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Introduction Urinary system fistula to the hip joint is a rare complication. We report a case of delayed posteriorurethral fistula to the hip joint following penetrating gunshot wound injury. Case presentation A 37-year-old Iranian Balochi male was shot with a firearm in the superior part of his right pelvis. He underwent primary closure on the same day. Ten months later, he developed urinary retention. He underwent retrograde urethrography and antegrade cystography which showed a stricture measuring 5 cm in length. There was also a history of progressive pain in the right hip joint accompanied by low grade fever which started 2 months after the initial injury. Hip X-ray showed evidence of an acetabular cavity and femoral head destruction diagnostic of complicated septic arthritis. The patient subsequently underwent reconstructive surgery for the urethral stricture and urethral fistula via a transperineal approach followed by total hip arthroplasty. Conclusion Hip joint contamination with urine following a urethro-acetabular fistula can lead to severe and disabling complications such as septic arthritis. We recommend that every clinician should keep these fistulas in mind as a complication of penetrating urethral injury and every attempt should be made for their early diagnosis and prompt treatment.
INTRODUCTION Foreign bodies in the urogenital tract are not uncommon. Hairpins, glass rods, umbilical tapes, ball point pen are described in lower urogenital tract. Retained gauze piece (gossypiboma) in posterior urethra may cause diagnostic dilemma. Symptoms and investigations may mimic stricture of posterior urethra. PRESENTATION OF CASE Two cases of retained gauze pieces in the urethra are described here. The micturating cystourethrogram was suggestive of posteriorurethral stricture. DISCUSSION Two cases described here had retained gauze piece as a cause of filling defect and abnormal appearance in the micturating cystourethrogram. Gossypiboma may be a possibility where posteriorurethral stricture are seen after previous surgery in paediatric age group. CONCLUSION In the setting of previous urogenital surgery gossypiboma should be kept in the differential diagnosis where posteriorurethral stricture are seen in the paediatric age group.
The association of anterior urethral valve (AUV) with posteriorurethral valve (PUV) is rare. A 7-month-old infant was presented at a district hospital with episodes of acute pyelonephritis. He was treated medically and a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) confirmed bilateral vesico-urethral reflux. The presence of concomitant AUV and PUV was not recognized. He underwent several surgical procedures, which failed. He had
Dense urethral strictures developed in 3 of 36 patients (8 per cent) following transurethral fulguration of posteriorurethral valves. Common potential etiologies include the use of a loop resectoscope, large size of the valves and immediate supravesical diversion. The latter results in a "dry" urethra and the strictures that resulted may be analogous to the stenosis seen following a "dry" ureteral reimplant. Techniques to maintain flow through the urethra after resection and the avoidance of an extensive resection may be helpful in preventing urethral strictures. PMID:7087026
The treatment of acute posteriorurethral rupture is controversial. Twelve patients who presented with acute posteriorurethral rupture over a five-year period were treated by delayed primary realignment of the injury. The technique of this procedure and the outcome are the subject of this presentation. Eight patients had successful realignment without strictures. Two patients with strictures responded to simple dilatations with bougies and the other two had formal urethroplasty. PMID:14529221
Shittu, O B; Okeke, L I; Kamara, T B; Adebayo, S A
To prevent terrorism during anti-terror war, we developed a reproducible animal model for the induction of a urethral stricture in a war wound rabbit, and to evaluate the feasibility and effect of using a biodegradable urethral stent in the prophylaxis and treatment of urethral strictures in a war wound (or traumatic) rabbit urethral model. The urethral stricture rabbit model was successfully performed by a self-control explosion destructor. New biodegradable urethral stents were placed in the urethras of 20 war wound (traumatic) rabbits, but no stent was used in the 8 rabbits which formed the control group. Follow-up investigation included assessment of procedure success, stent changes, urethrascopy and retrograde urethrography, and histological findings were obtained after sacrifice at 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks after stent placement. The urethral stricture model owing to a war wound (trauma) was tested by tissue reactions and urethroscopy. The length of the urethral strictures was 5-10 mm; the coarctation of the urethral lumen was more than 50%. Biodegradable stent placement was technically successful in 20 rabbits. Urethral specimens obtained from the 4 week stent placement group showed diminished inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased thickness of the papillary projections of the epithelium. There was a strong tendency towards regression of the papillary projections and regeneration of urethral mucosa epithelium in the 8 week group. In particular, the injured urethra has recovered completely in the biodegradable stent groups compared with the control group at 12 weeks. The biodegradable urethral stent seems feasible for treating and preventing urethral strictures owing to a war wound (or traumatic) urethra. There are distinct advantages in terms of safe, effective and less-invasive treatment for the reconstruction of post-traumaticurethral strictures. PMID:18458484
Fetal urinary tract obstruction with oligohydramnios produces pulmonary hypoplasia and renal dysplasia. Decompression of the obstructed urinary tract may restore amniotic fluid and allow lung growth, but transabdominal catheter shunt decompression is often inadequate and does not allow for cycling of the bladder, while open procedures cause significant maternal morbidity. Disruption of the anatomic obstruction, usually posteriorurethral valves in a male fetus, would be ideal but has proven technically difficult. Here we describe a new technique of percutaneous fetal cystoscopy and disruption of posteriorurethral valves, and the case report of our first application of this technique. We pre-sent a case of a 17-week male fetus with posteriorurethral valves which underwent fetal cystoscopy for mechanical disruption of posteriorurethral valves. This minimally invasive approach to disruption of posteriorurethral valves in a fetus is a novel method for decompressing the urinary tract. The technique offers a minimal degree of maternal morbidity and, if instituted early enough, can restore amniotic fluid volume, avert fatal pulmonary hypoplasia and may preserve renal function. PMID:18033963
Clifton, Matthew S; Harrison, Michael R; Ball, Robert; Lee, Hanmin
This article provides an overview of the open surgical management of posteriorurethral disruption injuries. The discussion includes the evaluation of the patient before surgery with a focus on urethral imaging and details of posterior urethroplasty surgical technique. PMID:23905936
This report outlines the case of a 3-year-old boy whose initial presentation was that of asymptomatic hypertension (lowest recording 148/90), found at preoperative check prior to stage 2-correction surgery for distal hypospadias. Upon diagnosis of true hypertension, an ultrasound of the child's renal tract showed evidence of marked hydronephrosis and calyceal dilatation. On the background of deteriorating renal function (Urea 25.5 and Creatinine 188), a Micturating Cystourethrogram was performed, demonstrating posteriorurethral dilatation. With difficulties controlling blood pressure, the child was transferred to Urology care, where resection of a posteriorurethral valve (PUV) was undertaken. Despite this, renal function deteriorated further and re-cystoscopy identified an anterior urethral valve (AUV), which was also resected. Renal function, although improved, remains poor and blood pressure is controlled with two anti-hypertensives. To the publisher's knowledge, the association between hypospadias, PUVs and AUVs is as yet undocumented.
The initial management of posteriorurethral injuries is controversial. Options of management include immediate surgical realignment, early realignment using minimally invasive techniques or simple suprapubic catheter (SPC) placement followed by delayed urethroplasty. The latter method has been preferred by most urologists but the last couple of decades have seen increasing reports of early urethral realignment which have provided better if not similar results as SPC placement. In this article a detailed analysis of studies involving primary realignment has been presented to reinforce the argument in favor of this approach.
Posteriorurethral polyps are rare. A case is reported in a 7-year-old boy presenting with pain and burning micturition. Ultrasound and cystography revealed the diagnosis by showing a round solid structure in the bladder neck. Cystoscopy confirmed the diagnosis by showing its implantation base at the summit of the verumontanum. The polyp was removed by endoscopic resection and histological examination of the resection specimen showed a fibrous polyp. A brief review of the clinical features, diagnostic methods, natural history and treatment of this benign tumour is presented. PMID:10352816
Posteriorurethral valves occur in 1?:?5000 live births. Despite the high prevalence, the few children that survive do poorly, with over 50% progressing to ESRD in 10 years. The gold standard for post-natal diagnosis is voiding cystourethrography, while pre-natal diagnosis is dependent on routine screening ultrasonography. Despite the ability to identify features of bladder outlet obstruction early in fetal development, there is no consensus on how to incorporate early detection into current screening protocols. There has yet to be a marker that allows prediction of obstruction in the absence of or prior to radiographic evidence of obstruction. With our current screening strategy, the majority of interventions are performed well after irreversible damage has occurred. Improved mortality and long term morbidity from posteriorurethral valves and congenital bladder outlet obstruction will likely remain unchanged until it is possible to intervene prior to the onset of irreversible renal damage. New biologic markers and improved instrumentation will allow for more effective diagnosis and intervention at earlier stages of fetal development.
Casella, Daniel P.; Tomaszewski, Jeffrey J.; Ost, Michael C.
Posteriorurethral valve or pleural effusion accompanied with Down syndrome have been described previously; however, there is no reported case of posteriorurethral valve and pleural effusion with Down syndrome. A 45-year-old multigravida woman was transferred due to bilateral fetal hydrothorax, polyhydramnios, and threatened preterm labor at 32 weeks’ gestation. Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed additional abnormality, posteriorurethral valve. Amniocentesis was
Posteriorurethral valves (PUV) are the most common congenital cause of bladder outlet obstruction in infancy, and it is the effect of this obstruction on the bladder and the kidneys that will decide a patient's prognosis. With the improvements in diagnosis and treatments, what was previously a poor prognosis for boys with PUV has improved, and more patients will encounter the long-term sequelae of PUV during puberty and adulthood. In these patients the long-term prognosis in terms of renal and bladder function and fertility, as well as the risk of malignancy in those whose bladders were augmented with gastrointestinal segments, is still a matter of great concern and all of these topics will be discussed in this article. PMID:23871421
Lopez Pereira, Pedro; Martinez Urrutia, M J; Espinosa, L; Jaureguizar, E
Objective To analyze our experience with delayed repair of pediatric urethral trauma. Materials and methods From 1978 to 2007, 26 boys <18 years old (mean age 15.0) presented for delayed repair of urethral stricture after blunt trauma. Anterior and posteriorurethral injuries were separately stratified. Results There were 8 anterior and 18 posteriorurethral strictures. All patients presented in a delayed fashion. Mean follow up of the anterior cohort was 2.9 years. All repairs were performed via a ventral onlay buccal graft or anastomotic approach. The mean follow up of the posterior cohort was 1.1 years, and all posteriorurethral injuries were repaired via an anastomotic approach. Overall success for anterior stricture disease was 88.9% and for posterior stricture disease was 89.5%. All three urethroplasty failures responded favorably to internal urethrotomy; however, one failed anterior repair and one of the two failed posterior repairs required two internal urethrotomy operations for success. No secondary urethroplasty operations were required and ultimately all patients were voiding per urethra without need for urethral dilation. Conclusion Delayed, definitive repair of pediatric urethral trauma via open urethroplasty has a high success rate.
Voelzke, Bryan B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; McAninch, Jack W.
Allantoic cysts are a somewhat rare entity. They are identifiable on antenatal ultrasound examination but are not easily distinguishable from pseudocysts, which are often associated with a poor prognosis. Their etiology remains obscure and obstructive uropathies have been proposed to be one of the underlying mechanisms. We report on a case in which both allantoic cysts and a patent urachus were detected antenatally and turned out to be associated with posteriorurethral valves (PUV). The cysts were first seen in the early second trimester, with a full fetal bladder and patent urachus. They disappeared by the 29(th) week. During the subsequent sonographic examinations, the bladder was emptying regularly. The kidneys remained normal throughout the pregnancy. It is hypothesized that the increased pressure within the urinary tract kept the urachus patent, led to the formation of allantoic cysts and, later, to their perforation; this allowed the fetus to empty his bladder and kept him from the usual complications of PUV. This case emphasizes the importance of detection and characterization of umbilical cord cysts on antenatal ultasound examination and suggests that obstructive uropathies should be included in the differential diagnosis of umbilical cord cyst communicating with the fetal bladder. PMID:21713991
... the body. Urethritis is usually caused by a sexually transmitted infection. Much less often, it is the result of ... Nongonococcal urethritis is the most common form of sexually transmitted infection in the United States. In addition to C. ...
The simple traction by a balloon catheter splint technique is used in the treatment of posteriorurethral disruption in this\\u000a series.\\u000a \\u000a The abdominal safety line, which is a size 1 silk passed through the eyes of the urethral splint (Foley catheter) and rolled\\u000a up on gauze with some tension on the anterior abdominal wall has been used in three cases.
Aim: To assess the changes in urethral morphology 3 months post fulguration of posteriorurethral valves (PUVs) on micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG) and correlate these changes with the overall clinical status of the patient. Materials and Methods: A total of 217 children, managed for PUVs during a period of 6 years in a single surgical unit were prospectively studied. The ratio of the diameters of the prostatic and bulbar urethras (PU/BU) was calculated on the pre- and post-fulguration MCUG films. They were categorized into three groups based on the degree of normalization of posterior urethra (post-fulguration PU/BU ratio). Results: Group A: Of the 133 patients, 131 had normal urinary stream and 4 (3%) had nocturnal enuresis. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), initially seen in 83 units (31% units), regressed completely at a mean duration of 6 months in 41 units (49%). Of the 152 non-VUR, hydroureteronephrosis (HUN) units, 11 were poorly functioning kidneys. Persistent slow but unobstructed drainage was seen in 23 units (16%) over a period of 1.5–5 years (mean 2.5 years). Group B: All the 11 patients had a normal stream. Four (36.4%) had daytime frequency for a mean duration of 1 year and one (9%) had nocturnal enuresis for 1 year. Grade IV–V VUR was seen in five patients (three bilateral), which regressed completely by 3 months in five units (62.5%). In the non-VUR, HUN patients, slow (but unobstructed) drainage was persistent in two units (14%) at 3 years. Group C: Of the 16 patients, only 5 (31.3%) were asymptomatic. Six patients (nine units) had persistent VUR for 6 months to 3 years. Of the 20 units with HUN, 17 (85%) were persistent at 1–4 years (mean 2 years). Eight patients (50%) required a second fulguration while 3 (18.7%) required urethral dilatation for stricture following which all parameters improved. Conclusions: Adequacy of fulguration should be assessed by a properly performed MCUG. A postop PU/BU ratio >3 SD (1.92) should alert to an incomplete fulguration or stricture. Patients within normal range ratio have faster recovery of slow draining units, reflux and less voiding dysfunction. There is a strong correlation between incomplete fulguration and persistent slow draining units, uremia, voiding dysfunction and urinary tract infections.
Menon, Prema; Rao, K. L. N.; Vijaymahantesh, S.; Kanojia, R. P.; Samujh, R.; Batra, Y. K.; Sodhi, K. S.; Saxena, A. K.; Bhattacharya, A.; Mittal, B. R.
The incidence of urethral stenosis in Mexico had not been documented. At the Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, during the year 2010, 629 patients with urethral stenosis were attended as outpatient consultation: 85 % with previous urethral stenosis and 15 % with urethral treatment complication. Urethral stenosis is a chronic illness, with multiple etiological origins and the handling is controversial. It has a great negative impact for the patients and the recurrence reaches 85 %. The treatment consisted of an invasive approach (urethral dilations, endoscopy procedure) and open surgery (urethroplasty). The World Health Organization and World Alliance take the world challenge about the urinary tract infections associated with the attention of patients, focused on urethral stenosis. The objective of the following clinical guide is to offer to the health professional a clinical tool for making decisions in the handling of the hardship or masculine urethral stenosis, based on the best available evidence, carrying out in systematized form with bibliographical research using validated terms of the MeSH: urethral structures, in the databases Trip database, PubMed, Guideline Clearinghouse, Cochrane Library and Ovid. PMID:24021082
Serrano-Brambila, Eduardo Alonso; Moreno-Alcázar, Othón Martino; Neri-Páez, Edgar; Sánchez-Martínez, Luis Carlos; Hernández-Ordóñez, Octavio Francisco; Morales-Morales, Arturo; Basavilvazo-Rodríguez, M Antonia; Torres-Arreola, Laura del Pilar; Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino
A retrospective analysis of radiologically determined individual renal function was performed in five boys who presented in the neonatal period with posteriorurethral valves, vesicoureteral reflux and documented urinoma formation. Renal function was evaluated with scintigraphy. There was reflux in eight of ten ureters. Six of these ureters had an associated urinoma and compromised renal function in the neonatal period.
Purpose:Persistent hydroureteronephrosis (HUN) is often seen in boys with a history of a posteriorurethral valve even years after valve ablation and it is often assumed to represent residual stretching. We determined the association of HUN with urodynamic abnormalities, the effect on HUN of treating these abnormalities and when persistent HUN could be considered residual stretching.
JEFFREY M. DONOHOE; ROBERT P. WEINSTEIN; ANDREW J. COMBS; ROSALIA MISSERI; MARK HOROWITZ; DAVID SCHULSINGER; KENNETH I. GLASSBERG
A 31-year-old man was referred for further management of a urethral stricture. He was a victim of a traffic accident and his urethral injury was associated with a pelvic bone fracture. He had previously undergone a suprapubic cystostomy only owing to his unstable general condition at another hospital. After 3 months of urethral injury, direct urethral anastomosis was attempted, but the surgery failed. An additional 4 failed internal urethrotomies were performed before the patient visited Chungbuk National University Hospital. Preoperative images revealed complete posteriorurethral disruption, and the defect length was 4 cm. We performed a buccal mucosa tubal graft without anastomosis of the proximal urethra for a long segment posteriorurethral defect. The Foley catheter was removed 3 weeks after the operation and the patient was able to void successfully. After 8 months, he had normal voiding function without urinary incontinence.
Min, Byung-Dal; Lee, Eui-Tai; Kim, Won-Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Lee, Sang Cheol; Kim, Wun-Jae
•?To review the less common and not widely discussed, but much more serious complications of prostate cancer treatment of: urethral stricture, bladder neck contracture and urorectal fistula. • The treatment options for patients with organ-confirmed prostate cancer include: radical prostatectomy (RP), brachytherapy (BT), external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), high-intensity focussed ultrasound (HIFU) and cryotherapy; with each method or combination of methods having associated complications. • Complications resulting from RP are relatively easy to manage, with rapid recovery and return to normal activities, and usually a return to normal bodily functions. • However, after non-surgical treatments, i.e. BT, EBRT, HIFU and cryotherapy, these same problems are more difficult to treat with a much slower return to a much lower level of function. • When counselling patients about the primary treatment of prostate cancer they should be advised that although the same type of complication may occur after surgical or non-surgical treatment, the scope and scale of that complication, the ease with which it is treated and the degree of restoration of normality after treatment, is altogether in favour of surgery in those for whom surgery is appropriate and who are fit for surgery. PMID:22340079
Background Spontaneous kidney rupture could develop in the course of posteriorurethral valve (PUV), the most common cause of outflow urinary tract obstruction in male infants. However, urinary extravasation is a rare complication among this group of children. Case Presentation Our case report presents diagnostic difficulties connected with spontaneous kidney rupture due to PUV in a 6 week-old infant. Due to not equivocal images, thundery course of disease and rapid deterioration in the infant's condition, the patient required an urgent laparatomy. Conclusion This case showed that the investigation of renal abnormalities during early neonatal period, is very important specifically in PUV that can lead to kidney rupture.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of holmium:YAG laser for posteriorurethral valve (PUV) fulguration and compare with electro-fulguration. METHODS: Forty boys underwent primary fulguration of PUV using 20-25 W holmium laser (Group 1) from January 2009 to December 2011. Data of last 40 boys (retrospective cohort: January 2005 to December 2008) who underwent electro-fulguration (Group 2) for PUV were compared with group 1. Ultrasonography was done at 2 weeks and 3 months and voiding cystourethrography at 3 and 6 months respectively after fulguration and as needed thereafter. DTPA scan and urodynamic study were performed during follow-up in select patients, as required. RESULTS: Pre-operative parameters were comparable between groups. Improvement in voiding occurred in 38 and 34 boys in group 1 and 2, respectively. Hydroureteronephrosis and vesico-ureteric reflux resolved in 53% and 60% in group 1 and 51% and 53% in group 2, respectively. Boys in group 1 had statistically significant greater success in voiding after catheter removal (40 vs 32), shorter period of catheterization (1 vs 1.8 days), lower mean operative time (15 vs 20 min), needed re-fulguration less commonly (2 vs 6), and were less likely to develop urethral stricture (0 vs 2) and urinary incontinence (0 vs 1). CONCLUSION: PUV fulguration using holmium:YAG laser is a feasible, safe and effective alternative for endoscopic transurethral ablation with similar success, and appears to have fewer complications than electro-fulguration. PMID:23660492
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate and compare the Le Fort partial colpocleisis and posterior colpoperineoplasty with conventional surgical repair in the medically compromised elderly population.STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective sequential series of 21 elderly women with complete uterovaginal prolapse and severe medical illnesses, having failure of conservative management, underwent a modification of the Le Fort partial colpocleisis with Kelly urethral
Thad R Denehy; Jennifer Y Choe; Caterina A Gregori; James L Breen
Purpose Prostate cancer treatment has the potential to lead to posteriorurethral stricture. These strictures are sometimes recalcitrant to dilation and urethrotomy alone. We present our experience with the Urolume® stent for prostate cancer treatment related stricture. Materials and Methods A total of 38 men with posteriorurethral stricture secondary to prostate cancer treatment were treated with Urolume stenting. Stents were placed in all men after aggressive urethrotomy over the entire stricture. A successfully managed stricture was defined as open and stable for greater than 6 months after any necessary secondary procedures. Results The initial success rate was 47%. After a total of 31 secondary procedures in 19 men, including additional stent placement in 8 (18%), the final success rate was 89% at a mean ± SD followup of 2.3 ± 2.5 years. Four cases (11%) in which treatment failed ultimately requiring urinary diversion (3) or salvage prostatectomy (1). Incontinence was noted in 30 men (82%), of whom 19 (63%) received an artificial urinary sphincter a mean of 7.2 ± 2.4 months after the stent. Subanalysis revealed that irradiated men had longer strictures (3.6 vs 2.0 cm, p = 0.003) and a higher post-stent incontinence rate (96% vs 50%, p <0.001) than men who underwent prostatectomy alone but the initial failure rate was similar (54% vs 50%, p = 0.4). Conclusions Urolume stenting is a reasonable option for severe post-prostate cancer treatment stricture when patients are unwilling or unable to undergo open reconstructive surgery. Incontinence should be expected. The need for additional procedures is common and in some men may be required periodically for the lifetime of the stent.
Erickson, Bradley A.; McAninch, Jack W.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Washington, Samuel L.; Breyer, Benjamin N.
Simultaneous traumaticposterior dislocation of both hips, uncomplicated by fracture, is an exceptionally rare entity. The authors could not find any record of a similar case in the world medical literature up till now, and are therefore reporting this case with special consideration of the mechanism of injury and the management. PMID:696270
Purpose We evaluated the preoperative clinical factors that affect the surgical outcome of posteriorurethral anastomosis (PUA) with a gracilis muscle flap (GMF) to determine which factors predict benefit from the use of the GMF. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of 49 patients who underwent a delayed PUA with a GMF. A successful clinical outcome was defined as achieving a peak urinary flow rate greater than 15 mL/s at 3 and 12 months postoperatively without evidence of stricture recurrence on a retrograde urethrogram or cystourethroscopy at 3 months postoperatively. Multiple clinical factors were evaluated by use of univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The outcome of 21 of 49 patients (42.9%) was deemed successful. The mean age of the 49 patients was 37.2±13.5 years and the mean follow-up duration was 43.4±28.0 months. The length of the urethral defect was significantly shorter in patients with a successful outcome than in patients with an unsuccessful outcome (p=0.010). The outcome differed significantly depending on whether the patients had a previously successful urethroplasty (p=0.036) or whether they had suffered a pelvic bone injury (p=0.012). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that a previous urethroplasty was the only preoperative clinical factor that significantly affected the surgical outcome in PUA with a GMF (odds ratio, 0.218; 95% confidence interval, 0.050 to 0.947; p=0.042). Conclusions A history of previous urethroplasty is a preoperative clinical factor that significantly affects the surgical outcome in PUA with a GMF; the procedure is more likely to be successful in patients who have not previously undergone urethroplasty.
Hwang, Jin Ho; Kang, Moon Hyung; Lee, Young Tae; Park, Dong Soo
We report the case of a 57-year-old male who attended the emergency department after inserting a ballpoint pen into his urethra 24 hours earlier during a sexual encounter. Rigid cystoscopy was performed and confirmed the foreign body to have caused a partial rupture of the posterior urethra. It was subsequently removed using a combination of graspers and stone retrieval baskets. Self insertion of foreign bodies into the urethra is often as a result of psychiatric disturbance, alcohol intoxication or as a means of sexual gratification. Posteriorurethral injuries are more commonly associated with pelvic trauma and iatrogenic injuries. Injury secondary to self insertion of a foreign body is infrequently reported. Temporary insertion of a urethral catheter may be necessary. We reviewed the literature in relation to this unusual problem. PMID:19671232
Our experience with the posterior calf fasciocutaneous island flap in the treatment of 12 traumatic knee lesions is presented. The wide vascular fascial pedicle provided a good blood inflow and all the flaps survived. The postoperative complications were mild, and the functional result was satisfactory even in cases associated with ligament tissue loss.
M. Governa; A. Tambuscio; A. Dall’Antonia; D. Barisoni
Thirty-one cases with complex stricture of posterior urethra were treated with one stage urethroplasty adopted perineoscrotal insular skin tube. The results of follow-up for 1 to 6 years were as follows: All cases urinated normally; The cystourethrography in 21 cases showed that urethrae were unobstructed; The urinary flow studies were carried out in 16 cases and the results showed that urinary flow rate curves were normal and that the maximum flow rate, the mean flow rate and the voiding time were all beyond normal values; The urethroscopy in 8 cases revealed that the surfaces of skin tubes remained smooth and without growth of hair stem. The facts stated as above indicated that this procedure was an ideal method for the treatment of long posteriorurethral stricture. PMID:1499427
Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcomes and complications of unilateral scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (SF-PCIOLs) in pediatric complicated traumatic cataracts without capsular support. Methods This study involved five eyes of five children who underwent unilateral SF-PCIOL. All patients had a unilateral complicated traumatic cataract associated with anterior or posterior segment injury. Visual acuity (VA), IOL position, and postoperative complications were assessed during follow-up. Results The mean age of patients at the time of SF-PCIOL was 90 months (range, 66-115). The mean duration of follow-up time after surgery was 22 months (range, 5-55). In all patients, the best-corrected VA was either improved or was stable at last follow-up following SF-PCIOL implantation. There were no serious complications. Conclusions Unilateral scleral fixation of PCIOL can be a safe and effective procedure for pediatric, unilateral, complicated traumatic cataracts without capsular support in selected cases.
In the last 8 months, 7 patients have presented with acute retention of urine due to impacted urethral stones. Four stones were in the posterior urethra, 2 in the penile urethra and 1 proximal to the external urethral meatus. The patients were managed as emergencies. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound (US) through a 24F obliquely offset eyepiece nephroscope was achieved with minimal urethral trauma. Follow-up was for 6 months and no evidence of urethral stricture or recurrent stones was found. It was concluded that US fragmentation of urethral calculi is a safe and efficient procedure with minimal complications when used in the management of impacted urethral stones. PMID:3208024
Congenital urethral polyps are a rare entity. Most commonly, they present as benign posteriorurethral growths in the pediatric male patient. However, reports of urethral polyps in female patients or even those with an anterior urethral location can also be found in the literature. Patients can present with a spectrum of symptoms including dysuria, hematuria, and obstructive type urinary complaints. Diagnosis in these cases includes a combination of medical imaging (e.g. ultrasound, fluoroscopic, CT or MRI), direct endoscopic visualization, and final surgical pathology. Treatment involves surgical removal either via an endoscopic or open approach. PMID:24128844
Liu, Xiaolong S; Kreiger, Portia A; Gould, Sharon W; Hagerty, Jennifer A
We operated on 26 patients with cervical spine disorders (13 with traumatic lesions, 3 with spinal stenosis and myelopathy, 1 with osteomyelitis and 9 with metastasis) with posterior stabilization. A new implant system (Cervi-Fix) based on rods, enabling a choice of either screw or laminar hook fixation in a free combination, was used. The system was evaluated for ease of
Objective: To describe the contribution of the posterior pelvic compartment to the urethral closure mechanism.Methods: Urethral profilometry at rest and during stress was performed in 32 continent women before and after inserting a weighted (1 kg) posterior speculum to displace the posterior vaginal wall and levator ani muscles away from the bladder neck and the urethra.Results: Insertion of the speculum
... topics for this letter X X-ray Y Yeast Infections Z no topics for this letter Urethral ... An illness caused by harmful bacteria, viruses or yeast growing in the urinary tract. urinate: To release ...
Knowledge of the formation of the normal male urethra may elucidate the etiology of hypospadias. We describe urethral formation in the mouse, show the similarities and relevance to human urethral development, and introduce the concept of the epithelial seam formation and remodeling during urethral formation. Three mechanisms may account for epithelial seam formation: (1) epithelial-mesenchymal transformation similar to that described
Laurence S. Baskin; Ali Erol; Priya Jegatheesan; Yingwu Li; Wenhui Liu; Gerald R. Cunha
Introduction There have been few reports of patients with bilateral cervical facet dislocations that remain untreated for eight weeks or more. We report the case of a 76-year-old man with an old bilateral cervical facet joint dislocation fracture that was treated by posterior-anterior reduction and fixation. Case presentation A 76-year-old Asian man was involved in a road traffic accident. He presented with neck pain and arm pain on his right side, but motor weakness and paralysis were not observed. He was treated conservatively; however, instability and spondylolisthesis at the C5 to C6 joint increased eight weeks after the injury. We performed a posterior-anterior reduction and fixation. After surgery, bony union was achieved, and his neck pain and arm pain disappeared. Conclusion We recommend reduction and fixation surgery if a patient has an old bilateral facet joint dislocation fracture in the cervical spine.
Surgical excision is the definitive treatment of urethral diverticulum (UD) and the only reasonable surgical option for treating midurethral and proximal UD. Success depends on proper staging by determining the extent and number of diverticula and attention to surgical technique. This article offers practical guidance in adjusting technique to accommodate commonly encountered difficult clinical scenarios. PMID:21353081
Scarpero, Harriette M; Dmochowski, Roger R; Leu, Patrick B
STRUCTURED ABSTRACT: Study Design. Prospective cohort study.Objective. To study MRI accuracy in diagnosing posterior ligamentous complex (PLC) damage, when applying the new dichotomic instability criteria in a prospective cohort of patients with vertebral fracture.Summary of Background Data. Recent studies dispute MRI accuracy to diagnose PLC injuries. They analyze the complex based on three categories (intact/indeterminate/rupture), including the indeterminate in the ruptured group (measurement bias) in the accuracy analysis. Moreover, fractures with conservative treatment (selection bias) are not included. Both facts reduce the specificity. A recent study has proposed new criteria where posterior instability is determined with SSL rupture.Methods. Prospective study of patients with acute thoracolumbar fracture, using X-ray and MRI (FS-T2-w/STIR sequences).1. The integrity (ruptured/unruptured) of each isolated component of the PLC (FC-facet capsules-, ISL-interspinous ligament-, SSL-supraspinous ligament- and LF-ligamentum flavum-) was assessed via MRI and surgical findings.2. PLC integrity as a whole was assessed adopting the new dichotomic stability criteria from previous studies. In the MR images, PLC is considered ruptured when SSL and LF ligaments are discontinued and intact if not (the 'indeterminate' category was excluded). In surgical fractures according to PLC`s dynamic stability as a whole (ruptured/unruptured). In conservative fractures according to change in vertebral kyphosis measured with the local kyphotic angle at 2 year follow-up (ruptured -if >5º difference-/unruptured -if <5º-).3. Comparative analysis among findings provided MRI accuracy in diagnosing PLC damage.Results. 58 vertebral fractures were studied (38 surgical/20 conservative). 50% male, average age: 40.4.A) MRI sensitivity for injury diagnosis of each isolated PLC component varied between 92.3% (ISL) and 100% (LF). Specificity varied between 52% (FC) and 100% (SSL).B) PLC integrity sensitivity and specificity as a whole was 91% and 100% respectively.Conclusion. Adopting the new stability criteria, MRI accuracy in PLC injury diagnosis increases. Specificity is increased (true positives) both in isolated component analysis and PLC as a whole. PMID:23089929
RATIONALE: The social marketing of STD treatment may be a strategy to increase the availability of effective therapy for urethritis in male patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a pilot project of social marketing of urethritis treatment packages. The project, initially designed for over the counter sale in private pharmacies, was finally restricted by national health authorities to primary healthcare settings in
F. Crabbe; J. P. Tchupo; T. Manchester; T. Gruber-Tapsoba; D. Mugrditchian; J. Timyan; G. Goodridge; C. Cheta; M. Laga; G. Dallabetta
Controlled clinical trials are unusual in surgery, rare in urology, and almost non?existent as far as the management of urethral stricture is concerned. What data there are come largely from so called “expert opinion” and the quality of this is variable. None the less, the number of so called experts, past and present, is comparatively small and in broad principle their views more or less coincide. Although this review is therefore inevitably biased, it is unlikely that expert opinion will take issue with most of the general points raised here.
The invention relates to prosthetic urethral valves for controlling urinary continence, and more particularly to a prosthetic urethral valve which is installed totally within a patient's urethra without surgery, and which is controlled by the patient's vo...
...plastic urethral sound, urethrometer, filiform, and filiform follower. (b) Classification. (1) Class II (performance standards...the urethrometer, urological bougie, filiform and filiform follower, and metal or plastic urethral sound. The devices...
...plastic urethral sound, urethrometer, filiform, and filiform follower. (b) Classification. (1) Class II (performance standards...the urethrometer, urological bougie, filiform and filiform follower, and metal or plastic urethral sound. The devices...
...plastic urethral sound, urethrometer, filiform, and filiform follower. (b) Classification. (1) Class II (performance standards...the urethrometer, urological bougie, filiform and filiform follower, and metal or plastic urethral sound. The devices...
OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence of prostatic abnormalities in men with gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis using trans-rectal ultrasonic markers. DESIGN--A case control study of patients attending a department of genitourinary medicine with symptoms of urethritis. SETTING--Department of Genitourinary Medicine and Department of Radiology in Manchester Royal Infirmary. RESULTS--A total of 42 patients were recruited to the study: 26 with urethritis and 16 controls. Of the 26 study patients, six were gonococcal, four chlamydial, two mixed gonococcal and chlamydia and nine non specific (no organisms detected). Of the 26 study patients, 16 had abnormal scans (61.5%), eight from the chlamydia group and eight from the non specific group. No abnormalities were found in the gonococcal and mixed group. Of the 16 control patients, five had abnormal scans (31.25%), three of these have had a past history of chlamydial urethritis. CONCLUSION--The prevalence of prostatic abnormalities in patients with non-gonococcal urethritis was significantly higher when compared with controls. The cause of these abnormalities is unclear, but is compatible with inflammatory changes within the gland. Images
A 59-year-old white man developed a ventral ulcer with irregular limits in the middle portion of the penis. The result of the pathologic analysis was compatible with invasive squamous cell urethral carcinoma. A total penectomy was performed. In these cases, the usually recommended urinary diversion is perineal urethrostomy. However, due to the specifications of the case, perineal urethrostomy could not be performed. The literature did not offer any other alternative for patients with this same condition. Therefore, a urethral reconstruction using a groin skin flap had to be performed. PMID:15153723
de Jesus, Carlos M N; Kawano, P R; Yamamoto, H A; Trindade Filho, J C S; Agostinho, A D; Correa, L A
Any process causing trauma to the urethral tissue or underlying corpus spongiosum can lead to urethral stricture disease.\\u000a The traditional treatment algorithm for urethral strictures, also known as the reconstructive ladder, begins with minimally invasive interventions, including urethral dilation and endoscopic urethrotomy. Inevitably, endoscopic\\u000a incision and dilation fails, resulting in stricture recurrence. After the expenditure of valuable time and resources,
In the past years several recommendations have been published concerning the diagnostic work-up and treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). They show that with regard to the surgical management of acute epidural hematomas, acute subdural hematomas, traumatic parenchymal lesions, posterior fossa mass lesions, as well as depressed skull fractures there is a lack of controlled studies, which would
Urethral bulking therapy (UBT) is a minimally invasive procedure for stress urinary incontinence that is beneficial for properly selected patients. Many different materials are available for UBT, although none fulfill all the qualities of an ideal agent. In general, short-term clinical results are encouraging; however, over longer follow-up, results are disappointing and retreatment is often necessary. Proper patient selection and management of patient expectations are paramount to successful application of UBT. PMID:22877710
OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to compare three measures proposed to diagnose intrinsic sphincteric deficiency: maximum urethral closure pressure, Valsalva leak point pressure, and straining urethral axis. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 159 women with pure genuine stress incontinence had the three measures determined in a standardized fashion. Critical cutoff values for the Valsalva leak point pressure (52 cm) and urethral
Richard C. Bump; Kimberly W. Coates; Geoffrey W. Cundiff; Robert L. Harris; Alison C. Weidner
Purpose: The human male urethra has great capacity to extend under traction. This extensi- bility is the principle of some surgical techniques used to overcome urethral defects and for penile lengthening. However, to our knowledge safe limits of urethral extensibility in reconstructive surgery have not been yet established by a morphological study. To this end we measured fresh human cadaveric
Of an unselected group of 159 women attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic 20% (32) had symptoms of urethritis. A positive correlation existed between the finding of more than 10 polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) per high-power field in the Gram-stained urethral smear and the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Conversely, these organisms were rarely isolated if
Mycoplasma genitalium is an important cause of sexually transmitted infections that is gaining recognition and is an independent cause of acute and chronic nongonococcal urethritis in men. M. genitalium has been implicated as a possible causative factor in reactive arthritis. We report a case of reactive arthritis complicating M. genitalium urethritis in an HLA-B27-positive patient. PMID:24034901
We report significant failure rates (28%, 95% confi- dence interval 15%-45%) after administering 1 g azithromycin to men with Mycoplasma genitalium-positive nongonococcal urethritis. In vitro evidence supported reduced susceptibility of M. genitalium to macrolides. Moxifloxacin administration resulted in rapid symptom res- olution and eradication of infection in all cases. These find- ings have implications for management of urethritis.
Catriona S. Bradshaw; Jorgen S. Jensen; Sepehr N. Tabrizi; Timothy R. H. Read; Suzanne M. Garland; Carol A. Hopkins; Lorna M. Moss; Christopher K. Fairley
Traumatic amputations usually result directly from factory, farm, or power tool accidents or from motor vehicle accidents. Natural disasters, war, and terrorist attacks can also cause traumatic amputations.
Bleomycin is a glycoprotein that is extensively used in combination with other anti-cancer agents because of its relative lack of hematological and gastrointestinal toxicity. However, pulmonary toxicity is common with bleomycin and limits its therapeutic utility. Urethral stricture as a result of bleomycin toxicity has not been reported in literature. In this case report, a young male patient who developed urethral stricture after bleomycin-based chemotherapy is described and the possible effects of bleomycin on the urethra are discussed.
Background: Urethral stricture description is not standardized. This makes surgical decision-making less reproducible and increases the difficulty of objectively analyzing urethroplasty literature. We developed a standardized system, the UREThRAL stricture score (USS), to quantify the characteristics of anterior urethral stricture disease based on preoperative imaging and intraoperative findings. Methods: To develop the USS, we retrospectively analyzed 95 consecutive patients with urethral strictures who underwent open urethroplasty by a single surgeon (SBB) at Barnes-Jewish Hospital from 2009 to 2011. The USS is a numerical score based on five components of anterior urethral stricture disease that help dictate operative decision-making: (1) (UR)ethral stricture (E)tiology; (2) (T) otal number of strictures; (3) (R)etention (luminal obliteration); (4) (A)natomic location; and (5) (L)ength. Stricture management was categorized by increasing surgical complexity: excision/primary anastomosis (EPA), buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty (BMG), augmented anastomotic urethroplasty (AAU), flap urethroplasty, and a combination of flaps and/or grafts. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to compare USS to surgical complexity. Results: The mean USS for EPA, BMG, AAU, flap, and combination flaps/grafts was 5.78, 8.82, 9.23, 11.01, and 14.97, respectively. Increasing USS was significantly associated with surgical complexity (p < 0.0001). Interpretation: The USS describes the essential factors in determining surgical treatment selection for urethral stricture disease. The USS is a concise, easily applicable system that delineates the clinically significant features of urethral strictures. Valuable comparison of anterior urethral stricture treatments in clinical practice and in the urological literature could be facilitated by using this novel UREThRAL stricture score.
Traumatic expulsive iridodialysis is a rare complication after trauma by a blunt object in eyes with previous small-incision cataract surgery. The presence of an intact lens capsule with an intraocular lens was thought to protect against damage beyond the posterior capsule. We report a case of dehiscence of the cataract wound and traumatic expulsive iridodialysis that also exhibited vitreous prolapse. PMID:22173820
The results of treatments for localized carcinoma of the urethra were assessed in 21 consecutive women treated at our institutions over a twenty year period. Only one of the tumors was confined to the distal urethra. Eighty-six percent invaded the periurethral tissues and 24% were known to be associated with regional lymph node metastases. Fifty-seven percent were adenocarcinomas. Five patients refused active therapeutic intervention and expired within one to 30 months following diagnosis. Sixteen patients were treated with extirpative surgery, radiation therapy, or combinations of the two. Four are free of disease at one, four, eleven, and 15 years after treatment. Nine developed pelvic recurrences, two developed pelvic recurrences and distant metastases and one developed distant metastases only from six to 72 months (mean, 19 months) after initial treatment. Eight of these 12 patients died at two to 13 months (mean, 8 months) after secondary treatment, two are alive with residual pelvic tumor, and two are clinically free of disease at 7 and 48 months. Only six patients were known to have distant metastases at the time of death and five of these six had adenocarcinomas. Advanced localized urethral cancer in women is difficult to eradicate and usually fatal.
This case study describes a patient who experienced an iatrogenic urethral injury because of a Fournier gangrene debridement. Because of the extent of the debridement, which resected all penile and scrotal dartos tissue, no local flaps that would typically be used to reconstruct a urethral disruption were possible. The authors chose to use a prefabricated pedicled gracilis flap to restore urethral continuity. PMID:22791063
Crane, Curtis; Cornejo, Agustin; Lyons, Robert; Alter, Gary J
Urethral fistula is rare and is usually a complication of penile and urethral surgery. A few congenital cases have been reported. Also, one acquired spontaneous case in a diabetic man has been reported. We present the first case in the literature of a healthy man with a spontaneous ventral urethral fistula, with unknown etiology. We performed a modified technique of urethral fistula repair (four-layer technique).
Aim: Our experience of 4 cases of urethral duplication is reported here. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review. Results: The age at presentation varied from newborn to 10 years. The clinical presentation ranged from prepubic sinus to diphallus urethra. There were 2 each incomplete duplication with only external openings (Type IA) and complete duplication of Effmann Type IIA2. All underwent complete excision of accessory urethra and corrections of associated anomalies. Conclusions: Urethral duplications have a varied presentation. At follow up, all are asymptomatic with good cosmetic result.
Ramareddy, Raghu S.; Alladi, Anand; Siddappa, O. S.
Estrogen vaginal cream was given to 10 postmenopausal women with a diagnosis of genuine stress urinary incontinence. Clinical evaluation and urethral cytology from the midurethra were performed before and after 6 weeks of estrogen treatment. A favorable clinical response was obtained in 50% of the treated patients, in whom signs and symptoms of incontinence disappeared or significantly improved, by subjective
Arieh Bergman; Mickey M. Karram; Narender N. Bhatia
Infant feeding tubes (IFT) have been universally used as urethral catheters in neonates and children for several decades. Though generally a safe procedure, it may cause significant morbidity if the catheter spontaneously knots inside the bladder. We report this complication in three children including a neonate.
The reaction of the urethral mucosa to latex and Silastic catheters was compared in two groups of patients undergoing prostatectomy. The bacteriologic response in the two groups differed little; however, Silastic catheters produced less cellular reaction than latex catheters. Images FIG. 1
Bruce, A. W.; Plumpton, K. J.; Willett, W. S.; Chadwick, P.
This article, the fourth in a series of articles relating to clinical skills in nursing, outlines the procedure of urethral meatal cleansing. This involves cleansing the area around the urethra and is usually undertaken before insertion of a urinary catheter. PMID:17633341
The reaction of the urethra to two new polyurethrane polymers was compared with those produced by materials currently used in the manufacture of urethral catheters. The comparison included silicone, latex rubber, tetrafluoroethylene polymer (Teflon) coated latex, and polyvinyl chloride. There were no significant differences in the reaction of the urethra to the various materials. The present study was carried out in the absence of bacterial contamination. PMID:567626
Engelbart, R H; Bartone, F F; Gardner, P; Hutson, J
The intrinsic sphincter insufficiency is a cause of stress urinary incontinence. Its definition is clinical and based on urodynamics. It is mostly met with women, in context of the post-obstetrical period or older women in a multifactorial context. For men, it occurs mainly as complication of the surgery of the cancer of prostate or bladder. An initial, clinical and paraclinical assessment allows to confirm the diagnosis of intrinsic sphincter insufficiency, to estimate its severity, and to identify associated mechanisms of incontinence (urethral hypermobility, bladder overactivity) to choose the most adapted treatment. The perineal reeducation is the treatment of first intention in both sexes. At the menopausal woman, the local hormonotherapy is a useful additive. In case of failure or of incomplete efficiency, the treatment of the intrinsic sphincter insufficiency is surgical. Bulking agents, urethral slings, peri-urethral balloons and artificial sphincter are 4 therapeutic options to discuss according to history, the severity of the incontinence, the expectations of the patient. PMID:24176408
Background The ability to achieve a long-term, stricture-free urethral repair is one of the ongoing challenges of reconstructive urologic surgery. A successful initial repair is critical, as repeat procedures are difficult, owing to distortion, scarring, and short urethral stumps. Methods We describe a technique in which the gracilis muscle flap is laid on or wrapped around the urethral repair site to provide a well-vascularised soft tissue reinforcement for urethral repair. This technique promotes vascular induction, whereby a new blood supply is introduced to the repair site to improve the outcome of urethral repair or anastomotic urethroplasty. The surface contact between the muscle flap and the repair site is enhanced by the use of fibrin glue to improve adherence and promote inosculation and healing. We employed this technique in 4 patients with different urethral defects. Results After a follow-up period of 32 to 108 months, all of the urethral repairs were successful without complications. Conclusions Our results suggest that the use of a gracilis muscle flap to vascularise urethral repairs can improve the outcome of challenging urethral repairs.
Kua, Ee Hsiang Jonah; Leo, Kah Woon; Ong, Yee Siang; Cheng, Christopher
The effect of doxycycline treatment was studied in 46 men with chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis. Treatment with 200 mg doxycycline daily for 10 days rendered 22 of 22 patients free of urethritis. The treatment had no effect on the complications of urethritis like prostatitis and Reiter's syndrome. In the other group where 200 mg doxycycline was given on the first day and 100 mg on the subsequent days for 8 days, urethritis was resolved in 18 of 22 patients. C. trachomatis was not re-isolated from any of the patients after doxycycline treatment. PMID:7433474
Purpose Accuracy in the recording of external urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyography (EMG) is an important goal in the quantitative\\u000a evaluation of urethral function. The aim of this study was to quantitatively compare electrode recordings taken during tonic\\u000a activity and leak point pressure (LPP) testing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Several electrodes, including the surface electrode (SE), concentric electrode (CE), and wire electrode (WE), were placed\\u000a on
James E. Steward; Jessica D. Clemons; Paul J. Zaszczurynski; Robert S. Butler; Margot S. Damaser; Hai-Hong Jiang
Context: For management of long segment anterior urethral stricture, dorsal onlay urethroplasty is currently the most favored single-stage procedure. Conventional dorsal onlay urethroplasty requires circumferential mobilization of the urethra, which might cause ischemia of the urethra in addition to chordee. Aims: To determine the feasibility and short-term outcomes of applying a dorsolateral free graft to treat anterior urethral stricture by unilateral urethral mobilization through a perineal approach. Settings and Design: A prospective study from September 2005 to March 2008 in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients with long or multiple strictures of the anterior urethra were treated by a dorsolateral free buccal mucosa graft. The pendulous urethra was accessed by penile eversion through the perineal wound. The urethra was not separated from the corporal bodies on one side and was only mobilized from the midline on the ventral aspect to beyond the midline on the dorsal aspect. The urethra was opened in the dorsal midline over the stricture. The buccal mucosa graft was secured on the ventral tunica of the corporal bodies. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean and median. Results: After a follow-up of 12-30 months, one recurrence developed and 1 patient needed an internal urethrotomy. Conclusions: A unilateral urethral mobilization approach for dorsolateral free graft urethroplasty is feasible for panurethral strictures of any length with good short-term success.
Singh, Bhupendra P.; Pathak, Hemant R.; Andankar, Mukund G.
Background To date, the morbidity of urethral stricture disease among American men has not been analyzed using national datasets. We sought to analyze the morbidity of urethral stricture disease by measuring the rates of urinary tract infections and urinary incontinence among men with a diagnosis of urethral stricture. Methods We analyzed Medicare claims data for 1992, 1995, 1998, and 2001 to estimate the rate of dual diagnoses of urethral stricture with urinary tract infection and with urinary incontinence occurring in the same year among a 5% sample of beneficiaries. Male Medicare beneficiaries receiving co-incident ICD-9 codes indicating diagnoses of urethral stricture and either urinary tract infection or urinary incontinence within the same year were counted. Results The percentage of male patients with a diagnosis of urethral stricture who also were diagnosed with a urinary tract infection was 42% in 2001, an increase from 35% in 1992. Eleven percent of male Medicare beneficiaries with urethral stricture disease in 2001 were diagnosed with urinary incontinence in the same year. This represents an increase from 8% in 1992. Conclusions Among male Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with urethral stricture disease in 2001, 42% were also diagnosed with a urinary tract infection, and 11% with incontinence. Although the overall incidence of stricture disease decreased over this time period, these rates of dual diagnoses increased from 1992 to 2001. Our findings shed light into the health burden of stricture disease on American men. In order to decrease the morbidity of stricture disease, early definitive management of strictures is warranted.
Objectives. To review our results of patients who underwent repeat hypospadias surgery using local skin flaps with preservation of the urethral plate.Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent a reoperative hypospadias repair using the urethral plate between 1988 and 1996. A total of 53 patients were identified who developed either a large fistula (47 patients)
Garrick R Simmons; Mark P Cain; Anthony J Casale; Michael A Keating; Mark C Adams; Richard C Rink
Rigorous study of the associations between urethral structural anatomy and biomechanical function is necessary to advance the understanding of the development, progression, and treatment of urethral pathologies. An ex vivo model was utilized to define the relative biomechanical contributions of the active (muscle) elements of the female urethra relative to its passive (noncontractile) elements. Whole urethras from female, adult rats were tested under a range of applied intraluminal pressures (0 to 20 mmHg) as a laser micrometer simultaneously measured midurethral outer diameter. Active tissue characterization was performed during induced contraction of either smooth muscle alone (N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine, phenylephrine), striated muscle alone (sodium nitroprusside, atropine, hexamethonium, acetylcholine), or during collective activation of both muscles (N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine, phenylephrine, acetylcholine). The subsequent collection of paired passive biomechanical responses permitted the determination of parameters related to intrinsic muscle contractile function. Activation of each muscle layer significantly influenced the biomechanical responses of the tissue. Measures of muscle responsiveness over a wide range of sustained opposing pressures indicated that an activated striated muscle component was approximately one-third as effective as activated smooth muscle in resisting tissue deformation. The maximum circumferential stress generated by the striated muscle component under these conditions was also determined to be approximately one-third of that generated by the smooth muscle (748 +/- 379 vs. 2,229 +/- 409 N/m(2)). The experiments quantitatively reveal the relative influence of the intrinsic urethral smooth and striated muscle layers with regard to their effect on the mechanical properties and maximum functional responses of the urethra to applied intralumenal stresses in the complete absence of extrinsic influences. PMID:16368741
Jankowski, Ron J; Prantil, Rachelle L; Chancellor, Michael B; de Groat, William C; Huard, Johnny; Vorp, David A
Tonsillectomy is one of the most common operations performed by otolaryngologists. Fever, otalgia, dehydration, sore throat, and hemorrhage are common complications. In this clinical report, a 7-year-old boy was presented with a synechia between the posterior plicae together with recurrence of adenoid hypertrophy after adenotonsillectomy 1 year previously. The synechia and adenoid were resected, and the patient was discharged from the hospital after 2 days. The complication in this case was most likely caused by traumatic injury of the posterior plicae during the previous tonsillectomy. This complication is, however, very rare. PMID:22801132
OBJECTIVES: To assess the predictive value of a simple clinical test (posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver) in the diagnosis of intrinsic sphincter deficiency. METHODS: The present prospective study included 62 women suffering from stress urinary incontinence. Every patient underwent a urogynecological examination including multichannel urodynamic testing (cystometry, urethral pressure profile, Valsalva Leak Point Pressure measurement) and a clinical examination including posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver. Posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver was carried out with the bladder filled with 400?mL of saline in a supine position, and was obtained by means of a split speculum allowing gentle pull down traction of the posterior vaginal wall. Posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver was considered as positive when a urine leak was observed during the manoeuvre. Intrinsic sphincter deficiency was urodynamically defined by maximum urethral closure pressure ?20?cmH2 O. Correlations between positive/negative posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver and urodynamic intrinsic sphincter deficiency were calculated. RESULTS: There was a statistical correlation between age and low maximum urethral closure pressure (P?0.0001), and between low maximum urethral closure pressure and positive posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver (P?0.0001). Regarding the intrinsic sphincter deficiency diagnosis, the posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver positive predictive value was 94.67% and the negative predictive value was 95.4%, with a specificity of 97.6% and sensitivity of 90%. CONCLUSION: Posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver is a reliable clinical test, easy to carry out, inexpensive and without significant risk. This test allows the diagnosis of intrinsic sphincter deficiency in women suffering from stress urinary incontinence, thus avoiding further invasive urodynamic testing (urethral pressure profile, Valsalva Leak Point Pressure measurement) in women with genuine stress urinary incontinence. Furthermore, it is helpful when choosing the type of sling procedure (retropubic vs transobturator) when a surgery is planned. PMID:23600798
We investigated the efficacy and safety of levofloxacin (LVFX) 500mg once a day in patients with non-gonorrheal urethritis. Men, aged 20 years or older, with urethritis symptoms, and detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) or Mycoplasma genitalium (M. genitalium) by a microbiological examination were eligible for this study. Patients were administered LVFX 500mg, orally, once a day and the dosage period was seven days. We assumed 22 patients for a safety and efficacy analysis. In 22 patients, 17 patients had urethritis with C. trachomatis, 4 patients urethritis with M. genitalium, and one patient mixed infection of C. trachomatis and M. genitalium. In the clinial study, the primary endpoint was set as the bacteriological eradication rate at two to four weeks after completion of treatment. The bacterial eradication rate in the urethritis was 86.4% (19/22). The bacterial eradication rate in the urethritis with C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, and mixed infection of C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were 94.1% (16/17), 50.0% (2/4), 100% (1/1), respectively. A significant difference was not recognized among the three groups. The clinical efficacy at two to four weeks after completion of treatment was 90.9% (20/22). The clinical efficacy rates in the urethritis with C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, and mixed infection of C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were 100% (17/17), 50.0% (2/4), 100% (1/1), respectively. The efficacy rate of urethritis with M. genitalium was significantly low. No adverse drug reactions were observed. These results suggest that once-a-day levofloxacin (500mg) is effective and safe treatment for non-gonorrheal urethritis. PMID:23593735
Urethral bulking agents are a commonly employed modality utilized for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. These primarily collagen-based agents are placed in the proximal urethra to facilitate mucosal coaptation during increases of intra-abdominal stress. Several known complications of these agents exist, including urethral prolapse, retention, and urinary infection. Herein, we report two cases diagnosed as urethral diverticuli which were ultimately determined anatomic aberration secondary to prior bulking agent therapy. Recognition of this potential sequela of bulking agent placement is important for the female pelvic surgeon to recognize to avoid the morbidity of potential invasive interventions. PMID:21340644
Kumar, Disha; Kaufman, Melissa R; Dmochowski, Roger R
In the past 3 years, eight of 20 male neonates with stigmata of the VATER association were found to have significant urethral abnormalities. Three had megalourethra, two had duplication of the urethra, and one each had an anterior urethral valve, congenital stricture, and hypospadias. In only five of eight was the extent of the abnormality clinically apparent. All three infants with megalourethra and imperforate anus died because of the coexistence of other severe congenital anomalies. Prior literature has described but not stressed the increased prevalence of urethral abnormalities in children with the VATER association. Because of the high prevalence (eight of 20) of significant urethral anomalies, we perform voiding cystourethrography on all males with the stigmata of the VATER association, even in the absence of clinical symptoms. PMID:1898547
PurposeWe identified the risk of urethral recurrence following cystectomy for transitional cell bladder carcinoma, stratified by pathological characteristics of the bladder tumor and type of urinary diversion.
John A. Freeman; Thomas A. Tarter; David Esrig; John P. Stein; Donald A. Elmajian; Su-Chiu Chen; Susan Groshen; Gary Lieskovsky; Donald G. Skinner
...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices Â§ 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An...
BackgroundA key prerequisite for urinary continence after radical prostatectomy (RP) is the functional length of the urethral sphincter and the stabilisation of its anatomic position within the pelvic floor.
Thorsten Schlomm; Hans Heinzer; Thomas Steuber; Georg Salomon; Oliver Engel; Uwe Michl; Alexander Haese; Markus Graefen; Hartwig Huland
Objective To evaluate the feasibility and healing response to urethral sparing prostate histotripsy a canine model of benign prostatic hypertrophy. Methods Histotripsy was performed on 10 canines using a 750 kHz piezoelectric ultrasound transducer targeting the prostatic parenchyma while avoiding the urethra. Periprocedure prostatic urethral integrity was evaluated with serial cystourethroscopy. Evolution of histotripsy treatment effect and subjects’ response to urethral sparing was evaluated with serial ultrasound and laboratory evaluation, respectively. Subjects were euthanized acutely or chronically and findings were confirmed histologically. Results Bilateral treatment was possible in 8/10 subjects while unilateral treatment was performed in 2/10. Failure to spare the urethra was observed in 2/18 treatments; one acutely and one chronically despite normal cystourethroscopy for the first week. Modest prostatic volume reduction was seen in subjects survived to 8 weeks post-histotripsy. Laboratory studies revealed transient perioperative increases in mean white-blood cell count, C-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase. On histology, 80% of successful urethral sparing treatment cavities were completely epithelialized, containing simple fluid with minimal cellular debris at 8 weeks despite no communication with the urethra. Conclusions Urethral sparing histotripsy of the prostate is feasible and well tolerated in a canine model, resulting in modest volume reduction and prompt resorption of homogenized tissue debris. Human studies to evaluate the clinical utility and symptomatic response of urethral sparing are needed.
Schade, George R.; Hall, Timothy L.; Roberts, William W.
Our objective was to determine whether urethral calibration with Walther's urethral sounds may be an effective treatment for overactive bladder syndrome. The diagnosis of overactive bladder syndrome is a clinical one based on the presence of urgency, with or without urge incontinence, and is usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia in the absence of obvious pathologic or metabolic disease. These symptoms exert a profound effect on the quality of life. Pharmacologic treatment is generally used to relieve symptoms, however anticholinergic medications may be associated with several undesirable side effects. There are case reports of symptom relief following a relatively quick and simple office procedure known as urethral dilation. It is hypothesized that this may be an effective treatment for the symptoms of overactive bladder. Women with clinical symptoms of overactive bladder were evaluated. Eighty-eight women were randomized to either urethral calibration (Treatment), or placebo (Control) treatment. Women's clinical outcomes at two and eight weeks were assessed and compared between the two treatment arms. Eight weeks after treatment, 31.1% (n=14) of women who underwent urethral calibration were responsive to the treatment versus 9.3% (n=4) of the Control group. Also, 51.1% (n=23) of women within the Treatment group showed at least a partial response versus 20.9% (n=9) of the Control group. Our conclusion is that Urethral calibration significantly improves the symptoms of overactive bladder when compared to placebo and may be an effective alternative treatment method. PMID:24167769
Chen, Chao H; Sato, Renee L; Matsuura, Grace Hk; Wei, David C; Chen, John J
Our objective was to determine whether urethral calibration with Walther's urethral sounds may be an effective treatment for overactive bladder syndrome. The diagnosis of overactive bladder syndrome is a clinical one based on the presence of urgency, with or without urge incontinence, and is usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia in the absence of obvious pathologic or metabolic disease. These symptoms exert a profound effect on the quality of life. Pharmacologic treatment is generally used to relieve symptoms, however anticholinergic medications may be associated with several undesirable side effects. There are case reports of symptom relief following a relatively quick and simple office procedure known as urethral dilation. It is hypothesized that this may be an effective treatment for the symptoms of overactive bladder. Women with clinical symptoms of overactive bladder were evaluated. Eighty-eight women were randomized to either urethral calibration (Treatment), or placebo (Control) treatment. Women's clinical outcomes at two and eight weeks were assessed and compared between the two treatment arms. Eight weeks after treatment, 31.1% (n=14) of women who underwent urethral calibration were responsive to the treatment versus 9.3% (n=4) of the Control group. Also, 51.1% (n=23) of women within the Treatment group showed at least a partial response versus 20.9% (n=9) of the Control group. Our conclusion is that Urethral calibration significantly improves the symptoms of overactive bladder when compared to placebo and may be an effective alternative treatment method.
Sato, Renee L; Matsuura, Grace HK; Wei, David C; Chen, John J
Background: Better methods are needed for recording urethral function for complex urologic problems involving the bladder, urethra, and pelvic floor. Objective: To evaluate a balloon catheter for recording urethral pressure and function using bench-top testing and evaluation in an animal model. Methods: Balloon pressure–recording methods included slightly inflating the balloon with water and placing the pressure transducer on the distal end of the catheter. For bench-top testing, manual procedures and a silastic tube with a restriction were used. In 3 anesthetized dogs, pressure recorded from the skeletal urethral sphincter was induced with electrical stimulation of the sphincter. Anal sphincter pressure was also recorded. Results: Bench-top testing showed good pressure recordings, including a confined peak at the tube restriction. Animal tests showed urethral pressure records with rapid responses when electrical stimulation was applied. Peak pressure at the urethral skeletal sphincter was 55.7 ± 15 cmH2O, which was significantly higher than the peak pressure recorded 2 cm distally in the proximal urethra (3.3 ± 2.3 cmH2O). Peak anal pressures were smaller and unchanged for the 2 stimulations. Conclusions: Balloon-pressure recordings showed rapid responses that were adequate for the tests conducted. In the animal model, high-pressure contractions specific to the skeletal urethral sphincter were shown. Balloon-tipped catheters warrant further investigation and may have applications for the evaluation of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia after spinal cord injury or for stress urinary incontinence.
Walter, James S; Wheeler, John S; Wang, Xiaoli; Wurster, Robert D
Introduction: Female urethral stricture is an underdiagnosed and overlooked cause of female bladder outlet obstruction. The possible etiologies may be infection, prior dilation, difficult catheterization with subsequent fibrosis, urethral surgery, trauma, or idiopathic. We present our technique and results of dorsal onlay full thickness vaginal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 16 female patients with mid-urethral stricture who underwent dorsal onlay vaginal graft urethroplasty from January 2007 to June 2011. Of these, 13 patients had previously undergone multiple Hegar dilatations, three had previous internal urethrotomies. The preoperative work up included detailed voiding history, local examination, uroflowmetry, calibration, and micturating cystourethrogram. Results: All patients had mid-urethral stricture. Mean age was 47.5 years. Mean Qmax improved from 6.2 to 27.6 ml/s. Mean residual volume decreased from 160 to 20 ml. Mean duration of follow-up was 24.5 months (6 months to 3 years). Only one patient required self-calibration for 6 months after which her stricture stabilized. None of the patient was incontinent. Conclusion: Dorsal vaginal onlay graft urethroplasty could be considered as an effective way to treat female urethral stricture.
Urethral stents were initially developed for the management of urethral strictures and obstructive voiding disorders in select patients. Urethral stent complications are common and may require stent explantation, which is often quite challenging. We present our experience with endoscopic removal of an encrusted UroLume proximal urethral stent in a 72-year-old male using a holmium laser. The literature on various management options and outcomes for urethral stent removal is reviewed. Endoscopic removal of proximal urethral stents is feasible and safe and should be considered as the primary treatment option in patients requiring stent extraction.
Botelho, Francisco; Thomas, Anil A.; Miocinovic, Ranko; Angermeier, Kenneth W.
Text Version... Smith MD et al, Spine 1993: 18, 1984. Page 3. POSTERIOR CERVICAL BONE SCREWS ... Page 4. POSTERIOR CERVICAL BONE SCREWS ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
Three boys aged 8, 5, 3 and 9 years, respectively, appeared to have urethral meatal stenosis. In the first patient this appeared during a check-up following treatment for balanitis. Patient history revealed that his micturition duration was longer than before. In the second patient, who underwent surgical correction for hypospadia, it was discovered because he took longer to urinate than his brother. In the third patient stenosis was observed during an appointment for a retracted testicle; he had been circumcised earlier for cultural reasons. Meatomy was performed under anaesthesia in all 3 patients, after which the micturition duration and stream velocity were normal. The third patient continued to have an extremely large bladder capacity and residual volume. Meatal stenosis may lead to obstructive uropathy, urinary tract infection and eventually damage to renal parenchyma. Symptomatic presentation can be late. Diagnostic tests include urine analysis and culture, and uroflowmetry. Visual inspection by spreading the meatal dimple to visualise a pinhole urethra cannot be overemphasised. PMID:16385826
Sijstermans, K; Hack, W W M; Bos, S D; van der Horst, H J R
Posterior knee pain is a common patient complaint. There are broad differential diagnoses of posterior knee pain ranging from common causes such as injury to the musculotendinous structures to less common causes such as osteochondroma. A precise understanding of knee anatomy, the physical examination, and of the differential diagnosis is needed to accurately evaluate and treat posterior knee pain. This article provides a review of the anatomy and important aspects of the history and physical examination when evaluating posterior knee pain. It concludes by discussing the causes and management of posterior knee pain.
Objective. Fetal intervention for ob- structive uropathy was first performed at the University of California, San Francisco in 1981. Indications for treat- ment were bilateral hydronephrosis with oligohydram- nios. Preintervention criteria included fetal urinary elec- trolytes with b-microglobulin levels, karyotyping, and detailed sonography specifically looking for renal corti- cal cysts. We reviewed the outcomes of children who underwent fetal intervention
Nicholas Holmes; Michael R. Harrison; Laurence S. Baskin
Anterior urethral valve is a rare congenital anomaly that can cause obstructive uropathy. Herein, we report a case of an anterior urethral valve that led to the development of febrile urinary tract infection in a neonate.
Song, Jin Hyun; Lee, Min Ho; Lee, Ji Hye; Lee, Chang Ho; Jeon, Youn Soo; Lee, Nam Kyu
This report describes the case of an eighty-two-year old lady with an indwelling urethral catheter inserted eight years prior to her presentation to manage her urinary incontinence. She underwent radiotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (stage T2b) in 1991 and had a laparotomy and drainage of an appendicular abscess in her early twenties. She presented with a short history of fecaluria, pneumaturia, and passage of urine per rectum. On laparotomy she was found to have an inflated catheter balloon that has eroded through the bladder wall into the lumen of a terminal ileal segment. To our knowledge this is the first reported case in literature of a patient developing an enterovesical fistula as a result of a urethral catheter eroding through the bladder wall into the bowel lumen. There are numerous known complications of long-term urethral catheterization. They include recurrent urinary tract infections, recurrent pyelonephritis, sepsis, urethral stricture, blocked and retained catheters, among many other reported complications. This case describes an unusual presentation secondary to an even more unusual complication. This should be considered when handling patients with indwelling urethral catheters inserted in unhealthy bladders. PMID:19657455
Hawary, Amr; Clarke, Laurence; Taylor, Alasdair; Duffy, Peter
Rapamycin has been reported to inhibit hepatic fibrosis, lung fibrosis, renal fibrosis, and subglottic stenosis. Fibrosis is also involved in urethral stricture. Therefore, we investigated the effect of rapamycin on the inhibition of urethral stricture formation in a rabbit model. First, models of urethral stricture were successfully established by electrocoagulation of the bulbar urethra in adult New Zealand male rabbits. Forty-six model rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups: high-dose rapamycin (R(H), 1.0 mg/day), low-dose rapamycin (R(L), 0.1 mg/day), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) alone (DMSO, solvent control), and normal saline (NS). Urethral stricture was assessed by a retrograde urethrogram and video-urethroscopy. Urethra pathology was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin and Sirius red staining. After 28 days of treatment, lumen reduction in the R(H), R(L), DMSO, and NS groups was 36.0, 56.5, 69.1, and 82.9, respectively. Comparison of the rapamycin groups (R(H) and R(L)) and control groups (DMSO and NS) indicated significantly less restriction in the rapamycin groups. Histopathological analysis confirmed the presence of fibroblasts and an increase in collagen at the stricture site in the two control groups but not in the R(H) or R(L) groups. These results indicate that rapamycin inhibits experimentally induced urethral stricture formation in rabbits. This effect may be due to its inhibition of fibroblast proliferation and collagen expression. PMID:21464336
A case of female false hermaphroditism is reported in a 30-year-old woman with urogenital sinus. This woman has undergone vaginoplasty and urethral transposition. The latter is not usually made in women with urogenital sinus. This leads to the position of the external urethral ostium in the depth of the newly formed vagina and, finally, to ectopia of the external urethral ostium or hypospadia. The result is that such woman suffers all life from urethritis, cystitis and vulvovaginitis. PMID:15114760
The field of tissue engineering is rapidly progressing. Much work has gone into developing a tissue engineered urethral graft. Current grafts, when long, can create initial donor site morbidity. In this article, we evaluate the progress made in finding a tissue engineered substitute for the human urethra. Researchers have investigated cell-free and cell-seeded grafts. We discuss different approaches to developing these grafts and review their reported successes in human studies. With further work, tissue engineered grafts may facilitate the management of lengthy urethral strictures requiring oral mucosa substitution urethroplasty.
The development of an artificial urethral valve for the treatment of urinary incontinence which occurs frequently in the aged is described. The prototype urethral valve is assembled in hand-drum form with four thin shape memory alloy (SMA) (nickel - titanium alloy) plates of 0.3 mm thickness. The shape memory effect in two directions is used to replace the urinary canal sphincter muscles and to control the canal opening and closing functions. The characteristic of the SMA is to assume the shape of a circular arc at normal temperatures and a flat shape at higher temperatures. Experiments have been conducted using a canine bladder and urinary canal.
Chonan, S.; Jiang, Z. W.; Tani, J.; Orikasa, S.; Tanahashi, Y.; Takagi, T.; Tanaka, M.; Tanikawa, J.
We report a unique case of successfully performed intraluminal brachytherapy for low volume urethral mucosal recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma urinary bladder, initially treated by transurethral resection of bladder tumor, followed by radical cystectomy. Since the patient was unwilling to undergo any other operational interventions, intraluminal brachytherapy of urethra was attempted. Fluroscopy guided intraluminal HDR brachytherapy using Lumencath® catheter under local anesthesia, and remote afterloading system (Nucletron, an Elekta company, Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) was performed. A fraction dose of 7 Gy in seven weekly fractions was prescribed at 0.5 cm from the single applicator. The result was promising in terms of local control and symptomatic relief. Therefore, intraluminal brachytherapy in low volume superficial local disease in urethra may play a potential role, and should be applied when repeated surgery is not feasible due to technical or medical reasons.
Posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRE) is a recent syndrome characterized by headache, vomiting, seizures, visual loss, altered mental status with or without motor or sensitive deficit. Neuroimaging demonstrates symmetrical posterior cortical and subcortical lesions. The aetiology remains uncertain but vascular hypotheses is the most retained. We report a case of a 21 year old man with posterior cerebral encephalopathy, the toxic hypo these remains the most probable. PMID:15969236
The frequency of posterior sternoclavicular dislocations represents 0.019% of the shoulder injuries in the Centre of Traumatology\\u000a and Orthopedics of Dakar. The posterior form is 0.033% compared to the anterior form. The authors report the cases of posterior\\u000a sternoclavicular dislocations, occurred with seven men and one woman. Seven of these dislocations were located on the left\\u000a side, including one case
El Hadji Souleymane Camara; Ablaye Bousso; Mouhamed Tall; Mouhamed Habib Sy
Objective-To determine risk factors for short-term recurrent urethral obstruction in cats after treatment by means of urinary catheterization and hospitalization. Design-Prospective case series. Animals-83 client-owned cats. Procedures-Physical examination findings, laboratory abnormalities, treatment decisions, and environmental changes were evaluated as risk factors for recurrent urethral obstruction in the 30 days following hospital discharge. Results-Of the 68 cats with completed follow-up surveys, 10 had an episode of recurrent urethral obstruction. Older cats were significantly more likely to have recurrent urethral obstruction. No specific laboratory abnormalities were associated with the risk of recurrent urethral obstruction. Longer duration of catheterization was significantly associated with a decreased risk of recurrent urethral obstruction. Duration of hospitalization and volume of IV fluids delivered were not significantly associated with recurrent urethral obstruction. Increasing water availability after discharge was associated with a decreased risk of recurrent urethral obstruction. There was no association between diet and recurrent urethral obstruction. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results of this study suggested that longer duration of catheterization may be associated with a lower probability of short-term recurrent urethral obstruction in male cats. Older cats were at higher risk for recurrent obstruction. Owners should be encouraged to increase water availability after discharge in cats treated for urethral obstruction to decrease the likelihood of recurrence. PMID:24094261
Eisenberg, Beth W; Waldrop, Jennifer E; Allen, Sarah E; Brisson, Jennifer O; Aloisio, Kathryn M; Horton, Nicholas J
Primary urethral cancer in females is rare. It has a poor prognosis. The published data on this topic are limited, composed mostly of small case series. This paper presents a case of an advanced adenocarcinoma of the urethra, intestinal type, treated with anterior exenteration.
Siosaki, Marcos Duarte; Machado, Roberto Dias; Souza, Ana Tarsila Fonseca; Magnabosco, Wesley Justino; Santos, Alexandre Cesar; Goncalves, Fernando Zapparoli; Pereira, Fernando Coutinho; de Araujo Silva, Carlos Flavio; Faria, Eliney Ferreira
Objectives. To determine if small intestinal submucosa (SIS) can evoke urethral regeneration.Methods. Twenty male white New Zealand rabbits were assigned to one of three experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 4) underwent simple urethrotomy and closure. Group 2 (n = 8), a second control group, underwent an onlay urethroplasty with a graft of full-thickness preputial skin from the host rabbit.
Bradley P. Kropp; John K. Ludlow; Donald Spicer; Marian K. Rippy; Stephen F. Badylak; Mark C. Adams; Michael A. Keating; Richard C. Rink; Richard Birhle; Karl B. Thor
Penile fracture is a relatively rare condition. We report an unusual case of the bilateral disruption of the corpus cavernosum with complete urethral rupture resulting from blunt trauma during sexual intercourse. The subject underwent emergency surgery with preservation of erectile and voiding functions in the follow-up. PMID:15379954
Soylu, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Ugur; Davarci, Mursel; Baydinc, Can
A 22-year-old man reported cracking sound and acute pain during sexual intercourse followed by rapid penile detumescence and ecchymosis. He experienced more pain because he could not urinate and had a palpably full bladder. Moreover, his urethra was bleeding. Physical examination revealed swollen, ecchymotic and deviated penis and penis ultrasonography showed an injury of the tunica albuginea and Buck’s fascia with an expanding hematoma. Suprapubic catheter was positioned. Surgical exploration revealed a tear of tunica albuginea of both corpora cavernosa and complete urethral dissection. End-to-end urethral anastomosis and suture of corpora cavernosa lesion were performed. Vescical catheter was mantained for 6 days and suprapubic catheter for 3 months to allow a complete urethral healing. A pseudodiverticulum was found at anastomosis level on the urethrocistography 1 month after surgery. It disappeared by allowing micturition via the suprapubic catheter. The patient presented regular urinary flow and physiological erections 30 days later. In our experience, prompt surgical repair preserved erectile function and keeping the suprapubic catheter protected the urethra; this was the correct management for repairing the urethral lesion.
Di Pierro, Giovanni B.; Iannotta, Luca; Innocenzi, Michele; Caterina, Gulia; Grande, Pietro; Cristini, Cristiano; Gentile, Vincenzo
Trospectomycin is an aminocyclitol analog of spectinomycin with significant in vitro activity against Chlamydia trachomatis. A single 1-g intramuscular dose was administered to 10 men with symptomatic, culture-positive chlamydial urethritis. Trospectomycin was well tolerated but failed to eradicate chlamydial infection, as determined by cultures obtained approximately 1 week after treatment.
Keefer, M C; Menegus, M A; Nasello, M A; Reid, J A; Long, M; Reichman, R C
Background: Posterior clinoidectomy is a useful procedure for maximizing exposure to the interpeduncular cistern via transcranial approaches for basilar tip aneurysms and select intracranial tumors. The value of posterior clinoidectomy during endonasal endoscopic transclival surgery is not well described. Methods: We performed endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal extradural bilateral posterior clinoidectomy and dorsum sella removal on five silicon-injected cadaveric heads. The dorsum sella was split in the midline and removed from medial to lateral until the posterior clinoids were encountered. The posterior clinoid was dissected from the medial wall of the cavernous sinus and mobilized medially in order to detach it from the ligaments and carefully fractured it from the bony attachment to the petrous apex and carotid canal. Following this, the clival and dorsum sella dura was opened to expose the interpeduncular cistern and its contents. Results: The technical feasibility of endoscopic endonasal extradural posterior clinoidectomy was reproduced in all five cadaveric specimens. This technique was performed without damaging the vital structures, including preservation of the pituitary gland. After performing bilateral posterior clinoidectomy, the retrosellar dura was opened, allowing good visualization of the contents of the prepontine and interpeduncular cistern. Conclusion: We describe the technique of endoscopic endonasal extradural posterior clinoidectomy. We believe this approach is best suited for retrosellar pathology located in the interpeduncular cistern and is a useful adjunct to the transclival approach to increase the field of view and maximize the extent of resection.
INTRODUCTION Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) is a rare entity. Most cases occur in children, following an injury from the bicycle handle bar. In adults, it usually results from road traffic accidents (RTA). We present one of the largest reported cases of TAWH following RTA managed by delayed mesh repair. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 35 yr old obese male with RTA was diagnosed with TAWH with 19 cm × 15 cm defect in left flank. As there were no intra abdominal injuries and overlying skin was abraded, he was planned for elective repair after 6 months. On exploration a defect of 30 cm × 45 cm was found extending from midline anteriorly to 8 cm short of midline posteriorly in transverse axis and costal margin to iliac crest in craniocaudal axis. After restoration of bowel into abdominal cavity, primary closure or even approximation of muscular defect was not possible thus a mesh closure using 60 cm × 60 cm prolene mesh in subcutaneous plane was done. After 4 months follow up, patient is healthy and has no recurrence. DISCUSSION Emergent surgical management of TAWH is usually favoured due to high incidence of associated intra abdominal injuries. Delayed repair may be undertaken in selected cases. CONCLUSION TAWH, although rare, should be suspected in cases of RTA with abdominal wall swellings. With time, the hernia defect may enlarge and muscles may undergo atrophy making delayed repair difficult.
The posterior bone block procedure is an uncommon surgical procedure used in the treatment of posterior shoulder instability.\\u000a The purpose of this study is to report the results of the posterior bone block procedure in the treatment of posterior shoulder\\u000a instability. We retrospectively reviewed 21 shoulders that had undergone a posterior bone block procedure in the treatment\\u000a of recurrent posterior
Elvire Servien; Gilles Walch; Zenia E. Cortes; T. Bradley Edwards; Daniel P. O’Connor
Posterior scleritis is an inflammatory process of the posterior part of the sclera. Its prevalence is very low and its diagnosis can be complicated due to the absence of external ocular signs. It is more frequent in women. In young patients it does not usually have other associated pathologies, but in those over 55 years nearly one-third of the cases have a relation with some systemic disease, above all rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis of this pathology can require a multidisciplinary approach and the collaboration of ophthalmologists with neurologists, internists or rheumatologists. This article describes a case of idiopathic bilateral posterior scleritis. PMID:21904415
Zurutuza, A; Andonegui, J; Berástegui, L; Arruti, N
Posterior knee dislocation results in popliteal artery injury in up to one-third of cases. Prompt recognition and treatment of arterial injury is essential for limb salvage. We report a case of complete occlusion of the popliteal artery following posterior knee dislocation treated with saphenous vein bypass without exclusion of the injured arterial segment. Follow-up duplex scanning demonstrated a patent vein graft and a patent ipsilateral popliteal artery. This report suggests that, in some instances, a traumatically occluded popliteal artery may recanalize, and that revascularization with a bypass graft may be the preferred method of repair, particularly in young patients. PMID:10541618
conclusion: Our experience suggests that closed reduction compares favorably with open reduction. 38% of patients evaluated, required only closed reduction as their defini- tive treatment. Moreover, once the joint has been reduced closed, it is usually stable. In the present series, early recognition of injury followed by closed reduction and figure-of- eight immobilization was highly successful, and obviated the risks
Michael A. Wirth; Gordon I. Groh; Charles A. Rockwood Jr.
... into two pieces, and the knee joint is unstable. Posterior cruciate ligament tears tend to be partial ... cause a limp Difficulty walking The knee feels unstable, like it may "give out" Top of page ...
A case of stricture of membranous urethra was treated with medicated oil used as Uttara Basti (administration of medicated oil through urethra) once daily for seven consecutive days. The treatment was repeated at a monthly interval for two months. The patient obtained remarkable improvement in his condition. This case highlights the fact that it is possible to treat the cases of urethral stricture with Uttara Basti. PMID:22557426
A case of stricture of membranous urethra was treated with medicated oil used as Uttara Basti (administration of medicated oil through urethra) once daily for seven consecutive days. The treatment was repeated at a monthly interval for two months. The patient obtained remarkable improvement in his condition. This case highlights the fact that it is possible to treat the cases of urethral stricture with Uttara Basti.
No information has been available to date on the long-term behavior of nitinol (nickel-titanium alloy) urethral stents. In the present study, prostheses of this type were implanted in 18 German shepherd dogs in order to evaluate the reaction of the mucosa, muscles and periurethral tissue. Follow-up examinations performed after 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months included
D. Latal; J. Mraz; P. Zerhau; M. Susani; M. Marberger
: The various diagnostic and therapeutic modalities currently in use for urethral diverticula are reviewed. Various radiographic\\u000a techniques have been reported, but only voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) and positive-pressure urethrography (PPU) are currently\\u000a utilized. Urethroscopy is another suitable technique for diagnosis. Various sonographic techniques have been proposed, but\\u000a their sensitivity is improved only by the transvaginal approach and magnetic resonance imaging
OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence of self-treatment in men with new episode non gonococcal urethritis (NGU). METHOD--Three hundred consecutive men with new episode NGU attending an open access genitourinary medicine clinic were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Details of treatment used before attending the clinic were obtained. RESULTS--Thirty (10%) men had used treatment, for an average of 7 days, prior to
Seventy women with stress urinary incontinence underwent simultaneous voiding-urethrocystometry using microtip transducers and an 8-channel recorder, before and three to twelve months after either the modified Burch (48/70) or the modified Pereyra (22/70) retropubic urethropexy. Increase in urethral resistance (p less than 0.005) was more marked following the Pereyra procedure (0.042 +/- 0.039 to 0.07 +/- 0.061) and 30 percent experienced postoperative voiding difficulties, compared with the Burch procedure (0.035 +/- 0.029 to 0.055 +/- 0.03) where 20 percent experienced postoperative voiding difficulties. Of those patients who voided without a detrusor contraction prior to surgery (35/70), in 50 percent a detrusor contraction component developed to their voiding mechanism postoperatively (p less than 0.05) and overcame the increased urethral resistance with no postoperative voiding difficulties. In the remaining 50 percent a detrusor contraction failed to develop during postoperative voiding and 90 percent of them demonstrated reduced flow rates and increased use of Valsalva maneuver, and needed prolonged postoperative bladder drainage prior to resumption of spontaneous voiding (p less than 0.005). Inability to develop a detrusor contraction during voiding in face of increased urethral resistance promoted by the incontinence surgery provided a suitable explanation for post surgery voiding difficulties in 20 to 30 percent of patients. PMID:2637690
The various diagnostic and therapeutic modalities currently in use for urethral diverticula are reviewed. Various radiographic techniques have been reported, but only voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) and positive-pressure urethrography (PPU) are currently utilized. Urethroscopy is another suitable technique for diagnosis. Various sonographic techniques have been proposed, but their sensitivity is improved only by the transvaginal approach and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Various treatment methods have been proposed. The standard operative approach is surgical, through the vagina. The techniques currently in use to treat urethral diverticula are the Spence procedure, the typical urethral diverticulectomy, and the Tancer partial ablation technique. A full history, and physical examination is the first step in screening. When the diagnosis is suspected ultrasound and radiological imaging is necessary. Sonography is the first non-invasive examination to be performed. In negative cases it is imperative to perform a PPU or MRI. Symptomatic and very large diverticula must be treated in the easiest way possible. The best treatment, except for complicated and infected diverticula, is excision. PMID:11294533
Traumatic dislocation of the hip in childhood is uncommon and can be a consequence of minor trauma. The authors report a series of 35 dislocations in skeletally immature patients. Most were isolated posterior dislocations without acetabular lesions. In 75% of cases, reduction of the dislocation was easy. Nine children required surgery to remove interposed joint capsule and/or osteochondral fragments to achieve anatomic reduction. Outcomes were generally good, except in one patient in whom a displaced fracture of the femoral physis was followed by total head avascular necrosis. One case of partial necrosis had a satisfactory outcome. Epiphyseal necrosis, though uncommon, appeared to be inconsistent to prevent and hard to predict. Bone scan seems to be more effective than MRI for the detection of necrosis. PMID:15718889
The purpose of this work was to assess the feasibility of urethral catheter removal 3 days after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). Twenty-two patients who underwent RRP with a watertight eight-suture vesicourethral anastomosis had their urethral catheter removed usually on postoperative day (POD) 3. The average day of urethral catheter removal was POD 3.2. At 3 months, 56% of patients required no or one protective pad to stay dry and 68.4% of patients 'never leaked' or 'leaked occasionally'. Following RRP, the urethral catheter can be removed as early as POD 3 if the intraoperative anastomosis is watertight without compromising urinary continence. PMID:12627214
Aim: To study the effect of nonclosure of rectourethral (RU) fistula and to do a comparative analysis of the complications with and without nonclosure of RU fistula during posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) in anorectal malformation cases (ARM). Materials and Methods: A total of 68 cases of ARM were included in the study group, of which 34 cases were those in whom RU fistula was not closed (group A) during PSARP. Another 34 successive cases were included in study group B in whom the RU fistula was closed as is conventionally done by using interrupted sutures. Results: Comparatively, group A had none or minimum urological complications as compared to Group B. Conclusion: RU fistula closure is not mandatory during PSARP and nonclosure avoids urological complications. It especially avoids urethral complications, which are 100% preventable.
The tibialis posterior tendon is the largest and anteriormost tendon in the medial ankle. It produces plantar flexion and supination of the ankle and stabilizes the plantar vault. Sonographic assessment of this tendon is done with high-frequency, linear-array transducers; an optimal examination requires transverse retromalleolar, longitudinal retromalleolar, and distal longitudinal scans, as well as dynamic studies. Disorders of the posterior tibial tendon include chronic tendinopathy with progressive rupture, tenosynovitis, acute rupture, dislocation and instability, enthesopathies. The most common lesion is a progressive “chewing gum” lesion that develops in a setting of chronic tendinopathy; it is usually seen in overweight women over 50 years of age with valgus flat feet. Medial ankle pain must also be carefully investigated, and the presence of instability assessed with dynamic maneuvers (forced inversion, or dorsiflexion) of the foot. Sonography plays an important role in the investigation of disorders involving the posterior tibial tendon.
Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) of the posterior fossa is very rare in childhood. It represent 0.52% of all subdural hematomas. We report a case of post-traumatic acute subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa in a 4-year-old child who was drowsy, without a neurologic defect. The CT scan revealed a simple ASDH, with a good recovery after surgical treatment. The literature is reviewed, clinical and therapeutic aspects are discussed. PMID:12736580
Hilmani, S; Bertal, A; El Malki, M; Sami, A; Achouri, M; Ouboukhlik, A; El Kamar, A; El Azhari, A
Objectives:To determine the prevalence of urethritis pathogens amongst male symptomatic urethritis (MUS) patients, genital ulcer (GUS) patients without urethritis symptoms and men requesting HIV testing at a voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) clinic.Methods:A prospective study was conducted in Johannesburg, South Africa. Men from the three groups were screened for urethritis pathogens using molecular tests. Culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and, initially,
V Black; P Magooa; F Radebe; M Myers; C Pillay; D A Lewis
We present a case of syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis, an uncommon but distinct ocular manifestation of syphilis. Because of the ocular findings, a lumbar puncture was performed to evaluate for neurosyphilis, which was positive. The ocular symptoms resolved with intravenous penicillin. PMID:24113406
Summary: Three cases of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) laxity without posterolateral rotatory instability had magnetic resonance imaging scans that documented the structural continuity of the PCL. Tibial PCL recession was effective in eliminating symptomatic laxity in 1 case and lacked efficacy in the other 2 cases.Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, Vol 15, No 6 (July), 1999: pp
This study evaluated the outcomes, complications, and recurrence rates of posterior cranial fossa meningiomas. We retrospectively reviewed our surgical experience with 64 posterior cranial fossa meningiomas. Mean age was 56 years with a female preponderance (67.2%). Headache was the most common symptom. Retrosigmoid approach was the commonest surgical procedure (23.4%). The incidence of cranial nerve related complications was 28%. Postoperatively facial nerve weakness was observed in 11%. The incidence of cerebrospinal fluid leak was 4.6%. Gross total resection was achieved in 37 patients (58%). Sixteen patients (25%) with residual tumors underwent Gamma knife radiosurgery. Recurrence or tumor progression was observed in 12 patients (18.7%). Operative mortality was 3.1%. At their last follow-up, 93% of the cases achieved Glasgow Outcome Scale scores 4 or 5. Total excision is the ideal goal which can be achieved with meningiomas located in certain location, such as lateral convexity, but for other posterior fossa meningiomas the close proximity of critical structures is a major obstacle in achieving this goal. In practicality, a balance between good functional outcome and extent of resection is important for posterior cranial fossa meningiomas in proximity to critical structures.
We present a method to compute the conditional distribution of a statistical shape model given partial data. The result is a "posterior shape model", which is again a statistical shape model of the same form as the original model. This allows its direct use in the variety of algorithms that include prior knowledge about the variability of a class of shapes with a statistical shape model. Posterior shape models then provide a statistically sound yet easy method to integrate partial data into these algorithms. Usually, shape models represent a complete organ, for instance in our experiments the femur bone, modeled by a multivariate normal distribution. But because in many application certain parts of the shape are known a priori, it is of great interest to model the posterior distribution of the whole shape given the known parts. These could be isolated landmark points or larger portions of the shape, like the healthy part of a pathological or damaged organ. However, because for most shape models the dimensionality of the data is much higher than the number of examples, the normal distribution is singular, and the conditional distribution not readily available. In this paper, we present two main contributions: First, we show how the posterior model can be efficiently computed as a statistical shape model in standard form and used in any shape model algorithm. We complement this paper with a freely available implementation of our algorithms. Second, we show that most common approaches put forth in the literature to overcome this are equivalent to probabilistic principal component analysis (PPCA), and Gaussian Process regression. To illustrate the use of posterior shape models, we apply them on two problems from medical image analysis: model-based image segmentation incorporating prior knowledge from landmarks, and the prediction of anatomically correct knee shapes for trochlear dysplasia patients, which constitutes a novel medical application. Our experiments confirm that the use of conditional shape models for image segmentation improves the overall segmentation accuracy and robustness. PMID:23837968
Albrecht, Thomas; Lüthi, Marcel; Gerig, Thomas; Vetter, Thomas
INTRODUCTION: We present a case of nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testes with acute urinary retention secondary to urethral metastasis. This presentation, and similar cases of urethral metastasis from this tumor, have not been reported previously. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35-year-old Caucasian man presented to hospital with a history of acute urinary retention. On examination he was found to have
Vijay Agarwal; Tze Wah; Sameer Chilka; Johnathan Joffe; Dan Stark
In May 1961, a Navy venereal disease research team was sent to a U. S. Naval Station in Luzon, Republic of the Philippines, to study and determine the nature of a urethritis problem in that area. Detailed studies on 20 urethritis patients revealed the mul...
M. C. Shepard C. E. Alexander C. D. Lunceford P. E. Campbell
Urethral prolapse is a circular protrusion of the distal urethra through the external meatus. It is very rare condition seen mostly in black premenercheal black girl and occasionally in postmenopausal white women. We present a case of spontaneous urethral prolapse in 63-year-old postmenopousal white women with succesful management with estrogen treatment. PMID:23427747
Objectives.Accurate determination of the size and extent of urethral diverticula can be important in planning operative reconstruction and repair. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is currently the most commonly used study in the preoperative evaluation of urethral diverticula. We reviewed our experience with the use of endoluminal (endorectal or endovaginal) magnetic resonance imaging (eMRI) in these patients as an adjunctive study to
Daniel S Blander; Eric S Rovner; Mitchell D Schnall; Parvati Ramchandani; Marc P Banner; Gregory A Broderick; Alan J Wein
Objective: To assess whether syndromic management of genital ulcer disease was sound, if based on the premise that men with genital ulcers rarely have a concomitant urethral infection.Methods: Specimens were taken in 1998 from 186 mine workers in Carletonville, South Africa, who were seen consecutively with genital ulcers. The specimens comprised a swab from the ulcer, a urethral swab for
R C Ballard; H G Fehler; Y Htun; F Radebe; J S Jensen; D Taylor-Robinson
We evaluated 236 asymptomatic men for urethritis, assessed sexual behaviors, and tested urine for pathogens. Asymptomatic urethritis was present in 38 (16.1%). Of these, nearly half (42.1%) had a previously unrecognized discharge on examination; only 18.4% had a known pathogen. Correlates included black race, anal intercourse, and number of sex partners. PMID:23407472
Gillespie, Catherine W; Manhart, Lisa E; Lowens, M Sylvan; Golden, Matthew R
Objective: To determine whether new coating materials (silver and hydrogel) or immersion in antibiotic solution may reduce or prevent bacterial adhesion to urethral catheters.Methods: Precut segment of Teflon–, silver– and hydrogel–coated urethral catheters were incubated with two uropathogenic bacterial strains with and without previous immersion in antibiotic solution. Tobramycin, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin solutions were used as these antibiotics are commonly
L. Cormio; P. La Forgia; D. La Forgia; A. Siitonen; M. Ruutu
We tested the first portion of voided urine (FVU) and urethral swab from 80 patients with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) using a novel enzymeamplified immunoassay (IDEIA) for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen. Urine specimens were positive in all patients with positive urethral swabs (positive coincidence ratio, 100%) and in 6 of 54 patients with negative swabs (negative coincidence ratio, 88.9%).
M. Tanaka; T. Matsumoto; J. Kumazawa; H. Nakayama; Y. Miyazaki
ObjectivesTo perform a comparison to determine which of two methods of partial urethral ligation produces the most consistent outcome and fewest side effects. Such a study has not been previously reported. Partial urethral ligation is a means of causing reproducible bladder outlet obstruction. In the male rat model, partial urethral obstruction can be performed either by perineal incision and bulbous
Arnold Melman; Moses Tar; Judd Boczko; George Christ; Albert C. Leung; Weixin Zhao; Robert G. Russell
Very concise description of what constitutes a traumatic brain injury and the cost to society in hospitalizations, injuries and deaths resulting from traumatic brain injury. It also looks very concisely at new understandings of the nature of TBIs and the research being done to find better treatments.
Unilateral and bilateral sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) dislocations are rare injuries. The difficulty in assessing this condition often leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. We report a rare case of bilateral asymmetrical traumatic SCJ dislocations in a 45-year-old male. The right anterior SCJ dislocation was reduced in the emergency room (ER) and resulted in residual instability. The left posterior SCJ dislocation was asymptomatic and unnoticed for six months. It is important for ER physicians and orthopaedic surgeons to be able identify and treat this condition. All suspected SCJ dislocations should be evaluated by computed tomography (CT) scan for confirmation of the diagnosis and evaluation of both SCJs. Posterior SCJ dislocation is a potentially fatal injury and should not be overlooked due to the presence of other injuries. Surgical intervention is often necessary in acute and old cases.
Study design A unique case of lumbosacral lateral dislocation without fracture is reported.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective To report on the diagnosis and treatment of a traumatic L5-S1 lateral dislocation in a polytrauma 34-year-old male with L5\\u000a nerve root paralysis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method Interbody fusion following decompression, posterior reduction and interbody grafting combined with posterior plating was performed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results At an early stage the patient was able to return
Three patients with retinal detachments complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy underwent posteriorly located relaxing retinotomy to facilitate retinal reattachment. Six months postoperatively the retina remained attached in all cases, with an improvement in visual acuity in two cases (light perception to hand motion and 20/200 to 20/60) and a drop of one line in visual acuity in the third (20/20 to 20/25). PMID:2812694
At the department of the sport and ballet trauma new methods of arthroscopic management of posterior posttraumatic knee instability (posterior static stabilization of knee joint with using of single-banded and double-banded transplants) in dependence on the kind, degree and form of instability, were worked out and implemented into clinical practice. Such methods permit to attain a compensated or subcompensated form of knee joint stability. Ad hoc methods of management were used in 23 patients (20 males and 3 females). A total of 62 patients (51 males and 11 females) got operative treatment at the department, that permitted us to estimate fairly different methods of operative treatment of posttraumatic posterior knee joint instability. An operational intervention was performed in average 6 month after trauma. We received data in patients which had been treated with use of new methods of operative treatment as follows: good results were drawn in 93.3% (22 patients), satisfactory results--in 6.7% of cases (1 patient). PMID:18819354
Clinically and pathologically there are two kinds of posterior subcapsular cataracts: vacuolar-lacy and solid plaque. Vacuolar opacities occur in senile, diabetic, retinitis pigmentosa, steroid, and secondary cataracts (Elschnig pearls). Plaque opacities occur in congenital polar, myotonic dystrophy, and Turner syndrome (chromosome XO) cataracts. The vacuolar opacities tend to be more superficial (closer to the posterior capsule), whereas the plaque opacities are generally slightly deeper (more cortical). The vacuolar opacities show cellular proliferation of aberrantly migrated lens epithelial cells in the posterior pole which have added damage to the cataract by secretion of basement membrane, intra- and extra-cellular filaments, and release of cytolytic lysozymes causing liquefaction and necrosis. The plaque opacities are acellular. Both types of cataracts show breakdown of lens fibres into rounded up disorganized globules and some membranous whorls. The liquefied vacuolar opacity is more readily removed by extracapsular cataract extraction, but the retention of nucleated lens epithelial cells in the vacuolar type of opacity is the source of a secondary cataract or Hirchberg-Elschnig pearls which require a discussion or membranectomy to clear the visual axis. This article will review the salient features in the histopathology (light and electron microscopy) and morphology of PSC and amalgamate the findings reported by several investigators (Eshagian and Streeten, 1975; Eshagian, March, Goossens, and Rafferty, 1978, 1978; Eshagian, Rafferty, and Goossens, 1980, 1981; Eshagian, Rafferty, Goossens, and March, 1979; 1980; Streeten and Eshagian, 1978). PMID:6964282
The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of the KTP 532 laser to direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU) in the management of urethral strictures. A total of 32 patients were randomized prospectively in this study, 14 DVIU and 18 KTP 532 laser. Patients were evaluated postoperatively with flowmetry and in the case of recurrence with cystourethrography at 3, 12, 24 weeks. With the KTP 532 laser complete symptomatic and urodynamic success was achieved in 15 (83%) patients at 12 and 24 weeks. Success rate was lower in the DVIU group with 9 (64%) patients at 12 weeks and 8 (57%) patients at 24 weeks. With the KTP mean preoperative peak-flow was improved from 6 cc/s to 20 cc/s at 3, 12 and 24 weeks. With DVIU mean preoperative peak-flow was improved from 5.5 cc/s to 20 cc/s at 3 weeks followed by a steady decrease to 13 cc/s at 12 weeks and to 12 cc/s 24 weeks. No complications were observed in either group of patients. Our results confirm that stricture vaporization with the KTP 532 laser is a safe and efficient procedure. It thus represents a valuable alternative in the endoscopic treatment of urethral strictures.
Schmidlin, Franz R.; Oswald, Michael; Iselin, Christoph E.; Jichlinski, Patrice; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Leisinger, Hans-Jurg; Graber, Peter
|This paper on traumatic brain injuries begins with statistics on the incidence of the disorder, especially as they relate to Colorado. Traumatic brain injury is then defined, and problems caused by traumatic brain injury are discussed. The components of effective programming for students with traumatic brain injuries are described, followed by…
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Special Education Services Unit.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an increasingly recognized and potentially preventable condition. Certain factors, especially the severity of the trauma, perceived lack of social support and peri-traumatic dissociation have been associated with its development. In recent years, a more robust evidence base regarding the management of individuals involved in traumatic events has emerged. Immediately after a traumatic event, simple practical,
Trauma therapy influences the personal and professional lives of therapists as they cope with the secondary traumatic stress associated with treating trauma survivors. Therapists go through an internal process as they try both to make sense out of the stories they hear from clients, and to integrate those stories into their own existing cognitive schemas. During this process of integration,
Prior structural imaging studies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have observed smaller volumes of the hippocampus and cingulate cortex, yet little is known about the integrity of white matter connections between these structures in PTSD samples. The few published studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure white matter integrity in PTSD have described individuals with focal trauma rather than chronically stressed individuals, which limits generalization of findings to this population; in addition, these studies have lacked traumatized comparison groups without PTSD. The present DTI study examined microstructural integrity of white matter tracts in a sample of highly traumatized African-American women with (n=25) and without (n=26) PTSD using a tract-based spatial statistical approach, with threshold-free cluster enhancement. Our findings indicated that, relative to comparably traumatized controls, decreased integrity (measured by fractional anisotropy) of the posterior cingulum was observed in participants with PTSD (p<0.05). These findings indicate that reduced microarchitectural integrity of the cingulum, a white matter fiber that connects the entorhinal and cingulate cortices, appears to be associated with PTSD symptomatology. The role of this pathway in problems that characterize PTSD, such as inadequate extinction of learned fear, as well as attention and explicit memory functions, are discussed.
Prior structural imaging studies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have observed smaller volumes of the hippocampus and cingulate cortex, yet little is known about the integrity of white matter connections between these structures in PTSD samples. The few published studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure white matter integrity in PTSD have described individuals with focal trauma rather than chronically stressed individuals, which limits generalization of findings to this population; in addition, these studies have lacked traumatized comparison groups without PTSD. The present DTI study examined microstructural integrity of white matter tracts in a sample of highly traumatized African-American women with (n=25) and without (n=26) PTSD using a tract-based spatial statistical approach, with threshold-free cluster enhancement. Our findings indicated that, relative to comparably traumatized controls, decreased integrity (measured by fractional anisotropy) of the posterior cingulum was observed in participants with PTSD (p<0.05). These findings indicate that reduced microarchitectural integrity of the cingulum, a white matter fiber that connects the entorhinal and cingulate cortices, appears to be associated with PTSD symptomatology. The role of this pathway in problems that characterize PTSD, such as inadequate extinction of learned fear, as well as attention and explicit memory functions, are discussed. PMID:22871912
Post-traumatic hallux valgus is an uncommon condition with sporadic reports. The deformity usually develops in a gradual manner following direct injury to the first ray; including injury to the first metatarsophalangeal joint, the first metatarsal bone or the first metatarsal-cuneiform joint. A case of acute traumatic hallux valgus following metatarsal neck fractures of the lesser rays is reported. We believe that understanding the importance of the transverse 'tie-bar' system in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic hallux valgus deformity avoids unnecessary surgery to the great toe. PMID:23688849
Purpose The circular fasciocutaneous skin flap technique (FCF) yields excellent short-term results for complex anterior urethral reconstruction.\\u000a We performed an observational retrospective and descriptive study to report our long-term experience.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A total of 36 adults with anterior urethral strictures (AUS) exceeding 3 cm underwent single-stage urethroplasty using the\\u000a FCF. Exclusion criteria were: lichen sclerosus, absence of the urethral plate and hypospadias. All
Christian Schwentner; Joerg Seibold; Daniela Colleselli; Saladin H. Alloussi; Georgios Gakis; David Schilling; Karl-Dietrich Sievert; Arnulf Stenzl; Christian Radmayr
Urethral pressure is made up of three components, equal in size: the striated muscle component, the smooth muscle component, and the vascular component. Anti-embolism stockings have been helpful in bringing about significant improvement in blood flow through the lower extremities. A pilot study was undertaken with 15 women to find out whether or not the same approach led to increase in urethral pressure. Simultaneous urethrocystometry was applied to women with and without stockings. Significant rise in urethral pressure was recorded from women with urinary stress incontinence who used stockings. Four of eight incontinent women were improved to continence by means of stockings. PMID:7200307
The peripheral cutting balloon has been used to treat various nonvascular strictures as well as vascular stenosis. In this article, we describe for the first time the use of the cutting balloon in the treatment of patients with urethral stricture. Four patients with bulbar urethral stricture were included in the study. All strictures were successfully dilated with the cutting balloon, and patients were free of symptoms at 6-month follow-up. Cutting-balloon dilatation is a safe, easy-to-perform, and effective treatment for patients with tight urethral strictures.
Yildirim, Erkan, E-mail: email@example.com [Baskent University Medical School Ankara, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Cicek, Tufan; Istanbulluoglu, Okan; Ozturk, Bulent [Baskent University Medical School Ankara, Department of Urology (Turkey)
A 2-year-old male mixed dog was referred to us for further evaluation and treatment of a 4-week-history of oliguria and abdominal distension after a surgical repair of urethral injury. To relieve the urethral stricture, we placed a self-expanding aortic stent graft extension with a partial coverage with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). After the placement of the stent, the dog presented with a normal urinary voiding, despite the presence of urinary incontinence. The current case indicates that the ePTFE-covered, self-expanding ASGE is an effective intervention for the treatment of severe urethral stricture in the dog. PMID:23676211
Bae, Jae Hyun; Kwon, Yong Hwan; Jung, Ye Chan; Jung, Ji Mo; Lee, Hae Beom; Lee, Ki Chang; Kim, Nam Soo; Kim, Min-Su
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is characterised by progressive decline in visuospatial, visuoperceptual, literacy, and praxic skills. The progressive neurodegeneration affecting parietal, occipital, and occipitotemporal cortices that underlies PCA is attributable to Alzheimer's disease in most patients. However, alternative underlying causes, including dementia with Lewy bodies, corticobasal degeneration, and prion disease, have also been identified, and not all patients with PCA have atrophy on clinical imaging. This heterogeneity has led to inconsistencies in diagnosis and terminology and difficulties in comparing studies from different centres, and has restricted the generalisability of findings from clinical trials and investigations of factors that drive phenotypic variability. Important challenges remain, including the identification of factors associated not only with the selective vulnerability of posterior cortical regions but also with the young age of onset of PCA. Greater awareness of the syndrome and agreement over the correspondence between syndrome-level and disease-level classifications are needed to improve diagnostic accuracy, clinical management, and the design of research studies. PMID:22265212
Crutch, Sebastian J; Lehmann, Manja; Schott, Jonathan M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rossor, Martin N; Fox, Nick C
... Drives Brain Injury Science Army Refines Management of Concussion Military Leads in Brain Injury Care Therapist Uses ... Post-traumatic Stress Marines in Afghanistan Test New Concussion Care Department Makes 'Great Strides' in Brain-injury ...
... ears Feeling tired Changes in mood Trouble thinking, concentrating or remembering Symptoms of a moderate or severe traumatic brain injury include all of the symptoms listed above as well as: Vomiting or ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head Injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...
Blunt traumatic vertebral injury (TVAI) is frequently associated with head and neck injury and is being detected with increasing\\u000a frequency due to improved imaging of the trauma patient. In a few cases, it can lead to potentially fatal posterior circulation\\u000a ischaemia There is debate in the literature regarding whether TVAI should be actively screened for and, if so, how. Management
R. M. deSouza; M. J. Crocker; N. Haliasos; A. Rennie; A. Saxena
We describe a rare case of traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the maxillary artery following a fall. The patient presented with epistaxis that could not be controlled with anterior and posterior nasal packing. She was urgently taken to the angiography suite for evaluation and ultimately underwent embolization of a left maxillary artery pseudoaneurysm with 500–700?micron Contour PVA followed by coiling with two 3?mm Tornado coils. Bleeding subsided after embolization, and the patient suffered no neurologic sequelae.
Acute traumatic patellar dislocation is a common injury in the active and young adult populations. MRI of the knee is recommended in all patients who present with acute patellar dislocation. Numerous operative and non-operative methods have been described to treat the injuries; however, the ideal management of the acute traumatic patellar dislocation in young adults is still in debate. This article is intended to review the studies to the subjects of epidemiology, initial examination and management.
In addition to the typical triad of the prune belly syndrome, comprising abdominal wall muscle deficiency, urinary tract dilatation and cryptorchidism, anomalies of the lower urinary tract and genitalia can occur. Between January 1974 and December 1978 we evaluated and treated 19 boys with prune belly syndrome. All boys had an abnormally wide bladder neck and prostatic urethra, and 13 (68 per cent) also had malformations of the bulbous or pendulous urethra and/or corporeal bodies of the penis. Although the etiology of these findings is uncertain we assume that they are part of the same developmental disturbance that affects the remainder of the urinary system. Our description of these urethral and penile abnormalities in boys with prune belly syndrome should provide an impetus to develop a systematic method for seeking and recording these abnormalities, and for establishing their true incidence and clinical relevance. PMID:7057514
Advances in endoscopic instrumentation and techniques have expanded our armamentarium for safe and effective treatment of urethral strictures. Endoscopic incision or dilation should remain the preferred treatment for uncomplicated primary strictures. Balloon dilation can be useful in the treatment of dense strictures. Incision using laser energy has yet to provide better results than procedures employing a cold knife. As such, it would be difficult to justify the added expense of laser urethrotomy. Endoscopic placement of free skin grafts into the bed of the urethra after transurethral resection or deep incision of the stricture is a novel approach that has shown a great deal of promise. Endourethroplasty is a reasonable alternative to open urethroplasty when treating long strictures, as more than 90% of the reported patients have had a successful outcome with no recurrence. However, larger experience with this procedure is necessary to verify its efficacy and for greater acceptance. The placement of indwelling stents is another new promising treatment option. Overall short-term success rates range from 75% to 100%, but the follow-up period is short, and little is known about the long-term risks of an indwelling foreign body in the urethra. Endoscopic incision via "cut-to-the-light" or "core-through" procedures is an excellent alternative in patients with obliterative strictures. Data from several centers reveal that the majority of patients gain relief of obstruction while maintaining continence and erectile potency. However, at least 25% of these patients will need further endoscopic management to maintain urethral patency. PMID:7780428
INTRODUCTION: Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome was introduced into clinical practice in 1996 in order to describe unique syndrome, clinically expressed during hypertensive and uremic encephalopathy, eclampsia and during immunosuppressive therapy . First clinical investigations showed that leucoencephalopathy is major characteristic of the syndrome, but further investigations showed no significant destruction in white cerebral tissue [2, 3, 4]. In majority of cases changes are localise in posterior irrigation area of the brain and in the most severe cases anterior region is also involved. Taking into consideration all above mentioned facts, the suggested term was Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) for the syndrome clinically expressed by neurological manifestations derived from cortical and subcortical changes localised in posterior regions of cerebral hemispheres, cerebral trunk and cerebellum . CASE REPORT: Patient, aged 53 years, was re-hospitalized in Cardiovascular Institute "Dediwe" two months after successful aorto-coronary bypass performed in June 2001 due to the chest bone infection. During the treatment of the infection (according to the antibiogram) in September 2001, patient in evening hours developed headache and blurred vision. The recorded blood pressure was 210/120 mmHg so antihypertensive treatment was applied (Nifedipin and Furosemid). After this therapy there was no improvement and intensive headache with fatigue and loss of vision developed. Neurological examination revealed cortical blindness and left hemiparesis. Manitol (20%, 60 ccm every 3 hours) and i.v. Nytroglicerin (high blood pressure). Brain CT revealed oedema of parieto-occipital regions of both hemispheres, more emphasized on the right. (Figure 1a, b, c). There was no sign of focal ischemia even in deeper sections (Figure 1d, e, f). Following three days enormous high blood pressure values were registered. On the fourth day the significant clinical improvement occurred with lowering of blood pressure, better mental state and better vision. There was no sign of left hemiparesis on the 7th day. On the 9th day there were no symptoms or sign of disease. Control brain CT (15th day) was normal. ETHIOPATHOGENESIS: Most common causes of PRES are hypertensive encephalopathy [6-8], pre-eclampsia/eclampsia [9-12] cyclosporin A administration [13-22] and uremic encephalopathy . There are several theories about the mechanism for PRES in hypertensive encephalopathy (reversible vasospasm and hyperperfusion) and administration of cyclosporin A (neurotoxic effect). CLINICAL PICTURE: Most common symptoms are headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, behavioural changes, changes of conciousness (from somnolencia to stupor), vision disturbances (blurred vision, haemianopsia, cortical blindness) and epileptic manifestations (mostly focal attacks with secondary generalisation). Mental functions are characterised with decreased activity and reactivity, confusion, loss of concentration and mild type of amnesia. Lethargy is often initial sign, sometimes accompanied with phases of agitation. Stupor and coma rarely occurred. DIAGNOSIS: In patients with hypertensive encephalopathy and eclampsia high blod pressure is registered. Neurological examination revealed vision changes and damages of mental function as well as increased reflex activity. Today, brain MRI and CT are considered the most important diagnostic method for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with PRES . Brain MRI better detects smaller focal parenhim abnormalities than brain CT. The most often neuroradiological finding is relatively symmetrical oedema of white cerebral tissue in parieto-occipital regions of both cerebral hemispheres. Gray cerebral tissue is sometimes involved, usually in mild form of disease. Diagnosis of this "cortical" form of PRES is possible by MR FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery) technique . TREATMENT: Therapeutic strategy depends on the cause of PRES and clinical picture. Most important are blood pres
Urethral strictures and bladder neck contractures occur in 5-20% of prostate cancer surgeries, causing incontinence. Conventional stricture treatments have widely variable success rates with sub-optimal results. Treatment failure is presumably due to mech...
Urethral and bladder neck strictures occur in 5-20 % of all prostate cancer surgeries, resulting in urinary incontinence. Conventional treatments for stricture have widely variable success rates with sub-optimal longterm results. The failure of these trea...
PurposeWe determined the effectiveness of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA*) topical cream for anesthesia during urethral meatotomy performed in an office setting.*Astra USA, Inc., Westboro, Massachusetts.
Patrick C. Cartwright; Brent W. Snow; Debra C. McNees
SUMMARY Conventional and diffusion tensor MR imaging studies in twins sustaining severe pediatric traumatic brain injury identified reduction in fractional anisotropy (FA) in all regions of the corpus callosum, particularly the posterior body, rostral body, and genu, relative to healthy cotwins. FA from the rostrum, genu, anterior body, posterior body, and isthmus were correlated with measures of reading speed and comprehension; verbal working memory and math fact retrieval scores were correlated only with the rostral body FA.
Ewing-Cobbs, L.; Hasan, K.M.; Prasad, M.R.; Kramer, L.; Bachevalier, J.
OBJECTIVE: To raise awareness of the possibility of spontaneous temporal bone cerebrospinal fistula in case of clear retrotympanic effusion. CASE REPORT: A 63-year-old man with no particular history presented with unilateral spontaneous right retrotympanic clear effusion. CT found defects in the posterior part of the right temporal bone, in contact with arachnoid granulations, with no other visible abnormalities. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Unilateral clear retrotympanic effusion in an adult subject should, apart from serous otitis media, suggest possible cerebrospinal fistula. In the absence of otologic or traumatic history, arachnoid granulation is one possible etiology, inducing spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage when facing the temporal bone. Diagnosis is suggested by bone defects in the tegmen tympani or posterior wall of the temporal bone on CT, with the adjacent mastoid cavities filled with fluid. Pneumococcal vaccination and early surgical repair of the fistula should be performed to avoid neuromeningeal infection. PMID:23725664
The physiological effects of human muscle-derived stem cell (MDSC) implantation on urethral smooth muscle function were investigated\\u000a in pudendal nerve-transected nude rats with human MDSC (TM) or saline (TS) injection into the proximal urethra compared with\\u000a sham-operated, saline-injected nude rats (SS). Leak point pressure (LPP) before and after hexamethonium application, which\\u000a can block autonomic efferent nerves, and proximal urethral contractile
Akira Furuta; Ron J. Jankowski; Ryan Pruchnic; Shin Egawa; Naoki Yoshimura; Michael B. Chancellor
Radical prostatectomy is commonly used in the management of localized prostate cancer. Urinary incontinence after prostatectomy\\u000a is of great concern to many patients. Improved understanding of the anatomy of the external urethral sphincter complex has\\u000a resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of postprostatectomy incontinence. Most recent anatomic\\u000a studies have described the external urethral sphincter complex as consisting
Objective: Management of distal anterior urethral stricture is a common problem faced by practicing urologists. Literature on urethral stricture mainly pertains to bulbar urethral stricture and pelvic fracture urethral distraction defect. The present article aims to review the management of the strictures of fossa navicularis and pendulous urethra. Materials and Methods: The literature in English language was searched from the National Library of Medicine database, using the appropriate key words for the period 1985-2010. Out of 475 articles, 115 were selected for the review based on their relevance to the topic. Results: Etiology of stricture is shifting from infective to inflammatory and iatrogenic causes. Stricture of fossa navicularis is most often caused by lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and instrumentation. Direct visual internal urethrotomy is limited to selected cases in the management of pendulous urethral stricture. With experience and identification of various prognostic factors, conservative management by dilatation and internal urethrotomy is being replaced by various reconstructive procedures, using skin flaps and grafts with high success rates. Single-stage urethroplasty is preferred over the 2-stage procedure as the latter disfigures the penis and poses sexual problems temporarily. Conclusions: Flaps or grafts are useful for single-stage reconstruction of fossa navicularis and pendulous urethral strictures. The buccal and lingual mucosa serves as a preferred resource material for providing the inner lining of the urethra. Off-the-shelf materials, such as acellular collagen matrix, are promising.
Singh, Shrawan K.; Agrawal, Santosh K.; Mavuduru, Ravimohan S.
The Traumatic Brain Injury National Data Center (TBINDC) at Kessler Medical Rehabilitation Research and Education Center is the coordinating center for the research and dissemination efforts of the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) program funded by the National Instit...
SUMMARY.The pathology, diagnosis and management of posterior plagiocephaly remains highly controversial. While the rationale for surgical management of true lambdoid synostosis is undisputed, opinions vary greatly on how to manage severe, unresolving, non-synostotic cases. We reviewed 39 cases of posterior plagiocephaly, 37 of which were treated conservatively. Of these, 34 patients had a significant improvement over the following year with
Urethral sphincter reconstruction with a stimulated skeletal muscle flap has been used for treatment of severe intrinsic sphincter deficiency. Urethral strictures and failures were reported in some of the initial experiences. The etiology of these problems is not known, but elevated resting urethral pressures and excessive urethral displacement with stimulation are possible causes. We modified two operative techniques in forming dynamic urinary graciloplasty (DUG) in an attempt to minimize resting urethral pressure without stimulation and urethral mobility during stimulation. Two types of DUG were used. In the first group, a small flap (partial muscle wrap) from the gracilis muscle with an attachment site on the muscle was constructed in four dogs. In the second group, three dogs with a modified alpha wrap and proximal attachments were used. All of the gracilis muscle wraps were stimulated using an implanted programmable pulse stimulator with electrodes attached over the motor nerve. Following a 2-week, postrecovery period, urethral pressure measurements were obtained with and without stimulation. Five weeks were used for stimulation to condition the muscle. This was followed by 4 weeks of continuous stimulation. Thus, devices were implanted for 11 weeks. Before conditioning of the muscles was initiated, the partial muscle wrap pressure at rest was 42 +/- 27 cm H2O, which was higher than the incomplete alpha wrap resting pressure of 20 +/- 4 cm H2O. Stimulated partial flap pressure was 161 +/- 50 cm H2O, and stimulated modified alpha wrap pressures was 71 +/- 27 cm H2O. After conditioning with the modified alpha wrap, the resting and stimulated pressures were unchanged from before conditioning. Technical problems precluded collection of data during the conditioning period in dogs with partial flaps. During stimulation, the partial muscle wrap demonstrated marked deviation, whereas the modified alpha wrap had minimal urethral movement. Postmortem evaluation indicated no urethral stricture or fistula formation with either of the two types of wraps. The modified alpha wrap had several positive features. Advantages over the partial wrap were minimal resting pressures, reduced urethral mobility, and adequate sustained pressures during stimulation. Therefore, in contrast to the partial gracilis muscle wrap, aspects of the incomplete alpha wrap should be considered further for DUG. PMID:10591262
Walter, J S; Andros, G J; Griffin, J H; King, W W; Trockman, B A; Norris, J P; Wheeler, J S
Four cases of Charcot's spinal arthropathy in patients with complete traumatic paraplegia were diagnosed an average of 12 years (range, 4-22 years) postinjury. Each patient had previous posterior spinal fusion with Harrington instrumentation. The Charcot joint occurred just below the fusion near the thoracolumbar junction and well below the level of spinal cord injury. All four patients experienced progressive kyphosis, flexion instability, and loss of height. Each underwent a treatment protocol that included anterior fusion with partial resection of the Charcot joint and staged posterior spinal fusion and stabilization with Cotrel-Dubousset (CD) rods. At follow-up evaluation 18-30 months postoperatively, three of four patients showed complete healing with kyphosis correction. One patient developed loosening of his lower hooks at 6 months postoperatively and required posterior revision with ultimate healing. Resection of the involved segments along with two-stage fusion with segmental instrumentation provides excellent management of this difficult problem. PMID:1806086
Background: Uncircumcised boys are at higher risk for urinary tract infections than circumcised boys. Whether this risk varies with the visibility of the urethral meatus is not known. Our aim was to determine whether there is a hierarchy of risk among uncircumcised boys whose urethral meatuses are visible to differing degrees. Methods: We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study in one pediatric emergency department. We screened 440 circumcised and uncircumcised boys. Of these, 393 boys who were not toilet trained and for whom the treating physician had requested a catheter urine culture were included in our analysis. At the time of catheter insertion, a nurse characterized the visibility of the urethral meatus (phimosis) using a 3-point scale (completely visible, partially visible or nonvisible). Our primary outcome was urinary tract infection, and our primary exposure variable was the degree of phimosis: completely visible versus partially or nonvisible urethral meatus. Results: Cultures grew from urine samples from 30.0% of uncircumcised boys with a completely visible meatus, and from 23.8% of those with a partially or nonvisible meatus (p = 0.4). The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for culture growth was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35–1.52), and the adjusted OR was 0.41 (95% CI 0.17–0.95). Of the boys who were circumcised, 4.8% had urinary tract infections, which was significantly lower than the rate among uncircumcised boys with a completely visible urethral meatus (unadjusted OR 0.12 [95% CI 0.04–0.39], adjusted OR 0.07 [95% CI 0.02–0.26]). Interpretation: We did not see variation in the risk of urinary tract infection with the visibility of the urethral meatus among uncircumcised boys. Compared with circumcised boys, we saw a higher risk of urinary tract infection in uncircumcised boys, irrespective of urethral visibility.
Dubrovsky, Alexander Sasha; Foster, Bethany J.; Jednak, Roman; Mok, Elise; McGillivray, David
Aims Lower motor neuron damage to sacral roots or nerves can result in incontinence and a flaccid urinary bladder. We showed bladder reinnervation after transfer of coccygeal to sacral ventral roots, and genitofemoral nerves (L1, 2 origin) to pelvic nerves. This study assesses the feasibility of urethral and anal sphincter reinnervation using transfer of motor branches of the femoral nerve (L2–4 origin) to pudendal nerves (S1, 2 origin) that innervate the urethral and anal sphincters in a canine model. Methods Sacral ventral roots were selected by their ability to stimulate bladder, urethral sphincter, and anal sphincter contraction and transected. Bilaterally, branches of the femoral nerve, specifically, nervus saphenous pars muscularis [Evans HE. Miller’s anatomy of the dog. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1993], were transferred and end-to-end anastomosed to transected pudendal nerve branches in the perineum, then enclosed in unipolar nerve cuff electrodes with leads to implanted RF micro-stimulators. Results Nerve stimulation induced increased anal and urethral sphincter pressures in five of six transferred nerves. Retrograde neurotracing from the bladder, urethral sphincter, and anal sphincter using fluorogold, fast blue, and fluororuby, demonstrated urethral and anal sphincter labeled neurons in L2–4 cord segments (but not S1–3) in nerve transfer canines, consistent with rein-nervation by the transferred femoral nerve motor branches. Controls had labeled neurons only in S1–3 segments. Postmortem DiI and DiO labeling confirmed axonal regrowth across the nerve repair site. Conclusions These results show spinal cord reinnervation of urethral and anal sphincter targets after sacral ventral root transection and femoral nerve transfer (NT) to the denervated pudendal nerve. These surgical procedures may allow patients to regain continence.
Ruggieri, Michael R.; Braverman, Alan S.; Bernal, Raymond M.; Lamarre, Neil S.; Brown, Justin M.; Barbe, Mary F.
Abstract Background and Purpose Histotripsy is a nonthermal focused ultrasound technology that uses acoustic cavitation to homogenize tissue. Previous research has demonstrated that the prostatic urethra is more resistant to histotripsy effects than prostate parenchyma, a finding that may complicate the creation of transurethral resection of the prostate-like treatment cavities. The purpose of this study was to characterize the endoscopic appearance of the prostatic urethra during and after histotripsy treatment and to identify features that are predictive of urethral disintegration. Materials and Methods Thirty-five histotripsy treatments were delivered in a transverse plane traversing the prostatic urethra in 17 canine subjects (1–3/prostate ?1?cm apart). Real-time endoscopy was performed in the first four subjects to characterize development of acute urethral treatment effect (UTE). Serial postprocedure endoscopy was performed in all subjects to assess subsequent evolution of UTE. Results Endoscopy during histotripsy was feasible with observation of intraurethral cavitation, allowing characterization of the real-time progression of UTE from normal to frank urethral disintegration. While acute urethral fragmentation occurred in 3/35 (8.6%) treatments, frank urethral disintegration developed in 24/35 (68.5%) within 14 days of treatment. Treating until the appearance of hemostatic pale gray shaggy urothelium was the best predictor of achieving urethral fragmentation within 14 days of treatment with positive and negative predictive values of 0.91 and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion Endoscopic assessment of the urethra may be a useful adjunct to prostatic histotripsy to help guide therapy to ensure urethral disintegration, allowing drainage of the homogenized adenoma and effective tissue debulking.
Schade, George R.; Styn, Nicholas R.; Hall, Timothy L.
Surgical absence of the prostate can make placement of fiducial markers difficult, because anatomic landmarks are distorted and there is a paucity of substantial tissue to hold fast the markers. We describe a method for improving the accuracy of fiducial marker placement for the purpose of salvage or adjuvant external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer in patients who have undergone radical prostatectomy. To assist with identification of the urethrovesical junction and to facilitate placement of the markers, a Foley catheter was placed and the balloon was inflated. Gentle traction on the catheter seated the balloon at the bladder neck to echographically define the anatomy of the urethrovesical junction. Next, a rectal ultrasound probe was inserted into the rectum, allowing visualization of the region of the urethrovesical junction. Fiducial markers were then placed bilaterally in the detrusor muscle at the bladder neck or in the periurethral tissue using the applicator needle. The treating radiation oncologist verified that marker placement was suitable for assisting with radiation therapy in all cases. Preradiation pelvic imaging verified that markers were not in the bladder or urethral lumen, and there were no patient complaints of voiding out the markers with urination. PMID:22141439
A 54-year-old Caucasian male presented to our emergency department because he had self inserted a transparent plastic and flexible tube into the urethral meatus, during erotic games. A plain pelvic x-ray film and an abdominal ultrasound were executed to determine the size, shape, orientation and location of the foreign body, and any eventually associated visceral injuries or complications. As results, a long tube of about 50 cm was described entering the urethra and reaching the bladder cavity in which the tube was folded and wrapped, in absence of any visceral complication. The patient underwent an urgent urethrocystoscopy resulting in the retrieval of both the two recognized foreign bodies by an endoscopic basket extraction. To complete the therapeutic approach, we focused also on the possible psychiatric implications of the self insertion of a foreign body into the urethra, and the initial evaluation reached the diagnosis of depression. The self introduction of a foreign body into the urinary tract represents an index of potentially harmful "self-destructive" behaviors. If the self destructive and/or suicidal ideations are not recognized in the clinical setting and the patient subsequently self inflicts an injury or commits suicide, the urologist may face legal problems related to the lack of diagnosis and treatment, potentially interpretable as a medical error, and thus as a reckless conduct. PMID:20156386
The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique provides a means to generate a random sequence of model realizations that sample the posterior probability distribution of a Bayesian analysis. That sequence may be used to make inferences about the model uncertainties that derive from measurement uncertainties. This paper presents an approach to improving the efficiency of the Metropolis approach to MCMC by incorporating an approximation to the covariance matrix of the posterior distribution. The covariance matrix is approximated using the update formula from the BFGS quasi-Newton optimization algorithm. Examples are given for uncorrelated and correlated multidimensional Gaussian posterior distributions.
We reviewed 13 patients without an underlying syndrome with traumatic hip dislocation between 3 and 10 years of age (mean 4.8 years) at the time of injury. The final reviews were between 1 and 11 years (mean 6 years). All children had posterior dislocation, except one, who had an anterior dislocation. Time taken from trauma to reduction was less than 6 h in three patients, 6 h to 1 day in two patients, 1 day to 3 weeks in seven patients, and 4 weeks in one. All of them underwent closed reduction, except two, who required open reduction through a posterior approach. All patients had excellent hip function and radiographic result on the basis of Garret classification, except for one with limping at 4 years after trauma. The patients treated with hip spica after reduction (10 patients) did not have recurrent dislocation whereas two out of three patients who were treated without postreduction hip spica developed recurrent dislocation. One out of 13 patients without an underlying syndrome and a 6-year-old patient with Down syndrome with neglected hip dislocation and radiological avascular necrosis at presentation recovered with congruent hip following a complete and maintained reduction. This case series suggested that closed reduction was possible for cases of neglected hip dislocation for up to 3 weeks. Open reduction through the posterior approach was safe in neglected irreducible posterior hip dislocation. Those hips that underwent complete reduction and were maintained reduced with hip spica had an excellent functional outcome even in the presence of avascular necrosis. This is a level IV study. PMID:23838854
Sulaiman, Abdul R; Munajat, Ismail; Mohd, Fazliq E
|Children experience grief when they suffer the loss of a close relationship. When that loss also traumatizes children, they experience additional emotional reactions. It is important that adults educate themselves and others who deal with children about typical, healthy grief reactions. Following a non-violent loss, the initial reactions of…
Ogburn described the “culture lag” between technology and attitudes, as people take time to assimilate new technologies, and new facts, into their worldviews. Traumatic brain injury is now a common diagnosis, thanks to neurosurgical expertise. Where thirty years ago mortality from head injuries was high, today mortality rates have improved dramatically; yet even while neurosurgeons spare thousands of people each
Children experience grief when they suffer the loss of a close relationship. When that loss also traumatizes children, they experience additional emotional reactions. It is important that adults educate themselves and others who deal with children about typical, healthy grief reactions. Following a non-violent loss, the initial reactions of…
Background: Blunt traumatic aortic injury (TAI) is clini- cally difficult to diagnose, as signs and symptoms are unreliable and variable. The identification of TAI may be obscured by other injuries that are more apparent. Furthermore, radiologic evaluation of the mediastinum for this injury is not well defined. Most patients with TAI die immediately. Survivors have a contained rupture which requires
Background: Blunt traumatic aortic injury (TAI) is clinically difficult to diagnose, as signs and symptoms are unreliable and variable. The identification of TAI may be obscured by other injuries that are more apparent. Furthermore, radiologic evaluation of the mediastinum for this injury is not well defined. Most patients with TAI die immediately. Survivors have a contained rupture which requires crucial
Traumatic cervical artery dissection (TCAD) is a complication of severe blunt head or neck trauma, the main cause being motor vehicle accidents. TCAD are increasingly recognized, and incidences of up to 0.86% for internal carotid and 0.53% for traumatic vertebral artery dissections (TVAD) among blunt trauma victims are reported. Diagnostic evaluation for TCAD is mandatory in the presence of (1) hemorrhage of potential arterial origin originating from the nose, ears, mouth, or a wound; (2) expanding cervical hematoma; (3) cervical bruit in a patient >50 years of age; (4) evidence of acute infarct at brain imaging; (5) unexplained central or lateralizing neurological deficit or transient ischemic attack, or (6) Horner syndrome, neck or head pain. In addition, a number of centers screen asymptomatic patients with blunt trauma for TCAD. Catheter angiography is the standard of reference for diagnosis of TCAD. Color duplex ultrasound, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance angiography are noninvasive screening alternatives, but each method has its diagnostic limitations compared to catheter angiography. Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs may prevent ischemic stroke, but bleeding from traumatized tissues may offset the benefits of antithrombotic treatment. Endovascular therapy of dissected vessels, thrombarterectomy, direct suture of intimal tears, and extracranial-intracranial bypass should be considered in exceptional cases. Neurological outcome is probably worse in TCAD compared to spontaneous CAD, although it is unclear whether this is due to dissection-induced ischemic stroke or associated traumatic lesions. PMID:17290111
We report a case of traumatic floating clavicula in a man aged 21 years. He was admitted to our emergency department with polytrauma sustained in a motor car accident, successfully treated 21 days after the accident with bipolar open reduction and wire stabilization. PMID:23158062
... Version Tips for Communicating with People with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) & Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Not everyone ... those with combat-related conditions such as Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). These ...
Background Vaginal birth increases the chance a woman will develop stress incontinence. This study evaluates the relative contributions of urethral mobility and urethral function to stress incontinence. Methods This is a case-control study with group matching. Eighty primiparous women with self-reported new stress incontinence 9–12 months postpartum were compared to 80 primiparous continent controls to identify impairments specific to stress incontinence. Eighty nulliparous continent controls were evaluated as a comparison group to allow us to determine birth-related changes not associated with stress incontinence. Urethral function was measured with urethral profilometry, and vesical neck mobility was assessed with ultrasound and Q-tip test. Urethral sphincter anatomy and mobility were evaluated using MRI. The association between urethral closure pressure, vesical neck movement, and incontinence were explored using logistic regression. Results Urethral closure pressure in primiparous incontinent women (62.9 +/? 25.2 s.d. cm H20) was lower than in primiparous continent women (83.0 +/? 21.0, p<0.001; effect size d= 0.91) who were similar to nulliparous women (90.3 +/? 25.0, p=0.09). Vesical neck movement measured during cough with ultrasound was the mobility parameter most associated with stress incontinence; 15.6 +/? 6.2 mm in incontinent women versus 10.9 +/? 6.2 in primiparous continent women (p < 0.0001, d = 0.75) or nulliparas (9.9 +/? 5.0, p=0.33). Logistic regression disclosed the two-variable model (max-rescaled R2 =0.37, p < 0.0001) was more strongly associated with stress incontinence than either single variable models, urethral closure pressure (R2 = 0.25, p <0.0001) or vesical neck movement (R2 = 0.16 p < 0.0001). Conclusions Lower maximal urethral closure pressure is the parameter most associated with de novo stress incontinence after first vaginal birth followed by vesical neck mobility.
DeLancey, John O. L.; Miller, Janis M.; Kearney, Rohna; Howard, Denise; Reddy, Pranathi; Umek, Wolfgang; Guire, Kenneth E.; Margulies, Rebecca U.; Ashton-Miller, James A.
Objectives: We’d like to present our experience in treating long (>5 cm) anterior urethral stricture by penile skin flap as dorsal on-lay in one-stage procedure. Patient and Methods: Between January 1998 and December 2010, 18 patients (aged from 28-65 years) presented with long urethral stricture, 5.6-13.2 cm, (penile in 6, bulbar in 2, and combined in 10 cases), those were repaired utilizing long penile skin flaps placed as dorsal on-lay flap in one-stage (Orandi flap 6 cm in 6 cases, circular flaps 7-10 cm in 8, and spiral flaps 10-15 cm in 4). Uroflowmetry and RUG were done following catheter removal and at 6 and 12 months. Results: The urethral patency was achieved in 77% of patients. The complications were fistula in 1 patient (5.5%), re-stricture occurred in 3 patients (16.6%) that required visual internal urethrotomy (VIU), and 2 patients (11%) showed curvature on erection that did not interfere with sexual intercourse. Diverticulum (penile urethra) was seen in 1 patient (5.5%) containing stones and was excised surgically. There was penile skin loss in 3 patients (16.6%). All patients completed at least one year follow-up period. Conclusion: Free penile skin flaps offer good results (functional and cosmetic) in long anterior urethral stricture. Meticulously fashioned longitudinal, circular or spiral penile skin flaps could bridge urethral defects up to 15 cm long.
We report sporadic, bilateral keratoglobus associated with posterior subcapsular cataract in a 43-year-old man. Slitlamp biomicroscopy showed symmetric arcus senilis-like deposits, a polygonal appearance resembling crocodile shagreen, an unusual endothelial appearance, and posterior subcapsular cataract. Orbscan® II pachymetry maps (Bausch & Lomb) demonstrated bilateral diffuse corneal thinning (359.53 ?m ± 21.15 [SD] in the right eye and 379.61 ± 11.49
Judy Y. F Ku; Christina N Grupcheva; Michael J Fisk; Franzco; Charles N. J McGhee
Members of the clergy serve on the front lines as caregivers for individuals whose lives have been forever changed by life-threatening\\u000a traumatic events, and by the sudden traumatic deaths of loved ones. This article is intended to provide useful information\\u000a to clergy about the nature of traumatic experiences, predictable human reactions to them, and ways that clergy can be helpful
Objective Assess the effect of pregnancy and first vaginal delivery on urethral striated sphincter neuromuscular function. Study Design Quantitative electromyographic (EMG) interference pattern analysis of the urethral sphincter of 23 nulligravidas and 31 third trimester primigravidas allowed comparison of mean motor unit parameters before term vaginal delivery and post partum. Results Mean electromyographic interference pattern parameters in the primigravidas were significantly lower than nulligravidas even antepartum, with decreased turns, lower amplitude, and less activity. The only significant change at 6 months post partum was further decline in number of turns resulting in a further decrease in turns:amplitude. All other electromyographic abnormalities persisted at six months post partum and remained abnormal compared to the nulligravidas. Conclusion Urethral sphincter neuromuscular function changed significantly during pregnancy and these changes persisted post partum. Lack of recovery 6 months post partum suggests a physiologic impact of pregnancy itself on future risk of urinary incontinence.
Weidner, Alison C.; South, Mary M.T.; Sanders, Donald B.; Stinnett, Sandra S.
A 42-year-old male presented to the urology department, complaining of frequency and dysuria. A large number of calculi were revealed on IVU and USS. On endoscopic investigation, there were 3 stones (1.5 × 1?cm) found in the bladder and 5 more (1.5 × 0.8?cm) in the diverticulum of the posterior urethra. All of the stones were successfully broken down via a transurethral approach. This paper contains a detailed description of the case. PMID:23401841
Patient: Male, 57 Final Diagnosis: Typ 2 Superior labrum anterior-posterior lesion Symptoms: Shoulder pain after trauma Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Orthopedics and Traumatology • Emergency Medicine Objective: Rare disease Background: Due to the anatomical and biomechanical characteristics of the shoulder, traumatic soft-tissue lesions are more common than osseous lesions. Superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesions are an uncommon a cause of shoulder pain. SLAP is injury or separation of the glenoid labrum superior where the long head of biceps adheres. SLAP lesions are usually not seen on plain direct radiographs. Shoulder MRI and magnetic resonance arthrography are useful for diagnosis. Case Report: A 57-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department due to a low fall on his shoulder. In physical examination, active and passive shoulder motion was normal except for painful extension. Anterior-posterior shoulder x-ray imaging was normal. The patient required orthopedics consultation in the emergency observation unit due to persistent shoulder pain. In shoulder MRI, performed for diagnosis, type II lesion SLAP was detected. The patient was referred to a tertiary hospital due to lack of arthroscopy in our hospital. Conclusions: Shoulder traumas are usually soft-tissue injuries with no findings in x-rays. SLAP lesion is an uncommon cause of traumatic shoulder pain. For this reason, we recommend orthopedic consultation in post-traumatic persistent shoulder pain.
Gulacti, Umut; Can, Cagdas; Erdogan, Mehmet Ozgur; Lok, Ugur; Buyukaslan, Hasan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability world wide. In the United States alone, nearly 1·7 million individuals are treated in the hospital setting for TBI of all severities, which accounts for over US$48 billion of health care cost annually. This special issue of Neurological Research provides a broad coverage of several important topics in TBI, including contemporary imaging of mild TBI, management of chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH), use of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) to treat TBI, reviews on blast TBI and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), as well as basic science studies in different rodent models of TBI. The authors aim to provide some insight on TBI to neurosurgeons, neurologists, rehabilitation doctors, and other specialists treating TBI patients as well as neuroscientists who are involved in neurotrauma research. PMID:23485048
Post-traumatic headache (PTH) is a very controversial disorder, particularly when it comes to chronic PTH following mild closed head injury and headache attributed to whiplash injury. Nevertheless, mild traumatic brain injury is very common in Western societies, affecting approximately 1.8 million individuals in the USA. Between 30 and 90% of patients develop PTH. Generally, this headache resolves within the first 3 weeks after the accident without any specific therapy or long-term complications but in a minority of patients chronic PTH develops and can be associated with serious neurological and neuropsychological deficits. Sufficient psychological or neurobiological markers for PTH do not exist, thus treatment can be very challenging and should always be multidisciplinary, even in the early stages of disease, to make every reasonable effort in preventing the development of chronic pain. PMID:19769450
As civilization advanced, the number of disasters, including their types and size of the threat to humanity. In addition to natural disasters and wars, there are currently a disaster communication, environmental and technological. Disasters "new generation" include increasingly frequent bombings and terrorist attacks. These events are an impediment to long-lasting and deep impact on the mental functioning of the victims of the event. This represents a potential risk of a variety of psychopathological symptoms, which go beyond the limits of human suffering. ICD-I0 classification includes individuals sickness arising as a consequence of pathological after surviving the disaster, which include: acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), post-traumatic stress disorder linked to depression, symptoms anxiety, addictions, dissociative disorders and personality changes and permanent after the disaster. PMID:22400171
\\u000a Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem, often referred to as a silent epidemic due to lack of public\\u000a awareness . TBI is still the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world for individuals under the age of 45\\u000a . In the United States alone, based on population data from 1995 to 2001, 1.4 million
Background Chronic headaches from head trauma and whiplash injury are well-known and common, but chronic headaches from other sorts of physical traumas are not recognized. Methods Specific information was obtained from the medical records of 15 consecutive patients with chronic headaches related to physically injurious traumatic events that did not include either head trauma or whiplash injury. The events and the physical injuries produced by them were noted. The headaches' development, characteristics, duration, frequency, and accompaniments were recorded, as were the patients' use of pain-alleviative drugs. From this latter information, the headaches were classified by the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society as though they were naturally-occurring headaches. The presence of other post-traumatic symptoms and litigation were also recorded. Results The intervals between the events and the onset of the headaches resembled those between head traumas or whiplash injuries and their subsequent headaches. The headaches themselves were, as a group, similar to those after head trauma and whiplash injury. Thirteen of the patients had chronic tension-type headache, two had migraine. The sustained bodily injuries were trivial or unidentifiable in nine patients. Fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration was not evident in these patients of whom seven were not even seeking payments of any kind. Conclusions This study suggests that these hitherto unrecognized post-traumatic headaches constitute a class of headaches characterized by a relation to traumatic events affecting the body but not including head or whiplash traumas. The bodily injuries per se can be discounted as the cause of the headaches. So can fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration. Altered mental states, not systematically evaluated here, were a possible cause of the headaches. The overall resemblance of these headaches to the headaches after head or whiplash traumas implies that these latter two headache types may likewise not be products of structural injuries.
\\u000a Mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBI) are heterogeneous. This injury falls on a broad spectrum, from very mild neurometabolic\\u000a changes in the brain with rapid recovery to permanent problems due to structural brain damage. It is incorrect to assume that\\u000a MTBIs cannot cause permanent brain damage and it is incorrect to assume that MTBIs typically cause permanent brain damage. This is
Six cases of traumatic cerebral aneurysm are presented, four situated at the base of the brain, and two on peripheral branches. Serial radiography was obtained in five patients, and in each the aneurysms had changed: spontaneous thrombosis, enlargement and change in shape, or rupture with destruction occurred. If surgical treatment of the aneurysm is delayed after the diagnosis has been made by angiogram, repeated angiography is recommended. Images
\\u000a Head injuries are common among children, and they result in a significant number of visits to emergency departments and physicians’\\u000a offices each year. In children 15yr old and under, the estimated incidence of traumatic brain injury is 180 per 100,000 children\\u000a per year, totaling more than 1 million injuries annually in the United States and accounting for more than 10%
Facial nerve trauma can be a devastating injury resulting in functional deficits and psychological distress. Deciding on the optimal course of treatment for patients with traumatic facial nerve injuries can be challenging, as there are many critical factors to be considered for each patient. Choosing from the great array of therapeutic options available can become overwhelming to both patients and physicians, and in this article, the authors present a systematic approach to help organize the physician's thought process. PMID:24138740
Lee, Linda N; Lyford-Pike, Sofia; Boahene, Kofi Derek O
\\u000a The restitution of brain function and successful achievement of good neurological outcome after acute brain injury, including\\u000a severe traumatic brain injury and other encephalopathies, represents the final frontier in critical care medicine. Related\\u000a to the complexity of the brain and the difficulties involved in the bedside assessment and monitoring of cerebral pathophysiology;\\u000a progress in this area has been disappointing, and
Hülya Bayir; Kimberly D. Statler; Margaret A. Satchell; Randall A. Ruppel; Robert S. B. Clark; Patrick M. Kochanek
Traumatic lesions of peripheral nerves are common. According to the literature a relevant lesion of a peripheral nerve exists\\u000a in roughly 2%–3% of patients admitted to Level I trauma centers. If plexus and root injuries are included the incidence rises\\u000a to about 5% (Noble et al. 1998; Robinson 2000). In general, these types of injuries are increasingly recognized in today’s
The study reveals that traffic traumatism continues to be a serious problem for all international community. The causes of traffic traumatism and ways of its prevention are analyzed. The results of sociological analysis of opinions of injured persons about activities and modes of preventing traffic traumatism are discussed. The system of social medical, legal and educative impacts on all participants of traffic accidents is proposed. PMID:19711529
There is an increasing incidence of military traumatic brain injury (TBI), and similar injuries are seen in civilians in war zones or terrorist incidents. Indeed, blast-induced mild TBI has been referred to as the signature injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Assessment involves schemes that are common in civilcian practice but, in common with civilian TBI, takes little account of information available from modern imaging (particularly diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging) and emerging biomarkers. The efficient logistics of clinical care delivery in the field may have a role in optimizing outcome. Clinical care has much in common with civilian TBI, but intracranial pressure monitoring is not always available, and protocols need to be modified to take account of this. In addition, severe early oedema has led to increasing use of decompressive craniectomy, and blast TBI may be associated with a higher incidence of vasospasm and pseudoaneurysm formation. Visual and/or auditory deficits are common, and there is a significant risk of post-traumatic epilepsy. TBI is rarely an isolated finding in this setting, and persistent post-concussive symptoms are commonly associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic pain, a constellation of findings that has been called the polytrauma clinical triad.
Posterior polar cataract is a rare form of congenital cataract. It is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant disease, yet it can be sporadic. Five genes have been attributed to the formation of this disease. It is highly associated with complications during surgery, such as posterior capsule rupture and nucleus drop. The reason for this high complication rate is the strong adherence of the opacity to the weak posterior capsule. Different surgical strategies were described for the handling of this challenging entity, most of which emphasized the need for gentle maneuvering in dealing with these cases. It has a unique clinical appearance that should not be missed in order to anticipate, avoid, and minimize the impact of the complications associated with it.
Do young children have a basic intuition of posterior probability? Do they update their decisions and judgments in the light of new evidence? We hypothesized that they can do so extensionally, by considering and counting the various ways in which an event may or may not occur. The results reported in this paper showed that from the age of five, children's decisions under uncertainty (Study 1) and judgments about random outcomes (Study 2) are correctly affected by posterior information. From the same age, children correctly revise their decisions in situations in which they face a single, uncertain event, produced by an intentional agent (Study 3). The finding that young children have some understanding of posterior probability supports the theory of naive extensional reasoning, and contravenes some pessimistic views of probabilistic reasoning, in particular the evolutionary claim that the human mind cannot deal with single-case probability. PMID:17391661
To analyze the risk factors for HPV infection in the urethra, we examined the prevalence of various microorganisms, for example Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Gardnerella vaginalis, and human papillomavirus (HPV) in Japanese male patients with urethritis, and investigated their sexual backgrounds. Rubbed samples obtained from the distal urethra and questionnaires regarding sexual activity and demographic information were collected from 176 participants. N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, M. hominis, U. urealyticum, U. parvum, G. vaginalis, and HPV were detected in 19, 26, 18, 12, 12, 8.5, 14, and 20%, respectively, of all cases in this study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that more than 4 sexual partners within the last year and presence of N. gonorrhoeae and/or C. trachomatis and/or M. genitalium infections were independent risk factors for urethral HPV infection, with odds ratios of 3.85 (95% CI 1.49-9.94) and 2.41 (95% CI 1.03-5.61), respectively. It is likely that urethral HPV detection is associated with current sexual activity and the presence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, and/or M. genitalium infections. PMID:21213011
Acute traumaticposterior shoulder dislocations are rare. The diagnosis is often missed or delayed, as radiologic abnormalities can be subtle. We report a case of a 37-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with severe right shoulder pain and inability to move his arm after a motor vehicle collision. Based on examination, he was initially thought to have an anterior dislocation; however, point-of-care (POC) ultrasound clearly demonstrated a posterior shoulder dislocation. Real-time ultrasound-guided intra-articular local anesthetic injection facilitated closed reduction in the emergency department without procedural sedation, and POC ultrasound confirmed successful reduction at the bedside after the procedure. This case demonstrates that POC ultrasound can be a useful diagnostic tool in the rapid assessment and treatment for patients with suspected posterior shoulder dislocation. PMID:22944540
Aims: Report of seven children with Y-type urethral duplication (YUD). Materials and Methods: (A) Four staged operations were performed in patients having extensive perineal dissection (for rectourinary fistula separation and anterior mobilization of ventral urethra (VU)), tension rectocutaneous anastomosis, and children who were not toilet trained). These stages are (1) diversion sigmoid colostomy with anterior mobilization of VU as perineal urethrostomy via anterior sagittal approach; (2) Orthotopic urethral (OU) reconstruction; (3) anastomosis of OU and perineal urethra; (4) colostomy closure with management of complications. (B) The patients having VU onto the perineum underwent single stage urethral reconstruction. Results: The VU was urethrorectal/urethroanal in five and urethroperineal in two. Low anorectal malformation and upper urinary tract anomalies were present in 57.1% (4/7) and 14.7% (1/7) patients, respectively. Buccal mucosa free graft, transverse inner preputial flap, and perineal skin were tubularized for OU reconstruction. Mean age at 1st , 2nd , 3rd , and 4th surgery was 5 ± 0.78, 28 ± 0.78, 36 ± 0.78, 49 ± 0.78 months respectively. Three patients needed surgery for complications (urethrocutaneous fistula in two and urethral diverticulum in one) in a mean 3.12 ± 0.34 years of follow-up. Final uroflowmetry and fecal continence were good in all patients. Conclusions: The YUD is a difficult entity to manage. Although, staged procedure appears to be time consuming, but good and promising results can be achieved by staging the procedure.
Urethral pressure profiles are now being recorded using a variety of methods. The main methods in use employ catheter tip pressure transducers, fluid-filled balloons coupled to remote pressure transducers, or open tubes coupled to remote transducers with a fluid infusion source. Published comparisons between these methods have often been unhelpful because the performance of the measuring system has been inadequately
Purpose Male urethral stricture disease accounts for a significant number of hospital admissions and health care expenditures. Although much research has been completed on treatment for urethral strictures, fewer studies have addressed the treatment of strictures in men with recurrent stricture disease after failed prior urethroplasty. We examined outcome results for repeat urethroplasty. Materials and Methods A prospectively collected, single surgeon urethroplasty database was queried from 1977 to 2011 for patients treated with repeat urethroplasty after failed prior urethral reconstruction. Stricture length and location, and repeat urethroplasty intervention and failure were evaluated with descriptive statistics, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Of 1,156 cases 168 patients underwent repeat urethroplasty after at least 1 failed prior urethroplasty. Of these patients 130 had a followup of 6 months or more and were included in analysis. Median patient age was 44 years (range 11 to 75). Median followup was 55 months (range 6 months to 20.75 years). Overall, 102 of 130 patients (78%) were successfully treated. For patients with failure median time to failure was 17 months (range 7 months to 16.8 years). Two or more failed prior urethroplasties and comorbidities associated with urethral stricture disease were associated with an increased risk of repeat urethroplasty failure. Conclusions Repeat urethroplasty is a successful treatment option. Patients in whom treatment failed had longer strictures and more complex repairs.
Blaschko, Sarah D.; McAninch, Jack W.; Myers, Jeremy B.; Schlomer, Bruce J.; Breyer, Benjamin N.
Introduction Many efforts are used to improve surgical techniques and graft materials for urethral reconstruction. We developed an endothelialized tubular structure for urethral reconstruction. Methods: Two tubular models were created in vitro. Human fibroblasts were cultured for 4 weeks to form fibroblast sheets. Then, endothelial cells (ECs) were seeded on the fibroblast sheets and wrapped around a tubular support to form a cylinder for the endothelialized tubular urethral model (ET). No ECs were added in the standard tubular model (T). After 21 days of maturation, urothelial cells were seeded into the lumen of both models. Constructs were placed under perfusion in a bioreactor for 1 week. At several times, histology and immunohistochemistry were performed on grafted nude mice to evaluate the impact of ECs on vascularization. Results: Both models produced an extracellular matrix, without exogenous material, and developed a pseudostratified urothelium. Seven days after the graft, mouse red blood cells were present only in the outer layers in T model, but in the full thickness of ET model. After 14 days, erythrocytes were present in both models, but in a greater proportion in ET model. At day 28, both models were well-vascularized, with capillary-like structures in the whole thickness of the tubes. Conclusion: Incorporating endothelial cells was associated with an earlier vascularization of the grafts, which could decrease the necrosis of the transplanted tissue. As those models can be elaborated with the patient’s cells, this tubular urethral graft would be unique in its autologous property.
Specimens from men with acute non-gonococcal urethritis were tested to determine their microbial content and then given intra-urethrally to male chimpanzees. Two animals received ureaplasmas only and one became infected. The second did so when given a different strain. Both developed a polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) response. Two chimpanzees received a mixture of ureaplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis and there was a suggestion that the ureaplasmas delayed or suppressed the chlamydial response. The latter, that is urethral infection with a pronounced PMNL response, was most clearly seen in a chimpanzee given C. trachomatis only. No inflammation was detected in two chimpanzees acting as controls. Three of five chimpanzees given ureaplasmas genitally, and one that had them endogenously, had them transiently in the oropharynx about 2 weeks later. The occurrence of ureaplasmas in the conjunctiva of three chimpanzees inoculated at this site was also transient and without inflammation. The possibility that Mycoplasma genitalium might have been in the inocula and caused urethral inflammation was discounted largely because no animal had antibody to this mycoplasma. PMID:23904075
Objective: To evaluate the effect of urethral reconstructive surgery on sexual drive, erectile function and ejaculation. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 150 men with a median (range) age of 40 (18–73) years who underwent 168 urethral reconstructive procedures for anterior urethral stricture disease between October 2003 and May 2009. We evaluated sexual functioning using the O’Leary Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory before and after surgery. Results: The median follow-up was 33 months (range 4–72). There were no significant changes in sexual drive and erectile function scores postoperatively for men in the 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69 years age groups. Overall, there was a significant improvement in ejaculatory function scores after surgery. This improvement was most robust in men in the 20-29, 30-39 and 40-49 years age group. Conclusion: Overall, anterior urethral reconstruction appears no more likely to cause postoperative sexual dysfunction. Different types of urethroplasties, surgical complexity with long stricture excision and the use of buccal graft, preputial flap/tube did not influence outcome.
A randomized open comparative cross-over trial was carried out in 20 postmenopausal women, mean age 69 years, suffering from urinary incontinence due to urethral sphincteric insufficiency. They were treated with phenylpropanolamine (PPA) 50 mg p.o. twice daily or estriol vaginal suppositories 1 mg daily separately and in combination for periods of 4 weeks. Urodynamic investigations were carried out before and
Mid-urethral tapes are largely used to manage stress urinary incontinence (SUI). In certain cases, however, this procedure results in bothersome complications that lead to complete resection. We present the case of an 85-year-old woman who presented with ongoing suprapubic pain, hematuria, vaginal bleeding and recurrent urinary tract infections. The patient had undergone a tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure in 1999 and a transobturator tape (TOT) placement in 2003 for SUI. Investigations revealed a urethral stone, erosion of both TOT and TVT and an urethra-vaginal fistula. Under local anesthesia the urethral stone was removed endoscopically and the TOT removed via a vaginal approach. Due to her comorbidity, she underwent a laparoscopic intraperitoneal removal of the TVT and a definitive ureterocutaneostomy to relieve her pain, inflammation and incontinence. This is the first ever presented case of erosion of mid-urethral tapes and incontinence treated with a laparoscopic resection of the tape and ureterocutaneostomy as definitive urinary diversion.
A patient with a severe form of the Guillain-Barré syndrome is described and the case illustrates the rare cardiovascular and ophthalmic complications which can occur. Urethritis, probably due to gonorrhoea, preceded neurological symptoms and this association has not been previously reported.
Mid-urethral tapes are largely used to manage stress urinary incontinence (SUI). In certain cases, however, this procedure results in bothersome complications that lead to complete resection. We present the case of an 85-year-old woman who presented with ongoing suprapubic pain, hematuria, vaginal bleeding and recurrent urinary tract infections. The patient had undergone a tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure in 1999 and a transobturator tape (TOT) placement in 2003 for SUI. Investigations revealed a urethral stone, erosion of both TOT and TVT and an urethra-vaginal fistula. Under local anesthesia the urethral stone was removed endoscopically and the TOT removed via a vaginal approach. Due to her comorbidity, she underwent a laparoscopic intraperitoneal removal of the TVT and a definitive ureterocutaneostomy to relieve her pain, inflammation and incontinence. This is the first ever presented case of erosion of mid-urethral tapes and incontinence treated with a laparoscopic resection of the tape and ureterocutaneostomy as definitive urinary diversion. PMID:24069104
Urethral sphincter deficiency (USD) is not standardised. Opening vesical pressure could reflect the pressure exerted to overcome urethral resistance during void; thus, we evaluated if it could discriminate USD. Women with urinary symptoms were prospectively assessed with a questionnaire and urodynamics and divided into three groups: urodynamic stress incontinence with USD (group 1), urodynamic stress incontinence related to urethral hypermobility without USD (group 2) and normal urodynamic (group 3). USD was defined as the concomitant presence of severe urodynamic stress incontinence, VLPP <60 cm H2O, MUCP <20 cm H2O and urethral mobility <30 degrees . A total of 145 women were enrolled: 56 in group 1, 50 in group 2 and 39 in group 3. The three groups did not differ for demographics, obstetric and surgical history. The median values for opening vesical pressures were 17.5 (15.6-22.2 95%CI), 30 (27.0-37.3 95%CI) and 30 (30.6-44.2 95% CI) for the groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. A p value <0.0001 was found when comparing group 1 either with group 2 or 3. Opening vesical pressure is a promising parameter to detect USD. PMID:17479203
OBJECTIVE--To study the effectiveness of single-dose pefloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis in males. SETTING--Department of STD Control, Kelantan Road, Singapore. METHOD--160 male patients with uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis were assigned alternately to receive single oral doses of either pefloxacin 800 mg or ciprofloxacin 250 mg. RESULTS--Of the pefloxacin group 98.5% (65/66 patients) and of the ciprofloxacin group 98.6% (74/75 patients) were cured of gonorrhoea. The rates of post-gonococcal urethritis were 64.3% and 67.3% in the pefloxacin and ciprofloxacin groups, respectively. Both drugs were well tolerated and reported side-effects were minor and transient. There was a high incidence of penicillinase-producing gonococci (32.3%) and tetracycline resistant isolates with MIC > or = 2 mg/l (99.3%). High level tetracycline resistance (MIC > or = 16 mg/l) was found in 7.4% of isolates. CONCLUSION--The drugs in the dosages studied may be recommended for first-line treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis in males in Singapore. However, the emergence of bacterial resistance to the fluoroquinolones in the literature calls for vigilance in the monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility [corrected].
We have made a histological study of the postnatal development of the clitoris, preputial glands, urethral glands and vagina of the golden hamster. The ‘phallic groove’ of the clitoris is closed at 10 days of life, then the urethra has a cuboidal stratified, a stratified squamous and a stratified keratinized epithelium. The preputial glands are composed of branched saccular glands.
Primary urethral carcinomas are unusual. The most frequent histology is the epidermoid carcinoma in both sex, followed by the urothelial carcinoma in men and adenocarcinoma in women. The diagnosis is often late. It is based on a clinical examination under anesthesia and biopsies. MRI is the best imaging modality for the local stadification. PMID:19268253
The pathogenic Neisseria species induce cytoskeletal reorganization in immortalized cell lines. In Chang conjunctival epithelium and T84 intestinal epithelium, focal cytoskeletal rearrangements in which bacteria contacted the epithelial surface were observed. We show that actin footprints are induced in gonococcus- challenged primary urethral epithelium. Moreover, the microbes induced microvillus extension from the epithelial cell surface. Our results indicate that formation
PETER C. GIARDINA; RICHARD WILLIAMS; DAVID LUBAROFF; MICHAEL A. APICELLA
|Do young children have a basic intuition of posterior probability? Do they update their decisions and judgments in the light of new evidence? We hypothesized that they can do so extensionally, by considering and counting the various ways in which an event may or may not occur. The results reported in this paper showed that from the age of five,…
Posterior fossa cranioplasty has been suggested for improvement of neurological symptoms following craniectomy. However, there is no particular recommendation in the literature about techniques for prosthesis manufacture and implantation. We report our experience using rapid prototyping technology and stereolithography for pre-surgical implant design and production of cranioplasties. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5
Do young children have a basic intuition of posterior probability? Do they update their decisions and judgments in the light of new evidence? We hypothesized that they can do so extensionally, by considering and counting the various ways in which an event may or may not occur. The results reported in this paper showed that from the age of five,…
This article describes a procedure for defining a posterior distributionon the value of a normalizing constant or ratio of normalizing constantsusing output from Monte Carlo simulation experiments. The resultingposterior distribution provides a simple diagnostic for assessing the adequacyof a simulation experiment for estimating these quantities, and isparticularly useful in cases for which standard estimators perform poorly,since in such situations asymptotic
... National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for PTSD, Psychological First Aid September, 2005. National Child Traumatic ... Yehuda, R. (2003). Changes in the Concept of PTSD and Trauma. Psychiatric Times ... and their families for almost twenty years through applied research and innovative ...
|Persons who have suffered traumatic injury to the brain may subsequently display aggressive behavior. Three main syndromes of aggression following traumatic brain injury are described: (1) episodic dyscontrol; (2) frontal lobe disinhibition; and (3) exacerbation of premorbid antisociality. The neuropsychological substrates of these syndromes are…
To explore how youths malinger symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), college students completed the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) under standard instructions (honest condition). Then, after learning the symptomatology of traumatic stress, they completed the TSI a second time attempting to fake symptoms of PTSD (deception condition). Motivation level was manipulated: 100 students were given course credits, allowing them to
Persons who have suffered traumatic injury to the brain may subsequently display aggressive behavior. Three main syndromes of aggression following traumatic brain injury are described: (I) episodic dycontrol, (2) frontal lobe disinhibition, and (3) exacerbation of premorbid antisociality. The neuropsychological substrates of these syndromes are described, and recommendations for pharmacological, behavioral, and psychosocial treatment are offered.
... might have post-traumatic stress disorder. What is post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD? PTSD is a real illness. You can get ... can get treatment and feel better. Who gets PTSD? PTSD can happen to anyone at any age. ...
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a real illness. You can get PTSD after living through or seeing a traumatic event, such as war, a ... sexual assault, physical abuse, or a bad accident. PTSD makes you feel stressed and afraid after the ...
We present a case of traumatic proptosis in a competitive football player. This entity can occur with a significant decrease in vision, but in this case it did not. Some other causes of this condition are also discussed. A review of some traumatic conditions that may cause proptosis is provided as well.
Traumatic spondylolisthesis is a rare injury resulting from complex trauma and high-energy mechanisms. We present a case report of traumatic spondylolisthesis at the L5-S1 disc space of a patient who was buried after a wall fell on his back. In the physical examination, bilaterally decreased muscle strength was observed. Examination images indicated a 90% slip at L5-S1. Surgical treatment was provided with a posterior and anterior approach using pedicle fixation and an anterior cage. After 4 months, there was significant recovery of muscle strength in the lower limbs. PMID:23903285
Rodrigues, Luciano M R; Valesin, Edgar S; Pohl, Pedro Henrique I; Milani, Carlo
Endovascular treatment of post-traumatic pseudoaneurysms has become a viable, less invasive option when compared to open repair. Due to the relative youth of this technology, studies have yet to be concluded on the long-term patency of stent grafts in this population. For this reason, concern exists with endovascular stent placement in the young trauma patient. In this study, we present a case and review the literature on a post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the posterior tibial artery in a 19-year-old man treated with an endovascular stent.
Marks, Joshua A; Hager, Eric; Henry, David; Martin, Niels D
Although, historically, shock associated with traumatic injury has been evaluated through knowledge of the 4 recognized shock patterns--cardiogenic, obstructive, distributive, and hypovolemic--many trauma practitioners view traumatic shock as a unique fifth shock pattern. Although secondary to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome triggered by endogenous danger signals, traumatic shock represents a unique pathological condition that begins with multiple, usually blunt, trauma and may conclude with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. While varying mechanisms of injury may lead to different presentations of shock and cardiovascular decompensation, a unifying theme of traumatic shock is an overwhelming inflammatory response driven by proinflammatory cytokines, and the downstream results of this cytokine storm including, but not limited to, acute respiratory distress syndrome, coagulopathy, sepsis, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Treatment is primarily supportive; however, research into novel therapeutics for traumatic shock is ongoing and promises some direction for future care. PMID:23459431
Traumatic neurogenic shock is a rare but serious complication of spinal cord injury. It associates bradycardia and hypotension caused by a medullary trauma. It is life-threatening for the patient and it aggravates the neurological deficit. Strict immobilization and a quick assessment of the gravity of cord injury are necessary as soon as prehospital care has begun. Initial treatment requires vasopressors associated with fluid resuscitation. Steroids are not recommended. Early decompression is recommended for incomplete deficit seen in the first 6 hours. We relate the case of secondary spinal shock to a luxation C6/C7 treated in prehospital care. PMID:23566590
A 47-year-old patient presented with a chylous knee effusion and traumatic infected skin lacerations. The diagnosis of septic arthritis was considered because of purulent looking joint fluid, spuriously high synovial fluid white cell count, and signs of acute knee synovitis. Synovial fluid lipid analysis showed increased total lipids due to high concentration of neutral lipids, mainly triglycerides, and repeated knee radiographs showed a small fracture of the tibial spine. Joint trauma with subchondral fracture can be associated with frank chylous effusion, which may mimic acute septic arthritis. Images
On May 9-10, 2011, the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, as the Army Center of Excellence for Infectious Disease, assembled over a dozen leaders in areas related to research into the communities of microorganisms which colonize and infect traumatic wounds. The objectives of the workshop were to obtain guidance for government researchers, to spur research community involvement in the field of traumatic wound research informed by a microbiome perspective, and to spark collaborative efforts serving the Wounded Warriors and similarly wounded civilians. During the discussions, it was made clear that the complexity of these infections will only be met by developing a new art of clinical practice that engages the numerous microbes and their ecology. It requires the support of dedicated laboratories and technologists who advance research methods such as community sequencing, as well as the kinds of data analysis expertise and facilities. These strategies already appear to be bearing fruit in the clinical management of chronic wounds. There are now funding announcements and programs supporting this area of research open to extramural collaborators. PMID:22622764
Kirkup, B C; Craft, D W; Palys, T; Black, C; Heitkamp, R; Li, C; Lu, Y; Matlock, N; McQueary, C; Michels, A; Peck, G; Si, Y; Summers, A M; Thompson, M; Zurawski, D V
Of patients hospitalised for traumatic brain injury (TBI), most pass through a state of altered consciousness known as "post-traumatic amnesia" (PTA). Despite the lack of a consistent definition, PTA is widely used as a construct in neurosurgical practice to guide decision-making and prognosis. Accurate PTA assessment is important, because over-evaluation leads to excess social, financial and opportunity costs, whilst under-evaluation risks patient welfare. Whilst anterograde memory is certainly disrupted in PTA, PTA in fact involves a far more extensive memory disturbance. More instructively, the complete "post-TBI syndrome" also comprises an extensive cognitive deficit which includes a confusional state, as well as a behavioural disturbance characterised by acute agitation. Recently, impairments in attention and executive functioning have also been emphasised; indeed, some consider these the primary disturbance with PTA. Although all of these features were fully described (or implied) by the earliest pioneers, most current PTA scores do not assess the complete "post-TBI syndrome". Currently, the Westmead PTA scale (WPTAS) directs most in-hospital TBI management throughout Australasia: however, in addition to general defects, specific limitations have been identified in the levels of evidence for WPTAS validity. We review the literature regarding PTA and, in particular, the continued role of the WPTAS in directing neurosurgical practice. PMID:23791248
Marshman, Laurence A G; Jakabek, David; Hennessy, Maria; Quirk, Frances; Guazzo, Eric P
Major pelvic ring fracture (PRF) due to blunt trauma results in lower urinary tract injury (LUTI) in up to 10% of cases. Significant comorbidity may result and this is particularly the case for unrecognised injury. The increase in military injuries due to improvised explosive devices in recent conflicts has revealed a complex injury cohort. The incidence of pelvic fracture related LUTI in these casualties is up to three times higher than that seen in civilian patients with pelvic fracture. A complete understanding of LUTI following pelvic fracture is still lacking. Complex fractures of the anterior pelvic arch are associated with LUTI and initial management is largely conservative. In battlefield injuries, the combination of the blast wave, penetrating fragment and bodily displacement results in open pelvic fracture combined with gross perineal and pelvic soft-tissue destruction and traumatic femoral amputations. These are some of the most challenging injuries that any surgical team will manage and life saving measures are the priority. There are established pathways for the management of LUTI following blunt trauma related pelvic fracture. Military injuries are more complex and require a significantly different approach. This paper outlines the developments in the understanding and management of pelvic fracture-related LUTI, focussing primarily on injury mechanisms and early management. Recent military surgical experience is discussed, highlighting the significant differences to civilian practice. PMID:23631324
Durrant, Jordan J; Ramasamy, A; Salmon, M S; Watkin, N; Sargeant, I
A case of traumatic spondyloptosis of the cervical spine at the C6-C7 level is reported. The patient was treated succesfully with a anterior-posterior combined approach and decompression. The patient had good neurological outcome after surgery. A-51-year-old female patient was transported to our hospital's emergency department after a vehicle accident. The patient was quadriparetic (Asia D, MRC power 4/5) with severe neck pain. Plain radiographs, computerize tomography and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed C6-7 spondyloptosis and C5, C6 posterior element fractures. Gardner-Wells skeleton traction was applied. Spinal alignment was reachived by traction and dislocation was decreased to a grade 1 spondylolisthesis. Then the patient was firstly operated by anterior approach. Anterior stabilization and fusion was firstly achieved. Seven days after first operation the patient was operated by a posterior approach. The posterior stabilization and fusion was achieved. Postoperative lateral X-rays and three-dimensional computed tomography showed the physiological realignment and the correct screw placements. The patient's quadriparesis was improved significantly. Subaxial cervical spondyloptosis is a relatively rare clinical entity. In this report we present a summary of the clinical presentation, the surgical technique and outcome of this rarely seen spinal disorder.
Ten patients with Scheuermann's kyphosis were surgically treated with posterior spine fusion and Harrington heavy compression-rod instrumentation. This procedure relieved pain and deformity in all ten patients. The average follow-up period was 26.6 months. The average curve before surgery was 71.4 degrees and at follow-up examination was 39.3 degrees. The postoperative correction of kyphosis averaged 32 degrees (45%), with an average loss of correction of 7.8 degrees. Posterior fusion with Harrington heavy compression-rod instrumentation may prove to be the procedure of choice in Scheuermann's kyphosis that is severe but flexible on hyperextension with a curve greater than 65 degrees. PMID:2295164
The rigidity of the chest wall, thank to its bone framework, determines the variety of operative access in thoracic surgery, both thoracoscopic and open. The posterior thoracotomy on the bed of the resected rib in ventral decubitus is traditionally but gratuitously rarely used access. The method permits comfortable access to trachea, bifurcation, main bronchi and thoracic esophagus. It can also be used in cases of foregoing thoracothomy. Authors own the experience of 111 cases with the use of posterior thoracotomy in ventral decubitus. The access proved to be preferable for the operations on the membranous part of the trachea and main bronchi, some localizations of thoracic tracheoesophageal fistula. The access suggests fast mobilization of the root of the lung without foregoing pneumolisis, which is important in cases of pleural cavity obliteration after tuberculosis or pleural empyem. PMID:23715388
Parshin, V D; Grigir'eva, S P; Parshin, V V; Khetagurov, M A; Dydykin, S S; Laptina, V I
Anterior ankle impingement is characterized by anterior ankle pain on activity. Recurrent (hyper) dorsiflexion is often the cause. Typically, there is pain on palpation at the anteromedial or anterolateral joint line. Some swelling or limitation in dorsiflexion are present. Plain radiographs can disclose the cause of the impingement. In the case of spurs or osteophytes, the diagnosis is anterior bony impingement. In the absence of spurs or osteophytes, the diagnosis is anterior soft tissue impingement. In patients with anteromedial impingement, plain radiographs ae often falsely negative. An oblique view (anteromedial impingement view = AMI view) is recommended in these patients. Arthroscopic management with removal of the offending tissue provides good to excellent long-term (5-8 years) results in 83% of patients with grade 0 and grade I lesions. Long-term results are good/excellent in 50% of patients with grade II lesions (osteophytes secondary to arthritis with joint space narrowing). In posterior ankle impingement, patients experience hindfoot pain when the ankle is forcedly plantarflexed. Trauma or overuse can be the cause. The trauma mechanism is hyperplantarflexion or a combined inversion plantarflexion injury. Overuse injuries typically occur in ballet dancers and downhill runners, who report pain on palpation at the posterolateral aspect of the talus. On plain radiographs, an os trigonum or hypertrophic posterior or talar process can be detected. Surgical management involves removal of the os trigonum, scar tissue, or hypertrophic posterior talar process. In the case of combined posterior bony impingement and flexor hallucis longus tendinopathy, a release of the flexor hallucis longus is performed simultaneously. Endoscopic management is associated with a low morbidity, a short recovery time, and provides good/excellent results at 2-5 years follow-up in 80% of patients. PMID:16971256
STUDY DESIGN:: The preliminary results from a new anterior-posterior surgical approach are reported. OBJECTIVE:: To report a novel surgical approach, which was successfully applied to treat eight cervical facet dislocation patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:: The combined anterior-posterior surgical procedure is used as a common approach in the treatment of cervical facet dislocations. However, some problems may arise during the application of this approach, and as a result, surgeons must change the initial surgical plan to anterior-posterior-anterior approach. METHODS:: Between December, 2011 and June, 2012, eight patients had facet dislocations were surgically treated by the new anterior-posterior approach. After anterior discectomy, a peek frame cage containing autologous iliac bone particles or tri-calcium phosphate bone substitute was inserted in the interspace, and fixed with a peek composite buttress plate screwed into the inferior vetebral body. Then the anterior wound was closed and the patient was turned prone. Through a posterior midline approach, the posterior elements were exposed and the reduction was gradually achieved by posteriorly translating the superior segment and progressively positioning the patient's neck into extension. Then lateral mass or pedicle screws and titanium rods were placed in a favorable and satisfactory position, which was demonstrated by the intraoperative plain radiographs. A posterolateral fusion was performed and the posterior wound was closed. RESULTS:: With the use of this new approach, all the patients had obtained successful reduction and satisfactory anatomic sagittal alignment. No instances of neurological deterioration and instrument failure occurred, no complications were owing to the use of this technique, and four patients existed neurological functional recovery at the most recent follow-up visit. CONCLUSION:: This reported surgical approach is an efficient and safe way for the treatment of traumatic cervical facet dislocations. PMID:23563349
PurposeWe evaluated the feasibility of using intraoperative nerve stimulation and real-time urodynamic monitoring to identify the intrapelvic innervation of the urethral sphincter during radical retropubic prostatectomy.
CALEB P. NELSON; JAMES E. MONTIE; EDWARD J. McGUIRE; GARY WEDEMEYER; JOHN T. WEI
The posterior condylar angle is formed by the transepicondylar axis and the tangent line to the posterior condyles. It is an important relationship to determine rotational alignment of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty. We measured this angle directly in 107 osteoarthritic knees undergoing total knee arthroplasty. The posterior condylar angle was significantly greater in valgus knees than in
Frankie M. Griffin; John N. Insall; Giles R. Scuderi
BACKGROUNDThe surgical indications and management of posterior fossa arachnoid cysts (AC) are still controversial. Different surgical techniques and management have already been suggested for arachnoid cysts of the posterior fossa. AC involving the posterior fossa and especially the cerebellopontine angle may carry a high surgical morbidity because of the involvement of important neurovascular structures (e.g., brain stem and cranial nerves).
Madjid Samii; Gustavo A Carvalho; Martin U Schuhmann; Cordula Matthies
Recurrent posterior shoulder dislocation or subluxa tion is uncommon but occurs occasionally in athletes Ten patients were treated with a posterior shoulder staple capsulorrhaphy. A posterior Bankhart-type le sion was found in all cases. Eight of the 10 patients had pain relief. The range of motion was usually maintained postoperatively, but no patient returned to his former throwing status. Four
James E. Tibone; Carlos Prietto; Frank W. Jobe; Robert W. Kerlan; Vincent S. Carter; Clarence L. Shields; Stephen J. Lombardo; H. Royer Collins; Lewis A. Yocum
The onset of post-traumatic headache (PTC) occurs in the first seven days after trauma, according to the International Headache Society (IHS) classification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the several forms of headache that appear after mild head injury (HI) and time interval between the HI and the onset of pain. We evaluated 41 patients with diagnosis of mild HI following the IHS criteria. Migraine without aura and the chronic tension-type headache were the most prevalent groups, occurring in 16 (39%) and 14 (34.1%) patients respectively. The time interval between HI and the onset of headache was less than seven days in 20 patients (48.7%) and longer than 30 days in 10 (24.3%) patients. The results suggest that PTC may arise after a period longer than is accepted at the present by the IHS. PMID:19330209
Martins, Hugo André de Lima; Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; Martins, Bianca Bastos Mazullo; Ribas, Renata de Melo Guerra; Valença, Marcelo Moraes
Traumatic carotid artery dissections are uncommon and potentially devastating injuries that often have a delayed presentation. Soldiers often engage in leisure, training, and combat activities that place them at risk for sustaining an injury that causes a carotid artery dissection. To compound matters, spontaneous dissections are being more frequently recognized as well. Clinicians must be thorough in their history taking and maintain an elevated level of suspicion for this injury when presented with neurologic symptoms suggestive of head and neck pathology. This case study illustrates the difficulties encountered in arriving at a timely, correct diagnosis and offers treatment plan options. We hope that this case study will facilitate the early recognition and treatment of carotid artery dissections in the future. PMID:23764161
Massive subarachnoid hemorrhage may occur on a traumatic basis. The injury is most often sustained by a blow with a clenched fist against the posterolateral part of the cranial basis, but the injury may also occur in relation to an accident. The condition is rare, most often occurring in alcohol intoxicated men. The victim typically collapses immediately and usually dies within a few minutes. The origin of the bleeding may be the vertebral artery on the neck or the intercranial basal brain arteries. In some cases the origin of the bleeding cannot be located. The pathogenetic mechanisms have been a subject of discussion. The damage to the artery may occur in relation to a fracture of the transverse process of the atlas or in relation to subluxations in the cervical vertebral column. The arterial rupture may occur in both normal and abnormal arteries. In many of the cases the trauma may be very slight. This has, of course, important legal implications. PMID:12772392
Lundgaard, Peter; Leth, Peter Mygind; Gregersen, Markil
Background: The nucleus caudalis dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) surgery is used to treat intractable central craniofacial pain. This is the first journal publication of DREZ lesioning used for the long-term relief of an intractable chronic traumatic headache. Case Description: A 40-year-old female experienced new-onset bi-temporal headaches following a traumatic head injury. Despite medical treatment, her pain was severe on over 20 days per month, 3 years after the injury. The patient underwent trigeminal nucleus caudalis DREZ lesioning. Bilateral single-row lesions were made at 1-mm interval between the level of the obex and the C2 dorsal nerve roots, using angled radiofrequency electrodes, brought to 80°C for 15 seconds each, along a path 1 to 1.2 mm posterior to the accessory nerve rootlets. The headache improved, but gradually returned. Five years later, her headaches were severe on over 24 days per month. The DREZ surgery was then repeated. Her headaches improved and the relief has continued for 5 additional years. She has remained functional, with no limitation in instrumental activities of daily living. Conclusions: The nucleus caudalis DREZ surgery brought long-term relief to a patient suffering from chronic traumatic headache.
Spinal dural meningoceles and diverticula are meningeal cysts that have a myriad of clinical presentations and sequelae, secondary to local mass effect. Our objective is to report a technical case report, illustrating a traumatic spinal injury with multiple pedicle fractures, secondary to atrophic lumbar pedicles as well as the diagnostic workup and surgical management of this problem. Posterior lumbar decompression, resection of the meningeal cyst, ligation of the cyst ostium, instrumentation, and fusion were performed with the assistance of intraoperative isocentric fluoroscopy. The cyst's point of communication was successfully located with intraoperative fluoroscopy and the lesion was successfully excised. We suggest that patients with traumatic spinal injuries, having evidence of pre-existing anomalous bony architecture, undergo advanced imaging studies, to rule out intraspinal pathology. The positive clinical and radiographic results support the removal and closure of the pre-existing meningeal cyst at the time of treatment of traumatic spinal injury. Intraoperative isocentric fluoroscopy is a helpful tool in the operative management of these lesions.
Yanni, Daniel S.; Mammis, Antonios; Thaker, Nikhil G.; Goldstein, Ira M.
Treatment of combined anterior and posterior ankle pathology usually consists of either combined anterior and posterior arthrotomies or anterior ankle arthroscopy with an additional posterolateral portal. The first technique bears the risk of complications associated with the extensive exposure, the latter technique provides limited access to the posterior ankle joint. A case is described of combined anterior and posterior arthroscopy, with the patient lying prone and then turned supine, addressing both anterior and posterior ankle pathologies in one tempo. This minimally invasive combined approach allows quick recovery and early return to work and sports activities.
Wakeboarding is a sport increasing in popularity in the UK and the rest of the world. It is known to be associated with a high incidence of relatively minor injuries to the participating sportsperson. The authors present the case of a traumatic hand amputation to an associated third party and highlight the potential for serious injuries to all those directly involved with the sport. The authors demonstrate the successful application of military principles to a traumatic amputation in a civilian setting.
Wakeboarding is a sport increasing in popularity in the UK and the rest of the world. It is known to be associated with a high incidence of relatively minor injuries to the participating sportsperson. The authors present the case of a traumatic hand amputation to an associated third party and highlight the potential for serious injuries to all those directly involved with the sport. The authors demonstrate the successful application of military principles to a traumatic amputation in a civilian setting. PMID:22693318
Traumatic glaucomas represent a very heterogeneous group of entities due to a variety of pathomechanisms which increase the intraocular pressure in the early or late phase after traumatic injury (blunt or penetrating injury, acid or alkali burn). Little is known about the real prevalence of traumatic glaucoma. Angle recession, hyphema-associated and lens-associated mechanisms are the most common causes of traumatic glaucoma after blunt ocular trauma. Secondary angle closure due to peripheral anterior synechiae is the most common pathomechanism leading to glaucoma in patients with penetrating eye injury or acid or alkali burn. Early anti-inflammatory therapy for eye injuries is the most important step in the prevention of traumatic glaucoma. Although no general recommendations exist, topical potent corticosteroids significantly decrease the risk of glaucoma development. Medical and surgical treatment of traumatic glaucoma has often been disappointing. Therefore the visual prognosis of these eyes is often restricted. Antiglaucomatous drugs that reduce the secretion of aqueous humor (e. g., beta-blockers) should be preferred. Mitomycin-augmented trabeculectomy is the surgical method of first choice in patients with open angle traumatic glaucoma. Transscleral cyclophotocoagulation represents the method of first choice in secondary angle closure glaucoma due to anterior peripheral synechiae. New surgical techniques will increase the possibilities of an effective reduction of the intraocular pressure in secondary angle closure glaucoma. These new procedures are endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation, retinectomy, and the implantation of drainage devices via the pars plana. Further evaluation and modifications of these surgical techniques should markedly improve the visual prognosis of eyes with secondary angle closure glaucoma. For a few types of traumatic glaucoma (e. g., after epithelial ingrowth) no effective treatment modality is available at present. PMID:16240269
The traumatic loss of an unborn child after TOP due to fetal malformation and\\/or severe chromosomal disorders in late pregnancy\\u000a is a major life-event and a potential source of serious psychological problems for those women. To obtain information on the\\u000a course of grief following a traumatic loss, 62 women who had undergone TOP between the 15th and 32nd gestational week
Anette Kersting; K. Kroker; J. Steinhard; K. Lüdorff; U. Wesselmann; P. Ohrmann; V. Arolt; T. Suslow
Chlamydia trachomatis is a common cause of sexually transmitted disease which can cause severe consequences. Effective prevention requires knowledge of prevalence of infection in order to target interventions in a cost-effective manner. To determine the prevalence of chlamydial infection in Mashhad, northeastern Islamic Republic of Iran, this study was performed among male patients with urethritis. Urethral discharge was collected from 150 patients. Cell culture was established for diagnosis of Chlamydia in genital specimens. Cell culture showed that 9.3% of patients in this study were infected with Chlamydia. This study provides strong evidence that prevalence of Chlamydia in our region is quite high, which necessitates screening and treatment for the infection. PMID:19161108
Ghanaat, J; Afshari, J T; Ghazvini, K; Malvandi, M
Objectives Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis are the primary pathogens detected from non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). In this study, the efficacy of gatifloxacin was examined against M genitalium-related urethritis. Methods The study was an open clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of gatifloxacin with 200?mg doses twice a day for 7?days against male NGU. Results Between March and September 2008, 169 male patients were enrolled, and microbiological and clinical cure rates could be evaluated in 86 patients detected with C trachomatis or M genitalium and in 135 with NGU, respectively. Microbiological cure rates of gatifloxacin against C trachomatis and M genitalium were 100% and 83%, respectively, and the total clinical cure rate was 99%. Conclusion Analysis of in-vivo and in-vitro data from the literature of fluoroquinolone efficacies against M genitalium suggests that a MIC90 of 0.125??g/ml or less may be useful for optimal activity against M genitalium infection.
Purpose: The aim of this video is to demonstrate an endoscopic and minimally invasive repair of an urethrocutaneous fistula with cyanoacrylate glue. Materials and Methods: A 56 year-old-man with post-infectious urethral stricture and recurrent perineal abscess formation due to urethral fistulas. Results: The operative time was 60 minutes, no major complications were observed perioperatively and postoperatively. At a follow-up time of 6 months the patient had no evidence of recurrent fistula and abscess formation. Conclusions: The endoscopic use of cyanoacrylate glue represents a safe and minimally invasive approach that might be offered as a first line option for the treatment of urinary fistulas in selected patients, especially those with narrow and long tracts. PMID:24054392
Macedo, André Ramos Sorgi; de Almeida, Silvio Henrique Maia; Rodrigues, Marco Aurélio de Freitas; Toledo, Luis Gustavo; Maioli, Rafael Agostinho
From 1982 to 1985, 23 patients underwent posterior sagittal anorectoplasty procedures: 12 as primary treatment for congenital anorectal malformations, 9 for treatment of fecal incontinence following a prior pull-through procedure, and 2 for treatment of fecal incontinence following trauma. Six patients (26%) developed seven complications specifically related to the procedure. One patient with a cloacal anomaly had partial dehiscence of the sacroperineal incision following total reconstruction. This resulted in retraction of vaginal and anal openings, which, however, have remained separate and patent. Two patients developed temporary femoral nerve palsies, unilateral in one patient lasting one week, and bilateral in one patient lasting four months. Four patients developed leaks from the suture line of the tailored ectatic rectum, which was pulled through to the perineum. In one male patient, the suture line was placed anteriorly, resulting in a rectourethral fistula, which required a repeat posterior sagittal dissection. One male, who had a redo procedure, developed a posterior diverticulum comparable to a large anal crypt. This was repaired prior to closure of the colostomy. One seven-year-old girl developed multiple rectocutaneous fistulae, which closed with conservative management in five months. One male infant developed a single supralevator rectocutaneous fistula, which closed after rediversion of feces with a colostomy and has remained so after colostomy closure. The majority of the complications encountered were probably preventable if careful attention to certain details of technique had been observed: careful padding of the groin areas when patients are prone, especially in older patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3723300
Nakayama, D K; Templeton, J M; Ziegler, M M; O'Neill, J A; Walker, A B
The aims of this study were to determine HPV in a male population and its correlation with penile gross inspection and urethral pap smears. Fifty male volunteers were included in the study; all of them were sexual partners of women with evidence of HPV-related cervical diseases. Urethral Pap smear features and polymerase chain reaction (PCR; HPV detection) of urethral samples were correlated. Statistical analyses were conducted to identify variables associated with high and low-risk HPV types. Mean age of participants was 33.14 ± 1.52 (range, 23-50 years), and the mean age for those with high risk HPV was 32.12 ± 6.66 and 34.08 ± 6.58 for subjects with low-risk HPV (P = 0.820). Penile gross inspection revealed 19 (38%) cases with no lesions, papules in balanoprepusial furrol/sulcus in 23 (46%) cases, papilla in 23 (46%) cases, urethral lesions in 22 (44%) cases, penile body plaques in 22 (44%) cases, melanoses in 11 (22%) cases, sebaceous cysts on scrotum in 10 (20%) cases, and molting of the glands in 28 (56%) cases. Cytopathologic analysis revealed koilocytes in 24 (48%) cases. Dyskeratosis was observed in 24 (48%) cases. A bacterial background was found in 27 (54%) cases, and inflammatory cells were found in 27 (54%) cases. Twenty-six (52%) cases showed cytological features suggestive of Gardnerella Vaginalis. Twenty-four (48%) cases were high-risk HPV, and 26 (52%) were low-risk HPV (P = 0.037) as assessed by PCR-based detection. There was a statistically significant difference between koilocytes and bacterial background with high-risk human papillomavirus (P = 0.001). Abnormal colposcopy examination detected lesions were sampled for cytology by Pap smears. PMID:21538947
Surgical treatment for posttraumatic urethral stricture was carried out in 316 patients: tunneling in 42, Marion-Khol'tsov [correction of Kholtrov] operation with circular drainage in 185, tight suture of the bladder with transurethral drain using double-opening tube in 86 cases. Complications emerged in 28 patients. The best short- and long-term outcomes were obtained in the group subjected to tight suturing. PMID:1755127
The objective of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of vessel extracellular matrix (VECM) from rabbit and to\\u000a discuss the feasibility of vessel extracellular matrix as a matrix for urethral reconstruction. Primary cultured bladder smooth\\u000a muscle cells isolated from New Zealand rabbits were implanted on VECM.The effects of VECM on rabbit bladder smooth muscle\\u000a cells (RBSMCs) metabolic activity, attachment,
Fujin Shen; Sixing Yang; Yi Yao; Kaiyu Qian; Yun Wei; Linglong Wang
We report a rare postoperative complication of a mid-urethral tape. The patient presented with a chronic infection resistant\\u000a to treatment with several weeks of antibiotics, with eventual surgical removal, and the resulting complications of an infected\\u000a incisional hernia and vesico-cutaneous fistula required reconstruction of the abdominal wall with Permacol™ and excision of\\u000a the vesico-cutaneous fistula. We also look briefly at
The use of injectable bulking agents is a well-established approach to management of patients with stress urinary incontinence\\u000a (SUI). No single bulking agent to date has been shown to be superior or consistently durable in the literature. Novel therapeutic\\u000a strategies, including the use of injectable, muscle-derived stem cell therapy, have shown promising results in investigational\\u000a stages. Urethral bulking agent therapy
Aisha Khalali Taylor; Elodi Dielubanza; John Hairston
Introduction: The urethral syndrome is characterized by irritative disturbances, the urgency-frequency syndrome and\\/or pain associated with negative urine cultures. Areas of metaplasic tissue in the trigonal-bladder neck region (trigonitis) are sometimes present. We performed a comparative randomized study to assess the efficacy of side- or end-firing neodymium (Nd):YAG laser surgery in destroying metaplasia and relieving symptoms. Materials and Methods: Between
Elisabetta Costantini; Alessandro Zucchi; Michele Del Zingaro; Luigi Mearini
Objectives: Pelvic fracture urethral distraction defect (PFUDD) may be associated with disabling complications, such as recurrent stricture, urinary incontinence, and erectile dysfunction. In this article we review the current concepts in the evaluation and surgical management of PFUDD, including redo urethroplasty. Materials and Methods: A PubMed™ search was performed using the keywords “pelvic fracture urethral distraction defect, anastomotic urethroplasty, pelvic fracture urethral stricture, pelvic fracture urethral injuries, and redo-urethroplasty.” The search was limited to papers published from 1980 to March 2010 with special focus on those published in the last 15 years. The relevant articles were reviewed with regard to etiology, role of imaging, and the techniques of urethroplasty. Results: Pelvic fracture due to accidents was the most common etiology of PFUDD that usually involved the membranous urethra. Modern cross-sectional imaging, such as sonourethrography and magnetic resonance imaging help assess stricture pathology better, but their precise role in PFUDD management remains undefined. Surgical treatment with perineal anastomotic urethroplasty yields a success rate of more than 90% in most studies. The most important complication of surgical reconstruction is restenosis, occurring in less than 10% cases, most of which can be corrected by a redo anastomotic urethroplasty. The most common complication associated with this condition is erectile dysfunction. Urinary incontinence is a much rarer complication of this surgery in the present day. Conclusions: Anastomotic urethroplasty remains the cornerstone in the management of PFUDD, even in previously failed repairs. Newer innovations are needed to address the problem of erectile dysfunction associated with this condition.
A new approach for the treatment of vesicourethral anastomotic stricture after radical retropubic prostatectomy is presented. The patient had failed treatment with bougies, balloon dilation, and cold-knife incision of the anastomotic area. Transurethral resection of the bladder neck resulted in a rapid recurrence of the stricture. He was successfully treated with insertion of a UroLume urethral stent. After 18 months of follow-up, the patient is symptom free. PMID:11724132
The aim of the present study was the biochemical analysis of tissue hydroxyproline levels in incised urethral plates in order to show the total collagen content after the Snodgrass operation in the hypospadiac rabbit model. The study comprised 21 male New Zealand rabbits, (2.2–2.4 kg). The animals were randomly allocated to three groups each containing seven rabbits as follows: group 1,
Fatma Taneli; Cevval Ulman; Abdulkadir Genc; Omer Yilmaz; Can Taneli
The aim of this study is to present our preliminary experience in treating BPH-related urine retention, resistant to other medical treatment, with transurethral brachytherapy. We also deal with dosimetric analysis so as to eliminate ethical concerns about the exposure of patients not suffering from cancer to a certain level of body irradiation. Patients suffering from BPH-related urethral obstruction were treated with two transurethral applications (three weeks apart) of Cs137 MDR, which delivered a total of 16 Gy, at 0.5 cm from the urethral walls (dose rate 5-7 Gy/h). The application was done under ultrasonographic observation. Dosimetric calculation of the radiation exposure of the human body during transurethral radiotherapy (TURT) was performed for patients suffering from prostate cancer and treated with external beam radiotherapy and a boost dose through transurethral brachytherapy. For this purpose we used TLDs on skin surface and dosimetric analysis of X-ray films. Five patients treated for BPH urethral obstruction presented no sign of acute toxicity. All of them were weaned of their indwelling catheter immediately after the end of the first application. Obstruction did not recur within 12-18 months of follow-up. The dose delivered outside the prostate ranges from 1-7 cG, depending upon location. Proximal rectal and bladder walls received 1-2 Gy, a dose that is far from inducing acute or late toxicity. The estimated risk for carcinogenesis is negligible, and the expected benefit for the quality of life transcends the risks. No ethical concern is justified for testing transurethral radiotherapy for BPH-related urethral obstruction. TURT seems to be effective and provides durable results. Further investigation is required. PMID:7522461
Koukourakis, M; Zambatis, H; Skarlatos, J; Stamatelatos, I; Georgolopoulou, V; Rebelakos, A; Yannakakis, D
Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) has been used to treat urethral and prostatic diseases (off-label uses). Injection of BTX-A\\u000a into the external sphincter of patients with detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia has been shown to successfully lower\\u000a postvoid residual volumes and detrusor pressures. Average efficacy is 3 to 4 months, but long-term effects on detrusor leak\\u000a point pressures or renal function
The posterior trunk roughly encompasses the upper back from the shoulders to the lumbar area above the iliac crests. Long-term outcomes in the treatment of defects of the spine and bony thorax have been proved superior if flaps were used. Many local muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps are available alternatives. A guideline, patterned according to arbitrary anatomic territories of the back, is suggested as a starting point for the selection of appropriate primary and secondary flap options. Depending on flap availability, the latissimus dorsi and trapezius muscles are the workhorse flaps for the upper back, whereas perforator flaps have become a useful alternative for the lumbar region in lieu of free flaps.
We studied a man with distal hypospadias, partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, mild limb-length inequality and a balanced translocation involving chromosomes 9 and 13. To gain insight into the etiology of his birth defects, we mapped the translocation breakpoints by high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), using chromosome 9- and 13-specific tiling arrays to analyze genetic material from a spontaneously aborted fetus with unbalanced segregation of the translocation. The chromosome 13 breakpoint was ?400?kb away from the nearest gene, but the chromosome 9 breakpoint fell within an intron of Basonuclin 2 (BNC2), a gene that encodes an evolutionarily conserved nuclear zinc-finger protein. The BNC2/Bnc2 gene is abundantly expressed in developing mouse and human periurethral tissues. In all, 6 of 48 unrelated subjects with distal hypospadias had nine novel nonsynonymous substitutions in BNC2, five of which were computationally predicted to be deleterious. In comparison, two of 23 controls with normal penile urethra morphology, each had a novel nonsynonymous substitution in BNC2, one of which was predicted to be deleterious. Bnc2?/? mice of both sexes displayed a high frequency of distal urethral defects; heterozygotes showed similar defects with reduced penetrance. The association of BNC2 disruption with distal urethral defects and the gene's expression pattern indicate that it functions in urethral development.
Bhoj, Elizabeth J; Ramos, Purita; Baker, Linda A; Cost, Nicholas; Nordenskjold, Agneta; Elder, Frederick F; Bleyl, Steven B; Bowles, Neil E; Arrington, Cammon B; Delhomme, Brigitte; Vanhoutteghem, Amandine; Djian, Philippe; Zinn, Andrew R
Introduction: Penile fracture may be associated with urethral trauma in 1% to 38% of cases. We present our experience in treating 8 such cases. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from hospital records and from out-patient department follow-up visits. Results: The mean age of the patients was 30.4 years; trauma during coitus was the most common cause of the penile fracture. One patient presented after 7 days. Two patients had normal examination of their penis despite typical history. All fractures were repaired on an emergency basis via subcoronal incision. In 2 patients with normal findings, the urethra had to be mobilized to locate the site of the injury. In 1 patient, the site of the urethral trauma was 1 cm away from the site of the corporal injury, which was localized by injecting sterile methylene blue per urethra. Postoperatively, all patients voided with good flow and had erections with adequate rigidity. Conclusion: A high level of suspicion for urethral injury during surgical exploration is warranted, especially in the presence of suggestive history and examination.
Advances in materials technology, coupled with a heightened understanding of wound healing and tissue-materials interactions in the lower urinary tract, have led to the development of a variety of new urethral bulking agents that are expected to be available in the near future. Experience with such bulking agents continues to grow and study results are disseminated as more clinical trials are initiated and completed. The intention of this report is to review the characteristics and initial clinical results for one of these new agents: Tegress™ Urethral Implant (C. R. Bard, Inc., Murray Hill, NJ). This material, with unique phase-change properties upon exposure to body temperature fluids, offers ease of injection and requires less volume for clinical effect than bovine collagen. Additionally, Tegress Urethral Implant performance in clinical trials has suggested improved durability and correspondingly higher continence and improvement rates versus bovine collagen. As these materials evolve, an understanding of preferential implant techniques is being gained also. Delivery method and implant site may prove to substantially alter the biologic activity of these compounds. As outlined in this review, experience with Tegress Implant resulted in changes in delivery technique that translated into improved materials and tissue interaction.
Current treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) include watchful waiting, medical therapy, and interventional procedures. The post-surgical complication profile and the early discontinuation of medical therapy are significant drawbacks of the established approach and stimulate the search for less-invasive approaches. Our aim is to provide a comprehensive review all available literature on prostatic urethral lift (PUL), presenting an overview of safety, indications, surgical technique and results of the procedure, and to evaluate the potential role it could play in the treatment of BPH. A comprehensive search was conduct on PubMed and Scopus database to identify original articles in English dealing with PUL without any limit to publication date. Keywords used were prostatic urethral lift, urethral lifting, Urolift, benign prostatic hyperplasia and minimally invasive therapy. The PUL seems to offer a better IPSS improvement when compared to medical therapy, but the result is inferior when compared to surgical therapy. Published studies report an absence of degradation of erectile or ejaculatory function after treatment, which appears a noteworthy benefit of PUL. Additional advantages of the PUL are a better complication profile in comparison to other surgical therapies and the use of a local anesthesia, sometimes without postoperative catheterization. The PUL, a novel, minimally invasive treatment option for men affected by BPH, presents a promising potential although it is clear that PUL is not a substitute for traditional ablative surgical approach, as this procedure requires a scrupulous selection of the patient. PMID:23794125
Electrodiagnostic studies are used to anatomically localize nerve injuries. These tests help differentiate between cervical radiculopathies, brachial plexopathies, and peripheral nerve injuries. They also help to identify or rule out other underlying neurological diseases and disorders. In this case report, a 22-year-old male swimmer presented with left finger extensor weakness following pull-up exercises. Left wrist extension remained intact. Electrodiagnostic testing revealed a severe but incomplete posterior interosseous neuropathy. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed inflammation of the nerve in the forearm. Posterior interosseous neuropathy is an uncommon but well-studied condition. Typically, this condition presents with weakness in finger and thumb extension with preserved wrist extension as the extensor carpi radialis longus is innervated proximal to the site of nerve compression in most cases. It is important to understand the anatomic course and distribution of the radial nerve in order to make an accurate diagnosis. Once the anatomy is understood, electrodiagnostic testing may be used to identify the location of nerve injury and exclude other disorders. PMID:23874261
Bevelaqua, Anna-Christina; Hayter, Catherine L; Feinberg, Joseph H; Rodeo, Scott A
Concussions following head and/or neck injury are common, and although most people with mild injuries recover uneventfully, a subset of individuals develop persistent post-concussive symptoms that often include headaches. Post-traumatic headaches vary in presentation and may progress to become chronic and in some cases debilitating. Little is known about the pathogenesis of post-traumatic headaches, although shared pathophysiology with that of the brain injury is suspected. Following primary injury to brain tissues, inflammation rapidly ensues; while this inflammatory response initially provides a defensive/reparative function, it can persist beyond its beneficial effect, potentially leading to secondary injuries because of alterations in neuronal excitability, axonal integrity, central processing, and other changes. These changes may account for the neurological symptoms often observed after traumatic brain injury, including headaches. This review considers selected aspects of the inflammatory response following traumatic brain injury, with an emphasis on the role of glial cells as mediators of maladaptive post-traumatic inflammation. PMID:24090534
Urinary tract infections accounts for over 40% of all nosocomial infections, and almost all these infections are associated with indwelling catheters. The acquisition of urinary tract infections following urinary bladder catheterizations are associated with nearly a threefold increase in mortality among hospitalized patients. The economic impact of nosocomial urinary infections is difficult to assess. An estimate of the cost of these infections have shown that patients with hospital-acquired urinary tract infections secondary to indwelling catheters, spent an average of 2.4 additional days in the hospital. Bearing this in mind, even a marginal decrease in urinary tract infections may be cost-effective. In two randomized prospective clinical studies we have shown that coating urinary catheters with silver significantly reduces the infection rate during short-term catheterization (less than 7 days). We also showed that silver coating of urinary catheters prevented adherence and growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the catheter material. Another risk from using indwelling catheters is an inflammatory reaction of the urethral mucosa leading to stricture formation. Several aetiological factors whereby indwelling catheters may cause a urethral stricture have been discussed. During the last years much attention has been paid to the catheter material as such, especially latex, and its role in stricture formation. Urinary catheters are made from a variety of materials combined with different chemicals. It seems as if these chemical substances can dissolve from the catheter material, causing inflammatory reactions. Using a cell culture technique with a mouse fibroblast cell line (BALBc/3T3), and an animal model with implantation of catheter material into the urethra, we assessed both in vitro cytotoxicity (IC50) and inflammatory reactions in vivo from different catheter materials. The studies confirmed that especially latex materials do not have both cytotoxic effects and cause considerable inflammation within the urethral mucosa. By coating the catheters with silver, the cytotoxicity could be significantly reduced as compared with pure latex and hydrogel coated latex catheters. Several studies have demonstrated a cytotoxic effect from catheter materials, indicating that this may be of importance in urethral inflammation. However, the exact mechanisms behind this phenomenon is not known. In an attempt to explain the inflammatory reaction within the urethra secondary to an indwelling catheter, we investigated the influence of the nervous system on experimentally induced urethral inflammation. Our findings indicate that an important part in catheter induced inflammation is played by neurogenic reactions. PMID:2633310
Sports-related concussion has gained increased prominence, in part due to media coverage of several well-known athletes who have died from consequences of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE was first described by Martland in 1928 as a syndrome seen in boxers who had experienced significant head trauma from repeated blows. The classic symptoms of impaired cognition, mood, behavior, and motor skills also have been reported in professional football players, and in 2005, the histopathological findings of CTE were first reported in a former National Football League (NFL) player. These finding were similar to Alzheimer's disease in some ways but differed in critical areas such as a predominance of tau protein deposition over amyloid. The pathophysiology is still unknown but involves a history of repeated concussive and subconcussive blows and then a lag period before CTE symptoms become evident. The involvement of excitotoxic amino acids and abnormal microglial activation remain speculative. Early identification and prevention of this disease by reducing repeated blows to the head has become a critical focus of current research. PMID:23314081
Yi, Juneyoung; Padalino, David J; Chin, Lawrence S; Montenegro, Philip; Cantu, Robert C
This study explored youth reports of traumatic events by (a) identifying the types of events that children and adolescents report as traumatic in their lives, (b) investigating the association between self-reported traumatic events and self- and parent-reported emotional problems, and (c) examining developmental differences in the type and severity of the events reported as traumatic. Findings suggest that youth reported
This is a case report of a 28-year-old male patient with severe traumatic brain injury and Glasgow coma scale score = 8: E2 M5 VT, who required a tracheotomy for airway protection. On day 5, a surgical tracheotomy was performed with size 8 tracheotomy tube (TT). On the 4(th) day of post-tracheostomy, he developed a sudden onset respiratory distress while on T-piece. Immediate fiber optic bronchoscopy revealed almost a complete closure of TT due to posterior tracheal wall indrawing into the TT with every inspiratory effort. PMID:23930242
This is a case report of a 28-year-old male patient with severe traumatic brain injury and Glasgow coma scale score = 8: E2 M5 VT, who required a tracheotomy for airway protection. On day 5, a surgical tracheotomy was performed with size 8 tracheotomy tube (TT). On the 4th day of post-tracheostomy, he developed a sudden onset respiratory distress while on T-piece. Immediate fiber optic bronchoscopy revealed almost a complete closure of TT due to posterior tracheal wall indrawing into the TT with every inspiratory effort.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) often coexist because brain injuries are often sustained in traumatic experiences. This review outlines the significant overlap between PTSD and TBI by commencing with a critical outline of the overlapping symptoms and problems of differential diagnosis. The impact of TBI on PTSD is then described, with increasing evidence suggesting that mild TBI can increase risk for PTSD. Several explanations are offered for this enhanced risk. Recent evidence suggests that impairment secondary to mild TBI is largely attributable to stress reactions after TBI, which challenges the long-held belief that postconcussive symptoms are a function of neurological insult This recent evidence is pointing to new directions for treatment of postconcussive symptoms that acknowledge that treating stress factors following TBI may be the optimal means to manage the effects of many TBIs,
Traumatic corneal endothelial rings are remarkably rare ocular findings that may result from blast injury. We present a unique case of bilateral traumatic corneal endothelial rings secondary to blast injury from homemade explosives. PMID:23474743
... traumatic stress: After a tornado The effects of tornadoes can be long-lasting and the resulting trauma ... de los tornados Find a Psychologist Related Reading Tornadoes, Hurricanes and Children Managing traumatic stress: Tips for ...
... simply adjusting to life with a baby. Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Approximately 1-6% of women experience postpartum post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following childbirth. Most often, this illness is ...
... Trials Cancer Statistics Research & Funding News About NCI Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ®) Patient Version Health Professional Version En español Last Modified: 06/15/2012 Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ®) Introduction Overview Diagnosis and Symptoms Risk Factors, ...
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an increasingly recognized and potentially preventable condition. Certain factors, especially the severity of the trauma, perceived lack of social support and peri-traumatic dissociation have been associated with its development. In recent years, a more robust evidence base regarding the management of individuals involved in traumatic events has emerged. Immediately after a traumatic event, simple practical, pragmatic support provided in a sympathetic manner by non-mental health professionals seems most likely to help. For individuals who develop persisting PTSD, trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TFCBT) may be beneficial within a few months of the trauma. For those who develop chronic PTSD, TFCBT and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing are best supported by the current evidence. Some anti-depressants appear to have a modest beneficial effect and are recommended as a second-line treatment. The current evidence base has allowed the development of guidelines that now require implementation. This has major implications in terms of planning and developing services that allow appropriately qualified and trained individuals to be available to cater adequately for the needs of survivors of traumatic events. PMID:17728312
Posterior glenohumeral instability remains a difficult problem. There are still many controversies regarding surgical treatment, due to a lack of understanding the pathomechanical issues leading to posterior instability. This article presents a new arthroscopic technique of posterior bone block augmentation, which we found to be effective, repeatable and successful. This technique can be used for combined soft tissue and bony defects as well as for revisions after previous soft tissue reconstructions. PMID:22910897
Dancers spend a lot of time in the relevé position in demi-pointe and en pointe in their training and their careers. Pain from both osseous and soft tissue causes may start to occur in the posterior aspect of their ankle. This article reviews the potential causes of posterior ankle impingement in dancers. It will discuss the clinical evaluation of a dancer and the appropriate workup and radiographic studies needed to further evaluate a dancer with suspected posterior ankle impingement. PMID:22071398
Traumatic thoracic aortic injury is typically fatal. However, recent improvements in pre-hospital care and diagnostic modalities have resulted in an increased number of patients with traumatic aortic injury arriving alive at the hospital. Also, the morbidity and mortality associated with endovascular repair are significantly lower than with conventional open surgery in traumatic thoracic aorta injury. We experienced two cases of successful management of traumatic thoracic aortic dissection with endovascular stents caused by traffic accidents.
Jang, Mi Ok; Kim, Ju Han; Oh, Sang Ki; Lee, Min Goo; Park, Keun Ho; Sim, Doo Sun; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun
From January 2004 to July 2007, 21 patients with injuries at the posterior pelvic ring were treated with locking compression plate osteosynthesis through a minimally invasive approach and followed up for a mean of 12.2 months. Preoperative and postoperative radiography was conducted to assess the reduction and union. The mean operation time was 60 minutes (range: 40–80). Intraoperative blood loss was 50–150 ml. All patients achieved union at the final follow-up. The overall radiological results were excellent or good in 17 patients (85%). The functional outcome was excellent or good in 18 patients (90%). There was no iatrogenic nerve injury, deep infection or failure of fixation. We believe that fixation with a locking compression plate is an effective method for the treatment of injuries of the posterior pelvic ring in view of its convenience, minimal traumatic invasion and lower morbidity.
Secondary traumatic stress (STS) represents a disorder that has the same symptoms as post traumatic stress disorder, but results from vicariously experiencing trauma through association with those directly encountering the traumatic event(s). This exploratory study examined STS in 21 oncology social workers who were members of the Association of Oncology Social Workers. The results of this study revealed that oncology
Cassandra E. Simon; Josephine G. Pryce; Lucinda L. Roff; David Klemmack
|Traumatic experiences in early childhood raise important questions about memory development in general and about the durability and accessibility of memories for traumatic events in particular. We discuss memory for early childhood traumatic events, from a developmental perspective, focusing on those factors that may equally influence memories…
Cordon, Ingrid M.; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Sayfan, Liat; Melinder, Annika; Goodman, Gail S.
Visual loss following head trauma is common, and the diagnosis can be challenging for the neurologist called to perform an emergency room assessment. The approach to the patient with post-traumatic visual loss is complicated by a wide range of potential ocular and brain injuries with varying pathophysiology. In addition to direct injuries of the eye and orbit, traumatic optic neuropathies, carotid cavernous fistulas, and damage to the intracranial visual pathways are classic causes of visual loss after head trauma. This review provides an update on the diagnosis and management of these conditions.
Atkins, Edward J.; Newman, Nancy J.; Biousse, Valerie
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and Fas receptor contribute to cell death and cognitive dysfunction after focal traumatic brain injury (TBI). We examined the role of TNF?\\/Fas in postinjury functional outcome independent of cell death in a novel closed head injury (CHI) model produced with weight drop and free rotational head movement in the anterior–posterior plane. The CHI produced no
Jugta Khuman; William P Meehan; Xiaoxia Zhu; Jianhua Qiu; Ulrike Hoffmann; Jimmy Zhang; Eric Giovannone; Eng H Lo; Michael J Whalen
Summary Background Bony wall damages in the region of the middle and posterior cranial fossa are usually observed in cases of chronic otitis media. These defects can also be congenital, post-traumatic, iatrogenic or due to tumors. They can potentially lead to the development of intracranial complications. Material/Methods We analyzed patients who were diagnosed as having bony wall damage in the region of the middle and/or posterior cranial fossa. We also discuss methods of reconstruction during otosurgery. The analysis involves patients who underwent middle ear operations in the Department of Otolaryngology at the Jagiellonian University of Krakow between 2004 and 2008; 495 otosurgeries were performed during this period of time. Results In 70% of patients the reason for otosurgery was chronic otitis media. In 20%, bone defects occurred simultaneously with otosclerosis. Less than 10% underwent otosurgery for other reasons. Bony wall damage in the region of the middle and posterior cranial fossa were diagnosed in 46 patients who underwent surgery. In patients with bony wall damage, otogenic intracranial complications were described in 14 cases. Conclusions The performed reconstruction methods for bony wall damage, which used the fascia, strengthened with the pedicle muscle flap for larger defects and with either bone lamella or cartilage in specific cases, proved successful. Nearly 80% of bony wall damages in the region of the middle and posterior cranial fossa remain asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally during middle ear surgery. The above observations emphasize the significant role of pre-operative imaging diagnostics.
Wiatr, Maciej; Skladzien, Jacek; Tomik, Jerzy; Strek, Pawel; Przeklasa-Muszynska, Anna
The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the efficacy of a single daily oral dose of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) in the treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) in bitches. Nine bitches diagnosed with USMI were treated with a single daily dose [1.5 mg/kg body weight (BW)] of PPA for at least 1 month. Urethral pressure profiles (UPP) were performed in 7 dogs before treatment and repeated in 4 of them after treatment. Treatment with PPA resulted in long-term continence in 8/9 bitches. One dog did not respond to PPA and was treated surgically later. Recheck UPPs showed a significant increase in maximal urethral closure pressure in the 4 bitches after treatment with PPA compared to before treatment. In conclusion, long-term continence can be achieved in bitches affected with USMI after administration of a single daily dose of PPA (1.5 mg/kg BW).
A technique of synchronous study for monitoring the bladder activity and simultaneous urethral sphincteric responses is described. This study was made possible by using a 12 F trilumen catheter with which intravesical infusion and independent bladder pressure recording were conducted. Constant urethral infusion with intrasphincteric pressure recording was arranged through the third lumen of the trilumen catheter. This radiologic aided study was used for functional evaluation of the bladder and its outlet. The bulit-in artefacts of the technique were assessed. The physical factors, such as urethral infusion flow rate and the compliance of infusion catheter hydraulic system governing interpretation of the study during nonvoiding states, are described. With an experience of 100 studies on 75 patients with spinal cord injury and 5 normal subjects, this method has been found to be a useful clinical urodynamic technique well suited even to a nonambulatory patients with spinal cord injury. PMID:1202734
Introduction: Direct visual internal urethrotomy (DVIU) followed by intermittent self-dilatation (ISD) is the most commonly performed intervention for urethral stricture disease. The objective of this paper is to outline the current scientific evidence supporting this approach for its use in the management of anterior urethral strictures. Materials and Methods: A Pubmed database search was performed with the words “internal urethrotomy” and “internal urethrotomy” self-catheterization. All papers dealing with this subject were scrutinized. Cross-references from the retrieved articles were also viewed. Only English language articles were included in the analyses. Studies were analyzed to identify predictors for success for DVIU. Results: Initial studies showed excellent outcomes with DVIU with success rates ranging from 50% to 85%. However, these studies reported only short-term results. Recent studies with longer followup have shown a poor success rate ranging from 6% to 28%. Stricture length and degree of fibrosis (luminal narrowing) were found to be predictors of response. Repeated urethrotomies were associated with poor results. Studies involving intermittent self-catheterization following DVIU have shown no role in short-term ISD with one study reporting beneficial effects if continued for more than a year. A significant number of studies have shown long-term complications with SC and high dropout rates. Conclusions: DVIU is associated with poor long-term cure rates. It remains as a treatment of first choice for bulbar urethral strictures <1 cm with minimal spongiofibrosis. There is no role for repeated urethrotomy as outcomes are uniformly poor. ISD, when used for more than a year on a weekly or biweekly basis may delay the onset of stricture recurrence.
We present our findings in six athletic patients with a ruptured or partially ruptured posterior tibial tendon. Pain in the midarch region, difficulty pushing off while running, and a pronated flattened longitudinal arch are the usual symptoms and physical findings of this injury. Surgical treatment, including reattachment of the rup tured posterior tibial tendon, is effective in restoring some but
We present a novel, efficient search strategy for large vocabulary continuous speech recognition (LVCSR). The search algorithm, based on stack decoding, uses posterior phone probability estimates to substantially increase its efficiency with minimal effect on accuracy. In particular, the search space is dramatically reduced by phone deactivation pruning where phones with a small local posterior probability are deactivated. This approach
Purpose: We sought to determine whether visual field abnormalities occur in infants with deformational posterior plagiocephaly and to assess whether there is a relationship between the severity and laterality of visual field abnormalities with the severity and laterality of skull deformity. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on 40 consecutive infants with deformational posterior plagiocephaly. Each was tested with
R. Michael Siatkowski; Aaron C. Fortney; Sayeda A. Nazir; Sterling L. Cannon; Jayesh Panchal; Paul Francel; William Feuer
Following a brief clinical description of posterior scleritis its echographical criteria are described with reference to a case history: broad scleral echos with high reflectivity and poor sound attenuation in the A-scan are characteristic, as well as clear demarcation of the thickened posterior sclera from the orbital tissue and edema in Tenon's space in the B-scan. PMID:7253515
The main posterior watershed zone of the choroid is located between the nasal edge of the optic disc and the fovea and represents the area situated between the territories supplied by the temporal and nasal posterior ciliary arteries. In the fluorescein angiographies of 800 normal subjects a watershed zone was not observed in 33.1% due to technical reasons and in
A retrospective study to investigate the relationship between the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis and other factors occurring in 146 patients suffering of non-gonococcal urethritis, has been released 39 being positive for C. trachomatis. The relationship between the isolation of C. trachomatis and previous antibiotic treatment, age, sexual different contacts in the last month and year has been studied. The main feature affecting the isolation is the absence of antimicrobial therapy a previously to the specimen collection and being performed after four days post-contact. PMID:6397667
García De Lomas, J; Durante, M D; Camaro, M L; Nogueira, J M; Buesa, F J; García De Lomas, M; Vilata, J J
A case of stone formation within a female urethral diverticulum is presented together with a brief literature review.\\u000a \\u000a Clinical diagnosis may be suspected if a stony hard mass is palpable on the floor of the urethra. The definitive diagnosis\\u000a depends upon a plain X-ray film and a retrograde positive pressure urethrogram.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Surgical excision of the diverticulum together with the calculus
F. Aragona; M. Mangano; W. Artibani; G. Passerini Glazel
Since 1995, 29 consecutive patients with craniocervical spine instability due to several pathologies were managed with posterior occipitocervical instrumentation and fusion. Laminectomy was additionally performed in nineteen patients. The patients were divided in two groups: Group A which included patients managed with screw-rod instrumentation, and Group B which included patients managed with hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically using the following parameters: spine anatomy and reconstruction, sagittal profile, neurologic status, functional level, pain relief, complications and status of arthrodesis. The follow-up was performed immediately postoperatively and at 2, 6, 12 months after surgery, and thereafter once a year. Fusion was achieved in all but one patient. One case of infection was the only surgery related complication. Neurological improvement and considerable pain relief occurred in the majority of patients postoperatively. There were neither intraoperative complications nor surgery related deaths. However, the overall death rate was 37.5% in group A, and 7.7% in group B. There were no instrument related failures. The reduction level was acceptable and was maintained until the latest follow-up in all of the patients. No statistical difference between the outcomes of screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation was detected. Laminectomy did not influence the outcome in either group. Screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod occipitocervical fusion instrumentations are both considered as safe and effective methods of treatment of craniocervical instability.
Since 1995, 29 consecutive patients with craniocervical spine instability due to several pathologies were managed with posterior occipitocervical instrumentation and fusion. Laminectomy was additionally performed in nineteen patients. The patients were divided in two groups: Group A which included patients managed with screw-rod instrumentation, and Group B which included patients managed with hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically using the following parameters: spine anatomy and reconstruction, sagittal profile, neurologic status, functional level, pain relief, complications and status of arthrodesis. The follow-up was performed immediately postoperatively and at 2, 6, 12 months after surgery, and thereafter once a year. Fusion was achieved in all but one patient. One case of infection was the only surgery related complication. Neurological improvement and considerable pain relief occurred in the majority of patients postoperatively. There were neither intraoperative complications nor surgery related deaths. However, the overall death rate was 37.5% in group A, and 7.7% in group B. There were no instrument related failures. The reduction level was acceptable and was maintained until the latest follow-up in all of the patients. No statistical difference between the outcomes of screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation was detected. Laminectomy did not influence the outcome in either group. Screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod occipitocervical fusion instrumentations are both considered as safe and effective methods of treatment of craniocervical instability. PMID:21772931
Wakeboarding is a sport increasing in popularity in the UK and the rest of the world. It is known to be associated with a high incidence of relatively minor injuries to the participating sportsperson. The authors present the case of a traumatic hand amputation to an associated third party and highlight the potential for serious injuries to all those directly
With the events of September 11th, childhood trauma has come to the forefront of national attention. One of the common psychiatric outcomes of trauma is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Despite the fact that certain vulnerabilities may contribute to the development of PTSD in traumatized youth, the existence of an identifiable stressor provides a unique opportunity for early intervention. Cognitive Behavioral
Raul R. Silva; Marylene Cloitre; Lori Davis; Jill Levitt; Sandy Gomez; Irene Ngai; Elissa Brown
|This article serves to challenge the prevailing wisdom that suggests that most trauma is followed by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and is best treated with critical incident stress debriefing (CISD). Instead, recent evidence suggests that many individuals exposed to stress do not experience stress responses. Even those who do, however,…
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) can cause multiple medical and functional problems. As the brain is involved in regulating nearly every bodily function, a TBI can affect any part of the body and aspect of cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning. However, TBI affects each individual differently. Optimal management requires understanding the…
Exposure to trauma can result in immune dysregulation, and increasing evidence suggests that there are immune alterations associated with post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the exact nature of these immune findings in PTSD has not been defined. The study of psychoneuro- immunology in PTSD is relevant not only for understanding the biological underpinnings of this disorder but also for
Twelve cases of traumatic tear of the diaphragm have been operated upon. In nine operation was done less than a week after the accident, with eight excellent results and one death. Three cases were recognized late in patients who had sustained chest injuries months or years earlier. Repair was accomplished in all patients through a thoracic approach. Images
Neveux, J. Y.; Hazan, E.; Levasseur, J. C.; Galey, J. J.; Mathey, J.
|It is important to determine if a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has occurred when an individual is assessed in a hospital emergency room after a car accident, fall, or other injury that affects the head. This determination influences decisions about treatment. It is essential to screen for the injury, because the sooner they begin appropriate…
Trudel, Tina M.; Halper, James; Pines, Hayley; Cancro, Lorraine
|Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) can cause multiple medical and functional problems. As the brain is involved in regulating nearly every bodily function, a TBI can affect any part of the body and aspect of cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning. However, TBI affects each individual differently. Optimal management requires understanding the…
Traumatic vertebral artery dissection is not often seen by forensic pathologists, and cases investigated are scarce in the forensic literature. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman cyclist who was struck by a car while wearing a helmet, and was neurologically near normal immediately thereafter at Emergency. She presented 48h later with acute right hemiparesis, decreasing level of consciousness,
Ignasi Galtés; Juan Carlos Borondo; Mònica Cos; Mercè Subirana; Carles Martín; Josep Castellà; Jordi Medallo
The National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system is a death certificate-based census of occupational injury deaths. Death certificates are obtained from the 50 States, New York City, and the District of Columbia for decedent's ages 16 years or older with ...
: A prospective analysis of 166 women with genuine stress incontinence was performed comparing Valsalva leak-point pressure\\u000a (VLPP) and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) with age, previous urogynecologic surgery and\\/or hysterectomy, poor urethral\\u000a mobility, weight, menopause and vaginal deliveries, to find correlations with intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD). Cut-off\\u000a value for VLPP were 60 cmH2O and for MUCP 30 cmH2O. MUCP
C. Pajoncini; E. Costantini; F. Guercini; M. Porena
Objective The anterior commissure (AC) and posterior commissure (PC) are the two distinct anatomic structures in the brain which are difficult to observe in detail with conventional MRI, such as a 1.5T MRI system. However, recent advances in ultra-high resolution MRI have enabled us to examine the AC and PC directly. The objective of the present study is to standardize the shape and size of the AC and PC using a 7.0T MRI and to propose a new brain reference line. Materials and Methods Thirty-four, 21 males and 13 females, healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. After determining the center of each AC and PC, we defined the connection of these centers as the central intercommissural line (CIL). We compared the known extra- and intra-cerebral reference lines with the CIL to determine the difference in the angles. Additionally, we obtained horizontal line from flat ground line of look front human. Results The difference in angle of the CIL and the tangential intercommissural line (TIL) from the horizontal line was 8.7 ± 5.1 (11 ± 4.8) and 17.4 ± 5.2 (19.8 ± 4.8) degrees in males and females, respectively. The difference in angle between the CIL and canthomeatal line was 10.1 in both male and female, and there was no difference between both sexes. Likewise, there was no significant difference in angle between the CIL and TIL between both sexes (8.3 +/- 1.1 in male and 8.8 +/- 0.7 in female). Conclusion In this study, we have used 7.0T MRI to define the AC and PC quantitatively and in a more robust manner. We have showed that the CIL is a reproducible reference line and serves as a standard for the axial images of the human brain.
Popliteal artery injuries have an incidence ranging between 5% and 19% of all traumatic arteria lesions. A high index of amputation, when associated with lesions of the infrapopliteal branches, and a 4-5% overall mortality are recorded in these conditions. Three patients with popliteal artery injury due to posterior knee dislocation were operated upon in our department during the last 12 months. In one case, the physical examination revealed a warm limb, with peripheral pulse; angiography showed a pseudoaneurysm of the popliteal artery with intimal dissection and partial thrombosis. In the last two cases an acute ischemia of the limb was present; in one case the angiographic study showed a complete transection of the artery, while in the second case an obstruction of popliteal artery. In all cases the dislocation was corrected and a the reconstruction carried out by inverted autologus saphenous vein with termino-terminal anastomosis. In all cases a good patency of the popliteal reconstruction was achieved with limb salvage. Prognosis of popliteal injuries is related to an early diagnosis and they should be suspected even in absence of overt signs of acute ischemia. Surgical timing cannot be the same in all cases. The need for a preliminary orthopedic phase with its modality must be established case by case, relating to the severity of ischemia, to the time elapsed between trauma and surgery, to the peculiarities of skeleton and joints lesions. PMID:11382838
Background: Craniosynostosis compromises the cranial vault volume, severely impede growth, and may lead to increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Posterior cranial vault (PCV) distraction osteogenesis (DO) offers an excellent treatment opportunity for this condition. This article intends to describe the outcomes of PCV DO. Materials and Methods: Nine males and seven female children indicated for PCV DO were included in the study. The single vector distraction devices with quick-disconnect distraction rods, a type of miniaturized hardware, was used in all cases. Result: Seven of the 16 patients had a history of one or more prior cranioplasty. All reoperations in this series were performed for the indication of raised ICP including five of the scaphocephaly patients and the syndromic patients. Clinical signs of raised ICP were present in all patients with either measured raised intracranial pressure or those with clinical signs of raised ICP preoperatively. There was substantial decrease in the ICP postoperatively. Discussion: The outcomes of this study were encouraging. Placing the distractor stems as flat as possible against the outer layer of the cranial bone seems to be a very important maneuver. This keeps the distractor stem less proud and less likely to sustain future trauma. Removal of the distractor stems keeps the devices further away from the risk of later traumatic dislodgement. Moreover, miniaturized distractors allow precise control of the rate and the amount of distraction.
Ylikontiola, Leena P.; Sandor, George K.; Salokorpi, Niina; Serlo, Willy S.
The prognosis of traumatic hyphemias in general is favorable, the blood being resorbed spontaneously in a short period. The case is different, however, where hemorrhage is abundant, and the condensed blood in the anterior chamber coagulates; here, the angle is often blocked with fibrin, the intraocular pressure rises considerably, accompanied always with severe pain. The arrest of aqueous circulation by the consolidated clot suppresses the process of resorption; thereafter, local and general therapeutic measures become ineffective. The state of "malignant hypertension" once established, surgical intervention becomes imperative. In this study are given the results of 10 cases of traumatic hyphemia complicated by malignant hypertension, treated by ultrasonic irradiation. The results are obviously favorable: rapid fall of ocular hypertension with prompt disappearance of subjective symptoms; revelation of signs of liquefaction and resumption of processes of resorption in 9 patients. Under continued treatment, complete resorption of the hyphemia was attained with accelerated pace. In one case, however, unrelenting hypertension persisted to the 12th day, despite the complete liquefaction of the coagulum. A phakotopic factor lying under the hyphemia was suspected. The visual recuperation was remarkable in 7 cases free from posterior segment alterations. PMID:6863825
The present study compiled the data furnished by 77 different specimens of human bulbo-urethral secretion obtained from 4 donors. It established that Cowper's fluid, allowed to dry at room temperature, gives rise to dendritic crystalline structures showing a remarkable pattern closely resembling fern leaves. In addition to the dendrites, which may develop in some other mucoid secretions and are known to be mainly composed of NaCl crystals, numberless tiny spherulites are also observed within interdendritic intervals, in the central part of the preparations. These spherulites consist of polycrystalline microstructures radiating from a central nucleus. It can be inferred from their structure and localization that they are composed of salts other than NaCl and do not crystallize in the cubic system. Far from being an occasional phenomenon, ferning crystallization is considered to be an unequivocal physical constant of dried human bulbo-urethral fluid. As for interdendritic crystalline spherulites that were described previously as occasional structures present only in ovulatory cervical mucus, both their abundance and range of size variation make them a constant and specific feature of dried Cowper's fluid. PMID:8597306
This report describes the use of a tubularized random flap for the curative treatment of recurrent anterior urethral stricture. Under the condition of pendulous lithotomy and suprapubic cystostomy, the urethral stricture was removed via a midline ventral penile incision followed by elevation of the flap and insertion of an 18-Fr catheter. Subcutaneous buried interrupted sutures were used to reapproximate the waterproof tubularized neourethra and to coapt with the neourethra and each stump of the urethra, first proximally and then distally. The defect of the penile shaft was covered by advancement of the surrounding scrotal flap. The indwelling catheter was maintained for 21 days. A 9 month postoperative cystoscopy showed no flap necrosis, no mechanical stricture, and no hair growth on the lumen of the neourethra. The patient showed no voiding discomfort 6 months after the operation. The advantages of this procedure are the lack of need for microsurgery, shortening of admission, the use of only spinal anesthesia (no general anesthesia), and a relatively short operative time. The tubularized unilateral penile fasciocutaneous flap should be considered an option for initial flap urethroplasty as a curative technique.
The external urethral sphincter (EUS) plays a crucial role in maintaining urinary continence. The activity of the EUS is modulated by bladder and urethra sensory neurons. However, a complete understanding of the somatic or visceral sources that modulate the EUS is lacking. The aims of the present study were to characterize the response of the EUS to perineal skin, genital, rectal, and urethral mechanical stimulation, as well as to determine the peripheral neural pathways of the reflex. EUS reflex electromyographic activity (EMG), innervation of pelvic and perineal structures, and the anatomy of afferent and efferent nerves were determined in anesthetized female rats. The EUS responds to cutaneous as well as genital and rectal stimuli. However, the EUS EMG response is significantly larger when induced by genital stimulation. The dorsal nerve of the clitoris and the cavernous nerve both innervate the distal urethra and the distal vagina, as well as the clitoris and perigenital skin and are the main afferent pathways for the genito-sphincteric reflex. Efferent axons travel through the pudendal nerve and the lumbosacral trunk and converge in the motor branch of the lumbosacral plexus, which innervates the EUS. Because the nerves are located on the vaginal walls, they are susceptible to damage during childbirth. Physiology and anatomy of the different neural pathways that regulate EUS activity are important to consider when inducing nerve damage to create models of urinary incontinence. PMID:22886730
Irritant contact dermatitis is a common cause of genital eruptions representing at least one-fifth of presenting anogenital symptoms. A spectrum of inflammatory reactions have been identified, some of them with features severely mimicking more serious dermatoses, which may lead unnecessary workup and treatments. We report a case of a 10-year-old girl who presented at birth with cloacal atresia involving the rectum and the urethra. A diverting colostomy and a urethral-vaginal fistula were created to correct the deformity. Physical examination reveals numerous shiny, white-gray, pseudoverrucous papules and nodules coalescing into plaques over the vulva and its surrounding skin. Histological examination showed psoriasiform epidermal hyperplasia with a marked reactive acanthosis and altered cornification with parakeratosis, hypogranulosis, and pale keratinocytes in the upper reaches of the epidermis. The lesions regress when the irritating factor was removed. This case represents a peculiar form of presentation of perianal pseudoverrucous papules and nodules, usually secondary to urinary incontinence or encopresis (inability to control the elimination of stool) after surgery for Hirschsprung disease. Because similar findings have not been previously observed in patients with urethral-vaginal fistula, we attempt to extend the spectrum of presentations for a better knowledge of this condition. PMID:21285858
Garrido-Ruiz, María Concepción; Rosales, Belen; Luis Rodríguez-Peralto, José
OBJECTIVE To determine whether men who perform recreational sounding are at increased risk of engaging in unsafe sexual behaviours, developing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS In a cross-sectional, international, internet-based survey of the sexual practices of >2000 men who have sex with men, subjects were asked if they had engaged in urethral sounding for sexual gratification. We compared ethnodemographic and health-related variables between the sounding and non-sounding populations. The International Prostate Symptom Score and a modified validated version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to quantify LUTS and erectile dysfunction (ED) in both populations. RESULTS There were 2122 respondents with complete data, 228 (10.7%) of whom had engaged in recreational sounding. Men who had engaged in sounding were more likely to report certain high risk sexual behaviours (e.g. multiple sexual partners and sex with partners who were not well known) and had increased odds of reporting STIs. Men who had engaged in sounding had a slight but statistically significant increase in LUTS but no significant difference in prevalence of ED. CONCLUSIONS Urethral sounding is a sexual practice that is associated with higher risk sexual behaviour and carries the potential for morbidity. Research on means for risk reduction for men who choose to engage in recreational sounding requires further study.
The urethral rhabdosphincter and pelvic floor muscles are important in maintenance of urinary continence and in preventing descent of pelvic organs [i.e., pelvic organ prolapse (POP)]. Despite its clinical importance and complexity, a comprehensive review of neural control of the rhabdosphincter and pelvic floor muscles is lacking. The present review places historical and recent basic science findings on neural control into the context of functional anatomy of the pelvic muscles and their coordination with visceral function and correlates basic science findings with clinical findings when possible. This review briefly describes the striated muscles of the pelvis and then provides details on the peripheral innervation and, in particular, the contributions of the pudendal and levator ani nerves to the function of the various pelvic muscles. The locations and unique phenotypic characteristics of rhabdosphincter motor neurons located in Onuf's nucleus, and levator ani motor neurons located diffusely in the sacral ventral horn, are provided along with the locations and phenotypes of primary afferent neurons that convey sensory information from these muscles. Spinal and supraspinal pathways mediating excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the motor neurons are described; the relative contributions of the nerves to urethral function and their involvement in POP and incontinence are discussed. Finally, a detailed summary of the neurochemical anatomy of Onuf's nucleus and the pharmacological control of the rhabdosphincter are provided.
Backround Operative treatment of traumatic rotator cuff ruptures, i.e. ruptures with a predisposing traumatic event, is reported to yield superior results compared to operative treatment of non-traumatic, degenerative ruptures. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference of outcome, peroperative findings, and demographics after operative treatment of traumatic versus non-traumatic rotator cuff rupture. Methods A total of 306 consecutive shoulders with an operated rotator cuff rupture (124 traumatic and 182 non-traumatic) were followed up. Constant and Murley score, size of the rupture, and age of the patients were used as an outcome measure. Results A total of 112 traumatic and 167 non-traumatic rotator cuff rupture shoulders were available for 1-year follow-up (91%). Mean Constant and Murley score was preoperatively lower in the traumatic group (46 versus 52, P = 0.01). At 3 months postoperatively, Constant and Murley scores were 61 and 60 (P = 0.72) and at 1 year 73 and 77 (P = 0.03), respectively. Altogether 91% of the patients in the traumatic and 93% in the non-traumatic group were satisfied with the final outcome (P = 0.45). In 94% of traumatic and 95% of a non-traumatic cases the rupture involved the supraspinatus tendon. In the traumatic group the rupture was larger and involved more frequently the whole supraspinatus insertion area (41% versus 17%, P < 0.0001). Mean age of patients was 58 and 57 years, respectively. Conclusion Operative treatment of both traumatic and non-traumatic rotator cuff ruptures gives essentially good results. In our cohort, patients' recollection of predisposing trauma reflects the size of the rotator cuff rupture, but does not reflect the age of the patients.
Meningioma's account for around 15% of all primary brain tumors with some 10% of meningiomas arising in the posterior fossa. In rare cases, a meningioma can form around the endolymphatic sac. When formed in the posterior fossa, meningioma tumors can produce vague, non-specific vertiginous symptoms. Research has observed that a subset of these lesions could produce symptoms indistinguishable from those of Meniere's disease. Therefore, we described the clinical features of a case of posterior petrous meningioma with recurrent vertigo as well as the substantial resolution of symptoms after tumor removal via transmastoid approach.
Choi, Seong Jun; Lee, Jong Bin; Bae, Joon-Ho; Yoon, Jung-Hee; Lee, Ho-Jin; Kim, Chan-Ho; Park, Keehyun
Alien hand syndrome is a rare neurological disorder characterized by involuntary and uncontrollable motor behaviour, usually of an arm or hand. The patient perceives the affected limb as alien, and may personify it. The case of a 61-year-old right-handed woman who developed right posterior AHS after ischaemic stroke in the left posterior cerebral artery territory is reported. Neuroimaging studies disclosed no frontal or parietal involvement, while a posterior thalamic lesion was detected. A possible role of the thalamus in the genesis of AHS is discussed. PMID:21327399
Ectopic posterior pituitary results from incomplete caudal extension of the diencephalon during embryogenesis.(1) The portal circulation carrying hypothalamic-releasing hormones to the adenohypophysis is disrupted, resulting in growth hormone deficiency and more rarely panhypopituitarism. PMID:24127194
Two cases of transient mutism following operative removal of cerebellar medulloblastoma are reported. These add to the few cases reported in the literature of this rare complication of posterior fossa tumour surgery in children. PMID:8861318
Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord above the sacral segments was used to produce coordinated micturition in the paralysed decerebrate cat. Stimulation of the superficial aspect of the dorsolateral funiculus (DLF) within the lower thoracic (T9-T13) segments produced a bladder contraction coordinated with decreased activity in the external urethral sphincter (EUS) branch of the pudendal nerve during which time fluid
Purpose: It was the aim of this study to investigate the possibility of pedicled rectus abdominis muscle fascial flap wrapped around the penis for enhanced urethral pressure in dogs. Materials andMethods: Ten adult male Beagle dogs underwent a procedure in which surrounding tissue of the penis at the site of the bulbomembranous urethra was dissected and a pedicled rectus abdominis
Microwave thermotherapy systems used for benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment generally operate with urethral or rectal applicator to deliver the microwave energy in the prostate. This technique does not allow an efficient heating of all the gland particularly in the case of large adenoma or when the treatment is limited to only one heating session. A solution to this problem is
D. Despretz; J.-C. Camart; C. Michel; J.-J. Fabre; B. Prevost; J.-P. Sozanski; M. Chive
\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a Enophthalmos is a common deformity after orbital trauma\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a A thorough knowledge of orbital anatomy aids the clinician in the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic enophthalmos\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a Evaluation of the patient with enophthalmos after trauma consists of a complete history and physical examination with special\\u000a attention to ocular function and periocular and periorbital structures\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a Traumatic enophthalmos can be
Adiponectin, a circulating adipose-derived hormone regulating inflammation and energy metabolism, has beneficial actions on cardiovascular disorders. Recent studies have suggested that adiponectin might be a potential molecular target for ischemic stroke therapy; however, little is known about the effects of adiponectin on traumatic brain injury. The present study examined the immunoactivity of adiponectin.Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to lateral fluid percussion injury using the Dragonfly device. Immuno-histochemical studies showed that the adiponectin expression was increased in the cerebral cortex at 24 h after injury and in the hippocampus at 72 h after injury. Our findings suggest that adiponectin might participate in the pathophysiological process occurring after traumatic brain injury. PMID:23564114
Post-traumatic endophthalmitis is an uncommon yet devastating complication of an open globe injury. Risk factors include presence of an intraocular foreign body (IOFB), lens rupture, delayed primary globe repair, rural trauma, and trauma with contaminated objects. Visual prognosis in post-traumatic endophthalmitis is affected by the virulence of the microbe, the presence of a retinal break or detachment, the timing of treatment, the presence or absence of an IOFB, and the extent of initial injury. Treatment should be started emergently with systemic and intravitreal antibiotics. In the setting of penetrating ocular trauma, antibiotic prophylaxis of endophthalmitis should be considered. The best treatment regimen has not been determined. The most frequent prophylactic regimens are: treatment with oral antibiotics, a short course of intravenous antibiotics followed by oral antibiotics, or intravitreal antibiotics plus oral antibiotics. PMID:21397289
Introduction Post-traumatic pulmonary pseudocyst is an uncommon cavitary lesion of the lung and develops after blunt chest trauma and even more rarely following penetrating injuries. It is generally seen in young adults presenting with cough, chest pain, hemoptysis, and dyspnea. Post-traumatic pulmonary pseudocyst should be included in the differential diagnosis of cavitary pulmonary lesions. We describe the case of a 60-year-old Caucasian Greek woman who sustained traumatic pulmonary pseudocyst with hemopneumothorax due to a blunt chest trauma after a traffic accident. Case presentation After a traffic accident, a 60-year-old Caucasian Greek woman sustained a hemopneumothorax due to a blunt chest trauma. There was evidence of an extensive contusion in the posterior and lateral segments of the right lower lobe, a finding that was attributed to an early sign of a cavitation, and the presence of a thin-walled air cavity was detected on the anterior segment of the right lower lobe in the control computed tomography taken 24 hours after admission. Our patient was treated by catheter aspiration, and the findings of computed tomography evaluation about one month later showed complete resolution of one of the two air-filled cavitary lesions. The second pseudocyst also disappeared completely, as shown by the control computed tomography scan performed six months later. Conclusions Traumatic pulmonary pseudocyst is a rare complication of blunt chest trauma, and computed tomography is a more valuable imaging technique than chest radiograph for early diagnosis.
OBJECTIVE--to evaluate clinical, radiological, and prognostic features of patients with multiple acute infarcts in remote arterial territories of the posterior circulation. DESIGN--Data analysis from a prospective acute stroke registry in a community based primary care centre using a standard protocol including MRI and MRA. RESULTS--In three and a half years, 27 of the 236 patients (11%) with posterior circulation stroke
A Bernasconi; J Bogousslavsky; C Bassetti; F Regli
Context: Posterior shoulder instability is a commonly misdiagnosed disorder in many competitive athletes. Type of Study: Clinical review. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies on posterior shoulder instability from 1950 to 2010 in PubMed and Cochrane databases were reviewed. Results: A total of 107 studies were reviewed. Conclusion: Patients who have undergone at least 6 months of physical therapy and still experience instability symptoms should be considered for surgical stabilization directed at their underlying pathology.
Background A vaginal fistula is a devastating condition, affecting an estimated 2 million girls and women across Africa and Asia. There are numerous challenges associated with providing fistula repair services in developing countries, including limited availability of operating rooms, equipment, surgeons with specialized skills, and funding from local or international donors to support surgeries and subsequent post-operative care. Finding ways of providing services in a more efficient and cost-effective manner, without compromising surgical outcomes and the overall health of the patient, is paramount. Shortening the duration of urethral catheterization following fistula repair surgery would increase treatment capacity, lower costs of services, and potentially lower risk of healthcare-associated infections among fistula patients. There is a lack of empirical evidence supporting any particular length of time for urethral catheterization following fistula repair surgery. This study will examine whether short-term (7 day) urethral catheterization is not worse by more than a minimal relevant difference to longer-term (14 day) urethral catheterization in terms of incidence of fistula repair breakdown among women with simple fistula presenting at study sites for fistula repair service. Methods/Design This study is a facility-based, multicenter, non-inferiority randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the new proposed short-term (7 day) urethral catheterization to longer-term (14 day) urethral catheterization in terms of predicting fistula repair breakdown. The primary outcome is fistula repair breakdown up to three months following fistula repair surgery as assessed by a urinary dye test. Secondary outcomes will include repair breakdown one week following catheter removal, intermittent catheterization due to urinary retention and the occurrence of septic or febrile episodes, prolonged hospitalization for medical reasons, catheter blockage, and self-reported residual incontinence. This trial will be conducted among 512 women with simple fistula presenting at 8 study sites for fistula repair surgery over the course of 24 months at each site. Discussion If no major safety issues are identified, the data from this trial may facilitate adoption of short-term urethral catheterization following repair of simple fistula in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01428830.
A number of psychiatric and neurological problems may occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Anxiety and depression are common. There is evidence that there may be a correlation between TBI and increased risk of suicide. This article will explore current literature on the risk of suicidal behavior in people who have experienced TBI. Risk factors for suicide, recognition and assessment of suicidal behavior, and treatment issues will be discussed. PMID:22329620
Summary Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common and potentially devastating clinical problem. Because prompt proper management of\\u000a TBI sequelae can significantly alter the clinical course especially within 48 h of the injury, neuroimaging techniques have\\u000a become an important part of the diagnostic work up of such patients. In the acute setting, these imaging studies can determine\\u000a the presence and extent
Opinion statement Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex disease process that requires constant attention as one manages the associated body\\u000a systems. Even though an “isolated” brain injury may be the cause for admission to the hospital, the injured brain cannot be\\u000a thought of in isolation from the remainder of the body. All body systems, from cardiac to pulmonary, need to
In a study of 19 patients with traumatic quadriplegia admitted to the G. F. Strong Rehabilitation Centre over a one-year period, there was a high incidence of bizarre painful hands and feet coincident with a particular radiological stage of osteoporosis—spotty macular porosis (Sudeck's atrophy).Four of 5 patients with spotty macular porosis in the hands and 3 of 7 patients with
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the sleep of people diagnosed as suffering from chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The sleep of seven chronic post-traumatic patients with no known physical injuries was compared with that of seven matched control subjects. The post-traumatic patients had poorer sleep: decreased sleep efficiency, increase in number of awakenings, and decreased SWS,
Hananyah Glaubman; Mario Mikulincer; Anat Porat; Orna Wasserman; Moshe Birger
Traumatic cataract is due to lens damage when mechanical, irradiative, electrical or chemical agents injury the globe. The appearance of a traumatic cataract is typically short and unilateral with rare spontaneous resolution and often involves other ocular anatomical areas. Medico-legal evaluation of the appearance and the consequences of a traumatic cataract requires a correct methodological approach with the support of qualified ophthalmological competences. PMID:23357390
Aims: Estimating the marginal likelihoods is an essential feature of model selection in the Bayesian context. It is especially crucial to have good estimates when assessing the number of planets orbiting stars and different models explain the noisy data with different numbers of Keplerian signals. We introduce a simple method for approximating the marginal likelihoods in practice when a statistically representative sample from the parameter posterior density is available. Methods: We use our truncated posterior mixture estimate to receive accurate model probabilities for models with different numbers of Keplerian signals in radial velocity data. We test this estimate in simple scenarios to assess its accuracy and rate of convergence in practice when the corresponding estimates calculated using the deviance information criterion can be applied to obtain trustworthy model comparison results. As a test case, we determine the posterior probability of a planet orbiting HD 3651 given Lick and Keck radial velocity data. Results: The posterior mixture estimate appears to be a simple and an accurate way of calculating marginal integrals from posterior samples. We show that it can be used in practice to estimate the marginal integrals reliably, given a suitable selection of the parameter ?, which controls the estimate's accuracy and convergence rate. It is also more accurate than the one-block Metropolis-Hastings estimate, and can be used in any application because it is based on assumptions about neither the nature of the posterior density nor the amount of either data or parameters in the statistical model.
Seventeen patients with recurrent posterior shoulder instability underwent posterior capsular plication with or without suture anchors, between 1990 and 1992. Minimum 2-year follow-up was available for 14 patients (average, 33 months; range, 24 to 45 months). The etiology involved trauma in 9 cases, recurrent microtrauma in 4 cases, and no trauma in 1 case. Posterior capsular laxity was present in all 14 cases and was believed to be the primary pathology, although 12 patients showed some form of labral pathology. The patients were interviewed and assessed in six categories: pain, strength, function, stability, range-of-motion, and satisfaction. Twelve patients had excellent results and 2 had fair results. Nine of 10 patients who participate in recreational or competitive athletics reported full return to their preinjury level of function in their respective sports. There was one recurrence of posterior shoulder instability which was remedied with a second arthroscopic posterior capsular reconstruction. All 14 patients were satisfied with the results of their surgery, and no complications were noted. Capsular plication is a promising technique in the treatment of recurrent posterior shoulder instability. PMID:9531126
The relationship between exposure to traumatic events and traumatic grief and the role of mediating and moderating variables [peritraumatic distress, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and symptoms of depression] were studied in survivors of the genocide of Batutsi in Rwanda in 1994. One hundred and two survivors (70 women, mean age 45 ± 7.53 years) participated in this retrospective study. All of them had lost a member of their family. The severity of traumatic exposure (Comprehensive Trauma Inventory), peritraumatic distress (Peritraumatic Distress Inventory), current PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) and traumatic grief symptoms (Inventory of Traumatic Grief) was evaluated. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was then conducted to examine the relative contribution of each variable to the symptoms of traumatic grief. The severity of traumatic exposure was related to traumatic grief symptoms (B=0.06, R=0.6, R(2)?=0.36 and ß=0.6, t=7.54, p=0.00). The Baron and Kenny procedure (1986) (including three separate regressions), along with the Sobel test, was used to test mediation effects. Peritraumatic distress and PTSD symptoms may be mediating variables between traumatic exposure and traumatic grief. Traumatic grief is a complex but assessable entity, where previous distress and suffering result from both psychological trauma and the loss of a loved one. PMID:22282057
Mutabaruka, Jean; Séjourné, Nathalène; Bui, Eric; Birmes, Philippe; Chabrol, Henri
Temperature variations after traumatic brain injury are common and devastating. This has been shown most clearly with hypothermia, but the complications associated with hyperthermia in the setting of traumatic brain injury can be just as problematic. We present the case of a soldier with traumatic brain injury exposed to environmental temperatures of 115–120°F with a core temperature of over 108°F. The complications of his conditions are discussed as well as potential treatments for the deadly combination of traumatic brain injury and environmental hyperthermia.
Bilateral traumatic dislocation of the hip is a rare condition. Simultaneous asymmetric traumatic dislocation of the hip, one hip anterior and the other posterior, is even more unusual. This article reports a 21-year-old male patient with asymmetric bilateral dislocation of the hip joint, injured due to a landslide during a canal excavation. The patient was treated conservatively and evaluated according to Thompson and Epstein clinical and radiographic criteria after a follow-up period of 10 years and six months. The clinical result was perfect and radiographical result was good. We determined that our case had occurred as a result of a mechanism that has not been previously published in the literature and evaluated it from this point of view. PMID:20632930
Azar, Nikola; Yalçinkaya, Merter; Akman, Yunus Emre; Uzümcügil, Onat; Kabukçuo?lu, Yavuz S
Objectives:? In hypospadia patients, the urethral plate and the underlying tissue were previously thought to be the main cause of penile curvature and, because of this, they used to be excised to correct the curvature. Currently, they are preserved as they are not thought to cause penile curvature anymore. The aim of the present histology study was to elucidate the characteristic structure of the tissue beneath the urethral plate. Methods:? The experimental group consisted of 27 hypospadiac patients with moderately severe penile curvature, who underwent one-stage urethroplasty after dividing the urethral plate. Excised tissues were observed under light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the presence of collagen subtypes I, III and IV was examined with immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. Results:? Light microscopy showed the existence of many massed and intertwined collagen fibers and vessels that resembled those of the cavernous sinus. TEM showed the existence of many collagen fibers, capillary vessels and other structures. Immunohistochemical staining showed collagen subtype I in the interfascicular space and collagen fibers were densely stained. Collagen subtype IV was found in the basement membrane of vessels, but collagen subtype III was not detected. The same results were obtained by western blotting. Conclusions:? The tissue beneath the urethral plate was considered to originate from the corpus spongiosum penis. The distribution of collagen subtypes suggests that the presence of the tissue might affect ventral penile curvature. Long-term follow up is required after one-stage hypospadias repair with preservation of the urethral plate and the underlying tissue. PMID:21332824
Background Stem cell injection therapies have been proposed to overcome the limited efficacy and adverse reactions of bulking agents. However, most have significant limitations, including painful procurement, requirement for anesthesia, donor site infection and a frequently low cell yield. Recently, human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) have been proposed as an ideal cell therapy source. In this study, we investigated whether periurethral injection of hAFSCs can restore urethral sphincter competency in a mouse model. Methods Amniotic fluids were collected and harvested cells were analyzed for stem cell characteristics and in vitro myogenic differentiation potency. Mice underwent bilateral pudendal nerve transection to generate a stress urinary incontinence (SUI) model and received either periurethral injection of hAFSCs, periurethral injection of Plasma-Lyte (control group), or underwent a sham (normal control group). For in vivo cell tracking, cells were labeled with silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles containing rhodamine B isothiocyanate (MNPs@SiO2 (RITC)) and were injected into the urethral sphincter region (n = 9). Signals were detected by optical imaging. Leak point pressure and closing pressure were recorded serially after injection. Tumorigenicity of hAFSCs was evaluated by implanting hAFSCs into the subcapsular space of the kidney, followed two weeks later by retrieval and histologic analysis. Results Flow activated cell sorting showed that hAFSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers, but no hematopoietic stem cell markers. Induction of myogenic differentiation in the hAFSCs resulted in expression of PAX7 and MYOD at Day 3, and DYSTROPHIN at Day 7. The nanoparticle-labeled hAFSCs could be tracked in vivo with optical imaging for up to 10 days after injection. Four weeks after injection, the mean LPP and CP were significantly increased in the hAFSC-injected group compared with the control group. Nerve regeneration and neuromuscular junction formation of injected hAFSCs in vivo was confirmed with expression of neuronal markers and acetylcholine receptor. Injection of hAFSCs caused no in vivo host CD8 lymphocyte aggregation or tumor formation. Conclusions hAFSCs displayed MSC characteristics and could differentiate into cells of myogenic lineage. Periurethral injection of hAFSCs into an SUI animal model restored the urethral sphincter to apparently normal histology and function, in absence of immunogenicity and tumorigenicity.
... of the male reproductive system, that carries the sperm (reproductive cells) through the penis during ejaculation. semen: The thick ... of the male reproductive system, that carries the sperm (reproductive cells) through the penis during ejaculation. stent: With regard ...
From February 2008 to September 2012 we implanted 204 mobile-bearing knee prostheses in 192 patients. All the prostheses were cemented (both femoral and tibial components), and the patella was not replaced. Only one early complication of the implants (1/204 = 0.004%) occurred after a traumatic event as a full 180° rotation of the mobile-bearing polyethylene insert. A 78-year-old woman presented with swelling and severe pain at her right knee. This traumatic event was the only case among our mobile-bearing insert patients. ?The failed polyethylene inserts were retrieved and studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, ZEISS EVO 50 EP, Cambridge, UK) operating at 20 kV. ?Scratching and pitting were found on the UHMWPE insert perpendicular to the machining tracks for the concave surface. SEM micrographs of the insert showed burnishing on the concave surfaces and longitudinal scratches were clearly detectable and well-marked on the analyzed surfaces. ?A traumatic, fully rotating, polyethylene insert is rare and our case is the first report describing a traumatic event with a complete 180 degree rotation mobile-bearing in a total knee prosthesis. ?In the literature few reports discuss clinical outcomes after total knee arthroplasty in patients with Parkinson's disease and they cite mixed results. However, some authors suggest that posterior-stabilized and cruciate-retaining TKA should work well while others prefer cruciate-retaining, condylar constrained kinetics, or hinged devices. Although we did not implant a posterior-stabilized mobile-bearing total knee prosthesis or a constrained prosthesis, we obtained good clinical and radiological results at the 2-year followup. PMID:23653296
Diagnosis, physiopathology, and treatments of four patients with traumatic lumbosacral dislocations are described. This is a rare but severe lesion of the lumbosacral junction that usually occurs in patients with multiple trauma. It often is not thought of and the diagnosis may be missed. Evidence of lumbosacral dislocation should be examined and confirmed by computed tomography scans in patients with multiple fractures of transverse lumbar processes, asymmetric lumbosacral joints on frontal images, or slipping of L5 over S1 on lateral images. Treatment consists of reduction of the dislocated and fractured parts, lumbosacral arthrodesis, a posterolateral graft, and posterior instrumentation. Instrumentation may be short, extending from L5 to S1, or long, from L4 to S1, depending on the extension of the lesion. In some cases, reduction can be done intraoperatively, when the L4-S1 instrumentation is inserted, provided L5 transpedicle screws are pulled posteriorly. It usually is preferable to explore the vertebral canal to ensure that there is no disc lesion compressing the dura before proceeding with reduction. Compression of the dura could be avoided with a preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scan on which a lesion of the L5-S1 disc is sought. Additional interbody vertebral arthrodesis should be considered when the L5-S1 disc is affected severely. This lesion should be looked for preoperatively with a magnetic resonance imaging scan and intraoperatively by exploring the canal. This can be done at the time of the posterior surgery or during a second anterior surgical procedure. PMID:15021138
Twenty-four patients who had posterior subluxation of the glenohumeral joint were assigned to one of two groups on the basis of the severity of the symptoms. The sixteen patients in Group I, who had less severe symptoms, were treated with a physical therapy program that was based on exercises to strengthen muscles. The eleven patients in Group II (three of whom had no success with physical therapy when they were originally in Group I) had a posterior capsulorrhaphy, with or without a bone block. According to an over-all rating, Group I had a rate of success of 63 per cent, and Group II had a rate of success of 91 per cent. The patients who had more severe ligamentous laxity were not more likely to fail either of the treatment programs. Although voluntary subluxation may be a subtle but important indicator of underlying emotional difficulties, it appears that, in the patient who is emotionally stable, the ability to voluntarily subluxate the shoulder posteriorly is not associated with a negative prognosis for either non-surgical or surgical treatment. Patients who have moderately disabling posterior subluxation of the shoulder should be treated with an intensive program that is designed to strengthen muscles. Patients who have symptoms that are severely disabling or who have had no success with non-operative treatment should be treated with posterior capsulorrhaphy. When the posterior aspect of the glenoid is severely deficient and when the posterior portion of the capsule or the infraspinatus tendon is attenuated, a bone block should augment the reconstruction. PMID:2918005
The authors describe 6 cases of post-traumatic schizophrenia and make a critical review of the literature concerning this unusual post-traumatic personality disturbance. Various schizophrenic manifestations are observed: they principally consist of delusion, hallucination, paranoid and mystical ideas, autism, psychomotor instability, fugues. Post-traumatic schizophrenia occurs mostly in young men, before thirty years. The severity of traumatic brain injury appears irrelevant in its genesis. Temporal lobes are more often involved (one third of the cases). Pre-traumatic personality disturbances are the main factor as demonstrated by the anamnesis and by the results of Rorschach test. PMID:7094869
Accurate assessment of pathological conditions in the prostate is difficult. Screening methods include palpation if the prostate gland, blood chemical testing, and diagnostic imaging. Trans-rectal Ultrasound (TRUS) is commonly used for the assessment of pathological conditions, however, TRUS is severely constrained by the relative distal location of the imaging probe. Trans-urethral Ultrasound (TUUS) may overcome some limitations of TRUS. A TUUS catheter was used to image the prostate, rectum, bladder, ureter, neuro-vascular bundles, arteries, and surrounding tissue. In addition, 360 degrees rotational scans were recorded for reconstruction into 3D volumes. Segmentation was challenging, however, new techniques such as active contour methods show potential. 3D visualizations, including both volume and surface rendering, were provided to clinicians off-line. On-line 3D visualization techniques are currently being developed. Potential applications of TUUS include: prostate cancer diagnosis and staging as well as image guided biopsy and therapy.
Transurethral microwave thermotherapy is designed to destroy non-malignant tissue by exposure to a cytotoxic temperature ranging from 45 degrees C to more than 70 degrees C. The combination of microwave-induced heat administered transurethrally and protection of the urethra by a cooling circuit allows delivery of sufficient power to induce coagulation of the periurethral prostatic tissues without any form of anaesthesia part from instillation of anaesthetic jelly into the urethra. Treatment takes only 30 minutes. Strict security limits (urethral temperature and rectal temperature) ensure a low complication rate. The therapeutic efficacy of thermotherapy is situated between that of drugs and endoscopic surgery. The effect is lasting. The development of a tailor-made treatment for each patient should increase the response rate of this technique. PMID:12545652
Background Self-induced injections of liquid substances mainly for penis enlargement is a well-documented but still rather uncommon practice in the western world. Case presentation Herein we present the case of a 30-year-old male who self-inflicted, twice in a six-month-period, intra-urethral liquid paraffin and tied up his penis with a cord in order to achieve both enlargement and elongation. He arrived in our emergency department suffering from suprapubic pain; physical examination revealed a rather unique deformity of the penis. He finally refused any treatment and absconded. Conclusion Side effects after paraffin administration are various and sometimes severe. Most of the times surgical treatment is needed and radical excision together with follow-up seems the best modality. Such practices emphasize on the public's misbelieves and that some aspects of sexual medicine are yet covered with the veil of misconception.
Each of 201 men with symptoms and signs of acute urethritis was randomly assigned to one of two treatment regimens: ampicillin (2g) plus probenecid (1g), or sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) (sulphamethoxazole 1600 mg plus trimethoprim 320 mg) four tablets twice daily for two days. Before treatment Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated from 162 patients, while coexistent Chlamydia trachomatis was recovered from 42 (26%) men. After treatment N gonorrhoeae persisted in 11 (14.3%) of the 77 patients treated with ampicillin and probenecid and in three (3.5%) of the 85 treated with SMX-TMP (p less than 0.05), while C trachomatis persisted in four (16%) of the 25 men treated with SMX-TMP and in all 17 patients treated with ampicillin and probenecid. SMX-TMP was thus more effective than ampicillin in treating acute gonorrhoea in men and in eradicating concurrent C trachomatis infection. PMID:6367888
Csángó, P A; Salveson, A; Gundersen, T; Jagars, G; Bjerk, O
Each of 201 men with symptoms and signs of acute urethritis was randomly assigned to one of two treatment regimens: ampicillin (2g) plus probenecid (1g), or sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) (sulphamethoxazole 1600 mg plus trimethoprim 320 mg) four tablets twice daily for two days. Before treatment Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated from 162 patients, while coexistent Chlamydia trachomatis was recovered from 42 (26%) men. After treatment N gonorrhoeae persisted in 11 (14.3%) of the 77 patients treated with ampicillin and probenecid and in three (3.5%) of the 85 treated with SMX-TMP (p less than 0.05), while C trachomatis persisted in four (16%) of the 25 men treated with SMX-TMP and in all 17 patients treated with ampicillin and probenecid. SMX-TMP was thus more effective than ampicillin in treating acute gonorrhoea in men and in eradicating concurrent C trachomatis infection.
Csango, P A; Salveson, A; Gundersen, T; Jagars, G; Bjerk, O
Amoxicillin in single oral doses of 2.0 g, 2.0 g plus 1.0 g probenecid, or 3.0 g was compared with ampicillin 3.5 g plus 1.0 g probenecid in the treatment of 203 males with uncomplicated acute gonococcal urethritis. Cure rates above 95% were produced by all treatments except the 2.0-g amoxicillin dose, which cured 89% of patients. Of 198 pretreatment gonococcus isolates tested by an agar dilution technique for susceptibility to penicillin G, ampicillin and amoxicillin, over 50% showed relative resistance (MIC > 0.06 ?g/ml) to the antibiotics. However, amoxicillin was somewhat more active against isolates showing considerable resistance (MIC ? 1.0 ?g/ml) to penicillin G or ampicillin. Adverse effects of amoxicillin were few: two patients reported transient nausea and six noted short-lived diarrhea. No hypersensitivity reactions were observed.
Nonchlamydial, nongonococcal urethritis (NCNGU) is suggested to be a sexually transmitted disease in men. NCNGU patients were compared to control subjects with regard to the presence of potentially infectious bacteria in the first void urine. Patients' pre- and post-antibiotic-treatment urine samples and two samples obtained 2 weeks apart from healthy volunteers, who did not receive antibiotic therapy, were analyzed with broad-spectrum PCR tests aiming at eubacterial small subunit rRNA genes. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the amplicons cloned from the mixtures of PCR products revealed that many different species of microorganisms were found to be colonizing the male urethra. We document here clear differences in the composition of the resident urethral flora between samples obtained from various individuals and between samples obtained at various points in time for a single individual. No major changes in population complexity were found upon antimicrobial treatment. In two of five patients a previously suggested pathogen (Mycoplasma genitalium or Haemophilus parainfluenzae) was accurately identified on the basis of DNA sequencing. No ubiquitous, azithromycin-sensitive organism was identified as a common pathogen in all patients, but up to 40% of all clones represented as-yet-unclassified bacterial species. Relatively often Pseudomonas spp. or Pseudomonas-like organisms were identified in the bacterial flora of patients. Interestingly, an as-yet-uncharacterized microbial species was identified as a negative predictor of NCNGU. This species was identified in all control subjects and was absent from all of the patient' samples (5 of 5 versus 0 of 5, P = 0.0079). This suggests that NCNGU might also be diagnosed by assessing the absence rather than the presence of certain bacterial species.
Riemersma, W. A.; van der Schee, C. J. C.; van der Meijden, W. I.; Verbrugh, H. A.; van Belkum, A.
Purpose Postoperative voiding dysfunction is a bothersome complication after mid-urethral sling surgery. The current study presents multiple repeated postoperative voiding trials against a urine load of preoperative functional bladder capacity, as estimated by a preoperative frequency volume chart, to identify the relevance of preoperative and immediate factors to the outcome. Methods A total of 180 patients were enrolled from August 2008 to August 2011. Patients received mid-urethral sling surgery with a transobturator tape, with or without concomitant cystocele repair. Patients reported relevant medical histories and a 3-day frequency volume chart and underwent urodynamic studies. After surgery, patients were filled to their maximum bladder capacity as dictated by their frequency volume chart and performed the first voiding trial. Two subsequent voiding trials were performed after natural filling. Failure of any single voiding trial was considered failure. Patients who failed the final voiding trial received intermittent catheterization to follow-up. After screening for relevant factors with the use of univariate analyses, preoperative, surgical, and postoperative factors predicting outcome were estimated by logistic regression analysis. Results The urine load at the voiding trial and the peak flow rate immediately preceding the voiding trial predicted voiding trial success in the multivariate analysis. Urine load and previous trial peak flow rate were relevant when tested against each individual voiding trial. Preoperative and surgical factors, such as age, parity, and concomitant cystocele repair, showed significance in the univariate analysis. Overall, 16.1% of patients who passed the first voiding trial failed on subsequent trials, whereas 36.8% of patients who failed the first voiding trial succeeded. Conclusions Postoperative voiding dysfunction is transient and is associated with the immediate voiding conditions following surgery. Close observation against urine overload in the bladder is important when weaning patients back to normal voiding conditions.
Kim, Jin Wook; Moon, Du Geon; Shin, Jung Ho; Bae, Jae Hyun; Lee, Jeong Gu
Each year, as many as 4 out of 100 people experience a traumatic brain injury, resulting in approximately 100,000 hospitalizations. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as either a physical blow or an acceleration\\/deceleration (rapid moving and a sudden stopping) injury severe enough to require medical attention. It is more common in children than adults, and more common in males
Objective: Blunt traumatic rupture of the innominate artery is uncommon. We reviewed our experience to correlate the impact of patient stability, presence of associated injuries and location of the injury within the artery with outcome. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of patients admitted between January 1, 1998 and December 17, 2002 with traumatic innominate artery rupture. Injuries were defined
|The terms secondary traumatic stress (STS), vicarious traumatization (VT), and compassion fatigue (CF) have all been used, sometimes interchangeably, to refer to the observation that those who provide clinical services to trauma survivors may themselves experience considerable emotional disruption, becoming indirect victims of the trauma.…
Two new cases of traumatic herniation of the buccal fat pad are presented. The herniated fat pad was repositioned in case 1 and was excised in case 2. There was no recurrence after surgery in each case. Reviewing the literature, the lesion usually occurred in infants or young children under the age of 4 years as a result of traumatic
|This paper is a clinical discussion of post-traumatic stress disorder and violence, particularly as it applies to the Vietnam Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome. In the first section, the syndrome is described as the sudden onset of explosive rage and unprovoked violence with little or no warning, accompanied by a drastic change in personality. It is…
Women living with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) typically experience social and emotional sequelae that can be effectively addressed in the context of a psychotherapeutic relationship. Traumatic Brain Injuries can affect the full range of human functioning, from activities of daily living to experiencing a coherent sense of self. In this article, we focus on two issues, social isolation and emotional
In this article, the authors provide information designed to enhance the knowledge and understanding of school personnel about traumatic brain injury (TBI). The authors specifically define TBI and enumerate common characteristics associated with traumatic brain injury, discuss briefly the growth and type of services provided, and offer some thoughts on ways to help ensure quality services for these students once
Lyndal M. Bullock; Robert A. Gable; J. Darrell Mohr
In this article, the authors provide information designed to enhance the knowledge and understanding of school personnel about traumatic brain injury (TBI). The authors specifically define TBI and enumerate common characteristics associated with traumatic brain injury, discuss briefly the growth and type of services provided, and offer some…
Bullock, Lyndal M.; Gable, Robert A.; Mohr, J. Darrell
Objective: Aortic rupture is a potentially fatal complication in trauma. We report our surgical result in the treatment of traumatic aortic rupture in eastern Taiwan. Patients and Methods: From August 1996 to October 2000, six patients with traumatic aortic rupture had surgery at Tzu Chi General Hospital. Five had a widened mediastinum on chest X-ray examination. They were diag- nosed
Although exposure to a traumatic event is thought to be the main aetiological factor in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD: APA, 1987), a large amount of individual variance in the chronicity and severity of symptoms remains unaccounted for. In this paper, evidence will be reviewed for the possible mediating role of causal attributions and attributional style. It is
BACKGROUND: Traumatic pericardial rupture is a rare presentation. Pericardial rupture itself is asymptomatic unless complicated by either hemorrhage or herniation of the heart through the defect. Following diagnosis surgical repair of the pericardium is indicated because cardiac herniation may result in vascular collapse and sudden death. OBJECTIVES: Here we present a case of traumatic, non-herniated pericardial rupture with complete skeletonization
Zain Khalpey; Taufiek K Rajab; Jan D Schmitto; Philipp C Camp
|In this article, the authors provide information designed to enhance the knowledge and understanding of school personnel about traumatic brain injury (TBI). The authors specifically define TBI and enumerate common characteristics associated with traumatic brain injury, discuss briefly the growth and type of services provided, and offer some…
Bullock, Lyndal M.; Gable, Robert A.; Mohr, J. Darrell
In the past ten years, there has been increasing recognition that children who have been exposed to traumatic events can, like traumaexposed adults, develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Practitioners therefore need to be able to recognise and treat post-traumatic stress reactions in children. However, the direct application of adult diagnostic criteria for PTSD can result in the misdiagnosis of post-traumatic stress reactions in children, while research has only recently begun to investigate the effectiveness of different treatments for children with PTSD. This article discusses issues regarding the assessment and diagnosis of post-traumatic stress reactions in children at different developmental stages, considers neurobiological, cognitive and other factors that are theorized to increase the risk of PTSD in trauma-exposed children, and evaluates current psychotherapeutic and pharmacotherapeutic treatments for childhood PTSD. The need for more systematic research on the management of PTSD in children is noted.
Summary Treatment and prognosis of 14 patients of posterior fossa arterial dissections (AD) and dissecting aneurysms (DA) in one institution was reviewed. Internal trapping of aneurysm was performed for six patients presenting with SAH (three Vertebral, one posterior cerebral, one posterior inferior cerebellar, one anterior inferior cerebellar DA). The patency of the parent arteries was preserved in four DA patients with SAH (two Vertebral, two Basilar DA), 1 incidental vertebral DA, and one DA patient with brainstem infarction using stents and coils (four patients) or coils only (two patient). Proximal occlusion of parent artery was performed in a vertebral DA with SAH. One patient with a superior cerebellar DA presented with a midbrain infarct developed SAH with spontaneous occlusion of the aneurysm two weeks later. Of the 14 cases, ten were angiographically stable or cured during a follow up period of four to 70 months. one spontaneously resolved and two recurred. There was one death.
A 56-year-old male patient was admitted due to one small pulmonary nodule in the posterior segment of left upper lobe. Preoperative examinations showed no distant metastasis, pulmonary ventilation function and small airway function were highly damaged and could not tolerate lobectomy. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed one small pulmonary nodules on the posterior segment of left lung, which was considered to be early malignant lesions. In addition, no remarkably swollen lymph node was visible in the mediastinum. Therefore, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) left upper lobe posterior segmentectomy was performed, and intraoperative frozen section confirmed the diagnosis of adenomatous hyperplasia of alveolar epithelial. Sequential dissection (or, single-direction approach) was applied in this surgery to avoid frequent turn-over of the lung lobes and shift of visual angle during the procedures. The Electric hook used in this surgery enables careful dissection and dissociation, with clear visual field and small blood loss. PMID:24040554
The adhesive revolution is alleviating reservations regarding posterior composite resin restorations, established by past experience with outdated materials and techniques. Improved materials, instrumentation, and placement techniques have enhanced the performance of current formulations of posterior composite resins over their predecessors. However, it is a clinician's operative skill that ultimately determines the quality of a restorative option. The learning objective of this article is to share the author's experience in attaining adhesive excellence with posterior tooth-colored restorations as well as aesthetic anatomic form, minimal postoperative sensitivity, and a bond which can weather the true test of success-durability. Optimal applications, dental dam requirement, importance of the first increment of composite resin, restitution of occlusal morphology, and the clinical application are discussed. PMID:9242131
A 56-year-old male patient was admitted due to one small pulmonary nodule in the posterior segment of left upper lobe. Preoperative examinations showed no distant metastasis, pulmonary ventilation function and small airway function were highly damaged and could not tolerate lobectomy. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed one small pulmonary nodules on the posterior segment of left lung, which was considered to be early malignant lesions. In addition, no remarkably swollen lymph node was visible in the mediastinum. Therefore, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) left upper lobe posterior segmentectomy was performed, and intraoperative frozen section confirmed the diagnosis of adenomatous hyperplasia of alveolar epithelial. Sequential dissection (or, single-direction approach) was applied in this surgery to avoid frequent turn-over of the lung lobes and shift of visual angle during the procedures. The Electric hook used in this surgery enables careful dissection and dissociation, with clear visual field and small blood loss.
Although blunt abdominal trauma is frequent, traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWH) are rare. We describe a large TAWH with associated intra-abdominal lesions that were caused by high-energy trauma. The diagnosis was missed by clinical examination but was subsequently revealed by a computed tomography (CT) scan. Repair consisted of an open anatomical reconstruction of the abdominal wall layers with reinforcement by an intraperitoneal composite mesh. The patient recovered well and the results of a post-operative CT scan are presented. PMID:20440527
den Hartog, D; Tuinebreijer, W E; Oprel, P P; Patka, P
The relationship between diverse early traumatic events and psychopathy was studied in 194 male inmates. Criminal history transcripts were revised, and clinical interviews were conducted to determine the level of psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) Form, and the Early Trauma Inventory was applied to assess the incidence of abuse before 18 years of age. Psychopathic inmates presented a higher victimization level and were more exposed to certain types of intended abuse than sociopathic inmates, while the sum of events and emotional abuse were associated with the PCL-R score. Our studies support the influence of early adverse events in the development of psychopathic offenders. PMID:23550705
Traumatic lesions of the hip in athletes may be clinically challenging because of the overlap in clinical presentation due to differing pathologies and the presence of multiple injuries. Imaging of the hip in the athlete has undergone a recent resurgence of interest and understanding related to the increasing accessibility and use of hip arthroscopy, which expands the treatment options available for intra-articular pathology. MR imaging and MR arthrography have a unique role in diagnosis of these pathologies, guiding the surgeon, arthroscopist, and referring clinician in their management of bony and soft tissue injury. PMID:19887297
An initial finding of high emotional stress in trauma therapists working in a specialized trauma institute led to three empirical studies on trauma-related therapist reactions. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the relation between high emotional burden and burnout, and the trauma-specific processes described by the concepts "secondary traumatic stress", "vicarious traumatization" and "traumatic countertransference". The initial qualitative/quantitative study examined how a group of specialized trauma therapists (N=63) coped with clients' traumatic experiences. The results on trauma-related reactions were inconclusive. This motivated a qualitative study of expert psychotherapists (N=11). Interviews with expert trauma therapists and other expert therapists were focused on reactions to the confrontation with traumatic experiences and differences between both groups of experts. Results indicated a specific reaction pattern to traumatic situations, but revealed no other differences between trauma specialists and other experts. To further examine trauma-specificity of this reaction pattern, a third study was conducted with psychology students (N=100) using an experimental design. The results suggest the existence of a trauma-specific reaction pattern, characterized by shock, anxiety and the experience of being carried away by strong emotions. The relation of trauma reactions with traumatic situations is endorsed by results on differential reactions to traumatic and interactionally difficult situations, although results suggest that other kinds of situations with high emotional impact may also evoke trauma-reactions. In the discussion the results are considered in relation to the limitations of the studies are followed recommendations for further research. Our results thus far support the high emotional impact of confrontation with traumatic material, but nuances psychopathological or other long-term negative changes that are suggested by the terms secondary or vicarious traumatization. PMID:19289893
Smith, Annemarie J M; Kleijn, Wim Chr; Trijsburg, R Wim; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M
The technique and indications of an endonasal endoscopic technique for treatment of posterior epistaxis are presented. Three cases were successfully treated in our department in 1999. The posterior vascularisation of the nose is reviewed with emphasis on surgical anatomy. Endoscopic endonasal ligation of posterior nasal arterial vascularisation is compared with other treatment choices in posterior epistaxis. The technique is save and efficient. Since it is also a minimally invasive technique, it has become our first choice surgical procedure for posterior epistaxis. PMID:10892504
Posterior shoulder instability refers to the symptoms and signs resulting from excessive posterior translation of the humerus.\\u000a Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the radiological modality of choice in the diagnostic assessment of posterior instability.\\u000a Computed tomography (CT) is useful in the evaluation of osseous abnormalities associated with posterior instability. A detailed\\u000a description of the posterior osseous and labroligamentous abnormalities has
Srinivasan Harish; Arpit Nagar; Jaydeep Moro; David Pugh; Ryan Rebello; John O’Neill
Posterior capsulitis, which is characterized by pain and inflammation localized above and behind the condyle of the mandible, usually develops as a result of premature contacts in dental occlusion. The pain at the affected side is related to the severe spasm of M. Pterygoideus Lateralis or the splinting action of the masticatory muscles. This condition can be readily treated by occlusal grinding of these premature contacts after a definite diagnosis. The amount of grinding on the teeth varies according to the localization of premature contacts and the pain at the joint. This study covers 123 patients diagnosed as having posterior capsulitis and the results are presented. PMID:3088160
Hydatidosis is an endemic affection in Tunisia. Cerebral echinococcosis is a relatively rare entity accounting for only 1-2% of all hydatid cysts in humans. Extradural hydatid cyst of the posterior fossa is a very uncommon site for the disease. We report the case of a four-year-old child admitted for high intracranial pressure. Brain CT scan showed an extradural posterior fossa cyst without enhancement after contrast medium injection. Operative finding revealed a hydatid cyst. The histological examination of the tissue sample confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was given albendazole post operatively. She feels well six months later. PMID:17434701
Braham, E; Bellil, S; Bellil, K; Chelly, I; Mekni, A; Haouet, S; Kchir, N; Khaldi, M; Zitouna, M
Hydatidosis is an endemic disease in Morocco. Cerebral echinococcosis is a relatively rare entity accounting for only 1-2% of all hydatid cysts in humans. Extradural hydatid cyst of the posterior fossa is a very uncommon site for the disease: only four cases have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 37-year-old admitted for high intracranial pressure. Brain MRI showed an extradural and extracranial posterior fossa cyst without enhancement after contrast medium injection. Multiple hydatid cysts were removed and the histological examination of the tissue sample confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was given albendazole postoperatively with good follow-up 6 months later. PMID:20138319
Lakhdar, F; Arkha, Y; Bougrine, M; Derraz, S; El Ouahabi, A; El Khamlichi, A
Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome is a disorder of the central nervous system in patients on dialysis. The underlying etiology is thought to be primarily due to cerebral edema; however, neuroradiologic findings have not been described previously. We describe a patient who presented with new onset headaches and status epilepticus after beginning hemodialysis. Her neuroimaging studies revealed white matter changes in the posterior parietal and occipital lobes similar to those seen in patients with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS). This case suggests that dialysis disequilibrium syndrome and RPLS may represent a spectrum of disorders in which the underlying mechanism is vasogenic edema. PMID:12954540
Sheth, Kevin N; Wu, Gregory F; Messé, Steven R; Wolf, Ronald L; Kasner, Scott E
The prevalence of posterior-compartment prolapse (rectocele) is not known. The authors have found that operative repair symptomatically improved a majority of patients with impaired defecation associated with a large rectocele, but this improvement was likely related at least in part to factors other than the size of the rectocele. Multiple surgical techniques are available for rectocele repair, and the literature is not clear regarding indications for each type of surgical intervention. This article reviews the literature regarding various types of posterior-compartment repair, and draws conclusions regarding their absolute efficacy and relative efficacy in comparison with one another. PMID:22877720
|Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive tauopathy that occurs as a consequence of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. We analysed post-mortem brains obtained from a cohort of 85 subjects with histories of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury and found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in 68 subjects: all males, ranging…
McKee, Ann C.; Stein, Thor D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Alvarez, Victor E.; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Hall, Garth; Wojtowicz, Sydney M.; Baugh, Christine M.; Riley, David O.; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Cormier, Kerry A.; Jacobs, Matthew A.; Martin, Brett R.; Abraham, Carmela R.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Reichard, Robert Ross; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Goldstein, Lee E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Cantu, Robert C.
The relationship of traumatic events to physical health was examined in a randomized community survey (N=2,364) of Los Angeles residents, 16% of whom had experienced a lifetime traumatic event. This study tested hypotheses that individuals experiencing traumatic events have poorer physical health and that the negative impact of traumatic events on physical health is greater among disadvantaged sociodemographic groups. Regression
Purpose of review This review addresses two issues. First, it updates readers on new treatments for traumatized children. Second, it examines the breadth of target problems that current evidence-based treatments for child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) effectively address in the context of current diagnostic uncertainty. Specifically, changes have been proposed to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for PTSD and a proposal has been submitted to add a new developmental trauma disorder to optimally describe the range of outcomes experienced by traumatized children. Recent findings Three recently completed treatment studies are described. A review of five established child trauma treatments for PTSD, Child Parent Psychotherapy, Cognitive Behavioral Interventions for Trauma in Schools, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for PTSD, Structured Psychotherapy for Adolescents Responding to Chronic Stress and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy documents that these treatments effectively resolve problems in multiple domains beyond the current PTSD diagnostic criteria. These domains include affect dysregulation, behavioral dysregulation, cognitive dysregulation, and relational dysregulation. Summary New treatments for children are promising for treating PTSD and some other symptoms. Current evidence-based child trauma treatments address a broad array of trauma-related difficulties.
Traumatic adrenal injury is a relatively rare event, reported in 0.15 to 4 % of blunt abdominal trauma cases. The location of the adrenal glands, protected deeply within the retroperitoneum, accounts for the rarity of adrenal trauma. These injuries are unilateral in 75 to 90 % of cases and most commonly afflict the right adrenal gland. While no specific clinical symptoms or signs point directly to adrenal injury, and isolated adrenal injury is rare, the presence of adrenal injury can be an indicator of severe trauma. In fact, mortality rates in series of adrenal injuries range from 7 to 32 %. The most common associated injuries affect the liver, ribs, kidney, or spleen. Three theories of adrenal injury from blunt trauma have been proposed: (1) acute rise in intra-adrenal venous pressure due to compression of the IVC during impact, (2) crushing between the spine and surrounding organs, and (3) deceleration forces shearing the small adrenal arterioles. The most common imaging features include a 2-3-cm oval hematoma, irregular hemorrhage obliterating the adrenal gland, periadrenal hemorrhage or fat stranding, and uniform adrenal swelling with increased attenuation. The differential diagnosis of adrenal abnormalities on trauma CT includes adenoma, carcinoma, myelolipoma, metastases, pheochromocytoma, and tuberculosis. Preexisting adrenal disorders can predispose the adrenal to injury with minor trauma. Most adrenal traumatic injuries are managed conservatively. PMID:22895661
Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum is an infrequent but important cause of infravesical obstructive uropathy in children. Clinical spectrum usually includes obstructive or irritative urinary symptoms or penile ballooning during the act of micturition. We share our experience in a case of giant anterior urethral diverticulum with a contained calculus presenting as a huge inguino-scrotal swelling and masquerading as left inguinal hernia. The fluctuation in the size of the swelling related to the act of micturition was mistaken for cough impulse. He was subjected to a left inguinal herniotomy, following which he developed urine leak from the surgery wound and was subsequently referred to our centre for further management. The importance of a detailed history, meticulous physical examination, and diagnostic imaging has been stressed. The surgical approach in such cases has also been highlighted.
Megalourethra is a rare spectrum of urologic malformations of penile corporal structures frequently associated with multiple congenital anomalies, such as prune belly syndrome or vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, trachea-esophageal, renal, and limb (VACTERL association) defects. A 6-year-old boy with VACTERL association and proximal urethral atresia with distal fusiform megalourethra underwent staged reconstruction, including appendicovesicostomy, perineal urethrostomy, and first-stage urethroplasty with a dorsal inlay free graft of megalourethra tissue to the proximal urethral atretic region, followed by second-stage urethroplasty. At 2.6 years of follow-up, he was continent, voids per urethra without postvoid residual urine volume, and no longer performs clean intermittent catheterization by way of the appendicovesicostomy. PMID:21601242
Due to recent domestic measles outbreaks in Japan, the Japanese government has mandated measles vaccination at ages 14 and 17 since April 2008. Since then, the number of people receiving measles vaccination has increased in Japan. Measles vaccination may cause serious neurological complications including encephalopathy, although the incidence is very low. We report here an adult case of posterior reversible
Posterior-reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a recently clinicoradiologic entity caused by numerous medical conditions and characterized by acute-neurologic disorders, such as headaches, confusion, seizures associated with arterial hypertension. MRI characteristics are typical. The rapid diagnosis is of capital importance due to a potential reversibility. PMID:18672415
MRI is a useful tool to complement US for imaging of the fetal posterior fossa (PF). In France, the discovery of a PF malformation in the fetus frequently leads to termination of pregnancy (80% in a personal series). However, despite improved accuracy in the diagnosis of PF abnormalities, prognosis remains uncertain. The first objective of this review is to document
Catherine Adamsbaum; Marie Laure Moutard; Christine André; Valérie Merzoug; Solène Ferey; Marie Pierre Quéré; Fanny Lewin; Catherine Fallet-Bianco
? Abstract The posterior parietal cortex (PPC), historically believed to be a sensory structure, is now viewed as an area important for sensory-motor integration. Among its functions is the forming of intentions, that is, high-level cognitive plans for movement. There is a map of intentions within the PPC, with different subregions dedicated to the planning of eye movements, reaching movements,
Neuropsychological studies of patients with lesions of right frontal (premotor) or posterior parietal cortex often show severe impairments of attentive sensorimotor behavior. Such patients frequently manifest symptoms like hemispatial neglect or extinction. Interestingly, these behavioral deficits occur across different sensory modalities and are often organized in head- or body-centered coordinates. These neuropsychological data provide evidence for the existence of a
Frank Bremmer; Anja Schlack; Jean-René Duhamel; Werner Graf; Gereon R. Fink
Individuals with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) report a host of unusual and poorly explained visual disturbances. This preliminary report describes a single patient (CRO), and documents and investigates abnormally prolonged colour afterimages (concurrent and prolonged perception of colours complimentary to the colour of an observed stimulus), perceived motion of static stimuli, and better reading of small than large letters. We
Sebastian J. Crutch; Manja Lehmann; Nikos Gorgoraptis; Diego Kaski; Natalie Ryan; Masud Husain; Elizabeth K. Warrington
Dermoid tumours in children usually occur in two locations: at the anterior fontanelle and on the occipital squama. An exceptional site of origin for a posterior fossa dermoid cyst is the extradural space. There are only six previous cases of this situation reported in the literature. A series of 103 subscalp and calvarial masses in children were reviewed and three
In earlier work (Gelfand and Smith, 1990 and Gelfand et al, 1990) a sampling based approach using the Gibbs sampler was offered as a means for developing marginal posterior densities for a wide range of Bayesian problems several of which were previously inaccessible. Our purpose here is two-fold. First we flesh out the implementation of this approach for calculation of
The distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars among 157 heterosexual male patients with urethritis and the presence of coinfections with other sexually transmitted\\u000a infections were studied. One hundred seventeen (74.5%) patients, with a mean age of 33.7 years, were Italians, whereas 40\\u000a (25.5%) were immigrants coming from eastern European countries, Africa, and South America. All the immigrants and 82 (70.0%)\\u000a Italian patients
M. Donati; A. Di Francesco; A. D’Antuono; S. Pignanelli; A. Shurdhi; A. Moroni; R. Baldelli; R. Cevenini
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a sexually-transmitted gram-negative bacterium, causes gonorrhoea in humans. The min genes of N. gonorrhoeae are involved in cell division site selection with oxyR co-transcribed with these genes. The mutation in min genes and oxy R cause aberrant cell morphology and aggregation patterns, respectively. Our objective was to assess the contribution of neisserial min operon cell division genes i.e. minC, minD and oxyR in virulence. Compared to the N. gonorrhoeae parental strain (Ng CH811Str(R)), its isogenic mutants with insertionally inactivated minC (Ng CSRC1), minD (Ng CJSD1) or oxyR (Ng KB1) showed reduced adherence to and invasion of urethral epithelial cells. This may be explained by defective microcolony formation in the mutant strains, possibly owing to abnormal morphology and aggregation. The expression levels of surface virulence factors like Opa, pilin and lipooligosaccharide in the mutants were unchanged relative to Ng CH811Str(R). Furthermore, in urethral epithelial cells, the min and oxyR mutants induced the release of proinflammatory cytokines like IL6 and IL8 to levels similar to that induced by the parental strain. Taken together, our studies indicate that inactivation of minC, minD or oxyR in N. gonorrhoeae attenuates its ability to bind to and invade urethral epithelial cells without altering its potential to induce IL6 and IL8 release. PMID:21315173
Parti, Rajinder P; Biswas, Debabrata; Helgeson, Sarah; Michael, Frank S; Cox, Andrew; Dillon, Jo-Anne R
The aim of the study was to assess and compare urethral sphincter (US) function and bladder neck (BN) behavior in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Urethral pressure profile parameters, intravaginal-anal pressures and BN position/mobility were compared in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. It was found that pregnancy results in a decreased maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP)/area of continence at rest and at stress, decreased pressure-transmission ratio (PTR) values and backwards displacement of the bladder neck. No significant changes in intravaginal-anal pressures and BN mobility/downwards displacement were seen. Compared with stress continent pregnant patients, pregnant patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) have a lower MUCP at rest/stress and area of continence at stress, but show no difference in BN behavior. Regression analysis shows no correlation between advancing pregnancy and any of these parameters. It was concluded that pregnancy induces diminished US function and backwards displacement of the BN. Compared to continent pregnant patients, pregnant women with SUI also have a diminished US function. US parameters are not significantly modified by advancing pregnancy. PMID:9891962
To clarify the clinical efficacy of STFX for patients with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), including chlamydial urethritis and Mycoplasma genitalium-positive urethritis, this study included male patients with NGU who were 20 years old or older. The pathogens, including Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum, were detected by nucleic acid amplification tests and the patients were treated with sitafloxacin 100 mg twice daily for 7 days. Microbiological and clinical efficacies were assessed for the patients with NGU posttreatment. Among the 208 patients enrolled in this study, data for a total of 118 patients could be analyzed. The median age was 32 (20-61) years. The median duration from the completion of treatment to the second visit was 21 (14-42) days. There were 68 pathogen-positive NGU cases and 50 with NGU without any microbial detection. Microbiological cure was achieved in 95.6 % of the pathogen-positive NGU patients. Total clinical cure was achieved in 91.3 % (105/115). In this study, STFX was able to eradicate 95.7 % of C. trachomatis, 93.8 % of M. genitalium and 100 % of U. urealyticum. The results of our clinical research indicate that the STFX treatment regimen should become a standard regimen recommended for patients with NGU. In addition, this regimen is recommended for patients with M. genitalium-positive NGU. PMID:23749142
Purpose To evaluate the outcome of visual internal urethrotomy with a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser along with intralesional triamcinolone injection. Materials and Methods Patients with an anterior urethral stricture less than 3 cm in length were evaluated by clinical history, physical examination, uroflowmetry, and retrograde urethrogram preoperatively. All patients were treated with holmium laser urethrotomy and intralesional triamcinolone (80 mg) injection under general or regional anesthesia. An 18 F urethral catheter was placed for 5 days. All patients were followed up for 12 months postoperatively by history, uroflowmetry, and if required, retrograde urethrogram or urethroscopy every 3 months. Results The mean age of the patients was 42.9 years (range, 14 to 70 years). The overall recurrence rate was 24%. The success rate in patients with strictures less than 1 cm in length was 95.8%, whereas that in patients with strictures of 1 to 3 cm in length was 57.7% (p=0.002). The outcome did not depend on age, duration of symptoms, etiology, or location of stricture. Conclusions Holmium laser urethrotomy with intralesional triamcinolone is a safe and effective minimally invasive therapeutic modality for urethral strictures. This procedure has an encouraging success rate, especially in those with stricture segments of less than 1 cm in length.
Chlamydia trachomatis is among the most prevalent genital infections and is an important cause of tubal factor infertility. The majority of infected females are asymptomatic. Evidence on the reliability of signs of inflammation used to predict chlamydia in female patients is inconsistent. This study examined associations between criteria routinely used in many Scandinavian sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and a positive chlamydia test in a high-prevalence population. Clinical and microscopic signs of cervicitis and urethritis were recorded in 99 women attending due to chlamydia infection in a sexual partner. Mucopurulent cervical discharge, easily induced bleeding from the cervix, and more polymorpho-nuclear cells than epithelial cells in vaginal wet smear all correlated significantly with a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test (odds ratios: 3.4, 4.0 and 4.8, respectively). Increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (>30 and ? 5 respectively) in stained cervical and urethral smears were not significantly correlated with chlamydia infection. Hence, routine collection of cervical and urethral smears in female STI patients is questionable. PMID:23460336
The authors review their experience in detecting occult traumatic dural lesions. In a retrospective study covering the period from January 1, 1984 to December 31, 1996, 23 patients were evaluated for occult traumatic dural lesions. Clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, and management of the dural lesions were analyzed. The clinical presentations of the previously undetected dural lesions of the anterior skull base were meningitis in eight cases, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea in eight cases, both meningitis and CSF rhinorrhea in five cases, and a pulsating swelling in the region of the right upper eyelid in one case. In another case a fracture of the posterior frontal wall was detected incidentally on the preoperative CT scan performed prior to surgery for chronic sinusitis. One patient had a CSF fistula of the lateral skull base in addition to the frontobasal fistula. The interval between trauma and diagnosis varied from 1 to 48 years. Dural lesions were localized by high-resolution CT, fluorescein nasal endoscopy, CT cisternography, and MRI. Intraoperative exposure of the dural lesions and duraplasty were possible in all cases. During the first attempt successful repair of the dural lesions was accomplished in 22 (95.7%) of the 23 patiants. Two interventions were necessary to close a CSF leak of the cribriform plate. Modern clinical and radiologic diagnostic methods should be employed to search for an occult dural lesion in patients with recurrent meningitis, meningitis caused by upper airway pathogens, or CSF rhinorrhea. The patient will remain at risk of potentially fatal meningitis until the lesion is appropriately repaired by duraplasty.
Superior labrum anterior and posterior lesions were first described in 1985 by Andrews et al. and later classified into four types by Synder et al. The most prevalent is type II which is fraying of the superior glenoid labrum with detachment of the biceps anchor. Superior labrum anterior posterior (SLAP) lesions can also be associated with other shoulder pathology. Both MRI and MRA can be utilized in making the diagnosis with the coronal images being the most sensitive. The mechanism of injury can be either repetitive stress or acute trauma with the superior labrum most vulnerable to injury during the late cocking phase of throwing. A combination of the modified dynamic labral shear and O'Brien test can be used clinically in making the diagnosis of SLAP lesion. However, the most sensitive and specific test used to diagnosis specifically a type II SLAP lesion is the Biceps Load Test II. The management of type II SLAP lesions is controversial and dependent on patient characteristics. In the young high demanding overhead athlete, repair of the type II lesion is recommended to prevent glenohumeral instability. In middle-aged patients (age 25–45), repair of the type II SLAP lesion with concomitant treatment of other shoulder pathology resulted in better functional outcomes and patient satisfaction. Furthermore, patients who had a distinct traumatic event resulting in the type II SLAP tear did better functionally than patients who did not have the traumatic event when the lesion was repaired. In the older patient population (age over 45 years), minimum intervention (debridement, biceps tenodesis/tenotomy) to the type II SLAP lesion results in excellent patient satisfaction and outcomes.
Li, Xinning; Lin, Timothy J.; Jager, Marcus; Price, Mark D.; Deangelis, Nicola A.; Busconi, Brian D.; Brown, Michael A.
Objective To determine whether delay of the repair of the ruptured thoracic aorta in patients with other major injuries is safe and has a potential positive impact on survival. Summary Background Data The accepted treatment for acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta has been repair of the injury as soon as possible. This form of management, however, has been accompanied by a death rate of 0% to 54% mortality, often related to the presence of other injuries. Methods The records of 30 consecutive patients with rupture of the thoracic aorta from blunt trauma treated from 1995 to 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. Two of them died shortly after admission and were excluded from further consideration. The remaining 28 patients were divided according to the time of the repair of the rupture into two groups. Group 1 patients underwent repair of the rupture immediately after the diagnosis was made. Group 2 patients, who had associated injuries that were likely to increase the risk of surgical death, had either repair more than 48 hours after injury (subgroup 2A) or had no repair (subgroup 2B). The patients in group 2 had their mean arterial pressure maintained at less than 70 mm Hg with medication to eliminate shear stress on the aortic tear while being observed. Results Twenty-eight patients (22 men, 6 women) with an average age of 36 years (range 19–76) were treated. Twenty-five had rupture of the descending thoracic aorta and three had rupture in the ascending thoracic aorta. Group 1 comprised 14 patients, 5 of whom died during surgery or in the early postoperative period. Group 2 comprised 14 patients, 9 in subgroup 2A and 5 in subgroup 2B. Two patients in subgroup 2A and three patients in subgroup 2B died of associated injuries or illnesses. Rupture of the traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta did not occur in any of the patients in group 2. Conclusions Delayed repair of acute traumatic aortic rupture is safe under appropriate treatment and should be considered in selected patients.
Symbas, Panagiotis N.; Sherman, Andrew J.; Silver, Jeffery M.; Symbas, John D.; Lackey, Jodi J.
We evaluated the clinical results of posterior decompression with instrumented fusion (PDF) for thoracic myelopathy due to\\u000a ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). A total of 24 patients underwent PDF, and their surgical outcomes\\u000a were evaluated by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores (0–11 points) and by recovery rates calculated at 3, 6,\\u000a 9 and 12 months after surgery and
We present the case of a 25-year-old male who came to the emergency room for pain and abdominal distension following trauma to the mesogastrium. A CT scan was performed, revealing a voluminous retroperitoneal hematoma with laceration of both inferior renal poles with regard to rupture of the isthmus of a horseshoe kidney. The patient presented anemization and increased pain, requiring selective embolization by means of arteriography of a branch of the right renal artery and placement of a double J stent due to urinary extravasation in the lower left kidney pole. Following 1 year of monitoring, the patient has maintained normal renal function. Renal affection in blunt abdominal trauma is frequent, occurring in 7% of previously pathological kidneys. The traumatic rupture of horseshoe kidney is facilitated by its particular anatomical characteristics, constituting an infrequent entity, knowledge of which is necessary to achieve conservative management that renders it possible to preserve renal function. PMID:21934278
This retrospective study was designed to document the etiology of traumatically ruptured globes in children and to determine the prognostic value of several clinical parameters with respect to visual outcome. Forty-six children 16 years of age and under seen in the emergency room over a 2-year period were found to have full thickness penetration of the globe. Fifty-nine percent of injuries occurred during recreational activities, and 59% occurred outside of the home. Boys outnumbered girls by a 6:1 ratio. For children, initial visual acuity proved to be less valuable as a prognostic indicator with regard to final vision than has been reported in adults. Smaller corneal wounds offered better visual outcomes. Four eyes were enucleated. Ten ruptures (22%) were related to activity involving guns. Four of six BB gun injuries were the result of a ricocheted BB. Visual outcomes in gun-related injuries were particularly poor. PMID:7837018
Rudd, J C; Jaeger, E A; Freitag, S K; Jeffers, J B
Several different classes of sedative agents are used in the management of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). These agents are used at induction of anaesthesia, to maintain sedation, to reduce elevated intracranial pressure, to terminate seizure activity and facilitate ventilation. The intent of their use is to prevent secondary brain injury by facilitating and optimising ventilation, reducing cerebral metabolic rate and reducing intracranial pressure. There is limited evidence available as to the best choice of sedative agents in TBI, with each agent having specific advantages and disadvantages. This review discusses these agents and offers evidence-based guidance as to the appropriate context in which each agent may be used. Propofol, benzodiazepines, narcotics, barbiturates, etomidate, ketamine, and dexmedetomidine are reviewed and compared.
The article reports on eight cases of traumatic dislocation of the hip in children. Six of these were genuine dislocations and two dislocation fractures. The children were between 5 and 13 years of age at the time of injury. Seven of these 8 children could be followed up one to 21 years after the accident. All 7 children were free from complaints at the time of follow-up examination; in one case only we found a moderate loss of function in the injured hip joint. In this patient the x-ray film showed deformation of the head of the femur after partial necrosis of the femoral head, as well as initial signs of coxarthrosis. Prognosis of this rare injury in children is favourable if repositioning is performed in time and if relief of the hip is effected for the proper period of time, depending on the individual case. PMID:2665382
Chylothorax refers to the accumulation of chyle in the pleural cavity. Although rare, it is the most frequent cause of pleural effusion in the neonatal period. Its incidence is estimated at one in 15,000 neonates. The causes of chylothorax are multiple, and there are several major types of chylothorax defined by origin, ie, traumatic (and iatrogenic) chylothorax, medical (spontaneous) chylothorax, and congenital chylothorax. A case of neonatal chylothorax following surgery for esophageal atresia and our therapeutic approach to this entity are presented. Conservative therapy with total enteral nutrition and drainage were sufficient. Treatment for chylothorax is essentially medical, ie, pleural drainage, removal of dietary fats, treatment of any medical cause, and use of drugs to reduce production of chyle. In the event of failure or reappearance of a large effusion, surgical treatment is needed.
Objective: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA) are clinical syndromes associated with posterior brain atrophy. We compared PCA and LPA to each other and to an age-matched group of patients with early age at onset of Alzheimer disease (EO-AD). We hypothesized that these 3 syndromes are part of a single clinical and biologic continuum. Methods: Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to assess atrophy in 14 PCA, 10 LPA, and 16 EO-AD patients compared to 65 healthy controls. Genetic analysis for APOE was conducted in 30 patients and 44 controls. Four patients came to autopsy. An additional 14 were studied with the beta-amyloid specific PET with tracer 11C-labeled Pittsburgh Compound-B (PIB). Results: VBM results demonstrated that, compared to controls, each patient group showed a large area of overlapping atrophy in bilateral parietal, occipital, precuneus, posterior cingulate, posterior temporal, and hippocampal regions. Surrounding this common area, group-specific atrophy was found in small, symptom-specific regions for each group: the right ventral-occipital and superior parietal regions in PCA, the left middle and superior temporal gyri in LPA, and the prefrontal cortex in EO-AD. APOE ?4 frequency was higher in all patient groups compared to controls. Four PCA, 5 LPA, and 8 EO-AD patients showed evidence of cortical amyloid at pathology (n = 3) or on PIB-PET (n = 14). Conclusions: Logopenic progressive aphasia and posterior cortical atrophy showed largely overlapping anatomic and biologic features with early age at onset of Alzheimer disease, suggesting that these clinical syndromes represent the spectrum of clinical manifestation of the nontypical form of Alzheimer disease that presents at an early age. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; CBD = corticobasal degeneration; EO-AD = early age at onset of Alzheimer disease; LPA = logopenic progressive aphasia; MAC = Memory and Aging Center; PCA = posterior cortical atrophy; PIB = Pittsburgh Compound-B; PPA = primary progressive aphasia; UCSF = University of California San Francisco; VBM = voxel-based morphometry.
Migliaccio, R; Agosta, F; Rascovsky, K; Karydas, A; Bonasera, S; Rabinovici, G D.; Miller, B L.; Gorno-Tempini, M L.
Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (TSAH) is a life-threatening intracranial bleed often associated with violent assault or motor vehicle accidents. The vast majority of TSAH is associated with rupture of the vertebral artery, although rare cases of traumatic aneurysm of the internal carotid artery (ICA) have been reported. A 27-year-old man was found bleeding and unresponsive following a violent altercation in which he received repeated blows to the head and neck. CT scan showed acute SAH, and death ensued within 24 h. Autopsy revealed generalized bruising of the face, a complete midline mandibular fracture, and massive basal SAH resulting from traumatic rupture of the right terminal internal carotid artery at the origin of the middle cerebral artery. Anterior and posterior neck dissection revealed focal hemorrhage associated with the right neural arch of the first cervical vertebra (C1). Autopsy findings were consistent with TSAH resulting from rupture of the ICA following blunt force trauma to the head. The rupture site in TSAH can be difficult to locate, and injury to the ICA may be overlooked if not routinely examined. Dissection of the neck and skull base is required to ensure accurate identification of the site of vascular injury. PMID:22824587
Salvatori, Marcus; Kodikara, Sarathchandra; Pollanen, Michael
The Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress (CSTS) is one of the nation's oldest and most highly regarded, academic-based organizations dedicated to advancing trauma-informed knowledge, leadership and methodologies. The Center's work addresses a wide sco...
The purpose of this study is to investigate mechanisms of disequilibrium and imbalance in veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom / Operation Iraqi Freedom who have experienced traumatic brain injury (TBI). The mechanism of chronic dizziness and imbalance ...