Sample records for transvaginal ultrasonography assessment

  1. The accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonography for the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy prior to surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Condous; Emeka Okaro; Asma Khalid; Chuan Lu; Sabine Van Huffel; D Timmerman; Tom Bourne

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) for the detection of ectopic preg- nancies (EPs) in women undergoing surgery for presumed ectopic pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective, observa- tional study. Women were diagnosed with an EP using TVS if any of the following were noted in the adnexal region: (i) an inhomogeneous mass or blob sign adjacent to the

  2. Surveillance for endometrial cancer with transvaginal ultrasonography of breast cancer patients under tamoxifen treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Ciatto; S Cecchini; G Gervasi; A Landini; M Zappa; E Crocetti

    2003-01-01

    The association of endometrial thickness with the risk of developing endometrial cancer (EC) within 2 years was investigated in a consecutive cohort of 1205 breast cancer patients under tamoxifen treatment, undergoing transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS) for follow-up purpose (asymptomatic, 1068) or for abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB, 137). Linkage with tumour registry allowed for the follow-up of 3184.3 person-years. According to underlying

  3. Comparison of transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy in the diagnosis of uterine pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Babacan, Ali; Gun, Ismet; Kizilaslan, Cem; Ozden, Okan; Muhcu, Murat; Mungen, Ercument; Atay, Vedat

    2014-01-01

    A thorough evaluation of the uterine cavity is frequently required in gynecology practice. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic values of transvaginal ultrasound examination and hysteroscopy in detecting uterine abnormalities in a group of patients within a range of menopausal status and symptomatology. This study included 285 patients admitted with complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, lower abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge or for a routine gynecological examination. All patients had available transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy data for evaluation. A biopsy was obtained from all patients during the hysteroscopy session. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and likelihood ratio were calculated for both methods and compared, considering the histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard. The mean age of the patients was 49.5±12.9 years (range, 24-89 y). Majority of the patients admitted for abnormal uterine bleeding (n=198, 69.4%). For the diagnosis of polyps of any size, hysteroscopy had better sensitivity (p<0.001), however, specificities did not differ (p=1.0). On the other hand, hysteroscopy did not have a sensitivity advantage over TVU in diagnosing polyps greater than 1 cm (p=0.077), although this time hysteroscopy had better specificity (p<0.001). Combined approach did not offer diagnostic advantage for any of the specific pathologies. Although TVU represents a practical approach for the initial evaluation of uterine pathologies, hysteroscopy seems to offer better diagnostic value for uterine pathologies in general, and uterine polyps in particular. PMID:24753775

  4. The impact of goal-directed transvaginal ultrasonography on clinical decision-making for emergency physicians.

    PubMed

    Sayrac, Neslihan; Bektas, Firat; Soyuncu, Secgin; Sayrac, Vefa

    2015-07-01

    The aim of study was to determine the impact of "goal-directed transvaginal ultrasonography" (TVUSG) on real-time clinical decision making of attending emergency physicians evaluating their level of certainty for preliminary diagnosis, admission, surgery, treatment, additional laboratory, and discharge in patients presenting with acute pelvic pain to the emergency department (ED). This prospective cross-sectional clinical study was conducted on sexually active female patients older than 18 years who presented with acute pelvic pain in the ED. The level of certainty of clinical decision making as mentioned above was measured by a visual analogue scale from 0 to 100 mm with 100 mm being most certain before and after TVUSG. Statistical analysis was performed on 88 patients. The mean age was 31.7 ±8.3 years with a median of 30 years. Among clinical decisions, there was a significant difference between pre-TVUSG and post-TVUSG certainty of the decision to perform preliminary diagnoses derived from patient's history and physical examination but not in the other outcomes (treatment, admission, surgery, and discharge). (P = .05). Of the patients included in the study, 11 (12.5%) were admitted to hospital, and 2 (2.3%) of them were operated on. The remaining 75 (85.2%) patients were discharged from the ED; of the patients that had been discharged, 18 (20.5%) patients later consulted another physician, and no further pathology could be discovered. In conclusion, US performed by attending emergency physicians may affect the certainty of their decisions in patients presenting with acute pelvic pain. This effect statistically significantly on the decision to determine preliminary diagnosis. PMID:25963680

  5. Transvaginal Color Doppler Ultrasonography in the Evaluation of Placental CirculationA Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenna Ren; Reva Curry

    1992-01-01

    Transvaginal color Doppler sonography has provided the capability to qualitatively evaluate blood flow in small branches of the uterine arteries, umbilical cord arteries, and intraplacental fetal arteries in early pregnancy. Accurate identification of these small vessels and analysis of their flow characteristics have improved our understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of early pregnancy that alters the umbilicaluteroplacental circulations. Further

  6. Transrectal ultrasonography in the assessment of rectovaginal endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Fedele; S. Bianchi; A. Portuese; F. Borruto; M. Dorta

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the validity of transrectal ultrasonography in the assessment of rectovaginal endometriosis.Methods: We compared the findings of transrectal ultrasonographic examination performed before surgery with the operative and pathologic findings in 140 women who underwent laparoscopy or laparotomy for suspected endometriosis. The ultrasonographer was asked to investigate whether any deep endometriotic lesions were present in the rectovaginal septum and

  7. Duplex Ultrasonography in Assessing Restenosis of Renal Artery Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, Jeannette [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Beutler, Jaap J. [Department of Nephrology, University Hospital Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Elgersma, Otto E.H. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Lange, Eduard E. de [Department of Radiology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Kort, Gerard A.P. de; Beek, Frederik J. A. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the accuracy and optimal threshold values of duplex ultrasonography (US) in assessing restenosis of renal artery stents. Methods: Twenty-four consecutive patients with 33 renal arteries that had previously been treated with placement of a Palmaz stent underwent duplex US prior to intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA), which was the reference standard. Diagnostic accuracy of in-stent peak systolic velocity (PSV) and reno-aortic ratio (RAR = PSV renal stent/PSV aorta) in detecting > 50% in-stent restenosis were evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve. Sensitivity and specificity were determined using the optimal threshold values, and using published threshold values: RAR > 3.5 and in-stent PSV > 180 cm/sec. Results: Six examinations were technically inadequate. Nine stents had residual or restenosis > 50% at DSA. The two duplex parameters were equally accurate since areas under the curves were similar (0.943). With optimal threshold values of 226 cm/sec for PSV and 2.7 for RAR, sensitivities and specificities were 100% and 90%, and 100% and 84%, respectively. Using the published duplex criteria resulted in sensitivities and specificities of 100% and 74% for PSV, and 50% and 89% for RAR. Conclusion: Duplex US is a sensitive modality for detecting in-stent restenosis if laboratory-specific threshold values are used.

  8. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Chemoembolization: Assessment with Contrast-Enhanced Doppler Ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orlando Catalano; Maria Esposito; Roberto Lobianco; Bianca Cusati; Francesco Altei; Alfredo Siani

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To report our preliminary experience concerning the use of Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) techniques after intravenous injection of the galactose-based contrast agent Levovist in the assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The sonographic findings are correlated with those obtained using iodized oil (Lipiodol) helical computed tomography (CT). Methods: For 7 months we studied 28 patients

  9. Diagnostic endoscopic ultrasonography: Assessment of safety and prevention of complications

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Christian; Alvarez-Sánchez, Maria Victoria; Napoléon, Bertrand; Faiss, Siegbert

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has gained wide acceptance as an important, minimally invasive diagnostic tool in gastroenterology, pulmonology, visceral surgery and oncology. This review focuses on data regarding risks and complications of non-interventional diagnostic EUS and EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB). Measures to improve the safety of EUS und EUS-FNB will be discussed. Due to the specific mechanical properties of echoendoscopes in EUS, there is a low but noteworthy risk of perforation. To minimize this risk, endoscopists should be familiar with the specific features of their equipment and their patients’ specific anatomical situations (e.g., tumor stenosis, diverticula). Most diagnostic EUS complications occur during EUS-FNB. Pain, acute pancreatitis, infection and bleeding are the primary adverse effects, occurring in 1% to 2% of patients. Only a few cases of needle tract seeding and peritoneal dissemination have been reported. The mortality associated with EUS and EUS-FNB is 0.02%. The risks associated with EUS-FNB are affected by endoscopist experience and target lesion. EUS-FNB of cystic lesions is associated with an increased risk of infection and hemorrhage. Peri-interventional antibiotics are recommended to prevent cyst infection. Adequate education and training, as well consideration of contraindications, are essential to minimize the risks of EUS and EUS-FNB. Restricting EUS-FNB only to patients in whom the cytopathological results may be expected to change the course of management is the best way of reducing the number of complications. PMID:23002335

  10. Prevalence of ovarian adrenal rest tumours and polycystic ovaries in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: results of ultrasonography and MR imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nike M. M. L. Stikkelbroeck; Ad R. M. M. Hermus; Diana Schouten; Harold M. Suliman; Gerrit J. Jager; Didi D. M. Braat; Barto J. Otten

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to assess the prevalence of ovarian adrenal rest tumours and polycystic ovaries in female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Thirteen female CAH patients (median age 19.8 years, range 14.8–23.5 years) underwent transvaginal ( n=6) or transabdominal ( n=7) ultrasonography by a gynaecologist and MR imaging ( n=13) of the ovaries (pre and post

  11. Impaired endothelial function with essential hypertension assessed by ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaeko Iiyama; Masahiro Nagano; Yoshikage Yo; Noriko Nagano; Kei Kamide; Jitsuo Higaki; Hiroshi Mikami; Toshio Ogihara

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the role of hypertension in endothelial function, changes in which are known to be an early event of atherosclerosis. We assessed endothelial function in 13 subjects with normal blood pressure and 13 subjects with essential hypertension who had never been treated for hypertension or hyperlipidemia and who had no history of smoking

  12. A Comparison of Conventional Ultrasonography and Arthrosonography in the Assessment of Cuff Integrity after Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Won; Chun, Tong Jin; Bae, Kyoung Wan; Choy, Won Sik; Park, Hyeon Jong

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to perform conventional ultrasonography, magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) and arthrosonography exams after rotator cuff repair to compare the results of conventional ultrasonography and arthrosonography with those of MRA as the gold standard. Methods We prospectively studied 42 consecutive patients (14 males, 28 females; average age, 59.4 years) who received arthroscopic rotator cuff repair due to full-thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon from 2008 to 2010. The integrity assessment of the repaired rotator cuff was performed 6 months postoperatively using conventional ultrasonography, MRA, and arthrosonography. Results The diagnostic accuracy of the conventional ultrasonography compared to MRA was 78.6% and the McNemar test results were 0.016 in full-thickness tear and 0.077 in partial-thickness tear. The diagnostic accuracy of arthrosonography compared to MRA was 92.9% and the McNemar test results were 0.998 in full-thickness tear and 0.875 in partial-thickness tear. Conclusions It was found that the integrity assessment of the repaired rotator cuff by ultrasonography must be guarded against and that arthrosonography is an effective alternative method in the postoperative integrity assessment. Also, an arthrosonography seems to be a suitable modality to replace the conventional ultrasonography. PMID:25177461

  13. Long-term anatomical and functional assessment of trans-vaginal cystocele repair using a tension-free polypropylene mesh.

    PubMed

    de Tayrac, Renaud; Deffieux, Xavier; Gervaise, Amélie; Chauveaud-Lambling, Aurélia; Fernandez, Hervé

    2006-09-01

    We report a case series of 63 women with cystocele who underwent the same trans-vaginal procedure between October 1999 and October 2002. The polypropylene mesh (GyneMesh, Gynecare, Ethicon, France) was placed from the retropubic space to the inferior part of the bladder in a tension-free fashion. Patients were followed up for 24 to 60 months, with a mean follow-up of 37 months. Fifty-five patients returned for follow-up (87.3%). At follow-up, 49 women were anatomically cured (89.1%), five women had stage 2 anterior vaginal wall prolapse (9.1%), and one had a recurrent stage 3 (1.8%). Functional results and sexual function were also investigated. Fifty-three women had significant improvement in their quality of life (96.4%). There were a total of three cases of local pain around a mesh shrinkage (5.5%) and five vaginal erosions of the mesh (9.1%). Four out of 24 patients had dyspareunia (16.7%). In conclusion, the vaginal repair of anterior vaginal wall prolapse reinforced with a polypropylene mesh was efficient at 2 to 5 years follow-up. However, the first generation of polypropylene mesh we used was responsible for high rates of local complications and dyspareunia. Therefore, the polypropylene mesh has to be improved (lower weight) and the technique has to be documented by a randomized controlled trial before we could recommend its use in clinical practice. PMID:16362725

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma treated with chemoembolization: Assessment with contrast-enhanced doppler ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orlando Catalano; Maria Esposito; Roberto Lobianco; Bianca Cusati; Francesco Altei; Alfredo Siani

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To report our preliminary experience concerning the use of Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) techniques after intravenous injection\\u000a of the galactose-based contrast agent Levovist in the assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transcatheter\\u000a arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The sonographic findings are correlated with those obtained using iodized oil (Lipiodol)\\u000a helical computed tomography (CT).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: For 7 months we studied 28 patients

  15. Ultrasonographically guided transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Sobek, Ales; Hammadeh, Mohamed; Vodicka, Jan; Sobek, Ales

    2008-01-01

    Transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy was introduced as an outpatient procedure to examine the tubo-ovarian complex in infertile women. We evaluated ultrasonographically guided transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy (UTHL) as a modified technique for pelvic examination in 562 infertile women without overt evidence of pelvic pathology. Access to the abdominal cavity was observed by ultrasound and examination of the pelvic structures was done by hydrolaparoscopy using saline solution. Access was successful in all cases. No perforation of bowel or rectum was detected. Bilateral visualization of the tubo-ovarian complex was successful in 96% of women. Mild asymptomatic peri-ovarian adhesions were detected in 17% of the women, 4.9% had grade I endometriosis. There was unilateral tubal occlusion in 5%, and bilateral in 3.6%. In 13.9% elective operative laparoscopy for tubal obstruction and/or adhesions was recommended. UTHL is a safe outpatient procedure for examination of the tubo-ovarian complex. The use of ultrasound increases the rate of successful access to the pouch of Douglas and minimizes complications. PMID:18752078

  16. Patient-controlled sedation during transvaginal oocyte retrieval: an assessment of patient acceptance of patient-controlled sedation using a mixture of propofol and alfentanil.

    PubMed

    Dell, R G; Cloote, A H

    1998-03-01

    Patient-controlled sedation (PCS) has been used during many different surgical procedures, both alone and as an adjunct to local or regional anaesthesia. Sedation with an admixture of propofol and alfentanil during transvaginal oocyte retrieval has been used successfully in this unit and this study was performed to assess the degree of patient acceptance of patient-controlled sedation, as other studies have indicated that self-administration of sedation may confer additional benefits on the patient, unrelated to the choice of sedation agent. An admixture of 50 mL propofol 1% with alfentanil 2 mg was loaded into a Graseby 3300 patient-controlled analgesia pump and administered as increments of 0.3 mL with a zero lock-out interval. This method of sedation provided safe and highly satisfactory sedation for this group of patients with 55 of 56 patients indicating that they would opt for this type of sedation again. There was a very low incidence of over-sedation, and this sedation method is likely to produce a relaxed and co-operative patient for a wide variety of surgical procedures. PMID:9587728

  17. Ultrasonography assessment of vocal cords mobility in children after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shaath, Ghassan A.; Jijeh, Abdulraouf; Alkurdi, Ahmad; Ismail, Sameh; Elbarbary, Mahmoud; Kabbani, Mohamed S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Upper airway obstruction after pediatric cardiac surgery is not uncommon. In the cardiac surgical population, an important etiology is vocal cord paresis or paralysis following extubation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of ultrasonography (US) assessment of the vocal cords mobility and compare it to fiber-optic laryngoscope (FL). Material and methods A prospective pilot study has been conducted in Pediatric Cardiac ICU (PCICU) at King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center (KACC) from the 1st of June 2009 till the end of July 2010. Patients who had cardiac surgery manifested with significant signs of upper airway obstruction were included. Each procedure was performed by different operators who were blinded to each other report. Results of invasive (FL) and non-invasive ultrasonography (US) investigations were compared. Results Ten patients developed persistent significant upper airway obstruction after cardiac surgery were included in the study. Their mean ± SEM of weight and age were 4.6 ± 0.4 kg and 126.4 ± 51.4 days, respectively. All patients were referred to bedside US screening for vocal cord mobility. The results of US were compared subsequently with FL findings. Results were identical in nine (90%) patients and partially different in one (10%). Six patients showed abnormal glottal movement while the other four patients demonstrated normal vocal cords mobility by FL. Sensitivity of US was 100% and specificity of 80%. Conclusion US assessment of vocal cord is simple, non-invasive and reliable tool to assess vocal cords mobility in the critical care settings. This screening tool requires skills that can be easily obtained. PMID:23960693

  18. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Chemoembolization: Assessment with Contrast-Enhanced Doppler Ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, Orlando; Esposito, Maria; Lobianco, Roberto; Cusati, Bianca; Altei, Francesco; Siani, Alfredo [Department of Radiology, S. Maria delle Grazie Hospital, via Domitiana, Loc. La Schiana, Pozzuoli, I-80078 Naples (Italy)

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: To report our preliminary experience concerning the use of Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) techniques after intravenous injection of the galactose-based contrast agent Levovist in the assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The sonographic findings are correlated with those obtained using iodized oil (Lipiodol) helical computed tomography (CT). Methods: For 7 months we studied 28 patients with cirrhosis and HCC (a total of 43 nodules) who had undergone TACE between 18 and 30 days previously. The lesions were investigated with color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS), before and after infusion of the echo-contrast agent (300 mg/ml, maximum 1 injection for each nodule, administered at constant velocity within 60-90 sec), and with helical Lipiodol-CT (0-7 days after DUS). In the retrospective analysis, special attention was given to the Doppler signals related to pulsatile intra- and perinodular flow and to the detection of new vessels after contrast agent injection. The signal intensity was graded as 0 (absent), 1 (low), 2 (medium), or 3 (high), while its distribution was classified as peripheral, central, or diffuse. Oily agent retention on CT scans was assessed as 0 (absent), I (<10%), II (<50%), III (>50%), or IV (homogeneous). These scores were awarded separately, without knowledge of the other judgments. Results: An hepatic global echo-enhancing effect was identified in all cases and always lasted long enough to allow an accurate analysis of all parenchymal lesions (at least 8 min). The signal scores could be evaluated in 39 of 43 HCCs, as follows: basal CDUS: grade 0 in 17 lesions, grade 1 in 16, grade 2 in 6; contrast-enhanced CDUS: grade 0 in 12 lesions, grade 1 in 10, grade 2 in 14, grade 3 in 3; basal PDUS: grade 0 in 15 lesions, grade 1 in 13, grade 2 in 9, grade 3 in 2; contrast-enhanced PDUS: grade 0 in 11 lesions, grade 1 in 9, grade 2 in 15, grade 3 in 6. Lipiodol-CT scoring was: grade 0 in 1 lesion, grade I in 7, grade II in 11, grade III in 9, grade IV in 11. In all but one nodule the difference between CDUS and PDUS scores, compared both with each other and with nonenhanced and contrast-enhanced examinations, was never greater than one grade. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced DUS is a simple and fast procedure allowing a valuable, constant echo-enhancing effect of sufficient duration. DUS techniques, especially contrast-enhanced PDUS, offer an effective and realistic analysis of HCC nodules treated with TACE and show more evident agreement with Lipiodol-CT findings than baseline studies.

  19. Fetal ultrasonography.

    PubMed Central

    Garmel, S H; D'Alton, M E

    1993-01-01

    Since its introduction in the 1950s, ultrasonography in pregnancy has been helpful in determining gestational age, detecting multiple pregnancies, locating placentas, diagnosing fetal anomalies, evaluating fetal well-being, and guiding obstetricians with in utero treatment. We review current standards and controversies regarding the indications, safety, accuracy, and limitations of ultrasonography in pregnancy. Images PMID:8236969

  20. Lung ultrasonography for the assessment of rapid extravascular water variation: evidence from hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Trezzi, Matteo; Torzillo, Daniela; Ceriani, Elisa; Costantino, Giorgio; Caruso, Sabrina; Damavandi, Parham Tabaee; Genderini, Augusto; Cicardi, Marco; Montano, Nicola; Cogliati, Chiara

    2013-08-01

    Chest ultrasonography is a useful tool to assess extravascular lung water at bedside. In presence of interstitial-alveolar imbibition, vertical artifacts arising from the pleura are detected; these are called B-lines. Although a positive linear correlation between B-lines and extravascular lung water has been shown in symptomatic heart failure patients, the subclinical phase of pulmonary imbibition and the clearance of B-lines after rapid body fluid removal have been less investigated. The aim of this study was to assess if chest ultrasound could detect lung water imbibition and its variations induced by dialysis, an experimental model of controlled rapid fluid loss. Forty-one patients undergoing hemodialysis were studied. Total number of B-lines from ultrasound chest scanning and vena cava diameters were measured before and after treatment. Before dialysis, most of the patients presented ultrasound signs of pulmonary imbibition despite the absence of dyspnea; the number of B-lines was associated with the accumulated weight before treatment (p < 0.05) as well as with the residual weight after dialysis (p < 0.01); B-lines and end-inspiratory and end-expiratory vena cava diameters were also significantly reduced after dialysis. Moreover, B-lines reduction was significantly related to weight loss. Ultrasound performed at the bedside can detect lung water and intravascular overload and their reduction after dialysis in yet asymptomatic patients. These observations add further evidence regarding the use of lung ultrasound and inferior vena cava measurement in estimating volume overload and monitoring the response to therapy both in hemodialysis and congestive heart failure patients. PMID:21590437

  1. Reliability and Limits of Agreement of the Supraspinatus Muscle Anatomical Cross-Sectional Area Assessment by Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Papatzika, Fyllis; Papandreou, Maria; Ekizos, Antonis; Panteli, Chrystalla; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and limits of agreement for assessment of the anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) of the supraspinatus muscle using B-mode ultrasonography. Sixteen participants were examined with two different protocols, on two different days. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in ACSA values between days 1 and 2 or between protocols 1 and 2; the average intra-class correlation coefficient ranged from 0.93 to 0.96. The limits of agreement for supraspinatus ACSA were, in both protocols, about ± 1 cm(2). Our findings revealed that both protocols had high reliability in distinguishing differences of about 1 cm(2) between groups or after interventions and that ultrasonography can be used for experimental designs in which the expected changes in ACSA would be higher than 14%. PMID:25842257

  2. Optimising ultrasonography in rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Keen, H I; Wakefield, R; Conaghan, P G

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality that has been utilised in clinical medicine since the 1950s. However, application to joints and rheumatic disease was delayed until appropriate advances in technology made it feasible. Since the 1990s, rheumatologists have embraced ultrasonography as a useful clinical tool and it has increasingly been applied in routine practice. Initial criticism correctly focused on a lack of validity data, recognition that this modality is highly user-dependent and that reliability was not established. In response, the rheumatological community identified relevant pathologies to study, starting with synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis, and set about defining the ultrasound abnormalities, followed by demonstrating the validity, reproducibility and responsiveness of these measures. Much work is now ongoing in the areas of enthesitis, gout and osteoarthritis. Additionally, the evidence base for ultrasonography in clinical practice is being investigated, in order to understand its appropriate place. Given the sensitivity of ultrasonography over clinical examination for detection of inflammation, this work will focus on its role in optimising diagnosis, directing therapy through accurate assessment of disease activity and understanding the optimal selection of joints for feasible disease monitoring. This review summarises the work undertaken to date, ongoing work and future challenges of optimising the role of ultrasonography in rheumatology. PMID:25365083

  3. Application of B+M-Mode Ultrasonography in Assessing Deglutitive Tongue Movements in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Changtian; Li, Junlai; Zhang, Changsheng; Cao, Xiaolin; Li, Nan; Song, Danfei; Yu, Tengfei

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate tongue movements during swallowing in healthy adults using the B+M-mode ultrasonography, and to determine a common feature in the M-mode traces for quantitative measurement and individual comparison of tongue movements. Material and Methods Ninety healthy subjects were divided into 3 groups according to age (20-39, 40-59, and 60-80 years). The tongue movements during 3 saliva swallows were examined using real-time B+M-mode ultrasonography. The M-mode traces of tongue movements were recorded and evaluated. Results Both intra-individual and inter-individual differences were detected in the M-mode traces during the 3 saliva swallows. Characteristic types were seen during the individual swallowing phases of M-mode traces: 2 activity types in phase I, 2 types in phase IIb, and 3 types in phase III. However, no variations were seen during phase IIa, in which all subjects displayed a continuous upsloping trace. The average range of swallow-related tongue radial displacement during phase IIa decreased gradually with age, while the average duration of tongue movement during phase IIa increased gradually with age. These 2 trends were not statistically significant across age groups. However, differences between sexes were found in both the range of tongue radial displacement and the duration of deglutitive lingual actions during phase IIa in all 3 age groups (P<0.05). Conclusions B+M-mode ultrasonography may offer a quick and safe alternative for the preliminary evaluation of deglutitive tongue movements. PMID:26049721

  4. Application of B+M-Mode Ultrasonography in Assessing Deglutitive Tongue Movements in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changtian; Li, Junlai; Zhang, Changsheng; Cao, Xiaolin; Li, Nan; Song, Danfei; Yu, Tengfei

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate tongue movements during swallowing in healthy adults using the B+M-mode ultrasonography, and to determine a common feature in the M-mode traces for quantitative measurement and individual comparison of tongue movements. Material/Methods Ninety healthy subjects were divided into 3 groups according to age (20–39, 40–59, and 60–80 years). The tongue movements during 3 saliva swallows were examined using real-time B+M-mode ultrasonography. The M-mode traces of tongue movements were recorded and evaluated. Results Both intra-individual and inter-individual differences were detected in the M-mode traces during the 3 saliva swallows. Characteristic types were seen during the individual swallowing phases of M-mode traces: 2 activity types in phase I, 2 types in phase IIb, and 3 types in phase III. However, no variations were seen during phase IIa, in which all subjects displayed a continuous upsloping trace. The average range of swallow-related tongue radial displacement during phase IIa decreased gradually with age, while the average duration of tongue movement during phase IIa increased gradually with age. These 2 trends were not statistically significant across age groups. However, differences between sexes were found in both the range of tongue radial displacement and the duration of deglutitive lingual actions during phase IIa in all 3 age groups (P<0.05). Conclusions B+M-mode ultrasonography may offer a quick and safe alternative for the preliminary evaluation of deglutitive tongue movements. PMID:26049721

  5. Transvaginal Sonographic Evaluation of the Cervix in Asymptomatic Singleton Pregnancy and Management Options in Short Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Arisoy, Resul; Yayla, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Preterm delivery (PTD), defined as birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation, is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Evaluation of the cervical morphology and biometry with transvaginal ultrasonography at 16–24 weeks of gestation is a useful tool to predict the risk of preterm birth in low- and high-risk singleton pregnancies. For instance, a sonographic cervical length (CL) > 30?mm and present cervical gland area have a 96-97% negative predictive value for preterm delivery at <37 weeks. Available evidence supports the use of progesterone to women with cervical length ?25?mm, irrespective of other risk factors. In women with prior spontaneous PTD with asymptomatic cervical shortening (CL ? 25?mm), prophylactic cerclage procedure must be performed and weekly to every two weeks follow-up is essential. This article reviews the evidence in support of the clinical introduction of transvaginal sonography for both the prediction and management of spontaneous preterm labour. PMID:22523687

  6. [Gynecological surgery using a transvaginal approach].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaaki

    2013-11-01

    The vagina is a unique organ, directly abutting the peritoneal cavity but showing no visible scars after incision of the vaginal wall. Since 2003, we have performed ovarian cystectomy with a vaginal approach in 120 patients. To perform culdotomy without failure, we developed a new culdotomy technique with transvaginal ultrasound and an umbrella Hakko needle, which has potential applicability in transvaginal natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). All cystectomies were completed without conversion to laparotomy. Laparoscopy was required to complete cystectomy in 3% of cases. No major intraoperative complications, including rectal injury, occurred. Since 2009, we have started to use flexible endoscopy transvaginally. In 20 cases, this enabled us to observe or wash the intraperitoneal cavity and remove the cyst. An anonymous questionnaire was sent to 73 patients with a mean age of 31.9 years who had undergone vaginal ovarian cystectomy more than 6 months previously. This questionnaire included questions about fertility, dyspareunia, and satisfaction after surgery, and 60% of patients returned completed questionnaires. The pregnancy rate among women younger than 30 years of age was 60%, and none developed permanent dyspareunia. The average patient satisfaction score was 4.12 (on a 5-point scale). Transvaginal ovarian surgery can be an alternative to laparoscopic surgery for patients who desire minimally invasive treatment, and transvaginal NOTES is expected to become the new model of minimally invasive surgery. PMID:24358727

  7. The WHO ultrasonography protocol for assessing hepatic morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni. Acceptance and evolution over 12 years.

    PubMed

    el Scheich, Tarik; Holtfreter, Martha C; Ekamp, Hendrik; Singh, Daman D; Mota, Rodrigo; Hatz, Christoph; Richter, Joachim

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to review the worldwide acceptance of the World Health Organization (WHO) ultrasound protocol for assessing hepatosplenic morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni since its publication in 2000. A PubMed literature research using the keywords "schistosomiasis and ultrasound," "schistosomiasis and ultrasonography," and "S. mansoni and ultrasound" from 2001 to 2012 was performed. Case reports, reviews, reports on abnormalities due to parasites other than S. mansoni, organ involvement other than the human liver, and reports where ultrasound method was not described were excluded. Six studies were retrieved from other Brazilian sources. Sixty studies on 37,424 patients from 15 countries were analyzed. The WHO protocol was applied with increasing frequency from 43.75% in the years 2001 to 2004 to 84.61% in 2009 to 2012. Results obtained using the pictorial image pattern approach of the protocol are reported in 38/41 studies, whereas measurements of portal branch walls were applied in 19/41 and results reported in 2/41 studies only. The practical usefulness of the pictorial approach of the WHO protocol is confirmed by its wide acceptance. This approach alone proved satisfactory in terms of reproducibility, assessment of evolution of pathology, and comparability between different settings. The measurements of portal branches, also part of the protocol, may be omitted without losing relevant information since results obtained by these measurements are nonspecific. This would save resources by reducing the time required for each examination. It is also more feasible for examiners who are not specialized in medical imaging. As with all protocols, incipient liver fibrosis is difficult to distinguish from normal ultrasound findings of the liver. The ability of this protocol to predict complications in severe cases should be further evaluated in a higher number of patients. PMID:25260691

  8. The assessment of voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction by three-dimensional transperineal ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruiyun ChenYanfeng; Yanfeng Song; Li Jiang; Xinru Hong; Peixiang Ye

    Introduction and hypothesis  The assessment of the levator function by ultrasound has not been fully studied. This study aims to test the validity of ultrasound\\u000a parameters in the assessment of levator function in women presenting with different pelvic floor structural changes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  One hundred and three patients, 36 pelvic organ prolapse women, 36 stress urinary incontinence women and 31 normal controls,\\u000a were

  9. Transvaginal Appendectomy in Morbidly Obese Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Laparoscopic appendectomy has significant benefits in obese patients. However, morbid obesity can be accepted as an exclusion criterion for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). Here, we present a transvaginal appendectomy in a 66-year-old morbidly obese (BMI 36 kg/m2, ASA III) patient. Case and Technique. Acute appendicitis was suspected based on history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and ultrasound findings. During laparoscopic surgery, a 5?mm trocar was inserted through the umbilicus and a 5?mm telescope was placed. A 12?mm trocar and a 5?mm grasper were inserted separately through the posterior fornix of the vagina under laparoscopic guidance. The appendix was divided with an endoscopic stapler through the transvaginal 12?mm trocar and removed from the same trocar. The operating time was 75 minutes with minimal blood loss (<10?mL). The patient was discharged 16 hours after surgery uneventfully and she did not require any analgesic administration. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical case that focuses on the transvaginal appendectomy at morbid obesity. We can say that morbid obesity does not constitute an obstacle for treatment of acute appendicitis by transvaginal endoscopic surgery. PMID:25506028

  10. Ultrasonography of ovarian masses using a pattern recognition approach

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Il

    2015-01-01

    As a primary imaging modality, ultrasonography (US) can provide diagnostic information for evaluating ovarian masses. Using a pattern recognition approach through gray-scale transvaginal US, ovarian masses can be diagnosed with high specificity and sensitivity. Doppler US may allow ovarian masses to be diagnosed as benign or malignant with even greater confidence. In order to differentiate benign and malignant ovarian masses, it is necessary to categorize ovarian masses into unilocular cyst, unilocular solid cyst, multilocular cyst, multilocular solid cyst, and solid tumor, and then to detect typical US features that demonstrate malignancy based on pattern recognition approach. PMID:25797108

  11. Ultrasonography of ovarian masses using a pattern recognition approach.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Il

    2015-07-01

    As a primary imaging modality, ultrasonography (US) can provide diagnostic information for evaluating ovarian masses. Using a pattern recognition approach through gray-scale transvaginal US, ovarian masses can be diagnosed with high specificity and sensitivity. Doppler US may allow ovarian masses to be diagnosed as benign or malignant with even greater confidence. In order to differentiate benign and malignant ovarian masses, it is necessary to categorize ovarian masses into unilocular cyst, unilocular solid cyst, multilocular cyst, multilocular solid cyst, and solid tumor, and then to detect typical US features that demonstrate malignancy based on pattern recognition approach. PMID:25797108

  12. Transvaginal urethrolysis for obstruction after antiincontinence surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca McCrery

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to determine our success in relieving bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) with a transvaginal urethrolysis\\u000a (TVU). This was a chart review that included 55 patients who underwent 61 TVU procedures between 2001 and 2005. Twenty-three\\u000a patients had at least one prior TVU. Outcomes evaluated included obstructive symptoms, need for catheterization, postvoid\\u000a residual (PVR), irritative symptoms, and stress urinary

  13. Predictors of improved overactive bladder symptoms after transvaginal mesh repair for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Yu Long; Chun-Shuo Hsu; Ming-Ping Wu; Cheng-Min Liu; Po-Hui Chiang; Yung-Shun Juan; Eing-Mei Tsai

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis  The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of improved overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms after transvaginal mesh\\u000a repair.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eighty women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) stage II to IV reporting OAB symptoms were scheduled for transvaginal mesh procedures.\\u000a Preoperative and postoperative assessments included a bladder diary, urodynamics, and a personal interview about urinary symptoms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Sixty-three (78.8%)

  14. Postoperative ultrasonography of the musculoskeletal system

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Kyung Ah; Cho, Kil-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the postoperative musculoskeletal system plays an important role in the Epub ahead of print accurate diagnosis of abnormal lesions in the bone and soft tissues. Ultrasonography is a fast and reliable method with no harmful irradiation for the evaluation of postoperative musculoskeletal complications. In particular, it is not affected by the excessive metal artifacts that appear on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Another benefit of ultrasonography is its capability to dynamically assess the pathologic movement in joints, muscles, or tendons. This article discusses the frequent applications of musculoskeletal ultrasonography in various postoperative situations including those involving the soft tissues around the metal hardware, arthroplasty, postoperative tendons, recurrent soft tissue tumors, bone unions, and amputation surgery. PMID:25971901

  15. Transvaginal ovarian cystectomy for adnexal torsion during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gaspar-Oishi, Maria A; Kawelo, Roxanne M; Bartholomew, Marguerite Lisa; Aeby, Tod

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian torsion requiring surgical intervention in pregnancy is rare. Herein is reported a case of ovarian torsion that was managed by transvaginal ovarian cystectomy in a 27 week gravid patient. PMID:22381973

  16. Endoscopic ultrasonography in diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiko Nakaizumi; Hiroyuki Uehara; Hiroyasu Iishi; Masaharu Tatsuta; Tsugio Kitamura; Chikazumi Kuroda; Hiroaki Ohigashi; Osamu Ishikawa; Shigeru Okuda

    1995-01-01

    The accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for diagnosis of pancreatic cancers was evaluated in consecutive 232 patients with possible pancreatic cancer, and that for assessment of their locoregional spread was evaluated in 28 patients with pancreatic cancer subjected to pancreatectomy, in comparison with the accuracies of transabdominal ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT). EUS was found to be significantly more

  17. The accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonography for the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy prior to surgery

    E-print Network

    to surgery George Condous1,4 , Emeka Okaro1 , Asma Khalid1 , Chuan Lu2 , Sabine Van Huffel2 , D Timmerman3 and Tom Bourne1 1 Early Pregnancy, Gynaecological Ultrasound and Minimal Access Surgery Unit, St George undergoing surgery for presumed ectopic pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective, observa- tional study. Women were

  18. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder in 18 Dutch Women: Part I. MRI, EEG, and Transvaginal Ultrasonography Investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel D. Waldinger; Ad P. G. van Gils; H. Pauline Ottervanger; Waldina V. A. Vandenbroucke; Dénes L. J. Tavy

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Systematic blood analysis and electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in women with persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) are needed to get more insight into the syndrome's etiology and pathogenesis. Aim. To investigate possible causes of PGAD. Methods. Eighteen women fulfilling all five criteria of PGAD were included in the study. In-depth interviews and routine blood and

  19. Assessment of fetal malformations in the first trimester of pregnancy by three-dimensional ultrasonography in the rendering mode. Pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Araujo Júnior, Edward; Rolo, Liliam Cristine; Tonni, Gabriele; Haeri, Sina; Ruano, Rodrigo

    2015-03-01

    We present our experience in the contribution of three-dimensional ultrasonography, using the rendering mode, to the prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies including neurological defects (acrania/anencephaly, encephalocele, holoprosencephaly), facial anomalies (cyclopia and facial clefts), abdominal wall defects (omphalocele and gastroschisis) and defects of extremities (fetal muscle-skeletal dysplasias). Three-dimensional ultrasonography may contribute to improve the prenatal diagnosis with further revision of the fetal images, allowing a better prenatal counsel to the parents. PMID:25745664

  20. Renal Relevant Radiology: Use of Ultrasonography in Patients with AKI

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nayana U.; Lockhart, Mark E.; Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary As judged by the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria, renal Doppler ultrasonography is the most appropriate imaging test in the evaluation of AKI and has the highest level of recommendation. Unfortunately, nephrologists are rarely specifically trained in ultrasonography technique and interpretation, and important clinical information obtained from renal ultrasonography may not be appreciated. In this review, the strengths and limitations of grayscale ultrasonography in the evaluation of patients with AKI will be discussed with attention to its use for (1) assessment of intrinsic causes of AKI, (2) distinguishing acute from chronic kidney diseases, and (3) detection of obstruction. The use of Doppler imaging and the resistive index in patients with AKI will be reviewed with attention to its use for (1) predicting the development of AKI, (2) predicting the prognosis of AKI, and (3) distinguishing prerenal azotemia from intrinsic AKI. Finally, pediatric considerations in the use of ultrasonography in AKI will be reviewed. PMID:24235286

  1. Role of ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in a case of Krukenberg tumor

    PubMed Central

    Tombesi, Paola; Di Vece, Francesca; Ermili, Francesca; Fabbian, Fabio; Sartori, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of Krukenberg tumor of gastric origin with adnexal metastasis, in which ultrasonography (US) and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) played a key diagnostic role. An 64-year-old female patient was referred to our department for abdominal pain, nausea and ascites. US examination was performed as first line diagnostic imaging approach, confirming the presence of ascites and detecting marked thickness of the gastric wall and a right adnexal mass. CEUS was immediately performed and showed arterial enhancement followed by wash-out in the venous phase of both the gastric wall and the adnexal mass, suggesting the diagnosis of gastric cancer with right adnexal metastasis (Krukenberg syndrome). The patient underwent US-guided paracentesis and esophagogastroduodenoscopy that showed linitis plastica. Cytologic examination of the peritoneal fluid revealed the presence of signet-ring cells, and histologic examination of the specimen obtained by endoscopic biopsy showed primary gastric mucus-producing adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells. Although transvaginal US is undoubtedly the method of choice to evaluate ovarian tumors, abdominal US and CEUS can provide key diagnostic elements, supporting clinicians in the first steps of the diagnostic work-up of abdominal and pelvic masses. PMID:24003358

  2. Role of ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in a case of Krukenberg tumor.

    PubMed

    Tombesi, Paola; Di Vece, Francesca; Ermili, Francesca; Fabbian, Fabio; Sartori, Sergio

    2013-08-28

    We report a case of Krukenberg tumor of gastric origin with adnexal metastasis, in which ultrasonography (US) and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) played a key diagnostic role. An 64-year-old female patient was referred to our department for abdominal pain, nausea and ascites. US examination was performed as first line diagnostic imaging approach, confirming the presence of ascites and detecting marked thickness of the gastric wall and a right adnexal mass. CEUS was immediately performed and showed arterial enhancement followed by wash-out in the venous phase of both the gastric wall and the adnexal mass, suggesting the diagnosis of gastric cancer with right adnexal metastasis (Krukenberg syndrome). The patient underwent US-guided paracentesis and esophagogastroduodenoscopy that showed linitis plastica. Cytologic examination of the peritoneal fluid revealed the presence of signet-ring cells, and histologic examination of the specimen obtained by endoscopic biopsy showed primary gastric mucus-producing adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells. Although transvaginal US is undoubtedly the method of choice to evaluate ovarian tumors, abdominal US and CEUS can provide key diagnostic elements, supporting clinicians in the first steps of the diagnostic work-up of abdominal and pelvic masses. PMID:24003358

  3. Thorax, Trachea, and Lung Ultrasonography in Emergency and Critical Care Medicine: Assessment of an Objective Structured Training Concept

    PubMed Central

    Breitkreutz, Raoul; Dutiné, Martina; Scheiermann, Patrick; Kujumdshiev, Sandy; Ackermann, Hanns; Seeger, Florian Hartmut; Walcher, Felix; Hirche, Tim Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Background and Study objective. Focused lung ultrasound (LUS) examinations are important tools in critical care medicine. There is evidence that LUS can be used for the detection of acute thoracic lesions. However, no validated training method is available. The goal of this study was to develop and assess an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) curriculum for focused thorax, trachea, and lung ultrasound in emergency and critical care medicine (THOLUUSE). Methods. 39 trainees underwent a one-day training course in a prospective educational study, including lectures in sonoanatomy and -pathology of the thorax, case presentations, and hands-on training. Trainees' pre- and posttest performances were assessed by multiple choice questionnaires, visual perception tests by interpretation video clips, practical performance of LUS, and identification of specific ultrasound findings. Results. Trainees postcourse scores of correct MCQ answers increased from 56 ± 4% to 82 ± 2% (mean± SD; P < 0.001); visual perception skills increased from 54 ± 5% to 78 ± 3% (P < 0.001); practical ultrasound skills improved, and correct LUS was performed in 94%. Subgroup analysis revealed that learning success was independent from the trainees' previous ultrasound experience. Conclusions. THOLUUSE significantly improves theoretical and practical skills for the diagnosis of acute thoracic lesions. We propose to implement THOLUUSE in emergency medicine training. PMID:24369503

  4. Ultrasonography of intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    Nowitzki, Kristina M; Hoimes, Matthew L; Chen, Byron; Zheng, Larry Z; Kim, Young H

    2015-07-01

    The intrauterine device (IUD) is gaining popularity as a reversible form of contraception. Ultrasonography serves as first-line imaging for the evaluation of IUD position in patients with pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, or absent retrieval strings. This review highlights the imaging of both properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs. The problems associated with malpositioned IUDs include expulsion, displacement, embedment, and perforation. Management considerations depend on the severity of the malposition and the presence or absence of symptoms. Three-dimensional ultrasonography has proven to be more sensitive in the evaluation of more subtle findings of malposition, particularly side-arm embedment. Familiarity with the ultrasonographic features of properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs is essential. PMID:25985959

  5. Ultrasonography of intrauterine devices

    PubMed Central

    Nowitzki, Kristina M.; Hoimes, Matthew L.; Chen, Byron; Zheng, Larry Z.; Kim, Young H.

    2015-01-01

    The intrauterine device (IUD) is gaining popularity as a reversible form of contraception. Ultrasonography serves as first-line imaging for the evaluation of IUD position in patients with pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, or absent retrieval strings. This review highlights the imaging of both properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs. The problems associated with malpositioned IUDs include expulsion, displacement, embedment, and perforation. Management considerations depend on the severity of the malposition and the presence or absence of symptoms. Three-dimensional ultrasonography has proven to be more sensitive in the evaluation of more subtle findings of malposition, particularly side-arm embedment. Familiarity with the ultrasonographic features of properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs is essential. PMID:25985959

  6. Pediatric Intestinal Ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon G. Robben

    \\u000a Ultrasonography (US) is the imaging modality of choice for the initial evaluation of diseases in children for many reasons.\\u000a First, it is relatively inexpensive and patient friendly. Second, it lacks radiation and motion artifacts. Third, the small\\u000a size of the child compensates for the limited penetration of sound waves and facilitates the use of high-frequency transducers.\\u000a Fourth, flow studies are

  7. Preoperative Evaluation of Colorectal Neoplasms by Colonoscopic Miniprobe Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Hünerbein, Michael; Totkas, Susan; Ghadimi, Bijan M.; Schlag, Peter M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of colonoscopic miniprobe ultrasonography for preoperative staging of colorectal neoplasms. Summary Background Data Endoscopic ultrasonography is the most accurate technique for staging colorectal cancer. However, limitations of this technique include the inability to examine stenotic tumors and the difficulty of reaching tumors proximal to the rectum. Methods Miniprobe ultrasonography (12.5 MHz) was performed in 63 patients with tumors of the colon or rectum. The results of imaging were compared with endoscopic assessment of the lesions and histopathologic findings of the resected specimens. Results Miniprobe ultrasonography allowed high-resolution imaging of colorectal tumors during routine colonoscopy. The infiltration depth was correctly classified in 22 adenoma, 3 T1, 10 T2, and 22 T3 or T4 tumors. The accuracy for tumors of the rectum and colon was 86% and 92%, respectively (overall accuracy 90%). The small diameter of the probe allowed examination of 21 stenotic tumors with an accuracy of 86%. Miniprobe ultrasonography revealed carcinoma in 5 of 30 broad-based polyps, although adenomas were diagnosed by endoscopy. Correct assessment of lymph node involvement was obtained in 47 of 55 patients. Based on the findings of miniprobe ultrasonography, management was modified in 7 of the 63 patients. Conclusions These preliminary results show that miniprobe ultrasonography improves preoperative staging of stenotic rectal cancer and colonic tumors. This technique can be easily performed during routine colonoscopy and may have considerable impact on surgical therapy. PMID:10862194

  8. Bench-to-bedside review: contrast enhanced ultrasonography--a promising technique to assess renal perfusion in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Antoine; Johnson, Lynne; Goodwin, Mark; Schelleman, Anthony; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2011-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients and associated with important morbidity and mortality. Although alterations in renal perfusion are thought to play a causative role in the pathogenesis of AKI, there is, to date, no reliable technique that allows the assessment of renal perfusion that is applicable in the ICU. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an ultrasound imaging technique that makes use of microbubble-based contrast agents. These microbubbles, when injected into the bloodstream, allow visualization of vascular structures and, with contrast-specific imaging modes, detection of blood flow at the capillary level. Some recent CEUS-derived approaches allow quantification of blood flow in several organs, including the kidney. Current generation ultrasound contrast agents have strong stability and safety profiles. Along with post-marketing surveillance, numerous studies report safe administration of these agents, including in critically ill patients. This review presents information on the physical principles underlying CEUS, the methods allowing blood flow quantification and the potential applications of CEUS in critical care nephrology, currently as a research tool but perhaps in the future as a way of monitoring renal perfusion. PMID:21586101

  9. Bench-to-bedside review: Contrast enhanced ultrasonography - a promising technique to assess renal perfusion in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients and associated with important morbidity and mortality. Although alterations in renal perfusion are thought to play a causative role in the pathogenesis of AKI, there is, to date, no reliable technique that allows the assessment of renal perfusion that is applicable in the ICU. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an ultrasound imaging technique that makes use of microbubble-based contrast agents. These microbubbles, when injected into the bloodstream, allow visualization of vascular structures and, with contrast-specific imaging modes, detection of blood flow at the capillary level. Some recent CEUS-derived approaches allow quantification of blood flow in several organs, including the kidney. Current generation ultrasound contrast agents have strong stability and safety profiles. Along with post-marketing surveillance, numerous studies report safe administration of these agents, including in critically ill patients. This review presents information on the physical principles underlying CEUS, the methods allowing blood flow quantification and the potential applications of CEUS in critical care nephrology, currently as a research tool but perhaps in the future as a way of monitoring renal perfusion. PMID:21586101

  10. Detection of congenital uterine malformation by using transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li-Li; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Han-Rong; Wang, Ze-Hua

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed the clinical application of transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasound (3D TVUS) in the diagnosis of congenital uterine malformation. A retrospective study was performed on 62 patients with congenital uterine malformation confirmed hysteroscopically and/or laparoscopically. The patients were subjected to transvaginal two-dimensional ultrasound (2D TVUS) and 3D TVUS. The accuracy rate was compared between the two methods. The accuracy rate of 3D TVUS was (98.38%, 61/62), higher than that of 2D TVUS (80.65%, 50/62). 3D TVUS coronal plane imaging could demonstrate the internal shape of the endometrial cavity and the external contour of the uterine fundus. It allowed accurate measurement on the coronary plane, and could three-dimensionally show the image of cervical tube, thereby providing information for the diagnosis of some complex uterine malformation. 3D TVUS imaging can obtain comprehensive information of the uterus malformation, and it is superior to 2D TVUS for the diagnosis of congenital uterine malformations, especially complex uterine anomaly. PMID:25318893

  11. [Translabial ultrasonography in pelvic floor prolapse and urinary incontinence diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Pietrus, Mi?osz; Pity?ski, Kazimierz; Ba?ajewicz-Nowak, Marta; Wieche?, Marcin; Knafel, Anna; Ludwin, Artur; Dziechciowski, Marek; Nocu?, Agnieszka

    2012-09-01

    Technological advances in the construction of sonographic devices and increasingly universal access to such tests considerably widens the range of diagnostic application of the sonographic examination. This situation also refers to pelvic organs prolapse. At present, sonographic sets used in everyday obstetrical-gynecological practice allow for insight into the structures forming the female pelvic floor, and the obtained images constitute a valuable addition to the physical examination. Positioning the sonographic transducer on a the perineum enables to visualize the three compartments of the female pelvis minor. After freezing the image, it is possible to assess the position of anatomical structures in relation to bones and designated surfaces, establish mutual distances and measure appropriate angles. Most information can be obtained in this manner within the range of the frontal compartment, whose damage is often linked with urinary incontinence. The examination standards developed so far, including the analysis of the quantitative parameters, greatly minimize the potential subjectivity of the assessment of the existing disorders. Apart from its low costs, the main value of the sonographic examination of the pelvic floor is the possibility to dynamically assess the changes in statics which take place during functional testing. Not only does it have a cognitive significance, but also it allows to adjust the scope of the surgical correction to the existing damages. Thus, indirectly it can contribute to the reduction of a number of subsequent remedial surgeries. Three-dimensional sonography allows to thoroughly examine the construction and functioning of the anal levators and to detect their possible damage. It is the trauma to these muscles--occurring, among others, during childbirth--that is one of the major causes of pelvic organs descent and prolapse in women. Sonographic examination also enables to visualize the artificial material, the use of which is increasingly frequent in the surgical treatment of pelvic organs prolapse. The remedial kits currently in use are not visible in classic X-ray examinations and CT however, they can be easily visualized by means of a sonographic test. This way it is possible to locate the positioned tapes or meshes and to establish their orientation towards the urethra, the bladder and the anus. It is also possible to observe the complications (e.g. hematomas) following the surgical procedures via the transvaginal access. Transperineal sonography is a relatively inexpensive method that may be performed in almost every ultrasonographic laboratory Its value, approaching the MRI diagnostic value in the assessment of the pelvic floor defects and its low cost, place ultrasonography on the first place among the methods of imaging the pelvic and uro-genital diaphragm. The results of diagnostics of pelvic organs prolapse obtained by placing the sonographic head on the patient's perineum may also help in establishing the changes of the support apparatus for the uterus and the vagina, bladder urethra and perineum during functional testing and, thus, to verify the clinically established degree of the prolapse. It seems, also, that this method may be used during peri-urethral injections of specific substances and post-application follow-up, an increasingly frequently employed method of urinary incontinence treatment. PMID:23342899

  12. Manipal Cervical Scoring System by Transvaginal Ultrasound in Predicting Successful Labour Induction

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Neha; Bhakta, Rajesh; Kumar, Pratap; Rai, Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Induction of labour (IOL) nowadays is a common procedure in obstetric practice. The success of IOL largely depends upon “favourability” or “readiness” cervix which is traditionally assessed by manual examination and Scored as Bishop Score. However, this method is limited by subjectivity and reproducibility and though done in all the patients prior to IOL, several studies have demonstrated poor correlation between Bishop Score and outcome of labour. Objective To evaluate the role of preinduction transvaginal ultrasonographic (TVS) cervical assessment in predicting labour outcome and to compare its performance against Bishop Score in patients undergoing induction of labour (IOL). Setting A tertiary medical college hospital in Southern India. Design Prospective observational and investigational study. Materials and Methods Transvaginal ultrasound was performed in 131 patients who underwent labour induction at term with intact membranes and live fetus. Bishop Score was assessed by pervaginal examination and was compared with preinduction TVS cervical Score (parameters being cervical length, funneling, position of cervix and distance of presenting part from external os). Labour was induced within one hour of cervical assessment. The labour induction was considered successful if patient could get into active labour i.e., onset of regular uterine contractions (at interval of 2-3 minutes) and cervical dilatation of 4 cm or greater within 24 hours of induction. Results Labour induction was successful in 86.9% of patients. At cut off Scores of ? 4, TVS cervical Score performed better than Bishop Score (Sensitivity 77% vs. 65%, Specificity 93% vs. 86%). ROC analysis indicated that Area Under Curve (AUC) was more for TVS Score (0.90, 95% CI 0.84 – 0.95), compared to Bishop Score. It was found that an increase in cervical length and distance from the os by 1 mm from their means were associated with an increase in odds for failure of induction and there by caesarean delivery by 6.5% and 11% respectively. Conclusion In women experiencing labour induction, transvaginal ultrasound score comprising of five different parameters indicated success of induction better than Bishop Score. Further, two of its components (longer cervical length and increased distance of presenting part from external os) demonstrated significant and independent prediction of the likelihood of failure of induction and risk of operative delivery.

  13. [Transvaginal ultra sonography in atypical hyperplasia and early cancer of endometrium (diagnostic significance and prognostic evaluation)].

    PubMed

    Mkrtchian, B B; Tokhunts, K A

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the article was determination of diagnostic significance and prognostic evaluation of transvaginal ultra sonography ( TV US) in atypical hyperplasia and early stage of endometrium cancer a complex examination of 58 different age women was carried out. The examination revealed negative prognostic value of endometrial thickness from 12 to 14 mm in reproductive and perimenopausal periods; and endometrial thickness from 9 mm to 12 mm in menopausal period. Endometrial thickness more than 19 mm is pathognomic for early stage of endometrium cancer. The comparative assessment of TV US prognostic evaluation and hysteroscopy showed relatively high frequency of false-negative results obtained by using TV US (14,3% vs. 5,5%). PMID:17525490

  14. Completely transvaginal NOTES cholecystectomy using magnetically anchored instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Scott; Shou-jiang Tang; Raul Fernandez; Richard Bergs; Mouza T. Goova; Ilia Zeltser; Farid J. Kehdy; Jeffrey A. Cadeddu

    2007-01-01

    Introduction  Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an evolving field and suitable instruments are lacking. The purpose\\u000a of this study was to perform transvaginal cholecystectomies using instruments incorporated into a magnetic anchoring and guidance\\u000a system (MAGS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Non-survival procedures were conducted in pigs (n = 4). Through a vaginotomy created under direct vision, a rigid access port was inserted into the peritoneal cavity

  15. Fundamentals of diagnostic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Noce, J P

    1990-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasonography uses acoustical waves in the frequency range of 1 to 20 MHz. These waves obey Snell's law of reflection and refraction, which are rules ordinary to wave behavior. In ultrasound, the analogy to momentum is acoustic impedance. The acoustic impedance, Z, is equal to the density, p, times velocity, v. The ultrasound transducer converts electrical energy into ultrasound energy and vice versa. The transducer usually consists of a piezoelectric crystal composed of such ceramic materials as barium titanate, lead titanate, zirconate, or lead metaniobate. Five basic ultrasonic scanning modes play the major roles in clinical applications. A-mode, or amplitude-mode, scanning measures the tissue discontinuity along the scan axis. B-mode scanning produces a two-dimensional image of the tissue under study by combining A-mode signals from various directions through mechanical transducer scanning. M-mode, or time motion scanning, is an extension of the A-mode approach in which a single stationary transducer is used. The depth of the echo is displayed on the vertical axis; the brightness of the oscilloscope display is modulated by the echo amplitude. Real-time scanning, or rapid B-scanning, techniques provide continuous data acquisition at a rate sufficient to give the impression of the instantaneous motion of moving structures. Doppler scanning relies on the presence of motion. The Doppler effect occurs when there is relative motion between the source of sound and the receiver of the sound, causing a change in the detected frequency of the sound source. PMID:2261584

  16. Transvaginal approach for repair of rectovaginal fistulae complicating Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, J J; Sher, M E; Jaffin, H; Present, D; Gelerent, I

    1991-01-01

    The management of rectovaginal fistulae complicating Crohn's disease is difficult and often unsatisfactory. Between December 1983 and November 1988, 13 patients with Crohn's disease underwent repair of rectovaginal fistulae via a transvaginal approach. All patients had a diverting intestinal stoma either as part of the initial step in the staged management of intractable perianal disease or concurrent with the repair of the rectovaginal fistula. Each of the patients had low or mid septal fistulae; high fistulae generally are treated transabdominally and are not the focus of this discussion. Fistulae were eradicated in 12 of the 13 women and did not recur during the follow-up period, which averaged 50 months (range, 9 to 68 months). The only treatment failure was a patient who had a markedly diseased colon from the cecum to the rectum and a very low-lying fistula. It is concluded that a modified transvaginal approach is an effective method for repair of rectovaginal fistulae secondary to Crohn's disease. PMID:1992942

  17. Symptom Resolution After Operative Management of Complications From Transvaginal Mesh

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Erin C.; Abernethy, Melinda; Berger, Mitchell B.; DeLancey, John O.; Fenner, Dee E.; Morgan, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Complications from transvaginal mesh placed for prolapse often require operative management. The aim of this study is to describe the outcomes of vaginal mesh removal. METHODS A retrospective review of all patients having surgery by the Urogynecology group in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology at our institution for a complication of transvaginal mesh placed for prolapse was performed. Demographics, presenting symptoms, surgical procedures, and postoperative symptoms were abstracted. Comparative statistics were performed using the chi-squared or Fisher’s exact test with significance at p<0.05. RESULTS Between January 2008 and April 2012, 90 patients had surgery for complications related to vaginal mesh and 84 had follow-up data. The most common presenting signs and symptoms were: mesh exposure 62% (n=56), pain 64% (n=58), and dyspareunia 48% (n=43). During operative management, mesh erosion was encountered unexpectedly in a second area of the vagina in 5% (n=4), in the bladder in 1% (n=1), and in the bowel in 2% (n=2). After vaginal mesh removal, 51% (n=43) had resolution of all presenting symptoms. Mesh exposure was treated successfully in 95% of cases, while pain was only successfully treated in 51% of women. CONCLUSION Removal of vaginal mesh is helpful in relieving symptoms of presentation. Patients can be reassured that exposed mesh can almost always be successfully managed surgically, but pain and dyspareunia are only resolved completely in half of cases. PMID:24463673

  18. The accuracy of the report of hepatic steatosis on ultrasonography in patients infected with hepatitis C in a clinical setting: A retrospective observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew J Hepburn; Jeffrey A Vos; Eric P Fillman; Eric J Lawitz

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Steatosis is occasionally reported during screening ultrasonography in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We conducted a retrospective observational study to assess the factors associated with steatosis on ultrasonography and the relationship between steatosis on ultrasound versus biopsy in patients infected with HCV in a clinical setting. Our hypothesis was ultrasonography would perform poorly for the detection of steatosis

  19. Chest ultrasonography in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Gardelli, Greta; Feletti, Francesco; Nanni, Andrea; Mughetti, Maurizio; Piraccini, Antonella; Zompatori, Maurizio

    2012-05-01

    Chest diagnostic imaging is essential when dealing with a critically ill patient. At present, direct visualization of the lung parenchyma is performed with a chest x-ray and computed tomography with the patient in the supine position. The relative ease of bedside ultrasound examination and the availability of user-friendly, inexpensive, portable equipment have made chest ultrasonography an interesting and alternative method in various situations, because it offers accurate information that is of therapeutic and diagnostic relevance. We describe equipment and examination technique, normal findings, and chest ultrasonography signs detected in some pathological situations, such as pneumothorax, consolidations, pleural effusions, ARDS, and pulmonary edema. PMID:22546298

  20. Endoscopic Ultrasonography and Contrast-Enhanced Endoscopic Ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Kitano; Masatoshi Kudo; Hiroki Sakamoto; Takamitsu Komaki

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is superior to all other imaging modalities in detecting small pancreatic cancers. However, its ability to characterize hypoechoic pancreatic masses is limited: most carcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, and inflammatory pseudotumors are simply depicted as hypoechoic masses. Contrast enhancement helps EUS to characterize such hypoechoic masses. Intravenous ultrasound (US) agents increase the signal from the blood and, thus, act

  1. [Ultrasonography for carpal tunnel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Kenichi

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasonography in cases of carpal tunnel syndrome is described with respect to the following aspects: (1) imaging technique; (2) image characteristics; (3) detection of pathophysiology; (4) diagnosis of idiopathic cases; (5) screening of local pathologies (space-occupying lesions, tenosynovitis, and bone and joint abnormalities), incomplete release, and anatomic variations; and (6) role in facilitating minimally-invasive surgery. PMID:24607945

  2. Transvaginal single-port natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery for benign uterine adnexal pathologies.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ki Hoon; Song, Jae Yun; Kim, Sun Haeng; Lee, Kyu Wan; Kim, Tak

    2012-01-01

    Transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) with pneumoperitoneum has been used in cholecystectomies, appendectomies, and nephrectomies, but transvaginal NOTES using a single port in gynecologic procedures has not been described despite gynecologist familiarity with the vaginal approach. We performed transvaginal single-port NOTES in 10 women with benign uterine adnexal disease: oophorectomy in 3 patients, salpingostomy and salpingectomy in 2 each, and ovarian cystectomy, paratubal cystectomy, and ovarian wedge resection in 1 each. The patients were discharged at 1 or 2 days postoperatively, and were satisfied, with minimal pain, no abdominal scar, and no complications at 2-month follow-up. We conclude that transvaginal single-port NOTES to treat benign uterine adnexal disease is a feasible and attractive option. PMID:22763314

  3. Vaginoscopic Hysteroscopy and Transvaginal Sonography in the Evaluation of Patients with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minas Paschopoulos; Evangelos D. Lolis; Yannis Alamanos; George Koliopoulos; Evangelos Paraskevaidis

    2001-01-01

    Study ObjectiveTo compare accuracy of vaginoscopic hysteroscopy, a new method of outpatient hysteroscopy, with that of transvaginal sonography in diagnosing intracavitary pathology in women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

  4. Prospective study of ultrasonography in chronic pancreatic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lees, W R; Vallon, A G; Denyer, M E; Vahl, S P; Cotton, P B

    1979-01-01

    Grey-scale ultrasonography was used in 212 unselected patients in whom the presence or absence of pancreatic disease was subsequently confirmed by other means. Ultrasonographic criteria were established in the first 92 patients and by reference to previous experience. The remaining 120 patients were studied prospectively. The accuracy and clinical impact of the ultrasonographic diagnosis were judged alongside a standard clinical assessment. Clinical diagnoses were tentative and inaccurate. Ultrasound failed in three cases; otherwise it detected all the 33 patients with chronic pancreatic disease and correctly distinguished cancer from chronic pancreatitis. The ultrasonographic diagnosis of a normal pancreas was always correct, but four false-positive diagnoses were made in patients subsequently judged to have no pancreatic disease. Ultrasonography gave more accurate or more confident and accurate information than the clinical assessment in 57 of the 98 patients studied as problems in diagnosis. With this degree of accuracy ultrasonography should be the first imaging investigation in patients suspected of suffering from pancreatic disease. In our gastrointestinal unit the combination of grey-scale ultrasonography with techniques designed to outline the duct systems (such as endoscopic pancreatography) provides precise diagnosis and documentation of pancreatic disease. PMID:420999

  5. Advances in transcranial doppler ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgios Tsivgoulis; Andrei V. Alexandrov; Michael A. Sloan

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is the only noninvasive real-time neuroimaging modality for the evaluation of characteristics\\u000a of blood flow in basal intracerebral vessels that adds physiologic information to structural imaging. TCD has been rapidly\\u000a evolving from a simple noninvasive diagnostic tool to an imaging modality with a broad spectrum of clinical applications.\\u000a In acute stroke, TCD can provide rapid information

  6. Three-dimensional Endoluminal Ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giulio Aniello Santoro; Giuseppe Di Falco

    \\u000a Endoanal ultrasonography (EAUS) is important in patients with fecal incontinence (FI) to differentiate between incontinent\\u000a patients with intact anal sphincters and those with sphincter lesions (defects, scarring, thinning, thickening, and atrophy).\\u000a High-resolution multiplanar reconstructions and rendering techniques further enhance the accuracy of EAUS. Ultrasonographic\\u000a findings may lead to appropriate therapy (sphincteroplasty, graciloplasty, injection of bulking agents, sacral nerve stimulation),\\u000a and

  7. 3D transvaginal ultrasound imaging for identification of endometrial abnormality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olstad, Bjoern; Berg, Sevald; Torp, Anders H.; Schipper, Klaus P.; Eik-Nes, Sturla H.

    1995-05-01

    A multi-center study has previously evaluated the use of 2-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) to measure the thickness of the endometrium as a risk indicator for endometrial abnormality in women with postmenopausal bleeding. In this paper we present methods using 3-dimensional TVS in order to improve the measurement, shape analysis and visualization of the endometrium. Active contour techniques are applied to identify the endometrium in a 3D dataset. The shape of the endometrium is then visualized and utilized to do quantitative measurements of the thickness. The voxels inside the endometrium are volume rendered in order to emphasize inhomogeneities. Since these inhomogeneities can exist both on the outside and the inside of the endometrium, the rendering algorithm has a controllable opacity function. A 3-dimensional distance transform is performed on the data volume measuring the shortest distance to the detected endometrium border for each voxel. This distance is used as a basis for opacity computations which allows the user to emphasize different regions of the endometrium. In particular, the opacity function can be computed such that regions that violate the risk indicator for the endometrium thickness are highlighted.

  8. Laparoscopy with Laparoscopic Ultrasonography in the TNM Staging of Pancreatic Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy G. John; Andrew Wright; Paul L. Allan; Doris N. Redhead; Simon Paterson-Brown; David C. Carter; O. James Garden

    1999-01-01

    .   A prospective study was performed comparing laparoscopy with laparoscopic ultrasonography (LapUS), transabdominal ultrasonography\\u000a (USS), computed tomography (CT), and selective visceral angiography with portal phase venography (SVA) for the assessment\\u000a of resectability in 50 patients with pancreatic or periampullary cancer. The results were stratified by TNM stages. Tumor\\u000a unresectability was demonstrated in 36 patients (72%). The sensitivity of LapUS for

  9. Managing chronic pelvic pain following reconstructive pelvic surgery with transvaginal mesh.

    PubMed

    Gyang, Anthony N; Feranec, Jessica B; Patel, Rakesh C; Lamvu, Georgine M

    2014-03-01

    In 2001, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first transvaginal mesh kit to treat pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Since the introduction of vaginal mesh kits, some vaginal meshes have been associated with chronic pelvic pain after reconstructive pelvic floor surgery. Pelvic pain results in between 0 % and 30 % of patients following transvaginal mesh placement. Common causes of chronic pelvic pain include pelvic floor muscle spasm, pudendal neuralgia, and infection. Paucity of data exists on the effective management of chronic pelvic pain after pelvic reconstructive surgery with mesh. We outline the management of chronic pelvic pain after transvaginal mesh placement for reconstructive pelvic floor repair based on our clinical experience and adaptation of data used in other aspects of managing chronic pelvic pain conditions. PMID:24217793

  10. Attitudes toward transvaginal mesh among patients in a urogynecology practice

    PubMed Central

    Dessie, Sybil G.; Hacker, Michele R.; Haviland, Miriam J.; Rosenblatt, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis There has been increasing media attention regarding transvaginal mesh (TVM). We hypothesized that new urogynecology patients have limited knowledge and negative opinions of TVM. Methods An anonymous survey was distributed to all new patients presenting to the Mt Auburn Hospital urogynecology practice from 1 November 2012 to 31 January 2013. A total of 146 patients completed the questionnaire. The survey was designed to elicit information on participants’ knowledge and opinions about TVM and knowledge about recent FDA safety communications. All statistical tests were two-sided, and P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Analyses were restricted to the 77 women who had either heard of TVM or were unsure if they had heard of TVM. A minority (32.5 %) of these women correctly defined TVM, and 33.8 % had a negative impression of TVM. Respondents obtained their information on TVM from the media (48.1 %), the Internet (24.7 %), family or friends (22.1 %), and health care providers (18.2 %). The majority (71.4 %) agreed that they needed more information about TVM before making any decisions about using it to treat their condition. Nearly one quarter of respondents (23.4 %) agreed that they would not want their doctor to use TVM on them for any reason. When asked about recent FDA communications, 27.3 % of patients correctly responded that the FDA had released a safety communication regarding TVM. Conclusions The majority of participants had limited knowledge of TVM; however, only a minority had negative opinions. Given our findings, it is important that providers spend more time during the consent process explaining TVM and its risks and benefits as a treatment option. PMID:25595568

  11. Follow-up evaluation with ultrasonography of peripheral nerve injuries after an earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Man; Wang, Yue; Yue, Linxian; Chiu, Jack; He, Fanding; Wu, Xiaojing; Zang, Bin; Lu, Bin; Yao, Xiaoke; Jiang, Zirui

    2014-01-01

    Published data on earthquake-associated peripheral nerve injury is very limited. Ultrasonography has been proven to be efficient in the clinic to diagnose peripheral nerve injury. The aim of this study was to assess the role of ultrasound in the evaluation of persistent peripheral nerve injuries 1 year after the Wenchuan earthquake. Thirty-four patients with persistent clinical symptoms and neurologic signs of impaired nerve function were evaluated with sonography prior to surgical repair. Among 34 patients, ultrasonography showed that 48 peripheral nerves were entrapped, and 11 peripheral nerves were disrupted. There was one case of misdiagnosis on ultrasonography. The concordance rate of ultrasonographic findings with those of surgical findings was 98%. A total of 48 involved nerves underwent neurolysis and the symptoms resolved. Only five nerves had scar tissue entrapment. Preoperative and postoperative clinical and ultrasonographic results were concordant, which verified that ultrasonography is useful for preoperative diagnosis and postoperative evaluation of injured peripheral nerves. PMID:25206859

  12. Admixture of propofol and alfentanil. Use for intravenous sedation and analgesia during transvaginal oocyte retrieval.

    PubMed

    Sherry, E

    1992-06-01

    An admixture of propofol and alfentanil provides adequate sedation and analgesia during transvaginal oocyte retrieval in the absence of a paracervical block. In 100 patients the technique provided haemodynamic stability, sedation which was easily controlled, rapid recovery and universal patient acceptance. PMID:1616081

  13. Transvaginal ovum pick-up (OPU) in the cow: A new disposable needle guidance system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. J. Bols; J. M. M. Vandenheede; A. Van Soom; A. de Kruif

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to modify the routinely used ovum pick up (OPU) devices to permit use of disposable needles and to simplify the technique and to make it more economical and practical to use. Long nondisposable needles are commonly used in transvaginal OPU despite several disadvantages. A new OPU device was developed using 19-g disposable needles to eliminate these

  14. Endoanal ultrasonography in fecal incontinence: Current and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Andreia

    2015-06-10

    Fecal incontinence has a profound impact in a patient's life, impairing quality of life and carrying a substantial economic burden due to health costs. It is an underdiagnosed condition because many affected patients are reluctant to report it and also clinicians are usually not alert to it. Patient evaluation with a detailed clinical history and examination is very important to indicate the type of injury that is present. Endoanal ultrasonography is currently the gold standard for sphincter evaluation in fecal incontinence and is a simple, well-tolerated and non-expensive technique. Most studies revealed 100% sensitivity in identifying sphincter defect. It is better than endoanal magnetic resonance imaging for internal anal sphincter defects, equivalent for the diagnosis of external anal sphincter defects, but with a lower capacity for assessment of atrophy of this sphincter. The most common cause of fecal incontinence is anal sphincter injury related to obstetric trauma. Only a small percentage of women are diagnosed with sphincter tears immediately after vaginal delivery, but endoanal ultrasonography shows that one third of these women have occult sphincter defects. Furthermore, in patients submitted to primary repair of these tears, ultrasound revealed a high frequency of persistent sphincter defects after surgery. Three-dimensional endoanal ultrasonography is currently largely used and accepted for sphincter evaluation in fecal incontinence, improving diagnostic accuracy and our knowledge of physiologic and pathological sphincters alterations. Conversely, there is currently no evidence to support the use of elastography in fecal incontinence evaluation. PMID:26078826

  15. Bedside ultrasonography-Applications in critical care: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Jose; Brar, Gagan

    2014-01-01

    Point of care ultrasonography, performed by acute care physicians, has developed into an invaluable bedside tool providing important clinical information with a major impact on patient care. In Part II of this narrative review, we describe ultrasound guided central venous cannulation, which has become standard of care with internal jugular vein cannulation. Besides improving success rates, real-time guidance also significantly reduces the incidence of complications. We also discuss compression ultrasonography - a quick and effective bedside screening tool for deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity. Abdominal ultrasound offers vital clues in the emergency setting; in the unstable trauma victim, a focused examination may provide immediate answers and has largely superseded diagnostic peritoneal lavage in diagnosing intraperitoneal bleed. From estimation of intracranial pressure to transcranial Doppler studies, ultrasound is becoming increasingly relevant to neurocritical care. Ultrasound may also help with airway management in several situations, including percutaneous tracheostomy. Clearly, bedside ultrasonography has become an indispensable part of intensive care practice – in the rapid assessment of critically ill-patients as well as in enhancing the safety of invasive procedures. PMID:24987237

  16. Endoanal ultrasonography in fecal incontinence: Current and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Fecal incontinence has a profound impact in a patient’s life, impairing quality of life and carrying a substantial economic burden due to health costs. It is an underdiagnosed condition because many affected patients are reluctant to report it and also clinicians are usually not alert to it. Patient evaluation with a detailed clinical history and examination is very important to indicate the type of injury that is present. Endoanal ultrasonography is currently the gold standard for sphincter evaluation in fecal incontinence and is a simple, well-tolerated and non-expensive technique. Most studies revealed 100% sensitivity in identifying sphincter defect. It is better than endoanal magnetic resonance imaging for internal anal sphincter defects, equivalent for the diagnosis of external anal sphincter defects, but with a lower capacity for assessment of atrophy of this sphincter. The most common cause of fecal incontinence is anal sphincter injury related to obstetric trauma. Only a small percentage of women are diagnosed with sphincter tears immediately after vaginal delivery, but endoanal ultrasonography shows that one third of these women have occult sphincter defects. Furthermore, in patients submitted to primary repair of these tears, ultrasound revealed a high frequency of persistent sphincter defects after surgery. Three-dimensional endoanal ultrasonography is currently largely used and accepted for sphincter evaluation in fecal incontinence, improving diagnostic accuracy and our knowledge of physiologic and pathological sphincters alterations. Conversely, there is currently no evidence to support the use of elastography in fecal incontinence evaluation. PMID:26078826

  17. Ultrasonography for the evaluation of visceral fat and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Filho, F F; Faria, A N; Kohlmann, O; Ajzen, S; Ribeiro, A B; Zanella, M T; Ferreira, S R

    2001-09-01

    Visceral fat accumulation is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Clinical evaluation of visceral fat is limited because of the lack of reliable and low-cost methods. To assess the correlation between ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of visceral fat, 101 obese women, age 50.5+/-7.7 years with a body mass index of 39.2+/-5.4 kg/m(2), were submitted to ultrasonograph and CT scans. Visceral fat measured by ultrasonography, 1 cm above the umbilical knot, showed a high correlation with CT-determined visceral fat (r=0.67, P<0.0001). The ultrasonograph method showed good reproducibility with an intra-observer variation coefficient of <2%. Both ultrasonograph and CT visceral fat values were correlated with fasting insulin (r=0.29 and r=0.27, P<0.01) and plasma glucose 2 hours after oral glucose load (r=0.22 and r=0.34, P<0.05), indicating that ultrasonography is a useful method to evaluate cardiovascular risk. A significant correlation was also found between visceral fat by CT and serum sodium (r=0.18, P<0.05). A ultrasonograph-determined visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio of 2.50 was established as a cutoff value to define patients with abdominal visceral obesity. This value also identified patients with higher levels of plasma glucose, serum insulin and triglycerides and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol, which are metabolic abnormalities characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. Our data demonstrate that ultrasonography is a precise and reliable method for evaluation of visceral fat and identification of patients with adverse metabolic profile. PMID:11566963

  18. Low intensity pulsed ultrasonography for fractures: systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of low intensity pulsed ultrasonography for healing of fractures. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Electronic literature search without language restrictions of CINAHL, Embase, Medline, HealthSTAR, and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, from inception of the database to 10 September 2008. Review methods Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials that enrolled patients with any kind of fracture and randomly assigned them to low intensity pulsed ultrasonography or to a control group. Two reviewers independently agreed on eligibility; three reviewers independently assessed methodological quality and extracted outcome data. All outcomes were included and meta-analyses done when possible. Results 13 randomised trials, of which five assessed outcomes of importance to patients, were included. Moderate quality evidence from one trial found no effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasonography on functional recovery from conservatively managed fresh clavicle fractures; whereas low quality evidence from three trials suggests benefit in non-operatively managed fresh fractures (faster radiographic healing time mean 36.9%, 95% confidence interval 25.6% to 46.0%). A single trial provided moderate quality evidence suggesting no effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasonography on return to function among non-operatively treated stress fractures. Three trials provided very low quality evidence for accelerated functional improvement after distraction osteogenesis. One trial provided low quality evidence for a benefit of low intensity pulsed ultrasonography in accelerating healing of established non-unions managed with bone graft. Four trials provided low quality evidence for acceleration of healing of operatively managed fresh fractures. Conclusion Evidence for the effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasonography on healing of fractures is moderate to very low in quality and provides conflicting results. Although overall results are promising, establishing the role of low intensity pulsed ultrasonography in the management of fractures requires large, blinded trials, directly addressing patient important outcomes such as return to function. PMID:19251751

  19. Vaginal mesh erosion after transvaginal repair of cystocele using Gynemesh or Gynemesh-Soft in 138 women: a comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Deffieux; R. de Tayrac; C. Huel; J. Bottero; A. Gervaise; K. Bonnet; R. Frydman; H. Fernandez

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare mesh erosion after transvaginal repair of cystocele using Gynemesh or Gynemesh-Soft\\u000a mesh. We retrospectively analyzed 138 consecutive cases of transvaginal repair of cystocele using synthetic mesh. The study\\u000a endpoint was the pathological evidence of vaginal erosion. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine independent\\u000a predictors of vaginal erosion. One hundred and thirty

  20. Recto-sigmoid endoscopic-ultrasonography in the staging of deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Roseau, Gilles

    2014-11-16

    Recto-sigmoid endoscopic ultrasonography (RS-EUS) has first been used in the staging of pelvic deep infiltrating endometriosis in the early 1990's. Since then, although publications have been sparse, RS-EUS is routinely used for this indication in few centers. In this paper, we focus on technical aspects and operating method of rectal and sigmoid endo-sonography, and describe the most characteristic echographic presentations of endometriosis of the lower digestive tract. Through a literature review, results obtained with different types of endo-rectal probes, either flexible endoscopic, or blind rigid, are presented and compared with those of other close imaging techniques: magnetic resonance imaging and the more recent trans-vaginal sonography. As well as these two latter techniques, RS-EUS appears as an interesting method in the staging of pelvic deep infiltrating endometriosis particularly to evaluate rectal and sigmoid infiltrations. However, more prospective studies are required, to correctly define respective indications for each exam, in the light of recent advancements in treating this frequent disease. PMID:25400866

  1. Recto-sigmoid endoscopic-ultrasonography in the staging of deep infiltrating endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Roseau, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Recto-sigmoid endoscopic ultrasonography (RS-EUS) has first been used in the staging of pelvic deep infiltrating endometriosis in the early 1990's. Since then, although publications have been sparse, RS-EUS is routinely used for this indication in few centers. In this paper, we focus on technical aspects and operating method of rectal and sigmoid endo-sonography, and describe the most characteristic echographic presentations of endometriosis of the lower digestive tract. Through a literature review, results obtained with different types of endo-rectal probes, either flexible endoscopic, or blind rigid, are presented and compared with those of other close imaging techniques: magnetic resonance imaging and the more recent trans-vaginal sonography. As well as these two latter techniques, RS-EUS appears as an interesting method in the staging of pelvic deep infiltrating endometriosis particularly to evaluate rectal and sigmoid infiltrations. However, more prospective studies are required, to correctly define respective indications for each exam, in the light of recent advancements in treating this frequent disease. PMID:25400866

  2. Diagnostic Performance and Reliability of Ultrasonography for Fatty Degeneration of the Rotator Cuff Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Lindley B.; Teefey, Sharlene A.; Middleton, William D.; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Steger-May, Karen; Kim, H. Mike; Wessell, Daniel; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic evaluation of rotator cuff muscle quality is important to determine indications for potential operative repair. Ultrasonography has developed into an accepted and useful tool for evaluating rotator cuff tendon tears; however, its use for evaluating rotator muscle quality has not been well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance and observer reliability of ultrasonography in grading fatty degeneration of the posterior and superior rotator cuff muscles. Methods: The supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor muscles were prospectively evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography in eighty patients with shoulder pain. The degree of fatty degeneration on MRI was graded by four independent raters on the basis of the modified Goutallier grading system. Ultrasonographic evaluation of fatty degeneration was performed by one of three radiologists with use of a three-point scale. The two scoring systems were compared to determine the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography. The interobserver and intraobserver reliability of MRI grading by the four raters were determined. The interobserver reliability of ultrasonography among the three radiologists was determined in a separate group of thirty study subjects. The weighted Cohen kappa, percentage agreement, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. Results: The accuracy of ultrasonography for the detection of fatty degeneration, as assessed on the basis of the percentage agreement with MRI, was 92.5% for the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and 87.5% for the teres minor. The sensitivity was 84.6% for the supraspinatus, 95.6% for the infraspinatus, and 87.5% for the teres minor. The specificity was 96.3% for the supraspinatus, 91.2% for the infraspinatus, and 87.5% for the teres minor. The agreement between MRI and ultrasonography was substantial for the supraspinatus and infraspinatus (kappa = 0.78 and 0.71, respectively) and moderate for the teres minor (kappa = 0.47). The interobserver reliability for MRI was substantial for the supraspinatus and infraspinatus (kappa = 0.76 and 0.77, respectively) and moderate for the teres minor (kappa = 0.59). For ultrasonography, the interobserver reliability was substantial for all three muscles (kappa = 0.71 for the supraspinatus, 0.65 for the infraspinatus, and 0.72 for the teres minor). Conclusions: The diagnostic performance of ultrasonography in identifying and grading fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles was comparable with that of MRI. Ultrasonography can be used as the primary diagnostic imaging modality for fatty changes in rotator cuff muscles. Level of Evidence: Diagnostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:22717835

  3. An alternative system for transvaginal removal of dermoid cyst and a comparative study with laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Sagawa, Tetsuya; Yamazaki, Rena; Myojo, Subaru; Dohi, Satoshi; Inoue, Masaki

    2012-03-01

    The objective was to introduce a new system for transvaginal removal of ovarian cyst and to evaluate its feasibility. With a new transvaginal system, ultrasound-assisted culdotomy, and laparoscopy supported cystectomy if vaginal procedure failed. The authors conducted a retrospective review in which 35 cases using new vaginal ovarian cystectomy were compared with 40 cases of laparoscopic cystectomy for the treatment of dermoid cyst. All cystectomies were completed without conversion to laparotomy and complications. In a case from vaginal group, laparoscopy was required. No differences existed in operating time, hemoglobin decrease, and C-reactive protein value between groups. Laparoscopically supported vaginal ovarian cystectomy with ultrasound-guided culdotomy was equivalent to laparoscopic cystectomy as to invasiveness and preserved the option of a completely vaginal approach. When a presumed benign dermoid cyst is located in cul-de-sac, this operation may represent a preferable alternative to an exclusively laparoscopic or exclusively vaginal ovarian cystectomy. PMID:21742657

  4. Transvaginal 3D Image-Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Held; Thuc Nghi Nguyen; Shahram Vaezy

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a transvaginal image-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) device using piezocomposite HIFU array technology, and commercially-available ultrasound imaging. Potential applications include treatment of uterine fibroids and abnormal uterine bleeding. The HIFU transducer was an annular phased array, with a focal length range of 30-60 mm, an elliptically-shaped aperture of 35×60 mm, and

  5. Transvaginal Drainage of Pelvic Abscesses and Collections Using Transabdominal Ultrasound Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate clinical outcomes following transvaginal catheter placement using transabdominal ultrasound guidance for management of pelvic fluid collections. Methods. A retrospective review was performed for all patients who underwent transvaginal catheter drainage of pelvic fluid collections utilizing transabdominal ultrasound guidance between July 2008 and July 2013. 24 consecutive patients were identified and 24 catheters were placed. Results. The mean age of patients was 48.1 years (range = 27–76?y). 88% of collections were postoperative (n = 21), 8% were from pelvic inflammatory disease (n = 2), and 4% were idiopathic (n = 1). Of the 24 patients, 83% of patients (n = 20) had previously undergone a hysterectomy and 1 patient (4%) was pregnant at the time of drainage. The mean volume of initial drainage was 108?mL (range = 5 to 570). Catheters were left in place for an average of 4.3 days (range = 1–17?d). Microbial sampling was performed in all patients with 71% (n = 17) returning a positive culture. All collections were successfully managed percutaneously. There were no technical complications. Conclusions. Transvaginal catheter drainage of pelvic fluid collections using transabdominal ultrasound guidance is a safe and clinically effective procedure. Appropriate percutaneous management can avoid the need for surgery. PMID:26113862

  6. Surgical repair of rectocele. Comparison of transvaginal and transanal approach and personal technique

    PubMed Central

    LEANZA, V.; INTAGLIATA, E.; LEANZA, G.; CANNIZZARO, M.A.; ZANGHÌ, G.; VECCHIO, R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Rectocele is defined as a herniation of the rectal wall inside the vagina due to a defect of the recto-vaginal septum. It is traditionally considered a posterior compartment damage with weakness of posterior vaginal wall support resulting in a bulging of the rectum into the vaginal cavity. One of the main causes of rectal prolapse is the operative vaginal birth, although the evidence of the defect may occur after many years The treatment of rectocele is surgical, and the approach can be transperineal, transvaginal, and transanal or, in selected cases, transperitoneal through open or laparoscopic techniques. In this study we compare two transvaginal surgical techniques - i.e. the perineal body anchorage to the posterior septum and the traditional Denonvilliers’ transversal suture after removing of the vaginal skin, with the mostly performed transanal procedure, the STARR - comparing the data from the literature on their results. Mean hospital stay, rectal symptoms, dyspareunia, quality of life, recurrence rate and postoperative complications have been considered. Both transvaginal and transrectal surgical techniques are effective to solve posterior compartment defect and to improve the quality of life. Vaginal approach may interfere with the sexual activity; furthermore it is associated with minimal postoperative pain than the transanal approach. Better anatomic results are assured after endovaginal surgery, while better rectal function prevail after the transanal approach. Vaginal techniques are more suitable to gynecologists, whereas the transrectal ones are usually performed by colo-proctologists or general surgeons. PMID:24342163

  7. Imaging of tophaceous gout: computed tomography provides specific images compared with magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J C Gerster; M Landry; L Dufresne; J Y Meuwly

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the usefulness of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and Doppler ultrasonography (US) in providing specific images of gouty tophi.Methods: Four male patients with chronic gout with tophi affecting the knee joints (three cases) or the olecranon processes of the elbows (one case) were assessed. Crystallographic analyses of the synovial fluid or tissue aspirates of the

  8. Role of single photon emission computed tomography and transcranial doppler ultrasonography in clinical vasospasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Jabre; Viken Babikian; Rachel A. Powsner; Edward L. Spatz

    2002-01-01

    This report presents our experience with Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in the assessment of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). It was designed to evaluate clinical vasospasm with both TCD and SPECT and determine their diagnostic value.Twenty-eight consecutive patients were examined with both TCD and SPECT, performed within 24 hours of each other.

  9. Ultrasonography survey and thyroid cancer in the Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Peter; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Ulanovsky, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Thyroid cancer is one of the major health concerns after the accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station (NPS). Currently, ultrasonography surveys are being performed for persons residing in the Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the accident with an age of up to 18 years. Here, the expected thyroid cancer prevalence in the Fukushima Prefecture is assessed based on an ultrasonography survey of Ukrainians, who were exposed at an age of up to 18 years to (131)I released during the Chernobyl NPS accident, and on differences in equipment and study protocol in the two surveys. Radiation risk of thyroid cancer incidence among survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and preliminary estimates of thyroid dose due to the Fukushima accident were used for the prediction of baseline and radiation-related thyroid cancer risks. We estimate a prevalence of thyroid cancer of 0.027 % (95 % CI 0.010 %; 0.050 %) for the first screening campaign in the Fukushima Prefecture. Compared with the incidence rate in Japan in 2007, the ultrasonography survey is predicted to increase baseline thyroid cancer incidence by a factor of 7.4 (95 % CI 0.95; 17.3). Under the condition of continued screening, thyroid cancer during the first fifty years after the accident is predicted to be detected for about 2 % of the screened population. The prediction of radiation-related thyroid cancer in the most exposed fraction (a few ten thousand persons) of the screened population of the Fukushima Prefecture has a large uncertainty with the best estimates of the average risk of 0.1-0.3 %, depending on average dose. PMID:24398917

  10. Gynecologic procedures: colposcopy, treatments for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and endometrial assessment.

    PubMed

    Apgar, Barbara S; Kaufman, Amanda J; Bettcher, Catherine; Parker-Featherstone, Ebony

    2013-06-15

    Women who have abnormal Papanicolaou test results may undergo colposcopy to determine the biopsy site for histologic evaluation. Traditional grading systems do not accurately assess lesion severity because colposcopic impression alone is unreliable for diagnosis. The likelihood of finding cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher increases when two or more cervical biopsies are performed. Excisional and ablative methods have similar treatment outcomes for the eradication of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. However, diagnostic excisional methods, including loop electrosurgical excision procedure and cold knife conization, are associated with an increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes, such as preterm labor and low birth weight. Methods of endometrial assessment have a high sensitivity for detecting endometrial carcinoma and benign causes of uterine bleeding without unnecessary procedures. Endometrial biopsy can reliably detect carcinoma involving a large portion of the endometrium, but is suboptimal for diagnosing focal lesions. A 3- to 4-mm cutoff for endometrial thickness on transvaginal ultrasonography yields the highest sensitivity to exclude endometrial carcinoma in postmenopausal women. Saline infusion sonohysteroscopy can differentiate globally thickened endometrium amenable to endometrial biopsy from focal abnormalities best assessed by hysteroscopy. Hysteroscopy with directed biopsy is the most sensitive and specific method of diagnosing endometrial carcinoma, other than hysterectomy. PMID:23939565

  11. Transvaginal Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Owing to Urethral Hypermobility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Poon; Philippe E. Zimmern

    Ideally, the choice of surgery for stress urinary incontinence should be determined by the underlying pathophysiology. Generally,\\u000a the diagnosis is refined to either urethral hypermobility (UHM) or intrinsic sphincteric dysfunction (ISD) based on history,\\u000a questionnaires, physical exam, and various special tests including assessment of urethral mobility (Q-tip test or lateral\\u000a cystogram), stress test, pad test, and video or nonvideo urodynamic

  12. Value of Lung Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis and Outcome Prediction of Pediatric Community-Acquired Pneumonia with Necrotizing Change

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shen-Hao; Wong, Kin-Sun; Liao, Sui-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung ultrasonography has been advocated in diagnosing pediatric community-acquired pneumonia. However, its function in identifying necrotizing pneumonia, a complication, has not been explored. This study investigated the value of lung ultrasonography in diagnosing pediatric necrotizing pneumonia and its role in predicting clinical outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 236 children with community-acquired pneumonia who were evaluated using lung ultrasonography within 2–3 days after admission. The ultrasonographic features assessed included lung perfusion, the presence of hypoechoic lesions, and the amount of pleural effusion. Chest computed tomography was also performed in 96 patients as clinically indicated. Detailed records of clinical information were obtained. Results Our results showed a high correlation between the degree of impaired perfusion in ultrasonography and the severity of necrosis in computed tomography (r = 0.704). The degree of impaired perfusion can favorably be used to predict massive necrosis in computed tomography (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.908). The characteristics of impaired perfusion and hypoechoic lesions in ultrasonography were associated with an increased risk of pneumatocele formation (odds ratio (OR), 10.11; 95% CI, 2.95–34.64) and the subsequent requirement for surgical lung resection (OR, 8.28; 95% CI, 1.86–36.93). Furthermore, a longer hospital stay would be expected if moderate-to-massive pleural effusion was observed in addition to impaired perfusion in ultrasonography (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.15–8.29). Conclusion Lung ultrasonography is favorably correlated with chest computed tomography in the diagnosis of necrotizing pneumonia, especially regarding massive necrosis of the lung. Because it is a simple and reliable imaging tool that is valuable in predicting clinical outcomes, we suggest that ultrasonography be applied as a surrogate for computed tomography for the early detection of severe necrotizing pneumonia in children. PMID:26086718

  13. Recent Advances in Endoscopic Papillectomy for Ampulla of Vater Tumors: Endoscopic Ultrasonography, Intraductal Ultrasonography, and Pancreatic Stent Placement

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jimin; Lee, Dong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Since it was first described nearly three decades ago, endoscopic papillectomy (EP) has been utilized as a less invasive, alternative therapy for adenoma of the major duodenal papilla. In this article, we review the recent advances in EP, especially those pertaining to endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS), and pancreatic stent placement for the prevention of postpapillectomy pancreatitis. Because EUS and IDUS have similar diagnostic accuracies, either modality can be used for the preprocedural evaluation of ampullary tumors. Nevertheless, further technical refinements are required for a more precise evaluation. Given the paucity of data on the usefulness of EUS and/or IDUS during follow-up after EP, a well-designed study is warranted. Furthermore, pancreatic stent placement appears to have a protective effect against postpapillectomy pancreatitis; however, a prospective, randomized, controlled study with a larger number of patients is needed to assess this finding. Moreover, since pancreatic stent placement after EP is not always successful, various novel techniques have been developed to ensure reliable stent placement. Despite the recent advances in EP, further technical refinements and studies are needed to confirm their efficacy. PMID:25674523

  14. Transvaginal strangulated small intestinal hernia after abdominal sacrocolpopexy: case report and literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Halwani; V. Nicolau-Toulouse; J. Oakes; J. Leipsic; R. Geoffrion; S. M. Wiseman

    Purpose  To report a case of transvaginal small intestinal hernia following abdominal sacrocolpopexy and review this clinical presentation\\u000a in the current literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A review of our case and a literature review of vaginal evisceration were carried out.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The patient underwent sacrocolpopexy and a Burch procedure. Six months later, a recurrent enterocele through a 1 cm defect\\u000a in the vaginal vault was

  15. Transvaginal Small Bowel Evisceration in Known Case of Uterine Prolapse Due to Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Gheewala, Umesh; Shukla, Radha; Bhatt, Ravi; Srivastava, Shirish

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous transvaginal bowel evisceration is a rare surgical emergency with only a few cases reported and particularly postmenopausal, posthysterectomy, multiparous elderly women are considered to be at higher risk for development of bowel evisceration. It is difficult to manage such a patient for any surgeon and poses significant challenges especially intraoperatively. Here, we report a case of vaginal vault rupture with small bowel evisceration through the vagina in a known case of uterine prolapse and highlight the risk factors, clinical presentation, and treatment options for this rare surgical emergency PMID:25738028

  16. Co-registered pulse-echo/photoacoustic transvaginal probe for real time imaging of ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Kumavor, Patrick D; Alqasemi, Umar; Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Li, Hai; Yang, Yi; Sun, Xiaoguang; Warych, Edward; Zhu, Quing

    2013-06-01

    We present the design and construction of a prototype imaging probe capable of co-registered pulse-echo ultrasound and photoacoustic (optoacoustic) imaging in real time. The probe consists of 36 fibers of 200 micron core diameter each that are distributed around a commercial transvaginal ultrasound transducer, and housed in a protective shield. Its performance was demonstrated by two sets of experiments. The first set involved imaging of blood flowing through a tube mimicking a blood vessel, the second set involved imaging of human ovaries ex vivo. The results suggest that the system along with the probe has great potential for imaging and characterizing of ovarian tissue in vivo. PMID:23450770

  17. Mesh removal following transvaginal mesh placement: a case series of 104 operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naama Marcus-Braun; Peter von Theobald

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis  The objective of the study was to reveal the way we treat vaginal mesh complications in a trained referral center.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This is a retrospective review of all patients who underwent surgical removal of transvaginal mesh for mesh-related complications\\u000a during a 5-year period.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Eighty-three patients underwent 104 operations including 61 complete mesh removal, 14 partial excision, 15 section of

  18. Bedside Ultrasonography for Arteriovenous Fistula Cannulation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshan A; Stern, Aaron S; Brown, Maritza; Bhatti, Saad

    2015-07-01

    Difficulty in accessing a new arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a common technical issue in hemodialysis patients, which often leads to interventional radiology and/or vascular surgery referral. As a consequence, the patient who needs dialysis may require a temporary dialysis catheter with its known potential complications. We present a case where bedside ultrasonography facilitated successful cannulation of a difficult AVF. Ultrasonography (US) training in this procedure may allow early cannulation of new AVFs when the venous diameter is large enough (>0.6 cm) but the fistula is too deep (>0.6 cm). Real-time, US-guided AVF cannulation may also decrease the number of failed venous punctures per hemodialysis (HD) session minimizing vessel wall damage and subsequent potential hematoma and aneurysm formation. PMID:26014904

  19. Ultrasonography of the hip and lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Gerard A; Dentico, Richard; Halperin, Jonathan S

    2010-08-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasonographic evaluation of the proximal lower limb includes the evaluation of the soft tissue structures, including tendons, ligaments, or muscles, and the bony structures of this region, include the hip, pubic symphysis, and sacroiliac joints. The evaluation of the hip or proximal lower limb region can be performed in an efficient and systematic manner. Ultrasonography of the lateral hip, intra-articular hip, medial thigh, and posterior thigh are discussed in the article. PMID:20797548

  20. Nail bed injury detected by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Soyuncu, Secgin; Bektas, Firat

    2012-09-01

    A 46-year-old man presented to the emergency department after being injured with a press machine from his left hand 30 minutes before admission. Subungual hematoma was diagnosed in his index finger, although the nail plate was intact. Emergency physicians could identify nail bed injury with bedside ultrasonography examination. This noninvasive, inexpensive, and repeatable diagnostic modality could preserve patients from a complex, invasive nail removal procedure. PMID:21855257

  1. Ultrasonography and radiography: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Musa, Salam; Wilson, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Distal limb fractures are common presentations to emergency departments and minor injury units (MIUs). The authors conducted a study of the usefulness and efficiency of portable ultrasound in detecting the presence of minor fractures in patients presenting to Cirencester Hospital's MIU. Patients above two years of age about whom there was a high clinical suspicion of a closed fracture of the distal forearm or wrist, or the lower limb, were included in the study. After initial clinical assessments, the patients were referred for X-ray, as is usual for such patients, and also for ultrasound imaging of their injured sites. The ultrasound and radiograph images were subsequently compared for injury and presence of fracture, and this article discusses the results. PMID:25952400

  2. Accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound and serum hCG in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, S; Romero, R; Pilu, G; Pavani, A; Capelli, M; Milano, V; Bevini, M; Bovicelli, L

    1992-03-01

    Transvaginal ultrasound was performed upon admission of 127 patients with a clinical suspicion of ectopic pregnancy in association with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) determination. Failure to visualize with sonography an intrauterine gestational sac with an hCG level superior to 1000 mIU/ml identified 25/42 tubal pregnancies with a positive predictive value of 86% and a specificity of 93%. Abnormal adnexal findings occurred in 95% of the ectopic pregnancies. Extrauterine gestational sacs with or without embryos could be confidently detected in 19 ectopic pregnancies (45%). A complex adnexal mass was seen in 19 cases and yielded a positive predictive value of 90% (19/21). Adnexal gestational sacs and complex masses were seen more frequently in those ectopic pregnancies with an hCG level above 1000 mIU/ml but the difference was not significant (100% versus 78%). Simple adnexal cysts were found more frequently in intrauterine pregnancies, and fluid in the cul-de-sac was also not indicative of ectopic pregnancy (positive predictive value, 29%). Transvaginal ultrasound has a primary role in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. The combined use of uterine and adnexal sonography associated with elevated hCG levels allows a definitive diagnosis in the vast majority of cases at a very early stage, when the chances for a successful conservative treatment are greater. PMID:12796988

  3. Suspected acute cholecystitis. Comparison of hepatobiliary scintigraphy versus ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, J.E.; Mirkes, S.H.; Fink-Bennett, D.M.; Bree, R.L.

    1982-08-01

    One hundred ninety-five patients with suspected acute cholecystitis (AC) underwent both hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) and static gray-scale ultrasonography (US) to assess the relative value of each imaging modality in this clinical setting. HBS was performed after the intravenous injection of 5 mCi /sup 99m/Tc iprofenin. Abnormal HBS indicative of AC visualized the common bile duct, but not the gallbladder, within 1 to 4 hours after tracer administration. Abnormal US indicative of AC demonstrated cholelithiasis and/or gallbladder wall edema. In this series, HBS surpassed US in sensitivity (98.3% versus 81.4%), specificity (90.2% versus 60.2%), predictive value of an abnormal test (91.4% versus 51.6%), and predictive value of a normal test (100% versus 92%), HBS should be the procedure of choice for the rapid detection of AC.

  4. Transvaginal Radio Frequency Treatment of the Endopelvic Fascia: A Prospective Evaluation for the Treatment of Genuine Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROGER R. DMOCHOWSKI; MARK AVON; JAMES ROSS; JAY M. COOPER; RICHARD KAPLAN; BEVERLY LOVE; NEERAJ KOHLI; DAVID ALBALA; BRUCE SHINGLETON

    2003-01-01

    PurposeWe evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new treatment modality for genuine stress urinary incontinence which was a transvaginal radio frequency applicator to deliver radio frequency energy to the endopelvic fascia. The purported mechanism of effect for this therapy is shrinkage of the collagenated tissue which composes the endopelvic fascia that supports the bladder neck and proximal urethra, thus

  5. Risk factors for mesh erosion after transvaginal surgery using polypropylene (Atrium) or composite polypropylene\\/polyglactin 910 (Vypro II) mesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chahin Achtari; Richard Hiscock; Barry A. O’Reilly; Lore Schierlitz; Peter L. Dwyer

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the occurrence of mesh erosion (ME) during the first 6 post-operative months in patients having undergone transvaginal repair of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) with Atrium or Vypro II mesh. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 198 consecutive patients who underwent vaginal reconstructive surgery reinforced either by Atrium

  6. Ultrasonography of soft tissue “oops lesions”

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hye Won; Cho, Kil-Ho

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I would like to define “oops lesions” as soft tissue mass-like lesions that involve surprise or embarrassment for radiologists following the final diagnosis. Examples of “oops lesions” include malignant tumors that appear benign, malignancy-mimicking benign tumors, incorrect identification of epidermal inclusion cysts, and soft tissue pseudotumors. Ultrasonography (US) findings are very helpful in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors; however, the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors on the basis of US findings alone has some limitations. Therefore, clinical findings, laboratory data, findings from additional imaging modalities, and demographic data of patients should be considered together with US findings. PMID:25868733

  7. Ultrasonography: an important tool in captive breeding management in elephants and rhinoceroses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas B. Hildebrandt; Frank Göritz; Robert Hermes

    2006-01-01

    Nearly two decades ago, modern wildlife medicine started to gradually use the advantages of the non-invasive ultrasonography,\\u000a which was already well established in human and classical veterinary medicine. For more than one decade now, the application\\u000a of imaging ultrasound for reproductive assessments and as a supportive tool during assisted reproduction procedures such as\\u000a artificial insemination (AI) in elephants and rhinoceroses

  8. Adaptive sound speed correction for abdominal ultrasonography: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sungmin; Kang, Jeeun; Song, Tai-Kyung; Yoo, Yangmo

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasonography has been conducting a critical role in assessing abdominal disorders due to its noninvasive, real-time, low cost, and deep penetrating capabilities. However, for imaging obese patients with a thick fat layer, it is challenging to achieve appropriate image quality with a conventional beamforming (CON) method due to phase aberration caused by the difference between sound speeds (e.g., 1580 and 1450m/s for liver and fat, respectively). For this, various sound speed correction (SSC) methods that estimate the accumulated sound speed for a region-of interest (ROI) have been previously proposed. However, with the SSC methods, the improvement in image quality was limited only for a specific depth of ROI. In this paper, we present the adaptive sound speed correction (ASSC) method, which can enhance the image quality for whole depths by using estimated sound speeds from two different depths in the lower layer. Since these accumulated sound speeds contain the respective contributions of layers, an optimal sound speed for each depth can be estimated by solving contribution equations. To evaluate the proposed method, the phantom study was conducted with pre-beamformed radio-frequency (RF) data acquired with a SonixTouch research package (Ultrasonix Corp., Canada) with linear and convex probes from the gel pad-stacked tissue mimicking phantom (Parker Lab. Inc., USA and Model539, ATS, USA) whose sound speeds are 1610 and 1450m/s, respectively. From the study, compared to the CON and SSC methods, the ASSC method showed the improved spatial resolution and information entropy contrast (IEC) for convex and linear array transducers, respectively. These results indicate that the ASSC method can be applied for enhancing image quality when imaging obese patients in abdominal ultrasonography.

  9. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery: The transvaginal route moving forward from cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Targarona, Eduardo M; Maldonado, Edgar Mauricio; Marzol, Jose Antonio; Marinello, Franco

    2010-01-01

    The advent of minimally invasive surgery and the advances in endoluminal flexible endoscopy have converged to generate a new concept in digestive surgery, whose acronym natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), has become a familiar term in the surgical community. NOTES has been performed through the mouth, the bladder, the rectum and the vagina. Of these four approaches, the vagina has gained most popularity for several reasons. It is not only readily accessible and easy to decontaminate but it also provides safe entry and simple closure. The transvaginal approach has been described in the experimental and the clinical setting as an option for cholecystectomy, nephrectomy, splenectomy, segmental gastrectomy, retroperitoneal exploration and bariatric surgery. However, larger series are needed to delineate the exact risks of this approach, and to transcend cultural barriers that impede its wider introduction. Prospective randomized trials will shed light on the definitive role of the vaginal approach in minimal invasive surgery of the future. PMID:21160871

  10. Ureteral Injury with Delayed Massive Hematuria after Transvaginal Ultrasound-Guided Oocyte Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Burnik Papler, Tanja; Vrta?nik Bokal, Eda; Šalamun, Vesna; Gali?, Dejan; Smrkolj, Tomaž; Jan?ar, Nina

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of ureteral injury with delayed hematuria after transvaginal oocyte retrieval. A 28-year-old infertile patient with a history of previous laparoscopic resection of endometriotic nodes of both sacrouterine ligaments presented with abdominal pain one day after oocyte retrieval. Four days after oocyte retrieval, she presented with massive hematuria that reappeared 6 days after oocyte retrieval. Monopolar coagulation with wire electrode and insertion of a double-J-stent was performed during operative cystoscopy. The patient recovered completely after transfusion and had no signs of renal impairment after ureteric stent removal. This is the first report of ureteral injury after oocyte retrieval presenting itself with delayed massive hematuria and no signs of renal dysfunction or urinary leakage into retroperitoneal space. PMID:26146577

  11. High-throughput fiber-array transvaginal ultrasound/photoacoustic probe for ovarian cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Hassan S.; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Wang, Tianheng; Zhu, Quing

    2014-03-01

    A high-throughput ultrasound/photoacoustic probe for delivering high contrast and signal-to-noise ratio images was designed, constructed, and tested. The probe consists of a transvaginal ultrasound array integrated with four 1mm-core optical fibers and a sheath. The sheath encases transducer and is lined with highly reflecting aluminum for high intensity light output and uniformity while at the same time remaining below the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) recommended by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The probe design was optimized by simulating the light fluence distribution in Zemax. The performance of the probe was evaluated by experimental measurements of the fluence and real-time imaging of polyethylene-tubing filled with blood. These results suggest that our probe has great potential for in vivo imaging and characterization of ovarian cancer.

  12. Transvaginal repair of rectovaginal fistula by filling with bulbocavernosus fat pad and retaining scar tissue.

    PubMed

    Le, A; Shan, L; Wang, Z; Dai, X; Xiao, T; Shen, Y

    2014-01-01

    The authors performed transvaginal repair of rectovaginal fistual (RVF) with bulbocavernosus fat pad by incising left side of the labia majora and retained scar tissues which were formed after three months for one patient. Repair of the RVF was successful and the patient had normal diet and defecation at a week after surgery. Previous gynecological surgery performed on the patient resulted in RVF accompanied by weak rectal tissues. Retaining the tissues and scars surrounding to the fistula and filling the fistula with bulbocavernosus fat pad tissue increased rectal wall thickness and facilitated healing. The efficacy of this surgical technique will need further studies with larger patient cohorts to establish a clear success rate. PMID:25864267

  13. Alternative models in genetic analyses of carcass traits measured by ultrasonography in Guzerá cattle: A Bayesian approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to study alternative models for genetic analyses of carcass traits assessed by ultrasonography in Guzerá cattle. Data from 947 measurements (655 animals) of Rib-eye area (REA), rump fat thickness (RFT) and backfat thickness (BFT) were used. Finite polygenic models (FPM), infinitesi...

  14. Value of duplex and color doppler ultrasonography in the evaluation of orbital vascular flow and resistance in sickle cell disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kairgeldy Aikimbaev; Birol Guvenc; Abdullah Canataroglu; Hatice Canataroglu; Fikri Baslamisli; Mahmut Oguz

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess and to compare the orbital and retinal vascular flow dynamics and resistance in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease with controls by means of duplex and color Doppler ultrasonography. Forty-six patients with homozygous sickle cell disease (SCD) and 20 healthy subjects were included in the study. None of the patients had

  15. Current status of automated breast ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee Jung; Kim, Hak Hee; Cha, Joo Hee

    2015-01-01

    Breast ultrasonography (US) is currently considered the first-line examination in the detection Epub ahead of print and characterization of breast lesions. However, conventional handheld US (HHUS) has several limitations such as operator dependence and the requirement of a considerable amount of radiologist time for whole-breast US. Automated breast US (ABUS), recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for screening purposes, has several advantages over HHUS, such as higher reproducibility, less operator dependence, and less required physician time for image acquisition. In addition, ABUS provides both a coronal view and a relatively large field of view. Recent studies have reported that ABUS is promising in US screening for women with dense breasts and can potentially replace handheld second-look US in a preoperative setting. PMID:25971900

  16. Diagnosis of pancreatic tumors by endoscopic ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Hiroki; Kitano, Masayuki; Kamata, Ken; El-Masry, Muhammad; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic tumors are highly diverse, as they can be solid or cystic, and benign or malignant. Since their imaging features overlap considerably, it is often difficult to characterize these tumors. In addition, small pancreatic tumors, especially those less than 2 cm in diameter, are difficult to detect and diagnose. For characterizing pancreatic tumors and detecting small pancreatic tumors, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the most sensitive of the imaging procedures currently available. This technique also provides good results in terms of the preoperative staging of pancreatic tumors. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has also proved to be a safe and useful method for tissue sampling of pancreatic tumors. Despite these advantages, however, it is still difficult to differentiate between benign and malignant, solid or cystic pancreatic tumors, malignant neoplasms, and chronic pancreatitis using EUS, even when EUS-FNA is performed. Recently, contrast-enhanced EUS with Doppler mode (CE-EUS) employing ultrasound contrast agents, which indicate vascularization in pancreatic lesions, has been found to be useful in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic tumors, especially small pancreatic tumors. However, Doppler ultrasonography with contrast-enhancement has several limitations, including blooming artifacts, poor spatial resolution, and low sensitivity to slow flow. Consequently, an echoendoscope was developed recently that has a broad-band transducer and an imaging mode that was designed specifically for contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CEH-EUS) with a second-generation ultrasound contrast agent. The CEH-EUS technique is expected to improve the differential diagnosis of pancreatic disease in the future. This review describes the EUS appearances of common solid and cystic pancreatic masses, the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA, and the relative efficacies and advantages of CE-EUS and CEH-EUS along with their relative advantages and their complementary roles in clinical practice. PMID:21160578

  17. Ultrasonography in predicting and screening liver cirrhosis in children: A preliminary study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-An Zhu; Bing Hu

    AIM: To evaluate the value of ultrasonography in predicting and screening liver cirrhosis in children. METHODS: Twenty-eight children with liver cirrhosis of various etiologies were examined by routine ultrasonography. A percutaneous liver biopsy guided by ultrasound was also performed on each patient, and the results of liver biopsy and ultrasonography were compared. RESULTS: When compared with the biopsy results, ultrasonography

  18. Transvaginal Oocyte Retrieval Complicated by Life-Threatening Obturator Artery Haemorrhage and Managed by a Vessel-Preserving Technique.

    PubMed Central

    Bolster, Ferdia; Mocanu, Edgar; Geoghegan, Tony; Lawler, Leo

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with secondary infertility who underwent routine transvaginal oocyte retrieval as part of IVF treatment. Four days following the procedure she presented with life threatening haemorrhagic shock. She underwent surgical laparotomy followed by CT and selective angiography, which demonstrated haemorrhage from a pseudoaneurysm of the obturator artery. The haemorrhage was successfully managed endovascularly with a vessel preserving covered stent. PMID:25484463

  19. Dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain after polypropylene mesh augmentation for transvaginal repair of anterior vaginal wall prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence L. Lin; Alexandra L. Haessler; Matt H. Ho; Lance H. Betson; Red M. Alinsod; Narender N. Bhatia

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic mesh augmentations for pelvic floor reconstructive surgeries are increasing in usage and popularity. Many studies\\u000a are focusing on the anatomical success rates of transvaginal anterior compartment repairs with synthetic mesh, with minimal\\u000a attention on its postoperative complications. We present a case report on a 59-year-old postmenopausal woman who underwent\\u000a an anterior repair with 6×4-cm polypropylene mesh. Postoperatively, she developed

  20. A 2-year anatomical and functional assessment of transvaginal rectocele repair using a polypropylene mesh.

    PubMed

    de Tayrac, Renaud; Picone, Olivier; Chauveaud-Lambling, Aurélia; Fernandez, Hervé

    2006-02-01

    This study reports the 2-year results of an original technique for rectocele repair by the vaginal route, using a combined sacrospinous suspension and a polypropylene mesh. Twenty-six women were successively operated between October 2000 and February 2003. Mean age was 63.7 years [range 35-92]. 19 women had had previous pelvic surgery for prolapse and/or urinary incontinence (73.1%), but none had had a previous rectocele repair. Patients underwent physical examination staging of prolapse in the international pelvic organ prolapse staging system. Eleven women had stage 2 posterior vaginal wall prolapse (42.3%), seven had stage 3 (26.9%) and eight had stage 4 (30.8%). The procedure included a bilateral sacrospinous suspension and a polypropylene mesh (GyneMesh, Gynecare, Ethicon France) attached from the sacrospinous ligaments to the perineal body. We did not perform any associated posterior fascial repair, nor myorraphy. Patients were followed up for 10-44 months, with a median follow-up (+/- SD) of 22.7 +/- 9.2 months. Functional results and sexual function were evaluated using the PFDI, the PFIQ and the PISQ-12 self-questionnaires. Twenty-five women returned for follow-up (96.2%). At follow-up, 24 women were cured (92.3%) and one had asymptomatic stage 2 rectocele. All the patients but one had symptoms and impact on quality of life improved. No postoperative infection of the mesh or rectovaginal fistula was found, but there were three vaginal erosions (12%) and one out of 13 had de novo dyspareunia (7.7%). PMID:15909075

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Calculus detection for ultrasonography using decorrelation

    E-print Network

    Sato, Toru

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Calculus detection for ultrasonography using decorrelation of forward scattered September 2009 / Accepted: 25 March 2010 / Published online: 15 May 2010 Ó The Japan Society of Ultrasonics calculi efficiently. Methods The proposed calculus detection strategy focu- ses on decorrelation

  2. Periportal fibrosis and other liver ultrasonography findings in vinyl chloride workers

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, M; Mocci, F; Visentin, S; Preti, G; Fanetti, A

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the presence of liver lesions and their relation with vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) exposure or other personal risk factors, in workers involved in the production of VCM and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Methods: A liver ultrasonography examination was conducted in 757 workers, some of whom had long standing service in the production of VCM and PVC. The study involved: assessment of individual past and present VCM exposure of each worker; collection of past personal health history, lifestyle and personal data; routine liver function tests; and liver ultrasonography. Results: No cases of liver malignancies were detected. Angiomas and liver cysts were found with a frequency of occurrence within the expected range of the general population. The main findings consisted of hepatomegaly (34.7%), steatosis (31.8%), and periportal fibrosis (16.0%). A logistic regression analysis indicated that hepatomegaly and steatosis were associated with obesity and lipid metabolism disturbances and not with VCM exposure. Periportal fibrosis, in addition to constitutional or dietary factors, was shown to be associated with VCM exposure, but only when maximum exposure in the subject's history had been at least 200 ppm as a yearly average; no effects were observed at 50 ppm or below. Conclusions: Workers exposed to 200 ppm VCM for at least one year have a fourfold increased risk of developing periportal liver fibrosis. Liver ultrasonography is a suitable and important diagnostic test for the medical surveillance of vinyl chloride workers. PMID:12499459

  3. The diagnostic accuracy of bedside ocular ultrasonography for the diagnosis of retinal detachment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vrablik, Michael E; Snead, Gregory R; Minnigan, Hal J; Kirschner, Jonathan M; Emmett, Thomas W; Seupaul, Rawle A

    2015-02-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of emergency department (ED) ocular ultrasonography may be sufficient for diagnosing retinal detachment. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine the diagnostic accuracy of ED ocular ultrasonography for the diagnosis of retinal detachment. This review conformed to the recommendations from the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement. An experienced medical librarian searched the following databases from their inception, without language restrictions: Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Emergency Medical Abstracts, and Google Scholar. Content experts were contacted and bibliographies of relevant studies were reviewed to identify additional references. Evidence quality was independently assessed by 2 investigators using the revised Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2). Discrepancies were resolved by consensus or adjudication by a third reviewer. Diagnostic test characteristics were summarized and reported with 95% confidence intervals. Of 7,771 unique citations identified, 78 were selected for full-text review, resulting in 4 trials assessed for quality. Agreement between authors' QUADAS-2 scoring was good (?=0.63). Three trials were deemed to have a low risk of bias. They enrolled ED-based patients (N=201) and evaluated clinician-performed bedside ocular ultrasonography, using either a 7.5- or 10-MHz linear-array probe. Two trials included patients who had retinal detachment from trauma. The prevalence of retinal detachment ranged from 15% to 38%. Sensitivity and specificity ranged from 97% to 100% and 83% to 100%, respectively. The results of the bedside ocular ultrasonography were compared with the reference standard of an ophthalmologic evaluation; one trial also included orbital computed tomography findings suggestive of retinal detachment. Bedside ocular ultrasonography has a high degree of accuracy in identifying retinal detachment, according to 3 small prospective investigations. Larger prospective validation of these findings would be valuable. PMID:24680547

  4. Ultrasonography of the urinary tract in 29 female Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Steininger, K; Braun, U

    2012-02-01

    The left and right kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra of 29 female clinically healthy Saanen goats were examined via transcutaneous and transrectal ultrasonography. In order to establish reference values the examinations were performed using a 5.0 MHz linear transducer to scan the right caudal costal part of the abdominal wall, right and left dorsal flanks and right and left inguinal regions of standing goats. A 5.0 MHz intracavity probe was used for transrectal ultrasonographic examination of the urinary bladder and urethra. The kidneys were examined in longitudinal and cross section and assessed subjectively. They could usually be seen from the 12th intercostal space on the right side and dorsal right flank. The right kidney was 8.0 ± 0.67 cm long and the left was 8.4 ± 0.64 cm long. The ureters could not be visualized in any of the goats. The length of the urinary bladder was 5.1 ± 1.38 cm, and its largest cross-sectional diameter was 2.6 ± 1.01 cm. The urethra was seen in 23 goats and appeared as echogenic lines with no visible lumen. The transition from the neck of the bladder to the internal urethral orifice extended beyond the brim of the pelvis in only one goat. PMID:22287138

  5. Design of miniaturized illumination for transvaginal co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Hassan S.; Wang, Tianheng; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Li, Hai; Zhu, Quing

    2014-01-01

    A novel lens-array based illumination design for a compact co-registered photoacoustic/ultrasound transvaginal probe has been demonstrated. The lens array consists of four cylindrical lenses that couple the laser beams into four 1-mm-core multi-mode optical fibers with optical coupling efficiency of ~87%. The feasibility of our lens array was investigated by simulating the lenses and laser beam profiles using Zemax. The laser fluence on the tissue surface was experimentally measured and was below the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) safety limit. Spatial distribution of hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) of a mouse tumor was obtained in vivo using photoacoustic measurements at multiple wavelengths. Furthermore, benign and malignant ovaries were imaged ex vivo and evaluated histologically. The co-registered images clearly showed different patterns of blood vasculature. These results highlight the clinical potential of our system for noninvasive photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging of ovarian tissue and cancer detection and diagnosis. PMID:25401021

  6. Design of miniaturized illumination for transvaginal co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Hassan S; Wang, Tianheng; Kumavor, Patrick D; Li, Hai; Zhu, Quing

    2014-09-01

    A novel lens-array based illumination design for a compact co-registered photoacoustic/ultrasound transvaginal probe has been demonstrated. The lens array consists of four cylindrical lenses that couple the laser beams into four 1-mm-core multi-mode optical fibers with optical coupling efficiency of ~87%. The feasibility of our lens array was investigated by simulating the lenses and laser beam profiles using Zemax. The laser fluence on the tissue surface was experimentally measured and was below the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) safety limit. Spatial distribution of hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) of a mouse tumor was obtained in vivo using photoacoustic measurements at multiple wavelengths. Furthermore, benign and malignant ovaries were imaged ex vivo and evaluated histologically. The co-registered images clearly showed different patterns of blood vasculature. These results highlight the clinical potential of our system for noninvasive photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging of ovarian tissue and cancer detection and diagnosis. PMID:25401021

  7. Breast ultrasonography: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Hooley, Regina J; Scoutt, Leslie M; Philpotts, Liane E

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is an indispensable tool in breast imaging and is complementary to both mammography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the breast. Advances in US technology allow confident characterization of not only benign cysts but also benign and malignant solid masses. Knowledge and understanding of current and emerging US technology, along with the application of meticulous scanning technique, is imperative for image optimization and diagnosis. The ability to synthesize breast US findings with multiple imaging modalities and clinical information is also necessary to ensure the best patient care. US is routinely used to guide breast biopsies and is also emerging as a supplemental screening tool in women with dense breasts and a negative mammogram. This review provides a summary of current state-of-the-art US technology, including elastography, and applications of US in clinical practice as an adjuvant technique to mammography, MR imaging, and the clinical breast examination. The use of breast US for screening, preoperative staging for breast cancer, and breast intervention will also be discussed. PMID:23970509

  8. Neuromuscular Ultrasonography: Quantifying Muscle and Nerve Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mayans, David; Cartwright, Michael S.; Walker, Francis O.

    2012-01-01

    There is an inherent conflict between interpreting ultrasound imaging, which generates rich, highly textured complex representations of 3-dimensional space, and the rendering of these images into discrete measures for statistical analysis Reducing images to a small set of numbers, by necessity, ignores vast amounts of useful data, but the process is a prerequisite for generating objective information that can be shared by the clinical community. This article illustrates how ultrasound imaging is used in quantitative ways. The goal is not to supplant or diminish the importance of descriptive findings but to make the field amenable to statistical methods and standards for making diagnoses and designing therapeutic trials of new interventions. The discussion focuses first on muscle ultrasonography, a technique that was developed more than a decade earlier than nerve ultrasound, to illustrate key elements in determining how to best extract quantitative information from complex images. The discussion then applies some of these same principles to the study of 2 common nerve disorders. PMID:22239880

  9. A transvaginal ultrasonic approach to elimination of singleton pregnancy in the mare: application to reduction of twin pregnancy

    E-print Network

    Macpherson, Margo Lee

    1994-01-01

    transrectal ultrasonography for one week following treatment and weekly for three additional weeks. Intrauterine endoscopic examinations were performed on all mares with non-viable fetuses 30 days following treatment to identify and retrieve mummified fetuses...

  10. Endoscopic ultrasonography in chronic pancreatitis: a comparative prospective study with conventional ultrasonography, computed tomography, and ERCP.

    PubMed

    Buscail, L; Escourrou, J; Moreau, J; Delvaux, M; Louvel, D; Lapeyre, F; Tregant, P; Frexinos, J

    1995-04-01

    The usefulness and accuracy rate of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (CP) were prospectively evaluated in 81 patients with suspected pancreatic disease. All underwent EUS, abdominal ultrasonography (AUS), and computed tomography (CT), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed in 55 of the cases. The diagnosis of CP was established in 44 patients (CP group) including 24 with a calcified form. No pancreatic disease was observed in 18 patients (control group), and 19 patients had a pancreatic tumor. In the CP group AUS was less accurate than EUS in visualizing the pancreas, performances of CT scan being identical to EUS in this respect. A good correlation was observed between EUS and ERCP for visualization and measurement of the Wirsung duct. The most significant changes observed by EUS in the CP group were dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, heterogeneous echogenicity of the pancreatic parenchyma, and cysts < 20 mm in size even in noncalcified CP or with normal pancreatograms. Sensitivity of EUS for diagnosis of CP was 88% (AUS, 58%; ERCP, 74%; CT scan, 75%), the specificity being 100% for ERCP and EUS, 95% for CT scan, and 75% for AUS. The good performances of EUS allow early diagnosis of CP in symptomatic patients since heterogeneous echogenicity of the pancreatic parenchyma seems to be almost specifically associated with the disease. PMID:7624302

  11. Is Sonographic Assessment of the Cervix Necessary and Helpful?

    PubMed Central

    Larma, Joel D.; Iams, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    Transvaginal sonography of the cervix has emerged as a useful window onto preterm parturition. Cervical sonography allows measurements of cervical length which can aid clinicians in identifying women at risk for preterm birth. The use of transvaginal assessments of cervical length can assist in the triage of patients with possible preterm labor. Recent studies also support the use of cervical length measurements as a means of determining appropriate candidates for cerclage placement and progesterone supplementation to reduce the risk of premature birth, further highlighting the importance of this modality in modern obstetric management. PMID:22343248

  12. Application of Combined Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Transvaginal Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui-li; Xiang, Hong; Duan, Li; Shahai, Gulinaer; Liu, Hui; Li, Xiang-hong; Mou, Rui-xue

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to explore the clinical value of combining two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transvaginal contrast-enhanced ultrasounds (CEUS) in diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma (EC). Methods. In this prospective diagnostic study, transvaginal 2D and 3D CEUS were performed on 68 patients with suspected EC, and the results of the obtained 2D-CEUS and 3D-CEUS images were compared with the gold standard for statistical analysis. Results. 2D-CEUS benign endometrial lesions showed the normal uterine perfusion phase while EC cases showed early arrival and early washout of the contrast agent and nonuniform enhancement. The 3D-CEUS images differed in central blood vessel manifestation, blood vessel shape, and vascular pattern between benign and malignant endometrial lesions (P < 0.05). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of transvaginal 2D-CEUS and 2D-CEUS combined with 3D-CEUS for diagnosis of benign and malignant endometrial lesions were 76.9%, 73.8%, 64.5%, 83.8%, and 75.0% and 84.6%, 83.3%, 75.9%, 89.7%, and 83.8%, respectively. Conclusion. 3D-CEUS is a useful supplement to 2D-CEUS and can clearly reveal the angioarchitecture spatial relationships between vessels and depth of myometrial invasion in EC. The combined use of 2D and 3D-CEUS can offer direct, accurate, and comprehensive diagnosis of early EC.

  13. Transvaginal cholecystectomy vs conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallbladder disease: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Xu, Bo; Zheng, Wen-Yan; Ge, Hai-Yan; Wang, Li-Wei; Song, Zhen-Sun; He, Bin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the results of transvaginal cholecystectomy (TVC) and conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC) for gallbladder disease. METHODS: We performed a literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, MetaRegister of Controlled Trials, Chinese Medical Journal database and Wanfang Data for trials comparing outcomes between TVC and CLC. Data were extracted by two authors. Mean difference (MD), standardized mean difference (SMD), odds ratios and risk rate with 95%CIs were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. Statistical heterogeneity was evaluated with the ?2 test. The fixed-effects model was used in the absence of statistically significant heterogeneity. The random-effects model was chosen when heterogeneity was found. RESULTS: There were 730 patients in nine controlled clinical trials. No significant difference was found regarding demographic characteristics (P > 0.5), including anesthetic risk score, age, body mass index, and abdominal surgical history between the TVC and CLC groups. Both groups had similar mortality, morbidity, and return to work after surgery. Patients in the TVC group had a lower pain score on postoperative day 1 (SMD: -0.957, 95%CI: -1.488 to -0.426, P < 0.001), needed less postoperative analgesic medication (SMD: -0.574, 95%CI: -0.807 to -0.341, P < 0.001) and stayed for a shorter time in hospital (MD: -1.004 d, 95%CI: -1.779 to 0.228, P = 0.011), but had longer operative time (MD: 17.307 min, 95%CI: 6.789 to 27.826, P = 0.001). TVC had no significant influence on postoperative sexual function and quality of life. Better cosmetic results and satisfaction were achieved in the TVC group. CONCLUSION: TVC is safe and effective for gallbladder disease. However, vaginal injury might occur, and further trials are needed to compare TVC with CLC. PMID:25954114

  14. Intrarectal ultrasonography in rectal cancer staging and in the evaluation of pelvic disease. Clinical uses of intrarectal ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    Milsom, J W; Graffner, H

    1990-01-01

    Accurate preoperative staging of a rectal cancer patient may impact heavily on subsequent management. This study attempts to evaluate the accuracy of intrarectal ultrasonography (IRUS) in staging rectal cancers compared to clinical and pathologic examination. In addition the accuracy of IRUS was assessed in a group of patients with uncertain pelvic-perirectal disease after a negative physical examination. In a prospective manner, 52 cancer patients were staged with digital exam and IRUS. Accuracy rates were 48% and 83%, respectively, compared to pathologic evaluation in assessing wall penetration, and IRUS identified positive lymph nodes in 12 of 17 cases. In patients with pelvic disease, IRUS corresponded with pathologic diagnosis in 15 of 17 cases and revealed new information in 6 patients. Intrarectal ultrasonography appears to be the most accurate imaging technique for staging rectal cancers and demonstrates promise in the evaluation of perirectal-pelvic disease. Images Figs. 1A and B. Fig. 2. PMID:2241316

  15. Values of Ultrasonography, Sestamibi Scintigraphy, and Intraoperative Measurement of 1-84 PTH for Unilateral Neck Exploration of Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Chapuis; Yvonne Fulla; Philippe Bonnichon; Emmanuel Tarla; Bassam Abboud; Jol Pitre; Bruno Richard

    1996-01-01

    . Unilateral neck exploration (UNE) is a controversial approach to the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP),\\u000a and most surgeons favor bilateral neck exploration. The aim of this study was to assess the value of ultrasonography, sestamibi\\u000a scintigraphy, and intraoperative measurement of urinary cyclic AMP (UcAMP) or 1-84 PTH in 200 patients undergoing unilateral\\u000a neck exploration under local anesthesia. Conditions for

  16. Morton Neuroma: Evaluated with Ultrasonography and MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Jung; Kim, Sungjun; Huh, Yong-Min; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Sung-Ah; Lee, Jin Woo

    2007-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of both ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of Morton neuroma. Materials and Methods Our study group was comprised of 20 neuromas from 17 patients, and the neuromas were confirmed on surgery following evaluation with US, MRI, or both US and MRI. The diagnostic criterion for Morton neuroma, as examined by US, was the presence of a round or ovoid, well-defined, hypoechoic mass. The diagnostic criterion, based on MR imaging, was a well defined mass with intermediate to low signal intensity on both the T1- and T2-weighted images. The retrospective comparison between the sonographic and MR images was done by two experienced radiologists working in consensus with the surgical and pathologic correlations. Results The detection rate of Morton neuroma was 79% for 14 neuromas from 11 patients who had undergone US followed by an operation. The detection rate was 76% for 17 neuromas from 15 patients who had undergone MRI and a subsequent operation. The mean size of the examined neuromas was 4.9 mm on the US images and it was 5.1 mm on the MRI studies. Ten neuromas (71%) were 5 mm or less as measured by US, and three neuromas were not detected, whereas on the MRI analysis, 10 neuromas (59%) were 5 mm or less and four neuromas were not visualized. Among the patients examined during postoperative follow-up, symptoms were completely relieved in 85% and the symptoms were partially relieved in 15%. Conclusion US and MR imaging are comparable modalities with high detection rate for the evaluation of Morton neuroma. PMID:17420632

  17. MRI and ultrasonography in Morton's neuroma: Diagnostic accuracy and correlation

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Claramunt, R; Ginés, A; Pidemunt, G; Puig, Ll; de Zabala, S

    2012-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of Morton's neuroma is based primarily on clinical findings. Ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) studies are considered complementary diagnostic techniques. The aim of this study was to establish the correlation and sensitivity of both techniques used to diagnose Morton's neuroma. Materials and Methods: Thirty seven patients (43 intermetatarsal spaces) with Morton's neuroma operated were retrospectively reviewed. In all cases MRI or ultrasound was performed to complement clinical diagnosis of Morton's neuroma. In all cases, a histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Estimates of sensitivity were made and correlation (kappa statistics) was assessed for both techniques. Results: Twenty seven women and 10 men participated with a mean age of 60 years. Double lesions presented in six patients. The second intermetatarsal space was affected in 10 patients and the third in 33 patients. An MRI was performed in 41 cases and a US in 23 cases. In 21 patients, both an MRI and a US were performed. With regard to the 41 MRIs performed, 34 were positive for Morton's neuroma and 7 were negative. MRI sensitivity was 82.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.679–0.929]. Thirteen out of 23 US performed were positive and 10 US were negative. US sensitivity was 56.5% (95% CI: 0.345–0.768). Relative to the 21 patients on whom both techniques were carried out, the agreement between both techniques was poor (kappa statistics 0.31). Conclusion: Although ancillary studies may be required to confirm the clinical diagnosis in some cases, they are probably not necessary for the diagnosis of Morton's neuroma. MRI had a higher sensitivity than US and should be considered the technique of choice in those cases. However, a negative result does not exclude the diagnosis (false negative 17%). PMID:22719120

  18. Laparoscopic Intraoperative Ultrasonography, Color Doppler, and Power Flow Application.

    PubMed

    Jakimowicz; Stultiëns

    1997-06-01

    The applications of color Doppler and power flow imaging for laparoscopic intraoperative ultrasonography (LIOU) are discussed. Basic principles concerning Doppler, color Doppler imaging (CDI), and power flow (PF) are briefly reviewed, and a number of representative examples of imaging are provided. LIOU is progressively gaining importance, not only for screening of the biliary tract, but in particular, for staging laparoscopy in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. The CDI technology that was developed relatively quickly is now in widespread use in diagnostic ultrasound, particularly for vascular surgery. CD options are no longer restricted to the expensive high-end ultrasound scanners, but are available in the majority of modest duplex systems with limited additional costs. Ongoing developments in ultrasound technology have resulted in the introduction of an alternative option to mean frequency-based CD ultrasound, ie, the PF. There are several advantages that emanate from the combination of B-mode ultrasound with CDI and/or PF. These include (1) rapid identification of anatomical structures, ie, vessels, ducts, tissue spaces, and cysts; (2) detection of small vessels that are difficult or impossible to recognize by B-mode scanning alone; (3) more accurate assessment of vascular encasement/involvement by tumor and a precise display of major vessels anatomically related to the tumor; (4) real-time guidance for safe parenchymal dissection of solid organs with identification and preservation of blood supply; (5) precise guided needle biopsy or puncture; and (6) visualization of bile flow in common bile by PF. This has the potential to enable dynamic flow studies of the function of the papilla of Vater in the near future. PMID:10401148

  19. Anal canal anatomy showed by three-dimensional anorectal ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Sergio P. Regadas; Sthela M. Murad-Regadas; Doryane M. R. Lima; Flavio R. Silva; Rosilma G. L. Barreto; Marcellus H. L. P. Souza; F. Sergio P. Regadas Filho

    2007-01-01

    Background  Demonstrate precisely the anatomic configuration of the anal canal and the length and thickness of the anal sphincters using\\u000a three-dimensional (3-D) anorectal ultra-sonography in both genders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twelve normal volunteer males and 14 females, with a mean age of 52.4 and 50.3 years, respectively, were prospectively enrolled\\u000a in this study. All individuals from both groups were submitted to anorectal ultra-sonography. The

  20. Experience with endoluminal ultrasonography in the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Lee, D I; Bagley, D H; Liu, J B

    2001-02-01

    Ultrasonography has been an invaluable tool in the field of urology for its noninvasiveness, safety, and relatively low cost. However, examination of the ureter with ultrasound is difficult because of the distance of the transducer from the ureter and because of intervening structures such as nonconductive bowel gas. As smaller probes have become available, attempts have been made to apply them to endoluminal use. Endoluminal ultrasonography has been employed in urology to examine the proper placement of injected collagen, diagnose urethral diverticula, diagnose and stage upper tract transitional-cell carcinoma, locate crossing vessels to guide endopyelotomy, diagnose submucosal calculi, and examine the severity and length of ureteral strictures. PMID:11248923

  1. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of inflammatory abdominal wall lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Rabinowitz, J.G.

    1982-09-01

    Twenty-four patients with inflammatory lesions of the abdominal wall were examined by ultrasonography. Nine of these patients underwent computed tomographic (CT) scanning as well. Both ultrasonography and CT clearly delineated the exact location and extent of abdominal wall abscesses. Abscesses were easily differentiated from cellulitis or phlegmon with ultrasound. The peritoneal line was more clearly delineated on ultrasonograms than on CT scans; abscesses were also more distinct on the ultrasonograms because of their low echogenicity compared with the surrounding structures. Gas bubbles, fat density with specific low attenuation values, and underlying inflamed bowel loops in obese patients with Crohn's disease were better delineated by CT.

  2. Transvaginal Sacrospinous Ligament Fixation for Pelvic Organ Prolapse Stage III and Stage IV Uterovaginal and Vault Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pratiksha

    2015-01-01

    The result of transvaginal sacrospinous ligament fixation technique, as part of the vaginal repair procedure for massive uterovaginal (Pelvic Organ Prolapse stage III and stage IV and vault prolapse) is evaluated. A total of 32 women were included in the present case series. Marked uterovaginal prolapse was present in 28 women and four had vault prolapse following hysterectomy. Patients with vault prolapse and marked uterovaginal prolapse underwent sacrospinous colpopexy. The mean follow-up period was 2.5 years. Out of the 28 patients with previous marked uterovaginal prolapse, only one had small cystocele 3 years after the surgery. This patient was asymptomatic and did not require repeat surgery. One woman had post-operative urinary tract infection and two had buttock discomfort, one had ischiorectal abscess and two had cuff cellulitis. All complications were dealt with successfully. No other major intra- and post-operative complications occurred. Transvaginal sacrospinous colpopexy can be performed together with vaginal hysterectomy, with marked uterovaginal prolapse and vault prolapse. PMID:25648154

  3. Enhanced ultrasonography using a nano/microbubble contrast agent for islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sakata, N; Sax, N; Yoshimatsu, G; Tsuchiya, H; Kato, S; Aoki, T; Ishida, M; Katayose, Y; Egawa, S; Kodama, T; Unno, M

    2015-06-01

    Recent basic and clinical studies have assessed the use of highly sensitive imaging modalities for visualizing transplanted islets. We investigated the utility of enhanced ultrasonography, combined with fluorescent acoustic liposome nano/microbubbles (FALs), for evaluating angiogenesis and the endocrine function of transplanted islets. BALB/c mice were classified into three groups: Diabetic mice that underwent syngeneic islet transplantation into the subrenal capsule and achieved normoglycemia (Tx group); those that failed to achieve normoglycemia (Tx-DM group); and those not receiving any treatment (DM group). Mice were examined by FAL-enhanced high frequency ultrasonography. The echogenicity of the islets increased rapidly within the first minute after injection of FALs and remained at a higher level in the Tx group, while small increases were observed in the other two groups. In histological assessments, fluorescently stained erythrocytes could be seen in and around the transplanted islets, indicating that the transplanted islets were enhanced by infusion of FALs via vessel networks between the engrafted islets and tissue. Furthermore, the echogenicity correlated significantly with endocrine parameters, including blood glucose (BG), serum insulin, and the BG change in the glucose tolerance test. In conclusion, the echogenicity of the islets under FAS-enhanced ultrasonosonography correlated with the endocrine status of transplanted islets. PMID:25846610

  4. Transvaginal 3D Image-Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Robert; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a transvaginal image-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) device using piezocomposite HIFU array technology, and commercially-available ultrasound imaging. Potential applications include treatment of uterine fibroids and abnormal uterine bleeding. The HIFU transducer was an annular phased array, with a focal length range of 30-60 mm, an elliptically-shaped aperture of 35×60 mm, and an operating frequency of 3 MHz. A pillow-shaped bag with water circulation will be used for coupling the HIFU energy into the tissue. An intra-cavity imaging probe (C9-5, Philips) was integrated with the HIFU array such that the focal axis of the HIFU transducer was within the image plane. The entire device will be covered by a gel-filled condom when inserted in the vaginal cavity. To control it, software packages were developed in the LabView programming environment. An imaging algorithm processed the ultrasound image to remove noise patterns due to the HIFU signal. The device will be equipped with a three-dimensional tracking system, using a six-degrees-of-freedom articulating arm. Necrotic lesions were produced in a tissue-mimicking phantom and a turkey breast sample for all focal lengths. Various HIFU doses allow various necrotic lesion shapes, including thin ellipsoidal, spherical, wide cylindrical, and teardrop-shaped. Software control of the device allows multiple foci to be activated sequentially for desired lesion patterns. Ultrasound imaging synchronization can be achieved using hardware signals obtained from the imaging system, or software signals determined empirically for various imaging probes. The image-guided HIFU device will provide a valuable tool in visualization of uterine fibroid tumors for the purposes of planning and subsequent HIFU treatment of the tumor, all in a 3D environment. The control system allows for various lesions of different shapes to be optimally positioned in the tumor to cover the entire tumor volume. Real-time ultrasound imaging for guidance and monitoring of HIFU treatment provides an effective method for outpatient-based procedures.

  5. Renal artery stenosis: evaluation with colour duplex ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Riehl; H. Schmitt; D. Bongartz; D. Bergmann; H. G. Sieberth

    1997-01-01

    colour duplex ultrasonography ( US ) of the intrarenal artery occlusion. vessels (interlobar arteries) were performed in 214 Various diagnostic methods are available for identi- patients (53.2±14.1 years) with severe arterial hyper- fication of RAS, with intraarterial angiography as the tension. Angiography was used as 'gold standard' in gold standard for morphological visualization of uni- the diagnosis of RAS and

  6. Molecular imaging of cardiovascular disease with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan R. Lindner

    2009-01-01

    Techniques for noninvasive imaging of specific disease-related molecular changes are being developed to enhance diagnosis and therapeutic decision making in the clinical setting, and to facilitate research efforts. Molecular imaging with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography relies on the detection of the acoustic signal produced by microbubble or nanoparticle agents that are targeted to sites of disease. This Review describes the basis for

  7. Diagnostic utility of cholescintigraphy and ultrasonography in acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Burrell, M.I.; Cahow, C.E.; Caride, V.

    1981-04-01

    When faced with a patient with possible acute cholecystitis, technetium-99m-HIDA scintigraphy should be the primary diagnostic procedure performed. If scintigraphy reveals a normal gallbladder, acute cholecystitis is excluded. If the scintigram fails to visualize the gallbladder, ultrasonography is deemed advisable to exclude potential false-positive scintigrams and confirm the presence of cholelithiasis.

  8. Breast cancer measurements with magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, and mammography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter L. Davis; Melinda J. Staiger; Kathleen B. Harris; Marie A. Ganott; Jolita Klementaviciene; Kenneth S. McCarty; Hector Tobon

    1996-01-01

    Summary Background: Accurate measurement of the size of breast cancers becomes more important as breast cancer therapy advances. This study reports the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonography and mammography for measuring the largest breast cancer diameter in comparison to the pathology measurement.

  9. Ultrasonography of laryngeal masses in six cats and one dog.

    PubMed

    Rudorf, H; Brown, P

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasonography of laryngeal abnormalities in small animals allows the identification of laryngeal masses because of the resulting distortion of normal structural/anatomical relationships. It also allows fine-needle aspirates to be taken with minimal risk of causing hemorrhage or edema affecting the already narrowed laryngeal lumen. Findings in six cats and one dog with laryngeal abnormalities are described. PMID:9771595

  10. Ultrasonography of chronic tendon injuries in the groin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Kälebo; Jon Karlsson; Leif Sward; Lars Peterson

    1992-01-01

    Ultrasonography was used in the diagnosis of 36 pa tients with chronic groin pain localized to the tendons of the rectus abdominis, rectus femoris, adductor mus cles, hamstring muscles, and the gluteal muscles. Ab normal findings, such as focal sonolucent areas and discontinuity of tendon fibers, that are indicative of nonhealed partial ruptures were found in 28 patients. These findings

  11. Factors associated with the differential in actual gestational age and gestational age predicted from transrectal ultrasonography in pregnant dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, A M; Ryan, D P; Berry, D P

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine (1) how gestational age predicted using transrectal ultrasonography related to actual gestational age derived as the number of days from the most recent artificial insemination date, (2) what factors, if any, were associated with the differential between the two measures, and (3) the association between this differential in gestational age and the likelihood of subsequent pregnancy loss, stillbirth, or calving dystocia. The data set contained 7340 ultrasound records from 6805 Holstein Friesian dairy cows in 175 herds. Ultrasonography assessment underestimated gestational age relative to days since last service by 0.51 days (standard error [SE]: 0.040), although the differential was less during embryonic development phase (i.e., ?42 days of gestation; mean overestimation of 0.31 days) versus fetal development phase (i.e., >42 days of gestation; mean underestimation of 0.81 days). Predicted calving date calculated from ultrasonography was 1.41 days (SE: 0.040) later than the actual subsequent calving date and was, on average, 0.52 days later than predicted calving date, assuming a gestation length of 282 days. Parity of the dam (P < 0.05), stage of pregnancy (P < 0.001), and sex of the calf born (P < 0.001) were all associated with the differential in gestational age based on ultrasonography versus days since last service. No obvious trend among parities was evident in the difference between the methods in predicting gestational age. Ultrasonography underestimated gestational age by 0.83 (SE: 0.15) days in parity 5+ cows and underestimated gestational age by 0.41 (SE: 0.14) days in the first-parity cows. Relative to gestational age predicted from the most recent service, ultrasonography underestimated gestational age by 0.75 (SE: 0.13) days for heifer fetuses and underestimated gestational age by 0.36 (SE: 0.13) days for bull fetuses. The heritability of the differential in gestational age between the methods of prediction was low 0.05 (SE: 0.022), corroborating heritability estimates for most cow reproductive traits. Overestimation of gestational age using ultrasonography was associated with an increased likelihood of pregnancy loss (P < 0.001). Gender of calf born (P < 0.001), sire breed of calf (P < 0.001), and parity (P < 0.001) were all associated with gestation length. Gestation length was 1.27 days longer (SE: 0.01) for bull calves compared to heifer calves. Calves from beef sires had a longer gestation length than calves from dairy sires, and older parity cows had a longer gestation length than younger cows. The results highlight factors associated with differences in gestational age obtained from ultrasonography and insemination data and illustrate the value of ultrasonography for the prediction of calving date and pregnancy loss. PMID:25933583

  12. Prenatal Diagnosis of Sacrococcygeal Teratoma Using Two and Three-Dimensional Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Livia Teresa Moreira; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Martins, Marília da Glória

    2012-01-01

    Sacrococcygeal teratoma accounts for half of all fetal tumors, with a prevalence of 1?:?40,000 births. It is believed to originate from pluripotent cells in Hensen's nodule. Although most are benign, they are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates because the fetus develops congestive heart failure and hydrops. Factors leading to poor prognosis include solid components in the mass, and hydrops diagnosed before the 30th week. A case of prenatal sacrococcygeal teratoma diagnosed using B-mode and color Doppler two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS) is described, in which three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS) enabled characterization of the extent of fetal lesions and allowed the parents to understand the pathological condition better. A 20-year-old primigravida was referred with a solid mass diagnosed in the lumbosacral spine. Examinations performed at our institution revealed pregnancy of 23 weeks and 4 days, with a female fetus presenting a bulky solid mass with cystic components and calcifications, measuring 7.7 × 9.1 × 12.2?cm, starting from the sacral region, with internal flow seen on color Doppler. A new ultrasound confirmed fetal death at 25 weeks and 4 days. Postnatal findings confirmed the diagnosis of sacrococcygeal teratoma. 3DUS can be used in cases of sacrococcygeal teratoma to assess the development of tumor during the prenatal and to allow better understanding of this anomaly by the parents. PMID:22924141

  13. Accuracy of screening compression ultrasonography and clinical examination for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis after total hip or knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, K. Sue; Anderson, David R.; Gross, Michael; Petrie, David; Leighton, Ross; Stanish, William; Alexander, David; Mitchell, Michael; Mason, William; Flemming, Bruce; Fairhurst-Vaughan, Marlene; Gent, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Objective To determine whether compression ultrasonography or clinical examination should be considered as screening tests for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after total hip or knee arthroplasty in patients receiving warfarin prophylaxis postoperatively. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting A single tertiary care orthopedic centre. Patients One hundred and eleven patients who underwent elective total hip or knee arthroplasty were enrolled. Postoperatively the warfarin dose was adjusted daily to maintain the international normalized ratio between 1.8 and 2.5. Eighty-six patients successfully completed the study protocol. Intervention Before they were discharged from hospital, patients were assessed for DVT by clinical examination, bilateral compression ultrasonography of the proximal venous system and bilateral contrast venography. Results DVT was found in 29 patients (34%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 24% to 45%), and 6 patients (7%; 95% CI 3% to 15%) had proximal DVT. DVT developed in 18 (40%) of 45 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty and in 11 (27%) of 41 patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty. The sensitivity of compression ultrasonography for the diagnosis of proximal DVT was 83% (95% CI 36% to 99%) and the specificity was 98% (95% CI 91% to 99%). The positive predictive value of compression ultrasonography was 71%. In contrast, clinical examination for DVT had a sensitivity of 11% (95% CI 2% to 28%) and a positive predictive value of 25%. Conclusions DVT is a common complication after total hip or knee arthroplasty. Compression ultrasonography appears to be a relatively accurate noninvasive test for diagnosing postoperative proximal DVT. In contrast, clinical examination is a very insensitive test. Whether routine use of screening compression ultrasonography will reduce the morbidity of venous thromboembolism after joint arthroplasty requires confirmation in a prospective trial involving long-term follow-up of patients. PMID:9793503

  14. Transvaginal/Transumbilical Hybrid—NOTES—Versus 3-Trocar Needlescopic Cholecystectomy: Short-term Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Knuth, Jürgen; Cerasani, Nicola; Sauerwald, Axel; Lefering, Rolf; Heiss, Markus Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective: For cholecystectomy, both the needlescopic cholecystectomy (NC) 3-trocar technique using 2 to 3 mm trocars and the umbilical-assisted transvaginal cholecystectomy (TVC) technique have found their way into clinical routine. This study compares these 2 techniques in female patients who are in need of an elective cholecystectomy. Background: Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a surgical concept permitting scarless intra-abdominal operations through natural orifices, such as the vagina. Because of the lack of an adequately powered trial, we designed this first randomized controlled study for the comparison of TVC and NC. Methods: This prospective, randomized, nonblinded, single-center trial evaluates the safety and effectiveness of TVC (intervention), compared with NC (control) in female patients with symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. The primary endpoint was intensity of pain until the morning of postoperative day (POD) 2. Secondary outcomes were among others intra- and postoperative complications, procedural time, amount of analgesics used, pain intensity until POD 10, duration of hospital stay, satisfaction with the aesthetic result, and quality of life on POD 10 as quantified with the Eypasch Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). Results: Between February 2010 and June 2012, 40 patients were randomly assigned to the interventional or control group. All patients completed follow-up. Procedural time, length of postoperative hospital stay, and the rate of intra- and postoperative complications were similar in the 2 groups. However, significant advantages were found for the transvaginal access regarding pain until POD 2, but also until POD 10 (P = 0.043 vs P = 0.010) despite significantly less use of peripheral analgesics (P = 0.019). In the TVC group, patients were significantly more satisfied with the aesthetic result (P < 0.001) and had a significantly better GIQLI (P = 0.028). Conclusions: Although comparable in terms of safety, TVC caused less pain, increased satisfaction with the aesthetic result, and improved postoperative quality of life in the short term. PMID:24108196

  15. Clinical, laboratory and ultrasonography features of proven human fascioliasis.

    PubMed

    Haseeb, Ahmed N; El-Shazly, Atef M; Arafa, Magdy A S; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2003-08-01

    Examination of twenty parasitologically proven human cases of fascioliasis showed the following clinical, laboratory and ultrasonography results: (1) Both sexes are susceptible to fascioliasis. The smallest one was a child 3-year old. (2) The most important clinical manifestations are: a- abdominal distention and flatulence (30%), b- right upper quadrant pains (25%), colicky abdominal pains (25%), d- pallor (25%), and etympanitic abdomen (25%). Nevertheless, 15% of the patients showed no symptoms. (3) The most significant items in the CBC and liver function tests are: a- significantly high eosinophilia, b-high alkaline phosphatase, and c- low haemoglobin. Besides, two fascioliasis patients had high serum bilirubin. (4) Ultrasonography diagnosed only nine fascioliasis patients (45%). The result was critically discussed. PMID:14964655

  16. Transrectal ultrasonography of anorectal diseases: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Ju

    2015-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) has been widely accepted as a popular imaging modality for Epub ahead of print evaluating the lower rectum, anal sphincters, and pelvic floor in patients with various anorectal diseases. It provides excellent visualization of the layers of the rectal wall and of the anatomy of the anal canal. TRUS is an accurate tool for the staging of primary rectal cancer, especially for early stages. Although magnetic resonance imaging is a modality complementary to TRUS with advantages for evaluating the mesorectum, external sphincter, and deep pelvic inflammation, three-dimensional ultrasonography improves the detection and characterization of perianal fistulas and therefore plays a crucial role in optimal treatment planning. The operator should be familiar with the anatomy of the rectum and pelvic structures relevant to the preoperative evaluation of rectal cancer and other anal canal diseases, and should have technical proficiency in the use of TRUS combined with an awareness of its limitations compared to magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25492891

  17. Liquid Perfluorocarbons as Contrast Agents for Ultrasonography and 19 FMRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raquel Díaz-López; Nicolas Tsapis; Elias Fattal

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are fluorinated compounds that have been used for many years in clinics mainly as gas\\/oxygen carriers\\u000a and for liquid ventilation. Besides this main application, PFCs have also been tested as contrast agents for ultrasonography\\u000a and magnetic resonance imaging since the end of the 1970s. However, most of the PFCs applied as contrast agents for imaging\\u000a were gaseous. This

  18. Endoscopic ultrasonography in the management of pancreatic cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trowers, Eugene A.

    2001-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer diagnosis and management has been enhanced with the application of endoscopic ultrasound. The close proximity of the pancreas to the stomach and duodenum permits detailed imaging with intraluminal ultrasonography and staging of pancreatic tumors. EUS directed fine needle aspiration and injection may be successfully employed with patients with pancreatic cancer. Expandable metal stents can palliate patients with obstruction of the pancreaticobiliary tract as well as the gastroduodenum. The efficacy of EUS in the management of pancreatic cancer is critically reviewed.

  19. Ovarian and uterine ultrasonography in pediatric patients. Pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    As?voaie, Carmen; Fufezan, Otilia; Co?arc?, Mihaela

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasonography represents the method of choice in the investigation of the female pediatric pelvis. While the investigation itself poses no real challenges, an accurate interpretation of the images must take into consideration the specific features of the ovaries and uterus at certain ages. The present essay aims to demonstrate the normal appearance of the female pelvis and the changes that occur during the various stages of development as well as the some of the most common pathological conditions. PMID:24791848

  20. Carotid ultrasonography for detection of vascular abnormalities in hypertensive children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Sorof; Andrei V. Alexandrov; Zsolt Garami; Jennifer L. Turner; Robert E. Grafe; Dejian Lai; Ronald J. Portman

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether hypertension and overweight status are associated with increased carotid intimal-medial thickness (cIMT) in children, vascular ultrasonography was performed in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients ( n=53) and normotensive controls ( n=33). Hypertensive subjects were identified either by referral or by systematic school-based hypertension screening. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure above the 95th percentile based on current Task

  1. Ultrasonography of the omasum in 30 Saanen goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ueli Braun; Désirée Jacquat

    2011-01-01

    Background  Primary diseases of the omasum are uncommon in goats, although the omasum may be involved in various gastrointestinal disorders.\\u000a Examination of the caprine omasum via ultrasonography requires a good understanding of the normal appearance of the organ.\\u000a However, in contrast to cattle, there is a lack of reference information on this topic in goats. Thus, the goal of the present

  2. Does Prebiopsy, Nonsterile Ultrasonography Gel Affect Biopsy-Site Asepsis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamil Gurel; Oguz Karabay; Safiye Gurel; Charles Hildebolt

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of nonsterile gel, prior to antiseptic procedures in ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous biopsies, results in contamination of the biopsy site. Materials and Methods. Patients referred for US-guided percutaneous biopsies were included in this study. Transmission material used for US evaluation before biopsy-site antiseptic procedures were performed

  3. Ultrasonography of the pancreas. 4. Contrast-enhanced imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D’Onofrio; G. Zamboni; N. Faccioli; P. Capelli; R. Pozzi Mucelli

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) has lead to great developments in the diagnostic capabilities\\u000a of ultrasound. Second generation contrast media, characterized by harmonic responses at low mechanical index of the ultrasound\\u000a beam, have already proven usefulness in the study of the liver but other abdominal organs can take advantage from the dynamic\\u000a study during continuous ultrasonographic scans. The dynamic

  4. Muscle ultrasonography and electromyography correlation for evaluation of floppy infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nur Ayd?nl?; Bar?? Baslo; Mine Çal??kan; Mustafa Erta?; Meral Özmen

    2003-01-01

    Floppiness in an infant may have a number of different etiologies from disorders of the brain to spinal cord lesions, neuropathies, neuromuscular junction disorders and myopathies.In this study we aimed to investigate the correlation of muscle ultrasonography (US) and electromyography (EMG) in the diagnosis of floppy infants.The study encompassed 41 floppy infants aged 2–24 months. The muscle US and EMG

  5. Image-guided ultrasonography for recurrent cystic gliomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Enchev; O. Bozinov; D. Miller; W. Tirakotai; S. Heinze; L. Benes; H. Bertalanffy; U. Sure

    2006-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Background. Long-term survival of patients with recurrent gliomas depends on the extent of resection. Thus, the desirability of an intra-operative\\u000a imaging modality that can augment the resection extension without affecting vital surrounding structures is more than obvious.\\u000a It was the aim of the present study to evaluate a possible benefit of image-guided intra-operative ultrasonography for the\\u000a surgery of recurrent

  6. Usefulness of ultrasonography for the evaluation of cervical lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the role of ultrasonography for differentiating cervical lymphadenopathy due to tuberculosis, metastasis and lymphoma. Methods Ultrasonography of the neck nodes was carried out prior to FNAC in 192 patients using a 10 mHz linear transducer. The sonographic findings were then correlated with the definitive tissue diagnosis obtained by FNAC or lymph node biopsy. Results The most significant distinguishing feature was strong internal echoes seen in 84% of tubercular lymph nodes. This finding was found in only 11% of metastatic nodes and absent in lymphomatous nodes. The other findings such as L/S ratio, irregular margins, hypoechoic center, fusion tendency, peripheral halo and absent hilus were helpful in differentiating reactive from diseased nodes but showed considerable overlap in the 3 groups of tubercular, metastatic and lymphoma lymph nodes. Conclusion Ultrasonography is noninvasive and can give useful clues in the diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy. It should be interpreted in conjunction with FNAC result. Ideally ultra-sonographic guided FNAC should be obtained from the sonographically most representative node. In FNAC indeterminate cases, sonographic features may obviate the need for an invasive lymph node biopsy. PMID:21356049

  7. Sentinel Node Biopsy for the Head and Neck Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography Combined with Indocyanine Green Fluorescence in Animal Models: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Dai; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Moro, Yorihisa; Kimura, Toru; Hamanoue, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Takehiro; Yamauchi, Koichi; Saito, Koichiro; Sugasawa, Masashi; Kohno, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Sentinel node navigation surgery is gaining popularity in oral cancer. We assessed application of sentinel lymph node navigation surgery to pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers by evaluating the combination of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and indocyanine green fluorescence in animal models. Methods This was a prospective, nonrandomized, experimental study in rabbit and swine animal models. A mixture of indocyanine green and Sonazoid was used as the tracer. The tracer mixture was injected into the tongue, larynx, or pharynx. The sentinel lymph nodes were identified transcutaneously by infra-red camera and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Detection time and extraction time of the sentinel lymph nodes were measured. The safety of the tracer mixture in terms of mucosal reaction was evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. Results Sentinel lymph nodes were detected transcutaneously by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography alone. The number of sentinel lymph nodes detected was one or two. Despite observation of contrast enhancement of Sonazoid for at least 90 minutes, the number of sentinel lymph nodes detected did not change. The average extraction time of sentinel lymph nodes was 4.8 minutes. Indocyanine green fluorescence offered visual information during lymph node biopsy. The safety of the tracer was confirmed by absence of laryngeal edema both macro and microscopically. Conclusions The combination method of indocyanine green fluorescence and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for detecting sentinel lymph nodes during surgery for head and neck cancer seems promising, especially for pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer. Further clinical studies to confirm this are warranted. PMID:26161800

  8. An attempt to bridge muscle architecture dynamics and its instantaneous rate of force development using ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Li, Jizhou; Zhou, Yongjin; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Li, Guanglin

    2015-08-01

    Muscle force output is an essential index in rehabilitation assessment or physical exams, and could provide considerable insights for various applications such as load monitoring and muscle assessment in sports science or rehabilitation therapy. Besides direct measurement of force output using a dynamometer, electromyography has earlier been used in several studies to quantify muscle force as an indirect means. However, its spatial resolution is easily compromised as a summation of the action potentials from neighboring motor units of electrode site. To explore an alternative method to indirectly estimate the muscle force output, and with better muscle specificity, we started with an investigation on the relationship between architecture dynamics and force output of triceps surae. The muscular architecture dynamics is captured in ultrasonography sequences and estimated using a previously reported motion estimation method. Then an indicator named as the dorsoventrally averaged motion profile (DAMP) is employed. The performance of force output is represented by an instantaneous version of the rate of force development (RFD), namely I-RFD. From experimental results on ten normal subjects, there were significant correlations between the I-RFD and DAMP for triceps surae, both normalized between 0 and 1, with the sum of squares error at 0.0516±0.0224, R-square at 0.7929±0.0931 and root mean squared error at 0.0159±0.0033. The statistical significance results were less than 0.01. The present study suggested that muscle architecture dynamics extracted from ultrasonography during contraction is well correlated to the I-RFD and it can be a promising option for indirect estimation of muscle force output. PMID:25911147

  9. A Retrospective Comparison of Abdominal Sacrocolpopexy with Burch Colposuspension versus Sacrospinous Fixation with Transvaginal Needle Suspension for the Management of Vaginal Vault Prolapse and Coexisting Stress Incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. M. Sze; T. Roat; M. M. Karram

    1999-01-01

    :   The objective of this study was to compare the surgical outcome of abdominal sacrocolpopexy and Burch colposuspension with\\u000a sacrospinous fixation and transvaginal needle suspension in the management of vaginal vault prolapse and coexisting stress\\u000a incontinence. One hundred and seventeen women with vaginal vault prolapse and coexisting stress incontinence were surgically\\u000a managed over a 7-year period. The first 61 consecutive

  10. Transvaginal repair of genital prolapse: preliminary results of a new tension-free vaginal mesh (Prolift™ technique)—a case series multicentric study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Fatton; J. Amblard; P. Debodinance; M. Cosson; B. Jacquetin

    2007-01-01

    Our goal was to report the preliminary results of a transvaginal mesh repair of genital prolapse using the Prolift™ system.\\u000a This retrospective multicentric study includes 110 patients. All patients had a stage 3 (at the hymen) or stage 4 (beyond\\u000a the hymen) prolapse. Total mesh was used in 59 patients (53.6%), an isolated anterior mesh in 22 patients (20%) and

  11. Transvaginal paravaginal repair of high-grade cystocele central and lateral defects with concomitant suburethral sling: Report of early results, outcomes, and patient satisfaction with a new technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larissa V. Rodríguez; Raviender Bukkapatnam; Sovrin M. Shah; Shlomo Raz

    2005-01-01

    Baden-Walker classification grade III–IV (pelvic organ prolapse quantification [POP-Q] system stage III–IV) cystocele is associated with a constellation of abnormalities including urethral hypermobility, lateral defect, central defect, and concomitant vault and posterior wall prolapse. We describe a new transvaginal paravaginal technique to correct this group of abnormalities and report on our early results. We prospectively evaluated patients with high-grade cystocele

  12. [A case of intrarenal hematoma: role of ultrasonography in the early diagnosis of a possible complication of anticoagulant therapy].

    PubMed

    Dugo, Mauro; La Torre, Ermanno; Farneti, Fabrizio; Caberlotto, Adriana; Pasi, Alessandra; Puggia, Riccarda; Gatti, Pierluigi; Maresca, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Uremia associated with anticoagulant therapy is a high risk factor for bleeding complications in patients undergoing hemodialysis. We report a case of intrarenal hematoma arising in a uremic patient treated with warfarin. The hematoma was rapidly diagnosed by ultrasonography of the abdomen and treated with embolization. Our experience confirms that the availability of an ultrasound facility within the renal unit allows better assessment of our patients, also in the management of the most fearsome and rare complications. Moreover, it strengthens the evidence that uremic patients are at high risk of bleeding complications when treated with oral anticoagulants. PMID:23117741

  13. Renal angiomyolipoma: definitive diagnosis by ultrasonography and computerized tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Daughtry, J.D.; Rodan, B.A.

    1985-02-01

    Angiomyolipomas are benign tumors composed of blood vessels, smooth muscle, and mature, adult-type fat cells with predominance of one of the three elements. These tumors, therefore, represent a true hamartoma. Previously, the diagnosis was rarely made preoperatively, and surgical resection of the kidney was done. This would have presented a management dilemma for our patient, who was seen for hematuria and a solid mass in her solitary kidney. Ultrasonography and computerized tomography can provide a specific diagnosis, and more conservative therapy can thus be instituted. 6 references, 2 figures.

  14. Does Prebiopsy, Nonsterile Ultrasonography Gel Affect Biopsy-Site Asepsis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamil Gurel; Oguz Karabay; Safiye Gurel; Charles Hildebolt

    2008-01-01

    Purpose  The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of nonsterile gel, prior to antiseptic procedures in\\u000a ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous biopsies, results in contamination of the biopsy site.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Patients referred for US-guided percutaneous biopsies were included in this study. Transmission material used for US evaluation\\u000a before biopsy-site antiseptic procedures were performed was either

  15. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography of Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Chemoembolisation Using Drug-Eluting Beads: A Pilot Study Focused on Sustained Tumor Necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hippocrates Moschouris; Katerina Malagari; Marina Georgiou Papadaki; Ioannis Kornezos; Dimitrios Matsaidonis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and the sustained antitumor effect\\u000a of drug-eluting beads used for transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ten\\u000a patients with solitary, unresectable HCC underwent CEUS before, 2 days after, and 35 to 40 days after TACE using a standard\\u000a dose (4 ml) of drug-eluting beads (DC Beads; Biocompatibles,

  16. Increased wall thickness using ultrasonography is associated with inflammation in an animal model of experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lied, Gülen Arslan; Milde, Anne Marita; Nylund, Kim; Mujic, Maja; Grimstad, Tore; Hausken, Trygve; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2012-01-01

    Experimentally induced colitis is used in animals to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease. When following disease course and treatment effects, it should be possible to perform repeated measurements without harming the animals. This pilot study was performed to investigate whether transabdominal ultrasound using a clinical scanner could be used on rats to demonstrate bowel inflammation in an experimental colitis model. Colitis was induced by either 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days or a single dose of intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Using ultrasonography, wall thickness of distal colon, cecum, and small bowel was recorded prior to and after DSS, and prior to, 2, and 7 days after TNBS. Blood (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha) and fecal samples (HemoFEC occult blood) were taken from each group on the same days as sonography. Thereafter, rats were killed and specimens for histology were taken. Wall thickness of distal colon, not of cecum or small bowel, increased significantly after 7 days of DSS, and wall thickness of both distal colon and small bowel increased on day 2 and 7 after TNBS. TNF-alpha increased after 7 days in the latter group only. There was a significant correlation between ultrasonographic measurements and combined histology score of distal colon in the DSS group. HemoFEC was also positive in accordance with sonographic and histological features. Increased intestinal wall thickness in response to both DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis was able to be visualized by transabdominal sonography. Moreover, ultrasound findings, occult blood sampling, and histological findings supported each other, indicating that ultrasonography can be used to assess inflammation in a rat experimental model. PMID:23055765

  17. Transvaginal cervical length and tobacco use in Appalachian women: association with increased risk for spontaneous preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Findley, Joseph; Seybold, Dara J; Broce, Mike; Yadav, Dolly; Calhoun, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    Currently ACOG recommends that a mid-term screening strategy may be considered to identify short cervix in low risk populations in an effort to prevent preterm birth. Vaginal progesterone is recommended for women with a cervical length ?20 mm. Cerclage is recommended for women with prior spontaneous preterm birth who are already receiving progesterone supplementition and CL is <25 mm. This study examined risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) <35 weeks among a general obstetrical population prior to these ACOG recommendations. However, cervical cerclage was a possible intervention. Study population included 1,074 patients from 1 Jan 2007-30 Jun 2008 receiving mid-trimester transvaginal ultrasounds during prenatal care at a tertiary medical center clinic. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve cutoff optimal value was ?34 mm, (n=224), corresponding to 8.9% SPB with shortened cervices compared to 1.4% in patients with normal cervices (>34 mm; n=850; p<0.001 (Area Under the Curve (AUC) 76.6, p<0.001). Cervical lengths <30 mm had 12 times the risk of SPB (p<0.001) while 30-34 mm had 5 times (p=0.005). Tobacco use (?10 cigarettes per day), p=0.030, and low BMI, p=0.034, had additive effect. Shortened cervical length during routine screening independently predicted SPB while heavy smoking with shortened cervix during pregnancy doubled risk compared to shortened cervix alone. PMID:26050294

  18. Ageing Affects the Accuracy of Duplex Ultrasonography in Grading Carotid Artery Stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floris H. B. M. Schreuder; Werner H. Mess; Arnold P. G. Hoeks

    2009-01-01

    Background: Duplex ultrasonography is frequently used to select patients who are eligible for carotid endarterectomy by using local blood flow velocities to quantify the degree of internal carotid artery stenosis. However, ageing affects flow velocities and might hence influence the accuracy of duplex ultrasonography, as explored in the present study. Methods: We determined peak-systolic (PSV) and end-diastolic (EDV) blood flow

  19. Anatomy of the eustachian tube as demonstrated by endoluminal ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Helweg, G; Frauscher, F; Sprinzl, G M; Gotwald, T; Völklein, C; Knapp, R J; Sögner, P F; Maurer, H; Frede, T E; zur Nedden, D

    1996-10-01

    Using a new application of the endoluminal approach, we were able to demonstrate the sonographic anatomy of the eustachian tube in vitro and in vivo and correlate it with the plastic-embedded specimen. Five adult normocephalic cadavers, two patients, and one specimen especially prepared for embedding in plastic were examined. A specifically developed device was used to insert the ultrasound transducer employing an endo-oral approach. The investigation was performed using an intravascular ultrasound unit. In all cases the tube could be visualized in its entirety and relevant anatomic structures identified and compared with the specimen at the corresponding levels. The deeper layers, including the paratubal structures and the mucosa, could be distinguished for the first time by means of endoluminal ultrasonography. Now that endoluminal ultrasonography has revealed this anatomic information, further studies will be able to gauge the clinical efficacy of our method in cases of ventilatory, drainage, and clearance problems. The images showed no difference between the structures in vitro and in vivo, and the vivo examination was even easier than the in vitro one owing to better tissue turgor. PMID:8887238

  20. Ultrasonography reveals nail thickening in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Gisondi, P; Idolazzi, L; Girolomoni, G

    2012-11-01

    Nail psoriasis is usually investigated and diagnosed by clinical examination. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive imaging technique for studying soft tissue involvement. The objective of this study was to estimate nail involvement in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis by ultrasonography. Prevalence, clinical type and severity of nail involvement according to nail psoriasis and severity index (NAPSI) were investigated in 138 patients with psoriasis. The thickness of the plate and bed of the fingernails was measured in 54 patients with psoriasis, 46 healthy controls and 37 patients with chronic eczema, using an ultrasonographic system equipped with a frequency transducer of 18 MHz. The prevalence of nail psoriasis was 73 % (102 out of 138). Onycholysis and thickening of the nail plate were the most common clinical type affecting 56 and 50 % of patients, respectively; splinter haemorrhages was the less common involving 10 % of patients. The mean NAPSI score was 18.4 ± 17.5 (SD; range 0-107). The thickness of fingernail plate and bed was significantly higher in patients with psoriasis with nail disease compared to healthy controls and patients with chronic eczema (p < 0.001). There was a linear correlation between NAPSI and plate and bed nail thickness (r = 0.52 and r = 0.38, p = 0.001). Increased nail plate and bed thickness was observed also in patients with psoriasis without clinically apparent nail involvement. In conclusion, thickening of the nail is a common feature of nail psoriasis also in patients without clinically apparent nail involvement. PMID:23011659

  1. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis and management of patients with inflammatory arthritides.

    PubMed

    Epis, Oscar; Paoletti, Franco; d'Errico, Tito; Favalli, Ennio; Garau, Pietro; Mancarella, Luana; Pomponio, Giovanni; Sandri, Gilda; Scioscia, Crescenzio; Selvi, Enrico; Tirri, Enrico

    2014-02-01

    In primary care and internal medicine settings clinicians are often reluctant to take advantage of the resources that ultrasonography (US) offers as a diagnostic tool in the initial management of patients with inflammatory arthritis, despite the recognised importance of an accurate and timely diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and of early referral to ensure optimal patient management. Both grey-scale (GS) and power Doppler (PD) imaging have been extensively used in early detection of synovitis and bone erosions in patients with inflammatory arthritides. We reviewed the main data on the clinical use of US in the initial management of patients with inflammatory arthritis, focusing on RA diagnosis in patients with undifferentiated arthritis, prediction of disease severity, differential diagnoses and assessment of synovitis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The role of US in assessing treatment response and monitoring disease activity in clinical remission was also briefly evaluated. The reliability of US as a diagnostic tool in rheumatological diseases has greatly advanced in the last years and the use of this imaging technique, in association with conventional assessments such as physical examination and serological tests, should be considered more often also in primary care settings. PMID:24041708

  2. Hysterosalpingography and ultrasonography findings of female genital tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Hardik Uresh; Sannananja, Bhagya; Baheti, Akshay Dwarka; Udare, Ashlesha Satish; Badhe, Padma Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Genital tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of female infertility in the world, especially in developing countries. Majority of infertility cases are due to involvement of the fallopian tubes (92%–100%), endometrial cavity (50%), and ovaries (10%–30%); cervical and vulvovaginal TB are uncommon. Genital TB has characteristic radiological appearances based on the stage of the disease process (acute inflammatory or chronic fibrotic) and the organ of involvement. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) and ultrasonography (US) remain the main imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of genital TB. HSG is the primary modality for evaluating uterine, fallopian tube, and peritubal involvement and also helps in evaluating tubal patency. US, on the other hand, allows simultaneous evaluation of ovarian and extrapelvic involvement. PMID:25538038

  3. Intraoperative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of normal canine jejunum.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, David A; O'Brien, Robert T; Wallace, Johna D; Klocke, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Nine normal juvenile dogs were evaluated with direct jejunal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography via midline celiotomy. Three different doses of ultrasound contrast medium (Definity®) were injected through a peripheral venous catheter. Time-intensity curves were used to calculate baseline, time to initial rise, inflow slope, time-to-peak, peak intensity (PI), and outflow slope for each administered dose. PI was directly proportional to dose. Outflow slope was similar for all patients, independent of dose. The most favorable images were acquired with a dose of 0.030 ml/kg given as a rapid intravenous manual bolus. The technique and normal jejunal perfusion pattern described herein may provide useful data for evaluation of intestinal vascular, inflammatory, and neoplastic disease in the dog. PMID:21388474

  4. Interventional ultrasonography of the chest: Techniques and indications

    PubMed Central

    Almolla, J.; Balconi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Thoracic ultrasonography can be used for diagnostic purposes as well as a guide for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. When the lesion or fluid collection has been located and the patient properly positioned, the angle of the needle is identified with respect to the transducer. The insertion tract should transgress the smallest possible area of aerated parenchyma. The needle can be introduced with a free-hand technique or with the aid of a needle guide. Correct planning of the procedure reduces intervention time and decreases the risk of complications. The main indications are superficial masses that require biopsy, pleural and parenchymal lesions formerly biopsied with CT or fluoroscopic guidance, and fluid collections that need to be drained. Ultrasound, thanks to its widespread use, simple execution, and low costs, represents a safe, manageable guide for thoracic interventions. PMID:23396954

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of Clinical Tests for Morton's Neuroma Compared with Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Devendra; Venkatesan, Muralidharan; Bhatt, Raj; Bhatia, Maneesh

    2014-11-26

    The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 7 clinical tests for Morton's neuroma (MN) compared with ultrasonography (US). Forty patients (54 feet) were diagnosed with MN using predetermined clinical criteria. These patients were subsequently referred for US, which was performed by a single, experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. The clinical test results were compared against the US findings. MN was confirmed on US at the site of clinical diagnosis in 53 feet (98%). The operational characteristics of the clinical tests performed were as follows: thumb index finger squeeze (96% sensitivity, 96% accuracy), Mulder's click (61% sensitivity, 62% accuracy), foot squeeze (41% sensitivity, 41% accuracy), plantar percussion (37% sensitivity, 36% accuracy), dorsal percussion (33% sensitivity, 26% accuracy), and light touch and pin prick (26% sensitivity, 25% accuracy). No correlation was found between the size of MN on US and the positive clinical tests, except for Mulder's click. The size of MN was significantly larger in patients with a positive Mulder's click (10.9 versus 8.5 mm, p = .016). The clinical assessment was comparable to US in diagnosing MN. The thumb index finger squeeze test was the most sensitive screening test for the clinical diagnosis of MN. PMID:25432459

  6. Diagnosis of subepithelial tumors in the upper gastrointestinal tract by endoscopic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hiroki; Kitano, Masayuki; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2010-08-28

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the most accurate procedure for detecting and diagnosing subepithelial tumors, due to its higher sensitivity and specificity than other imaging modalities. EUS can characterize lesions by providing information on echogenic origin, size, borders, homogeneity, and the presence of echogenic or anechoic foci. Linear echoendoscopes, and recently also electronic radial echoendoscopes, can be used with color Doppler or power Doppler to assess the vascular signals from subepithelial masses, and thus permit the differentiation of vascular structures from cysts, as well as the assessment of the tumor blood supply. However, the diagnostic accuracy of EUS imaging alone has been shown to be low in subepithelial lesions with 3rd and 4th layers. It is also difficult to differentiate exactly between benign and malignant tumors and to gain an accurate picture of histology using EUS. On the other hands, EUS guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can provide samples for cytologic or histologic analysis. Hypoechoic lesions of the 3rd and the 4th EUS layers, more than in 1 cm diameter are recommended, and histologic confirmation using endoscopic submucosal resection or EUS-FNA should be obtained when possible. Therefore, EUS-FNA plays an important role in the clinical management of subepithelial tumors. Furthermore improvements in endoscopic technology are expected to be more useful modalities in differential diagnosis and discrimination between benign and malignant subepithelial tumors. PMID:21160683

  7. The role of chest ultrasonography in the management of respiratory diseases: document II

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chest ultrasonography can be a useful diagnostic tool for respiratory physicians. It can be used to complete and widen the general objective examination also in emergency situations, at the patient’s bedside. The aim of this document is to promote better knowledge and more widespread use of thoracic ultrasound among respiratory physicians in Italy. This document II is focused on advanced approaches to chest ultrasonography especially in diagnosing sonographic interstitial syndrome with physical hypotheses about the genesis of vertical artifacts, differential diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary edema and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, raising diagnostic suspicion of pulmonary embolism, ultrasound characterization of lung consolidations and the use of ultrasonography to guide procedural interventions in pulmonology. Finally, document II focuses on chest ultrasonography as useful diagnostic tool in neonatal and pediatric care. PMID:23937897

  8. Transcutaneous high-intensity focused ultrasonography can cure testicular cancer in solitary testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Kratzik; G. Schatzl; J. Lackner; M. Marberger

    2006-01-01

    ObjectivesTo report the long-term results in 7 patients (including the 5-year results in 3 patients) after high-intensity focused ultrasonography (HIFU) combined with irradiation to treat testicular tumors in a solitary testis.

  9. Four-dimensional ultrasonography of a true knot of the umbilical cord.

    PubMed

    Ramón y Cajal, Carlos López; Martínez, Raquel Ocampo

    2006-10-01

    We describe the prenatal diagnosis of a true knot of the umbilical cord using the "hanging noose" sign. Changes in the tension of the knot, which are related to fetal movements, were studied with 4-dimensional ultrasonography. PMID:17000232

  10. Sex detection of the bovine fetus using linear array real-time ultrasonography 

    E-print Network

    Wideman, Donald

    1990-01-01

    SEX DETECTION OF THE BOVINE FETUS USING LINEAR ARRAY REAL-TINE ULTRASONOGRAPHY A Thesis DONALD W I DEMAN I JR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Veterinary Physiology SEX DETECTION OF THE BOVINE FETUS USING LINEAR ARRAY REAL-TIME ULTRASONOGRAPHY A Thesis by Donald Wideman, Jr. Approved as to style and content by: Duane C. raemer (Chair...

  11. The Role of Power Doppler Ultrasonography as Disease Activity Marker in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bhasin, Shaloo; Cheung, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) occurs early if inflammation is not treated promptly. Treatment targeted to reduce inflammation, in particular, that of synovial inflammation in the joints (synovitis), has been recommended as standard treat-to-target recommendations by rheumatologists. The goal is to achieve disease remission (i.e., no disease activity). Several accepted remission criteria have not always equated to the complete absence of true inflammation. Over the last decade, musculoskeletal ultrasonography has been demonstrated to detect subclinical synovitis not appreciated by routine clinical or laboratory assessments, with the Power Doppler modality allowing clinicians to more readily appreciate true inflammation. Thus, targeting therapy to Power Doppler activity may provide superior outcomes compared with treating to clinical targets alone, making it an attractive marker of disease activity in RA. However, more validation on its true benefits such as its benefits to patients in regard to patient related outcomes and issues with standardized training in acquisition and interpretation of power Doppler findings are required.

  12. Accuracy of Duplex Ultrasonography in Estimation of Severity of Peripheral Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Randall W.; Jump, Mark A.; Spalding, M. Chance; Jenkins, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Duplex ultrasonography (DUS) is a safe, noninvasive method for imaging vasculature when compared with conventional angiography. Our goal is to assess the accuracy of DUS compared with angiography of the lower extremities. We reviewed a total of 373 lesions in 278 patients from July 2005 through June 2010. Patients underwent DUS followed by angiography within 30 days. Peak systolic velocities (PSV) were stratified into one of four categories and compared with the angiographic findings. Seventy-five chronic total occlusions were found. Of the remaining 298 lesions, a significant relationship was found between PSV and degree of angiographic stenosis (p < 0.001). DUS was found to demonstrate a sensitivity of 79.7%, specificity of 79.2%, positive predictive value of 88.2%, and negative predictive value of 66.7% for lesions ? 70%. The 66.7% of the false-negative lesions with the lowest velocities were below the knee joint. DUS of the lower extremities is accurate in determining the degree of stenosis ranging from mild-to-severe disease. Some limitation may exist in estimating the degree of stenosis below the knee. PMID:24436603

  13. The operational characteristics of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of plantar intermetatarsal neuroma.

    PubMed

    Kankanala, Gowtham; Jain, Amar Singh

    2007-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out on 48 patients to correlate preoperative ultrasound findings with postoperative histopathology findings and to assess the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of ultrasound in the diagnosis of Morton's interdigital neuroma. All case sheets of 48 patients operated on between 1997 and 2005 were reviewed in the medical record section of Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, Scotland, so that preoperative ultrasound reports were compared with the postoperative histopathological reports. A statistical analysis of the results was performed. Ultrasonography showed 43 true-positive cases, 1 true-negative case, and 4 false-negative cases out of 48 cases. Histopathology showed 47 true-positive cases and 1 true-negative case; statistical analysis performed on the results showed a sensitivity of 91.48%, a specificity of 100%, and 100% positive and 20% negative predictive values, respectively. In our analysis, the probability that ultrasound will confirm the presence of plantar intermetatarsal neuroma is 91.67%. PMID:17586431

  14. Predicting onset of labor from echogenicity of the cervical gland area on vaginal ultrasonography at term.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Michiko; Fukami, Tekehiko; Asakura, Hirobumi; Takeshita, Toshiyuki

    2014-08-19

    Abstract Background and aim: On vaginal ultrasonography, cervical gland area (CGA) gradually disappears with advancing gestation. This is attributed in part to the echogenicity of the CGA becoming equal to that of the cervical stroma. The present study aimed to assess the usefulness of echogenicity in the CGA at term for predicting the time of spontaneous onset of labor. Methods: The ratio of mean grayscale level (MGL) in the CGA to that in the cervical stroma (CGA/stroma MGL ratio) was estimated as an index of echogenicity in the CGA in women after 36 weeks of gestation (n=190). Using this ratio, time until onset of labor was predicted among women between 37 and 38 weeks (n=104). Results: CGA/stroma MGL ratio increased with advancing gestation, decreasing cervical length (CL), and increasing Bishop score. Univariate logistic analysis indicated that a combination of CL<20 mm and CGA/stroma MGL ratio ?100% predicted onset of labor within a week [odds ratio (OR), 22.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.4-202.0] was even better than short CL alone (OR, 6.8; 95%CI, 1.7-26.7; P=0.006). Stepwise logistic analysis identified that this combination was an only independent predictor (OR, 20.8; 95%CI, 2.3-188.5; P=0.007). Conclusion: The combination of CGA/stroma MGL ratio ?100% and short CL may offer a useful predictor of onset of labor. PMID:25153545

  15. Role of Transthoracic Lung Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changwei; Shen, Weifeng; Feng, Xia; Xu, Yongan; Zhang, Mao

    2015-01-01

    Background Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life-threatening condition. Although computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is the reference standard for diagnosis, its early diagnosis remains a challenge, and the concerns about the radiation exposures further limit the general use of CTPA. The primary aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the overall diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic lung ultrasound (TLS) in the diagnosis of PE. Methods PubMed, Web of science, OvidSP, ProQuest, EBSCO, Cochrane Library and Clinicaltrial.gov were searched systematically. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curves were used to examine the TS performance. The Bayes analysis was used to calculate the post-test probability of PE. Publication bias was assessed with Deeks funnel plot. Results The results indicated that the sensitivity, specificity, PLR and NLR were 0.85 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78 to 0.90), and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.73 to 0.90). And the DOR and HSROC were 28.82 (95% CI, 17.60 to 47.21), 0.91(95% CI, 0.88, 0.93). Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggested that transthoracic lung ultrasonography is helpful in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. Although the application of transthoracic lung ultrasound may change some patients’ diagnostic processes, it is inappropriate to generally use transthoracic ultrasonography in diagnosing pulmonary embolism currently. PMID:26076021

  16. Contrast-Enhanced Endoscopic Ultrasonography for Pancreatic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Kazuki; Nakamura, Yasushi; Kawaji, Yuki; Abe, Hiroko; Nuta, Junya; Tamura, Takashi; Itonaga, Masahiro; Yoshida, Takeichi; Maeda, Hiroki; Maekita, Takao; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Ichinose, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the usefulness of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography (CE-EUS) for histological differentiation of pancreatic tumors. Methods. CE-EUS was performed for consecutive patients having a pancreatic solid lesion, and tumors were classified into three vascular patterns (hypervascular, isovascular, and hypovascular) at two time phases (early-phase and late-phase). Correlation between vascular patterns and histopathology of resected pancreatic cancer (PC) tissues was ascertained. Results. The final diagnoses of 147 examined tumors were PC (n = 109), inflammatory mass (n = 11), autoimmune pancreatitis (n = 9), neuroendocrine tumor (n = 8), and others (n = 10). In late-phase images, 104 of 109 PCs had the hypovascular pattern, for a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 71%, respectively. Of 28 resected PCs, 10 had isovascular, and 18 hypovascular, patterns on the early-phase image. Early-phase isovascular PCs were more likely to be differentiated than were early-phase hypovascular PCs (6 well and 4 moderately differentiated versus 3 well, 14 moderately, and 1 poorly differentiated, P = 0.028). Immunostaining revealed that hypovascular areas of early-phase images reflected heterogeneous tumor cells with fibrous tissue, necrosis, and few vessels. Conclusion. CE-EUS could be useful for distinguishing PC from other solid pancreatic lesions and for histological differentiation of PCs. PMID:26090411

  17. Midcalf ultrasonography for the diagnosis of ruptured Baker's cysts.

    PubMed

    Sato, O; Kondoh, K; Iyori, K; Kimura, H

    2001-01-01

    Clinically significant and palpable enlargement of the gastrocnemio-semimembranosus bursa is known as a Baker's cyst. Baker's cysts may rupture, resulting in a swollen, painful leg that is clinically indistinguishable from acute deep vein thrombosis. For this reason, ruptured Baker's cysts are sometimes called pseudothrombophlebitis. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of ruptured Baker's cysts, and to evaluate the role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of this condition. The hospital records of 106 patients (43 men and 63 women) who were referred to the vascular surgical department at Saitama Medical Center with unilateral or bilateral swollen legs between June 1997 and June 2000 were reviewed retrospectively. The total number of affected limbs was 125, being 52 right legs and 73 left legs. Deep vein thrombosis was the most common cause of swollen legs, being diagnosed in 44.8%. No specific anatomical derangement was found in 39 limbs (31.2%), and these were defined as idiopathic. Lymphedema was also common, being diagnosed in 16 limbs. Ruptured Baker's cysts were observed in three limbs, with an incidence of 2.4%. In all of these patients, a large hypoechoic space was seen behind the calf muscles and this sonolucent area was easily detected by a conventional scanner, being pathognomonic of a ruptured Baker's cyst. PMID:11381504

  18. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography for pancreatobiliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Masayuki; Kamata, Ken; Imai, Hajime; Miyata, Takeshi; Yasukawa, Satoru; Yanagisawa, Akio; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2015-04-01

    The combination of second-generation ultrasound contrast agents and an endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) system with a broad-band transducer has allowed contrast-enhanced harmonic imaging in the field of EUS. In contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CH-EUS), diffuse homogeneous enhancement is obtained in normal parenchyma of the pancreas. The bile duct and pancreatic duct are depicted as non-enhanced ductal structures with strong contrast in comparison to the surrounding parenchyma. CH-EUS identifies pancreatic adenocarcinomas as solid lesions exhibiting hypo-enhancement with a sensitivity and specificity of 88-96% and 88-94%, respectively. In particular, 80-100% of false-negative cases in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) are correctly classified by CH-EUS, suggesting CH-EUS complements EUS-FNA. Moreover, CH-EUS improves depiction of some subtle lesions in conventional EUS, thus facilitating EUS-FNA. For quantitative perfusion analysis, a time-intensity curve (TIC) for the region of interest can be generated during CH-EUS. The maximum intensity gain and the echo intensity reduction rate from the peak at 1 min obtained by TIC can be used for differentiation of pancreatic adenocarcinoma from other tumors. CH-EUS is also useful for differentiation of invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) from non-invasive IPMN, identification of malignant lesions in the gallbladder, and T- and N-staging of pancreatobiliary tumors. PMID:25639788

  19. Use of real-time ultrasonography as an alternative method for early detection, confirmation and evaluation of rat pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stasinopoulou, Marianna; Mantziaras, George; Paronis, Euthimios; Balafas, Evangelos; Lelovas, Pavlos; Samara, Athina; Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2014-06-01

    Researchers sometimes face difficulties in the diagnosis of pregnancy and assessment of embryonic development. Ultrasonography (US) is a non-invasive imaging method with minimal side effects on the subjects or operators. It provides real-time evaluation of the physiology of rapidly moving structures (i.e., heart) and facilitates evaluation of fetal tissue development. US discerns tissues based on composition, making it the imaging method of choice for abdominal examination. In this study we used real-time US as an alternative method for early diagnosis of pregnancy in rats. Sixty-four Wistar rats aged 16-20 wk were examined, and day 8 was the earliest point at which pregnancy could be detected. We constructed a detailed timeline of embryonic features detectable by US on days 8 to 19. We trust this index will be a valuable tool. More refined work toward a more detailed "atlas" will help to reduce animal sacrifice during embryonic development studies. PMID:24462150

  20. Carcinoma of the pancreatic head and periampullary region. Tumor staging with laparoscopy and laparoscopic ultrasonography.

    PubMed Central

    John, T G; Greig, J D; Carter, D C; Garden, O J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors performed a prospective evaluation of staging laparoscopy with laparoscopic ultrasonography in predicting surgical resectability in patients with carcinomas of the pancreatic head and periampullary region. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pancreatic resection with curative intent is possible in a select minority of patients who have carcinomas of the pancreatic head and periampullary region. Patient selection is important to plan appropriate therapy and avoid unnecessary laparotomy in patients with unresectable disease. Laparoscopic ultrasonography is a novel technique that combines the proven benefits of staging laparoscopy with high resolution intraoperative ultrasound of the liver and pancreas, but which has yet to be evaluated critically in the staging of pancreatic malignancy. METHODS: A cohort of 40 consecutive patients referred to a tertiary referral center and with a diagnosis of potentially resectable pancreatic or periampullary cancer underwent staging laparoscopy with laparoscopic ultrasonography. The diagnostic accuracy of staging laparoscopy alone and in conjunction with laparoscopic ultrasonography was evaluated in predicting tumor resectability (absence of peritoneal or liver metastases; absence of malignant regional lymphadenopathy; tumor confined to pancreatic head or periampullary region). RESULTS: "Occult" metastatic lesions were demonstrated by staging laparoscopy in 14 patients (35%). Laparoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated factors confirming unresectable tumor in 23 patients (59%), provided staging information in addition to that of laparoscopy alone in 20 patients (53%), and changed the decision regarding tumor resectability in 10 patients (25%). Staging laparoscopy with laparoscopic ultrasonography was more specific and accurate in predicting tumor resectability than laparoscopy alone (88% and 89% versus 50% and 65%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Staging laparoscopy is indispensable in the detection of "occult" intra-abdominal metastases. Laparoscopic ultrasonography improves the accuracy of laparoscopic staging in patients with potentially resectable pancreatic and periampullary carcinomas. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:7857143

  1. Ultrasonography for rheumatologists: the development of specific competency based educational outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A K; O'Connor, P J; Roberts, T E; Wakefield, R J; Karim, Z; Emery, P

    2006-01-01

    Background A competency based approach to the education of rheumatologists in musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSK US) ensures standards are documented, transparent, accountable, and defensible, with clear benefit to all stakeholders. Specific competency outcomes will facilitate informed development of a common curriculum and structured programme of training and assessment. Objective To determine explicit competency based learning outcomes for rheumatologists undertaking MSK US. Methods International experts in MSK US, satisfying specific selection criteria, were asked to define the minimum standards required by a rheumatologist to be judged competent in MSK US. They reviewed 115 MSK US skills, comprising bone and soft tissue pathology, in seven joints regions of the upper and lower limbs, and rated their relative importance according to specific criteria. These data are presented as specific educational outcomes within designated competency categories. Results 57 expert MSK US practitioners were identified and 35 took part in this study. Ten generic core competency outcomes were recognised including physics, anatomy, technique, and interpretation. Regarding specific regional competencies, 53% (61/115) were considered “must know” core learning outcomes, largely comprising inflammatory joint/tendon/bone pathology and guided procedures; 45% (52/115) were required at an intermediate/advanced level (18/115 “should know”, 34/115 “could know”), and 2% (2/115) were deemed inappropriate/unnecessary for rheumatologist ultrasonographers. Conclusions This is the first study to developing a competency model for the education of rheumatologists in MSK US based on the evidence of international experts. A specific set of learning outcomes has been defined, which will facilitate future informed education and practice development and provide a blueprint for a structured rheumatology MSK US curriculum and assessment process. PMID:16192291

  2. Enhancement Patterns of Gastric Carcinoma on Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography: Relationship with Clinicopathological Features

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fang; Huang, Pintong; Li, Shiyan; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Ying; Hong, Yurong; Wei, Shumei; Cosgrove, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the enhancement patterns and clinicopathological features of gastric cancer using intravenous contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). In this Ethics Committee-approved prospective study, five hundred fifty two patients with gastric cancer who gave informed consent were examined preoperatively with CEUS. The enhancement pattern of each tumor was analyzed visually. Gross and histopathological findings on the postoperative specimens were compared with the preoperative CEUS findings. The most common CEUS pattern in differentiated gastric cancer was homogeneous enhancement, whereas heterogeneous enhancement was the most common pattern in undifferentiated gastric cancer. The proportion of heterogeneous enhancement was significantly different between the two histological subtypes (Chi- square?=?146.735, P<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of early heterogeneous enhancement on CEUS in diagnosing undifferentiated gastric cancer were 78.84% and 72.59% respectively. Gastric cancers with heterogeneous enhancement were more often Borrmann III and IV macroscopic types than those with homogeneous enhancement (66.56% vs. 30.80%, P<0.001), more commonly T3 and T4 depth of invasion than those with homogeneous enhancement (71.52% vs. 59.60%, P<0.05), more often showed lymphatic invasion than those with homogeneous enhancement (84.44% vs. 76.40%, P<0.05), and were less likely to receive curative gastrectomy than those with homogeneous enhancement (74.83% vs. 86.40%, P<0.005). The intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were both almost perfect for assessing enhancement patterns, with Kappa values of 0.916 (P<0.001) for intra-observer and 0.842 (P<0.001) for inter-observer reproducibility. CEUS provided detailed information about tumor vascularity and contrast enhancement patterns in gastric cancer. CEUS is promising as a new and useful method to predict the histological type of gastric cancer. PMID:24039857

  3. Ultrasonography of entheseal insertions in the lower limb in spondyloarthropathy

    PubMed Central

    Balint, P; Kane, D; Wilson, H; McInnes, I; Sturrock, R

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare ultrasonography (US) with clinical examination in the detection of entheseal abnormality of the lower limb in patients with spondyloarthropathy (SpA). Methods: 35 patients with SpA (ankylosing spondylitis 27; psoriatic arthritis 7; reactive arthritis 1) underwent independent clinical and ultrasonographic examination of both lower limbs at five entheseal sites—superior pole and inferior pole of patella, tibial tuberosity, Achilles tendon, and plantar aponeurosis. US was performed using an ATL (Advanced Technology Laboratories, Bothell, Washington, USA) high definition imaging 3000 machine with linear 7–4 MHz and compact linear 10–5 MHz probes to detect bursitis, structure thickness, bony erosion, and enthesophyte (bony spur). An enthesitis score was formulated from these US findings giving a possible maximum total score of 36. Results: On clinical examination 75/348 (22%) entheseal sites were abnormal and on US examination 195/348 (56%) sites were abnormal. In 19 entheseal sites with bursitis on US, only five were detected by clinical examination. Compared with US, clinical examination had a low sensitivity (22.6%) and moderate specificity (79.7%) for the detection of enthesitis of the lower limbs. There was no significant correlation between the US score of enthesitis and acute phase parameters such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or C reactive protein (CRP). The intraobserver ? value for analysis of all sites was 0.9. Conclusions: Most entheseal abnormality in SpA is not detected at clinical examination. US is better than clinical examination in the detection of entheseal abnormality of the lower limbs in SpA. A quantitative US score of lower limb enthesitis is proposed but further studies are required to validate it in SpA. PMID:12228161

  4. Does Prebiopsy, Nonsterile Ultrasonography Gel Affect Biopsy-Site Asepsis?

    SciTech Connect

    Gurel, Kamil [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Izzet Baysal School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)], E-mail: kamilgurel@hotmail.com; Karabay, Oguz [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Izzet Baysal School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (Turkey); Gurel, Safiye [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Izzet Baysal School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Hildebolt, Charles [Washington University, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of nonsterile gel, prior to antiseptic procedures in ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous biopsies, results in contamination of the biopsy site. Materials and Methods. Patients referred for US-guided percutaneous biopsies were included in this study. Transmission material used for US evaluation before biopsy-site antiseptic procedures were performed was either nonsterile gel or sterile saline. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: nonsterile gel (n = 30) and sterile saline (n = 30). Before the transmission material was used and after antiseptic procedures were performed, microbial swabs of a 10-cm{sup 2}-diameter area were obtained at the biopsy site. Swabs were also obtained from the gel, saline, and povidine-iodine. Inoculated specimen plates were incubated at 37{sup o}C under aerobic conditions, and the numbers of colony-forming units recorded. Nominal logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds of postantisepsis bacterial growth (after antiseptic procedures were performed) based on group, gender, coincidental disease (diabetes, chronic renal failure, and malignancy), biopsy-site location (head and neck or breast and abdomen), and local factors (skin fold, skin tag, and hair). Results. The following odds ratios (adjusted for the other variables) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated: (1) group (2.9 [0.8-11.1]; p = 0.10); (2) gender (1.2 [0.3-5.2]; p = 0.78); (3) coincidental disease (7.6 [0.9-166.7]; p = 0.09); (4) biopsy site location (6.2 [1.4-31.3]; p = 0.02); and (5) local factors (7.0 [1.6-36.0]; p = 0.01). No bacterial growth occurred with swabs obtained from gel, povidine-iodine, or saline. Conclusion. We conclude that nonsterile gel used prior to percutaneous biopsy does not affect biopsy-site asepsis.

  5. The validity of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures.

    PubMed

    Ogunmuyiwa, S A; Fatusi, O A; Ugboko, V I; Ayoola, O O; Maaji, S M

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of ultrasonography in detecting zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures, and to highlight factors that may affect the validity of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture. Twenty-one patients with suspected fractures of the zygomaticomaxillary complex presenting at the authors' hospital were included in this prospective study. All the patients had plain radiographic and computed tomography (CT) investigations. All underwent ultrasonographic examination of the affected region using an ultrasound machine with a 7.5 MHz probe. The different radiologists were not aware of the results of the other two investigations. Statistical significance was inferred at P<0.05. The validity of ultrasonography varied with fracture sites with a sensitivity of 100% for zygomatic arch fractures, 90% for infraorbital margin fractures and 25% for frontozygomatic suture separation. Specificity was 100% for the three types of fracture. There was no statistically significant difference in the ability of CT scan and ultrasonography to diagnose fractures from various zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture sites (P=0.47). Ultrasonography has proved to be a valid tool for the diagnosis of zygomatic arch and displaced infraorbital margin fractures. PMID:22306128

  6. Preoperative imaging of liver metastases. Comparison of angiography, CT scan, and ultrasonography.

    PubMed Central

    Gunvén, P; Makuuchi, M; Takayasu, K; Moriyama, N; Yamasaki, S; Hasegawa, H

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with mostly colorectal cancer metastases to the liver had preoperative selective/superselective angiograms (24 cases), computed tomography (CT) [26 cases, mostly enhanced by contrast administered by a peripheral vein (9), the common hepatic artery (9), or the portal vein (5)], and ultrasonography (26 cases). Intraoperative ultrasonography and palpation and examination of the resected specimens revealed 113 tumors. CT detected almost half of the masses smaller than 1 cm, and ultrasonography and angiography about one-third of lesions 1-2 cm in size. Ultrasonography was less powerful for examination of the posterior segment of the liver. CT and ultrasonography placed the tumors into subsegments more accurately than did angiography. Almost 40% of the preoperative plans had to be changed: in two-thirds by extended resections and in one-third by a change from curative to palliative intent. Most changes were due to extrahepatic tumor growth, often within areas screened before surgery. The use of all three imaging modalities for liver metastases is recommended for preoperative planning. PMID:3901943

  7. Comparison of ultrasound biomicroscopy and standard ocular ultrasonography for detection of canine uveal cysts.

    PubMed

    Taylor, LaTisha N; Townsend, Wendy M; Heng, Hock Gan; Stiles, Jean; Moore, George E

    2015-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) with standard ocular ultrasonography for detection of canine uveal cysts and to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver agreement for detection of uveal cysts with UBM. SAMPLE 202 enucleated eyes from 101 dogs. PROCEDURES 2 examiners examined 202 eyes by means of UBM (50 MHz) to identify uveal cysts. A board-certified radiologist then examined 98 of the 202 eyes by means of standard ocular ultrasonography (7- to 12-MHz linear transducer). Subsequently, 1 examiner dissected all 202 eyes under magnification from an operating microscope to definitively identify uveal cysts. Each examiner was masked to other examiners' findings. Sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver agreement were calculated for detection of cysts by UBM. RESULTS Cysts were detected by use of UBM in 55 of 202 (27%) eyes by one examiner and 29 of 202 (14%) eyes by the other. No cysts were detected in the 98 eyes examined with standard ocular ultrasonography. Dissection results revealed that cysts were present in 64 of 202 (32%) eyes, including 29 of 98 (30%) eyes examined by standard ocular ultrasonography. Mean sensitivity of UBM for cyst detection was 47%; mean specificity was 92%. Uveal cysts not identified with UBM were often small (mean diameter, 490 üm). Interobserver agreement was high (?P = 0.81). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE UBM was more effective than standard ocular ultrasonography for detection of uveal cysts in enucleated eyes. Small-diameter cysts were difficult to visualize even with UBM. PMID:26000601

  8. [Transvaginal ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy for residual potentially malignant ovarian tumors in cases with severe peritoneal adhesion and frozen pelvis requiring polysurgery].

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Rie; Nishizawa, Minako; Tasaka, Reiko; Mita, Ikuko; Tokuyama, Osamu; Miyama, Masato; Kawamura, Naoki

    2015-05-01

    A multiparous woman in her 40s had advanced peritoneal adhesions and frozen pelvis from 3 previous surgeries. Endometrial ovarian cysts also remained. After the last surgery, imaging showed cysts with a septum and enhanced moieties in the Douglas pouch. Highly invasive surgery was anticipated, and the patient underwent a transvaginal ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy(TVCNB, 16-gauge needle)with full awareness of the risks involved. The histopathological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma. We inserted a ureteral stent and performed an S-shaped colon resection and standard ovarian cancer surgery after preoperative chemotherapy. TVCNB in this case was less invasive and easier to perform than other exploratory procedures, and has a low risk of iatrogenic intraperitoneal dissemination even if the tumor is malignant. Chemotherapy can be administered before surgery if malignancy is detected. In summary, TVCNB is a useful alternative method for conducting exploratory operations. PMID:25981664

  9. Comparison of Long-term Clinical Outcomes according to the Change in the Rectocele Depth between Transanal and Transvaginal Repairs for a Symptomatic Rectocele

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sang Hwa; Lee, Jeong Eun; Lee, Dong Keun

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study was aimed to compare the results of a transanal repair with those of a transvaginal levatorplasty and to determine the long-term clinical outcomes according to the change in the depth of the rectocele after the procedure. Methods Of 50 women who underwent a rectocele repair from March 2005 to February 2007, 26 women (group A) received a transanal repair, and 24 (group B) received a transvaginal repair with or without levatorplasty. At 12 months after the procedures, 45 (group A/B, 22/23 women) among the 50 women completed physiologic studies, including anal manometry and defecography, and clinical-outcome measurements. The variations of the clinical outcomes with changes in the depth of the rectocele were also evaluated in 42 women (group A/B, 20/22) at the median follow-up of 50 months. Results On the defecographic findings, the postoperative depth of the rectocele decreased significantly in both groups (group A vs. B, 1.91 ± 0.20 vs. 2.25 ± 0.46, P = 0.040). At 12 months after surgery, 17 women in each group (group A/B, 77/75%) reported improvement of their symptoms. However, only 11 and 13 women (group A/B, 55/59%) of groups A and B, respectively, maintained their improvement at the median follow-up of 50 months. Better results were reported in patients with a greater change in the depth of their rectocele (?4 cm) after the procedure (P = 0.001) Conclusion In both procedures, clinical outcomes might become progressively worse as the length of the follow-up is increased. PMID:22816057

  10. A transvaginal ultrasound study comparing transobturator tape and tension-free vaginal tape after surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    de Tayrac, Renaud; Deffieux, Xavier; Resten, Arnaud; Doumerc, Séverin; Jouffroy, Christian; Fernandez, Hervé

    2006-09-01

    This study was carried out to compare ultrasonographic findings on patients after transobturator tape (TOT) and tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedures to evaluate displacement of tapes up to a 2-year follow-up and to test the correlation between bladder outlet obstruction and the tape position. Forty-nine patients had a transvaginal ultrasonographic evaluation after TOT (n=31) or TVT (n=18) procedures. Twenty-one patients from the TOT group and 12 from the TVT group had ultrasonographic evaluation both at 1 and 2 years follow-up. Tape position was evaluated with a complete sagittal view, and the width of the tape and the distance between the middle of the tape and the bladder neck were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using a t test. After clinical evaluation, stress test, and uroflowmetry with residual measurement, the tapes were compared on ultrasound with regard to clinical and urodynamic results: success in stress incontinence vs failure, bladder outlet obstruction vs no obstruction, and de novo urgencies vs no urgencies. No difference was found between TOT and TVT in the midurethral tape placement. The distance between the middle of the tape and the bladder neck at rest was similar at both 1 and 2 years after both TOT and TVT and was unchanged after coughing or Valsalva. The width of the tape was similar after TOT and TVT at both 1 and 2 years after the procedure. There was no difference in the distance between the middle of the tape and the bladder neck between cured patients, failure, bladder outlet obstruction, and de novo urgencies after both TOT and TVT. Transvaginal ultrasound examination showed no significant difference in the tape position between TOT and TVT. No correlation was found between ultrasonographic findings and postoperative voiding troubles for both techniques. PMID:16311712

  11. Relationship between clinically detected joint swelling and effusion diagnosed by ultrasonography in elbow joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Luukkainen, R; Sanila, M T; Saltyshev, M; Huhtala, H; Koski, J M

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the relationship between clinically detected swelling and effusion diagnosed by ultrasonography (US) in elbow joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifty consecutive patients with RA entered the study and 20 healthy persons formed a control group. Altogether 100 elbow joints of the RA patients and 40 of the controls were studied. All the clinical assessments were performed by one doctor and the US investigations by the other and they were blinded to each others results. In 77 elbow joints of the RA patients the clinical assessment and the US gave similar results, whereas they differed in the remaining 23 joints. The kappa coefficient between these investigations was 0.371. In the control group no elbow joint showed either swelling in the clinical assessment or effusion in the US investigation. The results of this study indicate that clinical assessment of swelling and evaluation of effusion by US in elbow joints in patients with RA show only fair agreement. Thus, US may improve the accuracy of diagnosis of synovitis in many cases in these patients. PMID:15940556

  12. Comparison of ultrasonography, computerized tomography, and radionuclide imaging in the diagnosis of acute and chronic cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.; McGahan, J.P.

    1982-12-01

    Seventy-five patients with abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant who were subsequently confirmed operatively and histologically to have acute or chronic cholecystitis underwent radionuclide imaging of the biliary tree, ultrasonography, and/or computerized tomography before operation. fifty-eight of the patients had acute cholecystitis and 17 had chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Analysis of our data indicates that ultrasonography is an accurate and better screening test than cholescintigraphy in the diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, but it is less accurate in the detection of acute cholecystitis. On the other hand, radionuclide imaging is highly sensitive and specific in the early diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, but it is poor in the diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis unless the cystic duct is obstructed. CT scanning is more expensive than ultrasonography but may be extremely helpful in problematic cases such as the diagnosis of the cause in biliary obstruction or in imaging of the pancreas.

  13. Predictive factors of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for the response to transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kil Hyo; Kwon, Soon Ha; Lee, Yong Sub; Jang, Jae Young; Lee, Sae Hwan; Kim, Sang Gyune; Cha, Sang-Woo; Kim, Young Seok; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung; Kim, Yong Jae

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The predictive role of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) before performing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has not been determined. We assessed the possible predictive factors of CEUS for the response to TACE. Methods Seventeen patients with 18 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) underwent TACE. All of the tumors were studied with CEUS before TACE using a second-generation ultrasound contrast agent (SonoVue®, Bracco, Milan, Italy). The tumor response to TACE was classified with a score between 1 and 4 according to the remaining enhancing-tumor percentage based on modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECIST): 1, enhancing tumor <25%; 2, 25%?enhancing tumor<50%; 3, 50%?enhancing tumor<75%; and 4, enhancing tumor?75%). A score of 1 was defined as a "good response" to TACE. The predictive factors for the response to TACE were evaluated during CEUS based on the maximum tumor diameter, initial arterial enhancing time, arterial enhancing duration, intensity of arterial enhancement, presence of a hypoenhanced pattern, and the feeding artery to the tumor. Results The median tumor size was 3.1 cm. The distribution of tumor response scores after TACE in all tumors was as follows: 1, n=11; 2, n=4; 3, n=2; and 4, n=1. Fifteen tumors showed feeding arteries. The presence of a feeding artery and the tumor size (?5 cm) were the predictive factors for a good response (P=0.043 and P=0.047, respectively). Conclusions The presence of a feeding artery and a tumor size of less than 5 cm were the predictive factors for a good response of HCC to TACE on CEUS.

  14. Comparison of two techniques for endoscopic ultrasonography fine-needle aspiration in solid pancreatic mass

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Amir Houshang Mohammad; Hadizadeh, Mohammad; Padashi, Maryam; Shahbaazi, Shahin; Molaee, Mahsa; Shariatpanahi, Zahra Vahdat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a newly imagine procedure for assessment and therapeutic in option. The aims of this study are comparison two techniques about EUS-fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), including successful tissue sampling, complication, procedure time, and safety. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients with pancreatic solid masses were in the study, 50 patients underwent EUS-FNA with negative pressure as Group 1 and 50 patients underwent EUS-FNA without negative pressure and stylet as Group 2 over a 36 months period. Results: The study period was from March 2011 to January 2014. In total case, the male-to-female ratio was 1.27 with a mean age of 61.7 ± 1.3 years. The involvement of different regions of the pancreas, pancreatic head had the most frequent (69%) after that uncinate (12%), body (11%) and tail (8%). In 100 pancreatic EUS-FNA samples, 48% were interpreted as malignant on pathology evaluation, 15% as suspicious for malignancy, 27% as benign processes and 10% inadequate specimen. There were no significant differences between the adequacy of sample cells in two techniques (P < 0.148). Conclusion: The EUS-FNA without negative pressure and stylet technique was related with less contamination by blood and raise the diagnostic yield. We recommend further studies for better evaluation of our study with higher the cases because clinically the low the inadequate samples (6% vs. 14%) and less contamination with blood (20% vs. 50%) in the second group (P < 0.002). PMID:25184124

  15. Accuracy of intraoperative ultrasonography in diagnosing liver metastasis from colorectal cancer: Evaluation with postoperative follow-up results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junji Machi; Hiroharu Isomoto; Toshihiko Kurohiji; Yuichi Yamashita; Kazuo Shirouzu; Teruo Kakegawa; Bernard Sigel; Howard A. Zaren; Joaquin Sariego

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy of intraoperative ultrasonography in diagnosing liver metastasis was evaluated at the time of surgery and at follow-up in 189 patients with colorectal cancers. Evaluation at the time of operation revealed that the sensitivity of intraoperative ultrasonography (93.3%) was significantly (p.

  16. Power doppler ultrasound assessment of the relationship between age and ovarian perifollicular blood flow in women undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F. Costello; Sanu M. Shrestha; Peter Sjoblom; Glen McNally; Michael J. Bennett; Stephen J. Steigrad; Graeme J. Hughes

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between age and ovarian perifollicular blood flow (PFBF) in women undergoing IVF.\\u000a Methods: Serial transvaginal power Doppler ultrasound (PDU) scans to assess ovarian PFBF were performed prospectively throughout the follicular phase of ovarian stimulation in women undergoing IVF. The ultrasound assessment days were categorized according to day of hCG trigger.\\u000a Results: A total of 1050

  17. Oestrus expression and ovarian function in repeat breeder cows, monitored by ultrasonography and progesterone assay.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Marín, C C; España, F

    2007-10-01

    Ovarian ultrasonography and plasma progesterone levels were monitored in 37 lactating Holstein cows with a history of repeat breeding; the data obtained were analysed in conjunction with clinical and behavioural signs, to identify the aetiology of the syndrome. Differences were detected between RBCs displaying apparently normal cycles and others with irregular cycles. There were also differences in heat expression; a large number of repeat breeder cows (RBCs, 50%) displayed delayed or silent oestrus. Ovarian disorders were common in RBCs, and included ovarian cysts, mistimed AI, subluteal progesterone levels, luteal dysfunction or ovulation defects. Both ultrasonography and plasma progesterone assays are useful tools for ascertaining the aetiology of the repeat breeder syndrome. PMID:17845598

  18. [Color Doppler ultrasonography--a new imaging procedure in maxillofacial surgery].

    PubMed

    Reinert, S; Lentrodt, J

    1991-01-01

    Colour Doppler ultrasonography shows blood flow in real time and colour by combining the features of real time B mode ultrasound and Doppler. At each point in the image the returning signal is interrogated for both amplitude and frequency information. The resulting image shows all non-moving structures in shades of gray and moving structures in shades of red or blue depending on direction and velocity. The technique of colour Doppler ultrasonography and our experiences in 63 examinations are described. The clinical application of this new simple non-invasive method in maxillo-facial surgery is discussed. PMID:1814667

  19. [Effect of ultrasonography on postoperative changes in treatment of neck lymph nodes and improvement of long term results in patients with laryngeal neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka, Ma?gorzata; Szyfter, Witold; Kaczmarek, Jolanta; Szmeja, Zygmunt

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is a well-known and valuable method of detecting lymph nodes in the neck. It is widely used in the preoperative neck assessment and in follow-up patients treated for head and neck cancer. The aim of the study was to compare the larynx cancer patients in two decades: the 80-ies and the 90-ies and the influence of a single diagnostic tool, i.e. ultrasonography, on therapeutic decisions and final results. Two groups of patients were selected: 737 patients treated between 1981-1985 (before the introduction of US) and 840 patients treated between 1991-1995 (routinely examined with the help of US) in ENT Dept. of Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences in Pozna?. We aimed at analysing the percentages of neck metastases at the moment of diagnosis, the frequency of particular types of primary neck treatment, the percentages of neck recurrences, their advancement at the diagnosis and the methods of secondary treatment. Particular attention to feasibility of salvage was paid. Mean survival time in the group of patients with recurrence and the overall 5-year-long survival rates were analysed. No marked differences were stated between both groups as to epidemiological data, primary tumor advancement and types of the performed larynx surgery. Neck metastases occurred in both groups, 34% and 42%, respectively. Relapse rates were 12.9% and 12.6%, respectively. It was found that the number of elective neck dissections over the period given above became smaller, the number of radical neck dissections was stable, while the number of patients referred to wait and see policy increased. The number of successful neck salvage surgeries markedly increased while the number of patients not qualified for salvage decreased. For the both studied data, the curves on diagrams cross around the year 1992. The turning point situated in this time shows that ultrasound, introduced in 1991, gradually changed the types of primary treatment and possibilities of salvage neck treatment. The statistically significant differences in both groups were shown as to: types of the initial i.e. first neck treatment, relapse rate and the possibility of performing surgical salvage, while the only change was the introduction of a new diagnostic tool, i.e. neck ultrasonography. Survival rate was markedly better in the second group of patients. The methods of qualifying patients for the primary neck treatment and follow-up schedule have been changed since ultrasonography diagnostics was introduced in 1991 for routine assessment of the neck lymphatics in the larynx cancer patients. Strict follow-up schedule allow for early detection and successful treatment in high percentage of relapses. PMID:12053665

  20. Transcranial ultrasonography system for visualizing skull and brain surface aided by fuzzy expert system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Hata; Syoji Kobashi; Katsuya Kondo; Yuri T. Kitamura; Toshio Yanagida

    2005-01-01

    A conventional ultrasonography system can noninvasively provide human tissue and blood flow velocity information with real-time processing. In general, since the human skull prevents the disclosure of brain anatomy, we usually placed the sensor at the anterior and superior attachment site of the upper ear (the posterior temporal window) in adults. Due to this limitation, the conventional system cannot obtain

  1. Ultrasonography as a reliable diagnostic tool in old quadriceps tendon ruptures: a prospective multicentre study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-E. Heyde; K. Mahlfeld; P. F. Stahel; R. Kayser

    2005-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury. In the majority of cases, predispositions as recurrent microtrauma or degenerative changes are present. The diagnosis of acute quadriceps tendon ruptures can usually be made by clinical examination. Ultrasonography has been shown as a reliable, inexpensive and easily available diagnostic tool to confirm the diagnosis. In this study, we evaluated the clinical value

  2. Undergraduate Student Perceptions of the Use of Ultrasonography in the Study of "Living Anatomy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanusic, Jason; Cowie, Brian; Barrington, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a noninvasive imaging modality, and modern ultrasound machines are portable, inexpensive (relative to other imaging modalities), and user friendly. The aim of this study was to explore student perceptions of the use of ultrasound to teach "living anatomy". A module utilizing transthoracic echocardiography was developed and…

  3. Transperineal 125iodine seed implantation in prostatic cancer guided by transrectal ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry W. Herr; N JUUL; J PEDERSEN; H HANSEN; I STROYER

    2002-01-01

    A new method is described for precise transperineal insertion of radioactive 125iodine seeds in patients with prostatic cancer. The procedure is done under transrectal ultrasonography guidance using a special multichannel puncture attachment and a simple, efficient insertion technique. The advantages of the method are 1) the patients are spared the inconvenience and risk of an operation, 2) improved dose calculations

  4. Local longitudinal muscle shortening of the human esophagus from high-frequency ultrasonography

    E-print Network

    Brasseur, James G.

    Local longitudinal muscle shortening of the human esophagus from high-frequency ultrasonography. Brasseur, Ji-Bin Liu, and Larry S. Miller. Local longitudinal muscle shortening of the human esophagus from pressure, from which correlations between local contraction of longitudinal and circular muscle

  5. Characterization of bruises using ultrasonography for potential application in diagnosis of child abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sohtaro Mimasaka; Toru Oshima; Maki Ohtani

    To protect children from abuse, it is important to identify victims at an early date, but diagnosis is often difficult. We used ultrasonography for objective examination of bruises arising from subcutaneous hemorrhages, and determined whether we could precisely measure the depth and thickness of a subcutaneous hemorrhage. We compared macroscopic findings, microscopic findings and ultrasonographic images of 10 bruises in

  6. Characterization of bruises using ultrasonography for potential application in diagnosis of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Mimasaka, Sohtaro; Oshima, Toru; Ohtani, Maki

    2012-01-01

    To protect children from abuse, it is important to identify victims at an early date, but diagnosis is often difficult. We used ultrasonography for objective examination of bruises arising from subcutaneous hemorrhages, and determined whether we could precisely measure the depth and thickness of a subcutaneous hemorrhage. We compared macroscopic findings, microscopic findings and ultrasonographic images of 10 bruises in forensic autopsy cases. In addition, we measured chronologic changes in subcutaneous hemorrhages using ultrasonography of 16 bruises in healthy volunteer children. Mild or moderate subcutaneous hemorrhages spreading along the fibrous partition in subcutaneous fatty tissue were observed by histological examination. There was a thickened fibrous partition or an isoechoic or hyperechoic area in the ultrasonographic images. A good correlation between the thickness of the subcutaneous hemorrhages by macroscopic examination and by ultrasonographic imaging was found in postmortem cases. We were also able to confirm objectively that the thickness of the subcutaneous hemorrhage of healthy children decreased with time. It is possible to measure the depth from the skin surface to the subcutaneous hemorrhage, and the thickness of the subcutaneous hemorrhage accurately using ultrasonography. Thus, the age of a bruise can be estimated more precisely using information on the subcutaneous hemorrhage from ultrasonography in addition to established evaluations by the naked eye and by spectrophotometry. PMID:22192757

  7. A prospective trial of computed tomography and ultrasonography for diagnosing appendicitis in the atypical patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc D Horton; Steven F Counter; Michael G Florence; Michael J Hart

    2000-01-01

    Background: The surgical diagnosis of acute appendicitis is customarily made on clinical grounds alone using history, physical examination, and white blood cell count. In the atypical patient, ie, the patient with prolonged symptoms, inconsistent history, or misleading physical examination, diagnostic studies should be helpful in establishing the appropriate diagnosis. Computed tomography (CT) scan and ultrasonography (US) have demonstrated utility in

  8. Usefulness of Endobronchial Ultrasonography for Transbronchial Lung Biopsies of Peripheral Lung Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taeko Shirakawa; Fumiya Imamura; Junji Hamamoto; Izumi Honda; Kazuo Fukushima; Mineharu Sugimoto; Takayuki Shirkakusa

    2004-01-01

    Background: Peripheral lung lesions are increasing in numbers. Endoscopic diagnosis is essential for the prevention of unnecessary operations. Conventional diagnostic procedures have limitations in availability and results. Objectives: Endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) was investigated as a means to guide transbronchial lung biopsy, to reduce the discomfort during the procedure and to improve diagnostic accuracy. Methods: In 50 cases, we performed transbronchial

  9. Use of ultrasonography to identify late-stage maturity in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morphometric measurements by ultrasonography has been used to determine gonad and follicle size in many species of fish for purposes of identifying sex and estimating stage of maturation. We have been using a portable ultrasound system (SonoSite MicroMaxx, L25e/13-6 MHz transducer) to identify fem...

  10. Renal ultrasonography not required in babies with isolated minor ear anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S A Deshpande; H Watson

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether infants with isolated minor anomalies of the external ear are at increased risk of renal malformations.Methods: Consecutive infants with isolated minor anomalies of the external ear (preauricular skin tags, preauricular sinuses, ear pits, and misshapen pinnae) were offered renal ultrasonography by experienced sonographers over a 41 month period. The prevalence of renal anomalies in such infants

  11. Small calcification depiction in ultrasonography using correlation technique for breast cancer screening

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Small calcification depiction in ultrasonography using correlation technique for breast cancer of the Acoustics 2012 Nantes Conference 23-27 April 2012, Nantes, France 847 #12;In breast cancer screening-menopausal breast. In order to realize the breast cancer screening without radiation exposure for all people

  12. Temperature influences upon vascular dynamics in cattle measured by doppler ultrasonography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two preliminary studies were performed to determine if Doppler-image ultrasonography can be used to document vascular changes of cattle under hot and cold conditions. Three calves per study (320 ± 38 kg) were acclimated to thermoneutrality (17.5oC). Ultrasound measurements were taken of the median...

  13. Integrating ultrasonography within the reproductive management of the collared peccary ( Tayassu tajacu)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Mayor; Fernando López-Gatius; Manel López-Béjar

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging has been used to elucidate certain aspects of the reproductive biology of wild or endangered species. However, to our knowledge, this tool has not been used for reproductive monitoring of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu). In this study, real-time ultrasonography was used in 16 collared peccary females to diagnose early pregnancy status and predict gestational age. Based on

  14. Prophylactic cesarean delivery for fetal macrosomia diagnosed by means of ultrasonography—A Faustian bargain?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dwight J. Rouse; John Owen

    1999-01-01

    Both our previously performed decision analysis and more recent clinical data considered in the context of our decision analytic framework support the claim that in the pregnancies of women without diabetes the level of intervention and the economic costs of prophylactic cesarean delivery for fetal macrosomia diagnosed by means of ultrasonography are predicted to be excessive. Under the most plausible

  15. Doppler Ultrasonography in Suspected Subclavian Artery Obstruction and in Patient Monitoring after Subclavian Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Kablak-Ziembicka, Anna, E-mail: kablakziembicka@op.pl; Przewlocki, Tadeusz; Pieniazek, Piotr; Musialek, Piotr; Kozanecki, Artur; Stopa, Ireneusz; Zalewski, Jaroslaw; Tracz, Wieslawa [The John Paul II Hospital, Institute of Cardiology, Collegium Medicum Jagiellonian University, Department of Cardiac and Vascular Diseases (Poland)

    2007-09-15

    Purpose. Subclavian or innominate artery (SIA) stenosis affects up to 5% of patients referred to coronary bypass grafting; it is symptomatic in less than half of these. This study aimed to assess the Doppler ultrasonography (DU) findings in SIA obstruction and patients' follow-up after percutaneous angioplasty (PTA). Methods. The study enrolled 118 patients (68 men, 50 women), aged 61.3 {+-} 8.7 years, with suspected SIA obstruction, in whom peak systolic velocity (PSV) in the SIA and subclavian steal grade were assessed on DU and verified by quantitative angiography (QA). Serial follow-up DU was performed in patients treated with PTA. Results. Grade I-III of subclavian steal from the vertebral artery (VA) was found in 89.8% of patients. In the remaining 10.2% only a PSV increase in the SIA was observed. QA confirmed the presence of SIA obstruction in all patients (stenosis grade: 80.9 {+-} 17.3%). In patients with one-sided SIA obstruction, the ultrasonographic steal grade correlated with the QA stenosis grade (p < 0.001, r = 0.648). Lack of subclavian steal was noted in the case of distal subclavian stenosis, VA obstruction, VA originating from the aortic arch, and bilateral SIA obstruction. Successful PTA was performed in 77 of 83 patients referred to that procedure. PSV was reduced from 4.4 {+-} 1.2 (2.2-6.5) m/sec to 1.34 {+-} 0.51 (0.5-2.5) m/sec and flow in the VA was normalized. During the mean follow-up time of 24.7 {+-} 15.6 months, there was a gradual increase in the in-stent PSV as well as gradual VA flow alterations, resulting in symptom recurrence. More than a twofold PSV increase, compared with the post-PTA values, was an indicator of restenosis in 11 of 12 patients. Conclusions. Careful DU evaluation enables the recognition of SIA obstruction in all patients. Ninety percent of them have subclavian steal correlating with the stenosis grade. Restenosis can be reliably detected with DU based on in-stent PSV and VA flow alterations.

  16. Characterization of follicle and CL development in beef heifers using high resolution three-dimensional ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Scully, Stephanie; Evans, Alex C O; Duffy, Patrick; Crowe, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    The aim was to characterize dominant follicle (DF) and CL development through the estrous cycle of cattle using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography while making a comparison with conventional two-dimensional (2D) B-mode ultrasound (US) and to relate the measures taken to systemic concentrations of steroid hormones and gonadotropins. After synchronization of estrus, the ovaries of crossbred beef heifers (N = 5) were assessed using daily US with a GE Voluson i US scanner until the end of the first follicle wave, then every other day until emergence of the final (ovulatory) wave, when daily US resumed until ovulation. Follicle and CL growth were recorded and mapped. Measures of diameter (2D) and volume (3D) of the DF from the first and ovulatory waves of the cycles; and CL development were captured and stored for further analysis. Blood flow to the DF and CL were assessed using 3D power Doppler US measuring vascularization index (VI; %), vascularization flow index (0/100) and flow index (0/100). Jugular blood samples were collected every 24 hours for progesterone from the first estrus until the second ovulation. Concentrations of estradiol (E2) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured every 8 hours from estrus to second follicle wave emergence; then, E2 only was measured from final follicle wave emergence until ovulation. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED and PROC REG in SAS. Dominant follicle blood flow tended to decrease during follicle wave emergence and DF VI increased (P < 0.05) 24 hours before ovulation after peak E2. Measures of the DF and CL volume (3D) were highly predictive of 2D diameter measures throughout the cycle (P < 0.0001). Predictive values (r(2)) for day of wave emergence and day from ovulation were similar for 2D and 3D measures; however, 2D measures had higher repeatability when compared with 3D measures. There was no relationship between CL VI and progesterone early in the cycle (r(2) = 0.12; P = 0.1); however, there was a strong positive relationship approaching ovulation (r(2) = 0.77; P < 0.0001). In conclusion, 3D power Doppler measures of blood flow appears to be representative of vascular changes in the DF and CL throughout the estrous cycle. However, the extra time required to acquire and analyze a 3D image and the relatively little additional information obtained over that achievable with 2D imaging in terms of follicle and CL development might preclude its widespread use other than for detailed research purposes. PMID:24220362

  17. Accuracy of Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Placenta Accreta

    PubMed Central

    Riteau, Anne-Sophie; Tassin, Mikael; Chambon, Guillemette; Le Vaillant, Claudine; de Laveaucoupet, Jocelyne; Quéré, Marie-Pierre; Joubert, Madeleine; Prevot, Sophie; Philippe, Henri-Jean; Benachi, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of placenta accreta and to define the most relevant specific ultrasound and MRI features that may predict placental invasion. Material and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board of the French College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients referred for suspected placenta accreta to two university hospitals from 01/2001 to 05/2012. Our study population included 42 pregnant women who had been investigated by both ultrasonography and MRI. Ultrasound images and MRI were blindly reassessed for each case by 2 raters in order to score features that predict abnormal placental invasion. Results Sensitivity in the diagnosis of placenta accreta was 100% with ultrasound and 76.9% for MRI (P?=?0.03). Specificity was 37.5% with ultrasonography and 50% for MRI (P?=?0.6). The features of greatest sensitivity on ultrasonography were intraplacental lacunae and loss of the normal retroplacental clear space. Increased vascularization in the uterine serosa-bladder wall interface and vascularization perpendicular to the uterine wall had the best positive predictive value (92%). At MRI, uterine bulging had the best positive predictive value (85%) and its combination with the presence of dark intraplacental bands on T2-weighted images improved the predictive value to 90%. Conclusion Ultrasound imaging is the mainstay of screening for placenta accreta. MRI appears to be complementary to ultrasonography, especially when there are few ultrasound signs. PMID:24733409

  18. Assessment of coronary thrombolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Geltman, E.M.; Abendschein, D.R.; Devries, S.R.

    1987-02-01

    The efficacy of coronary thrombolysis may be assessed by several invasive and noninvasive means, including coronary angiography, contrast and radionuclide angiography, thallium 201 or /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, cardiac ultrasonography, electrocardiography, and analysis of plasma creatine kinase activity. Each technique has its own strengths and limitations, but when used in concert these methods may provide insight into the physiology of coronary reperfusion and the efficacy of reperfusion in individual patients and populations. 104 references.

  19. Ultrasonography-Guided Surgical Clip Placement for Tumor Localization in Patients Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Inyoung; Kook, Shin Ho; Choi, Yoon Jung; Park, Chan Heun; Park, Yong Lai; Kim, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the feasibility of using surgical clips as markers for tumor localization and their effect on the imaging evaluation of treatment responses after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Methods A total of 16 breast cancers confirmed by needle biopsy in 15 patients were included in this study from October 2012 to June 2014. Under ultrasonography (US)-guidance, the surgical clips were placed prior to NAC. Additional mammography, breast US, and breast magnetic resonance examinations were performed within 10 days before surgery. The time period from marker insertion to operation date was documented. Images acquired via the three modalities were evalu-ated for the following parameters: location of clip, clip migration (>1 cm), the presence of complications from clip placement, and the effect of clips on the assessment of treatment. Results The mean time period was 128.6±34.4 days (median, 132.0 days) from the date of clip insertion to the date of surgery. The mean number of inserted clips was 2.3±0.7 (median, 2.0). Clip migration was not visualized by imaging in any patient, and there were no complications reported. Surgical clips did not negatively affect the assessment of treatment responses to NAC. Conclusion Surgical clips may replace commercial tissue markers for tumor localization in breast cancer patients undergoing NAC without migration. Surgical clips are well tolerated and safe for the patient, easily visualized on imaging, do not interfere with treatment response, and are cost-effective. PMID:25834610

  20. Management of fetal urinary tract anomalies detected by prenatal ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R R Turnock; R Shawis

    1984-01-01

    Over a three and a half year period 32 babies were referred with a urinary tract anomaly diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound. This diagnosis was subsequently confirmed in 19 infants by postnatal assessment. Three of 13 infants in whom the original diagnosis was incorrect were subsequently found to have intra-abdominal pathology but no urological anomaly, while the other 10 had lesions

  1. Transvaginal photoacoustic imaging probe and system based on a multiport fiber-optic beamsplitter and a real time imager for ovarian cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumavor, Patrick D.; Alqasemi, Umar; Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Li, Hai; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Quing

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a real-time transvaginal photoacoustic imaging probe for imaging human ovaries in vivo. The probe consists of a high-throughput (up to 80%) fiber-optic 1 x 19 beamsplitters, a commercial array ultrasound transducer, and a fiber protective sheath. The beamsplitter has a 940-micron core diameter input fiber and 240-micron core diameter output fibers numbering 36. The 36 small-core output fibers surround the ultrasound transducer and delivers light to the tissue during imaging. A protective sheath, modeled in the form of the transducer using a 3-D printer, encloses the transducer with array of fibers. A real-time image acquisition system collects and processes the photoacoustic RF signals from the transducer, and displays the images formed on a monitor in real time. Additionally, the system is capable of coregistered pulse-echo ultrasound imaging. In this way, we obtain both morphological and functional information from the ovarian tissue. Photoacousitc images of malignant human ovaries taken ex vivo with the probe revealed blood vascular and networks that was distinguishable from normal ovaries, making the probe potential useful for characterizing ovarian tissue.

  2. Ultrasonography shows disappearance of monosodium urate crystal deposition on hyaline cartilage after sustained normouricemia is achieved.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Ralf G; Schlesinger, Naomi

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed at determining whether lowering serum urate (SU) to less than 6 mg/dl in patients with gout affects ultrasonographic findings. Seven joints in five patients with monosodium urate (MSU) crystal proven gout and hyperuricemia were examined over time with serial ultrasonography. Four of the five patients were treated with urate lowering drugs (ULDs) (allopurinol, n = 3; probenecid, n = 1). One patient was treated with colchicine alone. Attention was given to changes in a hyperechoic, irregular coating of the hyaline cartilage in the examined joints (double contour sign or "urate icing"). This coating was considered to represent precipitate of MSU crystals. Index joints included metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints (n = 2), knee joints (n = 3), and first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints (n = 2). The interval between baseline and follow-up images ranged from 7 to 18 months. Serial SU levels were obtained during the follow-up period. During the follow-up period, three patients treated with ULD (allopurinol, n = 2; probenecid, n = 1) achieved a SU level of <6 mg/dl. In two patients, SU levels remained above 6 mg/dl (treated with allopurinol, n = 1; treated with colchicine, n = 1). At baseline, the double contour sign was seen in all patients. In those patients who achieved SU levels of <6 ml/dl, this sign had disappeared at follow-up. Disappearance of the double contour sign was seen in two knee joints, two first MTP joints, and one MCP joint. In contrast, disappearance of the double contour sign was not seen in patients who maintained a SU level > or =7 mg/dl. In one patient treated with allopurinol, SU levels improved from 13 to 7 mg/dl during the follow-up period. Decrease, but not resolution of the hyperechoic coating was seen in this patient. In the patient treated with colchicine alone, SU levels remained >8 mg/dl, and no sonographic change was observed. In our patients, sonographic signs of deposition of MSU crystals on the surface of hyaline cartilage disappeared completely if sustained normouricemia was achieved. This is the first report showing that characteristic sonographic changes are influenced by ULDs once SU levels remain < or =6 mg/dl for 7 months or more. Sonographic changes of gout correlate with SU levels and may be a non-invasive means to track changes in the uric acid pool. Larger prospective studies are needed to further assess these potentially important findings. PMID:19543895

  3. Ultrasonography of the healing process during a 3-month follow-up after a splenic injury

    PubMed Central

    Rafailidis, Vasileios; Apostolou, Dimitrios; Kaitartzis, Christodoulos; Rafailidis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    We present a 14-year-old boy with a grade III splenic injury due to a bicycle accident, who was treated conservatively. The boy’s medical history included splenomegaly due to thalassemia. The splenic lesion was initially investigated with computed tomography (CT) and then, was followed by ultrasonography for 3 months. CT revealed a large intraparenchymal hematoma which appeared hyperechoic on ultrasonography. During follow-up, the hematoma developed a more complex echogenicity and became gradually hypoechoic. The hematoma increased in size during the first week but then, started decreasing until it eventually resolved completely. The patient had an uneventful full recovery. In this report, we discuss the ultrasonographic changes of the hematoma throughout the healing process. PMID:25623053

  4. Observation of the internal response of the kidney during compressive loading using ultrafast ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Helfenstein-Didier, C; Tanter, M; Gennisson, J-L; Beillas, P

    2015-07-16

    A protocol based on ultrafast ultrasonography was developed to study the internal response of isolated perfused human (n=3) and porcine (n=11) kidneys subjected to loading at 0.003m/s and 0.3m/s respectively. Regional uniaxial strains were calculated based on natural target tracking. The effect of loading speed and regional differences could be statistically detected on the porcine specimens. However, despite the inhomogeneity of their anatomical structures, strains' responses appeared relatively homogeneous at 0.3m/s in both porcine and human kidneys. Failure, identified as a sudden change on the ultrasonography movie, also appeared at similar compression levels for both species (38.3% of applied strain in average for human and 35.8% of applied strain in average for porcine). PMID:25980554

  5. Practical application of color Doppler ultrasonography in patients with ejaculatory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hara, Ryoei; Nagai, Atsushi; Fujii, Tomohiro; Fukumoto, Kazuhiko; Ohira, Shin; Jo, Yoshimasa; Yokoyama, Teruhiko; Miyaji, Yoshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    We describe two cases in which dynamic analysis of ejaculation using color Doppler ultrasonography was useful in diagnosis of ejaculatory dysfunction and planning of therapy. The first patient was a 32-year-old man with a diagnosis of retrograde ejaculation. A bladder neck collagen injection was carried out, as the main cause was thought to be the bladder neck remaining open during ejaculation. The patient had antegrade ejaculation 1?week later. The second patient was a 48-year-old man with a diagnosis of anorgasmia accompanied by decreased seminal emission and insufficient function of the rhythmic pelvic striated muscles. The patient was prescribed etilefrine hydrochloride 15?mg/day. The symptom improved 2?weeks after starting this drug. These cases suggest that the use of color Doppler ultrasonography during ejaculation can improve the understanding of ejaculatory dysfunction and therapy for this condition. PMID:25808696

  6. Ultrasonography of the healing process during a 3-month follow-up after a splenic injury.

    PubMed

    Rafailidis, Vasileios; Apostolou, Dimitrios; Kaitartzis, Christodoulos; Rafailidis, Dimitrios

    2015-07-01

    We present a 14-year-old boy with a grade III splenic injury due to a bicycle accident, who was treated conservatively. The boy's medical history included splenomegaly due to thalassemia. The splenic lesion was initially investigated with computed tomography (CT) and then, was followed by ultrasonography for 3 months. CT revealed a large intraparenchymal hematoma which appeared hyperechoic on ultrasonography. During follow-up, the hematoma developed a more complex echogenicity and became gradually hypoechoic. The hematoma increased in size during the first week but then, started decreasing until it eventually resolved completely. The patient had an uneventful full recovery. In this report, we discuss the ultrasonographic changes of the hematoma throughout the healing process. PMID:25623053

  7. Diagnosis of placenta previa by ultrasonography: a review at Ramathibodi Hospital.

    PubMed

    Jirapinyo, M; Ajjimakorn, S

    1990-02-01

    From 1,000 ultrasonographic examinations reviewed there were 80 (8%) done for the exclusion of placenta previa. Only 83.6 per cent of these had complete medical records and were the subjects of this study. The most common reason for requesting ultrasonography was antepartum hemorrhage (79.1%). False-positive and false-negative of the report were 16.7 per cent and at least 4.2 per cent respectively. Based on the theory of placental migration it can be recommended that a minor degree of placenta previa diagnosed in the early stage of pregnancy does not need follow-up scanning while the diagnosis of placenta previa totalis follow-up scanning is imperative. A judicious decision in the combined usage of ultrasonography and double-set-up technique can reduce the risk of brisk bleeding and unnecessary cesarean section. PMID:2191069

  8. Diagnosis of a sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy: ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Palmucci, Stefano; Lanza, Maria Letizia; Gulino, Fabrizio; Scilletta, Beniamino; Ettorre, Giovanni Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Sigmoid volvulus complicating pregnancy is a rare, non-obstetric cause of abdominal pain that requires prompt surgical intervention (decompression) to avoid intestinal ischemia and perforation. We report the case of a 31-week pregnant woman with abdominal pain and subsequent development of constipation. Preoperative diagnosis was achieved using magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography: the large bowel distension and a typical whirl sign - near a sigmoid colon transition point - suggested the diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. The decision to refer the patient for emergency laparotomy was adopted without any ionizing radiation exposure, and the pre-operative diagnosis was confirmed after surgery. Imaging features of sigmoid volvulus and differential diagnosis from other non-obstetric abdominal emergencies in pregnancy are discussed in our report, with special emphasis on the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:24967020

  9. Detection of Hepatic Metastases from Carcinoid Tumor: Prospective Evaluation of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Hoeffel; Louis Job; Viviane Ladam-Marcus; Fabien Vitry; Guillaume Cadiot; Claude Marcus

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to prospectively compare unenhanced ultrasonography (US) to contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) in the\\u000a detection of hepatic metastases from carcinoid tumor. Thirty patients with carcinoid tumor prospectively underwent US, CEUS,\\u000a and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Differences in sensitivity at US and CEUS were compared using a combination of the results\\u000a of MR imaging, fine-needle biopsy, and

  10. Correlations between measures of atherosclerosis change using carotid ultrasonography and coronary angiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy J. Mack; Laurie LaBree; Chao-Ran Liu; Chi-Hua Liu; Robert H. Selzer; Howard N. Hodis

    2000-01-01

    Few studies have examined the correlation between change in carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and change in coronary artery disease. In the Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study, current nonsmoking men with coronary artery disease were randomized to colestipol-niacin or placebo. Among 133 subjects with baseline and on-trial coronary angiography and carotid ultrasonography, colestipol-niacin treatment significantly reduced progression of atherosclerosis by both

  11. Diagnostic imaging of the equine tarsal region using radiography and ultrasonography. Part 2: bony disorders.

    PubMed

    Vanderperren, Katrien; Raes, Els; Bree, Henri Van; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2009-02-01

    This is the second part of a two-part review of the structures and disorders of the equine tarsus. In this part the bones of the tarsal region are considered and the technical aspects of taking radiographic, ultrasonographic and scintigraphic images of the different lesions are addressed. The diagnostic use of arthroscopy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance are discussed. In current clinical practice the most frequently used combination to arrive at a diagnosis is still radiography and ultrasonography. PMID:17937999

  12. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in the detection of venous to arterial shunting in acute stroke and transient ischaemic attacks.

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, M; Khan, K A; Shuaib, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To prospectively evaluate the prevalence of venous to arterial shunting in patients with acute stroke and transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) with saline contrast. METHODS: A consecutive series of patients with stroke or TIA underwent contrast TCD. Patients were subsequently divided into groups according to causative factors for stroke or TIA. The prevalence of right to left shunt was assessed within these groups. RESULTS: A total of 210 patients underwent contrast TCD. A right to left shunt was detected in 28.6% of patients (60 of 210). Among the patients with cryptogenic stroke or TIA, 37.1% (43 of 116) had a positive contrast TCD whereas only 18% (17 of 94) with another identifiable cause had a positive test (P = 0.0024). When age was used to further classify those patients with cryptogenic stroke, TCD was positive in 59.3% patients (16 of 27) of < or = 50 years of age versus 30.3% of patients (27 of 89) > 50 years of age (P = 0.0058). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significantly higher prevalence of venous to arterial shunting in patients with stroke or TIA of undetermined cause than in stroke patients with identifiable aetiologies, as detected by contrast TCD. The prevalence of a venous to arterial shunt was significantly higher in the younger group with cryptogenic stroke. Saline contrast TCD is a relatively non-invasive bedside procedure useful in the detection of venous to arterial shunting. Images PMID:8937335

  13. Comparison of the Accuracy of DWI and Ultrasonography in Screening Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients With Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jalli, Reza; Jafari, Seyed Hamed; Sefidbakht, Sepideh; Kazemi, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a neoplasm usually arising in a cirrhotic liver by a multistep carcinogenesis process. Early detection of HCC and accurate assessment of tumor burden are crucial to successful treatment planning and long-term survival. Objectives: In this study, we compared the accuracy of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) combined with limited sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) set as a potentially quick and practical MR candidate with ultrasonography (US) for screening of HCC in patients with cirrhosis. Patients and Methods: Of 96 patients with cirrhosis, 30 who had concomitant HCC proved by pathology were selected. MRI, DWI, and US of the liver were performed for the patients. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of DWI alone, limited sequences MRI alone, a combination of them, and US were calculated for the detection of HCC in these patients and then comparison between these modalities was performed. Results: Combination of limited sequences MRI and DWI had the highest accuracy (94.79%) followed by DWI alone followed by limited sequence MRI alone. The least accuracy was for US (78.12%) with a statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Due to the significant improvement in the treatment of early stage of HCC compared to the previous decade, we suggest a fast, non-invasive, more accurate, but more expensive method (HASTE, OP/IP T1W sequences MRI combined with DWI) rather than US for the screening of HCC in liver cirrhosis. PMID:25785178

  14. Comparison of computed tomography, endosonography, and intraoperative assessment in TN staging of gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, K; Sanft, C; Zimmer, T; Zeitz, M; Felsenberg, D; Stein, H; Germer, C; Deutschmann, C; Riecken, E O

    1993-01-01

    From 1986 to 1990 a prospective comparative study was undertaken to compare the relative accuracy of computed tomography, endogastric ultrasonography, and intraoperative surgical assessment in evaluating the depth of invasion (T category) and involvement of lymph nodes (N category) of patients with gastric carcinoma. One hundred and eight consecutive patients, who were treated by total gastrectomy and previously evaluated with computed tomography, endogastric ultrasonography, and intraoperative surgical assessment, entered the study. Results (T and N category) were compared with those of histopathological staging (pT and pN category). T categories were correctly staged in 43% of cases with computed tomography, 86% with endogastric ultrasonography, and 56% with intraoperative surgical assessment. Computed tomography scanning correctly staged 51% of all N1 and N2 lymph nodes compared with 74% for endogastric ultrasonography and 54% for intraoperative surgical assessment. In general, computed tomography was more accurate for advanced stages of cancer and showed a tendency to overstage the T category and understage N category of gastric tumours. By contrast, endogastric ultrasonography was equally accurate for all T categories and showed an understaging for N categories. Intraoperative surgical assessment overstaged early T stages, understaged T4 tumours, and was equally accurate for all grades of N categories. Computed tomography scanning and intraoperative surgical assessment of T and N categories were of little value in staging of gastric carcinoma. Endogastric ultrasonography is more accurate than computed tomography scanning and intraoperative surgical assessment. Therefore endogastric ultrasonography should be introduced in the preoperative assessment of patients with gastric carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8504959

  15. Comparison of Ultrasonography-Guided Central Venous Catheterization Between Adult and Pediatric Populations

    SciTech Connect

    Tercan, Fahri [Baskent Universitesi, Adana Arastirma ve Uygulama Merkezi (Turkey)], E-mail: ftercan@yahoo.com; Oguzkurt, Levent; Ozkan, Ugur [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Eker, Hatice Evren [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology (Turkey)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the technical success and complication rates of ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization between adult and pediatric patients which have not been reported previously. In a 4-year period, 859 ultrasonography-guided central vein catheterizations in 688 adult patients and 247 catheterizations in 156 pediatric patients were retrospectively evaluated. Mean age was 56.3 years (range, 18 to 95 years) for adults and 3.3 years (range, 0.1 to 16.3 years) for children. The preferred catheterization site was internal jugular vein in 97% of adults and 85% of children. The technical success rate, mean number of punctures, and rate of single wall puncture were 99.4%, 1.04 (range, 1-3), and 83% for adults and 90.3%, 1.25 (range, 1-5), and 49% for children, respectively. All the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Complication rates were 2.3% and 2.4% for adults and children, respectively (p > 0.05). Major complications such as pneumothorax and hemothorax were not seen in any group. In conclusion, ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization has a high technical success rate, lower puncture attempt rate, and higher single wall puncture rate in adults compared to children. Complication rates are comparable in the two groups.

  16. Uterine artery embolization for leioyomas, ultrasonography and angiography aspects

    PubMed Central

    Horhoianu, IA; Horhoianu, VV; Joita, D; Carstoiu, M; Dorobat, B

    2012-01-01

    Objective and Rationale. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the degree of fibroid shrinkage which well correlates with symptom regression, and thus to assess the effectiveness of the procedure Method. 31 patients were included in the trial after selection. All the patients were thoroughly evaluated before embolization, the following day and at a month after but also at 3 months for 10 of them. A certain protocol was followed passing through well established steps. The purpose was to discover and rule out any associated possible disease and to assess and grade the symptoms, ultrasound and angiographic aspects. Results. Regarding the uterus, its volume evolution registered a descending trend, the mean decrease at 30 days being of 25% (-81,6 cm³) and at 90 days of 52%(-173,15 cm³). The fibroids also decreased statistically, the mean global variation at 30 days registering a decrease of -17,66 cm³(27%) and 61% at day 90. The mean global reduction at 30 days was of 44% (-33,18 cm³) and of 62% (-60,85 cm³) at 90 days. Absence of uterine anastomoses lead to proper fibroid decrease whereas their presence diminished the chances. Conclusions. The uterine and fibroid volumes registered a statistical volume decrease at 30 and 90 days in comparison with the volumes before embolization. Absence of uterine anastomoses led to proper fibroid decrease. Longer evaluation time is needed for an accurate evaluation of volume reduction degree. PMID:23346257

  17. The reliability and reproducibility of ultrasonography for measuring the residual urine volume in men with lower urinary tract symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwahab, Hassan A.; Abdalla, Housseini M.; Sherief, Mahmoud H.; Ibrahim, Mohamed B.; Shamaa, Mostafa A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the reliability and reproducibility of abdominal ultrasonography (US) for measuring the postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), and to compare measurements by a radiologist and urologist, in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), as a significant PVR is common in patients with LUTS and an assessment of the PVR could protect patients from unnecessary catheterisation. Patients and methods This was a prospective comparative study of 45 men aged ?45 years with LUTS attending a urological outpatient clinic from July 2011 to May 2012. A detailed history was taken, with an assessment of LUTS using the Arabic Validated International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and complete general and local examination. The PVR was measured by US twice by a radiologist and urologist, and then repeated after 1 week. Within ?2 min after US a urethral catheter was used to measure the PVR. Results The mean (range) age of the patients was 63.8 (45–88) years and the mean IPSS was 16.18. Reliability testing between the PVR measured by US and the catheterised measure of PVR showed that US was not reliable (Cronbach’s ? < 0.7). The US measurement was reproducible for both single examiner over two sessions, and with two examiners in one session. The PVR obtained by the urethral catheter was significantly higher than the US measurement (P < 0.05). Conclusions The measurement of PVR by US is reproducible by either a urologist or radiologist, but it is not reliable, as the urethral catheter estimate gives a significantly higher PVR. PMID:26019963

  18. Diagnostic sensitivity and interobserver agreement of radiography and ultrasonography for detecting trochlear ridge osteochondrosis lesions in the equine stifle.

    PubMed

    Beccati, Francesca; Chalmers, Heather J; Dante, Sara; Lotto, Eleonora; Pepe, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Osteochondrosis lesions commonly occur on the femoral trochlear ridges in horses and radiography and ultrasonography are routinely used to diagnose these lesions. However, poor correlation has been found between radiographic and arthroscopic findings of affected trochlear ridges. Interobserver agreement for ultrasonographic diagnoses and correlation between ultrasonographic and arthroscopic findings have not been previously described. Objectives of this study were to describe diagnostic sensitivity and interobserver agreement of radiography and ultrasonography for detecting and grading osteochondrosis lesions of the equine trochlear ridges, using arthroscopy as the reference standard. Twenty-two horses were sampled. Two observers independently recorded radiographic and ultrasonographic findings without knowledge of arthroscopic findings. Imaging findings were compared between observers and with arthroscopic findings. Agreement between observers was moderate to excellent (? 0.48-0.86) for detecting lesions using radiography and good to excellent (? 0.74-0.87) for grading lesions using radiography. Agreement between observers was good to excellent (? 0.78-0.94) for detecting lesions using ultrasonography and very good to excellent (? 0.86-0.93) for grading lesions using ultrasonography. Diagnostic sensitivity was 84-88% for radiography and 100% for ultrasonography. Diagnostic specificity was 89-100% for radiography and 60-82% for ultrasonography. Agreement between radiography and arthroscopy was good (? 0.64-0.78). Agreement between ultrasonography and arthroscopy was very good to excellent (? 0.81-0.87). Findings from this study support ultrasound as a preferred method for predicting presence and severity of osteochondrosis lesions involving the femoral trochlear ridges in horses. PMID:23278908

  19. Ultrasonography of the rumen in 30 Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Jacquat, D; Hässig, M

    2011-09-01

    This study describes the results of ultrasonographic examination of the rumen in 30 healthy Saanen goats. A linear or convex transducer with a variable frequency of 5 to 13 MHz was used to scan standing, non-sedated goats. The location and size of the rumen, the distance between the wall of the rumen and abdominal wall and the appearance and size of the gas, fibre mat and fluid layers of the ruminal contents were assessed. The rumen was seen as a large organ medial to the left abdominal wall. The wall of the rumen appeared as a thick echogenic line. The longitudinal groove was seen as an echogenic notch, which divided the rumen into the dorsal and ventral sacs. The rumen could be visualized from the 9th to 12th intercostal space (ICS) and flank on the left side in all the goats. The rumen was largest in the 12th ICS at 41.6 ± 5.13 cm and smallest in the 8th ICS at 11.3 ± 4.29 cm. The dorsal sac of the rumen was largest in the left cranial flank (17.4 ± 4.43 cm) and the ventral sac was largest in the 12th ICS on the left (29.1 ± 6.03 cm). In the cranial left flank, the rumen was situated immediately adjacent to the abdominal wall in all the goats. The spleen was located between the rumen and abdominal wall in the 8th to 12 th ICS in many of the goats. The gas, fibre mat and fluid layers of the ruminal contents could be visualized in all the goats. The gas layer was 9.9 ± 3.05 cm, the fibre mat layer 16.0 ± 4.55 cm and the fluid layer 12.2 ± 5.57 cm. PMID:21866512

  20. Automatic detection and estimation of biparietal diameter from fetal ultrasonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annangi, Pavan; Banerjee Krishnan, Kajoli; Banerjee, Jyotirmoy; Gupta, Madhumita; Patil, Uday

    2011-03-01

    Fetal bi-parietal diameter (BPD) is known to provide a reliable estimate of gestational age (GA) of a fetus in the first half of pregnancy. In this paper, we present an automated method to identify and measure BPD from B-mode ultrasound images of fetal head. The method (a) automatically detects and places a region-of-interest on the head based on a prior work in our group (b) utilizes the concept of phase congruency for edge detection and (c) employs a cost function to identify the third ventricle inside the head (d) measures the BPD along the perpendicular bisector of occipital frontal diameter (OFD) from the outer rim of the cranium closer to the transducer to the inner rim of the cranium away from the transducer. The cost function is premised on the distribution of anatomical shape, size and presentation of the third ventricle in images that adhere to clinical guidelines describing the scan plane for BPD measurement. The OFD is assumed to lie along the third ventricle. The algorithm has been tested on 137 images acquired from four different scanners. Based on GA estimates and their bounds specified in Standard Obstetric Tables, the GA predictions from automated measurements are found to be within +/-2SD of GA estimates from manual measurements by the operator and a second expert radiologist in 98% of the cases. The method described in this paper can also be adapted to assess the accuracy of the scan plane based on the presence/absence of the third ventricle.

  1. The usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma viability after transarterial chemoembolization: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Youn Zoo; Park, So Yeon; Choi, Eun Hee; Baik, Soon Koo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Kim, Young Ju

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The therapeutic effect of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually assessed using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). However, dense lipiodol depositions can mask the enhancement of viable HCC tissue in MDCT. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) could be effective in detecting small areas of viability and patency in vessels. We investigated whether arterial enhancement in CEUS after treatment with TACE can be used to detect HCC viability earlier than when using MDCT. Methods Twelve patients received CEUS, MDCT, and gadoxetic-acid-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 4 and 12 weeks after TACE. The definition of viable HCC was defined as MRI positivity after 4 or 12 weeks. Results Eight of the 12 patients showed MRI positivity at 4 or 12 weeks. All patients with positive CEUS findings at 4 weeks (n=8) showed MRI positivity and residual viable HCC at 4 or 12 weeks. Five of the eight patients with positive CEUS findings at 4 weeks had negative results on the 4-week MDCT scan. Four (50%) of these eight patients did not have MRI positivity at 4 weeks and were ultimately confirmed as having residual HCC tissue at the 12-week MRI. Kappa statistics revealed near-perfect agreement between CEUS and MRI (?=1.00) and substantial agreement between MDCT and MRI (?=0.67). Conclusions In the assessment of the response to TACE, CEUS at 4 weeks showed excellent results for detecting residual viable HCC, which suggests that CEUS can be used as an early additive diagnosis tool when deciding early additional treatment with TACE. PMID:26157754

  2. The Accuracy of Ultrasonography for the Evaluation of Portal Hypertension in Patients with Cirrhosis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gaeun; Cho, Youn Zoo; Kim, Moon Young; Hong, Won Ki; Kwon, Sang Ok

    2015-01-01

    Objective Studies have presented conflicting results regarding the accuracy of ultrasonography (US) for diagnosing portal hypertension (PH). We sought to identify evidence in the literature regarding the accuracy of US for assessing PH in patients with liver cirrhosis. Materials and Methods We conducted a systematic review by searching databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, for relevant studies. Results A total of 14 studies met our inclusion criteria. The US indices were obtained in the portal vein (n = 9), hepatic artery (n = 6), hepatic vein (HV) (n = 4) and other vessels. Using hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) as the reference, the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the portal venous indices were 69-88% and 67-75%, respectively. The correlation coefficients between HVPG and the portal venous indices were approximately 0.296-0.8. No studies assess the Se and Sp of the hepatic arterial indices. The correlation between HVPG and the hepatic arterial indices ranged from 0.01 to 0.83. The Se and Sp of the hepatic venous indices were 75.9-77.8% and 81.8-100%, respectively. In particular, the Se and Sp of HV arrival time for clinically significant PH were 92.7% and 86.7%, respectively. A statistically significant correlation between HVPG and the hepatic venous indices was observed (0.545-0.649). Conclusion Some US indices, such as HV, exhibited an increased accuracy for diagnosing PH. These indices may be useful in clinical practice for the detection of significant PH. PMID:25741193

  3. Impact of Clinicopathological Factors on Sensitivity of Axillary Ultrasonography in the Detection of Axillary Nodal Metastases in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Bedrosian; Deepak Bedi; Henry M. Kuerer; Bruno D. Fornage; Lori Harker; Merrick I. Ross; Frederick C. Ames; Savitri Krishnamurthy; Beth S. Edeiken-Monroe; Funda Meric; Barry W. Feig; Jeri Akins; S. Eva Singletary; Nadeem Q. Mirza; Kelly K. Hunt

    2003-01-01

    Background: Ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) are used to evaluate the breast and regional nodes in breast cancer patients.\\u000a We sought to identify factors influencing the sensitivity of ultrasonography for detection of nodal metastasis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Patients with a clinically negative axilla who underwent axillary ultrasonography and sentinel lymph node biopsy were included.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results: Of 208 patients, axillary ultrasonography was negative

  4. Blood flow in intracranial aneurysms treated with Pipeline embolization devices: computational simulation and verification with Doppler ultrasonography on phantom models

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of flow-diverter treatment through Doppler ultrasonography measurements in patient-specific models of intracranial bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. Methods: Computational and physical models of patient-specific bifurcation and sidewall aneurysms were constructed from computed tomography angiography with use of stereolithography, a three-dimensional printing technology. Flow dynamics parameters before and after flow-diverter treatment were measured with pulse-wave and color Doppler ultrasonography, and then compared with CFD simulations. Results: CFD simulations showed drastic flow reduction after flow-diverter treatment in both aneurysms. The mean volume flow rate decreased by 90% and 85% for the bifurcation aneurysm and the side-wall aneurysm, respectively. Velocity contour plots from computer simulations before and after flow diversion closely resembled the patterns obtained by color Doppler ultrasonography. Conclusion: The CFD estimation of flow reduction in aneurysms treated with a flow-diverting stent was verified by Doppler ultrasonography in patient-specific phantom models of bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. The combination of CFD and ultrasonography may constitute a feasible and reliable technique in studying the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverting stents. PMID:25754367

  5. Clients' reasons for prenatal ultrasonography in Ibadan, South West of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Enakpene, Christopher A; Morhason-Bello, Imran O; Marinho, Anthony O; Adedokun, Babatunde O; Kalejaiye, Adegoke O; Sogo, Kayode; Gbadamosi, Sikiru A; Awoyinka, Babatunde S; Enabor, Obehi O

    2009-01-01

    Background Prenatal ultrasonography has remained a universal tool but little is known especially from developing countries on clients' reasons for desiring it. Then aim was to determine the reasons why pregnant women will desire a prenatal ultrasound. Methods It was a cross-sectional survey of consecutive 222 women at 2 different ultrasonography facilities in Ibadan, South-west Nigeria. Results The mean age of the respondents was 30.1 ± 4.5 years. The commonest reason for requesting for prenatal ultrasound scans was to check for fetal viability in 144 women (64.7%) of the respondents, followed by fetal gender determination in 50 women (22.6%. Other reasons were to check for number of fetuses, fetal age and placental location. Factors such as younger age, artisans profession and low level of education significantly influenced the decision to check for fetal viability on bivariate analysis but all were not significant on multivariate analysis. Concerning fetal gender determination, older age, Christianity, occupation and gravidity were significant on bivariate analysis, however, only gravidity and occupation remained significant independent predictor on logistic regression model. Women with less than 3 previous pregnancies were about 4 times more likely to request for fetal sex determination than women with more than 3 previous pregnancies, (OR 3.8 95%CI 1.52 – 9.44). The professionals were 7 times more likely than the artisans to request to find out about their fetal sex, (OR 7.0 95%CI 1.47 – 333.20). Conclusion This study shows that Nigerian pregnant women desired prenatal ultrasonography mostly for fetal viability, followed by fetal gender determination. These preferences were influenced by their biosocial variables. PMID:19426518

  6. Early diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome by computed tomography and ultrasonography: report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Baert, A L; Fevery, J; Marchal, G; Goddeeris, P; Wilms, G; Ponette, E; De Groote, J

    1983-03-01

    In 5 patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome, computed tomography after intravenous bolus injection of iodinated contrast agents demonstrated images not previously seen in other diseases. The images are compatible with stagnation of contrast material at the periphery of the liver. In 3 of the 5 cases, grey-scale ultrasonography failed to document the normal hepatic veins draining into the inferior caval vein, but showed an intrahepatic network of comma-shaped venous structures. It is proposed that these two noninvasive approaches can help in establishing an early diagnosis. PMID:6822327

  7. Testicular Arteriovenous Malformation: Gray-Scale and Color Doppler Ultrasonography Features

    PubMed Central

    Gulsen, Fatih; Mihmanli, Ismail; Kantarci, Fatih; Eren, Abdulkadir; Ataus, Suleyman Onder

    2011-01-01

    Intratesticular arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are extremely rare benign incidental lesions of the testis. Ultrasonography (US) generally reveals a hypoechoic solid mass within the testicular parenchyma. We describe a patient with intratesticular AVM which was found incidentally during workup for infertility. The gray-scale and Doppler US appearance of an intratesticular AVM and the differential diagnosis have been presented. Based on the gray-scale, US appearance differentiation from malignant testicular tumors is difficult. Doppler US examination aids in the diagnosis by demonstrating the vascular nature of the tumor. PMID:21785607

  8. [Usefulness of real time transrectal ultrasonography to monitor the Greenlight XPS(®) (180W) laser prostatectomy].

    PubMed

    Fournier, G; Perrouin-Verbe, M-A; Papin, G; Deruelle, C

    2011-06-01

    We report a technical improvement of the Greenlight(®) XPS prostatectomy by using real time transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) during the procedure. The TRUS probe lays on a flexible support fastened to the operative table. A wide screen with double display allows the surgeon to control the progress of the procedure with simultaneous ultrasonographic and endoscopic views. The depth of vaporization clearly appears as an hyperechogenic line together with an enlargement of the vaporization area. Real time TRUS monitoring during photovaporization of BPH decreases the learning curve, the risk of prostatic capsule perforation and bleeding, and allows to check the completeness of the procedure. PMID:21620297

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital harlequin ichthyosis with 2D, 3D, and 4D ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Basgul, A Y; Kavak, Z N; Guducu, N; Durukan, B; Isci, H

    2011-01-01

    Harlequin fetus is a rare and mostly fatal form of congenital ichthyosis that can be diagnosed by fetal skin biopsy in patients with a family history of the disease. More recently DNA analysis of amniocentesis and chorion villus sampling materials have also been utilized. We report a case of prenatally diagnosed congenital ichthyosis with no previous family history. Diagnosis was mainly achieved by 3D and 4D ultrasonography findings such as diffuse scaling of the skin, digital contractures, flattened rudimentary external ear, nasal hypoplasia, everted eyelids, typical fish mouth appearance, macroglossia, and persistently open fetal mouth. PMID:21995167

  10. Endoscopic ultrasonography: an advancing option with duality in both diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal oncology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since their introduction into the clinical practices in 1980s, techniques of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) have been rapidly developing and are now in widespread use in gastrointestinal oncology. Evolving from the classical option, EUS today has been much innovated with addition of a variety of novel ideation which makes it a powerful tool with encouraging duality for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. There is a dire need for physicians in this field to understand the status quo of EUS as related to the management and detection of gastrointestinal tumors, which is globally reviewed in this paper. PMID:25561772

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of Goldenhar syndrome with unusual features by 3D ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Guzelmansur, I; Ceylaner, G; Ceylaner, S; Ceylan, N; Daplan, T

    2013-01-01

    Oculoauriculo-vertebral spectrum, or Goldenhar syndrome, is characterized by varying degrees of prevalently unilateral underdevelopment of craniofacial structures (orbit, ear, and mandible) and spinal anomalies. We report a patient with unusual features diagnosed prenatally by 3D ultrasonography at 21 weeks' gestation without a family history. An early diagnosis was suggested by observation of a maxillary cleft-plate, multiple vertebral segmentation defects and hypoplastic thumb. Postnatal evaluation also revealed ambiguous genitalia and club feet in addition to the prenatally and postnatally diagnosed classical Goldenhar syndrome features like hemifacial microsomia, preauricular and facial skin tags, coloboma of eyelids, epibulbar dermoid. PMID:24341148

  12. Ultrasonography of Various Thyroid Diseases in Children and Adolescents: A Pictorial Essay

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Hye; Jeong, Sun Hye; Park, Jisang; Lee, Heon

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid imaging is indicated to evaluate congenital hypothyroidism during newborn screening or in cases of a palpable thyroid mass in children and adolescents. This pictorial essay reviews the ultrasonography (US) of thyroid diseases in children and adolescents, including normal thyroid gland development, imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (dysgenesis, [aplasia, ectopy, hypoplasia], dyshormonogenesis, transient hypothyroidism, thyroglossal duct cyst), diffuse thyroid disease (Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and suppurative thyroiditis), and thyroid nodules. The primary imaging modalities for evaluating thyroid diseases are US and radionuclide scintigraphy. Additionally, US can be used to guide aspiration of detected nodules. PMID:25741204

  13. Ultrasonography of various thyroid diseases in children and adolescents: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Jeong, Sun Hye; Park, Jisang; Lee, Heon

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid imaging is indicated to evaluate congenital hypothyroidism during newborn screening or in cases of a palpable thyroid mass in children and adolescents. This pictorial essay reviews the ultrasonography (US) of thyroid diseases in children and adolescents, including normal thyroid gland development, imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (dysgenesis, [aplasia, ectopy, hypoplasia], dyshormonogenesis, transient hypothyroidism, thyroglossal duct cyst), diffuse thyroid disease (Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and suppurative thyroiditis), and thyroid nodules. The primary imaging modalities for evaluating thyroid diseases are US and radionuclide scintigraphy. Additionally, US can be used to guide aspiration of detected nodules. PMID:25741204

  14. Binary ultrasonography for the internist: yes or no, that’s the question!

    PubMed

    Bosch, F H; ter Maaten, J C; Geers, A B M; Gans, R O B

    2012-12-01

    The authors discuss the pros and cons with regard to ultrasound for the internist. They state that ultrasonography is seldom used by internists and they suggest several reasons for this. After a brief review of the literature they conclude that using ultrasound would probably benefit patients and would lead to a more rapid diagnosis and an increase in safety while performing invasive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The authors suggest that internists use ultrasound in a different way compared with radiologists, cardiologists, etc. They introduce the term binary ultrasound: ultrasound should be used to answer clinical questions with a yes or a no. PMID:23355992

  15. Ultrasonography of small intestinal inflammatory and neoplastic diseases in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Gaschen, Lorrie

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasonography, which has become a mainstay of diagnosing intestinal diseases in dogs and cats, is often one of the first diagnostic tools used to differentiate inflammatory from neoplastic infiltration of the small intestine. Although overlap in the sonographic appearances of inflammatory and neoplastic infiltration make a definitive diagnosis difficult, awareness of features of both diseases is important for the accurate interpretation of the sonographic findings. Full-thickness intestinal biopsy remains the gold standard for differentiating inflammatory from neoplastic disease of the small intestine. PMID:21486639

  16. [Abdominal ultrasonography in the staging and follow-up of malignant lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Scutellari, P N; Cervi, P M; Valier, G; Spanedda, R; Gennari, M; Pavani, F; Piffanelli, A

    1985-06-01

    During the period September 1980-June 1984, abdominal US was performed by the authors on 103 patients with confirmed malignant lymphomas. The results indicate US has accuracy comparable to that of lymphography for lymph node enlargement; furthermore, US has the added advantages of being able to demonstrate mesenteric, renal hilar and other abdominal lymph nodes that are not commonly filled with contrast medium during lymphography. For these reasons, US is now frequently used in the diagnosis and staging of malignant lymphomas as well as for following up the results of therapy.(US = ultrasonography) PMID:4070701

  17. 3-year results of transvaginal cystocele repair with transobturator four-arm mesh: A prospective study of 105 patients

    PubMed Central

    Kdous, Moez; Zhioua, Fethi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of transobturator four-arm mesh for treating cystoceles. Patients and methods In this prospective study, 105 patients had a cystocele corrected between January 2004 and December 2008. All patients had a symptomatic cystocele of stage ?2 according to the Baden–Walker halfway stratification. We used only the transobturator four-arm mesh kit (Surgimesh®, Aspide Medical, France). All surgical procedures were carried out by the same experienced surgeon. The patients’ characteristics and surgical variables were recorded prospectively. The anatomical outcome, as measured by a physical examination and postoperative stratification of prolapse, and functional outcome, as assessed by a questionnaire derived from the French equivalents of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse–Urinary Incontinence-Sexual Questionnaire, were considered as the primary outcome measures. Peri- and postoperative complications constituted the secondary outcome measures. Results At 36 months after surgery the anatomical success rate (stage 0 or 1) was 93%. On a functional level, all the scores of quality of life and sexuality were improved. The overall satisfaction score (visual analogue scale) was 71.4%. There were no perioperative adverse events. Mesh erosion was reported in 7.6% and mesh retraction in 5.7% of the patients. Conclusions If the guidelines and precautions are followed, vaginal prosthetic surgery for genitourinary prolapse has shown long-term benefits. It provides excellent results both anatomically and functionally. However, complications are not negligible and some are specific to prosthetic surgery. PMID:26019962

  18. Relationship of Elongated Styloid Process in Digital Panoramic Radiography with Carotid Intima Thickness and Carotid Atheroma in Doppler Ultrasonography in Osteoporotic Females

    PubMed Central

    Hamedani, Shahram; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Zare, Zahra; Hasani, Mahvash; Torabi Ardakani, Mahshid; Hasani, Mahsa; Shahidi, Shoaleh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis are major health dilemmas. Osteoporotic patients frequently display vascular calcification that consequently increases the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Purpose This study aimed to investigate the relation of osteoporosis, vascular calcification (atheroma, intima-media thickness (IMT)) and elongated styloid process (ESP) in a sample of osteoporotic and normal female individuals. Materials and Method This study recruited 78 women who were assessed for bone mass density (BMD). Sample included individuals with normal BMD (n=13, 17 %), osteopenia (n=36, 46 %), and osteoporosis (n=29, 37%). The presence of atheroma and IMT was examined using color Doppler ultrasonography (CD-US). In addition, digital panoramic radiographs (PRs) were obtained to assess ESP. Results In this study, 55 subjects (70%) with low BMD exhibited at least one side ESP. Femoral BMD decreased significantly in subjects with ESP (p= 0.03). Bilateral ESP was correlated with the presence of atheroma (p= 0.029). The CIMT was greater in patients with ESP, although the relation was not significant. Conclusion The obtained data suggest referring the aged individuals with ESP for BMD assessment and individuals with low bone mass and ESP for more cardiovascular risk assessment.

  19. Diagnosis of luteal and follicular ovarian cysts by palpation per rectum and linear-array ultrasonography in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Farin, P W; Youngquist, R S; Parfet, J R; Garverick, H A

    1992-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the accuracy of palpation per rectum and linear-array ultrasonography for diagnosing follicular vs luteal ovarian cysts in cows. Forty-seven examinations of ovarian cysts from 28 cows were diagnosed by palpation per rectum as either a firm, thick-walled structure (luteal cyst) or a soft, thin-walled structure (follicular cyst) during weekly herd examinations. The ovaries of each cow were then examined by ultrasonography. Ultrasonograms of cysts greater than 25 mm in diameter were diagnosed as luteal or follicular cysts and were recorded on videotape for evaluation by a second clinician. Serum progesterone concentrations at the time of examination were determined by radioimmunoassay and used to classify luteal (greater than 0.5 ng/ml) or follicular (less than or equal to 0.5 ng/ml) cysts. Selection of this discriminatory level was based on response of a proportion of cows with luteal cysts that were given 25 mg of prostaglandin F2 alpha at the time of diagnosis by ultrasonography. Sensitivity and specificity of palpation per rectum for diagnosis of type of ovarian cyst were low (43.3 and 64.7%, respectively). In contrast, sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography were considerably higher (86.7 and 82.3%, respectively). Agreement between the 2 methods of diagnosis was 57.4%. Overall agreement between the 2 clinicians' diagnoses by ultrasonography was 85.1%. On the basis of our findings, we confirm that luteal and follicular cysts cannot be accurately differentiated by palpation per rectum alone. These data suggest that linear-array ultrasonography is more effective than palpation per rectum for diagnosing type of ovarian cyst in cows. PMID:1607312

  20. Prospective 7 year follow up imaging study comparing radiography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis finger joints

    PubMed Central

    Scheel, A K; Hermann, K?G A; Ohrndorf, S; Werner, C; Schirmer, C; Detert, J; Bollow, M; Hamm, B; Müller, G A; Burmester, G R; Backhaus, M

    2006-01-01

    Objective To perform a prospective long term follow up study comparing conventional radiography (CR), ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of bone erosions and synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) finger joints. Methods The metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints II–V (128 joints) of the clinically dominant hand of 16 patients with RA were included. Follow up joint by joint comparisons for erosions and synovitis were made. Results At baseline, CR detected erosions in 5/128 (4%) of all joints, US in 12/128 (9%), and MRI in 34/128 (27%). Seven years later, an increase of joints with erosions was found with CR (26%), US (49%) (p<0.001 each), and MRI (32%, NS). In contrast, joint swelling and tenderness assessed by clinical examination were decreased at follow up (p?=?0.2, p<0.001). A significant reduction in synovitis with US and MRI (p<0.001 each) was seen. In CR, 12 patients did not have any erosions at baseline, while in 10/12 patients erosions were detected in 25/96 (26%) joints after 7?years. US initially detected erosions in 9 joints, of which two of these joints with erosions were seen by CR at follow up. MRI initially found 34 erosions, of which 14 (41%) were then detected by CR. Conclusion After 7?years, an increase of bone erosions was detected by all imaging modalities. In contrast, clinical improvement and regression of synovitis were seen only with US and MRI. More than one third of erosions previously detected by MRI were seen by CR 7?years later. PMID:16192290

  1. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the characterization of benign focal liver lesions: activity-based cost analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Faccioli; M. D’Onofrio; A. Comai; C. Cugini

    2007-01-01

    Purpose  The aim of this study was to perform a cost analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the study of benign focal\\u000a liver lesions (BFLL) with indeterminate appearance on ultrasonography (US).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  A decision model of patients with suspected BFLL on baseline US who subsequently underwent CEUS between 2002 and 2005 was\\u000a constructed. We analysed the cost effectiveness of CEUS,

  2. Prenatal Diagnosis of Treacher-Collins Syndrome Using Three-Dimensional Ultrasonography and Differential Diagnosis with Other Acrofacial Dysostosis Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Daniela Cardoso; Bussamra, Luiz Claudio Silva; Drummond, Carolina Leite; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Aldrighi, José Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Treacher-Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare dominant autosomal anomaly resulting from malformation or disruption of the development of the first and second branchial arches. It is characterized by micrognathia, malar hypoplasia, and malformations of the eyes and ears. The prenatal diagnosis using two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS) is characterized by identification of facial malformations together with polyhydramnios. Three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS) has the capacity to spatially display these facial malformations, thus making it easy for the parents to understand them. We present a case of TCS diagnosed in the 33rd week using 3DUS, with postnatal confirmation using cranial computed tomography and anatomopathological analysis. PMID:23653874

  3. Effect of Ultrasonography-Guided Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection in Holmes' Tremor Secondary to Pontine Hemorrhage: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, So-Yeon; Kim, Dong-A; Park, Youn-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Holmes' tremor is a low-frequency rest and intentional tremor secondary to various insults, including cerebral ischemia, hemorrhage, trauma, or neoplasm. Pharmacologic treatment is usually unsuccessful, and some cases require surgical intervention. We report a rare case of Holmes' tremor secondary to left pontine hemorrhage in a 29-year-old Asian male patient who developed 1.6-Hz postural and rest tremor of the right hand. He responded markedly to ultrasonography-guided botulinum toxin type A injection. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Homes' tremor treated with ultrasonography-guided botulinum toxin type A injection with favorable results. PMID:25379500

  4. Ultrasonography of the lungs and pleura in healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    This study describes ultrasonography of the lungs and pleura in healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius). The different layers of the thoracic wall appeared as narrow bands of variable echogenicity. Reverberation artefacts appeared as lines of variable echogenicity that ran parallel to the pulmonary surface medial to the pleura. Because of its air content, the pulmonary parenchyma was not visualised in all camels. On the right side, the pulmonary surface was seen in the 5th through the 10th intercostal space (ICS). In addition, it was imaged in the 11th ICS in 20 camels and in the 4th ICS in three camels. The dimension of the ventral lung border was largest at the 4th ICS and smallest at the 11th ICS. The echogenic line on the surface of the lung, consisting of the costal and the parietal pleurae, was 1 to 4 mm thick. The left pulmonary surface and pleura were imaged with approximately the same frequencies as the right side. At this side, only the pulmonary surface and pleura were imaged in 15 camels in the 11th ICS. In conclusion, ultrasonography of the lungs and pleura provides information that can be used as a reference when examining camels suspected to have respiratory diseases. PMID:23921343

  5. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography evaluation after autologous fat grafting in scar revision

    PubMed Central

    BOLLERO, D.; POZZA, S.; GANGEMI, E.N.; DE MARCHI, A.; GANEM, J.; EL KHATIB, A.M.; FALETTI, C.; STELLA, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Fat transfer is commonly used to fill loss of volume in depressed scars caused by trauma, deep burns or surgery. The aim of the study is to investigate the degree of fat graft take through evaluation of the microcirculation of grafted autologous adipose tissue using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Patients and method From 2010 to 2012 at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Traumatological Center in Turin, a study population was selected from patients with surgical indications for autologous fat transfer for scar correction. For each surgical procedure patients underwent a clinical and sonographic evaluation before and after intervention (at 1 month and 3 months). Results Out of a total of 28 interventions, 24 showed a good result; defined as improvement of the scar, and confirmed by the presence of vascularization in the transplanted tissue. In 4 cases, there was a lack of blood supply at the first evaluation but an initial good clinical scar correction. The absence of blood vessels was confirmed at 3 months accompanied by complete resorption of the transferred fat with a failure of good clinical outcome. Conclusion Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was able to evaluate the microvasculature of adipose tissue after fat transfer. Due to this characteristic, it allows to monitor and predict the take of adipose tissue and provide realistic and early information on the clinical outcome of fat transfer. PMID:25644727

  6. Ultrasonography: an alternative to x-ray-guided needle localization of nonpalpable breast masses.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, G F; Goldberg, B B; Rifkin, M D; D'Orazio, S E

    1988-11-01

    Preoperative ultrasonography was used as an alternative to x-ray mammography to localize 92 breast lesions encountered in 82 patients. Recommendation for biopsy was made on the basis of the ultrasonographic finding of a nonpalpable mass or an area of architectural distortion, or in the presence of equivocal physical findings if sonomammography demonstrated a solid or an anechoic mass. Sonomammography was performed in the operating room, just before anticipated biopsy, with a hand-held high-resolution scanner. When the suspicious area was imaged and its precise location noted, the breast was then prepared and draped in the usual manner, and a biopsy was performed. If the suspicious area could not be easily localized after the incision was made and the breast explored, the transducer was "gowned" and used directly in the wound to help find the lesion. This technique has proven effective and accurate. In selected patients ultrasonography may be used as well as, or instead of, x-ray needle localization for the precise excision of nonpalpable breast lesions, excluding calcifications. PMID:3055396

  7. 3D and 4D sonography and magnetic resonance in the assessment of normal and abnormal CNS development: alternative or complementary.

    PubMed

    Pooh, Ritsuko K; Kurjak, Asim

    2011-01-01

    Advanced transvaginal neurosonography has revealed normal and abnormal intracranial morphology. Transvaginal three-dimensional (3D) sonography demonstrates bony structure, multiplanar analysis of inside detailed morphology, tomographic ultrasound imaging in any cutting sections, 3D sonoangiography and volume calculation of ventricles and/or intracranial lesions. Longitudinal assessment of normal and abnormal central nervous system (CNS) development is done by serial scanning. However, the transvaginal high-frequency approach has several limitations due to lack of penetration and cranial bone ossification with advanced gestational age. Magnetic resonance neuroimaging enabled observation of the whole intracranial cavity, brainstem and cortical gyral/sulcal development. On the other hand, neuro-sonography has advantages in detecting intracranial calcification, vascular abnormalities, intratumoral vascularity and bone dysplasia. Moreover, 3D ultrasound demonstrates extra CNS abnormalities, strongly associated with CNS abnormalities. Any less-invasive modalities can be used for a CNS anomaly screening scan and ultrasound is no doubt the first choice. Once CNS abnormality is suspected, it is suggested to use the different technologies according to what is looked for in each abnormal CNS case. Of course, MR and 3D ultrasound imaging should be complementary as well as alternative. PMID:20979445

  8. [Vascular ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Stiegler, H

    2012-03-01

    Vascular ultrasound plays an important role in the visual depiction of arteries, veins, and changes of tissue in lymphatic diseases. In the case of arteries, this ranges from endothelial dysfunction over measuring the increase of intima media thickness to the detection of stenoses, occlusion, or aneurysm. Ultrasound helps to differentiate in functional arterial diseases such as primary and secondary Raynaud's syndrome as well as arterial compression syndromes like entrapment syndrome of different arterial regions or the chronic exceptional compartment syndrome of the lower leg. Ultrasound plays a central role in the diagnosis of rare arterial diseases like large vessel vasculitis, arterial dissection, cystic adventitial degeneration, and the differentiation of vascular malformation especially in children, thus, permitting ultrasound-guided intervention and follow-up controls. In venous thrombosis, sonography is the primary imaging method, while follow-up controls help in the prediction of recurrent venous thrombosis. Ultrasound is a tool to determine the cause and severity of chronic venous insufficiency and allows different therapeutic procedures for the treatment of varicose veins to be visually monitored. PMID:22358939

  9. Translabial Ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Peter Dietz

    \\u000a Translabial ultrasound is the most commonly used imaging method in the investigation of women with lower urinary tract symptoms\\u000a and female pelvic organ prolapse, due to its simplicity, low cost and non-invasive nature. This chapter will summarize practical\\u000a applications and recent research findings in this field. Pelvic floor ultrasound is helpful in the evaluation of anatomical\\u000a findings in women with

  10. Schistosoma mansoni: assessment of morbidity before and after control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Roberto Lambertucci; J. Carlos Serufo; Rogério Gerspacher-Lara; Abdunnabi A. M Rayes; Rosângela Teixeira; Vandack Nobre; Carlos M. F Antunes

    2000-01-01

    The literature on the assessment of morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni infection is updated. Imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, echodoppler cardiography, computerized tomography (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) introduced a new perspective, and expanded our knowledge on morbidity. Three well-defined syndromes caused by schistosomiasis mansoni have been described: the stage of invasion, acute schistosomiasis (Katayama fever), and chronic

  11. Technical note: comparison between two tracing methods with ultrasonography to determine lumen area of the caudal artery in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Doppler ultrasonography has potential use in studying the effects of ergot alkaloids on vascular circulation in cattle. Accurate and precise measurement of artery lumen area is critical in quantifying vasoconstriction responses to ergot alkaloids and other toxins. Lumen area can be determined by...

  12. A field study into the appropriateness of transcutaneous ultrasonography in the diagnoses of uterine disorders in reproductively failed pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Kauffold; Tanja Rautenberg; Grit Hoffmann; Neville Beynon; Ingo Schellenberg; Axel Sobiraj

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to define the characteristics of the uterus of reproductively failed pigs by transcutaneous ultrasonography (SONO) in order to investigate the appropriateness of SONO to diagnose presumptive uterine disorders. Zearalenone (ZEA) is known to affect uterine function and causes endometrial liquid accumulation and was also determined. In 33 sows and 14 gilts, of unknown reproductive stages and

  13. Turbulence and Circulating Cerebral Emboli Detectable at Doppler Ultrasonography: A Differentiation Study in a Stenotic Middle Cerebral Artery Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Yang; Donald G. Grosset; Qiu Li; Ashfaq Shuaib; Kennedy R. Lees

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Blood flow within the middle cerebral artery can be mon- itored by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography. Arterial stenosis can produce turbulent flow, but controversy remains regarding the degree of stenosis needed to cause TCD-detectable turbulence. Furthermore, cerebral emboli and turbulent flow may coexist in the same patient. The current study was designed to study the relationship between

  14. Selection of Superior Scanning Methods for A- and B-Scan Ultrasonography of the Eye and Orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Buschmann; R. Klopp; B. Seefeld

    1971-01-01

    In order to ascertain the most suitable B-scanning technique for ultrasonography of the eye and orbit, a schematic eye was constructed for calculating the results of sound refraction. The beamdeflections were calculated for linear (parallel), sector, and arc (circle section) scan. Extended experimental meridional measurements confirmed the results of these calculations. arc scans proved unequivocally superior to all other modes

  15. Do Human Fetuses Anticipate Self-Oriented Actions? A Study by Four-Dimensional (4D) Ultrasonography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Takeshita, Hideko

    2006-01-01

    Using four-dimensional (4D) ultrasonography, arm and hand movements toward the face were examined in 27 human fetuses at 19 to 35 weeks of gestation, thereby enabling the continuous monitoring of their faces and other surface features such as the extremities. More than half of the observed arm movements resulted in the hand touching the mouth…

  16. Contrast Agent Ultrasonography before and after HIFU Treatment of Parathyroid Glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovatcheva, Roussanka; Arnaud, Françoise; Lacoste, François

    2010-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: To observe changes in the parathyroid tissue treated by extracorporeal HIFU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 5 patients were treated for primary hyperparathyroidism by thermally ablating enlarged parathyroid glands using an external HIFU applicator. The treated glands were visualized with B-Mode and contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) before, 1 week and 4 weeks post HIFU. Serum iPTH, calcium, and phosphorus levels were monitored before and after the treatment. RESULTS: The initial results showed a correlation between contrast agent uptake of treated parathyroid tissue, the reduction of volume of the gland and the decrease of iPTH levels. CONCLUSIONS These results show it is possible to use CEUS to monitor the thermal ablation of parathyroid glands.

  17. Ultrasonography-Based Thyroidal and Perithyroidal Anatomy and Its Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US)-guided procedures such as ethanol ablation, radiofrequency ablation, laser ablation, selective nerve block, and core needle biopsy have been widely applied in the diagnosis and management of thyroid and neck lesions. For a safe and effective US-guided procedure, knowledge of neck anatomy, particularly that of the nerves, vessels, and other critical structures, is essential. However, most previous reports evaluated neck anatomy based on cadavers, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging rather than US. Therefore, the aim of this article was to elucidate US-based thyroidal and perithyroidal anatomy, as well as its clinical significance in the use of prevention techniques for complications during the US-guided procedures. Knowledge of these areas may be helpful for maximizing the efficacy and minimizing the complications of US-guided procedures for the thyroid and other neck lesions. PMID:26175574

  18. [The problems of breast-conserving surgery for calcification undetected by ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kenichi; Fujisaki, Shigeru; Maeda, Tetsuyo; Nagashima, Saki; Hara, Yukiko; Tomita, Ryouichi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Waga, Eiko; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao

    2012-11-01

    The patient was a 58-year-old woman. Mammography showed grouped heterogeneous calcifications in the M area of the right breast. The area of the grouped heterogeneous calcifications was 1 cm in diameter. A vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) of the area led to a diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma positive for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, and negative for human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2/neu protein expression. A micro mark was made by VAB enforcement in the lesion. At operation, we performed ultrasonography to detect the cancer lesion, but we could not detect the micro mark. It was difficult to determine the resection area. We detected architectural distortion after VAB and determined the resection area. Breast-conserving surgery and a sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed. Histopathologically, the surgical margins were negative and the sentinel lymph node was negative for cancer. This case suggested that it was necessary to make a new micro mark. PMID:23267972

  19. Diagnostic imaging of the equine tarsal region using radiography and ultrasonography. Part 1: the soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Vanderperren, Katrien; Raes, Els; Hoegaerts, Michel; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2009-02-01

    The equine tarsus is the most commonly affected hindlimb region associated with lameness. Diagnostic imaging is routinely applied but because of its complexity, being composed of 10 multifaceted bones and different joints, multiple ligaments, tendons and bursae, imaging this region can be a challenge. This is the first part of a two-part review of the structures and disorders of the equine tarsus. It describes the principal disorders affecting the soft tissues of the tarsal region and addresses some of the technical aspects in taking radiographic, ultrasonographic and scintigraphic images of the different soft tissue lesions. Where applicable, comments on the diagnostic use of contrast radiography, arthroscopy and tenoscopy are made. In current clinical practice a combination of radiography and ultrasonography is still most frequently used to arrive at a diagnosis. PMID:17936046

  20. Acute inflammation occurring in gastric aberrant pancreas followed up by endoscopic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ko; Irisawa, Atsushi; Hikichi, Takuto; Takagi, Tadayuki; Shibukawa, Goro; Sato, Masaki; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2012-07-16

    We describe a case of gastric aberrant pancreas with acute pancreatitis followed up with subsequent endoscopic ultrasound. A 20-year-old woman known to have aberrant pancreas in the stomach was admitted to our hospital because of severe epigastralgia. Laboratory tests showed slight C reactive protein elevation without hyperamylasemia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a swollen submucosal lesion (SML) to a greater degree compared with the previous findings. Subsequent endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) revealed a swollen lesion of 35 mm in diameter. The internal echo-pattern was more hypoechoic than in the previous EUS. The border between the fourth layer (muscularis propria) and the SML was unclear. The anechoic lumen in the mass, considered as the ductal lumen, was dilated. Based on these results, we diagnosed the patient as having acute inflammation, resembling pancreatitis, in the aberrant pancreas. PMID:22816015

  1. Transcervical Ultrasonography Is Feasible to Visualize and Evaluate Base of Tongue Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Ray Gervacio F.; Califano, Joseph; Messing, Barbara; Richmon, Jeremy; Liu, Jia; Quon, Harry; Neuner, Geoffrey; Saunders, John; Ha, Patrick K.; Sheth, Sheila; Gillison, Maura; Fakhry, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Background Base of tongue (BOT) is a difficult subsite to examine clinically and radiographically. Yet, anatomic delineation of the primary tumor site, its extension to adjacent sites or across midline, and endophytic vs. exophytic extent are important characteristics for staging and treatment planning. We hypothesized that ultrasound could be used to visualize and describe BOT tumors. Methods Transcervical ultrasound was performed using a standardized protocol in cases and controls. Cases had suspected or confirmed BOT malignancy. Controls were healthy individuals without known malignancy. Results 100% of BOT tumors were visualized. On ultrasound BOT tumors were hypoechoic (90.9%) with irregular margins (95.5%). Ultrasound could be used to characterize adjacent site involvement, midline extent, and endophytic extent, and visualize the lingual artery. No tumors were suspected for controls. Conclusions Ultrasonography can be used to transcervically visualize BOT tumors and provides clinically relevant characteristics that may not otherwise be appreciable. PMID:24498138

  2. Prostate biopsies guided by three-dimensional real-time (4-D) transrectal ultrasonography on a phantom: comparative study versus two-dimensional transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies

    E-print Network

    Long, Jean-Alexandre; Moreau-Gaudry, Alexandre; Troccaz, Jocelyne; Rambeaud, Jean-Jacques; Descotes, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the accuracy in localisation and distribution of real-time three-dimensional (4-D) ultrasound-guided biopsies on a prostate phantom. METHODS: A prostate phantom was created. A three-dimensional real-time ultrasound system with a 5.9MHz probe was used, making it possible to see several reconstructed orthogonal viewing planes in real time. Fourteen operators performed biopsies first under 2-D then 4-D transurethral ultrasound (TRUS) guidance (336 biopsies). The biopsy path was modelled using segmentation in a 3-D ultrasonographic volume. Special software was used to visualise the biopsy paths in a reference prostate and assess the sampled area. A comparative study was performed to examine the accuracy of the entry points and target of the needle. Distribution was assessed by measuring the volume sampled and a redundancy ratio of the sampled prostate. RESULTS: A significant increase in accuracy in hitting the target zone was identified using 4-D ultrasonography as compared to 2-D....

  3. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography parameters in neural network diagnosis of liver tumors

    PubMed Central

    Streba, Costin Teodor; Ionescu, Mihaela; Gheonea, Dan Ionut; Sandulescu, Larisa; Ciurea, Tudorel; Saftoiu, Adrian; Vere, Cristin Constantin; Rogoveanu, Ion

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study the role of time-intensity curve (TIC) analysis parameters in a complex system of neural networks designed to classify liver tumors. METHODS: We prospectively included 112 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n = 41), hypervascular (n = 20) and hypovascular (n = 12) liver metastases, hepatic hemangiomas (n = 16) or focal fatty changes (n = 23) who underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Craiova, Romania. We recorded full length movies of all contrast uptake phases and post-processed them offline by selecting two areas of interest (one for the tumor and one for the healthy surrounding parenchyma) and consecutive TIC analysis. The difference in maximum intensities, the time to reaching them and the aspect of the late/portal phase, as quantified by the neural network and a ratio between median intensities of the central and peripheral areas were analyzed by a feed forward back propagation multi-layer neural network which was trained to classify data into five distinct classes, corresponding to each type of liver lesion. RESULTS: The neural network had 94.45% training accuracy (95% CI: 89.31%-97.21%) and 87.12% testing accuracy (95% CI: 86.83%-93.17%). The automatic classification process registered 93.2% sensitivity, 89.7% specificity, 94.42% positive predictive value and 87.57% negative predictive value. The artificial neural networks (ANN) incorrectly classified as hemangyomas three HCC cases and two hypervascular metastases, while in turn misclassifying four liver hemangyomas as HCC (one case) and hypervascular metastases (three cases). Comparatively, human interpretation of TICs showed 94.1% sensitivity, 90.7% specificity, 95.11% positive predictive value and 88.89% negative predictive value. The accuracy and specificity of the ANN diagnosis system was similar to that of human interpretation of the TICs (P = 0.225 and P = 0.451, respectively). Hepatocellular carcinoma cases showed contrast uptake during the arterial phase followed by wash-out in the portal and first seconds of the late phases. For the hypovascular metastases did not show significant contrast uptake during the arterial phase, which resulted in negative differences between the maximum intensities. We registered wash-out in the late phase for most of the hypervascular metastases. Liver hemangiomas had contrast uptake in the arterial phase without agent wash-out in the portal-late phases. The focal fatty changes did not show any differences from surrounding liver parenchyma, resulting in similar TIC patterns and extracted parameters. CONCLUSION: Neural network analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography - obtained TICs seems a promising field of development for future techniques, providing fast and reliable diagnostic aid for the clinician. PMID:22969209

  4. Efficacy of prenatal ultrasonography in diagnosing urogenital developmental anomalies in newborns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Showing a prevalence rate of 0.5-0.8%, urogenital malformations discovered in newborns is regarded relatively common. The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy of ultrasound diagnostics in detecting developmental disorders in the urogenital system. Methods We have processed the prenatal sonographic and postnatal clinical details of 175 urogenital abnormalities in 140 newborns delivered with urogenital malformation according to EUROCAT recommendations over a 5-year period between 2006 and 2010. The patients were divided into three groups; Group 1: prenatal sonography and postnatal examinations yielded fully identical results. Group 2: postnatally detected urogenital changes were partially discovered in prenatal investigations. Group 3: prenatal sonography failed to detect the urogenital malformation identified in postnatal examinations. Urogenital changes representing part of certain multiple disorders associated with chromosomal aberration were investigated separately. Results Prenatal sonographic diagnosis and postnatal results completely coincided in 45%, i.e. 63/140 of cases in newborns delivered with urogenital developmental disorders. In 34/140 cases (24%), discovery was partial, while in 43/140 patients (31%), no urogenital malformation was detected prenatally. No associated malformations were observed in 108 cases, in 57 of which (53%), the results of prenatal ultrasonography and postnatal examinations showed complete coincidence. Prenatally, urogenital changes were found in 11 patients (10%), whereas no urogenital disorders were diagnosed in 40 cases (37%) by investigations prior to birth. Urogenital disorders were found to represent part of multiple malformations in a total of 28 cases as follows: prenatal diagnosis of urogenital malformation and the findings of postnatal examinations completely coincided in three patients (11%), partial coincidence was found in 22 newborns (79%) and in another three patients (11%), the disorder was not detected prenatally. In four newborns, chromosomal aberration was associated with the urogenital disorder; 45,X karyotype was detected in two patients, trisomy 9 and trisomy 18 were found in one case each. Conclusion In approximately half of the cases, postnatally diagnosed abnormalities coincided with the prenatally discovered fetal urogenital developmental disorders. The results have confirmed that ultrasonography plays an important role in diagnosing urogenital malformations but it fails to detect all of the urogenital developmental abnormalities. PMID:24564681

  5. Accuracy of axial length measurements from immersion B-scan ultrasonography in highly myopic eyes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qing-Hua; Chen, Bing; Peng, Guang-Hua; Li, Zhao-Hui; Huang, Yi-Fei

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the accuracy of axial length (AL) measurements obtained from immersion B-scan ultrasonography (immersion B-scan) for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation in patients with high myopia and cataracts. METHODS Immersion B-scan, contact A-scan ultrasonography (contact A-scan), and the IOLMaster were used to preoperatively measure the AL in 102 eyes from 102 patients who underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. Patients were divided into two groups according to the AL: one containing patients with 22 mm?AL<26 mm(group A) and the other containing patients with AL?26 mm (group B). The mean error (ME) was calculated from the difference between the AL measurement methods predicted refractive error and the actual postoperative refractive error. RESULTS In group A, ALs measured by immersion B-scan (23.48±1.15) didn't differ significantly from those measured by the IOLMaster (23.52±1.17) or from those by contact A-scan (23.38±1.20). In the same group, the standard deviation (SD) of the mean error (ME) of immersion B-scan (-0.090±0.397 D) didn't differ significantly from those of IOLMaster (-0.095±0.411 D) and contact A-scan (-0.099±0.425 D). In group B, ALs measured by immersion B-scan (27.97±2.21 mm) didn't differ significantly from those of the IOLMaster (27.86±2.18 mm), but longer than those measured by Contact A-scan (27.75±2.23 mm, P=0.009). In the same group, the standard deviation (SD) of the mean error (ME) of immersion B-scan (-0.635±0.157 D) didn't differ significantly from those of the IOLMaster (-0.679±0.359 D), but differed significantly from those of contact A-scan (-0.953±1.713 D, P=0.028). CONCLUSION Immersion B-scan exhibits measurement accuracy comparable to that of the IOLMaster, and is thus a good alternative in measuring AL in eyes with high myopia when the IOLMaster can't be used, and it is more accurate than the contact A-scan. PMID:24967188

  6. Comparision between transrectal ultrasonography and computed tomography with rectal inflation of gas in preoperative staging of lower rectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Osti; F. Scattoni Padovan; C. Pirolli; S. Sbarbati; V. Tombolini; C. Meli; R. Maurizi Enrici

    1997-01-01

    .   Computed tomography with rectal air insufflation was compared with transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in 63 patients. The\\u000a CT protocol involved pre- and postcontrast scans with 5 mm slice thickness following air insufflation in IV antiperistaltic\\u000a agent. Of the patients, 79 % were scanned in the prone position. Results of the preoperative examinations were compared with\\u000a the histological findings. The CT

  7. Sensitivity of Linear Endobronchial Ultrasonography and Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration for The Identification of Nodal Metastasis in Lung Cancer Staging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ignasi Garcia-Olivé; Eduard Monsó; Felipe Andreo; José Sanz; Eva Castellà; Mariona Llatjós; Eduardo de Miguel; Julio Astudillo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the sensitivity of real-time endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) in lung cancer staging. Short- and long-axis node diameters were measured during EBUS in patients referred for lung cancer staging and sensitivities for the identification of nodal malignancy at TBNA determined. Three hundred fifteen real-time EBUS-guided TBNA nodal sampling procedures were

  8. Ultrasonography in the Detection of Crohn’s Disease and in the Differential Diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pera; T. Cammarota; E. Comino; D. Caldera; V. Ponti; M. Astegiano; C. Barletti; R. Rocca; M. Cosimato; L. Bertolusso

    1988-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of abdominal ultrasonography in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been evaluated in a prospective, randomized, blind study. A total of 181 patients (89 with Crohn’s disease, 57 ulcerative colitis and 35 controls) were examined. Sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis in Crohn’s disease, corrected for prevalence, were 80.8 and 79.2%, respectively, and a very similar accuracy was found

  9. Diagnostic sensitivity of radiography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting shoulder osteochondrosis/osteochondritis dissecans in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wall, Corey R; Cook, Cristi R; Cook, James L

    2015-01-01

    Radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasonography are commonly used for diagnosis of shoulder osteochondrosis and osteochondritis dissecans (OC/OCD) in dogs, however there is a lack of published information on the relative diagnostic sensitivities of these modalities. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare diagnostic sensitivities of these modalities for detecting shoulder OC/OCD in a group of dogs, using arthroscopy as the reference standard. Inclusion criteria were history and clinical findings consistent with osteochondrosis and/or osteochondritis dissecans involving at least one shoulder. With informed client consent, both shoulders for all included dogs were examined using standardized radiography, ultrasonography, MRI, and arthroscopy protocols. One of three veterinary surgeons recorded clinical and arthroscopic findings without knowledge of diagnostic imaging findings. One of two veterinary radiologists recorded diagnostic imaging findings without knowledge of clinical and arthroscopic findings. Eighteen client-owned dogs (n = 36 shoulders) met inclusion criteria. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy (correct classification rate) values for detecting presence or absence of shoulder osteochondrosis/osteochondritis dissecans were as follows: radiography (88.5%, 90%, 88.9%), ultrasonography (92%, 60%, 82.6%), and MRI (96%, 88.9%, 94.4%). Odds of a correct diagnosis for MRI were 3.2 times more than ultrasonography and two times more than radiography. For MRI detection of lesions, the sagittal T2 or PD-FAT SAT sequences were considered to be most helpful. For radiographic detection of lesions, the additional supinated-mediolateral and pronated-mediolateral projections were considered to be most helpful. Findings from the current study support more evidence-based diagnostic imaging recommendations for dogs with clinically suspected shoulder osteochondrosis or osteochondritis dissecans. PMID:24844132

  10. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and spiral computed tomography in the detection and characterization of portal vein thrombosis complicating hepatocellular carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandro Rossi; Giorgia Ghittoni; Valentina Ravetta; Francesca Torello Viera; Laura Rosa; Martina Serassi; Mara Scabini; Alessandro Vercelli; Carmine Tinelli; Barbara Dal Bello; Peter N. Burns; Fabrizio Calliada

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to compare the performances of contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasonography (US) and spiral computed tomography (CT)\\u000a in the detection and characterization of portal vein thrombosis complicating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We studied 50\\u000a patients with HCC who had biopsy-proven portal vein thrombi that had been detected with US and color Doppler US. Thirteen\\u000a of the thrombi involved the main portal

  11. Clinical evaluation of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided drainage using a novel flared-type biflanged metal stent for pancreatic fluid collection

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Shuntaro; Itoi, Takao; Sofuni, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Gotoda, Takuji; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided transluminal drainage for pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) has become the standard therapy worldwide as a minimally invasive therapy compared with surgical drainage. Recently, a novel flared-type biflanged metal stent (BFMS) designed specifically for the treatment of PFCs has been developed. The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the feasibility and safety of EUS-guided drainage and direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) for PFCs using the novel flared-type BFMS. Patients and Methods: Twenty-one patients were treated by EUS-guided drainage using a flared-type BFMS for PFCs (pancreatic pseudocyst, 2 patients; walled-off necrosis, 19 patients). Results: The present study showed a technical success rate of 100%, a final clinical success rate of 100%, a procedure-related adverse event (AE) rate of 0%, an early AE rate of 28.6% (moderate and severe AE rate of 9.5%), a mortality rate of 0%, and a recurrence rate of 9.5%. DEN (mean, 2.3 sessions) was required in 38% of the patients. Conclusion: The present study clarified that the EUS-guided drainage using the flared-type BFMS is an effective and safe treatment approach for PFCs. Further studies using randomized controlled multicenter trials are warranted. PMID:26020046

  12. Triple assessment in the diagnosis of breast cancer in Kashmir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masooda Jan; Javeed Ahmad Mattoo; Nazir Ahmad Salroo; Shahnawaz Ahangar

    2010-01-01

    Background  Although the diagnosis of breast cancer is suggested on clinical examination, the degree of suspicion is variable. Currently\\u000a a combination of three tests, i.e. clinical examination, radiological imaging (mammography, ultrasonography) and pathology\\u000a called as triple assessment test is used to accurately diagnose all palpable breast lumps. Together they give sensitivity\\u000a of 99%. The triple assessment is taken as positive if

  13. Cervical impalement injury to a child by a chopstick diagnosed with computed tomography and ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Sanae; Rinka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yusuke; Ikehara, Teruyuki

    2012-08-01

    Injuries penetrating into the floor of the mouth in the oral cavity caused by chopsticks are rare. We report a case of neck impalement injury caused by a wooden chopstick fragment penetrating all the way through the base of the tongue. An 18-month-old boy fell off his chair when he was biting on a wooden chopstick. Four centimeters of the chopstick broke off but could not be found, so he was brought to our emergency department with minor bleeding from the tongue. Computed tomography (CT) revealed that the fragment had penetrated through the tongue into the neck. Ultrasonography (US) revealed that the fragment was in close proximity to the common carotid artery. Surgery for the removal of the chopstick tip was uneventful, with minimal soft tissue trauma. Postoperative progress was satisfactory and without complications. Of particular interest is the sensitivity of US in outlining the broken chopstick fragment lodged in the neck. It is noteworthy that the contrast of the chopstick greatly varied between CT and US. PMID:22476533

  14. Role of Balloon-Sheathed Intraductal Ultrasonography for Patients with Extensive Pneumobilia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha-Na; Park, Chang-Hwan; Cho, Eun-Ae; Rew, Soo-Jung; Park, In-Hyung; Lim, Sung-Uk; Jun, Chung-Hwan; Park, Seon-Young; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu

    2015-07-23

    Intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) is one of the most useful diagnostic tools for various extrahepatic biliary diseases. However, conventional IDUS has some limitations in providing accurate cross-sectional imaging of the bile duct in patients with extensive pneumobilia. Using a balloon-sheathed catheter, the US system (balloon-sheathed IDUS) can overcome these limitations. Sixteen patients underwent balloon-sheathed IDUS during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. The balloon-sheathed IDUS was inserted via a transpapillary route when visualization of the bile duct with conventional IDUS was distorted by extensive pneumobilia. The patient group had a mean age of 65.5 years, and 56.3% (9/16) were male. The balloon-sheathed IDUS permitted successful visualization of the bile duct in all patients, regardless of the extent of pneumobilia. Using this system, remnant common bile duct stones were detected in five patients (31.3%), and cholangiocarcinoma was detected in one patient (6.3%). The balloon-sheath IDUS aided in stone sweeping. No significant complications, including bleeding, perforation, or pancreatitis, occurred in any of the patients. The balloon-sheathed catheter US system was useful and safe for biliary IDUS in patients with extensive pneumobilia. PMID:26033684

  15. Current status and future applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Hon Chi; Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun; Chong, Charing Ching Ning; Lau, James Yun Wong

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is currently an integral investigation of many gastrointestinal disorders. It has been shown to have a higher efficacy than conventional computed tomography in detection and characterization of small lesions especially in the pancreas. Much effort has been put to further improve the sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of EUS. One of the major advances is the utilization of contrast agents for better delineation of the vascularity and tissue perfusion of the target lesion. This article describes the basic principles of ultrasound contrast agents and the different modalities used in contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS) including contrast-enhanced Doppler EUS (CED-EUS) and contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CEH-EUS). In addition, the current applications of contrast enhanced EUS in different gastrointestinal conditions were discussed. Furthermore, the future development of hybrid approaches combining CE-EUS with other imaging modalities and the potential therapeutic aspect of using it as a vector for drug delivery were also discussed. PMID:24748919

  16. Sensitivity of hepatobiliary imaging and real-time ultrasonography in the detection of acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.; Freitas, J.E.; Ripley, S.D.; Bree, R.L.

    1985-08-01

    To determine the sensitivity of hepatobiliary imaging (HBI) and strict- and liberal-criteria real-time ultrasonography (RTUS), the authors retrospectively analyzed 100 cases of pathologically proved acute cholecystitis (AC). A positive HBI was one in which there was nonvisualization of the gallbladder up to four hours after the administration of technetium 99m-disofenin. In the absence of hypoalbuminemia, cirrhosis, or ascites, pathognomonic RTUS findings (strict criteria) for AC were wall edema and/or pericholecystic fluid. Findings indicative of AC (liberal criteria) included the demonstration of stones, a thick gallbladder wall, nonshadowing echoes, or the ultrasonographic Murphy's sign. Of the 100 cases of AC, 91 were calculous, and nine were acalculous. Four of 100 patients had associated choledocholithiasis. The sensitivities in detecting calculous AC were as follows: HBI, 97%; liberal-criteria RTUS, 86%; and strict-criteria RTUS, 24%. The sensitivities in detecting acalculous AC were as follows: HBI, 100%; liberal-criteria RTUS, 89%; and strict-criteria RTUS, 44%.

  17. Hepatic schwannoma: imaging findings on CT, MRI and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Ota, Yu; Aso, Kazunobu; Watanabe, Kenji; Einama, Takahiro; Imai, Koji; Karasaki, Hidenori; Sudo, Ryuji; Tamaki, Yosui; Okada, Mituyoshi; Tokusashi, Yosihiko; Kono, Toru; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Haneda, Masakazu; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-09-21

    A primary benign schwannoma of the liver is extremely rare and is difficult to preoperatively discriminate from a malignant tumor. We compared the imaging and pathological findings, and examined the possibility of preoperatively diagnosing a benign liver schwannoma. A 72-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a 4.6-cm mass in the liver. A malignant tumor was suspected, and a right hepatectomy was performed. After this, the diagnosis of a primary benign schwannoma of the liver was made through pathological examination. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid showed minute blood flows into the septum and solid areas of the tumor in the vascular phase; most likely due to increased arterial flow associated with infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells. In the postvascular phase, CEUS showed contrast defect of cystic areas and delayed enhancement of solid areas; most likely due to aggregation of siderophores. Because discriminating between a benign and malignant schwannoma of the liver is difficult, surgery is generally recommended. However, the two key findings from CEUS may be useful in discriminating ancient schwannoma by recognizing the hemorrhage involved in the secondary degeneration and aggregation of siderophores. PMID:23002371

  18. Contrast-enhanced color Doppler ultrasonography increases diagnostic accuracy for soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Oebisu, Naoto; Hoshi, Manabu; Ieguchi, Makoto; Takada, Jun; Iwai, Tadashi; Ohsawa, Masahiko; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2014-10-01

    Resolution of ultrasonography (US) has undergone marked development. Additionally, a new-generation contrast medium (Sonazoid) used for US is newly available. Contrast-enhanced US has been widely used for evaluating several types of cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of color Doppler US (CDUS) and Sonazoid to differentiate between benign and malignant soft tissue tumors. A total of 180 patients (87 male, 93 female) were enrolled in the present study. The patient ages ranged from 1 to 91 years (mean 58.1±20.0 years). The maximum size, depth, tumor margins, shape, echogenicity and textural pattern were measured on gray-scale images. CDUS was used to evaluate the intratumoral blood flow with and without Sonazoid. Peak systolic flow velocity (Vp), mean flow velocity (Vm), resistivity index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of each detected intratumoral artery were automatically calculated with power Doppler US (PDUS). The present study included 118 benign and 62 malignant tumors. Statistical significances were found in size, depth, tumor margin and textural pattern but not in shape or echogenicity on gray-scale images. Before Sonazoid injection, CDUS findings showed 55% sensitivity, 77% specificity and 69% accuracy, whereas contrast-enhanced CDUS showed 87% sensitivity, 68% specificity and 74% accuracy. There were no statistically significant differences between malignant and benign tumors regarding the mean Vp, Vm, RI and PI values determined on PDUS. In conclusion, contrast-enhanced CDUS proved to be a reliable diagnostic tool for detecting malignant potential in soft tissue tumors. PMID:25109621

  19. Intraductal Ultrasonography without Radiocontrast Cholangiogram in Patients with Extrahepatic Biliary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung-Uk; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kee, Won-Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hyun; Rew, Soo-Jung; Park, Seon-Young; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) has been performed as an adjunct to endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) during radiocontrast cholangiography (RC). Radiation exposure during RC poses a health risk to both patients and examiners. We evaluated the feasibility of IDUS without RC in various extrahepatic biliary diseases. Methods IDUS was performed with the insertion of an IDUS probe from the papilla of Vater to the confluent portion of the common hepatic duct without fluoroscopy. The technical success rate and procedure-related complications were evaluated retrospectively. Results Wire-guided IDUS without RC was performed in 105 patients. The mean age was 66.5 years, and 50 (47.6%) were male. The IDUS diagnoses included choledocholithiasis (73, 69.5%), benign biliary stricture (11, 10.5%), choledocholithiasis with biliary pancreatitis (9, 8.6%), bile duct cancer (5, 4.8%), pancreatic cancer (1, 0.9%), and others (6, 5.7%). After IDUS, 66 (62.8%) underwent stone removal, 19 (18.1%) underwent biliary drainage, and 7 (6.6%) underwent brush cytology and biopsy. No significant complications such as perforation or severe pancreatitis occurred. Conclusions IDUS without RC was a feasible and safe approach in patients with various extrahepatic biliary diseases. We anticipate a potentially important role of IDUS in various ERC procedures because it lacks the hazards of RC. PMID:25963077

  20. Ultrasonography of the liver and kidneys of healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    PubMed Central

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Ali, Ahmed; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the ultrasonography of the liver and kidneys of healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius). Images of the liver were obtained from the 11th to 5th intercostal spaces (ICSs). The distance between the dorsal liver margin and the midline of the back was shortest (39.1 ± 7.4 cm) at the 11th ICS and increased cranially to 5th ICS. The size of the liver was largest at the 9th ICS and smallest at the 5th ICS. In 6 camels the right kidney was visualized from the 10th and 11th ICSs and upper right flank and in the 10th and 11th ICSs in the remaining 16 camels. In all camels, the left kidney was imaged from the caudal left flank. In 21 camels, the differentiation between the renal cortex and medulla was clearly visible in the ultrasonograms. Ultrasonographic description of the liver and kidneys provides a basic reference for diagnosing hepatic and renal disorders in camels. PMID:23729824

  1. Evaluation of the use of ultrasonography in the study of liquid gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Marzio, L.; Giacobbe, A.; Conoscitore, P.; Facciorusso, D.; Frusciante, V.; Modoni, S.

    1989-05-01

    Gastric emptying of two different test liquid meals (500 ml isotonic saline and 500 ml skimmed milk, 1.8% fat) has been measured in 10 (saline) and in 19 (milk) normal volunteers by means of real-time ultrasonography (RUS) and scintigraphy, employed simultaneously. In each subject, saline and milk contained 37 MBq of diethylenetriaminopentacetic acid (DPTA) marked with 99mTc. Determinations were made thereafter every 5 min up to 45 min with saline and every 30 min up to a maximum of 220 min with milk. The determination of gastric emptying by RUS was obtained indirectly through the measurement of gastric dimensions, with a single scan performed at the epigastrium, while the subject was kept in a standing position. At each observation, the percent decrease of gastric measurements and the decay in radioactivity over the gastric region were calculated, blind, by two independent examiners. Linear regression and correlation coefficient were subsequently computed for gastric measurements and decay in radioactivity. The results show that the values obtained with RUS do not differ grossly from the ones obtained with scintigraphy. This suggests that the ultrasonographic determination of gastric dimensions with a single section of the stomach may be a valuable method for use in the evaluation of gastric emptying of liquids.

  2. Utility of Contrast-Enhanced Transabdominal Ultrasonography to Diagnose Early Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Azemoto, Nobuaki; Kumagi, Teru; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Hirooka, Masashi; Kuroda, Taira; Koizumi, Mitsuhito; Ohno, Yoshinori; Yamanishi, Hirofumi; Onji, Morikazu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between the grade of chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic blood flow as measured by contrast-enhanced transabdominal ultrasonography (CEUS) and to diagnose early CP easily. Methods. This pilot study was conducted in 8 patients with CP, 7 patients with early CP, and 6 control participants. After injecting 0.015?mL/kg of perflubutane by manual bolus, values in one region of interest (ROI) in pancreatic parenchyma and one ROI including the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were measured. Results. The ratio of blood flow in the SMA and pancreatic parenchyma increased with grade of CP and was significantly higher in patients with CP (5.41; 2.10–11.02) than in patients with early CP (2.46; 1.41–5.05) and control participants (2.32; 1.25–3.04) (P = 0.0279, P = 0.0142, resp.). The ratio of blood flow in the SMA and pancreatic parenchyma correlated with grade of CP (rs = 0.5904, P = 0.0048). Conclusion. The ratio of blood flow correlates with grade of CP on CEUS. This safe and convenient method may be useful to diagnose early CP. PMID:26090406

  3. Current status and future applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Yip, Hon Chi; Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun; Chong, Charing Ching Ning; Lau, James Yun Wong

    2014-04-16

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is currently an integral investigation of many gastrointestinal disorders. It has been shown to have a higher efficacy than conventional computed tomography in detection and characterization of small lesions especially in the pancreas. Much effort has been put to further improve the sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of EUS. One of the major advances is the utilization of contrast agents for better delineation of the vascularity and tissue perfusion of the target lesion. This article describes the basic principles of ultrasound contrast agents and the different modalities used in contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS) including contrast-enhanced Doppler EUS (CED-EUS) and contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CEH-EUS). In addition, the current applications of contrast enhanced EUS in different gastrointestinal conditions were discussed. Furthermore, the future development of hybrid approaches combining CE-EUS with other imaging modalities and the potential therapeutic aspect of using it as a vector for drug delivery were also discussed. PMID:24748919

  4. Role of Balloon-Sheathed Intraductal Ultrasonography for Patients with Extensive Pneumobilia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha-Na; Park, Chang-Hwan; Cho, Eun-Ae; Rew, Soo-Jung; Park, In-Hyung; Lim, Sung-Uk; Jun, Chung-Hwan; Park, Seon-Young; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) is one of the most useful diagnostic tools for various extrahepatic biliary diseases. However, conventional IDUS has some limitations in providing accurate cross-sectional imaging of the bile duct in patients with extensive pneumobilia. Using a balloon-sheathed catheter, the US system (balloon-sheathed IDUS) can overcome these limitations. Sixteen patients underwent balloon-sheathed IDUS during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. The balloon-sheathed IDUS was inserted via a transpapillary route when visualization of the bile duct with conventional IDUS was distorted by extensive pneumobilia. The patient group had a mean age of 65.5 years, and 56.3% (9/16) were male. The balloon-sheathed IDUS permitted successful visualization of the bile duct in all patients, regardless of the extent of pneumobilia. Using this system, remnant common bile duct stones were detected in five patients (31.3%), and cholangiocarcinoma was detected in one patient (6.3%). The balloon-sheath IDUS aided in stone sweeping. No significant complications, including bleeding, perforation, or pancreatitis, occurred in any of the patients. The balloon-sheathed catheter US system was useful and safe for biliary IDUS in patients with extensive pneumobilia. PMID:26033684

  5. Parameters Characterizing Age-Dependent Retrobulbar Circulation in Healthy Subjects Measured by Color Doppler Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Modrzejewska, Monika; Siesky, Brent; Amireskandari, Annahita; Holland, Stephen; Grzesiak, Wilhelm; Zaborski, Daniel; Huck, Andrew; Harris, Alon

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze age-related effects influencing retrobulbar blood flow parameters. Materials and Methods: The study enrolled healthy volunteers (162 eyes) with a mean age of 49.64 years (SD?±?17.50). Participants were divided into 5 groups (G1-G5) based on 12-year age spans (means from 25.41 to 73.87 years). Peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), mean velocity (MV), pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) of the ophthalmic (OA), central retinal (CRA) and posterior ciliary arteries (PCAs) were measured by color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU). In addition, systemic blood pressure (BP), ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using the Shapiro-Wilk, Levene's, Spjotvoll-Stoline and analysis of variance tests (p???0.05 was considered statistically significant). Results: In the oldest group, significantly lower PSV, EDV in the CRA and PCAs as well as MV in the CRA were confirmed. Significantly increased RI in the OA, CRA and PCAs in regard to age was recorded. Conclusions: CDU has considerable potential for evaluating hemodynamic changes in the retrobulbar circulation in relation to age. Age laboratory standards for a specific CDU device should be established for further analyses of blood flow in ocular diseases of vascular origin. PMID:25197962

  6. Evaluation of Rectal Varices by Endoscopic Ultrasonography in Patients With Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the evaluation of rectal varices (RV) was determined in 50 patients with portal hypertension (PH) and 25 PH-free controls. F1 and F2 varices and angiectasia were specific for the PH group as evaluated by endoscopy, but there was no difference between the PH and the control groups with respect to the frequency of blue vein. The detection rate of submucosal veins (SMV) with EUS was 88% for the PH group and 68% for the control group. The mean SMV diameter was significantly greater for the PH group than for the control group, and no 2-mm or larger SMV was detected in the control group. Serum albumin and cholinesterase levels were significantly higher for the RV(+) patients with SMV 2mm or more in diameter in the PH group than for the RV(–) patients. The spleen index was also significantly higher for the former group. The frequency of RV was significantly higher for advanced PH than for mild PH. RV(+) was detected in about 30% of endoscopically normal patients in the PH group. The results of this study indicate that EUS is useful in detecting RV and evaluating its pathological condition. PMID:18493561

  7. Endoscopic Ultrasonography-Guided Ethanol Ablation for Small Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Oh, Dongwook; Lee, Sang Soo; Seo, Dong-Wan; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided ethanol ablation is gaining popularity for the treatment of focal pancreatic lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, feasibility, and treatment response after EUS-guided ethanol injection for small pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs). Methods This was a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database including 11 consecutive patients with p-NETs who underwent EUS-guided ethanol injection. Results EUS-guided ethanol injection was successfully performed in 11 patients with 14 tumors. The final diagnosis was based on histology and clinical signs as follows: 10 non-functioning neuroendocrine tumors and four insulinomas. During follow-up (median, 370 days; range, 152 to 730 days), 10 patients underwent clinical follow-up after treatment, and one patient was excluded because of loss to follow-up. A single treatment session with an injection of 0.5 to 3.8 mL of ethanol resulted in complete responses (CRs) at the 3-month radiologic imaging for seven of 13 tumors (response rate, 53.8%). Multiple treatment sessions performed in three tumors with residual viable enhancing tissue increased the number of tumors with CRs to eight of 13 (response rate, 61.5%). Mild pancreatitis occurred in three of 11 patients. Conclusions EUS-guided ethanol injection appears to be a safe, feasible, and potentially effective method for treating small p-NETs in patients who are poor surgical candidates. PMID:25844345

  8. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: advance and current status in abdominal imaging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the field of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US), contrast agents are classified as either first- or second-generation agents depending on the gas within the microbubbles. In the case of first-generation contrast agents, a high-mechanical-index technique is used and only intermittent scanning is possible due to the early destruction of the microbubbles during the scanning. The use of second-generation contrast agents in a low-mechanical-index technique enables continuous scanning. Besides the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions, contrastenhanced US is helpful in the monitoring of radiofrequency ablation therapy and in the targeting step of an US-guided biopsy. Recently, there has been a demand for new criteria to evaluate the treatment response obtained using anti-angiogenic agents because morphologic criteria alone may not reflect the treatment response of the tumor and contrast-enhanced US can provide quantitative markers of tissue perfusion. In spite of the concerns related to its cost-effectiveness, contrast-enhanced US has the potential to be more widely used as a complimentary tool or to substitute the current imaging modalities in some occasions. PMID:25342120

  9. Comparison between computed tomography, fluoroscopy, and ultrasonography for guiding percutaneous injection of the canine intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Shawn D; Caswell, Jeff L; Brisson, Brigitte A; Gaitero, Luis; Chalmers, Heather J

    2014-01-01

    A minimally invasive method for delivering injectable therapeutic agents would be desirable for the treatment of intervertebral disc disease in dogs. The purpose of this study was to compare computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography (US), and fluoroscopy modalities for guiding percutaneous injection into canine intervertebral discs. Intervertebral discs of 14 dog cadavers were injected with a gelified ethanol therapeutic agent. Successful injectate placement and injectate leakage were determined based on necropsy inspection of discs. Injection into the nucleus pulposus was successful in 55 of 78 (71%) of all injected discs. Injections guided using CT and fluoroscopy were significantly more successful than US-guided injections. Odds of successful injection without leakage were greater for CT vs. US (P = 0.0026) but there was no significant difference between CT and fluoroscopy (P = 0.0620). Injection success rates did not differ among vertebral sites or dog cadavers of varying weights. Forty-nine (63%) of injection sites had injectate leakage outside the disc and 10 of these involved structures within the vertebral canal. The highest rate of injection success with the least amount of leakage was achieved with CT guidance. Findings indicated that CT, fluoroscopy, and US are feasible modalities for guiding percutaneous injection of a gelified ethanol therapeutic agent into the canine intervertebral disc, with moderate to high success rates for different regions of the spine. However, a moderately high rate of injectate leakage occurred outside of the disc and this should be taken into consideration for future safety and efficacy studies. PMID:24620815

  10. The Development of a Flexible Measuring System for Muscle Volume Using Ultrasonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Kiyotaka; Fukuda, Osamu; Tsubai, Masayoshi; Muraki, Satoshi

    Quantification of muscle volume can be used as a means for the estimation of muscle strength. Its measuring process does not need the subject's muscular contractions so it is completely safe and particularly suited for elderly people. Therefore, we have developed a flexible measuring system for muscle volume using ultrasonography. In this system, an ultrasound probe is installed on a link mechanism which continuously scans fragmental images along the human body surface. These images are then measured and composed into a wide area cross-sectional image based on the spatial compounding method. The flexibility of the link mechanism enables the operator to measure the images under any body postures and body site. The spatial compounding method significantly reduces speckle and artifact noises from the composed cross-sectional image so that the operator can observe the individual muscles, such as Rectus femoris, Vastus intermedius, and so on, in detail. We conducted the experiments in order to examine the advantages of this system we have developed. The experimental results showed a high accuracy of the measuring position which was calculated using the link mechanism and presented the noise reduction effect based on the spatial compounding method. Finally, we confirmed high correlations between the MRI images and the ones of the developed system to verify the validity of the system.

  11. Limitations of ultrasonography for diagnosing white matter damage in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Debillon, T; N'Guyen, S; Muet, A; Quere, M; Moussaly, F; Roze, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the accuracy of ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing white matter abnormalities in preterm infants and to determine the specific indications for MRI. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: A neonatal intensive care unit in France. Patients: All preterm infants (? 33 weeks gestation) without severe respiratory distress syndrome precluding MRI. Main outcome measures: US and MRI performed contemporaneously during the third postnatal week were analysed by an independent observer. The findings were compared with those of a term MRI scan, the results of which were taken as the final diagnosis. Statistical analysis was performed to determine which early imaging study best predicted the term MRI findings. Results: The early US and MRI findings (79 infants) correlated closely for severe lesions (cystic periventricular leucomalacia and parenchymal infarction; ? coefficient = 0.86) but not for moderate lesions (non-cystic leucomalacia and parenchymal punctate haemorrhages; ? = 0.62). Overall, early MRI findings predicted late MRI findings in 98% of patients (95% confidence interval (CI) 89.5 to 99.9) compared with only 68% for early US (95% CI 52.1 to 79.2). Conclusions: US is highly effective in detecting severe lesions of the white matter in preterm infants, but MRI seems to be necessary for the diagnosis of less severe damage. MRI performed at about the third week of life is highly predictive of the final diagnosis at term. PMID:12819157

  12. Oral and I.V. contrast enhanced ultrasonography of the digestive tract--a useful completion of the B-mode examination: a literature review and an exhaustive illustration through images.

    PubMed

    Neciu, Cristian; Badea, Radu; Chiorean, Liliana; Badea, Alexandru Florin; Opincariu, Iulian

    2015-03-01

    Contrast enhanced ultrasonography, using i.v. and/or oral/rectal contrast agents, represents a technical development of the US method, which has proved its applicability in the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the normal and pathological circulatory bed, as well as of the digestive lumen. The use of microbubbles and harmonics opens a new horizon in the detection and characterization of the inflammatory and tumoral conditions of the digestive tract. The interpretation of the data requires corroboration with the grey scale aspect of the examined lesion/area, as well as with the clinical context of the case and the results of other diagnosis techniques. The purpose of this paper is to review the main applications of CEUS in digestive tract pathology by analyzing the significant literature and guidelines in the light of our personal experience and demonstrating it through suggestive images. PMID:25745660

  13. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography of Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Chemoembolisation Using Drug-Eluting Beads: A Pilot Study Focused on Sustained Tumor Necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Moschouris, Hippocrates [Tzanio General Hospital, Department of Radiology (Greece); Malagari, Katerina [University of Athens, Attikon Hospital, Second Department of Radiology (Greece); Papadaki, Marina Georgiou; Kornezos, Ioannis, E-mail: kornezos@gmail.com; Matsaidonis, Dimitrios [Tzanio General Hospital, Department of Radiology (Greece)

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and the sustained antitumor effect of drug-eluting beads used for transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ten patients with solitary, unresectable HCC underwent CEUS before, 2 days after, and 35 to 40 days after TACE using a standard dose (4 ml) of drug-eluting beads (DC Beads; Biocompatibles, Surrey, UK) preloaded with doxorubicin (25 mg doxorubicin/ml hydrated beads). For CEUS, a second-generation contrast agent (SonoVue, Bracco, Milan, Italy) and a low mechanical-index technique were used. A part of the tumor was characterized as necrotic if it showed complete lack of enhancement. The percentage of necrosis was calculated at the sonographic section that depicted the largest diameter of the tumor. Differences in the extent of early (2 days after TACE) and delayed (35 to 40 days after TACE) necrosis were quantitatively and subjectively assessed. Early post-TACE tumor necrosis ranged from 21% to 70% (mean 43.5% {+-} 19%). There was a statistically significant (p = 0.0012, paired Student t test) higher percentage of delayed tumor necrosis, which ranged from 24% to 88% (mean 52.3% {+-} 20.3%). Subjective evaluation showed a delayed obvious increase of the necrotic areas in 5 patients. In 2 patients, tumor vessels that initially remained patent disappeared on the delayed follow-up. A part of tumor necrosis after chemoembolisation of HCC with DEB seems to take place later than 2 days after TACE. CEUS may provide evidence for the sustained antitumor effect of DEB-TACE. Nevertheless, the ideal time for the imaging evaluation of tumor response remains to be defined.

  14. Maternal Ultrasonography for the Antenatal Diagnosis of Surgically Significant Neonatal Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Canty, Timothy G.; Leopold, George R.; Wolf, Deborah A.

    1981-01-01

    The increased use of ultrasonography in the management and evaluation of pregnancy has provided a unique opportunity to observe the anatomy of the developing fetus from 12 weeks gestation until term. Twenty-eight surgically important anatomic abnormalities have been diagnosed in utero by sonographic examinations at our affiliated institutions over the past three and a half years. These include ascites (five cases), gastroschisis (four cases), omphalocele (three cases), sacrococcygeal teratoma, cystic hygroma, hydrocele, duodenal atresia, multicystic kidney (two cases each), and one each of jejunal atresia, conjoined twins, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, urethral valves, urethral agenesis, and hydronephrosis secondary to reflux. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonographic examination has signifcantly improved perinatal management. Elective caesarean section has benefited infants with lesions causing dystocia, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma, omphalocele, and conjoined twins. Advance notification of surgeons and neonatalogists has reduced the delays of postnatal evaluation and treatment that contribute, significantly, to complications and death. In addition, transfer of the pregnant mother carrying an infant with a significant surgical anomaly to a center with facilities for neonatal surgery and specialized postoperative care can be properly planned for in advance. In the near future, intrauterine fetal surgery or palliative intervention may provide increased salvage of patients with obstructive uropathy and diaphragmatic hernia, both of which carry high mortality rates secondary to in utero damage. Sonography has proven useful in following the dilatation of either intestinal or urinary tract structures in utero. In our hands, maternal sonography has improved the surgical care of the newborn and may open a new frontier of intrauterine fetal surgery in the future. ImagesFig. 1a.Fig. 1b.Fig. 2a.Fig. 2b.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6a.Fig. 6b.Fig. 6c.Fig. 7a.Fig. 7b.Fig. 8. PMID:6455975

  15. Serial ovarian ultrasonography in wild-caught wood bison (Bison bison athabascae).

    PubMed

    McCorkell, Robert B; Woodbury, Murray R; Adams, Gregg P

    2013-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of daily examination of wild-caught wood bison and to characterize the ovarian function using serial transrectal ultrasonography and blood hormone analysis. Ten 2-year-old wood bison heifers obtained from Elk Island National Park were placed in a corral adjacent to a handling system designed for restraining bison. The handling system was left open to the corral allowing the bison to explore it freely for 2 months. Active acclimation followed for a 2-week period, during which the bison were herded daily through the handling system and rewarded with whole oats. Finally, the bison were restrained in the handling system and rewarded with whole oats upon release. Once conditioned, daily transrectal examination of the ovaries was completed in 100% of attempts for 30 days (January-February) using a B-mode scanner with a 5 to 10-MHz linear array. Follicle size and numbers were recorded, and individual follicles were identified serially. Blood samples were collected daily and the serum was analyzed for FSH concentrations. Nonrandom changes were detected in the number of follicles ? 4 mm in diameter per day (P < 0.05). Each peak in follicle numbers was associated with the development of a single dominant follicle. The interval between the emergence of successive dominant follicles was 6.8 ± 0.6 days (mean ± SEM). The maximum diameter of the dominant follicle was 9.9 ± 0.4 mm. In conclusion, wild-caught wood bison were amenable to daily examination and blood sampling, and ovarian dynamics were characterized by wave-like development of anovulatory antral follicles. The demonstrated success of this approach to the study of ovarian function will be useful for characterizing the annual reproductive pattern in wood bison, which is necessary for the development of bison-specific protocols for controlling ovarian function for species conservation. PMID:23816285

  16. Predicting pubic arch interference in prostate brachytherapy on transrectal ultrasonography-computed tomography fusion images

    PubMed Central

    Fukada, Junichi; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Nakashima, Jun; Ohashi, Toshio; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Oya, Mototsugu

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the usefulness of the fusion image created by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and large-bore computed tomography (CT) for predicting pubic arch interference (PAI) during prostate seed brachytherapy. The TRUS volume study was performed in 21 patients, followed by large-bore computed tomography of patients in the lithotomy position. Then, we created TRUS-CT fusion images using a radiation planning treatment system. TRUS images in which the prostate outline was the largest were overlaid on CT images with the narrowest pubic arch. PAI was estimated in the right and left arch separately and classified to three grades: no PAI, PAI positive within 5 mm and PAI of >5 mm. If the estimated PAI was more than 5 mm on at least one side of the arch, we judged there to be a significant PAI. Brachytherapy was performed in 18 patients who were evaluated as not having significant PAI on TRUS. Intra-operative PAI was observed in one case, which was also detected with a fusion image. On the other hand, intra-operative PAI was not observed in one case that had been evaluated as having significant PAI with a fusion image. In the remaining three patients, TRUS suggested the presence of significant PAI, which was also confirmed by a fusion image. Intra-operative PAI could be predicted by TRUS-CT fusion imaging, even when it was undetectable by TRUS. Although improvement of the reproducibility of the patients’ position to avoid false-positive cases is warranted, TRUS-CT fusion imaging has the possibility that the uncertainty of TRUS can be supplemented. PMID:22843359

  17. Evaluation of calcified carotid atheroma on panoramic radiographs and Doppler ultrasonography in an older population

    PubMed Central

    Atalay, Yusuf; Asutay, Fatih; Agacayak, Kamil Serkan; Koparal, Mahmut; Adali, Fahri; Gulsun, Belgin

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to determine the reliability of panoramic radiograph (PR) as a screening tool for the detection of calcified carotid atheroma (CCA) by comparing it with Doppler ultrasonography (DU) examination. A second aim was to evaluate the relationship among CCA, systemic diseases, smoking, and body mass index in an older population. Materials and methods A total of 1,650 PRs of patients aged over 45 years (736 males and 914 females) were randomly selected. All the patients had been referred to the Faculty of Dentistry, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey, during 2013–2014 for routine PR screening. Medical data were collected from the archival records of the dental school. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A (study group), CCA findings were confirmed by DU (n=59); and Group B (control group), CCA findings were not confirmed by DU (n=34). Results Of the 1,650 individuals, 93 (5.63%) were detected to have CCA on PR. The population consisted of 43 males and 50 females with mean age of 59.84±10.92 years. No difference was determined in respect of CCA between the sexes (P=0.745). There was a significant difference between Group A and Group B in respect of hypertension (P=0.004). But there was no difference between Group A and Group B in respect of age (P=0.495), BMI (P=0.756), diabetes (P=0.168), and smoking (P=0.482) distribution. Conclusion Although PR cannot be used as an initial diagnostic method when searching for CCA, dentists should be aware of CCA on a routine PR, particularly in older patients who may also have the risk factors of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and smoking. Recognizing of CCA especially in hypertensive patients could potentially increase the length and quality of life for individuals. PMID:26185431

  18. Ultrasonography as a guide during vascular access procedures and in the diagnosis of complications.

    PubMed

    Vezzani, A; Manca, T; Vercelli, A; Braghieri, A; Magnacavallo, A

    2013-10-29

    Vascular access used in the treatment of patients involves central and peripheral vein accesses and arterial accesses. Catheterization of central veins is widely used in clinical practice; it is a necessary part of the treatment of patients in various settings. The most commonly involved vessels are the internal jugular, subclavian, and femoral veins. The mechanical, infectious, and thrombotic complications of central venous catheterization are markedly reduced when the procedure is performed with real-time ultrasound guidance or (to a slightly lesser extent) ultrasound assistance. Ultrasound guidance is also used to create peripheral venous accesses, for catheterization of peripheral veins and for peripheral insertion of central venous catheters. In this setting, it increases the catheterization success rate, especially during difficult procedures (e.g., obese patients, children) and reduces complications such as catheter-related infections and venous thrombosis. Arterial cannulation is used for invasive monitoring of arterial pressure and for access during diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Ultrasound guidance reduces the risk of catheterization failure and complications. It is especially useful for arterial catheterization procedures performed in the absence of a palpable pulse (e.g., patient in shock, ECMO). Imaging support is being used increasingly to facilitate the creation of vascular accesses under difficult conditions, in part because of the growing use of ultrasonography as a bedside procedure. In clinical settings where patients are becoming increasingly vulnerable as a result of advanced age and/or complex disease, the possibility to reduce the risks associated with these invasive procedures should motivate clinicians to acquire the technical skills needed for routine use of sonographic support during vascular access procedures. PMID:24432170

  19. Quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: differentiating focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pei, X-Q; Liu, L-Z; Xiong, Y-H; Zou, R-H; Chen, M-S; Cai, M-Y

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the potential of quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in differentiating focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: 34 cases of FNH and 66 cases of HCC (all lesions <5?cm) were studied using CEUS to evaluate enhancement patterns and using analytic software Sonoliver® (Image-Arena™ v.4.0, TomTec Imaging Systems, Munich, Germany) to obtain quantitative features of CEUS in the region of interest. The quantitative features of maximum of intensity (IMAX), rise slope (RS), rise time (RT) and time to peak (TTP) were compared between the two groups and applied to further characterise both FNH and HCC with hypoenhancing patterns in the late phase on CEUS. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of CEUS for diagnosis of FNH were 67.6% and 93.9%, respectively. For quantitative analysis, IMAX and RS in FNHs were significantly higher than those in HCCs (p<0.05), while RT and TTP in FNHs were significantly shorter (p<0.05). Both the 11 FNHs and 62 HCCs with hypo-enhancing patterns in the late phase were further characterised with their quantitative features, and the sensitivity and specificity of IMAX for diagnosis of FNH were 90.9% and 43.5%, RS 81.8% and 80.6%, RT 90.9% and 71.0%, and TTP 90.9% and 71.0%, respectively. Conclusion: The quantitative features of CEUS in FNH and HCC were significantly different, and they could further differentiate FNH from HCC following conventional CEUS. Advances in knowledge: Our findings suggest that quantitative analysis of CEUS can improve the accuracy of differentiating FNH from HCC. PMID:23392189

  20. Detection of bone erosions in early rheumatoid arthritis: 3D ultrasonography versus computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Peluso, G; Bosello, S L; Gremese, E; Mirone, L; Di Gregorio, F; Di Molfetta, V; Pirronti, T; Ferraccioli, G

    2015-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) volumetric ultrasonography (US) is an interesting tool that could improve the traditional approach to musculoskeletal US in rheumatology, due to its virtual operator independence and reduced examination time. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of 3DUS in the detection of bone erosions in hand and wrist joints of early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) patients, with computed tomography (CT) as the reference method. Twenty ERA patients without erosions on standard radiography of hands and wrists underwent 3DUS and CT evaluation of eleven joints: radiocarpal, intercarpal, ulnocarpal, second to fifth metacarpo-phalangeal (MCP), and second to fifth proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of dominant hand. Eleven (55.0 %) patients were erosive with CT and ten of them were erosive also at 3DUS evaluation. In five patients, 3DUS identified cortical breaks that were not erosions at CT evaluation. Considering CT as the gold standard to identify erosive patients, the 3DUS sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 0.9, 0.55, 0.71, and 0.83, respectively. A total of 32 erosions were detected with CT, 15 of them were also observed at the same sites with 3DUS, whereas 17 were not seen on 3DUS evaluation. The majority of these 3DUS false-negative erosions were in the wrist joints. Furthermore, 18 erosions recorded by 3DUS were false positive. The majority of these 3DUS false-positive erosions were located at PIP joints. This study underlines the limits of 3DUS in detecting individual bone erosion, mostly at the wrist, despite the good sensitivity in identifying erosive patients. PMID:26091903

  1. Ultrasonography of the distal limbs in Nellore and Girolando calves 8 to 12 months of age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ultrasonography can be used anywhere and allows rapid, noninvasive differentiation of soft tissue structures of the musculoskeletal system. The objectives of this study were to describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the structures of the metacarpo-/metatarsophalangeal and the interphalangeal joints, the appearance of the growth plates of the distal metacarpus/metatarsus and of the proximal phalanx and to measure the cross-sectional dimensions of the DDFT and SDFT in Nellore and Girolando calves eight to 12 months of age. Results In the longitudinal dorsal view the common digital extensor tendon and the digital extensor tendon were depicted as echogenic parallel fiber bundles located directly under the skin. The joint spaces appeared as anechoic interruptions of the hyperechogenic bone surfaces. The normal amount of synovial fluid could not be depicted. The growth plates were seen as anechoic interruptions of the bone surface proximal and distal to the fetlock joint space. In transverse sonograms of the distal palmar/plantar regions, the flexor tendons and branchs of the suspensory ligament were imaged as echogenic structures. The lumen of the digital flexor tendon sheath could not be imaged in these normal cattle. The thin digital distal annular ligament and the reversal of positions of the DDFT and SDFT could be appreciated. No significant differences were found between the cross-sectional measurements of the DDFT and the SDFT from Nellore and Girolando in any age, thoracic/pelvic limbs, right/left sides and lateral/medial digits. Conclusions The results of this study establish important ultrasonographic reference data of the normal structures of the distal limbs and the normal dimensions of the flexor tendons in Nellore and Girolando calves for use in clinical practice. PMID:24774582

  2. Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography Correlates with Hyperlipidemia and Steatohepatitis in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Hyun; Kim, Dongwan; Baek, Min Young; Kim, Yeon Sun; Ryoo, Eell; Kim, Yun Mi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured by ultrasonography (US) and serum lipid profile and liver transaminases in obese children. Methods One hundred and sixty-six children diagnosed with obesity from May 2001 to December 2013 were included in this study. Data on serum lipid profile and liver transaminases were collected from clinical records. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and grade of hepatic steatosis were evaluated by US. Results Of the 166 children, 107 were diagnosed with hepatic steatosis by US, 46 with grade I, 56 with grade II, and five children with grade III. According to the grade of hepatic steasosis, the average values of midline abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and right flank abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured 2.9±0.8 cm and 1.9±0.7 cm in the normal group, 3.3±0.8 cm and 2.0±0.7 cm in grade I, 3.8±0.8 cm and 2.3±0.8 cm in grade II, and 4.1±0.8 cm and 2.8±1.4 cm in grade III, respectively. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness correlated with grade of hepatic steatosis (p<0.01). In addition, abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness correlated with concentration of serum lipids and liver transaminases in the age group of 12-14 years (p<0.01). Conclusion Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured by US can be used as a reliable predictor of possible hyperlipidemia and steatohepatitis in children, especially during the adolescent stage. PMID:26157696

  3. Prostate Biopsy Using Transrectal Ultrasonography; The Optimal Number of Cores Regarding Cancer Detection Rate and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Ghafoori, Mahyar; Velayati, Meysam; Aliyari Ghasabeh, Mounes; Shakiba, Madjid; Alavi, Manijeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate is the most common modality used to diagnose prostate cancer. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal number of cores at prostate biopsy, which have the most diagnostic value with least adverse effects. Patients and Materials: Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) guided biopsy was performed in 180 patients suspicious for prostate cancer due to either abnormal rectal examination or elevated PSA. The patients were divided randomly into three groups of six-core, twelve-core and eighteen-core biopsies. The detection rate of prostate cancer in each group with the rate of post biopsy urinary infection and prostatitis were compared. Results: Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 8 (13.3%), 21 (35%) and 24 (40%) patients in six, twelve and eighteen core biopsy groups, respectively. Urinary tract infection and prostatitis occurred in 17 (28.3%), 23 (38.3%) and 35 (58.3%) patients in six, twelve and eighteen core biopsy groups, respectively. Considering the detection rate of prostate cancer, there was a significant difference between 6 and 12 core biopsy groups (P = 0.006) and 12-core biopsies detected more cases of prostate cancer, but there was no significant difference between 12 and 18 core biopsy groups (P = 0.572). Considering the infection rate, there was no significant difference between 6 and 12 core biopsy groups (P = 0.254), but there was a significant difference between 12 and 18 core biopsy groups (P = 0.028) and infectious complications occurred more frequently in 18-core biopsy group. Conclusions: The best balance between detection rate of prostate cancer and infectious complications of biopsies achieved in twelve-core biopsy protocol. Twelve-core biopsy enhances the rate of prostate cancer detection with minimum adverse effects.

  4. Morphometric analysis of fetal development of Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758) by ultrasonography--pilot study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Juliana; Fonseca, Erika; van Melis, Juliano; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2014-04-15

    Measurements on the growth process and placental development of the embryo and fetuses of Cavia porcellus were carried out using ultrasonography. Embryo, fetus, and placenta were monitored from Day 15 after mating day to the end of gestation. Based on linear and quadratic regressions, the following morphometric analysis showed a good indicator of the gestational age: placental diameter, biparietal diameter, renal length, and crown rump. The embryonic cardiac beat was first detected at an average of 22.5 days. The placental diameter showed constant increase from beginning of gestation then remained to term and presented a quadratic correlation with gestational age (r(2) = 0.89). Mean placental diameter at the end of pregnancy was 3.5 ± 0.23 cm. By Day 30, it was possible to measure biparietal diameter, which followed a linear pattern of increase up to the end of gestation (r(2) = 0.95). Mean biparietal diameter in the end of pregnancy was 1.94 ± 0.03 cm. Kidneys were firstly observed on Day 35 as hyperechoic structures without the distinction of medullar and cortical layers, thus the regression model equation between kidney length and gestational age presents a quadratic relationship (r(2) = 0.7). The crown rump presented a simple linear growth, starting from 15 days of gestation, displaying a high correlation with the gestational age (r(2) = 0.9). The offspring were born after an average gestation of 61.3 days. In this study, we conclude that biparietal diameter, placental diameter, and crown rump are adequate predictive parameters of gestational age in guinea pigs because they present high correlation index. PMID:24560548

  5. Objective Evaluation of Sylvian Fissure Development by Multiplanar 3-dimensional Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Pooja; Gonçalves, Luis F.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Espinoza, Jimmy; Lee, Wesley; Nien, Jyh Kae; Soto, Eleazar; Romero, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Objective Evaluation of fetal cerebral cortex sulcation is important for the prenatal diagnosis of neuronal migration disorders. Although abnormal sylvian fissure morphological features are frequently observed in these conditions, the diagnosis of an abnormal sylvian fissure relies on subjective interpretation of ultrasonographic images. This study was performed to develop an objective ultrasonographic parameter for sylvian fissure evaluation. Methods This cross-sectional study included normal singleton pregnancies without fetal anomalies. Using multi-planar, 3-dimensional ultrasonography, the sylvian fissure midpoint was identified. The sylvian fissure-to-parietal bone distance (SPB) was measured from the midpoint to the inner surface of the parietal bone, perpendicular to the falx cerebri. Bland-Altman plots were used to determine intraobserver and interobserver agreement. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between SPB measurements and gestational age. Results Two hundred (99%) of 202 pregnancies had a visible sylvian fissure, identifiable as early as 12 weeks of gestation. The mean SPB values at 12 and 41 weeks was 2.1 mm and 14.3 mm, respectively. Intraobserver and interobserver mean differences between paired measurements were 0.01 mm (95% limits of agreement, -0.41 to 0.43 mm) and 0.05 mm (95% limits of agreement, -1.79 to 1.90 mm), respectively. A linear correlation was observed between the SPB and gestational age (multiple R=0.91; R2=0.82 [SPB = -2.85 + 0.42 × gestational age]). Conclusions (1) The SPB can be reproducibly measured from 12 weeks of gestation to term; and (2) a strong positive correlation was observed between the SPB and gestational age. PMID:17324984

  6. Evaluation of radiography, ultrasonography and endoscopy for detection of shell lesions in live abalone Haliotis iris (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Nollens, Hendrik H; Schofield, John C; Keogh, Jonathan A; Probert, P Keith

    2002-07-01

    Radiography, ultrasonography and endoscopy were examined for their efficacy as non-destructive techniques for the detection of shell lesions in the marine gastropod Haliotis iris Gmelin. X-rays provided 69% correct diagnoses, with detection being restricted to those lesions which were mineralised. Ultrasound also showed potential to reliably detect lesions (83% correct diagnoses), but only where the lesions demonstrated a clear 3-dimensional relief. Lesion dimensions were underestimated using ultrasound. Endoscopy, applied to anaesthetised individuals, provided the most accurate method (92% correct diagnoses) for lesion detection and, although invasive, had no discernible effect on survival of the abalone 8 mo after screening. PMID:12180705

  7. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided endoscopic treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts and walled-off necrosis: New technical developments

    PubMed Central

    Braden, Barbara; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts and necrosis occurring in the clinical context of acute and chronic pancreatitis has shifted towards minimally invasive endoscopic interventions. Surgical procedures can be avoided in many cases by using endoscopically placed, Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided techniques and drainages. Endoscopic ultrasound enables the placement of transmural plastic and metal stents or nasocystic tubes for the drainage of peripancreatic fluid collections. The development of self-expanding metal stents and exchange free delivering systems have simplified the drainage of pancreatic fluid collections. This review will discuss available therapeutic techniques and new developments. PMID:25473173

  8. Application of ultrasonography and the resistive index for evaluating bladder outlet obstruction in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Shinbo, Hitoshi; Kurita, Yutaka

    2011-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an extremely common and chronic condition that can lead to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in elderly men. Although pressure-flow studies are considered the most reliable method for evaluating BOO, they are invasive and complicated. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) is a promising alternative because of its minimal invasiveness. Recently, TRUS imaging has been shown capable of measuring the resistive index, a useful parameter for evaluating BOO and for determining proper medical intervention in patients suffering from BPH. PMID:21475953

  9. Use of Intra-Arterial Carbon-Dioxide-Enhanced Ultrasonography for Guidance of Radiofrequency Ablation and Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmoto, Kenji, E-mail: ohmotok@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp; Yoshioka, Naoko; Tomiyama, Yasuyuki; Shibata, Norikuni; Kawase, Tomoya; Yoshida, Koji; Kuboki, Makoto; Yamamoto, Shinichiro [Kawasaki Medical School, Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine (Japan)

    2006-12-15

    A 73-year-old man with hepatitis-C-related cirrhosis and an elevated alpha-fetoprotein level and tumor in segment 3 of his liver was referred for interventional radiologic treatment. He was not a candidate for surgical resection due to impaired liver function and his personal preferences. On conventional ultrasonography no lesion could be detected, but the tumor was clearly depicted by intra-arterial carbon-dioxide-enhanced ultrasonography. Radiofrequency ablation was performed safely and accurately under the guidance of carbon-dioxide-enhanced ultrasonography. By concomitant performance of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization with radiofrequency ablation, extensive necrosis was obtained and adequate tumor volume reduction achieved with only one treatment session.

  10. Efficacy of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor grading

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Takagi, Tadayuki; Hikichi, Takuto; Suzuki, Rei; Watanabe, Ko; Nakamura, Jun; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Konno, Naoki; Waragai, Yuichi; Asama, Hiroyuki; Takasumi, Mika; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for grading pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). METHODS: A total of 22 patients were diagnosed with PNET by EUS-FNA between October 2001 and December 2013 at Fukushima Medical University Hospital. Among these cases, we targeted 10 PNET patients who were evaluated according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 classification. Surgery was performed in eight patients, and chemotherapy was performed in two patients due to multiple liver metastases?Specimens obtained by EUS-FNA were first stained with hematoxylin and eosin and then stained with chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56, and Ki-67. The specimens were graded by the Ki-67 index according to the WHO 2010 classification. Specimens obtained by surgery were graded by the Ki-67 index and mitotic count (WHO 2010 classification). For the eight specimens obtained by EUS-FNA, the Ki-67 index results were compared with those obtained by surgery. In the two cases treated with chemotherapy, the effects and prognoses were evaluated. RESULTS: The sampling rate for histological diagnosis by EUS-FNA was 100%. No adverse effects were observed. The concordance rate between specimens obtained by EUS-FNA and surgery was 87.5% (7/8). For the two cases treated with chemotherapy, case 1 received somatostatin analog therapy and transcatheter arterial infusion (TAI) targeting multiple liver metastases. Subsequent treatment consisted of everolimus. During chemotherapy, the primary tumor remained unconfirmed, although the multiple liver metastases diminished dramatically. Case 2 was classified as neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) according to the Ki-67 index of a specimen obtained by EUS-FNA; therefore, cisplatin and irinotecan therapy was started. However, severe adverse effects, including renal failure and diarrhea, were observed, and the therapy regimen was changed to cisplatin and etoposide. TAI targeting multiple liver metastases was performed. Although the liver metastases diminished, the primary tumor remained unconfirmed. These chemotherapy regimens had immediate effects for both unresectable neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and NEC cases. These two subjects are still alive. CONCLUSION: EUS-FNA was effective for PNET diagnosis and Ki-67 index grading for WHO 2010 classification, enabling informed decisions on unresectable PNET treatment by identifying NET or NEC. PMID:26185384

  11. Role of clinical judgment and tissue harmonic imaging ultrasonography in diagnosis of paediatric acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency in children; yet, diagnosis of equivocal presentations continues to challenge clinicians. Aim The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the use of a modified clinical practice and harmonic ultrasonographic grading scores (MCPGS) may improve the accuracy in diagnosing acute appendicitis in the pediatric population. Patients & Methods Main outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the modified scoring system. Five hundred and thirty patients presented with suspected diagnosis of acute appendicitis during the period from December 2000 to December 2009 were enrolled in this study. Children's data that have already been published of those who presented with suspected diagnosis of acute appendicitis- to whom a special clinical practice grading scores (CPGS) incorporating clinical judgment and results of gray scale ultrasonography (US) was applied- were reviewed and compared to the data of 265 pediatric patients with equivocal diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA), to whom a modified clinical practice grading scores (MCPGS) was applied. Statistical analyses were carried out using Z test for comparing 2 sample proportions and student's t-test to compare the quantitative data in both groups. Sensitivity and specificity for the 2 scoring systems were calculated using Epi-Info software. Results The Number of appendectomies declined from 200 (75.5%) in our previous CPGS to 187 (70.6%) in the MCPGS (P > 0.05). Specificity was significantly higher when applying MCPGS (90.7%) in this study compared to 70.47% in our previous work when CPGS was applied (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the positive predictive value (PPV) was significantly higher (95.72%) than in our previous study (82.88%), (P < 0.01). Overall agreement (accuracy) of MCPGS was 96.98%. Kappa = 0.929 (P < 0.001). Negative predictive power was 100%. And the Overall agreement (accuracy) was 96.98%. Conclusions MCPGS tends to help in reduce the numbers of avoidable and unnecessary appendectomies in suspected cases of pediatric acute appendicitis that may help in saving hospital resources. PMID:22087573

  12. Prediction Table and Nomogram as Tools for Diagnosis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Combined Analysis of Ultrasonography, Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy, and BRAF V600E Mutation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seo Ki; Lee, Jun Ho; Woo, Jung-Woo; Park, Inhye; Choe, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Jee Soo

    2015-05-01

    Although ultrasonography (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the most reliable diagnostic modality for evaluating thyroid nodules, 10% to 40% of FNAB samples yield indeterminate findings. The BRAF V600E mutation, a highly specific molecular marker for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), well known for its prognostic value, has dubious diagnostic value because of its low sensitivity. Novel strategies are clearly needed to distinguish PTC, which represents the majority of thyroid malignancies, from other thyroid nodules.The records of 3297 patients with surgically proven PTC were retrospectively reviewed. A prediction table and nomogram were designed using a combination of diagnostic parameters for US, FNAB, and the BRAF V600E mutation. For the nomogram, parameters were proportionally assigned 0 to 100 points according to their regression coefficient for PTC.The probability of PTC for thyroid nodules with intermediate-risk (IR) US and atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) FNAB was significantly dependent on BRAF V600E mutation status based on our prediction table (negative, 29.2% vs positive, 87.5%; P?assess the probability of PTC in the preoperative period. PMID:26020381

  13. Comparative evaluation of fatty infiltration of the liver in dairy cattle by using blood and serum analysis, ultrasonography, and digital analysis.

    PubMed

    Acorda, J A; Yamada, H; Ghamsari, S M

    1995-03-01

    Blood samples were collected from 158 Holstein-Friesian cows and analysed for aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and ornithine carabamoyltransferase activities and glucose, total bilirubin, triglyceride, cholesterol-ester and non-esterified fatty acids concentrations. Ultrasonography of the liver was performed, and hepatic ultrasonograms were evaluated subjectively or analysed digitally, and liver samples were examined histopathologically. The diagnostic rates for the different tests were compared. Of the 158 animals, 117 had a normal liver and 41 had fatty infiltration of the liver. For diagnosis of fatty infiltration, digital analysis had the highest sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values, followed by ultrasonography. PMID:7610550

  14. Multimodal Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions for 19F MRI, Ultrasonography, and Catalysis of MRgFUS-Mediated Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapoport, N.; Nam, K.-H.; Christensen, D. A.; Kennedy, A. M.; Parker, D. L.; Payne, A. H.; Todd, N.; Shea, J. E.; Scaife, C. L.

    2011-09-01

    Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions can target lipophilic therapeutic agents to solid tumors and simultaneously provide for monitoring nanocarrier biodistribution via ultrasonography and/or 19F MRI. In the first generation of block copolymer stabilized perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions, perfluoropentane (PFP) was used as the droplet forming compound. Although manifesting excellent therapeutic and ultrasound imaging properties, PFP nanoemulsions were unstable at storage, difficult to handle, and underwent droplet-to-bubble transition upon injection that was hard to control. To solve the above problems, perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether (PFCE) was used as a core forming compound in the second generation of block copolymer stabilized perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions. In the present paper, acoustic, imaging, and therapeutic properties of unloaded and paclitaxel (PTX) loaded PFCE nanoemulsions are reported. The size of paclitaxel-loaded PFCE nanodroplets (300 nm to 500 nm depending on emulsification conditions) favors their passive accumulation in tumor tissue. PFCE nanodroplets manifest both ultrasound and 19F MR contrast properties, which allows the use of multimodal imaging to monitor nanodroplet biodistribution. Ultrasonography and 19F MRI produced consistent results on nanodroplet biodistribution. Sonication with 1-MHz therapeutic ultrasound triggered reversible droplet-to-bubble transition in PFCE nanoemulsions. Microbubbles formed by acoustic vaporization underwent stable cavitation. In a pilot study on ultrasound-mediated therapy of a large breast cancer tumor, paclitaxel-loaded PFCE nanoemulsions combined with 1-MHz ultrasound (MI?1.75) showed excellent therapeutic properties. Anticipated mechanisms of the observed effects are discussed.

  15. Immediate versus delayed integrated point-of-care-ultrasonography to manage acute dyspnea in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dyspnea is one of the most frequent complaints in the Emergency Department. Thoracic ultrasound should help to differentiate cardiogenic from non-cardiogenic causes of dyspnea. We evaluated whether the diagnostic accuracy can be improved by adding a point-of-care-ultrasonography (POC-US) to routine exams and if an early use of this technique produces any advantage. Methods One hundred sixty-eight patients were enrolled and randomized in two groups: Group 1 received an immediate POC-US in addition to routine laboratory and instrumental tests; group 2 received an ultrasound scan within 1 h from the admission to the Emergency Department. The concordance between initial and final diagnosis and the percentage of wrong diagnosis in the two groups were evaluated. Mortality, days of hospitalization in Emergency Medicine department and transfers to other wards were compared. Sensitivity and specificity of the routine protocol and the one including ultrasonography for the diagnosis of the causes of dyspnea were also analyzed. Results Eighty-eight patients were randomized in group 1 and 80 in group 2. The concordance rate between initial and final diagnoses was significantly different (0.94 in group 1 vs. 0.22 in group 2, p?

  16. Determination of Testicular Blood Flow in Camelids Using Vascular Casting and Color Pulsed-Wave Doppler Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kutzler, Michelle; Tyson, Reid; Grimes, Monica; Timm, Karen

    2011-01-01

    We describe the vasculature of the camelid testis using plastic casting. We also use color pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography to measure testicular blood flow and compare the differences between testicular blood flow in fertile and infertile camelids. The testicular artery originates from the ventral surface of the aorta, gives rise to an epididymal branch, and becomes very tortuous as it approaches the testis. Within the supratesticular arteries, peak systolic velocity (PSV) was higher in fertile males compared to infertile males (P = 0.0004). In addition, end diastolic velocity (EDV) within the supratesticular arteries was higher for fertile males when compared to infertile males (P = 0.0325). Within the marginal arteries, PSV was also higher in fertile males compared to infertile males (P = 0.0104). However, EDV within the marginal arteries was not significantly different between fertile and infertile males (P = 0.121). In addition, the resistance index was not significantly different between fertile and infertile males within the supratesticular (P = 0.486) and marginal arteries (P = 0.144). The significance of this research is that in addition to information obtained from a complete reproductive evaluation, a male camelid's fertility can be determined using testicular blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography. PMID:21941690

  17. Estimation of Muscle Mass by Ultrasonography Differs between Observers and Life States of Models in Small Birds.

    PubMed

    Royer-Boutin, Pascal; Cortés, Pablo A; Milbergue, Myriam; Petit, Magali; Vézina, François

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography has proven to be a valuable noninvasive method of measure of muscle size in birds, but validation of its use in birds as small as black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; 11 g) is scarce. The effect of observers and life state (dead or alive) of models used for calibration on measurement quality is also poorly documented. Using 31 dead and 22 live chickadees, linear regressions between ultrasound and dissection measurements of pectoral and thigh muscles were fitted and compared between five different observers. R(2) values varied greatly between observers and were generally weaker in live birds, ranging between 0.02 and 0.59, despite high repeatability of measurement. Using equations calculated from dead birds to estimate muscle mass of live birds yielded much higher measurement errors (9%-18%) than when using equations calculated from live birds (5%-8%). Our results suggest that with careful training and using only calibration from live birds, ultrasonography can be a useful but limited tool to estimate muscle size of birds as small as the black-capped chickadee. PMID:25860831

  18. Evaluation of the breeding soundness of male camels (Camelus dromedarius) via clinical examination, semen analysis, ultrasonography and testicular biopsy: a summary of 80 clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Waheed, M M; Ghoneim, I M; Hassieb, M M; Alsumait, A A

    2014-10-01

    Male camel infertility is a heterogeneous disorder. A variety of factors may adversely affect sperm production and function and impair fertility. This study was designed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography and testicular biopsy in the evaluation of the breeding soundness of male dromedaries compared with results obtained by clinical examination and semen analysis. Eighty-four male dromedary camels (5-15 years old) were used in this study during the rutting season (November-May). Four sexually mature male camels were used as controls. These animals were apparently healthy and had histories of normal fertility. Eighty infertile male camels were subjected to an algorithmic approach based on information collected during careful examinations of the camels' breeding histories, clinical examinations, testicular evaluations, testicular ultrasonographies, the results of the semen analyses and testicular biopsies to diagnose the camels' infertilities. The differences in the semen parameters between the control and infertile male camels were highly significant (p < 0.01). Regarding the diagnoses of male camel infertility, the results of testicular ultrasonographies and biopsies were compared with those from the semen analyses, and the accuracies of these tests were 92.5% and 90%, respectively. Additionally, the results of the testicular ultrasonographies were matched with those of the testicular biopsies of the infertile animals, and this comparison resulted in 85% accuracy. Testicular biopsy is a promising method that, along with a carefully performed history, clinical examination, an appropriate testicular ultrasonography procedure and semen analysis, can afford veterinarians the opportunity for more precise diagnosis and treatment of many dromedary infertility disorders. PMID:25112541

  19. [Early gastric cancer staging by radiology, endoscopy, trans-endoscopic ultrasonography and its anatomo-pathological correlation].

    PubMed

    Bracho Mosquera, V E; Yanai, H; Tada, M; Hatano, S; Okita, K

    1994-01-01

    Early gastric cancer detection is still in its more elementary step in the western hemisphere, while in Japan gastric cancer is detected mainly in its early stage. The aim of this article is to analyze the Japanese method for early gastric cancer detection and staging, by sketch of certain morphologic criterions and a report of a typical case. In our case the lesion's staging was predicted as submucosal by means of endoscopy and double contrast roentgenography. Endoscopic ultrasonography complemented the analysis. The standard anatomopathological work up for early gastric cancer in Japan is also analysed. By this former method the accuracy of the initial staging by endoscopy, and radiologic means was ensured. By a correct early gastric cancer diagnosis and staging a better selection of the surgical strategy and survival can be achieved. PMID:7774792

  20. Follicular growth and corpus luteum function in women with unexplained infertility, monitored by ultrasonography and measurement of daily salivary progesterone.

    PubMed

    Finn, M M; Gosling, J P; Tallon, D F; Joyce, L A; Meehan, F P; Fottrell, P F

    1989-12-01

    Ovarian function was evaluated over a minimum of 3 consecutive menstrual cycles from each of 41 women with unexplained infertility. Follicular development and ovulation were monitored using real time ultrasonography and luteal function was evaluated by daily salivary progesterone measurement. In 129 spontaneous cycles, normal single ovulations were detected in 121 (93.8%). Luteal phase insufficiency was identified in 21 (17.4%) of these 121 cycles and this was a recurrent phenomenon in the cycles of 5 of the 41 women (12.2%). A successful pregnancy was seen only in association with consistently normal salivary progesterone profiles or where the empirical use of clomiphene citrate therapy had corrected previously diagnosed luteal phase insufficiency. Basal body temperature records or mid-luteal serum progesterone measurements were less satisfactory indices of luteal function than a salivary progesterone profile. PMID:2626978

  1. Differential diagnosis of benign and malignant branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm using contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Harima, Hirofumi; Kaino, Seiji; Shinoda, Shuhei; Kawano, Michitaka; Suenaga, Shigeyuki; Sakaida, Isao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the role of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography (CE-EUS) in the diagnosis of branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (BD-IPMN). METHODS: A total of 50 patients diagnosed with BD-IPMN by computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) at our institute were included in this study. CE-EUS was performed when mural lesions were detected by EUS. The diagnostic accuracy for identifying mural nodules (MNs) was evaluated by CT, EUS, and EUS combined with CE-EUS. In the patients who underwent resection, the accuracy of measuring MN height with each imaging modality was compared. The cut-off values to diagnose malignant BD-IPMNs based on MN height for each imaging modality were determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were diagnosed with BD-IPMN with MNs and underwent resection. The remaining 35 patients were diagnosed with BD-IPMN without MNs and underwent follow-up monitoring. The pathological findings revealed 14 cases with MNs and one case without. The accuracy for diagnosing MNs was 92% using CT and 72% using EUS; the diagnostic accuracy increased to 98% when EUS and CE-EUS were combined. The accuracy for measuring MN height significantly improved when using CE-EUS compared with using CT or EUS (median measurement error value, CT: 3.3 mm vs CE-EUS: 0.6 mm, P < 0.05; EUS: 2.1 mm vs CE-EUS: 0.6 mm, P < 0.01). A cut-off value of 8.8 mm for MN height as measured by CE-EUS improved the accuracy of diagnosing malignant BD-IPMN to 93%. CONCLUSION: Using CE-EUS to measure MN height provides a highly accurate method for differentiating benign from malignant BD-IPMN.

  2. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic and prognostic approach in cattle and buffaloes with fatty infiltration of the liver.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether ultrasonographic evaluation of the hepatic parenchyma could be used as a diagnostic and prognostic approach in cows and buffaloes with hepatic lipidosis. For this purpose, cows (n=16) and buffaloes (n=10) with fatty infiltration of the liver were examined by ultrasonography. Treated cows and buffaloes were monitored for hepatic changes ultrasonographically, biochemically and histologically. Clinical findings were non-specific and included anorexia, recumbency, muzzle necrosis, and icteric mucosal membranes. Laboratory data revealed neutrophilia, hyper gamma-globulinemia, elevated activities of aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, and high concentrations of insulin, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxyl butyric acid. Laboratory results 7, and 21 days after treatment showed progressive improvement in the chemistry profile. On admission, ultrasonographic examination of the hepatic parenchyma in cows and buffaloes revealed either increased or decreased hepatic echogenicity; histologic examination revealed marked fatty infiltration of the hepatocytes. One week after treatment, the hepatic parenchyma was visualized easily, liver boundaries were clearly imaged, and histologic examination of hepatic specimen showed a moderate degree of fatty infiltration. Three weeks after treatment, the hepatic parenchyma was almost similar to normal, the hepatic and portal blood vessels could be easily imaged, and the histologic picture had greatly improved where the liver resembled the normal organ. Six cows and seven buffaloes made a full recovery while the remaining ten cows and three buffaloes were slaughtered and thoroughly examined postmortem. Ultrasonography showed a good correlation with histologic and laboratory findings. PMID:22708362

  3. Topographic pattern of the brachial plexus at the axillary fossa through real-time ultrasonography in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin Hye; Kim, Jong Hak; Kim, Dong Yeon; Lee, Guie Yong; Kim, Chi Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Background The ability to explore the anatomy has improved our appreciation of the brachial anatomy and the quality of regional anesthesia. Using real-time ultrasonography, we investigated the cross-sectional anatomy of the brachial plexus and of vessels at the axillary fossa in Koreans. Methods One hundred and thirty-one patients scheduled to undergo surgery in the region below the elbow were enrolled after giving their informed written consent. Using the 5-12 MHz linear probe of an ultrasound system, we examined cross-sectional images of the brachial plexus in the supine position with the arm abducted by 90°, the shoulder externally rotated, and the forearm flexed by 90° at the axillary fossa. The results of the nerve positions were expressed on a 12-section pie chart and the numbers of arteries and veins were reported. Results Applying gentle pressure to prevent vein collapse, the positions of the nerves changed easily and showed a clockwise order around the axillary artery (AA). The most frequent positions were observed in the 10-11 section (79.2%) for the median, 1-2 section (79.3%) for the ulnar, 3-5 section (78.4%) for the radial, and 8-9 section (86.9%) for the musculocutaneous nerve. We also noted anatomical variations consisting of double arteries (9.2%) and multiple axillary veins (87%). Conclusions Using real-time ultrasonography, we found that the anatomical pattern of the major nerves in Koreans was about 80% of the frequent position of individual nerves, 90.8% of the single AA, and 87% of multiple veins around the AA. PMID:25473459

  4. Unenhanced and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography During Hepatic Transarterial Embolization and Chemoembolization With Drug-Eluting Beads

    SciTech Connect

    Moschouris, Hippocrates, E-mail: hipmosch@gmail.co [General Hospital 'Tzanio', Department of Radiology (Greece); Malagari, Katerina [University of Athens, Second Department of Radiology, 'Attikon' Hospital (Greece); Kornezos, Ioannis; Papadaki, Marina Georgiou [General Hospital 'Tzanio', Department of Radiology (Greece); Gkoutzios, Panagiotis [NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Interventional Radiology, Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospital (United Kingdom); Matsaidonis, Dimitrios [General Hospital 'Tzanio', Department of Radiology (Greece)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate the findings of unenhanced ultrasonography (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) when these modalities are applied during transarterial embolization (TAE) or transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of liver tumors. Sixteen tumors (9 hepatocellular carcinomas, 5 metastases from colorectal cancer, and 2 hemangiomas) were treated with TAE with microspheres and/or TACE with drug-eluting beads. All of these lesions were studied with intraprocedural unenhanced US and 12 were studied with intraprocedural CEUS. For the latter, a second-generation echo-enhancer (SonoVue; Bracco, Milan, Italy) and a low mechanical index technique were used. Intraprocedural findings were classified according to an arbitrary scale and were compared with pretreatment imaging (CEUS and computed tomography or CEUS and magnetic resonance imaging), with postembolization angiography, and with follow-up results. On unenhanced intraprocedural US, 13 of 16 tumors demonstrated intralesional high-level echoes of varying extent. These feature correlated poorly (r = 0.33, p = 0.097) with and generally underestimated the actual extent of necrosis. Exceptionally, high-level echoes that occupied the largest part of the treated lesions were associated with >50% tumor necrosis. Intraprocedural CEUS clearly depicted immediate partial or complete disappearance of tumor enhancement as a result of TAE/TACE. Three of 6 tumors with complete devascularization on postembolization angiogram showed residual enhancement on intraprocedural CEUS. Intraprocedural CEUS findings correlated closely (r = 0.91, p = 0.002) with follow-up findings. Intraprocedural sonography, particularly with echo-enhancers, could be used for intraprocedural monitoring in selected cases of liver tumors that undergo TAE or TACE.

  5. Clinician performed resuscitative ultrasonography for the initial evaluation and resuscitation of trauma

    PubMed Central

    Gillman, Lawrence M; Ball, Chad G; Panebianco, Nova; Al-Kadi, Azzam; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W

    2009-01-01

    Background Traumatic injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries worldwide. Recent studies suggest that many deaths are preventable if injuries are recognized and treated in an expeditious manner – the so called 'golden hour' of trauma. Ultrasound revolutionized the care of the trauma patient with the introduction of the FAST (Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma) examination; a rapid assessment of the hemodynamically unstable patient to identify the presence of peritoneal and/or pericardial fluid. Since that time the use of ultrasound has expanded to include a rapid assessment of almost every facet of the trauma patient. As a result, ultrasound is not only viewed as a diagnostic test, but actually as an extension of the physical exam. Methods A review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining to ultrasound-assisted assessment of the trauma patient were obtained. The literature selected was based on the preference and clinical expertise of authors. Discussion In this review we explore the benefits and pitfalls of applying resuscitative ultrasound to every aspect of the initial assessment of the critically injured trauma patient. PMID:19660123

  6. Is uterine depth measurement by trans-vaginal ultrasound alone as accurate as measurement carried out by trans-abdominal ultrasound-guided trial transfer?

    PubMed Central

    Edris, Fawaz E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the reliability of trans-vaginal-scan (TVS) in measuring the uterine depth (UD) in comparison with ultrasound-guided trial-transfer (UTT). Methods: This prospective study was conducted in 66 consecutive patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). The study took place in a private IVF center in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between November 2013 and January 2014. The patients underwent UD measurements using TVS and UTT, sequentially. All scans were performed by a single sonographer, and all UTT were carried out by a single physician who was blinded to the TVS measurement. Results: The median (95% confidence interval) UD measurement using the TVS method was 6.9 cm (5.0-12.5) and UTT was 7.1 cm (5.9-13.5), (p<0.0001). Fifteen patients (22.7%) had a difference of >1 cm between the 2 measurement modalities (group-B). When measured by UTT, 93.3% of patients in group-B had UD ?8cm, compared with 9.8% of patients in group-A, (p<0.0001). Group-B had a significantly longer uterine cavity when measured by UTT (p<0.0001), and a trend towards significance when measured by TVS (p=0.055). The TVS measurements generally underestimated UD when compared with UTT. Conclusion: Trans-vaginal-scan is less reliable than UTT and should not be used as a substitute. Larger sample-size studies involving different personnel, and equipment is needed. PMID:25316468

  7. Evaluation of portal blood flow using transcutaneous and intraoperative Doppler ultrasonography in dairy cows with fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Starke, A; Schmidt, S; Haudum, A; Scholbach, T; Wohlsein, P; Beyerbach, M; Rehage, J

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate portal blood flow (PBF) in dairy cows with fatty liver by means of Doppler ultrasonography. Eighty lactating German Holstein cows less than 100 d in milk were used (mean ± standard error of the mean; body weight: 583 ± 9 kg, age: 5 ± 0.2 yr, withers height: 145.4 ± 0.5 cm, milk yield: 9 ± 0.6 kg). All cows had left abomasal displacement and underwent omentopexy via right flank laparotomy. The size of the liver and the thickness over the portal vein were determined ultrasonographically. Doppler ultrasonographic examinations of PBF were carried out transcutaneously and intraoperatively directly via liver surface. The PBF velocities [peak maximum (v(max)), peak minimum (v(min)), and mean maximum (v(mean)) velocity] were recorded. Venous pulsatility index (VPI) was calculated. Because transcutaneous Doppler ultrasonography revealed images of very poor quality in 58 of the 80 cows, only data obtained intraoperatively were presented. Liver biopsies were used for hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) determination and histological examination. Based on histopathologic and ultrasonographic examinations, none of the cows suffered from hepatic disorders other than hepatic lipidosis. Hepatic TAG content ranged from 5 to 292 mg/g of liver fresh weight (FW). Cows were allocated to 1 of 4 groups according to their hepatic TAG content (very severe: TAG >150 mg/g of FW, n=27; severe: >100-150 mg/g of FW, n=18; moderate: ? 50-100mg/g of FW, n=19; mild: <50mg/g of FW, n=16). The VPI decreased with increasing TAG content (r=-0.55). The VPI did not differ between cows with severe and very severe fatty liver but it differed between cows of these 2 groups and cows with mild and moderate fatty liver. Velocities of PBF (v(mean), v(min), v(max)) correlated negatively with hepatic TAG content (r=-0.26 to -0.37). Mean PBF velocity of the cows with very severe fatty liver differed from cows with severe, moderate, and mild fatty liver. Variables of PBF were inversely related to hepatic size and thickness (r=-0.06 to -0.35). In conclusion, the lower VPI and PBF velocities in cows with fatty liver and the negative correlations with the degree of hepatosteatosis may be explained by a reduction of vascular compliance in the liver because of fatty infiltration. These changes, which are believed to result from parenchymal swelling, were particularly pronounced when hepatic TAG content exceeded 150 mg/g FW. PMID:21605766

  8. Food Hypersensitivity Reactions Visualised by Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Patient Lacking Systemic Food-Specific IgE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gülen Arslan; Kristine Lillestøl; Arna Mulahasanovic; Erik Florvaag; Arnold Berstad

    2006-01-01

    Background: Abdominal complaints related to food intake might be due to hypersensitivity. A firm diagnosis of food allergy is often difficult to establish, particularly in the absence of systemic food-specific IgE. Using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we were able to visualise the intestinal response in one such case. Methods: A 24-year-old female presented with self-reported food hypersensitivity, particularly

  9. Has the liver and other visceral organs migrated to its normal position in children with giant omphalocele? A follow-up study with ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floortje Clemens van Eijck; Willemijn M. Klein; Carla Boetes; Daniel C. Aronson; Rene M. H. Wijnen

    2010-01-01

    Summary  This study evaluates whether, on the long run, in patients born with a giant omphalocele, the liver and other solid organs\\u000a reach their normal position, shape, and size. Seventeen former patients with a giant omphalocele, treated between 1970 and\\u000a 2004, were included. Physical examination was supplemented with ultrasonography for ventral hernia and precise description\\u000a of the liver, spleen, and kidneys.

  10. Diagnostic significance of digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography in men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 4 ng\\/mL or less

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takumi Yamamoto; Kazuto Ito; Masaru Ohi; Yutaka Kubota; Kazuhiro Suzuki; Yoshitatsu Fukabori; Kohei Kurokawa; Hidetoshi Yamanaka

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the usefulness of digital rectal examination (DRE) and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) for prostate cancer diagnosis and to propose a diagnostic algorithm for individual-based cancer screening in subjects with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 4.0 ng\\/mL or less.Methods. Between January 1992 and March 2000, 129 subjects with PSA levels of 4.0 or less and abnormal findings on DRE

  11. SU-E-I-30: Image Analysis in Ultrasonography for Diagnosis of Sjoegren's Syndrome Using Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, T [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohki, M [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, T; Takagi, Y [Department of Radiology and Cancer Biology, Nagasaki University School of Dentistry, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Sjoegren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease invading mainly salivary and lacrimal glands. Ultrasonography is used for an initial and non-invasive examination of this disease. However, the ultrasonography diagnosis tends to lack in objectivity and depends on the operator's skills. The purpose of this study is to propose a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for SS based on a dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) and machine learning. Methods: The subjects of this study were 174 patients suspected of having SS at Nagasaki University Hospital and examined with ultrasonography of the parotid glands. Out of these patients, 77 patients were diagnosed with SS by sialography. A region of interest (ROI) of 128 × 128 pixels was set within the parotid gland that was indicated by a dental radiologist. The DT-CWT was applied to the images in the ROI and every image was decomposed into 72 sub-images of the real and imaginary components in six different resolution levels and six orientations. The statistical features of the sub-image were calculated and used as data input for the support vector machine (SVM) classifier for the detection of SS. A ten-fold cross-validation was employed to verify the Resultof SVM. The accuracy of diagnosis was compared by a CAD system with a human observer performance. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in the detection of SS were 95%, 86%, and 91% through our CAD system respectively, while those by a human observer were 84%, 81%, and 83% respectively. Conclusion: The proposed computer-aided diagnosis system for Sjoegren's syndrome in ultrasonography based on dual-tree complex wavelet transform had a better performance than a human observer.

  12. Pre-operative trans-thoracic doppler ultrasonography evaluation and intraoperative manual evaluation of the left internal thoracic artery in patients with type 2 diabetes with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Cihan, H B; Erbas, F; Erdil, N; Sigirci, A; Battaloglu, B; Yologlu, S

    2011-01-01

    Patients with coronary artery disease, with (n = 25) and without (n = 59) type 2 diabetes, who were scheduled to undergo coronary artery bypass grafting were enrolled in this prospective study. The left internal thoracic artery (LITA) was assessed for graft suitability before surgery by trans-thoracic Doppler ultra sonography and during surgery by manual measurement. Significant differences were seen between preoperative and intra-operative LITA blood flow rates and LITA diameters, and the values of each at the two time points showed significant correlation, suggesting that pre-operative measurements largely related to intra-operative conditions. The pre-operative and intra-operative LITA blood flow rates and LITA diameters were not significantly different between patients with and without type 2 diabetes. Pre-operative LITA blood flow was monophasic in three patients without diabetes and the LITA grafts of these patients were deemed unsuitable for implantation during surgery. It is concluded that type 2 diabetes does not seem to have a negative effect on the suitability of LITA grafts. In addition, trans-thoracic Doppler ultrasonography is an easy, cost-effective, reproducible and non-invasive examination method, which may help in the evaluation of LIMA function and contribute to graft selection. PMID:21672331

  13. Transvaginal perineal body repair for low rectocele.

    PubMed

    Petros, P; Inoue, H

    2013-08-01

    We describe our technique of low rectocele repair which is based on the approximation and lifting of the laterally displaced perineal bodies (PBs) using the Tissue Fixation System, a 7-mm-wide tensioned macropore polypropylene sling. In low rectocele, the PB between the rectum and vagina is thinned and laterally displaced but still attached to the deep transverse perineal (DTP) muscle. Our technique is described with the aid of a video. The vagina and rectum are dissected off the laterally displaced PBs. The DTP attachment of each PB to the descending ramus is identified per rectum. A tunnel is created in the DTP on both sides to insert the polypropylene mesh attached to an anchor. The loop of tape between the anchors is shortened via the one-way system at the base of the anchor to elevate the inferolaterally displaced PBs to a more medial position. This is infiltrated by collagen over time, creating a "neo-central tendon." The musculofascial layer of the rectum, the vagina, and superficial layers of the PBs are approximated. Our cure rate for low rectocele repair was in excess of 90 %, even with an early version of this procedure. Our method differs from rectocele repair with large mesh in that it precisely mimics the damaged structure and uses only very short thin strips of tape to approximate and reinforce PBs weakened by birth injury and age. PMID:23417773

  14. Role of ultrasonography and urinary cytology in diagnosing recurrence of superficial urinary bladder cancer compared to cystoscopy.

    PubMed

    Roy, M K; Islam, M F; Kibria, S A

    2001-04-01

    Urinary cytology, ultrasonogram of the urinary bladder and cystoscopy were done in 99 cases of urinary bladder cancer patients in the department of urology of Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH), Dhaka, during the period from January 1997 to December 1998. Pre transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT), urinary cytology was positive in 20.20% cases and ultrasound scan was positive in 96.9% cases. Histopathological examination revealed 95.96% as transitional cell carcinoma:- Grade I (3.0%), Grade II (62.6%) and Grade III (34.4%). During follow-up urinary cytology was positive in only one case whereas ultrasound scan was positive in 53.5% cases of whom only 21.6% patients had actual recurrent bladder tumours proved by cystoscopy. Statistical analysis of the three tests and histopathology showed significant variation though by Chi-square test the ultrasound scan is found superior to urinary cytology. We conclude when ultrasonography of the urinary bladder shows any suspected lesion it should be examined by cystoscope and biopsy should be taken from the suspected area for confirmation. Neither urinary cytology nor ultrasound scan can replace cystoscopic examination. PMID:11692897

  15. The accuracy of three-dimensional bladder ultrasonography in determining the residual urinary volume compared with conventional catheterisation

    PubMed Central

    Jalbani, Imran K.; Ather, M. Hammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy of three-dimensional bladder ultrasonography (US, using the BVI 3000, Verathon, WA, USA) for determining the residual urinary volume, compared with the conventional catheterisation method. Patients and methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at day-care unit of a University hospital after obtaining approval from the Ethics Review Committee of the hospital. Thirty-four patients with lower urinary tract symptoms requiring cystometrography were included. The postvoid volume was measured by bladder US, with three readings taken, and then patient was catheterised using a 12-F Nelaton catheter to measure the urinary volume. The mean of the three readings was compared with the catheterisation volume. Results The mean (SD) urinary volumes by US and catheterisation were 261 (186) and 260 (175) mL, respectively, and the correlation (r2) was 0.97. There was no effect of age, gender or body mass index on the accuracy of bladder US, which was accurate even when the urinary volume was ?100 mL. Conclusion The bladder US estimate is as accurate as catheterisation for determining the postvoid residual urinary volume. Its accuracy was also comparable when the urinary volume is <100 mL, and there was no significant effect of age, gender and body mass index. This system could replace the more invasive catheterisation, and with excellent accuracy. PMID:26019951

  16. Human Infections with Liver and Minute Intestinal Flukes in Guangxi, China: Analysis by DNA Sequencing, Ultrasonography, and Immunoaffinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Zhang, Hongman; Yang, Yichao; Li, Xueming

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of liver and intestinal fluke infections was determined by surveying inhabitants of Hengxuan, Fusui, and Shanglin villages which were known to be endemic for liver flukes in Guangxi, China in May 2010. A total of 718 people were examined for helminth eggs by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique, ultrasonography, immunoaffinity chromatography, and DNA sequencing. The overall egg positive rate was found to be 59.6% (28.0-70.6%) that included mixed infections with liver and intestinal flukes. Cases showing higher than 20,000 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were detected between 1.3% and 16.2%. Ultrasonographic findings exhibited overall 28.2% (72 of 255 cases) dilatation rate of the intrahepatic bile duct. Clonorchis sinensis infection was detected serologically in 88.3% (38 of 43 cases) among C. sinensis egg positive subjects by the immunoaffinity chromatography using a specific antigen for C. sinensis. For differential diagnosis of the liver and intestinal flukes, more precise PCR and nucleotide sequencing for copro-DNA were performed for 46 egg positive cases. Mixed infections with C. sinensis and Metagonimus yokogawai were detected in 8 of 46 egg positive cases, whereas 29 specimens were positive for Haplorchis taichui. Ultrasonographic findings and immunoaffinity chromatography results showed usefulness, even in a limited way, in figuring out of the liver fluke endemicity. PMID:23230343

  17. Current status of tissue harmonic imaging in endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and EUS-elastography in pancreatobiliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Eizaburo; Kawashima, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Senju; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki

    2015-04-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has high spatial and contrast resolution, and is thought to be one of the most reliable and efficient diagnostic modalities for pancreatobiliary diseases. Recent progress in EUS, especially in the development of the electronic scanning method, has enabled the application of several utilities and software of a high-end transabdominal ultrasound apparatus as an image-enhanced EUS. Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) is a novel US acquisition method that provides better US images by using second harmonic signals. The potential advantages of THI are improved lateral resolution, reduced side lobe artifact and an increased signal-to-noise ratio. EUS-elastography is another novel technique that provides information about the distributed pattern of tissue hardness. Clinical benefits of EUS-elastography for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic tumors and the evaluation of pancreatic fibrosis have been reported. It is necessary to develop a unified and objective method of imaging and analysis to increase the use of EUS-elastography in the future. PMID:25630752

  18. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and Doppler ultrasonography in the evaluation of renal parenchyma in acute ureteral obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Soylu Boy, Fatma Nur; Kayhan, Arda; Karakas, Hakki Muammer; Alp, Turgut; Verit, Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and Doppler ultrasonography (US) by using quantitative markers in acute unilateral obstruction due to renal stones. Methods: This prospective study included 28 patients with unilateral ureteral obstruction and 18 healthy control subjects. In Doppler US and DW MR imaging, resistive index (RI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured respectively. The results were compared in patients and in control subjects. Paired samples test, two-tailed unpaired Student’s t test and Spearman analysis were performed for statistical analysis. Results: The mean RI in the 28 obstructed kidneys was significantly higher than the mean RI in unobstructed kidneys and in control subjects (P < 0.05). The ADC of obstructed kidneys in the cortex was significantly lower than the ADC of the contralateral unobstructed kidneys (P < 0.05). The ADC of unobstructed kidneys was significantly higher than the ADC of control subjects in the cortex (P < 0.05). RI and ADC values yielded no significant correlation. Conclusion: Doppler US and DW MR imaging provide accurate and noninvasive diagnosis, Doppler US may be preferred as it is a more practical technique compared to DW MR imaging in the evaluation of acute ureteral obstruction due to renal stones. PMID:25932225

  19. The role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and peripheral spondyloarthropathies.

    PubMed

    Sudo?-Szopi?ska, Iwona; Zaniewicz-Kaniewska, Katarzyna; Saied, Fadhil; Kunisz, Wojciech; Smorawi?ska, Patrycja; W?odkowska-Korytkowska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    In recent years a dynamic development of ultrasound technology has been observed. Consequently, ultrasound is increasingly being utilized in rheumatology. With the introduction of high-frequency (up to 18 MHz) linear probes, sensitive Doppler techniques, harmonic imaging options and cross beams, ultrasound is used in the initial diagnosis of rheumatic diseases, monitoring of the effectiveness of treatment and confirmation of remission. Ultrasound cannot identify specific rheumatic diseases, but it does allow for an evaluation of the type of pathology, including an assessment of disease progression and its location. These irregularities include: synovial pathologies, effusion, tendon, cartilage and bone lesions, tendon and ligament pathology at the site of their insertion (enthesopathies). This publication discusses the wide spectrum of changes in peripheral joints and entheses observed on ultrasound. Special consideration is given to the ultrasound, which besides an MRI is a leading diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of early stages of the disease and monitoring of disease progression. PMID:24688619

  20. A Hertzian contact mechanics based formulation to improve ultrasound elastography assessment of uterine cervical tissue stiffness.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Brandi N; Stender, Michael E; Muljadi, Patrick M; Donnelly, Meghan A; Winn, Virginia D; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2015-06-25

    Clinical practice requires improved techniques to assess human cervical tissue properties, especially at the internal os, or orifice, of the uterine cervix. Ultrasound elastography (UE) holds promise for non-invasively monitoring cervical stiffness throughout pregnancy. However, this technique provides qualitative strain images that cannot be linked to a material property (e.g., Young's modulus) without knowledge of the contact pressure under a rounded transvaginal transducer probe and correction for the resulting non-uniform strain dissipation. One technique to standardize elastogram images incorporates a material of known properties and uses one-dimensional, uniaxial Hooke's law to calculate Young's modulus within the compressed material half-space. However, this method does not account for strain dissipation and the strains that evolve in three-dimensional space. We demonstrate that an analytical approach based on 3D Hertzian contact mechanics provides a reasonable first approximation to correct for UE strain dissipation underneath a round transvaginal transducer probe and thus improves UE-derived estimates of tissue modulus. We validate the proposed analytical solution and evaluate sources of error using a finite element model. As compared to 1D uniaxial Hooke's law, the Hertzian contact-based solution yields significantly improved Young's modulus predictions in three homogeneous gelatin tissue phantoms possessing different moduli. We also demonstrate the feasibility of using this technique to image human cervical tissue, where UE-derived moduli estimations for the uterine cervix anterior lip agreed well with published, experimentally obtained values. Overall, UE with an attached reference standard and a Hertzian contact-based correction holds promise for improving quantitative estimates of cervical tissue modulus. PMID:26003483

  1. Embolic Signals during Routine Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Paschoal, Fernando Mendes; de Almeida Lins Ronconi, Karla; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Nogueira, Ricardo de Carvalho; Paschoal, Eric Homero Albuquerque; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cerebral emboli may occur in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracranial aneurysm surgery. Although embolic signs (ES) have been reported in SAH, their origin remains unclear. The aim of this study was to report the detection of ES during routine TCD monitoring in patients with aneurysmal SAH. Methods. A total of 105 patients with aneurysmal SAH were submitted to TCD evaluation. Patients were monitored almost daily (5 times per week). In each monitoring session, one experienced operator performed TCD to detect or assess vasospasm and ES in arteries of the Willis polygon. Results. Four patients out of a total of 105 patients with aneurysmal SAH were found to present spontaneous cerebral embolization during routine TCD monitoring. The average age of the 4 patients (mean ± standard deviation) was 59.5 ± 8.34 years (range 49–68?ys); female patients predominated representing 75% (3/4) of subjects. Conclusion. Although detection of ES was relatively rare in this study, rates of emboli occurrence may be higher under systematic monitoring. The detection of ES after SAH surgery reinforces the need to study the role of embolus in this condition and may be an indicator for prophylactic antithrombotic treatment. PMID:25893190

  2. 18 F-FDG PET imaging of rheumatoid knee synovitis correlates with dynamic magnetic resonance and sonographic assessments as well as with the serum level of metalloproteinase-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Beckers; Xavier Jeukens; Clio Ribbens; Béatrice André; Stefaan Marcelis; Philippe Leclercq; Marie-Joëlle Kaiser; Jacqueline Foidart; Roland Hustinx; Michel G. Malaise

    2006-01-01

    Purpose  The aim of this study was to assess rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovitis with positron emission tomography (PET) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in comparison with dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US).Methods  Sixteen knees in 16 patients with active RA were assessed with PET, MRI and US at baseline and 4 weeks after initiation of anti-TNF- treatment. All studies were performed within

  3. Clinically Useful Diagnostic Tool of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasonography for Focal Liver Masses: Comparison to Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Sung Woo; Bok, Gene Hyun; Jeong, Soung Won; Ham, Nam Seok; Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Eui Ju; Kim, Jin Nyoung; Lee, Woong Cheul; Shim, Kwang Yeun; Lee, Sae Hwan; Kim, Sang Gyune; Cha, Sang-Woo; Kim, Young Seok; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast (SonoVue®) enhancement ultrasonography (CEUS) and to compare this method with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating liver masses. Methods CEUS (n=50), CT (n=47), and MRI (n=43) were performed on 50 liver masses in 48 patients for baseline mass characterization. The most likely impression for each modality and the final diagnosis, based on the combined biopsy results (n=14), angiography findings (n=36), and clinical course, were determined. The diagnostic value of CEUS was compared to those of CT and MRI. Results The final diagnosis of the masses was hepatocellular carcinoma (n=43), hemangioma (n=3), benign adenoma (n=2), eosinophilic abscess (n=1), and liver metastasis (n=1). The overall diagnostic agreement with the final diagnosis was substantial for CEUS, CT, and MRI, with ? values of 0.621, 0.763, and 0.784, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 83.3%, 87.5%, and 84.0%, respectively, for CEUS; 95.0%, 87.5%, and 93.8%, respectively, for CT; and 94.6%, 83.3%, and 93.0%, respectively for MRI. After excluding the lesions with poor acoustic sonographic windows, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for CEUS were 94.6%, 87.5%, and 93.3%, respectively, with a ? value of 0.765. Conclusions If an appropriate acoustic window is available, CEUS is comparable to CT and MRI for the diagnosis of liver masses. PMID:24827626

  4. A New Methodology of Viewing Extra-Axial Fluid and Cortical Abnormalities in Children with Autism via Transcranial Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Bradstreet, James Jeffrey; Pacini, Stefania; Ruggiero, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are developmental conditions of uncertain etiology which have now affected more than 1% of the school-age population of children in many developed nations. Transcranial ultrasonography (TUS) via the temporal bone appeared to be a potential window of investigation to determine the presence of both cortical abnormalities and increased extra-axial fluid (EAF). Methods: TUS was accomplished using a linear probe (10–5?MHz). Parents volunteered ASD subjects (N?=?23; males 18, females 5) for evaluations (mean?=?7.46?years?±?3.97?years), and 15 neurotypical siblings were also examined (mean?=?7.15?years?±?4.49?years). Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS2®) scores were obtained and the ASD score mean was 48.08?+?6.79 (Severe). Results: Comparisons of the extra-axial spaces indicated increases in the ASD subjects. For EAF we scored based on the gyral summit distances between the arachnoid membrane and the cortical pia layer (subarachnoid space): (1) <0.05?cm, (2) 0.05–0.07?cm, (3) 0.08–0.10?cm, (4) >0.10?cm. All of the neurotypical siblings scored 1, whereas the ASD mean score was 3.41?±?0.67. We also defined cortical dysplasia as the following: hypoechoic lesions within the substance of the cortex, or disturbed layering within the gray matter. For cortical dysplasia we scored: (1) none observed, (2) rare hypoechogenic lesions and/or mildly atypical cortical layering patterns, (3) more common, but separated areas of cortical hypoechogenic lesions, (4) very common or confluent areas of cortical hypoechogenicity. Again all of the neurotypical siblings scored 1, while the ASD subjects’ mean score was 2.79?±?0.93. Conclusion: TUS may be a useful screening technique for children at potential risk of ASDs which, if confirmed with repeated studies and high resolution MRI, provides rapid, non-invasive qualification of EAF, and cortical lesions. PMID:24459462

  5. Value of transrectal ultrasonography for tumor node metastasis restaging in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hai-Hua; You, Kai-Yun; Wang, Cheng-Tao; Huang, Rong; Shan, Hong-Bo; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Pei, Xiao-Qing; Gao, Yuan-Hong; Wen, Bi-Xiu; Liu, Meng-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) for tumor node metastasis (TNM) restaging for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (neo-CRT). Methods: One hundred and forty-nine patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT3-4 or cN+) who underwent TRUS after neo-CRT were retrospectively reviewed. TRUS restaging was compared with the results of post-operative pathological TNM findings. Results: After neo-CRT, the accuracy of TRUS for diagnosing T-staging was 30.9%, with 60.4% (90/149) of cases overestimated. The sensitivity of TRUS for T-staging (T0 vs T1 vs T2 vs T3 vs T4) were 16.3%, 0%, 12.5%, 42.6% and 75.0%, respectively. The accuracy of TRUS for diagnosing N-staging after neo-CRT was 81.2%, with the sensitivities of N0 and N+ were 93.3% and 31.0%, respectively. After neo-CRT, 27.5% (41/149) of patients achieved pathologically complete response (pCR). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of TRUS for pCR were 17.1%, 99.1%, 87.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Conclusions: TRUS can be applied for restaging T4 and N0, and has potential for screening out patients with pCR in those with locally advanced rectal cancer after neo-CRT, although some stages are overestimated for T-staging and its sensitivity for predicting pCR is low. PMID:24759964

  6. A Propensity Score-Matching Analysis of Transthoracic Echocardiography and Abdominal Ultrasonography for the Detection of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Takao; Ishida, Seiko; Miyamoto, Shoichi; Iura, Tamae; Ban, Yoko; Fujikawa, Jun; Nakane, Eisaku; Izumi, Toshiaki; Haruna, Tetsuya; Ueyama, Koji; Nohara, Ryuji; Inoko, Moriaki

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We previously reported that the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) was higher in patients undergoing scheduled transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) than in patients undergoing abdominal ultrasonography (AUS); however, intergroup patient backgrounds differed significantly in that report. PURPOSE We tested the hypothesis that TTE could detect AAA as effectively as AUS. DESIGN A propensity score-matching analysis of a cross-sectional study was adopted as the design for this study. METHODS We enrolled 7,619 and 15,433 patients scheduled to undergo TTE with additional evaluation of abdominal aorta at the end of the routine study and AUS, respectively, from 2009 to 2010 in our hospital, as reported. A propensity score for profiles of patients who underwent TTE or AUS was developed to adjust for potential confounding bias. Consequently, 4,388 patients in each group were matched for analyses. RESULTS In propensity-matched patients, AAA was detected in 59 patients of the TTE group and in 48 patients of the AUS group; the prevalence of AAA detection did not differ significantly between TTE and AUS groups (P = 0.331). Positive associations were observed between AAA detection and male sex (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 3.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.05–5.15; P < 0.001), older age (adjusted OR: 1.029; 95% CI: 1.01–1.04; P < 0.001), and the presence of ischemic heart disease (adjusted OR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.04–3.03; P = 0.033) and hypertension (adjusted OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.38–3.37; P = 001). CONCLUSION TTE detected AAA with comparable efficacy as AUS in propensity-matched groups who underwent scheduled TTE and AUS. PMID:25861228

  7. The use of computed tomographic three-dimensional reconstructions to develop instructional models for equine pelvic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, Mary Beth; Doval, John; Peters, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography has gained increased utility to diagnose pelvic fractures in horses; however, internal pelvic contours can be difficult to appreciate from external palpable landmarks. We developed three-dimensional (3D) simulations of the pelvic ultrasonographic examination to assist with translation of pelvic contours into two-dimensional (2D) images. Contiguous 1mm transverse computed tomography (CT) images were acquired through an equine femur and hemipelvis using a single slice helical scanner. 3D surface models were created using a DICOM reader and imported into a 3D modeling and animation program. The bone models were combined with a purchased 3D horse model and the skin made translucent to visualize pelvic surface contours. 3D models of ultrasound transducers were made from reference photos, and a thin sector shape was created to depict the ultrasound beam. Ultrasonographic examinations were simulated by moving transducers on the skin surface and rectally to produce images of pelvic structures. Camera angles were manipulated to best illustrate the transducer-beam-bone interface. Fractures were created in multiple configurations. Animations were exported as QuickTime movie files for use in presentations coupled with corresponding ultrasound videoclips. 3D models provide a link between ultrasonographic technique and image generation by depicting the interaction of the transducer, ultrasound beam, and structure of interest. The horse model was important to facilitate understanding of the location of pelvic structures relative to the skin surface. While CT acquisition time was brief, manipulation within the 3D software program was time intensive. Results were worthwhile from an instructional standpoint based on user feedback. PMID:21699617

  8. Ultrasonography findings in nasal bone fracture; 6-month follow-up: can we estimate time of trauma?

    PubMed

    Nemati, Shadman; Jandaghi, Ali Babaei; Banan, Rahmatollah; Aghajanpour, Mohammad; Kazemnezhad, Ehsan

    2015-04-01

    Differentiation of a recent nasal bone fracture from an old one may become of utmost importance, especially in medico-legal issues. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the value of high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) in determining the time of nasal bone fracture. A longitudinal, descriptive-analytic study was done on 45 patients with a clinical manifestation of acute unilateral nasal bone fracture. After a thorough rhinologic physical examination, HRUS was performed by an expert consultant who was blinded to the clinical data of the patients. All patients were followed-up for 6 months: in the first 5 days, 3rd, 6th, 12th and 24th weeks after the trauma. In each session, the ultrasonographic findings were recorded. Thirty-six cases (mean age, 27 years) completed the study course successfully. On HRUS, subperiosteal hematoma, with a mean thickness of 1.14 mm (0.79-1.31 mm) was highly sensitive (100 %) for the diagnosis of nasal bone fracture during the first few days after the trauma, but it was present in 13 cases in the 6th week, with a mean thickness of 0.71 mm (0.62-0.80 mm), and disappeared in all patients in the 24th week, with a mean thickness of 0.47 mm (almost equal to the non-traumatic side). According to the changes of subperiosteal reaction on the traumatic side and by means of generalized linear model and generalized estimating equations, we proposed an equation to estimate the time of nasal bone trauma. In conclusion, HRUS is a reliable diagnostic tool for estimating the time of nasal bone fracture. PMID:24986427

  9. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in nodular splenomegaly associated with type B Niemann–Pick disease: an atypical hemangioma enhancement pattern

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, E.; Proietti, A.; Miccoli, P.; Basolo, F.; Ciancia, E.; Erba, P.A.; Galimberti, S.; Orsitto, E.; Petrini, M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Niemann–Pick disease (NPD) types A and B are lipid storage disorders. NPD type A is a fatal disorder of infancy. Type B is a non-neuronopathic form observed in children and adults. It is associated with enlargement of the liver, spleen, or both, and nodular splenomegaly may be detected with ultrasound. Methods A 21-year-old female was admitted to the Emergency Room with fever, pharyngitis, and left upper quadrant abdominal pain. Labwork revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia, increased levels of AST, ALT, GGT, AF, LDH, triglycerides, and total cholesterol and low levels of HDL-cholesterol. PCR blood assays for CMV and EBV were both negative. Chest X-ray was unremarkable. Transabdominal B-mode ultrasound (US) revealed splenomegaly (long axis: >22 cm), an irregular subcapsular hypoechoic lesion in the superior pole that was consistent with splenic infarction, and multiple round highly echogenic nodes measuring 1–5 cm in diameter. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) was performed using SonoVue® (Bracco). Results The presence of a splenic infarction was confirmed. The nodular lesions showed arterial-phase enhancement with late parenchymal phase wash-out. 18F-FDG-PET revealed splenic nodular uptake. Primary splenic lymphoma was suspected, and the patient underwent open splenectomy. The diagnosis was type B NPD with splenic hemangiomas. Discussion CEUS confirmed the diagnosis and extent of splenic infarction, but the nodular atypical enhancement pattern together with nodular 18F-FDG-PET uptake was misleading, suggesting as it did lymphoproliferative involvement of the spleen. PMID:23396497

  10. Short-term effects of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection on ocular blood flow evaluated with color Doppler ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Anayol, Mustafa Alpaslan; Toklu, Yasin; Kamberoglu, Elif Asik; Raza, Sabri; Arifoglu, Hasan Basri; Simavli, Huseyin; Altintas, Ayse Gul Kocak; Simsek, Saban

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the changes in ocular blood flow with color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) injection. METHODS A total of 46 patients who underwent IVTA (4 mg/0.1 mL) injection for diabetic macular edema (DME) (n=22), central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) (n=12) and choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) (n=12) were included in the study. Peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistivity index (RI) were measured from the ophthalmic artery (OA), the central retinal artery (CRA) and the posterior ciliary artery (PCA) of each patient with CDU before, at the end of the first week and at the end of the first month following IVTA injection. RESULTS In the DME group, PSV of OA at the first of the first month (mean±SD) (37.48±10.87 cm/s) increased compared to pre-injection value (31.39±10.84 cm/s) (P=0.048). There was a statistically significant decrease (P=0.049) in PSV of CRA at the end of the first month (7.97±2.67 cm/s) compared to the pre-injection (9.47±3.37 cm/s). There was not any statistically significant difference on the other parameters in the DME group. Also, there was not any statistically significant difference on the ocular blood flow values in the CRVO and CNVM groups. CONCLUSION We observed that 4 mg/0.1 mL IVTA increased PSV of OA and decreased PSV of CRA in DME patients and did not have any effect on ocular blood flow values of CRVO and CNVM patients. PMID:25349798

  11. Evaluation of 19-gauge endoscopic ultrasonography aspiration needles using various echoendoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Itoi, Takao; Itokawa, Fumihide; Sofuni, Atsushi; Kurihara, Toshio; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Ishii, Kentaro; Tsuji, Shujiro; Ikeuchi, Nobuhito; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Yasuda, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Background and study aims: 19-gauge (19G) needles are used for EUS-guided tissue acquisition and interventions. The aim of the current study was to compare the functional characteristics of 19G EUS needles by means of using various echoendoscopes in a bench simulator. Methods: The angles achieved for 19G needles (EchoTip: ET-19G, EchoTip Flex: ExF-19G, Expect: Ex-19G, and ProCore: PC-19G) and for the distal tip of the echoendoscope were evaluated for maximal angulation settings of the distal tip and the elevator. Also the resistance to advancement of the 19G needles at these endoscope settings was assessed. All evaluations were done with endoscopes in a straight and in a curved position. Results: There was no large discrepancy for scope and needle angles among all echoendoscopes except for the slim Pentax scope (EG-3270UK). The ExF-19G and PC-19G needles showed better optimal angles in various conditions compared to standard 19G needles. In straight scope position, out of the 20 conditions (5 endoscopes?×?2 positions of the distal tip?×?2 elevator positions) the numbers of optimal angulations achieved for the Ex-19G, ExF-19G, ET-19G, and PC-19G, were 11?/20 (55?%), 20?/20 (100?%), 14?/20 (70?%) and 18?/20 (90?%), respectively. However, regarding resistance, it was impossible to advance theneedle with 14?/20 settings (70?%) for the Ex-19G, 3?/20 (15?%) for the ExF-19G, 10?/20 (50?%) for the ET-19G and 7?/20 (35?%) for the PC-19G. When the scopes were bent, with regard to the force needed to advance the needle, the numbers of optimal settings, for the Ex-19G, ExF-19G, ET-19G, and PC-19G, were 1 (5?%), 13 (65?%), 6 (30?%) and 8 (40?%), respectively. The mean maximum resistance to advancement was less for the ExF-19G than for the other needless in almost all scope and angle conditions (p?

  12. Sonographic assessment of fatty liver: intraobserver and interobserver variability

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Mustafa; Sentürk, Senem; Cetin, Bulent; Bayrak, Aylin Hasanefendio?lu; Bilek, Senem Uysal

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease worldwide and ultrasonography is widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up we purposed to assess intraobserver and interobserver variability in the sonographic evaluation of the existence and steatosis grades of NAFLD. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and AST to ALT (AST/ALT) ratio were compared between the grades of hepatosteatosis. Hepatic ultrasonography (US) examinations consisted of 5-10 static images of 113 successive adult patients, whose records were in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) of our hospital were retrospectively evaluated by two experienced radiologists. Hepatic images were graded into 4 groups; as normal, mild, moderate or severe hepatic steatosis. Evaluation of hepatic steatosis of the same set of images was repeated after one month under the same conditions. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement was assessed by using kappa (?) statistics. In each group, the percentage of individuals with high ALT and/or AST, or AST/ALT ratio over 1 was calculated. The intraobserver agreement was 51%, fair kappa (?=0.356) for observer 1; and 68%, moderate (?=0.591) for observer 2. The interobserver agreements in the initial and second readings were 39% and 40%, fair (?=0.208) and (?=0.225), respectively. Elevations of ALT and/or AST levels were similar between groups depending on the degree of hepatosteatosis among the patients. Visual assessment of NAFLD by ultrasonography has substantial interobserver variability, and reproducibility of results is limited. More objective imaging modalities are needed to evaluate the degree of hepatosteatosis. PMID:25664055

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of epignathus with multiple malformations in one fetus of a twin pregnancy using three-dimensional ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Na Rae; Min, Jae Young; Kim, Yeon Hee; Choi, Sae Kyung; Shin, Jong Chul

    2015-01-01

    Epignathus is an extremely rare type of congenital teratoma arising in the oral cavity. Although it is a benign tumor, it is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates because of severe airway obstruction and other malformations. We present a case of epignathus affecting one fetus in a twin pregnancy. The tumor was associated with multiple congenital malformations including cleft palate, bifid tongue, bifid uvula, congenital heart defect, and bilateral inguinal hernias. The diagnostic value of three-dimensional ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging was explored with respect to antenatal counseling and peripartum management. PMID:25629021

  14. Comparison of two- and three-dimensional ultrasonography in the evaluation of fetal heart: image quality and time spent in the exam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hélio Antonio Guimarães Filho; Lavoisier Linhares Dias da Costa; Edward Araujo Júnior; Sebastião Marques Zanforlin Filho; Cláudio Rodrigues Pires; Luciano M. M. Nardozza; Antonio Fernandes Moron; Rosiane Mattar

    2007-01-01

    Objectives  To compare fetal heart evaluation done through two-dimensional (2DUS) and three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS) as to optimal\\u000a plane imaging, image quality, and time needed to perform the examination.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Prospective study involving 12 normal pregnant women, with gestational ages ranging from 22 to 26 weeks, scanned with a VOLUSON® 730 with a convex 4.0–7.0 MHz transducer, in both two- and three-dimensional modes. In each

  15. Diagnostic performance of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography\\/computed tomography of breast cancer in detecting axillary lymph node metastasis: comparison with ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced CT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuichi Monzawa; Shuji Adachi; Kayo Suzuki; Koichi Hirokaga; Shintaro Takao; Toshiko Sakuma; Keisuke Hanioka

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography\\/computed\\u000a tomography (PET\\/CT) with fluorine-18–labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) in comparison with that of ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in detecting axillary\\u000a lymph node metastasis in patients with breast cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Fifty patients with invasive breast cancer were recruited. They had received no neoadjuvant chemotherapy

  16. Laparoscopic ultrasonography as a good alternative to intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: results of prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hublet, A; Dili, A; Lemaire, J; Mansvelt, B; Molle, G; Bertrand, C

    2009-01-01

    Intraoperative cholangiography (IOC), used routinely or selectively, is the standard method for bile duct imaging during cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic ultrasonography (LUS) has emerged as a possible, safe and quick alternative. This study examined the evolving use and the performance of these two methods as primary technique for routine bile duct imaging, so as to detect common bile duct stones (CBDS) and to prevent common bile duct injury (CBDI). A prospective database permitted to evaluate the results of the two methods in 968 consecutive cholecystectomies. Nine hundered and twenty five were performed by laparoscopy, 18 (1.9%) by laparotomy and 25 (2.6) necessitated a conversion. The systematic use of the IOC was gradually replaced by a systematic use of the LUS. The success to delineate and evaluate the CBD, the detection of a CBDS, any type of bile duct complication, especially of CBDI, were registered. All the CBDS suspected by LUS were controlled by IOC. The patients were followed during 1 and 6 months. Six hundred and eighty five IOC and 269 LUS were performed. The procedure was technically unsuccessful in 35 IOC (5.1%) (mainly due to difficulty in catheterising the cystic duct) and in 2 LUS (1%) (due to steatosis). Concerning the detection of CBDS, 31 were detected by IOC (4.5%) and 16 by LUS (6%). Five IOC were considered as false positive, 1 as false negative (sensitivity and specificity of 96,9 and 99,2%) and 1 LUS as false positive (sensitivity and specificity of 100 and 99,6%). Five CBDI were detected in the complete seria: 2 during the dissection before the IOC, 1 thermic injury, 1 late stenosis, 1 lateral stenosis by the cystic clip detected by LUS. However none of these CBDI could have been prevented by IOC. In our experience, in this prospective study, LUS has been certainly as effective as IOC as a primary imaging technique for bile duct. It permitted to detect CBDS with a high specificity and sensitivity, and CBDS and was not followed by an increase in CBDI. PMID:19943585

  17. Evaluation of normal findings using a detailed and focused technique for transcutaneous abdominal ultrasonography in the horse

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ultrasonography is an important diagnostic tool in the investigation of abdominal disease in the horse. Several factors may affect the ability to image different structures within the abdomen. The aim of the study was to describe the repeatability of identification of abdominal structures in normal horses using a detailed ultrasonographic examination technique and using a focused, limited preparation technique. Methods A detailed abdominal ultrasound examination was performed in five normal horses, repeated on five occasions (total of 25 examinations). The abdomen was divided into ten different imaging sites, and structures identified in each site were recorded. Five imaging sites were then selected for a single focused ultrasound examination in 20 normal horses. Limited patient preparation was performed. Structures were recorded as ‘identified’ if ultrasonographic features could be distinguished. The location of organs and their frequency of identification were recorded. Data from both phases were analysed to determine repeatability of identification of structures in each examination (irrespective of imaging site), and for each imaging site. Results Caecum, colon, spleen, liver and right kidney were repeatably identified using the detailed technique, and had defined locations. Large colon and right kidney were identified in 100% of examinations with both techniques. Liver, spleen, caecum, duodenum and other small intestine were identified more frequently with the detailed examination. Small intestine was most frequently identified in the ventral abdomen, its identification varied markedly within and between horses, and required repeated examinations in some horses. Left kidney could not be identified in every horse using either technique. Sacculated colon was identified in all ventral sites, and was infrequently identified in dorsal sites. Conclusions Caecum, sacculated large intestine, spleen, liver and right kidney were consistently identified with both techniques. There were some normal variations which should be considered when interpreting ultrasonographic findings in clinical cases: left kidney was not always identified, sacculated colon was occasionally identified in dorsal flank sites. Multiple imaging sites and repeated examinations may be required to identify small intestine. A focused examination identified most key structures, but has some limitations compared to a detailed examination. PMID:25238559

  18. Jumper's knee and ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Fritschy; René de Gautard

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-five patients, aged between 15 and 45 years old, who were athletically active, presented with jump er's knee (patellar tendinitis). By use of ultrasono graphic examination, new and precise information was obtained that benefited the diagnosis, choice of treat ment, and monitoring of the evolution of jumper's knee in our patients. In 18 of the 25 patients, only 1 knee

  19. Effect of interval to resynchronization of ovulation on fertility of lactating Holstein cows when using transrectal ultrasonography or a pregnancy-associated glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to diagnose pregnancy status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Silva; R. A. Sterry; D. Kolb; N. Mathialagan; M. F. McGrath; J. M. Ballam; P. M. Fricke

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare 2 strate- gies for resynchronization of ovulation based on non- pregnant diagnoses using transrectal ultrasonography or a pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) ELISA. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 1,038) were submitted for first postpartum timed artificial insemination (TAI) using a Presynch + Ovsynch protocol. After the ini- tial breeding, cows were randomly assigned to

  20. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided transhepatic antegrade stone removal in patients with surgically altered anatomy: case series and technical review (with videos).

    PubMed

    Itoi, Takao; Sofuni, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Ijima, Masashi; Iwashita, Takuji

    2014-12-01

    Recently, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided transhepatic antegrade interventions have been introduced in patients with a surgically altered anatomy. Herein, we focused on and reviewed EUS-guided transhepatic antegrade stone removal (EUS-TASR) in patients with a surgically altered anatomy and native papilla. The basic technique of EUS-TASR involves the following steps: (1) EUS-guided needle puncture; (2) guidewire placement; (3) tract dilation; (4) balloon sphincteroplasty; (5) stone removal; and (6) stent placement if needed. Based on reports in the literature including our cases, the complete stone extraction rate is 71.4% (10/14) including five of our cases (60% success rate) at one session without serious complications. In conclusion, EUS-TASR appears to be feasible and useful in selected patients although its application may be limited depending on anatomical factors and current devices used. PMID:25231935

  1. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Is Predicted by Combined Eotaxin Levels and Severity of Hepatic Steatosis at Ultrasonography in Obese Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Costantini, Susan; Finelli, Carmine; Capone, Francesca; Guerriero, Eliana; La Sala, Nicolina; Gioia, Saverio; Castello, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is a distinct coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor. The atherosclerotic process predisposing to CAD includes altered lipid profile and inflammatory processes. The available evidence suggests that increased circulating levels of eotaxin, an eosinophil chemoattractant cytokine implicated in allergic responses, are detected in the serum of patients with CAD. Relationships were sought between serum eotaxin on the one hand, and intima-media thickness—an early predictor of the atherosclerotic process, hepatic steatosis, arterial blood pressure values, as well as inflammation/immune markers and angiogenetic factors—on the other. Methods Eighty obese patients with NAFLD, diagnosed at ultrasonography, without evident cytolysis, formed our study population. Anthropometric measures, metabolic profile, serum concentrations of interleukin-1?, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, ferritin, TNF-?, spleen size, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB and heat shock protein-70 were evaluated. Results Serum eotaxin concentrations were distinctly associated with TNF ?, IL-6, IL-1?, VEGF and PDGF-BB levels but not with CRP, fibrinogen, heat shock protein-70 or spleen size. Among the metabolic and anthropometric parameters, a significant predictive power emerged when comparing eotaxin to insulin resistance, expressed as HOMA. NAFLD was distinctly associated with HOMA (P?=?0.0005). Intima-media thickness was well predicted by both eotaxin levels and severity of NAFLD at ultrasonography, although no relation was detected between these last two variables. Discussion and Conclusion A role for insulin resistance in mediating the interplay between eotaxin and other inflammation/immune parameters could be evidenced in the induction/maintenance of atherosclerosis of obese patients with NAFLD. PMID:25268946

  2. Functional cine MRI and transabdominal ultrasonography for the assessment of adhesions to implanted synthetic mesh 5–7 years after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. B. Zinther; P. Wara; H. Friis-Andersen

    2010-01-01

    Background  Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) has gained worldwide acceptance, due to its minimally invasive character, feasibility\\u000a and low rate of complications. Animal experiments have shown marked adhesions to the intraperitoneal mesh (IPM), the clinical\\u000a consequences being unclear. This study aimed to describe the extension of adhesions to the mesh, 5–7 years after LVHR, using\\u000a two validated non-invasive radiologic methods.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Real-time transabdominal

  3. risk assessment risk assessment

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    can also help you spot hazards and put risks in their true perspective. So can accident and ill-healthFive steps risk assessment Five steps TO risk assessment #12;2 What is risk assessment? A risk is to make sure that no one gets hurt or becomes ill. Accidents and ill health can ruin lives, and affect

  4. Assessment of reproductive status in male echidnas.

    PubMed

    Johnston, S D; Nicolson, V; Madden, C; Logie, S; Pyne, M; Roser, A; Lisle, A T; D'Occhio, M

    2007-01-01

    This study reports the development and application of techniques to assess the reproductive status of male echidnas. The pattern of testosterone secretion over a 24-h period in five echidnas was documented. Testosterone secretion after injection i.m. of either 1000 IU hCG (n=4) or 4 microg GnRH agonist (n=6) was determined to establish whether this could be used as a practical index of the prevailing steroidogenic capacity of the testes. hCG (1000 IU) was also used to assess seasonal changes in testosterone secretion in six echidnas over a 13-month period. Seasonal changes in testicular volume were examined by transabdominal ultrasonography. Electroejaculation was attempted to monitor seasonal changes in sperm production, which was also determined by spermatorrhea. There was no apparent diurnal pattern of testosterone secretion in echidnas and circulating concentrations of testosterone remained relatively low (maximum 1.2 ng/mL) and stable over 24h. Injection of hCG resulted in an increase (P<0.01; n=4) in testosterone concentration with a peak (2.9+/-0.3 ng/mL) approximately 4h after injection. GnRH also induced an increase (P<0.01; n=6) in circulating testosterone that was apparent after 1h (2.6+/-0.3 ng/mL) and concentrations remained elevated (3.4+/-0.3 ng/mL) for up to 8h after injection. Seasonal changes in testosterone secretion determined after injection of hCG, increased (P=0.03; n=6) from late-autumn, peaked in late-winter, and decreased by early-spring. Testicular volume followed a similar seasonal pattern (P<0.01; n=6) with an increase from late-autumn, peak in winter and a decline in mid-spring. There was no seasonal change in live weight. Electroejaculation was attempted throughout two breeding seasons but no semen was obtained. Spermatorrhoea in the echidna was described for the first time and was subsequently used to assess seasonal sperm production. Spermatozoa were found in the urine from June to September. This study has demonstrated that exogenous hormones can be used to obtain an index of the prevailing steroidogenic capacity of the testes in echidnas, which is not apparent with repetitive non-stimulated samples over 24 h. The assessment of testosterone secretion after injection of trophic hormones provides a valuable and practical procedure for the assessment of reproductive status. Testicular ultrasonography and spermatorrhea are useful in assessing reproductive status and in this study were successfully used to determine seasonal reproduction in captive echidnas. PMID:16476529

  5. [Ultrasound assessment of reconstructed rotator cuffs].

    PubMed

    Cammerer, U; Habermeyer, P; Plenk, A; Huber, R

    1992-12-01

    The evaluation of recurrent shoulder symptoms in patients who have had rotator cuff repair is a diagnostic challenge. Pain and limitation of motion may be caused by a recurrence of the rotator cuff tear. Arthrography is not considered to be helpful in postoperative cases, since it is false-positive in most of them. Pre-operative ultrasonography of the shoulder is regarded as a highly accurate diagnostic tool for rotator cuff tears. The diagnostic criteria used are: the continuity of the rotator cuff, its contour, its thickness and its echogenicity. Our study was aimed at determining which ultrasonographic criteria were significant for a retear. In addition, the "normal" postoperative sonographic appearance of the rotator cuff was established. Of 133 patients with a full thickness rotator cuff tear, 110 were evaluated 4-48 months (mean in 21 months) after surgery. A total of 85 cuffs were reconstructed, in 46 cases by direct suture, in 33 cases by suture to the major tubercle and in 6 cases by tendon transfer (Cofield technique). In 25 cases cuffs the could not be reconstructed. Subacromial decompression was performed routinely. The patients were evaluated clinically by range of movement, force and isometric and impingement tests. The subjective outcome was assessed by the algo-functional index of Patte. Ultrasonography was performed using a 7.5-MHz linear scanner. Each sonographic criterion was referred to the clinical and subjective findings. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the rotator cuffs that could not be reconstructed revealed non-visualization of the tendons. In 13 of the 85 patients in whom reconstruction of the cuff was possible a normal sonographic pattern was seen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1287844

  6. Ultrasonographic assessment of patients referred with chronic anal pain to a tertiary referral centre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Beer-Gabel; D. Carter; M. Venturero; O. Zmora; A. P. Zbar

    2010-01-01

    Background  Chronic anal pain is relatively common as a presentation to specialist physicians and surgeons. Currently, it is regarded\\u000a as a functional disorder upon the exclusion of occult intersphincteric sepsis. Our study assessed an unselected cohort of\\u000a patients presenting with chronic previously undiagnosed anal pain using routine ultrasonography.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  All patients referred to a tertiary gastroenterology service between January 2005 and January

  7. 20 MHz high frequency ultrasound assessment of scleral and intraocular conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Char, D H; Kundert, G; Bove, R; Crawford, J B

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To assess in a prospective manner, high frequency ultrasound diagnosis of deep invasion by conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: Prospective, non-randomised case series comparing 20 MHz high frequency ultrasonographic and clinicopathological data. Results: 20 MHz high frequency ultrasound delineated the degree of deep involvement of this tumour into the sclera, globe, and orbit. The results of ultrasonography correlated with the clinicopathological results. Conclusions: High frequency ultrasound is a useful diagnostic adjunctive test in patients with possible deep involvement by a conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:12034684

  8. Assessing Classroom Assessment Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson-Beck, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Classroom assessment techniques (CATs) are teaching strategies that provide formative assessments of student learning. It has been argued that the use of CATs enhances and improves student learning. Although the various types of CATs have been extensively documented and qualitatively studied, there appears to be little quantitative research…

  9. A case of boomerang dysplasia with a novel causative mutation in filamin B: identification of typical imaging findings on ultrasonography and 3D-CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Seiji; Maekawa, Ayako; Obata, Miyuki; Morgan, Timothy; Robertson, Stephen P; Kurachi, Hirohisa

    2012-01-01

    Boomerang dysplasia is a rare lethal osteochondrodysplasia characterized by disorganized mineralization of the skeleton, leading to complete nonossification of some limb bones and vertebral elements, and a boomerang-like aspect to some of the long tubular bones. Like many short-limbed skeletal dysplasias with accompanying thoracic hypoplasia, the potential lethality of the phenotype can be difficult to ascertain prenatally. We report a case of boomerang dysplasia prenatally diagnosed by use of ultrasonography and 3D-CT imaging, and identified a novel mutation in the gene encoding the cytoskeletal protein filamin B (FLNB) postmortem. Findings that aided the radiological diagnosis of this condition in utero included absent ossification of two out of three long bones in each limb and elements of the vertebrae and a boomerang-like shape to the ulnae. The identified mutation is the third described for this disorder and is predicted to lead to amino acid substitution in the actin-binding domain of the filamin B molecule. PMID:22354125

  10. Yields and Utility of Endoscopic Ultrasonography-Guided 19-Gauge Trucut Biopsy versus 22-Gauge Fine Needle Aspiration for Diagnosing Gastric Subepithelial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Na, Hee Kyong; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Young Soo; Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Kwi-Sook; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Lee, Gin Hyug; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate the yields and utility of 19-gauge (G) Trucut biopsy (TCB) versus 22 G fine needle aspiration (FNA) for diagnosing gastric subepithelial tumors (SETs). Methods We retrieved data for 152 patients with a gastric SET larger than 2 cm who had undergone endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided 19 G TCB (n=90) or 22 G FNA (n=62). Relevant clinical, tumor-specific, and EUS procedural information was reviewed retrospectively. Results A specific diagnosis was made for 76 gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and 51 non-GIST SETs. The diagnostic yield of TCB was greater than that of FNA (77.8% vs. 38.7%, p<0.001). The percentage of non-diagnostic specimens (suspicious and insufficient) was significantly lower in the TCB group (6.7% and 15.5%, respectively) than in the FNA group (22.6% and 38.7%, respectively; both p<0.001). TCB accurately diagnosed 90.9% of GISTs and 81.1% of non-GIST SETs, whereas FNA accurately diagnosed 68.8% of GISTs and 14.3% of non-GIST SETs. There were nine technical failures with TCB, and the rate of adverse events did not differ between the groups (TCB vs. FNA, 3.3% vs. 8.1%; p=0.27). Conclusions Nineteen-gauge TCB is safe and highly valuable for diagnosing gastric SETs larger than 2 cm if technical failure can be avoided. PMID:25844344

  11. A Standardized Assessment of Thyroid Nodules in Children Confirms Higher Cancer Prevalence Than in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anjuli; Ly, Samantha; Castroneves, Luciana A.; Frates, Mary C.; Benson, Carol B.; Feldman, Henry A.; Wassner, Ari J.; Smith, Jessica R.; Marqusee, Ellen; Alexander, Erik K.; Barletta, Justine; Doubilet, Peter M.; Peters, Hope E.; Webb, Susan; Modi, Biren P.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Kozakewich, Harry; Cibas, Edmund S.; Moore, Francis D.; Shamberger, Robert C.; Larsen, P. Reed

    2013-01-01

    Context: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, but due to its rare occurrence in the pediatric population, the cancer risk of childhood thyroid nodules is incompletely defined, and optimal management of children with suspected nodules is debated. Objective: The aim was to study the presenting features and cancer risk of sporadic childhood thyroid nodules using a standardized clinical assessment and management plan. Design and Setting: Boston Children's Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital collaborated to create a multidisciplinary pediatric thyroid nodule clinic and implement a standardized assessment plan. Upon referral for a suspected nodule, serum TSH was measured and hypothyrotropinemic patients underwent 123I scintigraphy. All others underwent thyroid ultrasonography, and if this confirmed nodule(s) ? 1 cm, ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration was performed. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed and compared to a control population of 2582 adults evaluated by identical methods. Patients and Results: Of 300 consecutive children referred for the initial evaluation of suspected thyroid nodules from 1997 to 2011, 17 were diagnosed with autonomous nodules by scintigraphy. Neck ultrasonography performed in the remainder revealed that biopsy was unnecessary in over half, either by documenting only sub-centimeter nodules or showing that no nodule was present. A total of 125 children met criteria for thyroid biopsy, which was performed without complication. Their rate of cancer was 22%, significantly higher than the adult rate of 14% (P = .02). Conclusions: Neck ultrasonography and biopsy were key to the evaluation of children with suspected thyroid nodules. Although the relative cancer prevalence of sonographically confirmed nodules ? 1 cm is higher in pediatric patients than adults, most children referred for suspected nodules have benign conditions, and efforts to avoid unnecessary surgery in this majority are warranted. PMID:23737541

  12. Microvessel density assessment in benign and malignant endometrial changes.

    PubMed

    Czekierdowski, A; Czekierdowska, S; Czuba, B; Cnota, W; Sodowski, K; Kotarski, J; Zwirska-Korczala, K

    2008-09-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is believed to be a prognostic indicator associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Microvessel density (MVD) assessment with common endothelial markers such as CD34 has been found to influence prognosis among endometrial carcinoma patients. The CD105/endoglin antibody has been reported to preferentially bind to proliferated endothelial cells in tissues participating in angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantification of angiogenesis by assessing MVD in endometrial lesions when comparing the performance of anti-CD34 and anti-CD105 in women with benign and malignant endometrial changes. The study included 58 women (37 postmenopausal) with normal, hyperplastic and malignant endometrium in which preoperative transvaginal sonography was performed. Histological results of the removed endometrium were correlated with MVD assessed in "hot areas" where high densities of microvessels were detected within tumoral tissue. Endometrial cancer was confirmed in 37 women (3 premenopausal). Benign hyperplasia (14 cases), secretory or proliferative endometrium (5 cases) or endometrial atrophy (2 cases) was found in the remaining women. Malignant changes were mostly noted as FIGO stage I and II (28 cases) and had a low (1 or 2) histological grade (29 cases). Median MVD's assessed with CD105 and CD34 were 10.4 and 32.3, respectively. Median MVD assessed with CD34 was almost twice higher in women with endometrial cancer than in women with benign endometrium (CD34 MVD = 41.8 vs. 27.6, p=0.004). In cases of CD105 MVD significant differences between women with benign and malignant endometrial changes were also found (CD105 MVD = 11.8, vs. 6.4; p=0.00007). The menopausal status, but not the clinical stage or histological grading was significantly correlated with both CD34 MVD (p=0.02) and CD105 MVD (p=0.0003). A significant correlation was also found between CD34 and CD105 measured MVD (p=0.000001). In conclusion, transition from endometrial hyperplasia to endometrial cancer appears to be accompanied by microvessel density changes. MVD assessed with both CD34 and CD105 antibodies could be used as a potential prognostic factor in women with endometrial cancer. Our study showed that endoglin, by staining the proliferating microvessels could be more specific and sensitive marker for tumor neoangiogenesis than the more commonly used marker, CD34. PMID:18955753

  13. Diagnostic value of color doppler ultrasonography in detecting stenosis and occlusion of central veins in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rad, Masoud Pezeshki; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosain; Ziaee, Masood; Azarkar, Ghodsieh

    2015-03-01

    Venography is an invasive diagnostic test that uses contrast material that provides a picture of the condition of the veins. But, complications, including adverse effects on the kidney, do occur. On the other hand, with the current technological development, application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the veins is gaining popularity, being non-invasive, easy to perform and cost-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of central vein stenosis. In this descriptive-analytical study, 41 hemodialysis patients who had been referred for 50 upper limb venographies to the radiology department of Imam Reza (AS) were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease with a history of catheterization of the vein, jugular or subclavian, and who had established fistulas or synthetic vascular grafts were targeted. Central venous ultrasound was performed on both sides to evaluate stenosis or occlusion. Venography was performed by the radiologist the next day or the day before hemodialysis. Data on demographic characteristics, findings of clinical examination and findings of ultrasound as well as venography were recorded by using the SPSS software, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation, and Kappa agreement was calculated for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Twenty-three (56%) patients were male subjects and 18 patients (44%) were female. Twenty-three (56%) patients of the study population were aged <60 years and 18 (43/9%) patients were aged >60 years. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler sonography in the proximal veins in hemodialysis patients compared with venography were, respectively, 80.9%, 79.3%, 73.9% and 85.1%. Color Doppler sonography, as a non-invasive method, could be a good alternative for venography in the assessment of the upper limb with central vein stenosis and occlusion. PMID:25758875

  14. Complementary Role of Ultrasound in Management of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Mahrooz; Moradi, Behnaz; Mousavi, Azam Sadat; Ahmadinejad, Nasrin; Kazemi, Mohamad Ali; Gity, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transvaginal Ultrasonography is a noninvasive and inexpensive medical imaging tool used for the diagnosis of various diseases. Objectives: To identify an effective method to identify high-risk patients for developing malignancy after molar evacuation. Patients and Methods: A prospective serial assessment of 19 patients with gestational trophoblastic disease was performed. Clinical and laboratory data, transvaginal ultrasound and Doppler findings were evaluated the day before evacuation. They were followed-up in the first week after evacuation and every two weeks during the next two months, then every month until the sixth month. Results: Ovarian theca lutein cysts (P = 0.018) (among pre-evacuation factors) and first week ultrasound (P = 0.02) can help in detecting high-risk patients. Even though, when ?-hCG titer is not available in a high-risk patient, post evacuation myometrial involvement (P = 0.005) is a useful sign for detecting persistency. Conclusions: Some ultrasonographic features of molar pregnancy have capability to predict malignancy in the course of disease.

  15. 3D-Ultrasonography for evaluation of facial muscles in patients with chronic facial palsy or defective healing: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While standardized methods are established to examine the pathway from motorcortex to the peripheral nerve in patients with facial palsy, a reliable method to evaluate the facial muscles in patients with long-term palsy for therapy planning is lacking. Methods A 3D ultrasonographic (US) acquisition system driven by a motorized linear mover combined with conventional US probe was used to acquire 3D data sets of several facial muscles on both sides of the face in a healthy subject and seven patients with different types of unilateral degenerative facial nerve lesions. Results The US results were correlated to the duration of palsy and the electromyography results. Consistent 3D US based volumetry through bilateral comparison was feasible for parts of the frontalis muscle, orbicularis oculi muscle, depressor anguli oris muscle, depressor labii inferioris muscle, and mentalis muscle. With the exception of the frontal muscle, the facial muscles volumes were much smaller on the palsy side (minimum: 3% for the depressor labii inferior muscle) than on the healthy side in patients with severe facial nerve lesion. In contrast, the frontal muscles did not show a side difference. In the two patients with defective healing after spontaneous regeneration a decrease in muscle volume was not seen. Synkinesis and hyperkinesis was even more correlated to muscle hypertrophy on the palsy compared with the healthy side. Conclusion 3D ultrasonography seems to be a promising tool for regional and quantitative evaluation of facial muscles in patients with facial palsy receiving a facial reconstructive surgery or conservative treatment. PMID:24782657

  16. Effect of liner design, pulsator setting, and vacuum level on bovine teat tissue changes and milking characteristics as measured by ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Friesian-type dairy cows were milked with different machine settings to determine the effect of these settings on teat tissue reaction and on milking characteristics. Three teat-cup liner designs were used with varying upper barrel dimensions (wide-bore WB = 31.6 mm; narrow-bore NB = 21.0 mm; narrow-bore NB1 = 25.0 mm). These liners were tested with alternate and simultaneous pulsation patterns, pulsator ratios (60:40 and 67:33) and three system vacuum levels (40, 44 and 50 kPa). Teat tissue was measured using ultrasonography, before milking and directly after milking. The measurements recorded were teat canal length (TCL), teat diameter (TD), cistern diameter (CD) and teat wall thickness (TWT). Teat tissue changes were similar with a system vacuum level of either 50 kPa (mid-level) or 40 kPa (low-level). Widening the liner upper barrel bore dimension from 21.0 mm (P < 0.01) or 25.0 mm (P < 0.001) to 31.6 mm increased the magnitude of changes in TD and TWT after machine milking. Milk yield per cow was significantly (P < 0.05) higher and cluster-on time was reduced (P < 0.01) with the WB cluster as compared to the NB1 cluster. Minimum changes in teat tissue parameters were achieved with system vacuum level of 40 kPa and 50 kPa using NB and WB clusters, respectively. Similar changes in teat tissue and milk yield per cow were observed with alternate and simultaneous pulsation patterns. Widening pulsator ratio from 60:40 to 67:33 did not have negative effects on changes in teat tissue and had a positive effect on milk yield and milking time. Milk liner design had a bigger effect on teat tissue changes and milking characteristics than pulsation settings. PMID:21851658

  17. Accuracy of Lung Ultrasonography versus Chest Radiography for the Diagnosis of Adult Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Review of the Literature and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Zhang, SuiYang

    2015-01-01

    Lung ultrasonography (LUS) is being increasingly utilized in emergency and critical settings. We performed a systematic review of the current literature to compare the accuracy of LUS and chest radiography (CR) for the diagnosis of adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We searched in Pub Med, EMBASE dealing with both LUS and CR for diagnosis of adult CAP, and conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of LUS in comparison with CR. The diagnostic standard that the index test compared was the hospital discharge diagnosis or the result of chest computed tomography scan as a “gold standard”. We calculated pooled sensitivity and specificity using the Mantel-Haenszel method and pooled diagnostic odds ratio using the DerSimonian-Laird method. Five articles met our inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Using hospital discharge diagnosis as reference, LUS had a pooled sensitivity of 0.95 (0.93-0.97) and a specificity of 0.90 (0.86 to 0.94), CR had a pooled sensitivity of 0.77 (0.73 to 0.80) and a specificity of 0.91 (0.87 to 0.94). LUS and CR compared with computed tomography scan in 138 patients in total, the Z statistic of the two summary receiver operating characteristic was 3.093 (P = 0.002), the areas under the curve for LUS and CR were 0.901 and 0.590, respectively. Our study indicates that LUS can help to diagnosis adult CAP by clinicians and the accuracy was better compared with CR using chest computed tomography scan as the gold standard. PMID:26107512

  18. Synchronous BI-RADS Category 3 Lesions on Preoperative Ultrasonography in Patients with Breast Cancer: Is Short-Term Follow-Up Appropriate?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seokwon; Jung, Younglae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Breast ultrasonography (US) has been widely used in the preoperative examination of patients with breast cancer. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3 (C3) lesions (probably benign) are regarded as having a low probability of malignancy (?2%). The purposes of this study were to verify the malignancy rates for synchronous BI-RADS C3 lesions in patients with breast cancer and consider appropriate management strategies for these lesions. Methods Between January 2010 and January 2013, a total of 161 patients underwent surgery in our institute for breast cancer and synchronous BI-RADS C3 lesions. In the US reports, we found records of 219 synchronous BI-RADS C3 nodules in 161 patients. They were excised during surgery for breast cancer management. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of malignancy for synchronous BI-RADS C3 lesions. Results The rate of malignancy among the 219 BI-RADS C3 lesions was 9.6%. In simple logistic regression analysis, the size of the primary tumor (p<0.001), pathologic T (pT) stage (p=0.002), and progesterone receptor (PR) status of the primary tumor (p=0.029) were significant predictive factors. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the pT stage and PR status of the primary tumor remained significant predictors (p=0.004 and p=0.003, respectively), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was identified as another significant factor (p=0.006). Conclusion In patients with breast cancer who are scheduled for surgery, needle biopsy or excision should be considered for synchronous BI-RADS C3 lesions identified on preoperative US when the primary tumor has the following risk factors: large size, high PR expression, and HER2 positivity.

  19. Physician Knowledge and Awareness of CA-125 As a Screen for Ovarian Cancer in the Asymptomatic, Average-Risk Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Rim, Sun Hee; Gelb, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Effective early detection strategies for ovarian cancer do not exist. Current screening guidelines recommend against routine screening using CA-125 alone or in combination with transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS). In this study, the authors used the 2008 "DocStyles" survey to measure clinician beliefs about the effectiveness of CA-125 and TVS in…

  20. Comparison of saline infusion sonography with office hysteroscopy for the evaluation of the endometrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theresa Widrich; Linda D. Bradley; Allison R. Mitchinson; Robert L. Collins

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Intrauterine infusion of saline solution during transvaginal ultrasonography enhances visualization of the endometrium. We compared the accuracy and pain rating of saline infusion sonography with those of flexible office hysteroscopy. STUDY DESIGN: The uterine cavities of 130 patients with abnormal bleeding were evaluated by two physicians in an office setting. Findings of endometrial polyps, submucous myomas, synechiae, endometrial hyperplasia,

  1. Cervical competence as a continuum: A study of ultrasonographic cervical length and obstetric performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay D. Iams; Francee F. Johnson; Jiri Sonck; Larry Sachs; Cathy Gebauer; Philip Samuels

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the hypothesis that cervical competence is a continuum that is related to cervical length and is reflected by pregnancy history.STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed of cervical length measured by transvaginal ultrasonography in women with prior preterm delivery at ? 26 weeks, 27 to 32 weeks, and 33 to 35 weeks compared with

  2. Investigative techniques in the assessment of oral-pharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Cook, I J

    1998-01-01

    Oral-pharyngeal dysphagia is a common problem with a high morbidity and mortality. In general, it is not managed as well as esophageal dysphagia by gastroenterologists. A number of techniques are now available for the assessment of oral-pharyngeal dysphagia. However, a careful clinical assessment followed by a video barium swallow is all that is required for the diagnosis and management in the majority of patients. Pharyngeal manometry is likely to play an increasingly important role in the assessment of difficult or atypical cases in whom it can provide functional information not achievable with videoradiography alone. Videolaryngoscopy is a quick and simple way of detecting structural lesions and of assessing deglutitive airway protection. Videolaryngoscopy is non-invasive and easily performed in an office setting. Ultrasonography is a convenient way of assessing lingual function, but provides no more information than the video barium swallow. Pharyngeal scintigraphy is likely to assume a greater clinical relevance as a means of quantifying swallow efficiency and response to therapy. PMID:9618131

  3. Application of ultrasound in the assessment of plantar fascia in patients with plantar fasciitis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mohseni-Bandpei, Mohammad Ali; Nakhaee, Masoomeh; Mousavi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Shakourirad, Ali; Safari, Mohammad Reza; Vahab Kashani, Reza

    2014-08-01

    Plantar fasciitis (PFS) is one of the most common causes of heel pain, estimated to affect 10% of the general population during their lifetime. Ultrasound (US) imaging technique is increasingly being used to assess plantar fascia (PF) thickness, monitor the effect of different interventions and guide therapeutic interventions in patients with PFS. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review previously published studies concerning the application of US in the assessment of PF in patients with PFS. A literature search was performed for the period 2000-2012 using the Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, Medline, Embase and Springer databases. The key words used were: ultrasound, sonography, imaging techniques, ultrasonography, interventional ultrasonography, plantar fascia and plantar fasciitis. The literature search yielded 34 relevant studies. Sixteen studies evaluated the effect of different interventions on PF thickness in patients with PFS using US; 12 studies compared PF thickness between patients with and without PFS using US; 6 studies investigated the application of US as a guide for therapeutic intervention in patients with PFS. There were variations among studies in terms of methodology used. The results indicated that US can be considered a reliable imaging technique for assessing PF thickness, monitoring the effect of different interventions and guiding therapeutic interventions in patients with PFS. PMID:24798393

  4. Fighting Back: Assessing the Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillocks, George, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that analyses of current assessment practices need to examine the impact that testing has on teaching and the curriculum. Notes that writing assessment drives instruction. Provides basic questions to begin analyses of local and state assessments, and provides one such analysis of Illinois' assessment. Concludes that educators need to help…

  5. Perineural cysts resembling complex cystic adnexal masses on transvaginal sonography.

    PubMed

    Saboo, Sachin S; Di Salvo, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Perineural cysts may be discovered incidentally on pelvic sonography and can easily mimic more common gynecologic masses. We report the complex cystic adnexal mass like appearance of these incidentally noted cysts which mimicked malignancy on sonography in a postmenopausal female, with stage I breast cancer and vaginal spotting. PMID:22105304

  6. Transvaginal retropubic sling systems: efficacy and patient acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Moldovan, Christina P; Marinone, Michelle E; Staack, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence is a common, disabling, and costly medical problem that affects approximately 50% of women with urinary incontinence. Suburethral retropubic slings have been developed as a minimally invasive and effective surgical option, and they have been used as a first-line treatment for stress urinary incontinence since 1995. However, complications including vaginal extrusion, erosion, pain, bleeding, infections, lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary retention, and incontinence have been reported with use of the slings. Several companies manufacture sling kits, and the sling kits vary with regard to the composition of the mesh and introducer needle. The aim of this review was to determine which sling kit was most effective for patients, had minimal reported side effects, and was best accepted by patients and surgeons. In a review of the literature, it was found that a total of 38 studies were published between 1995 and 2014 that reported on eight tension-free retropubic sling kits: SPARC, RetroArc, Align, Advantage, Lynx, Desara, Supris, and Gynecare TVT. The Gynecare TVT was the most cited sling kit; the second most cited was the SPARC. This review provides a summary of the studies that have examined positive and negative outcomes of the retropubic tension-free suburethral sling procedure using various sling kits. Overall, the results of the literature review indicated that data from comparisons of the available sling kits are insufficient to make an evidenced-based recommendation. Therefore, the decision regarding which sling kit is appropriate to use in surgery is determined by the medical provider’s preference, training, and past experience, and not by the patient. PMID:25733928

  7. Endoscopic ultrasonography for gastric cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Ganpathi; J. B.-Y. So; K.-Y. Ho

    2006-01-01

    Background  This study aimed to evaluate the utility and shortcomings of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging\\u000a of gastric cancer and its influence on treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The series included 126 patients (65 men and 44 women) with gastric cancer who underwent EUS from July 1997 to June 2003 at\\u000a the National University Hospital, Singapore. The final analysis included 109 patients

  8. Ultrasonography and amoebic liver abscesses.

    PubMed Central

    Abul-Khair, M H; Kenawi, M M; Korashy, E E; Arafa, N M

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-four patients were admitted to Kasr-El-Aini Hospital with suspected diagnoses of amoebic liver abscesses. The patients underwent clinical examinations, stool specimen analyses for cysts and trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica, radiologic examinations, and routine liver function tests. In one patient, a liver scintiscan was obtained. Ultrasonographic examination was performed on all patients using the gray scale imaging technique. In 20 patients, the diagnoses of amoebic liver abscesses were demonstrated by ultrasonographic examination. In 19 patients, amoebic liver abscesses were verified by aspiration biopsies (95%), and one patient had a false-positive result. This false-positive result was due to a degenerated hepatoma, demonstrated by aspiration biopsy. Of the 19 patients, 12 patients (63.12%) had right lobe abscesses and seven (36.89%) had left lobe abscesses. The site, size and nature of the pus contained in the abscess could be determined by ultrasonographic examination and, therefore, helped in the management and technique of the aspiration biopsy. In addition, follow-up data could be more detailed using ultrasonographic examinations. Ultrasonographic examination is a noninvasive, safe, accurate, and rapid method of diagnosis, and is highly recommended as a routing procedure in all cases of suspected amoebic liver abscesses in the pre- and posttreatment stages of the disease. It is also recommended as an indicator of complete cure at follow-up examination. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:7469556

  9. Ultrasonography of acute epitrochlear lymphadenitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Barr; D. R. Kirks

    1993-01-01

    While the clinical symptomatology and radiographic findings of acute suppurative infection of the epitrochlear lymph nodes of the arm have been previously described [1], ultrasonographic findings have not been reported. This case report demonstrates that sonograpic identification of enlarged epitrochlear lymph nodes immediately confirms the diagnosis. We summarize the clinical, radiological, and sonographic findings of acute suppurative infection of the

  10. An assessment of diagnostic procedures preparatory to retroperitoneoscopic removal of adenoma in cases of primary hyperaldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Glodny, B; Kühle, C; Cromme, S; Brockmann, J; Winde, G

    2000-12-01

    The goal of this study was to improve assessment of diagnostic measures for lateral localization of aldosterone-producing adrenal adenomas preparatory to retroperitoneoscopic removal, in view of the fact that this technique allows for only unilateral access. A retrospective study was carried out of the medical records of 64 patients (38 women, 26 men, average age 46.8+/-11.2) who underwent surgery at University Hospital, Münster, between 1969 and 1998. Seventeen of the 64 patients presented with hyperplasia and 47 had adrenal adenoma. In cases of hyperplasia, computerized tomography imaged a false-positive unilateral tumor 10 times, a false-negative 3 times, and a unilateral hyperplasia 1 time (ultrasonography: tumor 2 times, false-negative 3 times; 131I-Iodomethylnorcholesterol scintigraphy: tumor 5 times, false-negative 1 time, correct 1 time). In cases of adenoma, computerized tomography yielded accurate results 40 times, imaged a false-negative 2 times, and indicated the incorrect side 1 time (Ultrasonography: false-negative 12 times, correct side 9 times, incorrect side 1 time; 131I-Iodomethylnorcholesterol scintigraphy: correct side 19 times, false-positive (both sides) 5 times, negative 3 times, incorrect side 2 times). Venous sampling, which was carried out seven times, yielded accurate results six times, and failed technically one time. Venous sampling appears to be the method of choice for preoperative lateral localization. Thus, retroperitoneoscopic treatment of Conn's syndrome should not be carried out unless venous sampling is carried out first. PMID:11228039

  11. Environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Narayan, M C; Tennant, J

    1997-11-01

    The significance, standard elements, components, and documentation of an environmental assessment in home care are discussed. This assessment is delineated within Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and from a functional perspective. An Environmental Assessment Form that can be used as a documentation tool is included. PMID:9418432

  12. Dynamic Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoel, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Adventure therapists are often asked to assess clients in a manner that differs from their therapeutic approach, resulting in assessment being perceived as burdensome. Project Adventure's Decision Tree combines assessment with activity selection to create a dynamic tool that is responsive to group, individual, and leader needs. Example focuses on…

  13. Outcomes Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Charles; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Seven characteristics of an effective outcomes assessment program are identified: Outcomes assessment is a curricular rather than a measurement issue, yields information useful to decision-makers in gauging the quality of the curriculum, institutional purpose drives decisions on how outcomes are assessed, etc. (MLW)

  14. Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.

    2009-01-01

    Peer assessment is an arrangement for learners to consider and specify the level, value, or quality of a product or performance of other equal-status learners. Products to be assessed can include writing, oral presentations, portfolios, test performance, or other skilled behaviors. Peer assessment can be summative or formative. A formative view is…

  15. Technology assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Frey

    1975-01-01

    Technology assessment grew out of an international movement of reaction against the unforeseen evils of technology. Using the video telephone and the Jamaica Bay airport study as examples, technology assessment is assessed and an insight is given into the methodology and values used. The political, legal and economic aspects are also discussed

  16. Impaired Ultrasonographic Cervical Assessment After Voiding

    PubMed Central

    Schnettler, William; March, Melissa; Hacker, Michele R.; Modest, Anna Merport; Rodriguez, Diana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate whether the timing of bladder emptying affects focal myometrial contraction development and image adequacy. METHODS Women at 14 0/7–32 0/7 weeks of gestation undergoing a transvaginal ultrasound examination from January 1, 2012, to September 1, 2012, were eligible for this blinded randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned to undergo transvaginal imaging immediately after urination (within 5 minutes) or to defer the imaging by at least 15 minutes. The primary outcome was focal myometrial contraction development as determined by two independent blinded reviews of the images. Secondary outcomes included image adequacy and the diagnosis of placenta previa. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using repeated-measures log binomial regression. RESULTS Two hundred twenty-one women provided 335 randomized encounters for analysis. Women in the deferred scan group were 30% less likely to experience a focal myometrial contraction (28.1% compared with 40.5%, RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.52–0.93) and 41% less likely to have inadequate images (18.6% compared with 31.5%, RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.40–0.86). The two groups were equally likely to be diagnosed with placenta previa (P=.13). However, participants in the deferred scan group were 76% less likely to have images demonstrating a placenta previa and focal myometrial contraction (3.0% compared with 12.5%, RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.09– 0.62) than participants in the immediate scan group. Eight women would need to defer imaging for 15 minutes from bladder voiding to prevent one focal myometrial contraction of the lower uterine segment or inadequate imaging. CONCLUSIONS A brief interval (at least 15 minutes) between voiding and transvaginal cervical evaluation is associated with decreased risk for focal myometrial contractions and improved imaging. PMID:23635680

  17. Classroom Assessment Techniques: Performance Assessment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Timothy F. Slater

    This page describes the performance assessment, one of a series of Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) provided by the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) website. The CATs of FLAG were constructed as a resource for science, technology, engineering and mathematics instructors to emphasize deeper levels of learning and to give instructors valuable feedback during a course. Performance assessments are designed to judge student abilities to use specific knowledge and research skills that require the student to manipulate equipment to solve a problem or make an analysis. Performance assessments may reveal a variety of problem-solving approaches, thus providing insight into a student's level of conceptual and procedural knowledge. This site provides an overview of this assessment technique and information about how to use it, as well as a set of discipline-specific "tools" that can be downloaded for immediate use. Supplementary links and sources are also included to further explore this assessment tool.

  18. Effect of a single injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on testicular blood flow measured by color doppler ultrasonography in male Shiba goats

    PubMed Central

    SAMIR, Haney; SASAKI, Kazuaki; AHMED, Eman; KAREN, Aly; NAGAOKA, Kentaro; EL SAYED, Mohamed; TAYA, Kazuyoshi; WATANABE, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Although color Doppler ultrasonography has been used to evaluate testicular blood flow in many species, very little has been done in goat. Eight male Shiba goats were exposed to a single intramuscular injection of either gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH group; 1 µg/kg BW) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG group; 25 IU/kg BW). Plasma testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and inhibin (INH) were measured just before (0 hr) and at different intervals post injection by radioimmunoassay. Testis volume (TV) and Doppler indices, such as resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of the supratesticular artery, were measured by B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography, respectively. The results indicated an increase in testicular blood flow in both groups, as RI and PI decreased significantly (P<0.05), but this increase was significant higher and earlier in hCG group (1 hr) than in the GnRH group (2 hr). A high correlation was found for RI and PI with both T (RI, r= ?0.862; PI, r= ?0.707) and INH in the GnRH group (RI, r=0.661; PI, r=0.701). However, a significant (P<0.05) correlation was found between E2 and both RI (r= ?0.610) and PI (r= ?0.763) in hCG group. In addition, TV significantly increased and was highly correlated with RI in both groups (GnRH, r= ?0.718; hCG, r= ?0.779). In conclusion, hCG and GnRH may improve testicular blood flow and TV in Shiba goats. PMID:25715956

  19. Ultrasound assessment of haemoperitoneum in ectopic pregnancy: derivation of a prediction model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnaud Fauconnier; Ali Mabrouk; Laurent J Salomon; Jean-Pierre Bernard; Yves Ville

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To derive an ultrasound-based prediction model for the quantification of haemoperitoneum in ectopic pregnancy (EP). METHODS: Retrospective study of 89 patients operated upon EP between January 1999 and March 2003 in a French Gynaecology and Obstetrics department in a university hospital. Transvaginal sonograms, clinical and biological variables from patients with haemoperitoneum ? 300 ml at surgery were compared with

  20. Reflective Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Evans, Laurynn; Ellis, Arthur K

    2011-01-01

    As student achievement data are increasingly included in teacher evaluations, principals are responsible for ensuring that the results of classroom-based assessments are included in those data. Integrating formative, classroom-based assessments into every student learning experience is a practical way to enhance student learning and give teachers…

  1. MR Venography for the Assessment of Deep Vein Thrombosis in Lower Extremities with Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the performance of magnetic resonance venography (MRV) for pelvis and deep vein thrombosis in the lower extremities before surgical interventions for varicose veins. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 72 patients who underwent MRV and ultrasonography before stripping for varicose veins of lower extremities. All images of the deep venous systems were evaluated by time-of-flight MRV. Results: Forty-six patients (63.9%) of all were female. Mean age was 65.2 ± 10.2 years (37–81 years). There were forty patients (55.6%) with varicose veins in both legs. Two deep vein thrombosis (2.8%) and three iliac vein thrombosis (4.2%) were diagnosed. All patients without deep vein thrombosis underwent the stripping of saphenous veins, and post-thrombotic change was avoided in all cases. Conclusion: MRV, without contrast medium, is considered clinically useful for the lower extremity venous system. PMID:25593625

  2. BASELINE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose: The Baseline Assessment is a project to collect data on environmental conditions in Indian country from existing data sources using a geographic enabling system called the Oracle Spatial Data Cartridge. Legislation/Enabling Authority: None S...

  3. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  4. Portfolio Assessment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    A portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that exhibits the students efforts, progress, and achievements in one or more areas of the curriculum. This resource discusses the characteristics of an effective portfolio, types of portfolios, and the phases of portfolio assessment. It offers guidelines for how to get started using portfolios, how can a portfolio be evaluated, and some additional resources on portfolio assessment. It is intended for K-12 teachers to use in the classroom.

  5. Beyond Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Stakeholders are interested in accountability in public education. College professors are doing innovative things in the classroom to help students learn mathematics and, when required, are documenting this learning. This article provides several hypothetical examples of how documented assessments of student learning at the classroom, course and…

  6. Nonbiased Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J.

    Issues surrounding the concept of nonbiased assessment, particularly with economically disadvantaged minority students, are analyzed. The legal requirements are focused on thorough discussion of litigation and legislation. The second section explores research on the use of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R). Research…

  7. Management Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on management assessment. In "The Air Force ROTC (Reserve Officer Training Corps) Selection System as a Predictor of Leadership" (Orlando V. Griego, George A. Morgan, Gary D. Geroy), 102 ROTC cadets rated their own leadership characteristics and were rated by subordinates; leaders and…

  8. Portfolio Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Brian D.

    A comprehensive, needs-based portfolio assessment system was developed for use with adult basic education (ABE)/General Educational Development (GED) students at an adult education and job training center in Lewistown, Pennsylvania. Consultation meetings were held with ABE/GED instructors, students, administrators, and counselors to identify…

  9. Assessment of changes in vascularity and blood volume in canine sarcomas and squamous cell carcinomas during fractionated radiation therapy using quantified contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography: A preliminary study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie Ohlerth; Carla Rohrer Bley; Dagmar Laluhová; Malgorzata Roos; Barbara Kaser-Hotz

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy does not only target tumour cells but also affects tumour vascularity. In the present study, changes in tumour vascularity and blood volume were investigated in five grade 1 oral fibrosarcomas, eight other sarcomas (non-oral soft tissue and bone sarcomas) and 12 squamous cell carcinomas in dogs during fractionated radiation therapy (total dose, 45–56Gy). Contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasound was

  10. Noninvasive Assessment of Pulse-Wave Velocity and Flow-Mediated Vasodilation in Anesthetized Göttingen Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsen, Trine P; Wiinberg, Niels; Jensen, Christina J; Callesen, Annemette T; Andersen, Regitze W; Jørgensen, Anne Sofie H; Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Pedersen, Henrik D; Moesgaard, Sophia G; Olsen, Lisbeth H

    2014-01-01

    Few methods for noninvasive assessment of arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction in porcine models are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate methods for assessment of arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction in anesthetized Göttingen minipigs. Pulse-wave velocity (PWV) was assessed in male Göttingen minipigs (n = 8; age approximately 60 wk) by using applanation tonometry of the carotid and femoral arteries. In addition, flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was assessed by using vascular ultrasonography of the brachial artery to evaluate endothelial dysfunction. To evaluate the reproducibility of the methods, minipigs were anesthetized by intravenous infusion of ketamine and midazolam and examined every other day for a total of 3 trials. Neither examination day nor systolic, diastolic, or mean arterial blood pressure statistically influenced PWV or FMD. The median interexamination coefficient of variation was 17% for PWV and 59% for FMD. Measured values of PWV corresponded largely to those in clinically healthy humans, but FMD values were lower than expected for lean, young animals. Although the ketamine–midazolam anesthesia we used has been associated with minor hemodynamic effects in vivo, in vitro studies suggest that both drugs are vasodilatory. Therefore anesthesia might have influenced the endothelial response, contributing to the modest FMD response and the concurrent high coefficients of variation that we noted. We conclude that PWV—but not FMD—showed acceptable interexamination variation for its potential application in porcine models. PMID:25527028

  11. Noninvasive assessment of pulse-wave velocity and flow-mediated vasodilation in anesthetized Göttingen minipigs.

    PubMed

    Ludvigsen, Trine P; Wiinberg, Niels; Jensen, Christina J; Callesen, Annemette T; Andersen, Regitze W; Jørgensen, Anne Sofie H; Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Pedersen, Henrik D; Moesgaard, Sophia G; Olsen, Lisbeth H

    2014-12-01

    Few methods for noninvasive assessment of arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction in porcine models are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate methods for assessment of arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction in anesthetized Göttingen minipigs. Pulse-wave velocity (PWV) was assessed in male Göttingen minipigs (n = 8; age approximately 60 wk) by using applanation tonometry of the carotid and femoral arteries. In addition, flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was assessed by using vascular ultrasonography of the brachial artery to evaluate endothelial dysfunction. To evaluate the reproducibility of the methods, minipigs were anesthetized by intravenous infusion of ketamine and midazolam and examined every other day for a total of 3 trials. Neither examination day nor systolic, diastolic, or mean arterial blood pressure statistically influenced PWV or FMD. The median interexamination coefficient of variation was 17% for PWV and 59% for FMD. Measured values of PWV corresponded largely to those in clinically healthy humans, but FMD values were lower than expected for lean, young animals. Although the ketamine-midazolam anesthesia we used has been associated with minor hemodynamic effects in vivo, in vitro studies suggest that both drugs are vasodilatory. Therefore anesthesia might have influenced the endothelial response, contributing to the modest FMD response and the concurrent high coefficients of variation that we noted. We conclude that PWV—but not FMD—showed acceptable interexamination variation for its potential application in porcine models. PMID:25527028

  12. Ambulatory Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Trull, Timothy J.; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Ambulatory assessment (AA) covers a wide range of assessment methods to study people in their natural environment, including self-report, observational, and biological/physiological/behavioral. AA methods minimize retrospective biases while gathering ecologically valid data from patients’ everyday life in real time or near real time. Here, we report on the major characteristics of AA, and we provide examples of applications of AA in clinical psychology (a) to investigate mechanisms and dynamics of symptoms, (b) to predict the future recurrence or onset of symptoms, (c) to monitor treatment effects, (d) to predict treatment success, (e) to prevent relapse, and (f) as interventions. In addition, we present and discuss the most pressing and compelling future AA applications: technological developments (the smartphone), improved ecological validity of laboratory results by combined lab-field studies, and investigating gene-environment interactions. We conclude with a discussion of acceptability, compliance, privacy, and ethical issues. PMID:23157450

  13. Relationship between Arterial Inflow Rate and Venous Filling Index of the Lower Extremities Assessed by Air Plethysmography in Subjects with or without Axial Reflux in the Great Saphenous Vein

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between arterial inflow rate (AIR) and venous filling index (VFI) in limbs with or without varicose veins, assessed by air plethysmography (APG). Materials and Methods: A total of 142 patients (142 limbs) visiting our clinic with leg complaints, but without arterial and venous disease, were defined as the normal group (NG), and 65 patients (65 limbs) with leg varices were defined as the varicose vein group (VG). Both groups underwent duplex ultrasonography and APG to identify venous reflux and measure hemodynamic parameters, respectively. Examinations were performed at the first visit in the NG and before and one month after treatment in the VG. Results: A strong correlation between resting AIR and VFI was found in the NG (r = 0.72) and postoperative VG (r = 0.71). Twenty-two and three limbs in the NG and postoperative VG, respectively, had a VFI over 2.0 mL/s because of the high AIR. In the VG, AIR tended to decrease after treatment (P >0.01). Conclusions: High leg AIR lead to high VFI measured by APG. AIR and VFI should be measured at the same session to assess venous hemodynamic changes after varicose vein treatment when residual venous reflux cannot be diagnosed with duplex ultrasonography. PMID:25298834

  14. Early gastric cancer with Krukenberg tumor and review of cases of intramucosal gastric cancers with Krukenberg tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naomi Kakushima; Toshiro Kamoshida; Shinji Hirai; Soichi Hotta; Tsuyoshi Hirayama; Jun Yamada; Kazumitsu Ueda; Munekatsu Sato; Minoru Okumura; Tatsuro Shimokama; Yuji Oka

    2003-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman was admitted because of hypermenorrhea. Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed an ovarian tumor and myoma uteri, and total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histology revealed signet-ring cell carcinoma in the right ovary. In order to find out the primary site of this tumor, gastroendoscopy was performed after the operation, and showed a IIc lesion in the lower body

  15. Assessing fatigue.

    PubMed

    Foushee, H C

    1986-05-01

    Despite impressive advances in aircraft technology over the past several decades and an overall decline in the airline accident rate since the introduction of turbine-powered aircraft, flight crew performance problems continue to dominate air transport accident statistics. Researchers have offered many hypotheses to explain this finding, and interest in pilot fatigue has stimulated a large volume of laboratory research. Much of this work, however, is difficult to generalize and to apply to the real world of flight operations, and researchers disagree about the extent and operational significance of fatigue-related reductions in pilot performance. As a result, in 1980 Congress asked the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to undertake a comprehensive research program to assess whether fatigue-related problems are prevalent in long- and short-haul flying. The two major goals of this project are: (1) to assess the psychophysiological effects on pilot performance of flying various types of flight and duty cycles, and (2) to determine the operational significance to flight safety and efficiency of flying these flight and duty cycles. PMID:11537647

  16. A comparative study of dual-X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative ultrasonography for the evaluating bone status in subjects with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, C; Hayek, J; Tomai Pitinca, M D; Nuti, R; Gonnelli, S

    2014-09-01

    Rett syndrome, an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting girls, is frequently characterized by a reduced bone mineral density (BMD) with an increased risk of fragility fractures. The aim of the study was to assess bone status by DXA technique and by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in subjects with Rett syndrome and to evaluate which DXA or QUS parameters better correlate with clinical features. In 156 Rett subjects (mean age 13.6 ± 8.2 years) and in 62 controls, we measured BMD at femoral neck (BMD-FN) and at total femur (BMD-TF). Apparent volumetric bone mineral density (vBMAD) was also calculated. In all subjects, QUS parameters at phalanges by Bone Profiler-IGEA (amplitude-dependent speed of sound: AD-SoS and bone transmission time: BTT) were evaluated. We found that both DXA parameters and QUS parameters were significantly lower in Rett subjects than in controls. All clinical characteristics were positively correlated to BMD-FN, BMD-TF, AD-SoS, and BTT (p < 0.001) but not with vBMAD-FN. All ultrasonographic parameters were significantly correlated to BMD-FN and BMD-TF, whereas vBMAD-FN showed only positive significant correlation with densitometric parameters (p < 001). In Rett subjects BMD-FN was predicted primarily by weight and movement capacity, whereas vBMAD-FN was predicted by weight, height, and calcium intake. Moreover, AD-SoS was predicted by weight, height, and age, while BTT was predicted only by height. In conclusion, in our study the performance of QUS at phalanges was similar to those of BMD at femur, therefore, both areal BMD at femur and QUS at phalanges (AD-SoS and BTT) may be equally useful in the evaluation of skeletal status in Rett patients. PMID:25012506

  17. Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides information on various classroom assessment techniques (CATs) such as primary trait analysis, using anonymous assessments, goal ranking and matching, self assessment, active learning, transfer and applied learning, and group work assessment.

  18. Low-field magnetic resonance imaging or combined ultrasonography and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody improve correct classification of individuals as established rheumatoid arthritis: results of a population-based, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of two approaches using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or combined ultrasonography (US) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) for diagnosis and classification of individuals with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods In 53 individuals from a population-based, cross-sectional study, historic fulfilment of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1987 criteria (“classification”) or RA diagnosed by a rheumatologist (“diagnosis”) were used as standard references. The sensitivity, specificity and Area under Curve for Receiver Operating Characteristics curves (ROC-area: (sensitivity?+?specificity)/2) were calculated for “current fulfilment of the ACR 1987 criteria” (list format), “adapted ACR 1987 criteria” (list format, substituting IgM rheumatoid factor with ACPA and clinical joint swelling and erosions on radiography with synovitis and erosions detected by US on a semi-quantitative scale), and RA MRI scoring System (RAMRIS) scores on low-field MRI in the unilateral hand. Results For the ACR 1987 criteria the ROC-area was 75% (sensitivity/specificity?=?50%/100%) (with “classification” as standard reference) and 69% (44%/94%) (with “diagnosis” as standard reference), while for the adapted ACR 1987 criteria it was 86% (75%/97%) (classification) and 82% (72%/91%) (diagnosis). For RAMRIS synovitis score in metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints only (cut-off ?5), the ROC-area (sensitivity/specificity) was 78% (62%/94%) (classification) and 85% (69%/100%) (diagnosis), while for the total synovitis score of MCP joints plus wrist (cut-off ?10) it was 78% (62%/94%) (both classification and diagnosis). Conclusions Compared with the ACR 1987 criteria, low-field MRI alone or adapted criteria incorporating US and ACPA increased the correct classification and diagnosis of RA. PMID:25103610

  19. Serum vitamin D3 level inversely correlates with uterine fibroid volume in different ethnic groups: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Mohamed; Halder, Sunil K; Allah, Abdou S Ait; Roshdy, Eman; Rajaratnam, Veera; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Currently there is no effective medicinal treatment for uterine fibroids (UFs), a common health disorder that affects women of reproductive age. Identification of modifiable risk factors such as vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency could help develop novel strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of UFs. The purpose of this study was to identify whether low serum Vit D3 levels correlate with increased risk of UFs. Methods A total of 154 premenopausal women were recruited for this cross-sectional study. The control group comprised 50 subjects with a normal, fibroid-free uterine structure, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography. The 104 case subjects had at least one fibroid lesion that was 2 cm3 in volume or larger, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography. For each case subject, total uterine volume and total volume of all existing fibroids were measured in three perpendicular planes, with volume determined according to the prolate ellipse formula (a × b × c × 0.523), where a is height, b is width, and c is depth. Serum Vit D [25(OH) D3] levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The independent t-test was used to compare serum Vit D levels across groups. Correlations were assessed by Spearman’s rank correlation test. Results Lower serum 25-(OH) Vit D levels were significantly associated with the occurrence of UFs (P = 0.01). A statistically significant inverse correlation was also observed between serum 25-(OH) Vit D levels and total UF volume (r = ?0.31; P = 0.002) within the case cohort. Subjects with larger fibroid volumes had lower serum Vit D levels and vice versa. Data stratified for ethnicity showed a statistically significant inverse correlation between serum 25-(OH) Vit D levels and total fibroid volume in black subjects (r = ?0.42; P = 0.001). An inverse correlation was also evident in white subjects (r = ?0.86; P = 0.58) but this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion Lower serum Vit D levels are inversely correlated with UF burden in different ethnic groups. Vit D deficiency is a possible risk factor for the occurrence of UFs. PMID:23467803

  20. GLOBE Assessment Classroom Tools

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    The GLOBE Classroom Assessment site provides sample student assessment tools and frameworks to provide teachers and students with evidence about progress on NASA's Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program goals. GLOBE Assessment has three main components: (1) GLOBE Assessment Standards - Broad overview of assessment indexing to standards and frameworks that specify commonly referenced science content areas and inquiry strategies (2) GLOBE Assessment Tools - Templates, rubrics, and guided exemplars to tailor your assessments. Exemplars are designed to assess students' deep understanding of GLOBE framework strategies. (3) GLOBE Assessment Alignment - Materials from GLOBE Conference 2001 Alignment Binder which provided tools to link GLOBE to National and State standards.

  1. The intervention effects of different treatments for chronic low back pain as assessed by the thickness of the musculus transversus abdominis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiuchen; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Yuying; Rui, Gu; Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of an intervention comprising proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) or neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) on chronic low back pain as assessed by the thickness of musculus transversus abdominis [Subjects] The subjects were 12 young people (five males, seven females) who had chronic low back pain on one side for more than 6 months. [Methods] Subjects were asked to lie their sides with the painful side facing up. The subjects received PNF or NJF exercise treatments. The changes in the musculus transversus abdominis thickness were measured using ultrasonography. [Result] The thickness of the musculus transversus abdominis in the NJF group increased significantly and was higher than that in the PNF group and at rest. [Conclusion] The results showed that significantly better improvement can be obtained for chronic low back pain by applying NJF patterns to the musculus transversus abdominis. PMID:25276020

  2. The ABCs of Assessment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    This short article discusses aligning assessment with instruction. It offers ideas on how to evaluate the effectiveness of any given assessment activity, stressing authentic assessment, or making the testing relate to students real world experiences. There is an example of a high school biology performance assessment task, and a discussion of portfolio evaluation. There is also a discussion devoted to predict and explain assessment.

  3. Diet Assessment Primer Roadmap | Dietary Assessment Primer

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Search the Primer: Dietary Assessment Primer Menu Home Roadmap Citation Contact Us Print Home  »  Diet Assessment Primer Roadmap Instrument Profiles Key Concepts Choosing

  4. Doppler assessment of renal hemodynamic alterations in homozygous sickle cell disease and sickle Beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Saif, Aasem; Soliman, Neveen; Abdelhamid, Alaa

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the renal vascular indices in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD) using Doppler ultrasonography. We also assessed the renal hemodynamics alterations in patients with homozygous SCD and sickle beta-thalassemia (sickle ?-thalassemia). We studied 75 patients (age range = 3-20 years; M = 9.95 ± 4.15) with SCD: 42 patients suffering from homozygous SCD and 33 patients diagnosed with sickle ?-thalassemia. Thirty, age- and sex-matched, normal subjects were also included as a control group. Both patients and control groups had Doppler assessment of pulsatility (PI) and resistivity (RI) indices of main renal, segmental, interlobar, and arcuate arteries. Both PIs and RIs were significantly higher in SCD patients, compared with the control group. Among patients, PIs and RIs in the main renal, segmental, interlobar, and arcuate arteries were significantly higher in patients with homozygous SCD as compared with those with sickle ?-thalassemia (p values <0.01, <0.001, <0.001, and <0.001 for PIs and <0.001, <0.001, <0.001, and <0.01 for RIs, respectively). We concluded that renal vascular resistance is raised in children and adolescents with SCD. This is more pronounced in patients with homozygous SCD as compared with those with sickle ?-thalassemia. PMID:25294847

  5. Dynamic Assessment: Assessment "for" and "as" Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Constant

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic assessment (DA), as a pro-learning form of assessment, has been discussed in the educational literature for three decades or more. As a concept it has yet to be picked up in any significant way by the more established second language testing/assessment literature published in the English language. There is, however, every reason to believe…

  6. METRO EAST COAST ASSESSMENT: FINAL ASSESSMENT REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metropolitan East Coast Regional Assessment is one of eighteen regional components of The U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change, organized by the U.S. Global Change Research Program. The goal of each regional assessment is to...

  7. Ultrasound assessment of the median nerve: a biomarker that can help in setting a treat to target approach tailored for carpal tunnel syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    El Miedany, Yasser; El Gaafary, Maha; Youssef, Sally; Ahmed, Ihab; Nasr, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is a valuable tool for confirming the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) as it enables the detection of changes in the median nerve shape and rule out anatomic variants as well as space-occupying lesions such as ganglion cysts or tenosynovitis. This work was carried out aiming at: 1. Ultrasonography assessment of the median nerve and its neurovascular blood-flow in CTS patients before and after management. 2. Verify the possibility of using baseline US parameters as a biomarker to predict likely outcomes and frame a treatment plan for CTS patients. 233 CTS subjects diagnosed based on clinical and electrophysiological (NCS) testing were included in this work. US measures at the tunnel inlet included: cross sectional area, flattening ratio and neural Power Doppler (PD) signals. Patients who had severe NCS outcomes or neurological deficit were referred for open surgical decompression; the remaining patients were given the choice of either conservative or surgical management. The main outcome variable was improvement >70% in CTS symptoms. Assessments were carried out at baseline, 1-week, 1-month and 6-months post treatment. Results revealed an inverse relation between the neural vasculature and CTS severity defined by NCS (r?=?- 0.648). In CTS cases treated conservatively, the US measures started to improve within 1-week, whereas in the surgically treated cohort there was an initial phase of post-operative nerve measures increase, before settling at 1-month time of follow-up. The risk of poor outcomes was significantly higher (RR 3.3) in patients with high median nerve flattening ratio. This risk was most marked in the cohort with nerve flattening associated with longer duration of illness (RR 4.3) and low PD signal (RR 4.1). The results revealed that in addition to the diagnostic value of US in CTS, the detection of increased median nerve neuro-vasculature has a good prognostic value as an indicator of early median nerve affection. PMID:25625037

  8. WORLD WATER ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the World Water Assessment Programme is to support the building of global security - food, environment, economic, social and political security -- through an integrated comprehensive freshwater assessment. The specific objectives within the assessment pr...

  9. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT 2012

    E-print Network

    WPA 2012 PSYCHOLOGICAL WORKPLACE ASSESSMENT 2012 REPORT NO. 09 - RESULTS AND KEY FIGURES AARHUS-8200 Aarhus N Reports in the series Psychological Workplace Assessment 2012, Aarhus University Report no. 01. Psychological Workplace Assessment 2012, Aarhus University. Report no. 02. Psychological

  10. Solar radiation resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

  11. Musculoskeletal interventional ultrasonography: the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Vuillemin, V; Guerini, H; Morvan, G

    2012-09-01

    Forty percent of the 823 ultrasound-guided injections performed in our centre over a year and a half concerned the upper limb, injections involving the shoulder, for subacromial bursitis and the treatment of calcific tendinitis, being the prime indications (24%). The wrist represented 8% of the prescriptions, for treatment of tendinopathy, ganglion cysts, carpal tunnel syndrome and rhizarthrosis. Trigger finger, tenosynovitis and pulley ganglia made up 6% of the indications and the elbow 2.5%. Ultrasound improves the accuracy of the procedure by helping guide the path of the needle and allowing the distribution of the substance injected to be visualised. We shall give details of the technique used for each indication, with advice and hints and post-procedure recommendations. PMID:22921692

  12. Interventional musculoskeletal ultrasonography of the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Morvan, G; Vuillemin, V; Guerini, H

    2012-09-01

    In this case series, out of 823 ultrasound-guided injections carried out over a period of one and a half years, 60% were of the lower limb (LL). In the hip (61% of LL injections), the main indications were pathologies of the gluteal tendons and bursae (80%) and pathologies of periprosthetic soft tissue; in the knee (15% of LL punctures), these procedures were for cysts (51%), tendinopathies and bursopathies (18%), and joint aspirations (7%); in the calf, haematoma drainage; in the foot and the ankle (24% of LL punctures), Morton's neuroma (47%), tenosynovitis (22%), pathologies of the plantar fascia (13%), cysts (7%), joint aspirations (5%), and bursopathies. For each of these indications, we will detail the specific technique and equipment used, useful tips, and post-procedure care. PMID:22921690

  13. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of Morton's neuroma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Williams; D. L. Grace; G. J. Papas

    1996-01-01

    High resolution ultrasound scanning of the plantar surface of the foot was performed on 60 patients with symptoms suggesting Morton's neuroma. Sixty-four feet underwent ultrasound examination prior to surgery and 70 intermetatarsal clefts were reported on. The clinical outcome in 15feet with normal scans is unknown, since they remain unoperated. Of the remaining 51 clefts reported positive for a neuroma,

  14. Nanoparticles as image enhancing agents for ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Liu; Andrea L. Levine; John S. Mattoon; Mamoru Yamaguchi; Robert J. Lee; Xueliang Pan; Thomas J. Rosol

    2006-01-01

    Nanoparticles have drawn great attention as targeted imaging and\\/or therapeutic agents. The small size of the nanoparticles allows them to target cells that are beyond capillary vasculature, such as cancer cells. We investigated the effect of solid nanoparticles for enhancing ultrasonic grey scale images in tissue phantoms and mouse livers in vivo. Silica nanospheres (100 nm) were dispersed in agarose

  15. Nanoparticles as image enhancing agents for ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Levine, Andrea L; Mattoon, John S; Yamaguchi, Mamoru; Lee, Robert J; Pan, Xueliang; Rosol, Thomas J

    2006-05-01

    Nanoparticles have drawn great attention as targeted imaging and/or therapeutic agents. The small size of the nanoparticles allows them to target cells that are beyond capillary vasculature, such as cancer cells. We investigated the effect of solid nanoparticles for enhancing ultrasonic grey scale images in tissue phantoms and mouse livers in vivo. Silica nanospheres (100 nm) were dispersed in agarose at 1-2.5% mass concentration and imaged by a high-resolution ultrasound imaging system (transducer centre frequency: 30 MHz). Polystyrene particles of different sizes (500-3000 nm) and concentrations (0.13-0.75% mass) were similarly dispersed in agarose and imaged. Mice were injected intravenously with nanoparticle suspensions in saline. B-mode images of the livers were acquired at different time points after particle injection. An automated computer program was used to quantify the grey scale changes. Ultrasonic reflections were observed from nanoparticle suspensions in agarose gels. The image brightness, i.e., mean grey scale level, increased with particle size and concentration. The mean grey scale of mouse livers also increased following particle administration. These results indicated that it is feasible to use solid nanoparticles as contrast enhancing agents for ultrasonic imaging. PMID:16625034

  16. [Three-dimensional ultrasonography of monoamniotic twins].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M H; Larsen, T

    2001-01-29

    A case of monoamniotic twins is described. Three-dimensional ultrasound scanning (3DUS) was used to visualise the fetuses lying in a single amniotic cavity. Entanglement of the umbilical cords with several knots was also visualised. The infants were delivered by elective caesarean section at 32 + 2 weeks with an uncomplicated postpartum course. Several knots found between the two umbilical cords, with separate placental insertion, were consistent with the ultrasound scan. We suggest that dedicated software solutions for volumetric ultrasound and knot analysis could contribute to a more precise description of the entanglement, which again would be a useful prognostic tool in the antenatal management and delivery of monoamniotic twins. PMID:11221453

  17. [Ultrasonography in diagnosis of neck tumors].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Katarzyna; Wierzbicka, Ma?gorzata; Kordylewska, Magdalena; Szmeja, Zygmunt

    2002-01-01

    Tumours of the neck are very important problem of the contemporary otolaryngology. In the study the use of sonography in evaluation of expansions of the neck was studied in 200 patients with histologically proven diagnosis. To carry out a detailed evaluation of the individual character of particular types of tumours, all basic features were analysed using the following criteria: echogenicity, echostructure, separation and contour. In this group developed 159 (78.5%) benign tumours and 41 (21.5%) malignant tumours. Malignant tumours were mainly: cystic or solid-cystic, with irregular contour, thickened separation and high echogenicity. Benign tumours were regular, smooth, with low echogenicity and clear separation. PMID:12162024

  18. Ultrasonography in lung pathologies: new perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nowadays, ultrasound techniques have not gained importance in the diagnosis and monitoring of lung pathologies yet because of the high mismatch in acoustic impedance between air and intercostal tissues. However, it is evident that B-mode imaging provides important information on pulmonary tissue, although in the form of image artifacts. Findings Notwithstanding medical evidences, there exists no ultrasound-based method dedicated to the lung, hampering de facto the full exploitation of ultrasound potentials. A chance is given by the experience acquired in other fields, where acoustic attenuation is used to estimate concentrations of suspended particles in liquids and of air-bubbles in aerated foods. Conclusions Custom hardware must be developed since commercial echographic equipment has been optimized to work with low acoustic impedance mismatches, and, in general, does not provide the primitive radiofrequency (RF) signals nor the possibility to tune key acquisition parameters such as ultrasound carrier frequency and pulse bandwidth, which are surely needed for our application. PMID:24834347

  19. Methods for assessing pre-induction cervical ripening

    PubMed Central

    Ezebialu, Ifeanyichukwu U; Eke, Ahizechukwu C; Eleje, George U; Nwachukwu, Chukwuemeka E

    2015-01-01

    Background Induction of labour is the artificial initiation of labour in a pregnant woman after the age of fetal viability but without any objective evidence of active phase labour and with intact fetal membranes. The need for induction of labour may arise due to a problem in the mother, her fetus or both, and the procedure may be carried out at or before term. Obstetricians have long known that for this to be successful, it is important that the uterine cervix (the neck of the womb) has favourable characteristics in terms of readiness to go into the labour state. Objectives To compare Bishop score with any other method for assessing pre-induction cervical ripening in women admitted for induction of labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Selection criteria All RCTs comparing Bishop score with any other methods of pre-induction cervical assessment in women admitted for induction of labour. Cluster-RCTs were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Quasi-RCTs and studies using a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion. Studies published in abstract form were eligible for inclusion if they provided sufficient information. Comparisons could include the following. Bishop score versus transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS). Bishop score versus Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1). Bishop score versus vaginal fetal fibronectin (fFN). However, we only identified data for a comparison of Bishop score versus TVUS. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion, extracted the data and assessed trial quality. Data were checked for accuracy. Main results We included two trials that recruited a total of 234 women. The overall risk of bias was low for the two studies. Both studies compared Bishop score withTVUS. The two included studies did not show any clear difference between the Bishop score and TVUS groups for the following main outcomes: vaginal birth (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.25, moderate quality evidence), caesarean delivery (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.34, moderate quality evidence), neonatal admission into neonatal intensive care unit (RR 1.67, 95% CI 0.41 to 6.71, moderate quality evidence). Both studies only provided median data in relation to induction-delivery interval and reported no clear difference between the Bishop and TVUS groups. Perinatal mortality was not reported in the included studies. For the review's secondary outcomes, the need for misoprostol for cervical ripening was more frequent in the TVUS group compared to the Bishop score group (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.66, two studies, 234 women, moderate quality evidence). In contrast, there were no clear differences between the Bishop scope and TVUS groups in terms of meconium staining of the amniotic fluid, fetal heart rate abnormality in labour, and Apgar score less than seven. Only one trial reported median data on the induction-delivery interval and induction to active phase interval, the trialist reported no difference between the Bishop group and the TVUS group for this outcome. Neither of the included studies reported on uterine rupture. Authors' conclusions Moderate quality evidence from two small RCTs involving 234 women that compared two different methods for assessing pre-induction cervical ripening (Bishop score and TVUS) did not demonstrate superiority of one method over the other in terms of the main outcomes assessed in this review. We did not identify any data relating to perinatal mortality. Whilst use of TVUS was associated with an increased need for misoprostol for cervical ripening, both methods could be complementary. The choice of a particular method of assessing pre-induction cervical ripening may differ depending on the environment and need where one is practicing since some methods (i.e. TVUS) may not be readily available and affordable in resource-poor settings where the sequelae of labour and its manag

  20. Uterine Artery Embolization Combined with Local Methotrexate and Systemic Methotrexate for Treatment of Cesarean Scar Pregnancy with Different Ultrasonographic Pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Lian Fan [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology (China); Wang Yu, E-mail: wyfishking@hotmail.com; Chen Wei; Li Jiaping [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); Zhan Zhongping; Ye Yujin [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology (China); Zhu, Yunxiao [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Ultrasonography (China); Huang Jia [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics (China); Xu Hanshi; Yang Xiuyan; Liang Liuqin [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology (China); Yang Jianyong [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Interventional Radiology (China)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of systemic methotrexate (MTX) with uterine artery embolization (UAE) combined with local MTX for the treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) with different ultrasonographic pattern, and to indicate the preferable therapy in CSP patients. Methods: The results of 21 CSP cases were reviewed. All subjects were initially administrated with systemic MTX (50 mg/m{sup 2} body surface area). UAE combined with local MTX was added to the patients who had failed systemic MTX. The transvaginal ultrasonography data were retrospectively assessed, and two different ultrasonographic patterns were found: surface implantation and deep implantation of amniotic sac. The management and its effectiveness for patients with the two ultrasonographic patterns were studied retrospectively. Ultrasound scan and serum {beta}-hCG were monitored during follow-up. Data were analyzed with the Student's t test. Results: Nine patients were successfully treated with systemic MTX. The remaining 12 cases were successfully treated with additional UAE combined with local MTX. According to the classification by Vial et al. of CSP on ultrasonography, most surface implanted CSPs (8/11, 72.7%) could be successfully treated with systemic MTX, whereas most deeply implanted CSPs (9/10, 90%) had failed systemic MTX but still could be successfully treated with additional UAE combined with local MTX. All patients recovered without severe side effects. Most patients with a future desire for reproduction achieved subsequent pregnancy. Conclusions: For CSP patients suitable for nonsurgical treatment, UAE combined with local MTX would be the superior option compared with systemic MTX in the cases with deep implantation of amniotic sac.

  1. Implementing Portfolio Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mauree Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Portfolio assessment is a valuable form of authentic assessment. Once early childhood educators understand the purposes of appropriate assessment, they can use portfolios to scaffold individual children's learning. This article discusses the purposes of portfolio assessment and describes the different benefits it provide for children, families,…

  2. Assessment Choices The challenge

    E-print Network

    Fuerschbach, Phillip

    , a vulnerability assessment, a red team assessment, or some combination of the three? How do you knowAssessment Choices The challenge If you have systems and assets you must defend, you have no doubt faced the challenge of decoding the wide variety of available service offerings and assessment types

  3. Teachers' Classroom Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Bruce B.; Schmitt, Vicki L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined classroom assessment practices of 3rd- through 12th-grade teachers in a Midwestern state. In addition to determining the frequency with which specific assessment item formats were utilized, the level of use of selected "best practice" approaches to assessment was considered ("performance-based assessment, teacher-made tests,…

  4. Putting Assessment in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, W. Bruce

    1990-01-01

    Responds to five major articles by Duckworth, Goldman, Healy, Sampson, and Goodyear on issues pertaining to testing and assessment in counseling psychology. Notes that assessment of the person is incomplete unless it includes assessment of environment, and discusses the role of assessment in problem solving. (TE)

  5. Workplace-based assessment.

    PubMed

    Swanwick, Tim; Chana, Nav

    2009-05-01

    Workplace-based assessment is now widespread throughout medicine. If carried out well, such assessments reconnect teaching and testing to the benefit of the learner. But workplace-based assessment brings a unique set of challenges to medical education and requires fresh thinking about how we consider and construct assessment programmes. PMID:19451876

  6. Comparing Dietary Assessment Instruments | Dietary Assessment Primer

    Cancer.gov

    This table provides an at-a-glance comparison of the major features of self-report instruments for assessing diet. Further details on each instrument can be found in the Instrument Profiles. Considerations for the use of different instruments or combinations of instruments in different types of studies can be found in Choosing an Approach for Dietary Assessment.

  7. Chapter XIII: PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT Portfolio Assessment

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    XXIII-1 Chapter XIII: PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT Portfolio Assessment Who takes it? Right now, only seniors in classes that require creation of a Liberal Arts and Sciences Portfolio (most often capstone courses or senior seminars) submit portfolios. Currently more than 65% of graduating seniors turn

  8. Risk biomarkers for assessment and chemoprevention of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yongvanit, Puangrat; Pinlaor, Somchai; Loilome, Watcharin

    2014-05-01

    Human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov), is the major risk factor of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in northeastern Thailand. Our approach focuses on genetic progression and molecular changes in the carcinogenic pathway of liver fluke-associated CCA aimed at assessing patients at risk of CCA and using chemoprevention as the secondary cancer prevention to reduce the incidence of CCA. This review summarizes altered gene expressions, biomolecules and their modification, i.e. DNA adducts, oxidized proteins, oxysterols and fibrotic markers in hamster- and human-CCA. Potential risk biomarker(s) and chemopreventive agent(s) criteria and selection were based on results from experimental and epidemiological studies identifying hepatobiliary disease, including CCA. Laboratory results reveal that oxidative stress induced by Ov infection leads to bimolecular damage, tissue remodeling especially periductal fibrosis and alteration of gene expressions, which could be involved in all steps of CCA carcinogenesis. Some of these molecules are reported to change their levels in opisthorchiasis, periductal fibrosis diagnosed by ultrasonography and CCA. Chemoprevention in experimental CCA tumorigenesis is discussed. These multiple risk biomarkers could now be explored for screening including chemopreventive intervention of subjects living in endemic areas where the prevalence of opisthorchiasis remains high. PMID:24408859

  9. Assessment through Incredible Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Aboy, Diana A.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a daily group activity of writing equations to assess children's mathematical thinking and progress on a regular basis. Argues that this approach is one way to foster a close relationship between instructional activities and ongoing assessment. (ASK)

  10. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    As ecological risk assessment evolves, it is moving beyond focus on single species toward addressing multiple species and their interactions, and from assessing effects of simple chemical toxicity to the cumulative impacts of multiple interacting chemical, physical, and biologica...

  11. ERRATA SHEET ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT,

    E-print Network

    alternatives for the Environmental Impact Statement for Essential Fish Habitat Identification and ConservationERRATA SHEET ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT, REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW, AND REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY of Particular Concern April 2006 Note to Reviewers: The Environmental Assessment / Regulatory Impact Review

  12. Economic Assessment Environmental impact

    E-print Network

    - ". Economic Assessment Environmental impact Statement NESHAPS for Radionuclides Background Economic Assessment Environmental Impact Statement for NESHAPS Radionuclides VOLUME 3 BACKGROUND Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) for Radionuclides. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS

  13. Literacy Assessment Using

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    Literacy Assessment Using Mobile Technology Sarah Muffly The Earth Institute on quality of literacy and numeracy, key indicators of primary education, mean with current scholarship on effective practices for literacy assessment in developing

  14. Solar Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  15. Ultrasound is Superior to Computed Tomography for Assessment of Medullary Nephrocalcinosis in Hypoparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Shawker, Thomas H.; Hill, Suvimol C.; Choyke, Peter L.; Hill, Michael C.; James, Robert; Yovetich, Nancy A.; Collins, Michael T.; Gafni, Rachel I.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Nephrocalcinosis is a complication of hypoparathyroidism and other metabolic disorders. Imaging modalities include ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT). Few studies have compared these modalities, and standard clinical practice is not defined. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the preferred method for assessing nephrocalcinosis. Design: The design of the study was a retrospective, blinded analysis. Setting: The study was conducted at a clinical research center. Patients: Twenty-two hypoparathyroid subjects and 7 controls participated in the study. Interventions: Contemporaneous renal US and CT images were reviewed in triplicate by 4 blinded radiologists. Nephrocalcinosis was classified using a 0–3 scale with 0 meaning no nephrocalcinosis and 3 meaning severe nephrocalcinosis. Main Outcome Measures: Intraobserver, interobserver, and interdevice agreements were measured. Results: Intraobserver agreement was high, with an overall weighted kappa of 0.83 for CT and 0.89 for US. Interobserver agreement was similar between modalities, with kappas of 0.74 for US and 0.70 for CT. Only moderate agreement was found between US and CT scores, with an intermodality kappa of 0.47 and 60% concordance. Of discordant pairs, 81% had higher US scores and only 19% had higher CT scores. Of nephrocalcinosis seen on US and not CT, 45%, 46%, and 9% were grades 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Overall, US scores were higher than CT with a cumulative odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 5.97 (2.60, 13.75) (P < .01). In controls, 100% of US ratings were 0, and 95% of CT ratings were 0. Conclusions: US is superior to CT for assessment of mild to moderate nephrocalcinosis in patients with hypoparathyroidism. This finding, in combination with its low cost, lack of radiation, and portability, defines US as the preferred modality for assessment of nephrocalcinosis. PMID:23348401

  16. Campus Ecology: Assessment Projects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Wildlife Federation

    This website from the National Wildlife Federation features environmental assessment projects that have been conducted at over 20 college campuses. These environmental assessments help identify environmentally sound practices and policies, as well as enabling these institutions to reduce their environmental footprint. The website provides a brief report on the assessment program at each institution, and also contains reviews, resources and audit guides for those interested in performing their own environmental assessment.

  17. Noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion in rabbits using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy: prospects for pediatric urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    We present a quantitative near-IR spectroscopy study of the absolute values of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin before and after surgically induced testicular torsion in adult rabbits. Unilateral testicular torsions (0, 540, or 720 deg) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgery on control testes are performed in four adult rabbits. A specially designed optical probe for measurements at multiple source-detector distances and a commercial frequency-domain tissue spectrometer are used to measure absolute values of testicular hemoglobin saturation. Our results show: (1) a consistent baseline absolute tissue hemoglobin saturation value of 78+/-5%, (2) a comparable tissue hemoglobin saturation of 77+/-6% after sham surgery, and (3) a significantly lower tissue hemoglobin saturation of 36+/-2% after 540- and 720-deg testicular torsion surgery. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of performing frequency-domain, multidistance near-IR spectroscopy for absolute testicular oximetry in the assessment of testicular torsion. We conclude that near-IR spectroscopy has potential to serve as a clinical diagnostic and monitoring tool for the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, with the possibility of serving as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  18. The post-investigation questionnaire (PIO-R): a practical instrument to assess erectile response after intracavernous injection.

    PubMed

    Vruggink, P A; Diemont, W L; Meuleman, E J

    1996-06-01

    Erectile response to intracavernous pharmacological stimulation is highly susceptible to stress and anxiety provoked by the test-situation. To reduce false-positive diagnosis of veno-occlusive dysfunction and to limit the need for high-dosage pharmacotesting, we developed the Post-Investigation Questionnaire (PIQ-R), a self-report instrument to assess erectile response to pharmacological stimulation after the patient has left the office. In this study veno-occlusive sufficiency was not demonstrated in 80 of 105 patients with erectile dysfunction at the time of pharmaco-penile duplex ultrasonography. PIQ-R detected sufficient erectile response in 40 of these patients, thus reducing false-positive diagnosis of veno-occlusive dysfunction by 50%. We also found that reports of sexual activity after investigation increased interest in auto-injection therapy. PIQ-R is a practical self-report measure to assess erectile response after clinical pharmacotesting, and to more carefully select patients for auto-injection therapy. PMID:8858391

  19. Anatomy of Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berko, Roy; Webster, Linda; Neher, William W.; Grew, Deborah; Tatum, Donna Surges

    1998-01-01

    The articles in this section discuss aspects of assessment: (1) "Assessment: What Is It? Why Do We Need It? How Do We Use It?" (Roy Berko and Linda Webster); (2) "Public Speaking Assessment for College Students" (William W. Neher and Deborah Grew); and (3) "Student Progress? Prove It!" (Donna Surges Tatum). (SLD)

  20. Assessment for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Scope, 2005

    2005-01-01

    There are many ways of assessing students and the work they do, and many ways of getting them ready for those assessments. Special needs students provide an extra challenge to educators because they have difficulty preparing for assessment and often more difficulty communicating what they know. It is not enough to be a thoughtful, lab-focused…