The work function and sheet resistance of graphene are modified by an aqueous process which can also transfer graphene on organic devices as the top electrodes. With n-doped graphene layers used as the top cathode, all-solution processed transparent OLEDs can be fabricated without any vacuum process. PMID:25892370

  3. Counter-rotating accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyda, S.; Lovelace, R. V. E.; Ustyugova, G. V.; Romanova, M. M.; Koldoba, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud on to the surface of an existing corotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inwards to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc centre. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of viscous counter-rotating discs for the cases where the two components are vertically separated and radially separated. The viscosity is described by an isotropic ?-viscosity including all terms in the viscous stress tensor. For the vertically separated components, a shear layer forms between them and the middle part of this layer free-falls to the disc centre. The accretion rates are increased by factors of ˜102-104 over that for a conventional disc rotating in one direction with the same viscosity. The vertical width of the shear layer and the accretion rate are strongly dependent on the viscosity and the mass fraction of the counter-rotating gas. In the case of radially separated components where the inner disc corotates and the outer disc rotates in the opposite direction, a gap between the two components opens and closes quasi-periodically. The accretion rates are ?25 times larger than those for a disc rotating in one direction with the same viscosity.

  4. Modiolus-hugging intracochlear electrode array with shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyou Sik; Jun, Sang Beom; Lim, Yoon Seob; Park, Se-Ik; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA-) embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications. PMID:23762181

  5. Transparent armour materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Klement; S. Rolc; R. Mikulikova; J. Krestan

    2008-01-01

    The ballistic performance of transparent ceramic and glass materials was investigated. Various types of layered sandwich composites were compared from the ballistic resistance viewpoint. Layered sandwiches from soda-lime silicate float glass and also sandwiches with sapphire top layer were prepared. Their ballistic resistances against two types of 7.62mm caliber armour-piercing (AP) ammunition of protection level 3 according to NATO Standardization

  6. Evaluation of Solution-Processed Reduced Graphene Oxide Films as Transparent Conductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Héctor A. Becerril; Jie Mao; Zunfeng Liu; Randall M. Stoltenberg; Zhenan Bao; Yongsheng Chen

    2008-01-01

    Processable, single-layered graphene oxide (GO) is an intriguing nanomaterial with tremendous potential for electronic applications. We spin-coated GO thin-films on quartz and characterized their sheet resistance and optical transparency using different reduction treatments. A thermal graphitization procedure wasmosteffective,producingfilmswithsheetresistancesaslowas102103\\/squarewith80%transmittance for 550 nm light. Our experiments demonstrate solution-processed GOfilms have potential as transparent electrodes.

  7. Light Management in Transparent Conducting Oxides by Direct Fabrication of Periodic Surface Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, S.; Sachse, C.; Lasagni, A. F.

    Line- and hexagonal-like periodic textures were fabricated on aluminium zinc oxide (AZO) using direct laser interference patterning method. It was found that hexagonally patterned surfaces show a higher performance in both transparency and diffraction properties compared to line-like textured and non-patterned substrates. Furthermore, the electrical resistance of the processed AZO coated substrates remained below the tolerance values for transparent conducting electrodes.

  8. Magnesium insertion electrodes for rechargeable nonaqueous batteries — a competitive alternative to lithium?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petr Novák; Roman Imhof; Otto Haas

    1999-01-01

    Magnesium-based rechargeable batteries might be an interesting future alternative to lithium-based batteries. Here the available results of research, both on rechargeable negative electrodes based either on metallic magnesium or alternative materials, and on materials suitable as positive, magnesium-inserting (counter)electrodes for secondary magnesium batteries, are critically reviewed. The reversible magnesium-metal electrode was scarcely investigated and remains poorly understood. More data are

  9. Does mesoporosity enhance thin film properties? A question of electrode material for electrochromism of WO3.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Rainer; Smarsly, Bernd

    2009-11-01

    Replacing the commonly used indium tin oxide (ITO) with a thin metal layer as a quasi-transparent electrode leads to enhancement and acceleration of the electrochromic response of WO(3), as otherwise there is an electronic activation barrier at the interface between WO(3) and the ITO electrode, impeding fast electron transfer. PMID:20644848

  10. The application of graphene as electrodes in electrical and optical devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunho Jo; Minhyeok Choe; Sangchul Lee; Woojin Park; Yung Ho Kahng; Takhee Lee

    2012-01-01

    Graphene is a promising next-generation conducting material with the potential to replace traditional electrode materials such as indium tin oxide in electrical and optical devices. It combines several advantageous characteristics including low sheet resistance, high optical transparency and excellent mechanical properties. Recent research has coincided with increased interest in the application of graphene as an electrode material in transistors, light-emitting

  11. Indium-free, acid-resistant anatase Nb-doped TiO 2 electrodes activated by rapid-thermal annealing for cost-effective organic photovoltaics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-Hyuk Park; Seong Jun Kang; Seok-In Na; Hyun Hwi Lee; Sung-Wng Kim; H. Hosono; Han-Ki Kim

    2011-01-01

    Indium-free and acid-resistant anatase Nb-doped TiO2 (NTO) electrodes are promising as economical substitutes for high-cost Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) films used in organic photovoltaics. By rapid-thermal annealing under an ambient vacuum, an insulating amorphous NTO film of low transparency was changed dramatically into a transparent and conductive anatase NTO electrode. Metallic conductivity of the annealed NTO electrode could be attributed to

  12. Technological challenges in counter bioterrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swamy Laxminarayan; B. Hudnall Stamm

    2003-01-01

    In the current environment of potential threats of global bioterrorism, research and development efforts are being directed on several fronts for countering bioterrorism activities. These include both basic science initiatives and applied engineering innovations. In the context of science and technology challenges, some of the major issues to be addressed, include 1) understanding the 'make-up' of the biological agents used

  13. Transparent Conductive Oxides in Thin Film Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelmann, Frank U.

    2014-11-01

    This paper show results from the development of transparent conductive oxides (TCO's) on large areas for the use as front electrode in thin film silicon solar modules. It is focused on two types of zinc oxide, which are cheap to produce and scalable to a substrate size up to 6 m2. Low pressure CVD with temperatures below 200°C can be used for the deposition of boron doped ZnO with a native surface texture for good light scattering, while sputtered aluminum doped ZnO needs a post deposition treatment in an acid bath for a rough surface. The paper presents optical and electrical characterization of large area samples, and also results about long term stability of the ZnO samples with respect to the so called TCO corrosion.

  14. All-solution-processed transparent thin film transistor and its application to liquid crystals driving.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Sang-Mook; Jeong, Huisu; Pak, Yusin; Song, Hui; Park, Jeongpil; Lim, Keon-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Youn Sang; Ko, Heung Cho; Kwon, Il Keun; Jung, Gun-Young

    2013-06-18

    All-solution-processed transparent thin film transistors (TTFTs) are demonstrated with silver grid source/drain electrodes, which are fabricated by printing and subsequent silver nanoparticles solution coating, which allows continuous processing without using high vacuum systems. The silver grid electrode shows a reasonable transmittance in visible range, moderate electrical conductance and mechanical strength. The TTFTs are employed to drive liquid crystal cells and demonstrate a successful switching operation. PMID:23606454

  15. One-way transparent sheets

    E-print Network

    Ra'di, Younes; Tretyakov, Sergei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of metasurfaces which are fully transparent when looking from one of the two sides of the sheet and have controllable functionalities for waves hitting the opposite side (one-way transparent sheets). We address the question on what functionalities are allowed, considering limitations due to reciprocity and passivity. In particular, we have found that it is possible to realize one-way transparent sheets which have the properties of a twist-polarizer in reflection or transmission when illuminated from the other side. Also one-way transparent sheets with controllable co-polarized reflection and transmission from the opposite side are feasible. We show that particular non-reciprocal magneto-electric coupling inside the sheet is necessary to realize lossless non-active transparent sheets. Furthermore, we derive the required polarizabilities of constituent dipole particles such that the layers composed of them form one-way transparent sheets. We conclude with design and simula...

  16. Transparent Organic Photodetector using a Near-Infrared Absorbing Cyanine Dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Jenatsch, Sandra; de Jonghe, Jelissa; Nüesch, Frank; Steim, Roland; Véron, Anna C.; Hany, Roland

    2015-03-01

    Organic photodetectors are interesting for low cost, large area optical sensing applications. Combining organic semiconductors with discrete absorption bands outside the visible wavelength range with transparent and conductive electrodes allows for the fabrication of visibly transparent photodetectors. Visibly transparent photodetectors can have far reaching impact in a number of areas including smart displays, window-integrated electronic circuits and sensors. Here, we demonstrate a near-infrared sensitive, visibly transparent organic photodetector with a very high average visible transmittance of 68.9%. The transmitted light of the photodetector under solar irradiation exhibits excellent transparency colour perception and rendering capabilities. At a wavelength of 850 nm and at -1 V bias, the photoconversion efficiency is 17% and the specific detectivity is 1012 Jones. Large area photodetectors with an area of 1.6 cm2 are demonstrated.

  17. How hospitals approach price transparency.

    PubMed

    Houk, Scott; Cleverley, James O

    2014-09-01

    A survey of finance leaders found that hospitals with lower charges were more likely than other hospitals to emphasize making prices defensible rather than simply transparent. Finance leaders of hospitals with higher charges were more likely to express concern that price transparency would cause a reduction in hospital revenue by forcing them to lower charges. Those respondents said commercial payers likely will have to agree to renegotiate contracts for price transparency to be a financially viable proposition. PMID:25647890

  18. Chemical Modification of Electrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bard, Allen J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of preparing and characterizing modified electrodes are outlined and several applications are described. Topics include how electrodes are modified, characterization of such electrodes, and why it is necessary to modify electrodes. Reasons include use in electrocatalysis and display devices and in analytical/photoelectrochemical…

  19. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  20. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Stevens; T. Michalske; J. Trewhella; L. Makowski; B. Swanson; S. Colson; T. Hazen; F. Roberto; D. David Franz; G. Resnick; S. Jacobson; J. Valdez; P. Gourley; M. Tadros; M. Sigman; M. Sailor; M. Ramsey; B. Smith; K. Shea; J. Hrbek; P. Rodacy; D. Tevault; N. Edelstein; J. Beitz; C. Burns; G. Choppin; S. Clark; M. Dietz; R. Rogers; S. Traina; D. Baldwin; M. Thurnauer; G. Hall; L. Newman; D. Miller; H. Kung; D. Parkin; D. Shuh; H. Shaw; L. Terminello; D. Meisel; D. Blake; M. Buchanan; J. Roberto; R. Carling; G. Samara; D. Sasaki; P. Pianetta; B. Faison; D. Thomassen; T. Fryberger; G. Kiernan; M. Kreisler; L. Morgan; J. Hicks; J. Dehmer; L. Kerr; J. Mays

    2002-01-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism

  1. Transparent ion-conducting ceria-zirconia films made by sol–gel technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X Luo; B Zhu; C Xia; G. A Niklasson; C. G Granqvist

    1998-01-01

    Films of Ce–Zr oxide were made by sol–gel deposition according to three different routes. Cyclic voltammetry showed that Li+ intercalation\\/deintercalation took place if the Ce content was sufficient. The films had a high transmittance for visible light. They are of interest as counter electrodes in electrochromic smart windows.

  2. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  3. Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diodes on a Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Metal-Grid Hybrid Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Haksoo; Seo, Seung-Woo; Jung, Eun; Chae, Heeyeop; Cho, Sung Min

    2013-04-01

    We fabricated flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) on a transparent hybrid electrode. The electrode was prepared on a poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) substrate and was composed of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and aluminum grid. An efficient moisture-barrier structure was deposited underneath the electrode to protect the OLEDs from the moisture outgassed from the PEN substrate. The hybrid electrode showed sheet resistance and optical transmittance of 8.5 ?/square and 74%, respectively. The performance of the flexible OLEDs on a hybrid electrode with a moisture barrier was compared with that on a conventional indium tin oxide electrode with glass and plastic substrates.

  4. Wetting transparency of graphene.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Javad; Mi, Xi; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Thomas, Abhay V; Yavari, Fazel; Shi, Yunfeng; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Koratkar, Nikhil A

    2012-03-01

    We report that graphene coatings do not significantly disrupt the intrinsic wetting behaviour of surfaces for which surface-water interactions are dominated by van der Waals forces. Our contact angle measurements indicate that a graphene monolayer is wetting-transparent to copper, gold or silicon, but not glass, for which the wettability is dominated by short-range chemical bonding. With increasing number of graphene layers, the contact angle of water on copper gradually transitions towards the bulk graphite value, which is reached for ~6 graphene layers. Molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical predictions confirm our measurements and indicate that graphene's wetting transparency is related to its extreme thinness. We also show a 30-40% increase in condensation heat transfer on copper, as a result of the ability of the graphene coating to suppress copper oxidation without disrupting the intrinsic wettability of the surface. Such an ability to independently tune the properties of surfaces without disrupting their wetting response could have important implications in the design of conducting, conformal and impermeable surface coatings. PMID:22266468

  5. Periodic macroporous nanocrystalline antimony-doped tin oxide electrode.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Eric; Soheilnia, Navid; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2011-04-26

    Optically transparent and electrically conductive electrodes are ubiquitous in the myriad world of devices. They are an indispensable component of solar and photoelectrochemical cells, organic and polymer light emitting diodes, lasers, displays, electrochromic windows, photodetectors, and chemical sensors. The majority of the electrodes in such devices are made of large electronic band-gap doped metal oxides fashioned as a dense low-surface-area film deposited on a glass substrate. Typical transparent conducting oxide materials include indium-, fluorine-, or antimony-doped tin oxides. Herein we introduce for the first time a transparent conductive periodic macroporous electrode that has been self-assembled from 6 nm nanocrystalline antimony-doped tin oxide with high thermal stability, optimized electrical conductivity, and high quality photonic crystal properties, and present an electrochemically actuated optical light switch built from this electrode, whose operation is predicated on its unique combination of electrical, optical, and photonic properties. The ability of this macroporous electrode to host active functional materials like dyes, polymers, nanocrystals, and nanowires provides new opportunities to create devices with improved performance enabled by the large area, spatially accessible and electroactive internal surface. PMID:21391718

  6. Nanoscale biomemory composed of recombinant azurin on a nanogap electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Yong-Ho; Lee, Taek; Park, Hyung Ju; Yun, Wan Soo; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2013-09-01

    We fabricate a nanoscale biomemory device composed of recombinant azurin on nanogap electrodes. For this, size-controllable nanogap electrodes are fabricated by photolithography, electron beam lithography, and surface catalyzed chemical deposition. Moreover, we investigate the effect of gap distance to optimize the size of electrodes for a biomemory device and explore the mechanism of electron transfer from immobilized protein to a nanogap counter-electrode. As the distance of the nanogap electrode is decreased in the nanoscale, the absolute current intensity decreases according to the distance decrement between the electrodes due to direct electron transfer, in contrast with the diffusion phenomenon of a micro-electrode. The biomemory function is achieved on the optimized nanogap electrode. These results demonstrate that the fabricated nanodevice composed of a nanogap electrode and biomaterials provides various advantages such as quantitative control of signals and exclusion of environmental effects such as noise. The proposed bioelectronics device, which could be mass-produced easily, could be applied to construct a nanoscale bioelectronics system composed of a single biomolecule.

  7. UN Action To Counter Terrorism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The United Nations has been concerned about the growing threat of terrorism for decades, and in 2006, their member states adopted a comprehensive global strategy to counter terrorism. Visitors with an interest in their strategy will want to visit the site to read about the strategy and to also learn about some of their related activities. After reading a brief introduction about the overall strategy, visitors can read the complete United Nations Counter-Terrorism Handbook and also view the latest news updates related to their efforts to combat terrorism around the globe. Along the left-hand side of the homepage, visitors can also look over sections that include "Strategic Framework", "International Instruments", and "Human Rights". Visitors should also be aware that these materials are also available in Arabic, French, Russian, Spanish, and Chinese.

  8. Acoustic counter-sniper system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory L. Duckworth; Douglas C. Gilbert; James E. Barger

    1997-01-01

    BBN has developed, tested, and fielded pre-production versions of a versatile acoustics-based counter-sniper system. This system was developed by BBN for the DARPA Tactical Technology Office to provide a low cost and accurate sniper detection and localization system. The system uses observations of the shock wave from supersonic bullets to estimate the bullet trajectory, Mach number, and caliber. If muzzle

  9. Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Wall Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report provides information about how variations in proportional counter radius and gas pressure in a typical coincident counter design might affect the observed signal from boron-lined tubes. A discussion comparing tubes to parallel plate counters is also included.

  10. Plasmonic graphene transparent conductors.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G.; Liu, J.; Wang, Q.; Hui, R.; Chen, Z.; Maroni, V. A.; Wu, J. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. Kansas)

    2012-01-01

    Plasmonic graphene is fabricated using thermally assisted self-assembly of silver nanoparticles on graphene. The localized surface-plasmonic effect is demonstrated with the resonance frequency shifting from 446 to 495 nm when the lateral dimension of the Ag nanoparticles increases from about 50 to 150 nm. Finite-difference time-domain simulations are employed to confirm the experimentally observed light-scattering enhancement in the solar spectrum in plasmonic graphene and the decrease of both the plasmonic resonance frequency and amplitude with increasing graphene thickness. In addition, plasmonic graphene shows much-improved electrical conductance by a factor of 2-4 as compared to the original graphene, making the plasmonic graphene a promising advanced transparent conductor with enhanced light scattering for thin-film optoelectronic devices.

  11. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Eliam, Asaf; Shapiro, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method based on the Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) phenomenon for the detection of molecules which exist as a small minority in the presence of a majority of absorbers. The EIT effect we employ effectively eliminates the absorption of the majority species in the spectral region where it overlaps with the absorption of the minority species. The method can also be used to enhance local-modes transitions which overlap spectrally with a background of other local-modes transitions of the same molecule. The general theory is applied to the case of sparse and congested background spectra within the same molecule and to the recording of the spectra of isotopomers (of Chlorine and Methanol) that are in minority relative to other isotopomers which constitute the majority of molecules present.

  12. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Asaf Eliam; Evgeny A. Shapiro; Moshe Shapiro

    2012-01-03

    We propose a method based on the Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) phenomenon for the detection of molecules which exist as a small minority in the presence of a majority of absorbers. The EIT effect we employ effectively eliminates the absorption of the majority species in the spectral region where it overlaps with the absorption of the minority species. The method can also be used to enhance local-modes transitions which overlap spectrally with a background of other local-modes transitions of the same molecule. The general theory is applied to the case of sparse and congested background spectra within the same molecule and to the recording of the spectra of isotopomers (of Chlorine and Methanol) that are in minority relative to other isotopomers which constitute the majority of molecules present.

  13. Transparency in psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Helen M

    2012-09-01

    Transparency in medical care is emerging as a new standard. In the United States, patients have always been able to access to their chart in accordance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), established in 1996. Such access, nevertheless, can be time consuming and burdensome. Among the many provisions afforded by HIPAA are the security and privacy of health data. Physicians are recently coming to realize the benefits enjoyed by patients and the healthcare system when the information in a patient's chart is made available in real-time. Psychiatrists often find the concept of revealing their progress notes, however, quite provocative and controversial. In these evolving times, it is important for psychiatrists to recognize the potential consequences and advantages of sharing their progress notes with patients. This review provides guidelines for psychiatrists to follow regarding proper documentation of progress notes and how to successfully share that information with patients. PMID:22981058

  14. Micromachined electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat (Edgewood, NM); Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-12-11

    An electrode array is disclosed which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array, in certain embodiments, can include a plurality of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. In other embodiments of the electrode array, the electrodes can be fixed to the substrate. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, and can include electrode tips having an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis.

  15. Flexible retinal electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  16. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  17. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  18. Elastomeric transparent capacitive sensors based on an interpenetrating composite of silver nanowires and polyurethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weili; Niu, Xiaofan; Zhao, Ran; Pei, Qibing

    2013-02-01

    Highly flexible transparent capacitive sensors have been demonstrated for the detection of deformation and pressure. The elastomeric sensors employ a pair of compliant electrodes comprising silver nanowire networks embedded in the surface layer of polyurethane matrix, and a highly compliant dielectric spacer sandwiched between the electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor sheets increases linearly with strains up to 60% during uniaxial stretching, and linearly with externally applied transverse pressure from 1 MPa down to 1 kPa. Stretchable sensor arrays consisting of 10 × 10 pixels have also been fabricated by patterning the composite electrodes into X-Y addressable passive matrix.

  19. Transparent all organic TFT fabrication by low cost process without clean room

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Trigaud; I. El Jazairi; S. Y. Kwon; V. Bernical; J. P. Moliton

    2006-01-01

    Here is studied a process for the fabrication of a transparent all organic field effect transistor (OTFT) in a low cost way, without clean room. A major difficulty lies in the fact that substratum is CR39reg, an organic glass. Pentacene, PMMA, and ITO are implemented as respectively semiconductor, insulator, and materials for source, drain and gate electrodes. In preliminary results,

  20. Damage mechanisms in thin film solar cells during sputtering deposition of transparent conductive coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi Hua Fan; Michael Deng; Xianbo Liao; Xunming Deng

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) based thin film solar cell grown on flexible stainless steel substrate is one of the most promising energy conversion devices in the future. This type of solar cell uses a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film as top electrode. It has been a widely accepted opinion that the radio frequency sputtering deposition of the TCO film produces a

  1. Spectroscopic aspects of front transparent conductive films for aSi thin film solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi Hua Fan; Changyong Chen; Xianbo Liao; Xianbi Xiang; Xinmin Cao; William Ingler; Nirupama Adiga; Xunming Deng

    2010-01-01

    This work demonstrates a method to optimize the indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films as front transparent electrode to maximize the efficiency of substrate type amorphous silicon (a-Si) based thin film solar cells. It shows that the total light intensity absorbed by the a-Si layer can be predicted by combining a multilayer optical simulation with the nonuniform solar spectrum and

  2. Fracture Toughness and Adhesion of Transparent Al:ZnO Films Deposited on Glass Substrates

    E-print Network

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    crystal and organic light emitting displays, and solar cells. Thin film mechanical properties have been, including transparent electrodes, solar cells, heat reflecting windows and sensors (Ref 1-3). However, while of glass is about 0.63 MPaÆm1/2 . Under the same normal load, radial crack length shortened

  3. Polymer-assisted dispersion of single-wall carbon nanotubes for transparent conducting film fabrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Chao Chen; Hsiang-Ting Lien; Tzu-Wei Cheng; Kuei-Hsien Chen; Li-Chyong Chen

    2010-01-01

    Transparent electrodes, for instance ITO (indium tin oxide), are used in electronic devices such as touch screen, flat panel display, and solar cell technologies. It is costly to pattern and has a tendency to crack when used due to its brittle nature. The development of technologies to deliver low cost flexible alternatives using single walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are fledgling

  4. Monolithic parallel tandem organic photovoltaic cell with transparent carbon nanotube interlayer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Tanaka; K. Mielczarek; R. Ovalle-Robles; B. Wang; D. Hsu; A. A. Zakhidov

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate an organic photovoltaic cell with a monolithic tandem structure in parallel connection. Transparent multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets are used as an interlayer anode electrode for this parallel tandem. The characteristics of front and back cells are measured independently. The short circuit current density of the parallel tandem cell is larger than the currents of each individual cell. The

  5. Performance Improvement of Carbon-Nanotube-Incorporated Transparent Conducting Anode Film for Organic Device Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ke Lin; Ramadas Senthil Kumar; Lai Szu Cheng; Chua Soo Jin

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were incorporated into indium tin oxide and polythiophene by mixing and then spin coating or screen printing to form the transparent conducting electrode (TCE). With only approximately 0.005%, by weight, of CNTs in the TCE, the sheet resistance was found to drop by about 25% to 40%, without any significant decrease in the transmittance. Organic light-emitting devices

  6. High performance cermet electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Penn Hills, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of increasing the operating cell voltage of a solid oxide electrochemical cell having metal electrode particles in contact with an oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte. The metal electrode is heated with the cell, and oxygen is passed through the oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte to the surface of the metal electrode particles so that the metal electrode particles are oxidized to form a metal oxide layer between the metal electrode particles and the electrolyte. The metal oxide layer is then reduced to form porous metal between the metal electrode particles and the ceramic electrolyte.

  7. Improved biomedical electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Newly designed electrode is prefilled, disposable, electrolyte-saturated spong. New design permits longe periods of storage without deterioration, and readiness in matter of seconds. Electrodes supply signals for electroencephalogram, electro-oculogram, and electrocardiogram.

  8. High-Energy/Low-Energy Proportional Counter (HEPC/LEPC) detector systems on the SRG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budtz-Joergensen, Carl C.; Bahnsen, Axel; Madsen, M. M.; Olesen, C.; Jonasson, P.; Schnopper, Herbert W.

    1994-11-01

    The low energy proportional counter LEPC (0.2 - 8 keV) and the high energy proportional counter HEPC (2 - 25 keV) for the Danish-Russian X-ray telescopes XSPECT/SODART are presently being tested at DSRI. The sensor principle of these detectors is based on the novel micro strip gas counter (MSGC) where the strip electrodes are deposited by photolithography onto a rigid substrate. The MSGC offers many advantages: A uniform gas gain, an excellent energy (approximately 13% at 6 keV) and position-resolutions (>> 1 mm), a fast charge collection and a low operating voltage. The energy response, imaging and background rejection performance of LEPC (82 X 82 mm) and HEPC ((sigma) equals 160 mm) will be discussed.

  9. Application of microstrip proportional counters at the Danish Space Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Bahnsen, A.; Møhl Madsen, M.; Olesen, C.; Jonasson, P.; Schnopper, H. W.

    1994-09-01

    The low energy proportional counter LEPC (0.2-8 keV) and the high energy proportional counter HEPC (2-25 keV) for the Danish-Russian X-ray telescopes XSPECT/SODART are presently being tested at DSRI. The sensor principle of these detectors is based on the novel microstrip proportional counter (MSPC) where the strip electrodes are deposited by photolithography onto a rigid substrate. The MSPC offers many advantages: a uniform gas gain, excellent energy (~ 13% at 6 keV) and position-resolutions (<< 1 mm), a fast charge collection and a low operating voltage. The energy response, imaging and background rejection performance of LEPC (82 × 82 mm) and HEPC (Ø= 160 mm) will be discussed. The presentation will also include first results obtained with a high energy (~ 150 keV) MSPC which is planned as a candidate for the X-ray monitor for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysical Laboratory (INTEGRAL).

  10. PTFOS: Flexible and Absorbable Intracranial Electrodes for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonmassar, Giorgio; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Golby, Alexandra J.

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial electrocortical recording and stimulation can provide unique knowledge about functional brain anatomy in patients undergoing brain surgery. This approach is commonly used in the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. However, it can be very difficult to integrate the results of cortical recordings with other brain mapping modalities, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The ability to integrate imaging and electrophysiological information with simultaneous subdural electrocortical recording/stimulation and fMRI could offer significant insight for cognitive and systems neuroscience as well as for clinical neurology, particularly for patients with epilepsy or functional disorders. However, standard subdural electrodes cause significant artifact in MRI images, and concerns about risks such as cortical heating have generally precluded obtaining MRI in patients with implanted electrodes. We propose an electrode set based on polymer thick film organic substrate (PTFOS), an organic absorbable, flexible and stretchable electrode grid for intracranial use. These new types of MRI transparent intracranial electrodes are based on nano-particle ink technology that builds on our earlier development of an EEG/fMRI electrode set for scalp recording. The development of MRI-compatible recording/stimulation electrodes with a very thin profile could allow functional mapping at the individual subject level of the underlying feedback and feed forward networks. The thin flexible substrate would allow the electrodes to optimally contact the convoluted brain surface. Performance properties of the PTFOS were assessed by MRI measurements, finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations, micro-volt recording, and injecting currents using standard electrocortical stimulation in phantoms. In contrast to the large artifacts exhibited with standard electrode sets, the PTFOS exhibited no artifact due to the reduced amount of metal and conductivity of the electrode/trace ink and had similar electrical properties to a standard subdural electrode set. The enhanced image quality could enable routine MRI exams of patients with intracranial electrode implantation and could also lead to chronic implantation solutions. PMID:22984396

  11. Performance and stability of TiO 2\\/dye solar cells assembled with flexible electrodes and a polymer electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Longo; Jilian Freitas; Marco-A. De Paoli

    2003-01-01

    Solid-state, flexible TiO2\\/dye solar cells were assembled using flexible electrodes, a polymer electrolyte with I?\\/I3? and a Pt coated counter-electrode. The efficiency of the cells was enhanced when the plastic electrodes coated with TiO2 were exposed to UV radiation, followed by heating at 140°C in dry conditions. For comparison, a similar cell was prepared by the same procedure but using

  12. Transparent conductors composed of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Layani, Michael; Kamyshny, Alexander; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2014-06-01

    This is a review on recent developments in the field of transparent conductive coatings (TCCs) for ITO replacement. The review describes the basic properties of conductive nanomaterials suitable for fabrication of such TCCs (metallic nanoparticles and nanowires, carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets), various methods of patterning the metal nanoparticles with formation of conductive transparent metallic grids, honeycomb structures and 2D arrays of interconnected rings as well as fabrication of TCCs based on graphene and carbon nanotubes. Applications of TCCs in electronic and optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, electroluminescent and electrochromic devices, touch screens and displays, and transparent EMI shielders, are discussed. PMID:24777332

  13. Transparent ceramics for sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Mark V.; Pascucci, Marina R.; Corbin, Normand; Puputti, Brenda

    2013-06-01

    Transparent ceramics are finding applications in demanding optical applications were traditional mineral salts and amorphous materials are limited and single crystals are not practical. Polycrystalline ceramics offer a unique combination of mechanical, electrical and optical properties that allow window and dome applications and possibilities that were previously not possible. Transparent ceramics are being developed for use in a number of applications with each material possessing a distinctive set of properties that address a particular application. The current status of CeraNova's fine grain transparent ceramic programs for dome and window applications will be presented with emphasis on their exceptional material properties for specific applications.

  14. Low resistance fuel electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Maskalick, Nichols J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA)

    1989-01-01

    An electrode 6 bonded to a solid, ion conducting electrolyte 5 is made, where the electrode 6 comprises a ceramic metal oxide 18, metal particles 17, and heat stable metal fibers 19, where the metal fibers provide a matrix structure for the electrode. The electrolyte 5 can be bonded to an air electrode cathode 4, to provide an electrochemical cell 2, preferably of tubular design.

  15. Protein coated electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Uzgiris; J. H. Kaplan

    1974-01-01

    We describe a simple method for coating platinized Pt electrodes with bovine serum albumin. The coating does not alter the electrical properties of the electrodes in dilute salt solutions, seems to be durable enough for extended use, and, most importantly, prevents a specific type of surface reaction from occurring between the Pt surface and a sucrose buffer. These electrodes are

  16. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  17. Near-Electrode Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.; Woelk, Klaus; Gerald, Rex E.,II

    1999-05-01

    An apparatus, near-electrode imager, for employing nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to provide in situ measurements of electrochemical properties of a sample as a function of distance from a working electrode. The near-electrode imager use the radio frequency field gradient within a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator to provide high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectral information on electrolyte materials.

  18. Insulated ECG electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portnoy, W. M.; David, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Insulated, capacitively coupled electrode does not require electrolyte paste for attachment. Other features of electrode include wide range of nontoxic material that may be employed for dielectric because of sputtering technique used. Also, electrode size is reduced because there is no need for external compensating networks with FET operational amplifier.

  19. Near-electrode imager

    DOEpatents

    Rathke, Jerome W. (Lockport, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmont, IL); Woelk, Klaus (Wachtberg, DE); Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus, near-electrode imager, for employing nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to provide in situ measurements of electrochemical properties of a sample as a function of distance from a working electrode. The near-electrode imager uses the radio frequency field gradient within a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator to provide high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectral information on electrolyte materials.

  20. Flexible electrochromic films based on CVD-graphene electrodes.

    PubMed

    Soo Choi, Dong; Ho Han, Seung; Kim, Hyeongkeun; Hee Kang, So; Kim, Yena; Yang, Cheol-Min; Kim, Tae Young; Ho Yoon, Dae; Seok Yang, Woo

    2014-10-01

    Graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition is a notable candidate for flexible large-area transparent electrodes due to its great physical properties and its 2D activated surface area. Electrochromic devices in optical displays, smart windows, etc are suitable applications for graphene when used as a transparent conductive electrode. In this study, various-layer graphene was synthesized via chemical vapor deposition, and inorganic WO(x) was deposited on the layers, which have advantageous columnar structures and W(6+) and W(4+) oxidation states. The characteristics of graphene and WO(x) were verified using optical transmittance, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The optimum transparent conductive electrode condition for controlling graphene layers was investigated based on the optical density and cyclic voltammetry. Electrochromic devices were fabricated using a three-layer graphene electrode, which had the best optical density. The graphene in the flexible electrochromic device demonstrated a potential for replacing ITO in flexible electronics. PMID:25201016

  1. Fabrication of transparent Yb,Cr:YAG ceramics by a solid-state reaction method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusong Wu; Jiang Li; Fagui Qiu; Yubai Pan; Qian Liu; Jingkun Guo

    2006-01-01

    Transparent ytterbium and chromium codoped yttrium aluminum garnet (Yb,Cr:YAG) ceramics, containing Ca as charge counter element and TEOS as sintering aid, were fabricated by a solid-state reaction method using high-purity Y2O3, Al2O3, Cr2O3 and Yb2O3 powders as raw materials. The mixed powder compacts were sintered at 1770°C for 10h under vacuum and annealed at 1450°C for 20h in air. The

  2. Development Gateway: Public Sector Transparency

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This particular site casts an eye on the question of transparency in governmental transactions through interviews with leaders from a broad range of sectors, along with allowing space for individual feedback. The "Points of View" section is a good place to start, as it includes commentary from government officials from Bolivia, Guatemala, and Tanzania about the question of public sector transparency. Other sections on the site address such thorny questions as "What tools help sustain public sector transparency?" and "What practices promote public-private partnerships?" Those visual learners coming to visit the site may appreciate the gallery of charts that offer indicators of levels of governance and transparency for more than 209 countries.

  3. Study of Influence of Electrode Geometry on Impedance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Riaz; Reifsnider, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful and proven tool for analyzing AC impedance response. A conventional three electrode EIS method was used to perform the investigation in the present study. Saturated potassium chloride solution was used as the electrolyte and three different material rods were used as working electrodes. Different configurations of electrode area were exposed to the electrolyte as an active area to investigate electrode geometry effects. Counter to working electrode distance was also altered while keeping the working electrode effective area constant to explore the AC response dependence on the variation of ion travel distance. Some controlled experiments were done to validate the experimental setup and to provide a control condition for comparison with experimental results. A frequency range of 100 mHz to 1 MHz was used for all experiments. In our analysis, we have found a noteworthy influence of electrode geometry on AC impedance response. For all electrodes, impedance decreases with the increase of effective area of the electrolyte. High frequency impedance is not as dependent on geometry as low frequency response. The observed phase shift angle drops in the high frequency region with increased working electrode area, whereas at low frequency the reverse is true. Resistance and capacitive reactance both decrease with an increase of area, but resistance response is more pronounce than reactance. For lower frequencies, small changes in working area produce very distinctive EIS variations. Electrode material as well as geometry was systematically varied in the present study. From these and other studies, we hope to develop a fundamental foundation for understanding specific changes in local geometry in fuel cell (and other) electrodes as a method of designing local morphology for specific performance.

  4. One-counter Markov decision processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Brázdil; V. Brožek; K. Etessami; A. Ku?era; D. K. Wojtczak; M. Charikar

    2010-01-01

    We study the computational complexity of some central analysis problems for One-Counter Markov Decision Processes (OC-MDPs), a class of finitely-presented, countable-state MDPs. OC-MDPs extend finite-state MDPs with an unbounded counter. The counter can be incremented, decremented, or not changed during each state transition, and transitions may be enabled or not depending on both the current state and on whether the

  5. Capacitive transducers with curved electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. McIntosh; Philip E. Mauger; Steven R. Patterson

    2006-01-01

    The design, performance, and potential applications are described for capacitive transducers with curved electrodes. A curved electrode governs the deflection of a compliant electrode under applied stress. A dielectric film on one electrode provides a variable region of fixed electrode spacing. The sensitivity and linear dynamic range of the transducers are higher and wider than devices with parallel electrodes. An

  6. Some characteristics of powder silica counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Pinsky, L. S.

    1980-01-01

    Following the original idea of Peters, techniques have been developed to fabricate large area powder silica counters with refractive index between 1.06 to 1.12 in thicknesses of 1 cm and 2 cm respectively. The maximum size counter is 25 cm x 25 cm but the technique can be easily extended to 40 cm x 30 cm counters. Techniques have also been developed to dope this counter with the wavelength shifter p-terphenyl uniformly. The results of test runs at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and of laboratory runs using a superconducting magnet spectrometer on their performance are reported.

  7. Quantization error in precision time counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanowski, R.; Szplet, R.; Kwiatkowski, P.

    2015-07-01

    The quantization error in interpolating time counters is analyzed for three models of interpolator and for correlated and uncorrelated input events representing the start and end of the measured time interval. The analysis is related to the currently most common two-stage time interpolation method and based on data from several up-to-date integrated time counters. The main aim of this discussion is to find a general and accurate method for presentation and calculation of the quantization error in real, non-ideal time counters. We propose a novel graphical representation of the error, which may be useful for analysis of time counters with any interpolation method used.

  8. Sensor Noise Camera Identification: Countering Counter-Forensics Miroslav Goljan, Jessica Fridrich, and Mo Chen

    E-print Network

    Fridrich, Jessica

    . Keywords: Camera identification, digital forensics, photo-response non-uniformity, sensor fingerprint with more advanced forensic methods. Digital sensor fingerprints [1] are likewise vulnerable to forgingSensor Noise Camera Identification: Countering Counter-Forensics Miroslav Goljan, Jessica Fridrich

  9. Transparency at the level of safeguards implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, A.

    1994-07-01

    Safeguards approaches that include higher degrees of transparency at the level of facilities and at the level of the state also need a higher degree of transparency at the level of IAEA safeguards implementation. Here the author gives a brief discussion of: (1) confidentiality or transparency in the present approach; and (2) transparency in the alternative safeguards approach.

  10. Transparent Humidity Sensor Using Cross-Linked Polyelectrolyte Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Smith, James R.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Hua, Feng

    2009-07-02

    This paper describes the fabrication of a porous cross-linked polyelectrolyte membrane and the characterization of its humidity sensitivity performance. Electrostatic self-assembly, combined with acid treatment, and post-deposition annealing produced the membrane. The fabrication process offers the ability to control the thickness of the membrane, as well as enabling the engineering of the humidity sensitivity properties. A transparent humidity sensor was fabricated by integrating the membrane between two parallel electrodes. In order to improve the moisture absorption and diffusion, both the polyelectrolyte layer and the electrode were made porous. The membrane was cross-linked to enhance the durability in high humid environments. Such a polyelectrolyte membrane showed high sensitivity to relative humidity variation over a range of 25%–99%. The see-through property of the structure adds extra features and benefits to the sensor.

  11. Large-area transparent in visible range silicon carbide photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borecki, M.; Kociubi?ski, A.; Duk, M.; Kwietniewski, N.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Doroz, P.; Szmidt, J.

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the construction, fabrication and properties of large-area ultra violet detector that is transparent in the visible range. The device was made on n-type 4H SiC substrate with a double epitaxial layer in which aluminum was implanted to form a p-n junction close to the surface, and a SiO2 layer was formed for passivation, without a guard ring. The design of the top and bottom electrodes of 4mm diameter UV sensitive area allows not less than 20% visible range transmission. This transmission was measured across sensitive area of examined devices and was only 5% lower than that of the substrate before implantation and electrodes deposition.

  12. Compact fission counter for DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C Y; Chyzh, A; Kwan, E; Henderson, R; Gostic, J; Carter, D; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J

    2010-11-06

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) consists of 160 BF{sub 2} crystals with equal solid-angle coverage. DANCE is a 4{pi} {gamma}-ray calorimeter and designed to study the neutron-capture reactions on small quantities of radioactive and rare stable nuclei. These reactions are important for the radiochemistry applications and modeling the element production in stars. The recognition of capture event is made by the summed {gamma}-ray energy which is equivalent of the reaction Q-value and unique for a given capture reaction. For a selective group of actinides, where the neutron-induced fission reaction competes favorably with the neutron capture reaction, additional signature is needed to distinguish between fission and capture {gamma} rays for the DANCE measurement. This can be accomplished by introducing a detector system to tag fission fragments and thus establish a unique signature for the fission event. Once this system is implemented, one has the opportunity to study not only the capture but also fission reactions. A parallel-plate avalanche counter (PPAC) has many advantages for the detection of heavy charged particles such as fission fragments. These include fast timing, resistance to radiation damage, and tolerance of high counting rate. A PPAC also can be tuned to be insensitive to {alpha} particles, which is important for experiments with {alpha}-emitting actinides. Therefore, a PPAC is an ideal detector for experiments requiring a fast and clean trigger for fission. A PPAC with an ingenious design was fabricated in 2006 by integrating amplifiers into the target assembly. However, this counter was proved to be unsuitable for this application because of issues related to the stability of amplifiers and the ability to separate fission fragments from {alpha}'s. Therefore, a new design is needed. A LLNL proposal to develop a new PPAC for DANCE was funded by NA22 in FY09. The design goal is to minimize the mass for the proposed counter and still be able to maintain a stable operation under extreme radioactivity and the ability to separate fission fragments from {alpha}'s. In the following sections, the description is given for the design and performance of this new compact PPAC, for studying the neutron-induced reactions on actinides using DANCE at LANL.

  13. Compact multiwire proportional counters for the detection of fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhingan, Akhil; Sugathan, P.; Golda, K. S.; Singh, R. P.; Varughese, T.; Singh, Hardev; Behera, B. R.; Mandal, S. K.

    2009-12-01

    Two large area multistep position sensitive (two dimensional) multiwire proportional counters have been developed for experiments involving study of fission dynamics using general purpose scattering chamber facility at IUAC. Both detectors have an active area of 20×10 cm2 and provide position signals in horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) planes, timing signal for time of flight measurements and energy signal giving the differential energy loss in the active volume. The design features are optimized for the detection of low energy heavy ions at very low gas pressures. Special care was taken in setting up the readout electronics, constant fraction discriminators for position signals in particular, to get optimum position and timing resolutions along with high count rate handling capability of low energy heavy ions. A custom made charge sensitive preamplifier, having lower gain and shorter decay time, has been developed for extracting the differential energy loss signal. The position and time resolutions of the detectors were determined to be 1.1 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and 1.7 ns FWHM, respectively. The detector could handle heavy ion count rates exceeding 20 kHz without any breakdown. Time of flight signal in combination with differential energy loss signal gives a clean separation of fission fragments from projectile and target like particles. The timing and position signals of the detectors are used for fission coincidence measurements and subsequent extraction of their mass, angular, and total kinetic energy distributions. This article describes systematic study of these fission counters in terms of efficiency, time resolution, count rate handling capability, position resolution, and the readout electronics. The detector has been operated with both five electrode geometry and four electrode geometry, and a comparison has been made in their performances.

  14. Mixed ionic and electronic conducting electrode studies for an alkali metal thermal to electric converter 

    E-print Network

    Guo, Yuyan

    2009-05-15

    , which are covered by thin porous electrode on the inner and outer surface as anode and cathode films respectively. High pressure sodium vapor is oxidized within the BASE tube causing sodium ions to pass through the BASE to the outer surface. Sodium....5 Schematic drawing of the sputtering process.??????????..? 37 2.6 Schematic diagram of the Coulter counter???????..?????. 40 3.1 Schematic diagram of SETC electrodes??.??????????..? 49 3.2 Chemical potential diagrams for (a) the Na...

  15. Hybrid dielectric layer for low operating voltages of transparent and flexible organic complementary inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, Mu Seok; Song, Ji-Min; Kim, Chaewon; Lee, Jaegab; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Mi Jung

    2015-03-01

    Although flexibility and transparency are considered advantages of organic electronic devices along with low processing cost and the possibility of large-area production, high operating voltages and metallic contacts are obstacles to their application in real electronic products. In this work, flexible and transparent organic complementary inverters that can be operated with low voltage were fabricated on a plastic substrate. Two different air-stable organic semiconductors, fluorinated copper phthalocyanine and pentacene, are used for n-type and p-type transistors, respectively. An ITO gate electrode was deposited by sputtering, and a hybrid dielectric layer with a thin Al2O3 layer and self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) was fabricated to reduce the operation voltage. To confirm the properties of the hybrid dielectric layer, the capacitance and gate leakage current were measured. Then, source and drain electrodes were formed from gold or ITO specifically for fully transparent devices. For the ITO electrodes, a MoO3 interlayer was incorporated between the pentacene and ITO to reduce the contact resistance caused by mismatch of workfunction. Finally, we evaluated the low-voltage operation of the flexible organic inverters and the fully transparent device through transmittance measurement. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. A multiseed counter TPG with performance guarantee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrios Kagaris; Spyros Tragoudas

    1996-01-01

    Several mechanisms based on ROMs, LFSRs, counters, cellular automata, have been proposed as built-in test pattern generators with trade-offs between hardware and time overhead. This paper presents and analyses a scheme based on a counter with multiple seeds to generate a test set with low hardware overhead. A fast CAD tool determines the number of clock cycles required for the

  17. Scintillation Counters for the CDF Muon Upgrade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pauletta

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of triggering on muons at higher luminosities and smaller bounch spacings has been preserved in the central region and ectended to the forward (eta < 1.5) by constructing new scintillation counters and refurbishing existing ones. The new counters are made of polystyrene - based scintillator produced by Monokristall under JINR supervision and employ a readout technique which is

  18. Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal devices using highly conducting polymers as electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Yeol Kim; Hak-Yong Woo; Ji-Woong Baek; Tae-Wook Kim; Eun-Ah Song; Su-Cheol Park; Dae-Woo Ihm

    2008-01-01

    Flexible all-organic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) devices were fabricated by using highly transparent and conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene): p-toluene sulfonate (PEDOT:PTS) films, as electrode layers. These conductive PEDOT:PTS films have a high transparency up to 80%, and possess a very low sheet resistance of 100 Omega sq-1 at 100 nm thickness. We report on the fabrication and characterization of a PDLC

  19. Design of a photochemical converter for solar energy using semiconductor electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, R.; Inoue, Y.; Hayamizu, M. (Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    The effects of the incident light intensity and the geometrical structure of a wet-type photoelectrochemical cell on its energy conversion efficiency are investigated. Increasing the surface area of the semiconductor electrodes increases the amount of incident light, but it also increases the ohmic resistance of the electrolyte between the electrodes due to the relative positions of the photoanode and counter electrode, and deforms the current-density distribution on the semiconductor electrodes. Increasing the thickness of the electrolyte layer between the incident wall and the semiconductor electrode reduces the absorption of the light rays by the electrolyte, but increases the ohmic resistance of the electrolyte between the electrodes. The design of a photoelectrochemical cell with a high energy-conversion efficiency, based on these findings, is described.

  20. Over-the-counter Acne Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Emmy M.

    2012-01-01

    Acne is a common dermatological disorder that most frequently affects adolescents; however, individuals may be affected at all ages. Many people who suffer from acne seek treatment from both prescription and over-the-counter acne medications. Due to convenience, lower cost, and difficulty getting an appointment with a dermatologist, the use of over-the-counter acne treatments is on the rise. As the plethora of over-the-counter acne treatment options can be overwhelming, it is important that dermatologists are well-versed on this subject to provide appropriate information about treatment regimens and potential drug interactions and that their patients see them as well-informed. This article reviews the efficacy of various over-the-counter acne treatments based on the current literature. A thorough literature review revealed there are many types of over-the-counter acne treatments and each are designed to target at least one of the pathogenic pathways that are reported to be involved in the development of acne lesions. Many of the key over-the-counter ingredients are incorporated in different formulations to broaden the spectrum and consumer appeal of available products. Unfortunately, many over-the-counter products are not well-supported by clinical studies, with a conspicuous absence of double-blind or investigator-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled studies. Most studies that do exist on over-the-counter acne products are often funded by the manufacturer. Use of over-the-counter acne treatments is a mainstay in our society and it is important that dermatologists are knowledgeable about the different options, including potential benefits and limitations. Overall, over-the-counter acne therapies can be classified into the following five major groups: cleansers, leave-on products, mechanical treatments, essential oils, and vitamins. PMID:22808307

  1. Epitaxial graphene contact electrode for silicon carbide based ultraviolet photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kus¸demir, Erdi; Özkendir, Dilce; F?rat, Volkan; Çelebi, Cem

    2015-03-01

    We present the fabrication and characterization of graphene-semiconductor-graphene ultraviolet photodetector based on the rectifying character of Schottky junction at the interface between epitaxial graphene and SiC semiconductor. As-grown single layer epitaxial graphene is interdigitated as transparent conductive electrode to probe photo-generated charge carriers in a semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrate. The fabricated device exhibits the typical current-voltage characteristics of a conventional metal-semiconductor-metal type photodetector with low leakage current. Time-resolved photocurrent measurements suggest an excellent photocurrent reversibility and high response speed of the device. The measurements performed for different illumination wavelengths showed that the sample reveals higher responsivity values when it is exposed to the light with 254?nm wavelength. The obtained results imply that epitaxial graphene can be used readily as transparent conductive electrode for SiC based optoelectronic device applications.

  2. The Omega Counter, a Frequency Counter Based on the Linear Regression

    E-print Network

    Rubiola, E; Bourgeois, P -Y; Vernotte, F

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the {\\Omega} counter, a frequency counter -- or a frequency-to-digital converter, in a different jargon -- based on the Linear Regression (LR) algorithm on time stamps. We discuss the noise of the electronics. We derive the statistical properties of the {\\Omega} counter on rigorous mathematical basis, including the weighted measure and the frequency response. We describe an implementation based on a SoC, under test in our laboratory, and we compare the {\\Omega} counter to the traditional {\\Pi} and {\\Lambda} counters. The LR exhibits optimum rejection of white phase noise, superior to that of the {\\Pi} and {\\Lambda} counters. White noise is the major practical problem of wideband digital electronics, both in the instrument internal circuits and in the fast processes which we may want to measure. The {\\Omega} counter finds a natural application in the measurement of the Parabolic Variance, described in the companion article arXiv:1506.00687 [physics.data-an].

  3. Pocket ECG electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A low noise electrode suited for sensing electrocardiograms when chronically and subcutaneously implanted in a free ranging subject is described. The electrode comprises a pocket shaped electrically conductive member with a single entrance adapted to receive body fluids. The exterior of the member and the entrance region is coated with electrical insulation so that the only electrolyte/electrode interface is within the member, remote from artifact-generating tissue. Cloth straps are bonded to the member to permit the electrode to be sutured to tissue and to provide electrical lead flexure relief.

  4. Pocket ECG electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Gordon F. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A low-noise electrode suited for sensing electrocardiograms when chronically and subcutaneously implanted in a free-ranging subject. The electrode comprises a pocket-shaped electrically conductive member with a single entrance adapted to receive body fluids. The exterior of the member and the entrance region is coated with electrical insulation so that the only electrolyte/electrode interface is within the member remote from artifact-generating tissue. Cloth straps are bonded to the member to permit the electrode to be sutured to tissue and to provide electrical lead flexure relief.

  5. Nanograined highly transparent yttria ceramics.

    PubMed

    Serivalsatit, K; Kokuoz, B Yazgan; Kokuoz, B; Ballato, J

    2009-04-01

    The field of transparent ceramics is enjoying a renaissance, as refractory oxides are being developed as alternatives to single crystals in high-performance laser systems. However, a significant challenge remains regarding the reduction of the grain size to sufficiently subwavelength dimensions in order to achieve the same degree of optical transparency as the single-crystal analog. Here we report transparent yttria (Y2O3) ceramics that were synthesized by a pressure-assisted, two-step, low-temperature sintering process with an average grain size of 300 nm. These nanograined ceramics exhibit equivalent transmission to single crystalline yttria for wavelengths greater than about 1200 nm. The single-crystal-like transmittance of the nanograined yttria ceramics in the visible and IR region is an important advancement for the use of these materials in more-extreme environments, including high-energy laser systems where reduction of scattering is paramount. PMID:19340210

  6. Does mesoporosity enhance thin film properties? A question of electrode material for electrochromism of WO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermann, Rainer; Smarsly, Bernd

    2009-11-01

    Replacing the commonly used indium tin oxide (ITO) with a thin metal layer as a quasi-transparent electrode leads to enhancement and acceleration of the electrochromic response of WO3, as otherwise there is an electronic activation barrier at the interface between WO3 and the ITO electrode, impeding fast electron transfer.Replacing the commonly used indium tin oxide (ITO) with a thin metal layer as a quasi-transparent electrode leads to enhancement and acceleration of the electrochromic response of WO3, as otherwise there is an electronic activation barrier at the interface between WO3 and the ITO electrode, impeding fast electron transfer. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Comparison of the variation of absorbance and charge inserted/extracted for WO3 films on gold and ITO. Electrochromic response of WO3 films of different thickness. See DOI: 10.1039/b9nr00091g

  7. Optimization of Ferroelectric Polymer ?Graphene Films for Transparent and Flexible Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahya, Orhan; Wu, Jing; Ni, Guang-Xin; Toh, Chee-Tat; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Oezyilmaz, Barbaros

    2013-03-01

    Nonvolatile, electrostatic doping of graphene-based devices with ferroelectric polymers such as Poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) are promising for realizing ultra-fast, flexible memory devices, nanogenerators and actuators. More recently, the same approach has been shown to provide an alternative route in enabling graphene based transparent electrodes for touch screen applications. Here, we report a systematic study of optimizing the ferroelectric polymer-graphene heterostructure as a function of thickness, various copolymer blends and coating techniques. Optimized films show outstanding mechanical properties, low sheet resistance (~ 100 ?/sq) and optical transparency levels as high as 96%.

  8. Transparent, flexible, ultrathin sound source devices using Indium Tin oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, He; Xie, Dan; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling; Wang, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Peng, Ping-Gang; Wang, Li-Gang; Liu, Li-Tian

    2011-07-01

    Thermoacoustic effects were observed in 100-nm indium tin oxide (ITO) films. The sound emission from the ITO films was measured as a function of power, distance, and frequency. Significant flat and wide frequency responses occurred between 20 and 50 kHz. The sound pressure and efficiency were in good agreement with theoretical results. This indicates that a thermoacoustic effect exists in metal-oxide materials and that a large family of transparent electrode materials may exhibit similar properties. Using the ultrathin, transparent, and flexible characteristics, we showed promising applications of ITO sound source devices that were integrated with liquid crystal display screens.

  9. A counter-charge layer in generalized solvents framework for electrical double layers in neat and hybrid ionic liquid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Feng, Guang [Clemson University; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Qiao, Rui [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have received significant attention as electrolytes due to a number of attractive properties such as their wide electrochemical windows. Since electrical double layers (EDLs) are the cornerstone for the applications of RTILs in electrochemical systems such as supercapacitors, it is important to develop an understanding of the structure capacitance relationships for these systems. Here we present a theoretical framework termed counter-charge layer in generalized solvents (CGS) for describing the structure and capacitance of the EDLs in neat RTILs and in RTILs mixed with different mass fractions of organic solvents. Within this framework, an EDL is made up of a counter-charge layer exactly balancing the electrode charge, and of polarized generalized solvents (in the form of layers of ion pairs, each of which has a zero net charge but has a dipole moment the ion pairs thus can be considered as a generalized solvent) consisting of all RTILs inside the system except the counter-ions in the counter-charge layer, together with solvent molecules if present. Several key features of the EDLs that originate from the strong ion ion correlation in RTILs, e.g., overscreening of electrode charge and alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions, are explicitly incorporated into this framework. We show that the dielectric screening in EDLs is governed predominately by the polarization of generalized solvents (or ion pairs) in the EDL, and the capacitance of an EDL can be related to its microstructure with few a priori assumptions or simplifications. We use this framework to understand two interesting phenomena observed in molecular dynamics simulations of EDLs in a neat IL of 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) and in a mixture of [BMIM][BF4] and acetonitrile (ACN): (1) the capacitance of the EDLs in the [BMIM][BF4]/ACN mixture increases only slightly when the mass fraction of ACN in the mixture increases from zero to 50% although the dielectric constant of bulk ACN is more than two times higher than that of neat [BMIM][BF4]; (2) the capacitance of EDLs near negative electrodes (with BMIM+ ion as the counter-ion) is smaller than that near positive electrodes (with BF4as counter-ion) although the closest approaches of both ions to the electrode surface are nearly identical.

  10. Characteristics of distributed-type inorganic electroluminescence panels with comb-shaped electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shin-Ichi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Taguchi, Nobuyoshi; Nonaka, Toshihiro

    2013-09-01

    We deposited comb electrodes with narrow gaps between the teeth on a glass substrate, thus realizing a high electric field intensity that cannot be achieved with conventional structures. Au electrodes are deposited to form a comb shape and then spin-coated with a phosphor layer obtained by mixing ZnS phosphor particles with resins in a certain ratio. An AC voltage was applied to the gaps between the teeth of the comb electrode to emit light, from which the luminance was measured for different electric field intensities. The luminance was not affected by the transmittance of the electrodes themselves when measured from the phosphor layer side. Therefore, it may be possible to produce a display that does not require transparent electrodes by using the phosphor layer side of a device with comb electrodes made of metals, such as Au, for the display.

  11. Enhanced lifetime in porous silicon light-emitting diodes with fluorine doped tin oxide electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andréia G. Macedo; Elder A. de Vasconcelos; Rogério Valaski; Fábio Muchenski; Eronides F. da Silva; Antônio F. da Silva; Lucimara S. Roman

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the electrical and optical properties of porous Si (PS) light-emitting diodes using fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) as transparent electrodes. At high forward bias, the current–voltage characteristic is space charge limited. At low forward bias, it follows an exponential law. Whereas the electroluminescence (EL) in devices with non-fluorinated indium–tin oxide electrodes degrades in few minutes, EL intensity in devices

  12. Self-assembled plasmonic electrodes for high-performance organic photovoltaic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wade A. Luhman; Si Hoon Lee; Timothy W. Johnson; Russell J. Holmes; Sang-Hyun Oh

    2011-01-01

    We investigate thin Ag films incorporating plasmonic nanohole arrays as transparent conducting electrodes for organic photovoltaic cells. Plasmonic electrodes are fabricated using nanosphere lithography to create hexagonal nanohole arrays over centimeter-sized areas. Devices constructed using a nanopatterned Ag anode show power conversion efficiencies that exceed those of devices constructed on conventional indium-tin-oxide, independent of light polarization. In comparison to cells

  13. Monte Carlo Shower Counter Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, H. David

    1991-01-01

    Activities and accomplishments related to the Monte Carlo shower counter studies are summarized. A tape of the VMS version of the GEANT software was obtained and installed on the central computer at Gallaudet University. Due to difficulties encountered in updating this VMS version, a decision was made to switch to the UNIX version of the package. This version was installed and used to generate the set of data files currently accessed by various analysis programs. The GEANT software was used to write files of data for positron and proton showers. Showers were simulated for a detector consisting of 50 alternating layers of lead and scintillator. Each file consisted of 1000 events at each of the following energies: 0.1, 0.5, 2.0, 10, 44, and 200 GeV. Data analysis activities related to clustering, chi square, and likelihood analyses are summarized. Source code for the GEANT user subprograms and data analysis programs are provided along with example data plots.

  14. Tunable multi-channel inverse optomechanically induced transparency

    E-print Network

    Wu, Qin; Wu, Jin-Hui; Feng, Mang; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) defined conventionally, the inverse OMIT behaves as coherent absorption of the input lights in the optomechanical systems. We characterize a feasible inverse OMIT in a multi-channel fashion with a double-sided optomechanical cavity system coupled to a nearby charged nanomechanical resonator via Coulomb interaction, where two counter-propagating probe lights can be absorbed via one of the channels or even via three channels simultaneously with the assistance of a strong pump light. Under realistic conditions, we demonstrate the experimental feasibility of our model using two slightly different nanomechanical resonators and the possibility of detecting the energy dissipation of the system. In particular, we find that our model turns to be an unilateral inverse OMIT once the two probe lights are different with a relative phase, and in this case we show the possibility to measure the relative phase precisely.

  15. Tunable multi-channel inverse optomechanically induced transparency

    E-print Network

    Qin Wu; Jian-Qi Zhang; Jin-Hui Wu; Mang Feng; Zhi-Ming Zhang

    2015-04-21

    In contrast to the optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) defined conventionally, the inverse OMIT behaves as coherent absorption of the input lights in the optomechanical systems. We characterize a feasible inverse OMIT in a multi-channel fashion with a double-sided optomechanical cavity system coupled to a nearby charged nanomechanical resonator via Coulomb interaction, where two counter-propagating probe lights can be absorbed via one of the channels or even via three channels simultaneously with the assistance of a strong pump light. Under realistic conditions, we demonstrate the experimental feasibility of our model using two slightly different nanomechanical resonators and the possibility of detecting the energy dissipation of the system. In particular, we find that our model turns to be an unilateral inverse OMIT once the two probe lights are different with a relative phase, and in this case we show the possibility to measure the relative phase precisely.

  16. Electrostatic curved electrode actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob Legtenberg; John Gilbert; Stephen D. Senturia; Miko Elwenspoek

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the design and performance of an electrostatic actuator consisting of a laterally compliant cantilever beam and a fixed curved electrode, both suspended above a ground plane. A theoretical description of the static behavior of the cantilever as it is pulled into contact with the rigid fixed-electrode structure is given. Two models are presented: a simplified semi-analytical model

  17. Long term flight electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, B.

    1975-01-01

    The reproducibility, stability, and methods of preparation for the various types and forms of biomedical electrodes are discussed. A critical and selective compilation of information on biological and/or physiological electrodes is presented. A discussion of plant hydrocolloids, clays, hydrophyllic colloids, synthetic waxes, and acrylic polymers is included.

  18. Disposable biomedical electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Hillman, C. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Reusable recording cap equipped with compressible snap-on bioelectronic electrodes is worn by patient to allow remote monitoring of electroencephalogram and electro-oculogram waveforms. Electrodes can be attached to inside surface of stretch-textile cap at twelve monitoring positions and at one or two ground positions.

  19. Membrane Bioprobe Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rechnitz, Garry A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the design of ion selective electrodes coupled with immobilized enzymes which operate either continuously or on drop-sized samples. Cites techniques for urea, L-phenylalanine and amygdalin. Micro size electrodes for use in single cells are discussed. (GH)

  20. Heated graphite cylinder electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Jun Sun; Liang Guo; De-Feng Zhang; Wen-Hui Yin; Guo-Nan Chen

    2007-01-01

    A new heated graphite cylinder electrode (HGCE) has been successfully fabricated, which arrangement is similar to that of the heated metal (Pt or Au) wire electrode invented by Grundler. The cylinders’ diameters range from ca. 95 to 300?m obtained by grinding the commercial available pencil graphite. HGCEs demonstrate rapid responses to the heating up and high thermal stability during being

  1. A Simple, Transparent Fume Hood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Fredericks

    1998-01-01

    An inexpensive transparent fume hood can be constructed from a clear-plastic two-liter soft drink bottle that is cut just above the base. A length of vacuum tubing is secured to the opening of the bottle using black electrical tape. The tubing is then connected to a water aspirator. Beakers or flasks easily fit inside the bottle, and the bottle may

  2. Projection transparencies from printed material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunewald, L. S.; Nickerson, T. B.

    1968-01-01

    Method for preparing project transparencies, or view graphs, permits the use of almost any expendable printed material, pictures, charts, or text, in unlimited color or black and white. The method can be accomplished by either of two techniques, with a slight difference in materials.

  3. Could Transparency Bring Economic Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    The Spellings Commission report calls for greater access to higher education for low- and moderate-income students, greater transparency in the way higher education works and greater accountability for producing results. These recommendations are all significant in their own right, but the three concepts also converge to provide powerful support…

  4. Transparent Dynamic Instrumentation Derek Bruening

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    Transparent Dynamic Instrumentation Derek Bruening Google, Inc. bruening@google.com Qin Zhao Google application can be monitored and con- trolled while it executes. The provided layer of control can be used instrumentation is one method for implementing process virtualization which dynamically instruments an application

  5. Electrodes for microfluidic applications

    DOEpatents

    Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA); Harnett, Cindy K. (Livermore, CA); Rognlien, Judith L. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-08-22

    An electrode device for high pressure applications. These electrodes, designed to withstand pressure of greater than 10,000 psi, are adapted for use in microfluidic devices that employ electrokinetic or electrophoretic flow. The electrode is composed, generally, of an outer electrically insulating tubular body having a porous ceramic frit material disposed in one end of the outer body. The pores of the porous ceramic material are filled with an ion conductive polymer resin. A conductive material situated on the upper surface of the porous ceramic frit material and, thus isolated from direct contact with the electrolyte, forms a gas diffusion electrode. A metal current collector, in contact with the gas diffusion electrode, provides connection to a voltage source.

  6. Advanced electrodes for AMTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Fiebig, Brad; Schuller, Michael; Hudson, Patricia [Center for Space Power, Texas AM University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Williams, Roger [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Texas A&M University has begun an investigation of materials and fabrication methods which will improve AMTEC electrode performance. The study currently involves gathering data on materials which meet the basic requirements of operating in an AMTEC cell, and sorting out candidates possessing characteristics conducive to efficient AMTEC operation. An initial assessment has shown Iridium as a promising metal electrode candidate. Sodium-containing double-oxides, with melting temperatures above AMTEC operating temperatures, including NaNbO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}, have been identified as possible electrode dopants, to enhance the sodium conductivity of an electrode. Photo-deposition and Evaporative-deposition will be investigated further as electrode fabrication techniques. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Versatile MoS2 Nanosheets in ITO-Free and Semi-transparent Polymer Power-generating Glass.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaotian; Chen, Lie; Tan, Licheng; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Lin; Xie, Bing; Chen, Yiwang

    2015-01-01

    Chemical exfoliated ultra-thin MoS2 nanosheets (NSs) with well 2D structure were demonstrated for interfacial layers and Ag nanowires composite transparent electrode in polymer solar cells (PSCs). The smooth and uniform n-type and p-type (after the plasma treatment) MoS2 NSs could improve fill factor of devices and light absorption in active layer. The optimized Ag nanowires-MoS2 NSs (AgNW-MoS2 NSs) transparent electrode presented a low sheet resistance of 9.8 ? sq(-1), and the corresponding transmittance also exhibited a high value of 93.1% at 550?nm. As a result, ITO-free PSCs based on AgNW-MoS2 NSs/n-MoS2 NSs cathode and p-MoS2 NSs/Ag anode achieved a highest PCE of 8.72%. Furthermore, a high efficiency (6.55%), large area and low cost semi-transparent power-generating glass was obtained, after reducing the thickness of top Ag electrode from 100?nm to 30?nm. To our best knowledge, it is the highest performance for semi-transparent PSCs devices reported up to now. The novel semi-transparent power-generating glass showed good performance and color purity for commercial applications in the near future. PMID:26177887

  8. Transparent indium tin oxide films prepared by ion-assisted deposition with a single-layer overcoat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mordechai Gilo; Reuben Dahan; Nathan I. Croitoru

    1999-01-01

    Transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) films have many applications as electrodes in Liquid Crystal displays and EMI\\/RFI shielding. We have compared two processes for obtaining ITO thin films with low resistivity (below 15 (Omega) \\/sq) and high transmittance (above 90%) in the visible region. The first process was deposition using electron beam gun evaporation. The second process was using Ion

  9. Monolithic Parallel Tandem Organic Photovoltaic Cell with Transparent Carbon Nanotube Interlayer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, S.; Mielczarek, K.; Ovalle-Robles, R.; Wang, B.; Hsu, D.; Zakhidov, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate an organic photovoltaic cell with a monolithic tandem structure in parallel connection. Transparent multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets are used as an interlayer anode electrode for this parallel tandem. The characteristics of front and back cells are measured independently. The short circuit current density of the parallel tandem cell is larger than the currents of each individual cell. The wavelength dependence of photocurrent for the parallel tandem cell shows the superposition spectrum of the two spectral sensitivities of the front and back cells. The monolithic three-electrode photovoltaic cell indeed operates as a parallel tandem with improved efficiency.

  10. Over-the-counter pain relievers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Analgesics; Acetaminophen; NSAID; Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; Pain medicine - over-the-counter; Pain medicine - OTC ... Pain medicines are also called analgesics. Each kind of pain medicine has benefits and risks. Some types of pain ...

  11. Electromagnetic Glitch on the AES Round Counter

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by Electro- Magnetic Glitch (emg) injection on an up-to-date microcontroller running an aes algorithm-invasive transient fault injection is achieved on the aes round counter. The attack is performed by injecting a very

  12. Optical cavity-assisted broadband optical transparency of a plasmonic metal film.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhengqi; Nie, Yiyou; Yuan, Wen; Liu, Xiaoshan; Huang, Shan; Chen, Jing; Gao, Huogui; Gu, Gang; Liu, Guiqiang

    2015-05-01

    We theoretically present a powerful method to achieve a continuous metal film structure with broadband optical transparency via introducing a dielectric Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity. An incident optical field could be efficiently coupled and confined with the strong localized plasmons by the non-close-packed plasmonic crystal at the input part and could then become re-radiated output via the transmission channel supported by the dielectric cavity. The formed photonic-plasmonic system could therefore make the seamless metal film structure have a superior near-unity transparency (up to 97%) response and a broadband transparent spectrum with bandwidth >245 nm (with transmittance >90%) in the optical regime. The observed optical properties of the proposed structure can be highly tuned via varying the structural parameters. Based on the colloidal assembly method, the proposed plasmonic crystal can be fabricated in a large area. In addition, the achieved optical transparency can be retained in the extremely roughed metal film structure. Thereby, the findings could offer a feasible way to achieve a broadband transparent metal film structure and hold potential applications in transparent electrodes, touch screens and interactive electronics. PMID:25873317

  13. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, Gregory; Kulkarni, Gourihar

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70 deg C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45 deg C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  14. High transparency of classically opaque metallic films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Dragila; B. Luther-Davies; S. Vukovic

    1985-01-01

    The surface-induced transparency of a stratified dielectric medium is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated. Expressions which define the conditions under which total transparency of a normally reflecting metal layer can be observed are presented. The transparency occurs when the conditions are established for the incident electromagnetic wave to excite coupled surface modes on both sides of the film. The theoretical results

  15. Financial Reporting Transparency and Earnings Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Hunton; Robert Libby; Cheri L. Mazza

    2006-01-01

    Prior research indicates that greater transparency in reporting formats facilitates the detection of earnings management. The current study hypothesizes and demonstrates that greater transparency in comprehensive income reporting also re- duces the likelihood that managers will engage in earnings management in the area of increased transparency. In our experiment, 62 financial executives and chief executive officers decide which available-for-sale security

  16. Transparency in the German real estate market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Werner Schulte; Nico Rottke; Christoph Pitschke

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – German real estate markets used to show little transparency in the past. This has changed over the last 15 years. The purpose of this study therefore is to examine the current state of transparency. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study investigates and discusses the concept of transparency in general, availability of private and public market data, major real estate investment

  17. The efficiency of depth discrimination for non-transparent and transparent stereoscopic surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Michael Wallace; Pascal Mamassian

    2004-01-01

    The perception of transparency in binocular vision presents a challenge for any model of stereopsis. We investigate here how well human observers cope with stereo transparency by comparing their efficiency between transparent and opaque depth judgments. In two experiments, the efficiency measure was computed relative to an ideal observer to take into account the larger correspondence ambiguity in the transparent

  18. Fabrication and characterization of photo cathode materials for transparent organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hui; Yu, Junsheng; Wang, Nana; Huang, Chunhua; Jiang, Yadong

    2010-10-01

    In this work structural composition and fabrication process of cathode for transparent OLED were investigated. Using a LiF/Al/Ag/Alq3 semitransparent cathode and a Mg:Ag/ITO cathode, green fluorescent transparent organic light-emitting devices (TOLEDs) were fabricated. ITO was evaporated as a cathode onto a thin Mg:Ag layer by DC magnetron sputtering method with the assistance of tiny H2O vapor during deposition process. The fabrication of LiF/Al/Ag/Alq3 electrode was processed without breaking the vacuum. At a bias of 15 V, the luminance of the TOLED with Mg:Ag/ITO and LiF/Al/Ag/Alq3 cathode were 3016 and 4535 cd/m2, respectively. The results indicate that LiF/Al/Ag/Alq3 electrode can be used as an effective and stable cathode in TOLEDs.

  19. A simple high efficiency Cherenkov counter

    SciTech Connect

    Ganezer, K.S.; Keig, W.E. (California State Univ., Carson, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics); Shor, A.F. (Soreg Nuclear Research Center, Yavne (Israel))

    1994-02-01

    The authors have developed a threshold Cherenkov counter using a liquid radiator and a simple array of mirrors for light collection. The index of refraction of the fluorochemical radiator is 1.282 (at 400 nm). This is significantly less than that of water (1.33) and thus provides for a higher [beta] threshold. The device also doubles as a differential Cherenkov counter. It can detect and distinguish particle several centimeters off the optical axis. The counter has been built, tested, and used successfully in several heavy ion experiments. the optical system is designed for maximal pion detection efficiency at a momentum of 1 GeV/c. The counter has a high pion detection efficiency over a wide range of momenta. It produces pulse height distribution that allow resolution of pions from Kaons and other heavy charged particles at 1 GeV/c with high efficiency. Pulse height spectra were obtained and detection efficiencies were measured for pions of various momenta between 100 MeV/c and 1 GeV/c. These measurement agree well with Monte Carlo simulations. The design is one that was easily, quickly, and inexpensively constructed. It enabled the experimenter to build a liquid (differential or threshold) Cherenkov counter with a higher [beta] threshold than that of water and lower than that of aerogel. There are very few materials that can be used for Cherenkov counter construction with [beta] thresholds in this velocity region.

  20. Counter-facing plasma focus system as a repetitive and/or long-pulse high energy density plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyama, Yutaka; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko [Department of Energy Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    A plasma focus system composed of a pair of counter-facing coaxial plasma guns is proposed as a long-pulse and/or repetitive high energy density plasma source. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrated that with an assist of breakdown and outer electrode connections, current sheets evolved into a configuration for stable plasma confinement at the center of the electrodes. The current sheets could successively compress and confine the high energy density plasma every half period of the discharge current, enabling highly repetitive light emissions in extreme ultraviolet region with time durations in at least ten microseconds.

  1. Counter-facing plasma focus system as a repetitive and/or long-pulse high energy density plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Yutaka; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2009-11-01

    A plasma focus system composed of a pair of counter-facing coaxial plasma guns is proposed as a long-pulse and/or repetitive high energy density plasma source. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrated that with an assist of breakdown and outer electrode connections, current sheets evolved into a configuration for stable plasma confinement at the center of the electrodes. The current sheets could successively compress and confine the high energy density plasma every half period of the discharge current, enabling highly repetitive light emissions in extreme ultraviolet region with time durations in at least ten microseconds.

  2. Properties of transparent conductive ZnO:Al films prepared by co-sputtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byeong-Yun Oh; Min-Chang Jeong; Woong Lee; Jae-Min Myoung

    2005-01-01

    Al-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) thin films were grown on glass substrates by co-sputtering at room temperature to explore a possibility of low-cost processing for transparent electrodes. The Al content was controlled by varying Al RF power and the effect of Al contents on the properties of ZnO:Al films was investigated. In X-ray diffraction (XRD), only the (002) peaks were detected indicating

  3. Solution-processed flexible transparent conductors based on carbon nanotubes and silver grid hybrid films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jintao; Sundramoorthy, Ashok Kumar; Chen, Peng; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2014-05-01

    In a simple, cost-effective, and solution-based process, a thin-film of single-walled carbon nanotubes is hybridized on a PET film which has been patterned with solution self-assembled Ag nanoparticles. Such a flexible and transparent electrode exhibits a sheet resistance down to ?5.8 ? sq(-1) at ?83.7% optical transmittance. The hybrid films are stable under ambient conditions and offer excellent bendability. PMID:24675812

  4. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo (Lisle, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  5. AMTEC electrode development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Williams, R. M.; Nakamura, B. J.; Wheeler, B. L.; Loveland, M. E.; Cole, T.

    1987-01-01

    The Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC) is a direct energy conversion device, utilizing a high sodium vapor pressure or activity ratio across a beta-alumina solid electrolyte. Progress is reported on a long life, high power, porous electrode. Two electrode compositions were identified which have the potential for long life operation at power densities above 0.5 W/sq cm. Longer lifetime testing is being initiated. Successful optimization and demonstration of very long lifetimes for these electrodes will be a major step toward establishing the feasibility of AMTEC space power systems.

  6. Electrode for electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kaun, T.D.; Miller, W.E.; Nelson, P.A.

    1981-12-15

    An electrode structure for a secondary electrochemical cell includes an outer enclosure defining a compartment containing electrochemical active material. The enclosure includes a rigid electrically conductive metal sheet with perforated openings over major side surfaces. The enclosure can be assembled as first and second trays each with a rigid sheet of perforated electrically conductive metal at major side surfaces and normally extending flanges at parametric margins. The trays can be pressed together with moldable active material between the two to form an expandable electrode. A plurality of positive and negative electrodes thus formed are arranged in an alternating array with porous frangible interelectrode separators within the housing of the secondary electrochemical cell.

  7. Sign-And-Magnitude Up/Down Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven W.

    1991-01-01

    Magnitude-and-sign counter includes conventional up/down counter for magnitude part and special additional circuitry for sign part. Negative numbers indicated more directly. Counter implemented by programming erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) or programmable logic array (PLA). Used in place of conventional up/down counter to provide sign and magnitude values directly to other circuits.

  8. Hollow cathode glow discharge ring laser block and electrode structure for ring laser angular rate sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, B.J.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes a ring laser. It comprises: a gas impervious block containing at least three tunnels meeting to form, at least in part, a closed-loop gas containing cavity; electromagnetic wave reflecting surfaces for reflecting a pair of counter-propagating electromagnetic waves to propagate along the closed-loop cavity substantially defined by the tunnels; a gas contained within the closed-loop cavity; a first electrode; a second electrode; the first and second electrodes positioned relative to each other to support a discharge current through the gas and establish a glow discharge region therebetween to induce a pair of counter-propagating laser beams to propagate through the glow discharge region in a direction transverse to the direction of the discharge current.

  9. Hybrid Transparent Conductive Films of Multilayer Graphene and Metal Grid for Organic Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Man; Walker, Bright; Seo, Jung Hwa; Kang, Seong Jun

    2013-12-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) were fabricated on hybrid transparent conductive films consisting of multilayer graphene (MLG) and metal grids. MLG was transferred onto Ag grids to form hybrid transparent conductive films. The optical transmittance was found to be 87% at a wavelength of 550 nm, while the sheet resistance was measured to be 28 +/-7.9 ?/square. The device characteristics of OSCs prepared on the hybrid films include an open circuit voltage of 0.58 V, a short circuit current of 8.05 mA/cm2, a fill factor of 51%, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.38%. The PCE shows 11% improvement compared with that of OSCs fabricated using MLG films without Ag grids. This improvement can be attributed to the reduced sheet resistance of the hybrid film. These results indicate that hybrid films comprising MLG deposited on Ag grids constitute a promising transparent electrode for improving performance in OSCs.

  10. Transparent conductor based on aluminum nanomesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazarkin, B.; Mohammed, A. S.; Stsiapanau, A.; Zhuk, S.; Satskevich, Y.; Smirnov, A.

    2014-10-01

    We report a transparent conductor based on Al nanomesh, which was fabricated through Al anodization and etching processes. The Al anodization was performed at low temperature condition to slow down the anodization rate to achieve the well-controlled thickness of an Al nanomesh. By careful controlling of the anodization process, we can fabricate Al nanomesh transparent conductors with different sheet resistance and optical transparency in the visible spectrum range. We shall show that Al nanomesh transparent conductor is a strong contender for a transparent conductor dominated by ITO.

  11. Modular high speed counter employing edge-triggered code

    DOEpatents

    Vanstraelen, Guy F. (DeSoto, TX)

    1993-06-29

    A high speed modular counter (100) utilizing a novel counting method in which the first bit changes with the frequency of the driving clock, and changes in the higher order bits are initiated one clock pulse after a "0" to "1" transition of the next lower order bit. This allows all carries to be known one clock period in advance of a bit change. The present counter is modular and utilizes two types of standard counter cells. A first counter cell determines the zero bit. The second counter cell determines any other higher order bit. Additional second counter cells are added to the counter to accommodate any count length without affecting speed.

  12. Modular high speed counter employing edge-triggered code

    DOEpatents

    Vanstraelen, G.F.

    1993-06-29

    A high speed modular counter (100) utilizing a novel counting method in which the first bit changes with the frequency of the driving clock, and changes in the higher order bits are initiated one clock pulse after a 0'' to 1'' transition of the next lower order bit. This allows all carries to be known one clock period in advance of a bit change. The present counter is modular and utilizes two types of standard counter cells. A first counter cell determines the zero bit. The second counter cell determines any other higher order bit. Additional second counter cells are added to the counter to accommodate any count length without affecting speed.

  13. Screening materials with the XIA UltraLo alpha particle counter at Southern Methodist University

    SciTech Connect

    Nakib, M. Z.; Cooley, J.; Kara, B.; Qiu, H.; Scorza, S. [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States)] [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States); Guiseppe, V. E. [Department of Physics, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Rielage, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schnee, R. W. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States)] [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2013-08-08

    Southern Methodist University houses one of five existing commercially available UltraLo 1800 production model alpha counters made by XIA LLC. The instrument has an electron drift chamber with a 707 cm{sup 2} or 1800 cm{sup 2} counting region which is determined by selecting the inner electrode size. The SMU team operating this device is part of the SuperCDMS screening working group, and uses the alpha counter to study the background rates from the decay of radon in materials used to construct the SuperCDMS experiment. We have studied four acrylic samples obtained from the MiniCLEAN direct dark matter search with the XIA instrument demonstrating its utility in low background experiments by investigating the plate-out of {sup 210}Pb and comparing the effectiveness of cleaning procedures in removing {sup 222}Rn progenies from the samples.

  14. Dipole-Induced Electromagnetic Transparency

    E-print Network

    Raiju Puthumpally-Joseph; Maxim Sukharev; Osman Atabek; Eric Charron

    2014-09-22

    We determine the optical response of a thin and dense layer of interacting quantum emitters. We show that in such a dense system, the Lorentz redshift and the associated interaction broadening can be used to control the transmission and reflection spectra. In the presence of overlapping resonances, a Dipole-Induced Electromagnetic Transparency (DIET) regime, similar to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT), may be achieved. DIET relies on destructive interference between the electromagnetic waves emitted by quantum emitters. Carefully tuning material parameters allows to achieve narrow transmission windows in otherwise completely opaque media. We analyze in details this coherent and collective effect using a generalized Lorentz model and show how it can be controlled. Several potential applications of the phenomenon, such as slow light, are proposed.

  15. Gyromagnetically induced transparency of metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, S Hossein; Khanikaev, Alexander B; Allen, Jeffery; Allen, Monica; Shvets, Gennady

    2014-03-21

    We demonstrate that the presence of a (gyro) magnetic substrate can produce an analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in Fano-resonant metamolecules. The simplest implementation of such gyromagnetically induced transparency (GIT) in a metasurface, comprised of an array of resonant antenna pairs placed on a gyromagnetic substrate and illuminated by a normally incident electromagnetic wave, is analyzed. Time reversal and spatial inversion symmetry breaking introduced by the dc magnetization makes metamolecules bianisotropic. This causes Fano interference between the otherwise uncoupled symmetric and antisymmetric resonances of the metamolecules giving rise to a sharp transmission peak through the otherwise reflective metasurface. We show that, for an oblique wave incidence, one-way GIT can be achieved by the combination of spatial dispersion and gyromagnetic effect. These theoretically predicted phenomena pave the way to nonreciprocal switches and isolators that can be dynamically controlled by electric currents. PMID:24702414

  16. Inhomogeneous luminance in organic light emitting diodes related to electrode resistivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristiaan Neyts; Matthias Marescaux; Angel Ullan Nieto; Andreas Elschner; Wilfried Lövenich; Karsten Fehse; Qiang Huang; Karsten Walzer; Karl Leo

    2006-01-01

    In organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with transparent electrodes, the luminance usually becomes inhomogeneous if the size of the pixel increases above 10 mm. A theoretical model for inhomogeneous voltage and luminance in OLEDs is provided together with an approximate analytical solution for the problem in case of cylindrical symmetry. Experimental observations of inhomogeneous luminance are compared with numerical simulations

  17. Electromechanically driven variable-focus lens based on transparent dielectric elastomer.

    PubMed

    Son, Sang-ik; Pugal, David; Hwang, Taeseon; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon; Lee, Youngkwan; Kim, Kwang; Nam, Jae-Do

    2012-05-20

    Dielectric elastomers with low elastic stiffness and high dielectric constant are smart materials that produce large strains (up to 300%) and belong to the group of electroactive polymers. Dielectric elastomer actuators are made from films of dielectric elastomers coated on both sides with compliant electrode material. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), which is known as a transparent conducting polymer, has been widely used as an interfacial layer or polymer electrode in polymer electronic devices. In this study, we propose the transparent dielectric elastomer as a material of actuator driving variable-focus lens system using PEDOT as a transparent electrode. The variable-focus lens module has light transmittance up to 70% and maximum displacement up to 450. When voltage is applied to the fabricated lens module, optical focal length is changed. We anticipate our research to be a starting point for new model of variable-focus lens system. This system could find applications in portable devices, such as digital cameras, camcorder, and cell phones. PMID:22614602

  18. Fully transparent quantum dot light-emitting diode integrated with graphene anode and cathode.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jung-Tak; Han, Junebeom; Lim, Taekyung; Lee, Ki-Heon; Hwang, Jungseek; Yang, Heesun; Ju, Sanghyun

    2014-12-23

    A fully transparent quantum dot light-emitting diode (QD-LED) was fabricated by incorporating two types (anode and cathode) of graphene-based electrodes, which were controlled in their work functions and sheet resistances. Either gold nanoparticles or silver nanowires were inserted between layers of graphene to control the work function, whereas the sheet resistance was determined by the number of graphene layers. The inserted gold nanoparticles or silver nanowires in graphene films caused a charge transfer and changed the work function to 4.9 and 4.3 eV, respectively, from the original work function (4.5 eV) of pristine graphene. Moreover the sheet resistance values for the anode and cathode electrodes were improved from ?63,000 to ?110 ?/sq and from ?100,000 to ?741 ?/sq as the number of graphene layers increased from 1 to 12 and from 1 to 8, respectively. The main peak wavelength, luminance, current efficiency, and optical transmittance of the fully transparent QD-LED integrated with graphene anode and cathode were 535 nm, ?358 cd/m2, ?0.45 cd/A, and 70-80%, respectively. The findings of the study are expected to lay a foundation for the production of high-efficiency, fully transparent, and flexible displays using graphene-based electrodes. PMID:25426762

  19. Transparent multiprocessing boosts MUC throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Kinder, D.

    1982-04-15

    Although multitasking and multiprocessing have become common features of microprocessor operating sytems, rarely can the software support multiple processors. One exception is the IMAX operating sytem, written in ADA and running on IAPX 432 general-purpose data processors. By keeping tasks independent of the processors which operate on them, IMAX makes multiprocessing transparent. The 432's multiprocessing architecture solves the problem of keeping task dispatching independent of processors. The system is described.

  20. A totally transparent alignment sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Jorge Moromisato et al.

    1998-11-01

    We describe the development of a totally transparent CCD based optical beam position sensing device that can measure transverse displacements with an accuracy of a few microns at a distance of many meters. The device includes on sensor DSP processing of the signal spectra with background subtraction and calibration to produce a compressed beam position, sensor address/status readout in token serial strings of sensors. The position monitoring system for the CMS Endcap Muon detector is presented as an intended application.

  1. Bifunctional oxygen electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Tryk; W. Aldred; Z. Chen; C. Fierro; J. Hashiguchi; M. Hossain; Z. Zhang; F. Zhao

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the research on bifunctional oxygen electrodes for alkaline electrolytes was to improve significantly both the cathodic and anodic polarization as well as the cycle life of such electrodes. The research has focused on finding high-efficiency, long-life electrocatalysts for O2 reduction and generation and achieving an understanding of the mechanisms of the catalysis. Catalyst systems which have been

  2. AMTEC electrode development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Bankston; R. M. Williams; B. J. Nakamura; B. L. Wheeler; M. E. Loveland; T. Cole

    1987-01-01

    The Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC) is a direct energy conversion device, utilizing a high sodium vapor pressure or activity ratio across a beta-alumina solid electrolyte. Progress is reported on a long life, high power, porous electrode. Two electrode compositions were identified which have the potential for long life operation at power densities above 0.5 W\\/sq cm. Longer lifetime testing

  3. Techniques of Electrode Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liang; Li, Xinyong; Chen, Guohua

    Electrochemical applications using many kinds of electrode materials as an advanced oxidation/reduction technique have been a focus of research by a number of groups during the last two decades. The electrochemical approach has been adopted successfully to develop various environmental applications, mainly including water and wastewater treatment, aqueous system monitoring, and solid surface analysis. In this chapter, a number of methods for the fabrication of film-structured electrode materials were selectively reviewed. Firstly, the thermal decomposition method is briefly described, followed by introducing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) strategy. Especially, much attention was focused on introducing the methods to produce diamond novel film electrode owing to its unique physical and chemical properties. The principle and influence factors of hot filament CVD and plasma enhanced CVD preparation were interpreted by refereeing recent reports. Finally, recent developments that address electro-oxidation/reduction issues and novel electrodes such as nano-electrode and boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) are presented in the overview.

  4. Bottom-up growth of fully transparent contact layers of indium tin oxide nanowires for light-emitting devices.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, C; Szachowicz, M; Visimberga, G; Lavayen, V; Newcomb, S B; Torres, C M Sotomayor

    2009-04-01

    Thin layers of indium tin oxide are widely used as transparent coatings and electrodes in solar energy cells, flat-panel displays, antireflection coatings, radiation protection and lithium-ion battery materials, because they have the characteristics of low resistivity, strong absorption at ultraviolet wavelengths, high transmission in the visible, high reflectivity in the far-infrared and strong attenuation in the microwave region. However, there is often a trade-off between electrical conductivity and transparency at visible wavelengths for indium tin oxide and other transparent conducting oxides. Here, we report the growth of layers of indium tin oxide nanowires that show optimum electronic and photonic properties and demonstrate their use as fully transparent top contacts in the visible to near-infrared region for light-emitting devices. PMID:19350034

  5. Mixed potential NO x sensors using thin film electrodes and electrolytes for stationary reciprocating engine type applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric L. Brosha; Rangachary Mukundan; Roger Lujan; Fernando H. Garzon

    2006-01-01

    Mixed potential sensors using dense, thin film metal oxide working electrodes, Pt counter electrodes, and thin film YSZ electrolytes on Al2O3 polycrystalline and sapphire substrates were prepared and studied between 450 and 650°C. Their response to NO, NO2, CO, and C1 and C3 hydrocarbons in 10.4% O2\\/N2 balance and in air atmospheres was characterized. The lanthanum chromite-based sensors showed preferential

  6. Counter-facing plasma focus system as an efficient and long-pulse EUV light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, H.; Hayashi, K.; Kuroda, Y.; Nose, H.; Hotozuka, K.; Nakajima, M.; Horioka, K.

    2011-04-01

    A plasma focus system composed of a pair of counter-facing coaxial plasma guns is proposed as a long-pulse and efficient EUV light source. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrated that with an assist of breakdown and outer electrode connections, current sheets evolved into a configuration for stable plasma confinement at the center of the electrode. The current sheets could successively compress and confine the high energy density plasma every half period of the discharge current, enabling highly repetitive light emissions in extreme ultraviolet region with time duration in at least ten microseconds for Xe plasma. Also, we confirmed operations of our system for Li plasma. We estimated the highest EUV energy in Li plasma operation at 93mJ/4? sr per 2% bandwidth per pulse.

  7. Secured Optical Communications Using Quantum Entangled Two-Photon Transparency Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun (Inventor); Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor); Lekki, John (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system and method is disclosed wherein optical signals are coded in a transmitter by tuning or modulating the interbeam delay time (which modulates the fourth-order coherence) between pairs of entangled photons. The photon pairs are either absorbed or not absorbed (transparent) by an atomic or molecular fluorescer in a receiver, depending on the inter-beam delay that is introduced in the entangled photon pairs. Upon the absorption, corresponding fluorescent optical emissions follow at a certain wavelength, which are then detected by a photon detector. The advantage of the disclosed system is that it eliminates a need of a coincidence counter to realize the entanglement-based secure optical communications because the absorber acts as a coincidence counter for entangled photon pairs.

  8. Fibrous flexible solid-type dye-sensitized solar cells without transparent conducting oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Xing; Chu Zengze; Chen Lin; Zhang Chao; Wang Fuzhi; Tang Yanwei; Sun Jianliang; Zou Dechun [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Physics of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2008-03-17

    We have explored a type of all-solid fibrous flexible dye-sensitized solar cells without transparent conducting oxide based on a CuI electrolyte. The working electrode's substrate is a metal wire. Cu wire counterelectrode is twisted with the dye-sensitized and CuI-coated working electrode. The cell's apparent diameter is about 150 {mu}m. The cell's current-voltage output depends little on the incident angle of light. A 4-cm-long fibrous cell's open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current generate 304 mV and 0.032 mA, respectively. The interfacial interaction between the two electrodes has a significant influence on the inner charge transfer of the cell.

  9. Study of a Threshold Cherenkov Counter Based on Silica Aerogels with Low Refractive Indices

    E-print Network

    I. Adachi et al

    1994-12-13

    To identify $\\pi^{\\pm}$ and $K^{\\pm}$ in the region of $1.0\\sim 2.5$ GeV/c, a threshold Cherenkov counter equipped with silica aerogels has been investigated. Silica aerogels with a low refractive index of 1.013 have been successfully produced using a new technique. By making use of these aerogels as radiators, we have constructed a Cherenkov counter and have checked its properties in a test beam. The obtained results have demonstrated that our aerogel was transparent enough to make up for loss of the Cherenkov photon yield due to a low refractive index. Various configurations for the photon collection system and some types of photomultipliers, such as the fine-mesh type, for a read out were also tested. From these studies, our design of a Cherenkov counter dedicated to $\\pi / K$ separation up to a few GeV/c %in the momentum range of $1.0 \\sim 2.5$ GeV/c with an efficiency greater than $90$ \\% was considered.

  10. Preparation of transparent conductors ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath (Littleton, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation by electrodeposition of metal oxide film and powder compounds for ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites wherein the metal oxide includes a plurality of metals. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of the metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby cause formation of a recoverable film of metal on the electrode, recovering the resultant film as a film or a powder, and recovering powder formed on the floor of the bath. The films and powders so produced are subsequently annealed to thereby produce metal oxide for use in electronic applications. The process can be employed to produce metal-doped metal oxide film and powder compounds for transparent conductors. The process for preparation of these metal-doped metal oxides follows that described above.

  11. Preparation of transparent conductors ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, R.N.; Ginley, D.S.

    1998-07-28

    A process is described for the preparation by electrodeposition of metal oxide film and powder compounds for ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites wherein the metal oxide includes a plurality of metals. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of the metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby cause formation of a recoverable film of metal on the electrode, recovering the resultant film as a film or a powder, and recovering powder formed on the floor of the bath. The films and powders so produced are subsequently annealed to thereby produce metal oxide for use in electronic applications. The process can be employed to produce metal-doped metal oxide film and powder compounds for transparent conductors. The process for preparation of these metal-doped metal oxides follows that described above.

  12. Study of a sandwich structure of transparent conducting oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Transparent conducting ZnO/Ag/ZnO multilayer electrodes having electrical resistance much lower than that of widely used transparent electrodes were prepared by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IAD) under oxygen atmosphere. The optical parameters were optimized by admittance loci analysis to show that the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film can achieve an average transmittance of 93%. The optimum thickness for high optical transmittance and good electrical conductivity was found to be 11?nm for Ag thin films and 40?nm for ZnO films, based on the admittance diagram. By designing the optical thickness of each ZnO layer and controlling process parameters such as IAD power when fabricating dielectric-metal-dielectric films at room temperature, we can obtain an average transmittance of 90% in the visible region and a bulk resistivity of 5?×?10?5 ?-cm. These values suggest that the transparent ZnO/Ag/ZnO electrodes are suitable for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:22697503

  13. Weld electrode cooling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Robert C.; Simon, Daniel L.

    1999-03-01

    The U.S. auto/truck industry has been mandated by the Federal government to continuously improve their fleet average gas mileage, measured in miles per gallon. Several techniques are typically used to meet these mandates, one of which is to reduce the overall mass of cars and trucks. To help accomplish this goal, lighter weight sheet metal parts, with smaller weld flanges, have been designed and fabricated. This paper will examine the cooling characteristics of various water cooled weld electrodes and shanks used in resistance spot welding applications. The smaller weld flanges utilized in modern vehicle sheet metal fabrications have increased industry's interest in using one size of weld electrode (1/2 inch diameter) for certain spot welding operations. The welding community wants more data about the cooling characteristics of these 1/2 inch weld electrodes. To hep define the cooling characteristics, an infrared radiometer thermal vision system (TVS) was used to capture images (thermograms) of the heating and cooling cycles of several size combinations of weld electrodes under typical production conditions. Tests results will show why the open ended shanks are more suitable for cooling the weld electrode assembly then closed ended shanks.

  14. Optical precursors in transparent media

    SciTech Connect

    Macke, Bruno; Segard, Bernard [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molecules (PhLAM), Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Lasers et Applications, CNRS et Universite Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)

    2009-07-15

    We theoretically study the linear propagation of a stepwise pulse through a dilute dispersive medium when the frequency of the optical carrier coincides with the center of a natural or electromagnetically induced transparency window of the medium (slow-light systems). We obtain fully analytical expressions of the entirety of the step response and show that, for parameters representative of real experiments, Sommerfeld-Brillouin precursors, main field and second precursors ('postcursors') can be distinctly observed, all with amplitudes comparable to that of the incident step. This behavior strongly contrasts with that of the systems generally considered up to now.

  15. Instrument for evaluating the electrical resistance and wavelength-resolved transparency of stretchable electronics during strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azar, A. D.; Finley, E.; Harris, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    A complete analysis of strain tolerance in a stretchable transparent conductor (TC) should include tracking of both electrical conductivity and transparency during strain; however, transparency is generally neglected in contemporary analyses. In this paper, we describe an apparatus that tracks both parameters while TCs of arbitrary composition are deformed under stretching-mode strain. We demonstrate the tool by recording the electrical resistance and light transmission spectra for indium tin oxide-coated plastic substrates under both linearly increasing strain and complex cyclic strain processes. The optics are sensitive across the visible spectrum and into the near-infrared region (˜400-900 nm), and without specifically optimizing for sampling speed, we achieve a time resolution of ˜200 ms. In our automated analysis routine, we include a calculation of a common TC figure of merit (FOM), and because solar cell electrodes represent a key TC application, we also weigh both our transparency and FOM results against the solar power spectrum to determine "solar transparency" and "solar FOM." Finally, we demonstrate how the apparatus may be adapted to measure the basic performance metrics for complete solar cells under uniaxial strain.

  16. Fabrication of Transparent Capacitive Structure by Self-Assembled Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Shing, Y. J.; Hua, Feng; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Matson, Dean W.

    2008-06-01

    An approach to fabricating transparent electronic devices by using nanomaterial and nanofabrication is presented in this paper. A see-through capacitor is constructed from selfassembled silica nanoparticle layers that are stacked on the transparent substrate. The electrodes are made of indium tin oxide. Unlike the traditional processes used to fabricate such devices, the self-assembly approach enables one to synthesize the thin film layers at lower temperature and cost, and with a broader availability of nanomaterials. The vertical dimension of the selfassembled thin films can be precisely controlled, as well as the molecular order in the thin film layers. The shape of the capacitor is generated by planar micropatterning. The quartz crystal demonstrates the steady growth of the silica nanoparticle multilayer. In addition, because the nanomaterial synthesis and the device fabrication steps are separate, the device is not affected by the harsh conditions required for the material synthesis. A clear pattern is allowed over a large area on the substrate. The prepared capacitive structure has an optical transparency higher than 92% over the visible spectrum. The capacitive impedance is measured at different frequencies and fit the theoretical results. As one of the fundamental components, this type of capacitive structure can serve in the transparent circuits, interactive media and sensors, as well as being applicable to other transparent devices.

  17. Development of transparent silica aerogel over a wide range of densities

    E-print Network

    Tabata, Makoto; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Hideyuki; Sumiyoshi, Takayuki; Yokogawa, Hiroshi; 10.1016/j.nima.2010.02.241

    2011-01-01

    We have succeeded in developing hydrophobic silica aerogels over a wide range of densities (i.e. refractive indices). A pinhole drying method was invented to make possible producing highly transparent aerogels with entirely new region of refractive indices of 1.06-1.26. Obtained aerogels are more transparent than conventional ones, and the refractive index is well controlled in the pinhole drying process. A test beam experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the performance of the pinhole-dried aerogels as a Cherenkov radiator. A clear Cherenkov ring was successfully observed by a ring imaging Cherenkov counter. We also developed monolithic and hydrophobic aerogels with a density of 0.01 g/cm^3 (a low refractive index of 1.0026) as a cosmic dust capturer for the first time. Consequently, aerogels with any refractive indices between 1.0026 and 1.26 can be produced freely.

  18. Transparent conducting oxides and their applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Ryan Snure

    2009-01-01

    Realization of next generation photovoltaic and spintronic devices requires the use of materials beyond conventional semiconductors. Metal oxide semiconductors are technologically important for use in next generation devices that require: transparency, multifunctionality and stability. In this work metal oxide semiconductors ZnO and CuBO2 were pursued as transparent conductors and diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS). Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are an integral

  19. Dual porosity gas evolving electrode

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, C.W.

    1994-11-15

    A dual porosity electrode is described for use in thermoelectrochemical systems where simultaneous transport of gas and liquid into and/or out of the electrode is required. The electrode includes catalytic electrode particles having diameters ranging from about 25 to 100 angstroms. The catalytic electrode particles are anchored to a support network in clusters which have internal pores ranging in size from 25 to 100 angstroms. The pores between the clusters range in size from between about 1 to 20 microns. A method for making the dual porosity electrodes is also disclosed.

  20. Dual porosity gas evolving electrode

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, Carl W. (Los Angeles, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A dual porosity electrode for use in thermoelectrochemical systems where simultaneous transport of gas and liquid into and/or out of the electrode is required. The electrode includes catalytic electrode particles having diameters ranging from about 25 to 100 angstroms. The catalytic electrode particles are anchored to a support network in clusters which have internal pores ranging in size from 25 to 100 angstroms. The pores between the clusters range in size from between about 1 to 20 microns. A method for making the dual porosity electrodes is also disclosed.