Kanishka Das; Antony Robert Charles; Anand Alladi; Sanjay Rao; Ashley J. D’Cruz
The management of traumatic posterior urethral disruption in children has ranged from primary realignment\\/repair to delayed urethroplasty. The operative approach may be perineal or transpubic; the advocates of either cite comparable outcome. The anatomic considerations in a child differ from the adult and the management is individualized .We present our experience with the perineal\\/perineal–transpubic approach in the management of traumatic
Divyesh Y. Desai; Peter M. Cuckow
Posterior urethral valves (PUV) remains the most common cause of bladder outflow obstruction in male infants. The condition\\u000a has an estimated incidence of 1\\/4000 to 1\\/5000 live births. It is a panurinary tract disorder with a variable spectrum of\\u000a severity that can affect both the upper and lower urinary tract.1,2
Kumar, Bindey; Kumar, Prem; Sinha, Sanjay Kumar; Sinha, Neelam; Hasan, Zaheer; Thakur, Vinit Kumar; Anand, Utpal; Priyadarshi, Rajiv Nayan; Mandal, Manish
INTRODUCTION Foreign bodies in the urogenital tract are not uncommon. Hairpins, glass rods, umbilical tapes, ball point pen are described in lower urogenital tract. Retained gauze piece (gossypiboma) in posterior urethra may cause diagnostic dilemma. Symptoms and investigations may mimic stricture of posterior urethra. PRESENTATION OF CASE Two cases of retained gauze pieces in the urethra are described here. The micturating cystourethrogram was suggestive of posterior urethral stricture. DISCUSSION Two cases described here had retained gauze piece as a cause of filling defect and abnormal appearance in the micturating cystourethrogram. Gossypiboma may be a possibility where posterior urethral stricture are seen after previous surgery in paediatric age group. CONCLUSION In the setting of previous urogenital surgery gossypiboma should be kept in the differential diagnosis where posterior urethral stricture are seen in the paediatric age group. PMID:23500749
Richa Lal; V Bhatnagar; D. K Mitra
This report discusses the incidence and predisposing factors for postfulguration urethral strictures in 82 boys with posterior urethral valves treated over 20 years and followed up for a period ranging from 1 to 21 years. A urethral stricture developed in three of the 82 patients (3.6%). All newborns and infants with small urethral caliber at presentation were treated on a
Kulkarni, Sanjay B.; Joshi, Pankaj M.; Hunter, Craig; Surana, Sandesh; Shahrour, Walid; Alhajeri, Faisal
Objective To assess treatment strategies for seven different scenarios for treating complex pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI), categorised as repeat surgery for PFUI, ischaemic bulbar urethral necrosis (BUN), repair in boys and girls aged ?12 years, in patients with a recto-urethral fistula, or bladder neck incontinence, or with a double block at the bulbomembranous urethra and bladder neck/prostate region. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed the success rates and surgical procedures of these seven complex scenarios in the repair of PFUI at our institution from 2000 to 2013. Results In all, >550 PFUI procedures were performed at our centre, and 308 of these patients were classified as having a complex PFUI, with 225 patients available for follow-up. The overall success rates were 81% and 77% for primary and repeat procedures respectively. The overall success rate of those with BUN was 76%, using various methods of novel surgical techniques. Boys aged ?12 years with PFUI required a transpubic/abdominal approach 31% of the time, compared to 9% in adults. Young girls with PFUI also required a transpubic/abdominal urethroplasty, with a success rate of 66%. In patients with a recto-urethral fistula the success rate was 90% with attention to proper surgical principles, including a three-stage procedure and appropriate interposition. The treatment of bladder neck incontinence associated with the tear-drop deformity gave a continence rate of 66%. Children with a double block at the bulbomembranous urethra and at the bladder neck-prostate junction were all continent after a one-stage transpubic/abdominal procedure. Conclusion An understanding of complex pelvic fractures and their appropriate management can provide successful outcomes. PMID:26019978
M. D. Melekos; H. W. Asbach; S. Giannoulis; P. Perimenis; G. Barbalias
Twenty-six boys were evaluated and treated for posterior urethral valves. At the time the valves were diagnosed unilateral\\u000a or bilateral vesicoureteral reflux was present in 58% of the ureters and 69% of the children, while dilatation of the upper\\u000a urinary tract was present in 88% and 92%, respectively. There was a variety of symptoms and signs, but the most prominent
Kesan, Krushnakumar V; Gupta, Rahul Kumar; Kothari, Paras; Gupta, Abhaya; Mudkhedkar, Kedar; Kamble, Ravikiran; Dikshit, K Vishesh
Urethral polyp is a rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction, voiding dysfunction, and hematuria in the pediatric age group. Urethral polyps are rarely associated with other congenital urinary tract anomalies. In this study, we report a case of solitary posterior urethral polyp with type I posterior urethral valve in a 7-day-old neonate presented with urinary retention and deranged renal function. The polyp was diagnosed on cystoscopy. Transurethral resection of the polyp with posterior urethral valve fulguration was performed. Pathologic assessment revealed a fibroepithelial lesion, which was consistent with congenital posterior urethral polyp. PMID:24767515
Ronen Rub; Ralph Madeb; Yoram Kluger; Tzipi Chen; Yoav Avidor
We report a case of a complete posterior urethral injury secondary to a penetrating gluteal injury. Posterior urethral injury usually occurs in male patients with pelvic trauma. The reported incidence of urethral injury with pelvic fracture ranges from 1.6% to 25% (mean 10%), with 66% of them being complete posterior urethral ruptures. Causes of posterior urethral disruptions include blunt trauma,
T. M. Ramanujam; A. Sergius; V. Usha; S. Ramanathan
Urethral duplication (UD) is an uncommon malformation. Obstruction rarely occurs in hypospadiac UD. We describe two children\\u000a with incomplete hypospadiac UD in association with posterior urethral valves, a combination not previously recognised. The\\u000a embryonic significance of this anomaly is discussed.
E. Neulander; J. Kaneti
Although posterior urethral valves is a well known and important entity in paediatric urology, its association with bladder\\u000a calculi is not well documented and this condition is not discussed commonly in the literature. Association between posterior\\u000a urethral valves and vesicolithiasis is presented in three children.
Jodi F. Abbott; Deborah Levine; Ronald Wapner
This study was undertaken to determine the specificity of prenatal diagnosis of posterior urethral valves. Twenty-two fetuses were diagnosed in utero with posterior urethral valves due to the presence of persistent megacystis and hydronephrosis. Ten cases had oligohydramnios and 12 had normal or increased fluid. Confirmation of diagnosis was not available in 3 fetuses. Only 8 of 19 fetuses had
James A. Brown; Jay B. Levy; Stephen A. Kramer
A 12-year-old boy, examined after an episode of acute urinary retention, was found to have neurofibromatosis of the bladder neck and prostatic urethra. His symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction and radiographic findings of a dilated prostatic urethra mimicked posterior urethral valves. Complete urologic investigation, including cystourethroscopy, revealed that the dilatation of the prostatic urethra was secondary to neural involvement of
Alsowayan, Ossamah; Almodhen, Fayez; Alshammari, Ahmed
Urethral diverticulum is a localized saccular or fusiform out-pouching of the urethra. It may occur at any point along the urethra in both male and females. Male urethral diverticulum is rare, and could be either congenital or acquired, anterior or posterior. The mainstay treatment of posterior urethral diverticulum (PUD) is the open surgical approach. Here we discuss our minimally invasive surgical approach (MIS) in managing posterior urethral diverticulum. PMID:25834967
Jalbani, Imran Khan; Biyabani, Syed Raziuddin
Presence of posterior urethral valves (PUV) is the most common cause of urinary tract obstruction in the male neonate. Late presentation occurs in 10% of cases. We present a case of PUVs in an adult male who presented with history of obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms and hematuria. On evaluation, he was found to have raised serum creatinine level. A voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) could not be completely performed because of narrowing in the posterior urethra. A rigid urethrocystoscopy was performed at which he was found to have type-I posterior urethral valve which were fulgurated. A repeat uroflowmetry revealed maximum flow rate of 12 ml/second. This case highlights that PUVs is not solely a disease of infancy but may also present late. VCUG is the radiological investigation of choice but the diagnosis may be missed. A urethrocystoscopy is advised if there is a high index of suspicion. PMID:24906275
Mahadik, Punit; Vaddi, Surya Prakash; Godala, Chandra-Mohan; Sambar, Venkatkrishna; Kulkarni, Sushanth; Gundala, Ramesh
Posterior urethral valves (PUV) are now commonly suspected on antenatal ultrasound, but can present with a broad spectrum of severity postnatally. Rarely, the diagnosis is missed until adolescence or adulthood when the patient usually presents with lower urinary tract symptoms. We describe an even rarer case of PUV in a late adolescent who first presented with preserved renal function and urinary incontinence. We review the literature on presentation, natural history and outcomes of both early and late presenting PUV cases. PMID:23094222
John M. Gatti; Andrew J. Kirsch
Posterior urethral valves are a common problem encountered by pediatric urologists. The diagnosis is most frequently suggested\\u000a by antenatal screening ultra-sound. A variety of pre- and postnatal parameters have been identified to aid in predicting ultimate\\u000a renal outcome. These prognostic tools are invaluable to the clinician for counseling parents and for choosing appropriate\\u000a manage-ment. Several approaches to the treatment of
Paolo Caione; Simona Gerocarni Nappo
Posterior urethral valves represent the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in infancy that impairs renal and\\u000a bladder function. Long-term outcome of patients with previous PUV is evaluated. Patients over 18 years of age, treated from\\u000a 1982 to 1995 before the age of 3 years were considered. Previous surgery, renal function, bladder activity, urinary incontinence,\\u000a and fertility\\/sexual activity were evaluated. Clinical
Vaddi, Surya Prakash; Godala, Chandra-Mohan; Sambar, Venkatkrishna; Kulkarni, Sushanth; Gundala, Ramesh
Posterior urethral valves (PUV) are now commonly suspected on antenatal ultrasound, but can present with a broad spectrum of severity postnatally. Rarely, the diagnosis is missed until adolescence or adulthood when the patient usually presents with lower urinary tract symptoms. We describe an even rarer case of PUV in a late adolescent who first presented with preserved renal function and urinary incontinence. We review the literature on presentation, natural history and outcomes of both early and late presenting PUV cases. PMID:23094222
Prem Puri; Rajendra Kumar
PurposeWe review our experience with children with high grade vesicoureteral reflux secondary to posterior urethral valves treated endoscopically with subureteral polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) injection.
Rosalia Misseri; Andrew J. Combs; Mark Horowitz; Jeffrey M. Donohoe; Kenneth I. Glassberg
PurposeIt has been suggested that hypocontractility or myogenic failure develops in older boys with a history of 9 posterior urethral valved as the hyperactive, poorly compliant bladders decompensate with age. Also a much higher prevalence of myogenic failure has been reported than we have observed. We determine the prevalence of myogenic failure in boys with a posterior urethral valve and
Rubén A. Quintero; Roderick Hume; Craig Msith; Mark P. Johnson; David B. Cotton; Roberto Romero; Mark I. Evans
Percutaneous fetal cystoscopy was performed in a male fetus with ultrasonographic evidence of lower urinary tract obstruction at 19 weeks of gestation. The diagnosis of posterior urethral valves was confirmed. Percutaneous endoscopic fulguration of the valves was successfully performed at 22 weeks of gestation, and urethral patency was established. This case illustrates the feasibility of performing diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic
Gouli, J-C; Merrot, T; Chaumoitre, K; Faure, A; Michel, F; Alessandrini, P
We report a newborn aged 19 days, carrying a posterior urethral valve antenatal screening in which developed 7 days after the entire section of the valve, a compressive urinothorax in connection with a perirenal urinoma. Pleural and bladder drainage has a surrender of effusions and a healing of the renal parenchyma. The thoracic urine effusion is a very rare complication of a posterior urethral valve with perirenal urinoma. This probably results from a rupture of a fornix dysplastic by hypertension of the urinary tract. The authors emphasize the unusual discovery of this disease by breathing problems and his delayed character after resection of the obstruction in the neonatal period. PMID:21296284
ALAA EL-GHONEIMI; ARNAUD DESGRIPPES; DOMINIQUE LUTON; MARIE-ALICE MACHER; JEAN GUIBOURDENCHE; CATHERINE GAREL; FRANCOISE MULLER; EDITH VUILLARD; HENRI LOTTMANN; CATHERINE NESSMANN; JEAN-FRANCOIS OURY; YVES AIGRAIN
PurposeTo assess the impact of prenatal diagnosis and evaluation on the outcome of posterior urethral valves we studied all cases of valves detected prenatally, including cases of pregnancy termination due to posterior urethral valves.
Walid Farhat; Gordon McLorie; Gianpaolo Capolicchio; Antoine Khoury; Darius Bägli; Paul A Merguerian
Objectives. Although valve ablation is the treatment of choice for patients with posterior urethral valves, debate continues as to the role of urinary diversion. We sought to retrospectively compare the clinical and radiologic outcomes between valve ablation and urinary diversion for patients with posterior urethral valves.Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 50 consecutive patients with posterior urethral valves since
Boris Chertin; Denis Cozzi; Prem Puri
PurposePosterior urethral valves are the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in infancy and cause renal failure in 25% to 30% of these children before adolescence. Transurethral ablation under direct vision is the most commonly used method of treatment for posterior urethral valves. Since 1987 we have used a Fogarty balloon catheter for primary avulsion of the posterior urethral
Carvell, James; Mulik, Roopa
This report outlines the case of a 3-year-old boy whose initial presentation was that of asymptomatic hypertension (lowest recording 148/90), found at preoperative check prior to stage 2-correction surgery for distal hypospadias. Upon diagnosis of true hypertension, an ultrasound of the child's renal tract showed evidence of marked hydronephrosis and calyceal dilatation. On the background of deteriorating renal function (Urea 25.5 and Creatinine 188), a Micturating Cystourethrogram was performed, demonstrating posterior urethral dilatation. With difficulties controlling blood pressure, the child was transferred to Urology care, where resection of a posterior urethral valve (PUV) was undertaken. Despite this, renal function deteriorated further and re-cystoscopy identified an anterior urethral valve (AUV), which was also resected. Renal function, although improved, remains poor and blood pressure is controlled with two anti-hypertensives. To the publisher's knowledge, the association between hypospadias, PUVs and AUVs is as yet undocumented. PMID:24964414
WILLIAM DeFOOR; LESLIE TACKETT; EUGENE MINEVICH; PAUL McENERY; DAVID KITCHENS; DEBORAH REEVES; CURTIS SHELDON
PurposeThe treatment of children with posterior urethral valve (PUV) and end-stage renal disease can be challenging. Some series have had poor outcomes after renal transplantation with an increased risk of graft dysfunction and urinary tract infections. We present our experience with a pediatric population and compare it to all the other pediatric renal transplants done at our institution.
Rupture of the neonatal urinary bladder during pregnancy or delivery is an extremely rare event, in some patients seondary to posterior urethral valves. In a recent case early diagnosis facilitated prompt surgical repair. A temporary bladder fistula secured survival and micturition cystourethrography establishment of the valves, which were successfully resected at two weeks of age.
P. López Pereira; M. J. Martinez Urrutia; E. Jaureguizar
Posterior urethral valves are the most common cause of congenital obstructive uropathy, resulting in renal failure in childhood. Nowadays, in most cases, diagnosis is suggested by antenatal ultrasound. However, antenatal intervention has not resulted in a significantly improved outcome. Endoscopic valve ablation is the initial treatment in most of these neonates, but others procedures, like vesicostomy or ureterostomy, can also
A. M. Kajbafzadeh; F. M. J. Quinn; P. G. Duffy; P. G. Ransley
The role of augmentation cystoplasty in the neuropathic and exstrophy bladder has been well documented. However, its place and the timing of such surgery in the “valve bladder” are not well established. We report our experience with augmentation cystoplasty in 20 boys with previously treated posterior urethral valves. Urodynamic studies confirmed poorly compliant, unstable bladders with low functional capacities, which
Matthew S. Clifton; Michael R. Harrison; Robert Ball; Hanmin Lee
Fetal urinary tract obstruction with oligohydramnios produces pulmonary hypoplasia and renal dysplasia. Decompression of the obstructed urinary tract may restore amniotic fluid and allow lung growth, but transabdominal catheter shunt decompression is often inadequate and does not allow for cycling of the bladder, while open procedures cause significant maternal morbidity. Disruption of the anatomic obstruction, usually posterior urethral valves in
Martin Kaefer; Mark C. Adams; Richard C. Rink
The pop-off mechanisms that sometimes occur with posterior urethral valves have well recognized implications for renal function, such that 1 or both kidneys can be protected from the deleterious effects of elevated bladder pressures. What has not been defined is the significance, if any, of pressure pop-offs to the developing bladder and ultimate bladder function. To answer this question we
O. Eklöf; H. Ringertz
In a series of 65 male infants and children, all with the diagnosis of posterior urethral valves, pre- and postoperative urographic findings were reviewed. In addition changes occurring in the bladder, and the implication of vesico-ureteral reflux were assessed. — Preoperatively diagnosed impairment of kidney function and concommitant dilatation of the upper urinary tract, with some exceptions, remained fairly unchanged
R. Lal; V. Bhatnagar; S. Agarwala; V. P. Grover; D. K. Mitra
This study describes the urodynamic findings in 22 patients with posterior urethral valves and discusses their association\\u000a with urinary incontinence, age, mode of primary treatment, renal function, and changes in the upper tracts. The patients'\\u000a ages ranged from 3 to 26 years and 27% were either adolescents or older. The urodynamic findings were categorized into 5 main\\u000a patterns, although mixed
A. Krishna; P. Lal; A. Gupta; U. Madan
This study describes a subset of patients with posterior urethral valves (PUV) who presented late in childhood. The objective\\u000a was to identify factors that lead to back-pressure effects on the upper tracts, which persist in spite of adequate valve ablation\\u000a in some patients, and seek factors that may preserve the upper tracts despite untreated obstruction in other patients. Six\\u000a children
M. Bajpai; S. Dave; D. K. Gupta
Children with posterior urethral valves (PUV) are at high risk for renal failure (RF). The outcome of renal function is significantly\\u000a influenced by early diagnosis and the choice of primary therapy. We reviewed the outcome of renal function in 58 children\\u000a with PUV. The choice of therapy in each case – primary valve fulguration, vesicostomy, or high ureterostomy – was
Vincent C. Onuora; Khalid Mirza; Abdelmoniem H. Koko; M. Al Turki; Ahmed H. Meabed; N. Al Jawini
Posterior urethral valves (PUV) account for a sizeable proportion of children with chronic renal failure. Several criteria\\u000a have been identified as predictive of future renal function in children with PUV. We compared the presenting features and\\u000a initial treatment in two groups of Saudi children treated for PUV, with the aim of identifying any factors that might account\\u000a for the differences
Santiago Mendizabal; Isabel Zamora; Agustin Serrano; Maria Jose Sanahuja; Ezena Roman; Carlos Dominguez; Pedro Ortega; Fernando García Ibarra
The objective of this study was to analyze whether renal transplantation (RT) in children with posterior urethral valves (PUV)\\u000a constitutes a special group with respect to groups with different etiologies of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Between 1979\\u000a and 2004, 22 RT were performed in 19 children with PUV. The median age at RT was 10 years (range: 1.3–17). Immunosuppression\\u000a was provided
S. K. Chatterjee; S. Banerjee; D. Basak; A. K. Basu; A. K. Chakravarti; J. Haque
We have reviewed 233 patients with posterior urethral valves treated in a single center in Calcutta, India, over the last\\u000a 20 years: 37 were neonates, 75 were between 1 and 12 months, 88 were between 1 and 5 years, and 33 were more than 5 years\\u000a old when first seen. The clinical presentation and methods employed in diagnosis and assessment
Abbas Madani; Nahid Rahimzadeh; Seyed-Taher Esfahani; Nematollah Ataei; Abdolmohammad Kajbafzadeh; Javad Janatti; Alireza Sina
Epididymo-orchitis is an uncommon complication of posterior urethral valve. A four-year-old boy was admitted because of right-sided epididymo-orchitis. Scintigraphy of the scrotum showed increased uptake of radiotracer on the right side. The posterior urethral valve was disclosed by voiding cystourethrography. Ablation of the valve and antibiotic therapy made the patient free of symptoms.
BARRY P. DUEL; KIRSTIN MOGBO; JULIA SPENCER BARTHOLD; RICARDO GONZALEZ
PurposeIncreased cortical echogenicity and loss of corticomedullary differentiation on the initial renal ultrasound study are said to be predictive of poor renal function in patients with posterior urethral valves. We reviewed ultrasound results in a group of patients with posterior urethral valves to test this hypothesis.
Javid Moslehi; C. D. Anthony Herndon; Patrick H McKenna
Most patients with significant posterior urethral valves are identified antenatally. However, even with a normal antenatal ultrasound scan, posterior urethral valves may be detected after birth. We present a patient with significant upper urinary tract involvement identified 2 days after birth, despite a normal third-trimester antenatal ultrasound scan.
Tran, Christine N; Reichard, Chad A; McMahon, Daniel; Rhee, Audrey
Anterior urethral valve (AUV) associated with posterior urethral valves (PUVs) is an extremely rare congenital urologic anomaly resulting in lower urinary tract obstruction. We present our experience with 2 children with concomitant AUV and PUV as well as a literature review. The clinical presentation of concomitant AUV and PUV is variable. Successful endoscopic management can result in improvement in renal function, reversal of obstructive changes, and improvement or resolution of voiding dysfunction. PMID:24958476
Deng, Tuo; Liao, Banghua; Luo, Deyi; Liu, Bing; Wang, Kunjie; Liu, Jiaming; Jin, Tao
Objective: Therapy for anterior combined with posterior urethral stricture is difficult and controversial. This study aims to introduce a standard process for managing anterior combined with posterior urethral stricture. Patients and methods: 19 patients with anterior combined with posterior urethral stricture were treated following our standard process. Average (range) age was 52 (21-72) years old. In this standard process, anterior urethral stricture should be treated first. Endoscopic surgery is applied for anterior urethra stricture as a priority as long as obliteration does not occur, and operation for posterior urethral stricture can be conducted in the same stage. Otherwise, an open reconstructive urethroplasty for anterior urethral is needed; while in this condition, the unobliterated posterior urethra can also be treated with endoscopic surgery in the same stage; however, if posterior urethra obliteration exists, then open reconstructive urethroplasty for posterior urethral stricture should be applied 2-3 months later. Results: The median (range) follow-up time was 25.8 (3-56) months. All 19 patients were normal in urethrography after 1 month of the surgery. 4 patients (21.1%) recurred urethral stricture during follow-up, and the locations of recurred stricture were bulbomembranous urethra (2 cases), bulbar urethra (1 case) and bladder neck (1 case). 3 of them restored to health through urethral dilation, yet 1 underwent a second operation. 2 patients (10.5%) complaint of dripping urination. No one had painful erection, stress urinary incontinence or other complications. Conclusions: The management for anterior combined with posterior urethral stricture following our standard process is effective and safe.
Kannan Laksmi Narasimhan; Madhu Khullar; Balpinder Kaur
PurposeTo investigate the association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion\\/deletion (I\\/D) polymorphism and other risk factors with renal scarring in patients with posterior urethral valves (PUV).
Young H. Kim; Mark Horowitz; Andrew J. Combs; Victor W. Nitti; Kenneth I. Glassberg
PurposeThere is no uniform agreement on how to manage the unilateral nonfunctioning or poorly functioning kidney associated with posterior urethral valves. We studied the results of treatment of our patients to make recommendations regarding management of these kidneys.
D. Preston Smith; Gerald R. Jerkins; H. Norman Noe
ObjectivesTo describe our recent experience using a 6.9F cytoscope in the fulguration of posterior urethral valves (PUVs) in premature neonates and distal ureteroscopy with stone extraction in children.
K. K. PATIL; D. T. WILCOX; M. SAMUEL; P. G. DUFFY; P. G. RANSLEY
PurposeUrinary extravasation with associated posterior urethral valves is uncommon and published articles are restricted to case reports. We propose a management algorithm on the basis of presentation of 18 boys with this condition.
Kim A. R. Hutton; David F. M. Thomas; Brian W. Davies
PurposeWe attempted to determine if the degree of second trimester dilatation and\\/or other qualitative sonographic features of the fetal urinary tract are predictive of postnatal outcome in male neonates with posterior urethral valves.
RAMAIAH INDUDHARA; DAVID B. JOSEPH; LUIS M. PEREZ; ARNOLD G. DIETHELM
PurposeRenal transplantation is safe and effective for end stage renal disease in children with posterior urethral valves. We previously reported our 5-year post-transplantation results in boys with posterior urethral valves and matched controls. Graft survival was similar. However, we were concerned about elevated serum creatinine and the potential detrimental effects of hostile bladder dynamics in these children. We performed this
Tîrlea, S; Ionescu, S
Posterior Urethral Valves--PUV are the most common cause of bladder outflow obstruction in male infants, representig about 10% of prenatally detected hydronephrosis. The medical records of 27 patients, admitted and treated in the pediatric urology department of "Maria Sklodowska Curie" Emergency Hospital for Children, Bucharest, between 2001-2010 where reviewed. The aim of the study is to discuss the endoscopic valve ablation as the first choice treatment of PUV. Twenty-six, (96%) of ouer patients are alive, having now different ages, with serum creatinine levels < 0.8 mg/dl, at successive controls. One patient, lyear 11 mounths old, died in the pediatric nephrology department after right nephrec-tomy and left ureterostomy, 9 mounth before. Mortality rate in PUV patients has significantly decreased in the last 30 years, from 50% to less than 10% of patients. Nonetheless, morbidity related to PUV still represent an heavy burden for these patients and their doctors. Urodynamic studies help in understanding the pathophysiology of valve bladder and its effect on the urinary tract at long term follow-up. PMID:22712352
Felicitas Eckoldt; K. S. Heling; R. Woderich; S. Wolke
Introduction: Urethral valves can be of enormous clinical importance. Both the prognosis for an affected fetus and the indication for a prenatal therapeutic intervention depend to a high degree on the accuracy of the prenatal diagnosis. Patients and Methods: The sonographic findings and the results of the postnatal diagnostic workup of 24 boys treated for urethral valves in our institute
P. A. Nancarrow; R. L. Lebowitz
Primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is thought to be largely independent of obstruction. Therefore, in patients with urethral\\u000a obstruction due to posterior urethral valves (PUV) the occurrence of VUR is coincidental. In addition, primary VUR is reported\\u000a to be uncommon in black children. If these two premises are correct, then primary VUR should be rare in black males with PUV.\\u000a To
Posterior urethral valves are the commonest cause of urethral obstruction in a male child. It has significant effects on the development of upper urinary tracts and in the evolution of urinary bladder function. The effect on the kidneys and the urinary bladder persists even after the successful management of the obstructing valves. A detailed evaluation of the associated bladder dysfunction will help in planning management protocols that will improve the long-term outcome of these patients. PMID:21369376
Takazawa, Shinya; Uchida, Hiroo; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yujiro; Masuko, Takayuki; Deie, Kyoichi; Amano, Hizuru; Kobayashi, Kenichiro; Tada, Minoru; Iwanaka, Tadashi
Two patients with acquired posterior urethral diverticulum that is a complication of laparoscopic assisted anorectoplasty underwent urethroscopic holmium: YAG laser ablation. After the ablation therapies, the size of the diverticulum markedly decreased in both patients. Holmium: YAG laser is safe and easy to handle in the small pediatric urethra. PMID:25062769
Young H. Kim; Mark Horowitz; Andrew J. Combs; Victor W. Nitti; Joseph Borer; Kenneth I. Glassberg
PurposeAbnormal urodynamic findings are common in boys with a history of posterior urethral valves. However, to our knowledge there are few reports on the results of treating these abnormal findings. We analyzed the treatment of abnormal urodynamic parameters and its outcome in 21 boys who underwent valve ablation.
Johnson, Lewis Jeremy; van der Merwe, Andre; Du Bussion, Christel; Santucci, Richard Anthony; Heyns, Christopher
A case is reported of urinary tract tuberculosis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of late presentation posterior urethral valves. Persistent hydroureteronephrosis after valve ablation at the age of 5 years and a draining urinary fistula from the site where a suprapubic catheter had been inserted prior to valve surgery alerted to the possibility of urinary tract tuberculosis. PMID:24529021
LICIA PERUZZI; FEDERICA LOMBARDO; ALESSANDRO AMORE; EMILIO MERLINI; GABRIELLA RESTAGNO; LEANDRA SILVESTRO; TERESA PAPALIA; ROSANNA COPPO
PurposeObstructive uropathies, including posterior urethral valves (PUVs) and kidney hypodysplasia, are the most frequent cause of renal failure in children. The role of renin-angiotensin system genes in renal and urinary tract development has been observed in experimental models. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin receptor type 1
C. L. Morgan; H. Grossman
Two neonates with uriniferous perirenal pseudocysts (urinomas) secondary to posterior urethral valves are presented. Early diagnosis was achieved and both patients survived. The characteristic roentgenographic appearance of the pseudocyst is described. An investigation for lower urinary tract obstruction should always be undertaken when pseudocyst or ascites is seen in the neonate. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential to avoid irreversible
Douglas N. Tietjen; James M. Gloor; Douglas A. Husmann
PurposeIn infants with posterior urethral valves in whom renal function fails to normalize following decompression of the lower urinary tract supravesical urinary diversion is customarily recommended for presumed concomitant ureterovesical junction obstruction. We determined the true incidence of fixed or permanent ureterovesical junction obstruction and the renal prognosis for infants treated with proximal urinary diversion.
M. T El-Sherbiny; A. T Hafez; A. A Shokeir
Objectives. To determine whether young age at presentation is associated with poor renal function in patients with posterior urethral valves (PUVs). Previous studies have indicated that a young age at diagnosis is an adverse prognostic factor for patients with PUVs.Methods. Fifty-three children with PUVs were diagnosed between January 1998 and March 2000. The patients included 25 infants with a median
A. Puri; V. Grover; S. Agarwala; D. Mitra; V. Bhatnagar
Bladder function in patients with posterior urethral valves (PUV) has an immense impact on long-term continence and renal function. Bladder dysfunction was corelated with the initial surgical treatment in 67 patients with PUV treated between 1985 and 2000. Age at presentation, current age, duration of follow-up, initial surgical treatment (diversion or valve fulguration), trends of renal function tests, voiding disturbances,
RubÉn A Quintero; Aseem R Shukla; Yves L Homsy; Raviender Bukkapatnam
Fetal lower urinary tract obstructive uropathy, when associated with oligohydramnios, is usually associated with a poor outcome. We present a case of successful in utero endoscopic ablation of posterior urethral valves in which the infant survived the neonatal period without evidence of renal dysplasia. The role, indications, and potential benefits of this novel technique are discussed.
S. K. Fernbach; K. A. Feinstein; M. R. Zaontz
A retrospective analysis of radiologically determined individual renal function was performed in five boys who presented in the neonatal period with posterior urethral valves, vesicoureteral reflux and documented urinoma formation. Renal function was evaluated with scintigraphy. There was reflux in eight of ten ureters. Six of these ureters had an associated urinoma and compromised renal function in the neonatal period.
Grahame H. H. Smith; Douglas A. Canning; Seth L. Schulman; Howard M. Snyder; John W. Duckett
PurposeWe believe that primary valve ablation with observation is the preferred management for posterior urethral valves. However, debate continues as to the role of high diversion. We examined the long-term outcome of a large series of patients treated with primary valve ablation, and compared it to the outcome of high diversion and vesicostomy.
Eduardo A. Oliveira; Eli A. Rabelo; Alamanda K. Pereira; José S. Diniz; Antônio C. Cabral; Henrique Leite; José M. Silva; Tiago A. Fagundes
To identify prognostic factors associated with chronic renal insufficiency in children with posterior urethral valves (PUV), 22 children with PUV were submitted to a systematic protocol and prospectively followed. Prognostic factors associated with fetal echography and clinical and laboratory findings were studied on admission. Median follow-up was 76 months. The analysis was conducted in two steps: in univariate analysis, variables
Hasan Otukesh; Farzaneh Sharifiaghdas; Rozita Hoseini; Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad; Neda Rabiee; Mahdieh Fotooch Kiaiee; Ramila Javadi; Mona Mojtahedzadeh; Naser Simfroosh; Abbas Basiri; Nakysa Hooman; Javad Nasiri; Salahedin Delshad; Pirrooz Farhood
ObjectiveSeveral factors have been identified as predictive of future renal function in children with posterior urethral valves (PUV). Our aim was to analyse upper and lower urinary tract outcome in patients with PUV, and determine any factors from the period of early management that were predictive of future renal function.
Peter M. Cuckow; M. D. Dinneen; R. A. Risdon; P. G. Ransley; P. G. Duffy
PurposeThe syndrome of posterior urethral valves, persistent unilateral reflux and renal dysplasia (VURD) is said to be protective of the contralateral nonrefluxing kidney and the outcome for renal function is reported to be excellent. We tested this hypothesis in our patients by replicating previous studies but with longer followup and glomerular filtration rate data.
MAZEN A. GHANEM; KATJA P. WOLFFENBUTTEL; ANN DE VYLDER; RIEN J. M. NIJMAN
Purpose:Posterior urethral valves are the most common cause of congenital obstructive uropathy leading to renal failure in childhood. We investigate the influence of bladder dysfunction on renal function impairment.
Osama Sarhan; Khaled El-Dahshan; Mohamed Sarhan
PurposeWe evaluated the prognostic value of serum creatinine level at presentation and nadir creatinine during follow up for future renal function (RF) in children with posterior urethral valves (PUV).
Sohrab Naghizadeh; Aykut Kefi; Hasan Serkan Dogan; Berk Burgu; Bulent Akdogan; Serdar Tekgul
Objectives:The present study aims to evaluate the effect of desmopressin treatment on urine output, density and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with posterior urethral valve (PUV) and the factors affecting the response to this treatment.
M. Podestá; A. C. Ruarte; C. Gargiulo; R. Medel; R. Castera; M. Herrera
PurposeWe retrospectively reviewed 2 series of patients with posterior urethral valves treated initially with valve ablation preceded by bilateral cutaneous ureterostomies or valve ablation alone to evaluate and compare bladder function behavior of each treatment group.
V. Bhatnagar; S. Agarwala; R. Lal; D. K. Mitra
Endoscopic management is the accepted form of treatment for posterior urethral valves (PUV) . The Nd:YAG laser has been in\\u000a clinical use for many decades, but has been used only sporadically for ablating PUV. In this study, PUV were diagnosed by\\u000a micturating cystourethrogram (MCU). In the 9-month period beginning March 1997, 23 boys 3 months to 9 years of age
Katherine MacRae Dell; Brenda B Hoffman; Mary B Leonard; Fuad N Ziyadeh; Seth L Schulman
Objectives. Patients with posterior urethral valves (PUV) are at significant risk for progression to end-stage renal disease, despite early correction of the obstruction. Experimental models of urinary obstruction demonstrate increased renal expression of the profibrotic inflammatory mediator, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1). Urinary TGF-?1 excretion is elevated in certain glomerular diseases, but has not been well studied in patients with obstructive
B. J. Cremin
Ultrasonographic studies of patients with posterior urethral valve and ectopic ureterocele vary in relation to the severity\\u000a of obstruction and changes in the upper tracts. A broad review of these conditions, stressing sonography (including use of\\u000a the perineal approach to the upper urethra) shows the great value of sonography but emphasizes the need to correlate with\\u000a other imaging modalities (urography,
Frank-Martin Haecker; Manfred Wehrmann; Hans-Walter Hacker; Gerhard Stuhldreier; D. von Schweinitz
Routine prenatal ultrasound examination of the urogenital tract is of importance in patients with posterior urethral valves\\u000a (PUV), because the renal function and long-term prognosis of these patients depend on early diagnosis and subsequent therapy.\\u000a Opinion is divided as to whether the often-observed association of PUV with renal dysplasia represents a primary malformation\\u000a or a secondary pathology caused by recurrent
D. Drozdz; M. Drozdz; N. Gretz; K. Möhring; O. Mehls; K. Schärer
. Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in boys with congenital posterior urethral valves (PUV) have much improved in past\\u000a decades, but the impact of these changes on the progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has rarely been investigated.\\u000a We followed renal function in 20 boys with PUV from diagnosis to ESRD. From the first observation period (1969–1978) to the\\u000a second period
Elisa Ylinen; Marja Ala-Houhala; Sakari Wikström
The aim of the study was to investigate the significance of different prognostic factors and long-term renal outcome in boys with posterior urethral valves (PUVs) detected either antenatally or during infancy. A total of 46 cases of PUVs, 23 antenatal and 23 postnatal, were followed prospectively from 1983 to 2003. The mean follow-up time was 12.5 years. The impact of vesicoureteral
G. Belloli; F. Battaglino; A. Mercurella; L. Musi; D. D'Agostino
From January 1972 to June 1993, 166 patients with posterior urethral valves (PUV) were treated in our surgical department, 59 with a milder form of PUV (upper urinary tract [UUT] complication rate 29%) and 107 with a severer form (UUT complication rate 96.3%). Only the latter group was studied for long-term (mean 9.3 years) evaluation of the UUT and renal
Bagheri, Amin; Khorramirouz, Reza; Keihani, Sorena; Fareghi, Mehdi; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad
Solitary crossed renal ectopia (SCRE) represents an exceedingly rare congenital disorder. Although skeletal and genitourinary abnormalities most commonly accompany this condition, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has been described in only a few cases. Here, we present two unique cases of SCRE complicated by high-grade VUR concomitant with posterior urethral valve in one case and hypospadias in the other one. We also provide a brief review of the literature on this subject.
Kili?-Pstrusi?ska, Katarzyna; Pukaj?o-Marczyk, Agnieszka; Patkowski, Dariusz; Zalewska-Dorobisz, Urszula; Zwoli?ska, Danuta
Background Spontaneous kidney rupture could develop in the course of posterior urethral valve (PUV), the most common cause of outflow urinary tract obstruction in male infants. However, urinary extravasation is a rare complication among this group of children. Case Presentation Our case report presents diagnostic difficulties connected with spontaneous kidney rupture due to PUV in a 6 week-old infant. Due to not equivocal images, thundery course of disease and rapid deterioration in the infant's condition, the patient required an urgent laparatomy. Conclusion This case showed that the investigation of renal abnormalities during early neonatal period, is very important specifically in PUV that can lead to kidney rupture. PMID:23795264
Pulido, Jose E.; Furth, Susan L.; Zderic, Stephen A.; Canning, Douglas A.
Background and objectives Approximately 20% of boys with posterior urethral valves develop ESRD; however, few factors associated with the risk of ESRD have been identified. The objective of this study was to determine if renal parenchymal area, defined as the area of the kidney minus the area of the pelvicaliceal system on first postnatal ultrasound, is associated with the risk of ESRD in infants with posterior urethral valves. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A retrospective cohort of boys who were diagnosed with posterior urethral valves at less than 6 months of age between 1988 and 2011 and followed for at least 1 year at a free-standing children’s hospital was assembled. Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan–Meier analysis were used to estimate the association between renal parenchymal area and time to ESRD. Cox models were adjusted for age at presentation, minimum creatinine 1 month after bladder decompression, and vesicoureteral reflux. Results Sixty patients were followed for 393 person-years. Eight patients developed ESRD. Median renal parenchymal area was 15.9 cm2 (interquartile range=13.0–21.6 cm2). Each 1-cm2 increase in renal parenchymal area was associated with a lower risk of ESRD (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.42 to 0.98). The rate of time to ESRD was 10 times higher in boys with renal parenchymal area<12.4 cm2 than boys with renal parenchymal area?12.4 cm2 (P<0.001). Renal parenchymal area could best discriminate children at risk for ESRD when the minimum creatinine in the first 1 month after bladder decompression was between 0.8 and 1.1 mg/dl. Conclusion In boys with posterior urethral valves presenting during the first 6 months of life, lower renal parenchymal area is associated with an increased risk of ESRD during childhood. The predictive ability of renal parenchymal area, which is available at time of diagnosis, should be validated in a larger, prospectively-enrolled cohort. PMID:24311709
O. Eklöf; B. Elle; S. Thönell
In three male neonates, successfully treated for posterior urethral valves, unilateral “pseudotumour” deformity of the collecting system ensued. Two of them had, preoperatively, a marked ipsilateral perirenal urinary extravasation (urinoma), one in addition gross contralateral renal backflow with moderate leakage to the renal capsule. The other one had slight contralateral backflow to the kidney parenchyma but also urinary ascites. The
Chih-Ping Chen; Shin-Lin Shih; Fen-Fen Liu; Sheau-Wen Jan; Tsuen-Chiuan Tsai; Pei-Yeh Chang; Chung-Chi Lan; C. P. Chen
We report on a rare in utero appearance of urinary bladder perforation, urinary ascites, and bilateral contained urinomas\\u000a secondary to posterior urethral valves. The findings on prenatal sonography, postnatal voiding cystourethrography, and magnetic\\u000a resonance imaging are described.
S. Mukherjee; A. Joshi; D. Carroll; H. Chandran; K. Parashar; L. McCarthy
PurposeBoys with posterior urethral valves (PUV) have increased risks of urinary tract infection (UTI) voiding dysfunction and ongoing renal damage. Circumcision has been shown epidemiologically to reduce UTIs, but no trial has yet confirmed this in PUV. Circumcision is not routinely performed in boys with PUV in our unit, but one quarter of our patients are circumcised for religious reasons.
G. HOLMDAHL; U. SILLÉN; A.-L. HELLSTRÖM; R. SIXT; E. SÖLSNES
PurposeIn boys with resected posterior urethral valves (PUV) deterioration of renal function is seen during childhood and adolescence, which may partly be caused by bladder dysfunction. We present data on renal and bladder function initially and at followup of boys with PUV in whom the bladder dysfunction has been treated since infancy.
Posterior urethral valve (PUV) is a condition that leads to characteristic changes in the bladder and upper urinary tract. Dysfunction of the bladder such as a hyperreflective, hypertonic, and small capacity bladder as well as sphincter incompetence and/or myogenic failure should be adequately treated. Poor compliance/small bladder could be treated with anticholinergics, but bladder augmentation will probably be indicated. Although bladder reconstruction with gastrointestinal segments can be associated with multiple complications, including metabolic disorders, calculus formation, mucus production, enteric fistulas, and malignancy formation, enterocystoplasty is still the gold standard. In contrast to a neuropathic or exstrophic bladder, augmentation of the valve bladder allows spontaneous voiding without significant residual urine in the majority of cases, but some require CIC (clean intermittent cathterization). Augmentation cystoplasty is also an efficient approach in those children who will require kidney transplantation in the future. PMID:24578902
Yasuhiko Takechi; Haku Iizuka; Yasunori Sorimachi; Tsuyoshi Ara; Masahiro Nishinome; Kenji Takagishi
This report presents a case of non-traumatic posterior atlanto-occipital dislocation. A 36-year-old female was referred with\\u000a a history of numbness of the extremities, vertigo and neck pain for 1 year. The patient had no history of trauma. The axial\\u000a rotation of range of motion of the cervical spine was severely restricted. A lateral cervical radiograph in the neutral position\\u000a demonstrated a
GUNDELA HOLMDAHL; ULLA SILLÉN
PurposeThe short-term prognosis for boys with posterior urethral valves (PUV) has improved in recent decades, but the long-term prognosis in terms of renal and bladder function and fertility is still a matter of great concern. This study is a followup of boys with PUV and dilated upper urinary tract treated in 1956 to 1970 at the Children’s Hospital in Göteborg,
Aung Kyi; Maung Maung; Htut Saing
Purpose: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and safety of using a Fogarty balloon catheter to ablate posterior urethral valves (PUV) in the newborn in a developing country. Methods: Five newborn babies weighing 1.4 to 3.9 kg (mean, 2.08 kg; with 4 weighing less than 2.0 kg) who had severe obstructive uropathy caused by PUV were
Odetunde, Odutola Israel; Odetunde, Oluwatoyin Arinola; Ademuyiwa, Adesoji Oludotun; Okafor, Henrietta Uche; Ekwochi, Uchenna; Azubuike, Jonathan Chukwuemeka; Obianyo, Nene Elsie
Delayed presentation of patients with posterior urethral valve with complications like severe urosepsis, uremia, and anemia are seen in our setting. Renal replacement therapy which should have been offered to these patients is not readily available for children in our country. The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of late presentation and outcome of management of posterior urethral valve in a resource-limited setting. A descriptive retrospective study (1997-2009) was conducted. Data including pattern of presentation, duration of symptoms, complications, and outcome of initial management were analyzed. Twenty-one patients were seen. The median age was 3 years (2 days-13 years). The mean duration of symptoms before presentation was 2.6 years. Nineteen patients (91%) presented with urosepsis while 8 patients (36%) presented with significant renal insufficiency. Laboratory findings varied from-mild-to marked elevation in serum creatinine. Radiological findings confirmed the diagnosis of posterior urethral valve. We concluded that late presentation is common in our setting. This is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Efforts at improving awareness and early diagnosis among the health team should be made to stem the tide. PMID:23050150
Hagedorn, Judith C.; Voelzke, Bryan B.
Objective To review paediatric posterior urethral injuries and the current potential management options; because urethral injury due to pelvic fracture in children is rare and has a low incidence, the management of this type of trauma and its complications remains controversial. Methods We reviewed previous reports identified by searching the PubMed Medline electronic database for clinically relevant articles published in the past 25 years. The search was limited to the keywords ‘pediatric’, ‘pelvic fracture’, ‘urethral injury’, ‘stricture’, ‘trauma’ and ‘reconstruction’. Results Most paediatric urethral injuries are a result of pelvic fractures after high-impact blunt trauma. After the diagnosis, immediate bladder drainage via a suprapubic cystotomy, or urethral realignment, are the initial management options, except for a possible immediate primary repair in girls. The common complications of pelvic fracture-associated urethral injury include urethral stricture formation, incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Excellent results can be achieved with delayed urethroplasty for pelvic fracture-associated urethral injuries. Conclusion Traumatic injury to the paediatric urethra is rare and calls for an immediate diagnosis and management. These devastating injuries have a high complication rate and therefore a close follow-up is warranted to assure adequate delayed repair by a reconstructive urologist. PMID:26019977
Takechi, Yasuhiko; Iizuka, Haku; Sorimachi, Yasunori; Ara, Tsuyoshi; Nishinome, Masahiro; Takagishi, Kenji
This report presents a case of non-traumatic posterior atlanto-occipital dislocation. A 36-year-old female was referred with a history of numbness of the extremities, vertigo and neck pain for 1 year. The patient had no history of trauma. The axial rotation of range of motion of the cervical spine was severely restricted. A lateral cervical radiograph in the neutral position demonstrated a posterior atlanto-occipital dislocation. A coronal view on a computed tomography (CT) reconstruction image showed a loss of angle of the bilateral atlanto-occipital joint, and a sagittal reconstruction view of CT images also demonstrated flatness of atlanto-occipital joint. Instrumented occipito-cervical fusion was performed after reduction. A lateral cervical radiograph in the neutral position 1 year after surgery showed the reduction of atlanto-occipital joint, moreover, it was maintained even in an extended position. The patient had neurologic improvement after surgery. Flatness of the bilateral atlanto-occipital joint may have induced this instability. Occipital-cervical fusion was chosen in the present case since the patient showed restricted axial rotation of the neck before surgery. The surgery improved the preoperative symptoms including the function of cervical spine evaluated by JOACMEQ. PMID:20549257
Paulos Yohannes; Moneer Hanna
osterior urethral valves (PUVs) are the most common congenital abnormalities causing bi- lateral renal obstruction. The widespread use of prenatal ultrasonography has contributed to an in- crease in the incidence and awareness of PUVs. The treatment of children with this anomaly has also evolved as radiographic imaging techniques and our understanding of the pathophysiology of obstructive uropathy has improved. Today,
Atobatele, Mutiu O; Oyinloye, Olalekan I; Nasir, Abdulrasheed A; Bamidele, John O
Posterior urethral valve (PUV) is a common cause of lower urinary tract obstruction in male infants with an incidence of 1:5000-8000. PUV continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and ongoing renal damage in infants and children. It can coexist with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in about 50% of cases and also with patent urachus in about one-third of cases. It is a case of a 22-day-old full-term male child who presented with poor urinary stream and progressive abdominal distension of 5-day duration as well as leakage of clear fluid from umbilicus of 1-day duration. Abdominopelvic ultrasonography showed bilateral hydronephrosis. Micturating cystourethrogram also showed features of bladder outlet obstruction and PUV. In addition, a grade V left VUR and a fistulous tract between the dome of the urinary bladder and the umbilicus, which was consistent with a patent urachus was demonstrated. In conclusion, this case demonstrates a rare combination of congenital urinary tract anomalies involving PUV, left VUR and patent urachus. PMID:25836363
Lemmens, An-Sofie; Mekahli, Djalila; Devlieger, Roland; Levtchenko, Elena; Allegaert, Karel
Abstract Introduction: The lowest serum creatinine (nadir Scr, cut-off 1?mg/dl) during infancy predicts subsequent renal outcome in posterior urethral valve (PUV) infants, but early, neonatal values may be useful to guide care. We aimed to explore correlations between neonatal Scr values and long-term renal outcome. Methods: Retrospective evaluation of records of 39 PUV patients, treated in the University Hospitals Leuven (2001-2011). Scr measurements were collected and associations (Mann-Whitney U, Spearman) to predict unfavorable renal outcome [GFR <60?ml/min/1.73?m(2) at 2 years] were explored. Results: Unfavorable renal outcome at the last follow-up was observed in 7/36 patients (19%). Besides the nadir Scr at a median age of 5 months, also the peak Scr and Scr between days 9 and 42 correlated significantly with renal outcome. By introducing "centiles" for neonatal Scr values in this PUV cohort, the 75th Scr percentile in this PUV cohort was highly predictive for unfavorable renal outcome. Conclusions: Besides the nadir Scr, early neonatal Scr values (peak, days 9-42, PUV cohort-specific 75th centile) also predicted unfavorable renal outcome. The introduction of PUV disease specific reference Scr centiles may be helpful to facilitate earlier prediction and guide counseling, but necessitates external validation. PMID:25000449
Amin, Ruchi; Waibel, Brett H.
Schwannomas of the thoracic cavity are typically an asymptomatic, benign neurogenic neoplasm of the posterior mediastinum. In this case, we present a traumatic hemothorax as the initial presentation for a previously undiscovered mediastinal mass. The patient presented with shortness of breath and right-sided chest pain after being struck in the chest with a soccer ball. An operative exploration was pursued due to persistent hemothorax with hemodynamic instability despite resuscitation and adequate thoracostomy tube placement. The intraoperative etiology of bleeding was discovered to be traumatic fracture of a large hypervascular posterior mediastinal schwannoma. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for these tumors. Specific serological markers do not exist for this tumor, and radiographic findings can be variable, so tissue diagnosis is of importance in differentiating benign from malignant schwannomas, as well as other posterior mediastinal tumors. However, most patients have excellent survival following complete resection.
Hiroaki Nakashima; Yasutsugu Yukawa; Keigo Ito; Masaaki Machino; Hany El Zahlawy; Fumihiko Kato
In the treatment algorithm for cervical spine fracture–dislocations, the recommended approach for treatment if there is a\\u000a disc fragment in the canal is the anterior approach. The posterior approach is not common because of the disadvantage of potential\\u000a neurological deterioration during reduction in traumatic cervical herniation patients. However, reports about the frequency\\u000a of this deterioration and the behavior of disc
Purgina, Bibianna; Milroy, Christopher Mark
Traumatic aneurysms of intracranial arteries are rare, forming less than 1% of all intracranial arteries. They may be associated with penetrating and non-penetrating trauma. Most cases are associated with fracturing of the skull. Rupture of traumatic aneurysms occur in up to 50% of cases and are typically delayed from days to weeks following the initiating trauma. We report a case of a 22-year-old man who was punched to the head. He was rendered unconscious but recovered and had a GCS of 14 on admission. CT scans showed subarachnoid hemorrhage. An initial angiogram was negative but on day 7 following the incident he was noted to have a 1 mm aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery on CT angiogram. On day 9 he collapsed and was found to have new subarachnoid hemorrhage and to have a 4.0 mm × 3.7 mm. He did not recover and was declared brain dead on day 12. At autopsy, there was a 4.0 mm aneurysm of the left PICA just after the origin of the artery. Histological examination confirmed the presence of a traumatic false aneurysm in the left PICA. This case study shows sequential radiological imaging with pathologiocal correlation. PMID:25549847
Barbagli, Guido; Sansalone, Salvatore; Romano, Giuseppe; Lazzeri, Massimo
Objective To describe the emergency and delayed treatment of patients with pelvic fracture urethral injuries (PFUI) presenting to an Italian high-volume centre. Patients and methods In a retrospective, observational study we evaluated the spectrum of PFUI and posterior urethroplasty in an Italian high-volume centre, from 1980 to 2013. Patients requiring emergency treatment for PFUI and delayed treatment for pelvic fracture urethral defects (PFUD) were included. Patients with incomplete clinical records were excluded from the study. Descriptive statistical methods were applied. Results In all, 159 male patients (median age 35 years) were included in the study. A traffic accident was the most frequent (42.8%) cause of PFUI, and accidents at work were reported as the cause of trauma in 34% of patients. Agricultural accidents decreased from 24.4% to 6.2% over the course of the survey. A suprapubic cystostomy was the most frequent (49%) emergency treatment in patients with PFUI. The use of surgical realignment decreased from 31.7% to 6.2%, and endoscopic realignment increased from 9.7% to 35.3%. A bulbo-prostatic anastomosis was the most frequent (62.9%) delayed treatment in patients with PFUD. The use of the Badenoch pull-through decreased from 19.5% to 2.6%, and endoscopic holmium laser urethrotomy increased from 4.9% to 32.7%. Conclusions The spectrum of PFUI and subsequent treatment of PFUD has changed greatly over the last 10 years at our centre. These changes involved patient age, aetiology, emergency and delayed treatments, and were found to be related to changes in the economy and lifestyle of the Italian patients. PMID:26019976
McArthur, Claire; Welsh, Findlay; Campbell, Colin
A case of posterior dislocation of the long head of biceps tendon, a rare occurrence following traumatic anterior glenohumeral dislocation, along with complete rotator cuff rupture and large haemarthrosis is presented with imaging and intra-operative findings. The interposed tendon prevented complete reduction. Appearances at MRI were diagnostic and directed the surgical approach. PMID:24421954
Benjamin T Shurtleff; Joseph G Barone
Background: Urethral prolapse is a condition that occurs when urethra mucosa evaginates beyond the urethra meatus, resulting in vascular congestion and edema of the prolapsed tissue. Young females with this clinical entity often present with peri-vaginal bleeding and swelling. Urethral prolapse can be diagnosed by its typical clinical appearance and should not be confused with other causes of peri-vaginal bleeding,
Ciftdemir, Mert; Aydin, Deniz; Ozcan, Mert; Copuroglu, Cem
Minor trauma may cause hip dislocation in young children because of physiologic hip joint laxity and the soft cartilaginous structure of the acetabulum. In this work, we report on a 22-month-old boy with right-sided traumatic posterior hip dislocation and ipsilateral distal femoral fracture because of an outdoor motor vehicle accident. The patient was treated with emergency closed reduction and one and a half hip spica under general anaesthesia. The femoral fracture and hip dislocation were healed smoothly without any complication. Traumatic hip dislocation is rare in children, which may occur after trivial trauma. Prognosis is better in younger patients with low-energy trauma and in cases treated early. PMID:25075766
Liberman, Daniel; Pagliara, Travis J.; Pisansky, Andrew; Elliott, Sean P.
Posterior urethral injury is a clinically significant complication of pelvic fractures. The management is complicated by the associated organ injuries, distortion of the pelvic anatomy and the ensuing fibrosis that occurs with urethral injury. We report a review of the outcomes after posterior urethroplasty in the context of pelvic fracture urethral injury. PMID:26019979
Sonmez, Erkin; Yilmaz, Cem; Altinors, Nur
Posterior cranial fossa subdural hematomas and extension of the subdural hematoma to the cerebellopontine angle is rarely seen and the concurrent development of acute peripheral facial palsy and the management strategy have not previously been reported in this pathology because of its rarity. We present this case to emphasize that minor head trauma may lead to a posterior cranial fossa hematoma extending to the cerebellopontine angle and cause peripheral facial palsy in patients using aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). In addition, partial evacuation and waiting for the resorption of the hematoma may help to prevent damage to the 7th and 8th cranial nerves. PMID:19844633
Sandquist, Lee; Paris, Alexander; Fahim, Daniel K
Complete dislocation at the thoracolumbar junction is a rare occurrence, with only 4 previously reported cases in 3 separate series. Surgical procedures in the reported cases of spondyloptosis at the thoracolumbar junction have been described using instrumentation, reduction, decompression, and stabilization techniques. In this report the authors' patient presented with spondyloptosis at the thoracolumbar junction, resulting in a T-11 American Spinal Injury Association Grade A injury. The authors corrected the patient's thoracolumbar spondyloptosis with surgical reconstruction without the use of leveraged instrumented reduction. They describe a single-stage, posterior-only spinal realignment, reconstruction, and stabilization. Within months of beginning postoperative therapy, the patient enrolled and attended courses at a local college and regained personal independence by learning to drive a motor vehicle with a hand control. Two-year radiographic and clinical follow-up confirms solid fusion across the reconstruction. PMID:25793470
Kim, Seongho; Kim, Minjung; Lee, Bong Woo; Kim, Yu-Hoon; Choi, Young-Shik; Seo, Joong Seok
Traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by minor blunt trauma to the head or neck can lead to rapid collapse and death. The vertebral arteries are the vessels most commonly involved in such cases, but it is very difficult to find the bleeding focus in the vertebral arteries in routine autopsy because of the location of these vessels. Using the posterior neck dissection method, which is relatively easy and avoids artificial damage to the intracranial portion of the vertebral arteries, authors have identified tear sites in the intracranial artery in four out of five consecutive traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage cases. In this report we show that this new method is useful for cases of traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:26165675
Laurence S. Baskin; Ali Erol; Priya Jegatheesan; Yingwu Li; Wenhui Liu; Gerald R. Cunha
Knowledge of the formation of the normal male urethra may elucidate the etiology of hypospadias. We describe urethral formation in the mouse, show the similarities and relevance to human urethral development, and introduce the concept of the epithelial seam formation and remodeling during urethral formation. Three mechanisms may account for epithelial seam formation: (1) epithelial-mesenchymal transformation similar to that described
Leon-Carrion, Jose; Leon-Dominguez, Umberto; Pollonini, Luca; Wu, Meng-Hung; Frye, Richard E; Dominguez-Morales, Maria Rosario; Zouridakis, George
Survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often suffer disorders of consciousness as a result of a breakdown in cortical connectivity. However, little is known about the neural discharges and cortical areas working in synchrony to generate consciousness in these patients. In this study, we analyzed cortical connectivity in patients with severe neurocognitive disorder (SND) and in the minimally conscious state (MCS). We found two synchronized networks subserving consciousness; one retrolandic (cognitive network) and the other frontal (executive control network). The synchrony between these networks is severely disrupted in patients in the MCS as compared to those with better levels of consciousness and a preserved state of alertness (SND). The executive control network could facilitate the synchronization and coherence of large populations of distant cortical neurons using high frequency oscillations on a precise temporal scale. Consciousness is altered or disappears after losing synchrony and coherence. We suggest that the synchrony between anterior and retrolandic regions is essential to awareness, and that a functioning frontal lobe is a surrogate marker for preserved consciousness. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Brain Integration. PMID:22534483
Urethral discharge Gram stain ... microscope slide. A series of stains called a Gram stain is applied to the specimen. The stained ... culture ) should be performed in addition to the gram stain. More sophisticated diagnostic tests (such as PCR ...
...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...
...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...
...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...
Laurence S. Baskin; Douglas A. Canning; Howard M. Snyder; John W. Duckett
PurposeThe 2 types of urethral injury that can occur during circumcision are urethrocutaneous fistula and urethral distortion secondary to partial glans amputation. We report the surgical repair of these rare injuries.
H. J. Kirkeby; S. Sørensen; E. U. Poulsen
Urethral pressures are usually considered to be static and only few authors have emphasized timerelated pressure changes. We conducted a study on 10 healthy male volunteers, monitoring the urethral pressures at maximal urethral closure pressure, 2.5 cm proximal (bladder neck) and 2.5 cm distal (pars bulbosa) respectively over 30 min periods. At the bladder neck only sporadic waves were seen.
Naidu, Krishanth; Chung, Amanda; Mulcahy, Maurice
INTRODUCTION Lower urinary tract foreign body insertions have a low incidence. The motives for insertion of a variety of objects are difficult to comprehend. This case warrants discussion given the great management challenge faced by the oddity and infrequency with which a fork is encountered in the penile urethra. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 70-year-old man presents to the Emergency Department with a bleeding urethral meatus following self-insertion of a fork into the urethra to achieve sexual gratification. Multiple retrieval methods were contemplated with success achieved via forceps traction and copious lubrication. DISCUSSION The presentation of urethral foreign bodies can vary widely, as can the type of object inserted. The most prevalent motivation for self-insertion of urethral foreign bodies is autoerotism. Motivations ought to be explored in light of possible underlying psychological or psychiatric conditions. The most appropriate surgical extraction technique can be guided by physical examination and imaging. Endoscopic removal is often successful, depending on the object's physical attributes and morphology. It is important to arrange appropriate follow-up, as late complications can occur such as urethral strictures. CONCLUSION Psychological and surgical arms encompass the management plan. Foreign body retrieval is determined by its physical attributes and morphology with the aim to minimise urothelial trauma and preserve erectile function. Essentially, endourological extraction serves the primary means of retrieval. Cystourethoscopy is important to diagnose urothelial injuries and to ensure complete removal of foreign bodies following extraction. PMID:24055017
Eric S. Rovner; William I. Jaffe
Urethral diverticula may represent some of the more challenging diagnostic and reconstructive cases in urology. Women with\\u000a lower urinary tract symptoms, pelvic pain, or vaginal masses are often referred to a urologist or gynecologist as diagnostic\\u000a dilemmas. A portion of these patients are subsequently found to have urethral diverticula. However, urethral diverticula represent\\u000a only one of several types of pathologic
Mohanty, D; Garg, PK; Jain, BK; Bhatt, S
Congenital diverticulum of male urethra is an uncommon entity. Neglected management complicates the process in the form of calculi formation and recurrent urinary infection. A 10-year-old boy presented with urinary voiding disturbances and development of a painless hard lump at the penoscrotal junction. Imaging demonstrated presence of anterior urethral diverticulum with contained calculi in it. Open urethral diverticulectomy, extraction of multiple calculi, and primary urethral reconstruction over a Foley catheter was carried out. Early diagnosis and individualized surgical management of congenital male urethral diverticulum is the key to a successful outcome. PMID:25031909
Koraitim, Mamdouh M.
The finding of an incompetent bladder neck (BN) at the time of posterior urethroplasty will necessarily exacerbate the already difficult situation. In such cases the aim of the treatment is not only to restore urethral continuity by end-to-end urethral anastomosis, but also to restore the function of the BN to maintain urinary continence. Fortunately, the incidence of incompetence of the BN at posterior urethroplasty is uncommon, usually ?4.5%. It seems that pelvic fracture-related BN injuries, in contrast to urethral injuries which result from a shearing force, are due to direct injury by the sharp edge of the fractured and displaced pubic bone. The risk of injuries to the BN is greater in children, in patients with a fracture involving both superior and inferior pubic rami on the same side, and in those managed initially by primary realignment. An incompetent BN is suspected by finding an open rectangular BN on cystography, and a fixedly open BN on suprapubic cystoscopy. An incompetent BN can be treated either subsequent to or concomitant with the urethral repair, according to whether a perineal or a perineo-abdominal urethroplasty is used, respectively. Several options have been reported to treat pelvic fracture-related BN incompetence, including reconstructing the BN, forming a new sphincter by tubularisation of a rectangular flap of the anterior bladder wall, and mechanical occlusion by an artificial sphincter or collagen injection. Reconstruction of the BN by the Young-Dees-Leadbetter?? procedure probably provides the most successful results. PMID:26019982
Al-Azzawi, Issam S.; Koraitim, Mamdouh M.
Objective To determine the incidence, mechanism of injury, wounding pattern and surgical management of urethral and penile injuries sustained in civil violence during the Iraq war. Patients and methods In all, 2800 casualties with penetrating trauma to the abdomen and pelvis were received at the Al-Yarmouk Hospital, Baghdad, from January 2004 to June 2008. Of these casualties 504 (18%) had genitourinary trauma, including 45 (8.9%) with urethral and/or penile injuries. Results Of 45 patients, 29 (64%) were civilians and 16 (36%) were Iraqi military personnel. The injury was caused by an improvised explosive device (IED) in 25 (56%) patients and by individual firearms in 20 (44%). Of the patients, 24 had penile injuries, 15 had an injury to the bulbar urethra and six had an injury to the posterior urethra. Anterior urethral injuries were managed by primary repair, while posterior urethral injuries were managed by primary realignment in five patients and by a suprapubic cystostomy alone in one. An associated injury to major blood vessels was the cause of death in eight of nine patients who died soon after surgery (P < 0.001). Conclusion Urethral and penile injuries were caused by IEDs and individual firearms with a similar frequency. Most of the casualties were civilians and a minority were military personnel. Injuries to the anterior urethra can be managed by primary repair, while injuries to the posterior urethra can be managed by primary realignment. An associated trauma to major blood vessels was the leading cause of death in these casualties. PMID:26019940
Boncher, Nicholas A.; Vricella, Gino J.; Jankowski, Jason T.; Ponsky, Lee E.; Cherullo, Edward E.
Penile fracture of the erect penis is an uncommon but emergent urological trauma. Potential outcomes include erectile dysfunction, penile curvature, and urethral injury. Treatment is emergent surgical repair. We present the case of a 42-year-old man with a penile fracture complicated by a urethral rupture and subsequent repair. A discussion of the key aspects of this condition is presented. PMID:21076536
Bagga, Herman S.; Angermeier, Kenneth W.
The standard of care after a pelvic fracture urethral injury is a repair via a one-stage anastomotic posterior urethroplasty using a step-wise perineal approach. The initial injury, immediate postoperative management, and surgical repair can all affect urinary continence in these patients. Proximal continence mechanisms, particularly the bladder neck, are particularly important in maintaining urinary continence in these patients. Patients with bladder neck dysfunction should be counselled about the greater risk of urinary incontinence. PMID:26019981
Jensen, J S; Orsum, R; Dohn, B; Uldum, S; Worm, A M; Lind, K
BACKGROUND--Male urethritis may be caused by mycoplasmas. Since Mycoplasma genitalium has previously been isolated from the urethra of two men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), it was the aim of the study further to elucidate its role by measuring the prevalence of this organism in men with NGU. MATERIAL AND METHODS--The polymerase chain reaction was used. Two different sequences of the gene coding for the main adhesin MgPa were amplified. Urethral, rectal, and throat samples from 99 male sexually transmitted disease (STD) patients with and without urethritis were studied. RESULTS--M genitalium DNA was demonstrated in 17/99 (17%) of the urethral swabs, but in none of the rectal and throat swabs. Significantly more patients with urethritis (13/52) were positive for M genitalium DNA than were patients without urethritis (4/47) (p < 0.03). In those with urethritis M genitalium DNA was found more often in Chlamydia trachomatis negative NGU (12/34) than in those with chlamydial NGU (1/14) (p = 0.05). Attempts to culture M genitalium from the PCR positive specimens were unsuccessful. CONCLUSION--M genitalium DNA was found significantly more often in male STD patients with non-chlamydial NGU than in men with chlamydial urethritis (p = 0.05) and in men without urethritis (p = 0.003), suggesting that M genitalium may be a cause of NGU. M genitalium DNA was not demonstrated in any of the throat or rectal swabsindicating that the urogenital tract is probably the primary site of infection or colonisation of this species. PMID:7721285
Kenneth Powers; George Lazarou; Wilma Markus Greston
Urethral erosions have been reported with various sling materials placed by means of various techniques. The patient often presents in the immediate postoperative period, although late presentations have been described. The diagnosis is made on cystoscopy, and mesh excision with urethral reconstruction is advocated. We present the cases of two patients with urethral erosion after mid-urethral polypropylene sling who presented
Mordechai Duvdevani; Ben H. Chew; John D. Denstedt
Urethral stents are a minimally invasive therapy used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, urethral stricture,\\u000a or detrusor sphincter dyssynergia. This chapter reviews the different types of urethral stents, indications for their use,\\u000a and clinical results. Urethral stents may be positioned in the urethra or prostatic urethra and are classified as temporary\\u000a or permanent. Temporary stents are further subdivided
Aksakal, Orhan Seyfi; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Guzel, Ali Irfan; Uzun, Canan; Doganay, Melike
Urethral coitus in women with a normal vagina and introitus has very rarely been reported. We report the case of a 48-year-old gravida 5, para 5 woman with a history of urethral coitus complaining of urinary incontinence. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the fifth reported case of urethral coitus with normal genitalia, and it might be accepted as the first reported case of urethral coitus in a multiparous woman. PMID:25730433
Tuglu, Devrim; Yuvanç, Ercan; Y?lmaz, Erdal; Gur, Serhan; Batislam, Ertan
The male genitourinary system is quite complex. There are numerous known anomalies of the male urethra either as isolated cases or in combination with other disorders. An improved understanding of the embryology and anatomy of the normal male urethral development might help explain the causes of the various urethral abnormalities. We contribute to the etiology of congenital anomalies with this multiple urethral anomalies case.
Shepherd, Jonathan P; Rapkin, Rachel B; Zyczynski, Halina M
Transobturator midurethral slings were introduced to avoid retropubic complications such as bladder, urethra, bowel, and major vessel injuries. However, complications are not completely eliminated. We present a urethral injury presenting with urge predominant mixed incontinence. The sling was removed transvaginally. Urethral injuries are now less common than they originally were owing to advances in operative technique and product innovation. However, it is incumbent on physicians to evaluate product characteristics that may affect outcomes in their patients. We further reiterate that thorough cystoscopy with urethroscopy is an essential step when performing transobturator midurethral slings. PMID:22453327
Wang, Fuli; Liu, Tao; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Geng; Liu, Heliang; Yi, Xiaomin; Yang, Xiaojian; Lin, Tzu-yin; Qin, Weijun; Yuan, Jianlin
Background Mitigating urethral injury remains a great challenge for urologists due to lack of ideal biomaterials for urethroplasty. The application of amniotic membrane (AM) over other synthetic materials makes it a better potential source for urethral reconstruction. We separated the basement layer of AM to obtain denuded human amniotic scaffold (dHAS) and then inoculated primary rabbit urethral epithelial cells on the surface of dHAS to determine whether this strategy minimizes potential rejection and maximizes the biocompatibility of human AM. Material/Methods After the successful acquisition of dHAS from AM, cell-seeded dHAS were prepared and characterized. Both cell-seeded dHAS and acellular dHAS were subcutaneously implanted. Immune responses were compared by histological evaluation and CD4+ cell and CD8+ cell infiltrations. Then they were applied as urethroplastic materials in the rabbit models of urethral injury to fully explore the feasibility and efficacy of tissue-engineered dHAS xenografts in urethral substitution application. Results Mild inflammatory infiltration was observed in cell-seeded dHAS grafts, as revealed by fewer accumulations of CD4+ cells and CD8+ cells (or neutrophils or other immune cells). Urethral defects of rabbits in the urethroplastic group with dHAS implantation (n=6) were completely resolved in 1 month, while there were 1 infection and 1 fistula in the control group with acellular dHAS patches (n=6). Histopathological analysis revealed mild immune response in the cell-seeded dHAS group (P<0.05). Conclusions Tissue-engineered dHAS minimizes potential rejection and maximizes the biocompatibility of AM, which makes it a potential ideal xenograft for urethral reconstruction. PMID:25424000
Montes-Tapia, Fernando; Barreto-Arroyo, Itzel; Cura-Esquivel, Idalia; Rodríguez-Taméz, Antonio; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel
Traumatic asphyxia is a rare condition in children that usually occurs after severe compression to the chest or abdomen. We report 3 cases in patients 18, 20, and 36 months of age who presented signs and symptoms of traumatic asphyxia after car accidents. Two clinical features were consistent in all 3 patients: multiple petechiae on the face and bulbar conjunctival hemorrhage; 2 patients had facial cyanosis, and 1 had facial edema.In children, the number of clinical manifestations that should be evident to diagnose traumatic asphyxia has not been ascertained. However, in any history of trauma with compression of the chest or abdomen and signs of increased intravenous craniocervical pressure, traumatic asphyxia should be suspected. PMID:24488162
Birder, Lori A; de Wachter, Stefan; Gillespie, James; Wyndaele, Jean Jacques
A prerequisite for conscious bladder control is adequate sensory input to the central nervous system, and it is well established that changes in sensory mechanisms can give rise to disturbances in bladder function. Impulses related to the desire to void are believed to course through the pelvic nerves, and those for sensation of a full bladder course through the pudendal nerves. The sense of imminent micturition most probably resides in the urethra, and the desire to void comes from stretching the bladder wall. In addition, a variety of structures play an important role in terms of urethral closure (such as the urethral epithelium, vasculature and smooth muscle) that are necessary to maintain continence. This overview will discuss mechanisms related in part to the urethra involved in activation of bladder reflexes and sensation with a discussion on the mucosa (urothelium and underlying lamina propria) and underlying cellular structures. PMID:24807486
Traumatic Stress and Substance Abuse Traumatic Stress and Substance Abuse H E L P I N G Y O U R T E E N C O P E W I T H Traumatic Stress and Substance Abuse #12;What is a traumatic event? A traumatic of traumatic stress and substance abuse. You'll find information about why these problems often occur simultane
...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An...
...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An...
...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An...
% = incontinence, body mass index, parity, overactive bladder and low maximal urethral closure pressure had no significant prognostic value. Conclusions The sub-urethra sling procedure takes advantage of urethra mobility for incontinence. MESH Keywords Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Female ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Predictive Value
Garrick R Simmons; Mark P Cain; Anthony J Casale; Michael A Keating; Mark C Adams; Richard C Rink
Objectives. To review our results of patients who underwent repeat hypospadias surgery using local skin flaps with preservation of the urethral plate.Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent a reoperative hypospadias repair using the urethral plate between 1988 and 1996. A total of 53 patients were identified who developed either a large fistula (47 patients)
Hsu, Meng-Shiuan; Wu, Mei-Yu; Lin, Tsui-Hsien; Liao, Chun-Hsing
Haemophilus parainfluenzae is a common inhabitant of the human upper respiratory tract of the normal oral microflora. We report three men who had been having unprotected sex with men (MSM) and subsequently acquired H. parainfluenzae urethritis, which was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Two men were treated with ceftriaxone and doxycycline, and the third man was treated with clarithromycin. All three patients responded to treatment. This case series highlights the potential role of H. parainfluenzae as a sexually transmitted genitourinary pathogen. PMID:23357607
Smith, Grahame H. H.; Deshpande, Aniruddh V.; Tang, Robert W. K.
Anterior urethral diverticula are rare in children. Anterior urethral valves and associated diverticulum is the commonly discussed pathological entity in children. There is a lack of awareness among clinicians regarding less common presentations of anterior urethral diverticula in children; which can have a diverse involvement of the urinary tract. This report describes two uncommon presentations of anterior urethral diverticula in children, their diagnoses and management. A systematic differential diagnosis and review of anterior urethral diverticula in children is also presented. PMID:24669129
Surej Kumar, L K; Kurien, Nikhil; Thaha, Khaleel Ahamed
The traumatic bone cyst, an uncommon lesion of the jaws, belongs to the category of 'pseudocyst' owing to its lack of a lining epithelial membrane. It is an asymptomatic lesion, which is often diagnosed accidentally during routine radiological examination commonly present in the posterior mandible as a unilocular radiolucency with scalloping borders. The exact etiopathogenesis of the lesion is still debated, though the role of trauma is often associated. Here we report a rare case of traumatic bone cyst in the anterior mandible, in a 16-year-old female patient with a previous history of trauma to chin; diagnosed and treated successfully in our surgical unit. The case is discussed in relation to its clinical presentation, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and prognosis. PMID:26028875
Dayyani, Farshid; Hoffman, Karen; Eifel, Patricia; Guo, Charles; Vikram, Raghu; Pagliaro, Lance C; Pettaway, Curtis
Primary urethral carcinoma (PUC) is a rare malignancy accounting for <1% of genitourinary cancers, with a predilection for men and African-Americans. The sites and histology of urethral carcinoma vary by gender and anatomical location. Squamous cell carcinoma is most common among both genders but adenocarcinomas are noted in 15-35% of cases among women. Obstructive or irritative symptoms and haematuria are common modes of presentation. Clinical evaluation includes cystourethroscopy with biopsy and examination under anaesthesia. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a highly effective method to image the primary tumour while def?ning the potential involvement of surrounding structures. Most tumours are localised, with regional metastases to nodal sites seen in up to 30% of cases in both genders, while distant metastases at presentation are rare (0-6%), but occur in up to 40% of cases with recurrent disease. Among men, the two most important prognostic factors are disease location and stage. Low-stage tumours (T1-2) and tumours involving the fossa navicularis or the penile urethra have a better prognosis than higher stage tumours (>T2 or N+) and lesions involving the bulbomembranous urethra. In women, in addition to stage and location, the size of the tumour has also prognostic implications. While surgery and radiation therapy (RT) are of benefit in early stage disease, advanced stage PUC requires multimodal treatment strategies to optimise local control and survival. These include induction chemotherapy followed by surgery or RT and concurrent chemoradiation with or without surgery. The latter strategy has been used successfully to treat other human papillomavirus-related cancers of the vagina, cervix and anus and may be of value in achieving organ preservation. Given the rarity of PUC, prospective multi-institutional studies are needed to better define the optimal treatment approach for this disease entity. PMID:24447439
Josemaria Gil-Vernet; Octavio Arango; Alfredo Gil-Vernet; Antoni Gelabert-Mas
PurposeWe describe a new type of perineum based scrotal flap with biaxial vascularization supplied by both superficial perineal arteries. Flap length of up to 20 cm. may be attained for urethral reconstruction.
John A. Freeman; Thomas A. Tarter; David Esrig; John P. Stein; Donald A. Elmajian; Su-Chiu Chen; Susan Groshen; Gary Lieskovsky; Donald G. Skinner
PurposeWe identified the risk of urethral recurrence following cystectomy for transitional cell bladder carcinoma, stratified by pathological characteristics of the bladder tumor and type of urinary diversion.
A. W. El-Kasaby; M. A. El-Baz; T. El-Zayat
Urethral meatal stenosis is common, producing about 5 per cent of all new patients in paediatric urologist office . It\\u000a may be congenital or acquired. The acquired type can follow repeated urinary tract infection or urethral instrumentation.\\u000a Herein we present an eversion meatoplasty which is a simple technique that can be done even under local infiltration anaesthesia\\u000a especially in children
Christina Poon; Philippe E. Zimmern
Ideally, the choice of surgery for stress urinary incontinence should be determined by the underlying pathophysiology. Generally,\\u000a the diagnosis is refined to either urethral hypermobility (UHM) or intrinsic sphincteric dysfunction (ISD) based on history,\\u000a questionnaires, physical exam, and various special tests including assessment of urethral mobility (Q-tip test or lateral\\u000a cystogram), stress test, pad test, and video or nonvideo urodynamic
Sroka, Ronald; Lellig, Katja; Bader, Markus; Stief, Christian; Weidlich, Patrick; Wechsel, G.; Assmann, W.; Becker, R.; Fedorova, O.; Khoder, Wael
Purpose: Treatment of urethral strictures is a major challenge in urology. For investigation of different treatment methods an animal model was developed by reproducible induction of urethral strictures in rabbits to mimic the human clinical situation. By means of this model the potential of endoluminal LDR brachytherapy using ?-irradiation as prophylaxis of recurrent urethral strictures investigated. Material and Methods: A circumferential urethral stricture was induced by energy deposition using laser light application (wavelength ?=1470 nm, 10 W, 10 s, applied energy 100 J) in the posterior urethra of anaesthetized New Zealand White male rabbits. The radial light emitting fiber was introduced by means of a children resectoscope (14F). The grade of urethral stricture was evaluated in 18 rabbits using videourethroscopy and urethrography at day 28 after stricture induction. An innovative catheter was developed based on a ?-irradiation emitting foil containing 32P, which was wrapped around the application system. Two main groups (each n=18) were separated. The "internal urethrotomy group" received after 28days of stricture induction immediately after surgical urethrotomy of the stricture the radioactive catheter for one week in a randomized, controlled and blinded manner. There were 3 subgroups with 6 animals each receiving 0 Gy, 15 Gy and 30 Gy. In contrast animals from the "De Nuovo group" received directly after the stricture induction (day 0) the radioactive catheter also for the duration of one week divided into the same dose subgroups. In order to determine the radiation tolerance of the urethral mucosa, additional animals without any stricture induction received a radioactive catheter applying a total dose of 30 Gy (n=2) and 15 Gy (n=1). Cystourethrography and endoscopic examination of urethra were performed on all operation days for monitoring treatment progress. Based on these investigation a classification of the stricture size was performed and documented for correlation. At further 28 days after catheter removal the animals were euthanasized and the urethra tissue was harvested. Histological examination of tissue with assessment of radiation damage, fibrotic and inflammatory changes were performed. After deblinding histological finding were correlated with the applied dose. Results: All animals developed a stricture, while 15/18 (83,3%) showed a significant, high grade stricture with more than 90% lumen narrowing. Histopathological examination including evaluation of urethral inflammation, fibrosis and collagen content were investigated in additional 6 rabbits confirming the former findings. No rabbits died prematurely during the study. The experiments showed that the procedure of the application of radioactive catheter was safe without any problems in contamination and protection handling. The combination of internal urethrotomy and LDR-brachytherapy results in a stricture free rate of 66.7% in the 15-Gy group, compared with only 33.3% among animals from the 0- and 30-Gy groups. Furthermore histological classification of inflammation and fibrosis of 0 Gy and 15 Gy showed similar extent. Conclusion: This new method of laser induced urethral stricture was very efficient and showed a high reproducibility, thus being useful for studying stenosis treatments. The experiments showed that application of local ?-irradiation by means of radioactive catheters modulated the stenosis development. This kind of LDR-brachytherapy shows potential for prophylaxis of urethral stricture. As this was an animal pilot experiment a clinical dose response study is needed.
Sato, Renee L; Matsuura, Grace HK; Wei, David C; Chen, John J
Our objective was to determine whether urethral calibration with Walther's urethral sounds may be an effective treatment for overactive bladder syndrome. The diagnosis of overactive bladder syndrome is a clinical one based on the presence of urgency, with or without urge incontinence, and is usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia in the absence of obvious pathologic or metabolic disease. These symptoms exert a profound effect on the quality of life. Pharmacologic treatment is generally used to relieve symptoms, however anticholinergic medications may be associated with several undesirable side effects. There are case reports of symptom relief following a relatively quick and simple office procedure known as urethral dilation. It is hypothesized that this may be an effective treatment for the symptoms of overactive bladder. Women with clinical symptoms of overactive bladder were evaluated. Eighty-eight women were randomized to either urethral calibration (Treatment), or placebo (Control) treatment. Women's clinical outcomes at two and eight weeks were assessed and compared between the two treatment arms. Eight weeks after treatment, 31.1% (n=14) of women who underwent urethral calibration were responsive to the treatment versus 9.3% (n=4) of the Control group. Also, 51.1% (n=23) of women within the Treatment group showed at least a partial response versus 20.9% (n=9) of the Control group. Our conclusion is that Urethral calibration significantly improves the symptoms of overactive bladder when compared to placebo and may be an effective alternative treatment method. PMID:24167769
Addison, Elena S; Halfacree, Zoe; Moore, Alasdair Hotston; Demetriou, Jackie; Parsons, Kevin; Tivers, Michael
The aim of this study was to investigate the short- and long-term morbidity and mortality associated with urethral rupture in cats. Medical records were reviewed from four veterinary hospitals. Diagnosis was made from retrograde urethrography or direct visualisation during surgery. Location of rupture was categorised as pre-, intra- or post-pelvic. Follow-up data were collected from referring veterinarians. Sixty-three cats were included in the study of which, males predominated (88.9%). Trauma was the most common cause (n = 35; 55.6%) with the remainder due to iatrogenic injury. Forty-eight cats (88.9%) were treated surgically and six (11.1%) managed conservatively. Significant differences between cats suffering traumatic versus iatrogenic injury included the presence of musculoskeletal injuries (P <0.001); the location of rupture (P <0.001); the degree of rupture (P <0.001); definitive management (P <0.001) and short-term complications (P = 0.026). Short-term complications were significantly associated with the following: musculoskeletal injuries (P = 0.012); uroabdomen/uroretroperitoneum (P = 0.004); azotaemia (P = 0.021); postoperative urinary diversion (P = 0.036) and >1 surgery performed (P = 0.006). Forty-seven cats (74.6%) survived to discharge. Prognostic factors associated with survival to discharge included the presence of musculoskeletal injuries (P = 0.017); cause of rupture (P = 0.017); location of rupture (P = 0.039) and definitive management (P = 0.020). Twenty-four cats (57.1%) suffered short-term complications and 10 (27.0%) suffered long-term complications. Of those cats surviving to discharge 30 (71.4%) had a good outcome. Median follow-up was 16 months. Outcome was significantly associated with cause of rupture (P = 0.04); short-term complications (P = 0.03) and long-term complications (P <0.001). In conclusion, a significantly greater proportion of cats with iatrogenic injuries survived to discharge and had a good outcome compared with those that suffered trauma. PMID:24144568
Lorente-Muñoz, Asís; Cortés-Franco, Severiano; Moles-Herbera, Jesús; Casado-Pellejero, Juan; Rivero-Celada, David; Alberdi-Viñas, Juan
Idiopathic spinal cord herniation is a rare cause of thoracic myelopathy and its recurrence is even more infrequent. Cord herniation is through an anterior dural defect in thoracic spine with unknown causes. Symptomatic cases must be surgically treated to reduce the hernia and seal the defect to prevent recurrences. We report a patient presenting a Brown-Séquard syndrome secondary to a D5 spinal cord herniation treated successfully and its posterior traumatic recurrence. PMID:23453309
Babaeer, Abdulrahman A; Nader, Claudia; Iacoviello, Vito; Tomera, Kevin
A 49-year-old male presented to the emergency with hematuria and pain in the shaft of the penis for one day. The patient was found to be in a state of shock. The shaft of the penis and the scrotum were swollen and tender. No skin necrosis was observed and no crepitus was palpable. Serum white count (WBC) was 29.5 × 10(3)/?L. A CT scan showed gas in the corpus spongiosum. Antibiotics were started with IV metronidazole, vancomycin, and piperacillin/tazobactam. Metronidazole was then replaced by clindamycin. Exploration was performed but no necrotic tissue was identified. Cystourethroscopy revealed dusky looking urethra. A suprapubic tube and a urethral catheter were placed in the bladder. WBC trended down to 13.9 × 10(3)/?L on the fourth postoperative day. Urine culture grew Aerococcus urinae and blood cultures grew Alpha Hemolytic Streptococcus. On the sixth day, the patient was feeling worse and WBC increased. MRI revealed absent blood flow to the corpus spongiosum. Urethroscopy revealed necrosis of the urethra. Urethrectomy was performed via perineal approach. The patient immediately improved. The patient was discharged on the sixth postoperative day to continue ampicillin/sulbactam IV every 6 hours for a total of 4 weeks from the day of urethrectomy. PMID:26171271
Babaeer, Abdulrahman A.; Nader, Claudia; Iacoviello, Vito; Tomera, Kevin
A 49-year-old male presented to the emergency with hematuria and pain in the shaft of the penis for one day. The patient was found to be in a state of shock. The shaft of the penis and the scrotum were swollen and tender. No skin necrosis was observed and no crepitus was palpable. Serum white count (WBC) was 29.5 × 103/?L. A CT scan showed gas in the corpus spongiosum. Antibiotics were started with IV metronidazole, vancomycin, and piperacillin/tazobactam. Metronidazole was then replaced by clindamycin. Exploration was performed but no necrotic tissue was identified. Cystourethroscopy revealed dusky looking urethra. A suprapubic tube and a urethral catheter were placed in the bladder. WBC trended down to 13.9 × 103/?L on the fourth postoperative day. Urine culture grew Aerococcus urinae and blood cultures grew Alpha Hemolytic Streptococcus. On the sixth day, the patient was feeling worse and WBC increased. MRI revealed absent blood flow to the corpus spongiosum. Urethroscopy revealed necrosis of the urethra. Urethrectomy was performed via perineal approach. The patient immediately improved. The patient was discharged on the sixth postoperative day to continue ampicillin/sulbactam IV every 6 hours for a total of 4 weeks from the day of urethrectomy. PMID:26171271
Al–Adawi, Mohammad Ahmad
Objectives To present our center's experience in managing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) conditions using bougie dilators. We described the dilation technique methodically for teaching purpose. Patients and method Retrospectively, a total of 196 medical records over the last four years denoting BOO conditions in men, women, and children were retrieved for analysis. Data reviewed for common complications was namely: perforation, recurrence, urinary tract obstruction (UTI) and inability to overcome the obstruction. Results Among the 196 analyzed cases, 24 (12.2%) cases were cured, whereas 172 (87.8%) cases reported complications. Within the complicated cases analyzed, 134 (68.4%) cases had recurrent obstructions, 13 (6.6%) cases had perforations, 6 (3.0%) cases developed UTI, while in 19 (9.7%) cases, we failed to pass the obstruction. Conclusions In our center where urethral dilation technique has revived four years ago, it turned back to be the standard choice in managing BOO cases. We propose the technique to Urology training program directors, all over the world, to teach it as a compulsory skill for junior urologists to master. PMID:24757552
Nicholas Holmes; Michael R. Harrison; Laurence S. Baskin
Objective. Fetal intervention for ob- structive uropathy was first performed at the University of California, San Francisco in 1981. Indications for treat- ment were bilateral hydronephrosis with oligohydram- nios. Preintervention criteria included fetal urinary elec- trolytes with b-microglobulin levels, karyotyping, and detailed sonography specifically looking for renal corti- cal cysts. We reviewed the outcomes of children who underwent fetal intervention
Anthony H Balcom; Richard Pircon; Dennis Worthington; Margaret Carr
Ultrasound imaging of a 26-week-gestation fetus demonstrated a large, nonemptying bladder. At 27 weeks, a distended, thick-walled bladder, left hydronephrosis, and a perirenal urinoma were present, without ascites. Observation was undertaken, as the amniotic fluid volume was normal. At 29 weeks, the left perirenal fluid collection persisted but, at 30 weeks, was absent. After delivery at 36 weeks, no ultrasound
... previous traumatic experiences, who are faced with ongoing stress, or who lack support from friends and family — ... discuss NIMH research in the areas of traumatic stress reactions, specifically mental health issues among U.S. service ...
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Hernanz, J M; Clavo, I; Menendez, B; Jareño, M; Moya, D; Jover, J
The interviews of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) done in the Dispensario "Martínez Anido" of Madrid in the period understood between September of 1984 and September of 1985 are revised. Among all of the 1,370 surveys, the trichomonal urethritis in the male, represents 2.2% of all of the urethritis and 4.6% of the nongonococcal urethritis in the male. Mean age of patients was 35 years, the social-economic level was inferior than those which we observed in others STD, all of the cases were heterosexual and the source of contamination was in 100% a prostitute of a low level. The answer to the treatment with metronidazole of the only doses of 2 gr. was satisfactory in all cases. PMID:3312865
Rogovaya, O S; Fayzulin, A K; Vasiliev, A V; Kononov, A V; Terskikh, V V
We have investigated the living skin equivalent (LSE) as an alternative source of plastic material for closing full-thickness epithelial-stromal urethral injuries. The possibility of transdifferentiation of epidermal keratinocytes, a component of 3D tissue constructs, was investigated in vivo in a model of the recovery of urethral injuries in laboratory rabbits. Autologous grafting of LSE in de-epithelialized urethra showed that skin keratinocytes placed in a specific in vivo microenvironment can be incorporated into the damaged area and function as urothelium. The use of EGFP transfected keratinocytes allowed us to identify transplanted cells. The reconstructed urethral tubes did not develop strictures or fistulas at the site of the grafted LSE. Immunohistochemical studies of neo-urothelium revealed EGFP-positive cells expressing the urothelial markers K7 and UP3. PMID:25927003
Greer, W. Jerod; Gleason, Jonathan L.; Kenton, Kimberly; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Goode, Patricia S; Richter, Holly E
Aim To characterize urethral neuromuscular function before and 2 weeks after medication therapy. Methods Premenopausal women without lower urinary tract symptoms were randomly allocated to one of six medications for 2 weeks (pseudoephedrine ER 120mg, imipramine 25mg, cyclobenzaprine 10mg, tamsulosin 0.4mg, solifenacin 5mg or placebo). At baseline and after medication, participants underwent testing: quantitative concentric needle EMG (CNE) of the urethral sphincter using automated Multi-Motor Unit Action Potential (MUP) software; current perception threshold (CPT) testing to measure periurethral sensation; and standard urodynamic pressure flow studies (PFS). Nonparametric tests were used to compare pre-post differences. Results 56 women had baseline testing; 48 (85.7%) completed follow-up CNE, and 49 (87.5%) completed follow-up CPT and PFS testing. Demographics showed no significant differences among medication groups with respect to age (mean 34.3 ± 10.1), BMI (mean 31.8 ± 7.5), parity (median 1, range 0–7), or race (14% Caucasian, 80% African American). PFS parameters were not significantly different within medication groups. No significant pre-post changes in CNE values were noted; however, trends in amplitudes were in a direction consistent with the expected physiologic effect of the medications. With CPT testing, a trend toward increased urethral sensation at the 5 Hz stimulation level, was observed following treatment with pseudoephedrine (0.15 to 0.09 mA at 5Hz; P=0.03). Conclusion In women without LUTS, pseudoephedrine improved urethral sensation, but not urethral neuromuscular function on CNE or pressure flow studies. Imipramine, cyclobenzaprine, tamsulosin, solifenacin, and placebo did not change urethral sensation or neuromuscular function. PMID:25185603
The contexts in which traumatic experiences occur contribute to interpretations of their meaning and responses. Social and ethnocultural responses to traumatic or stressful life events are diverse. Psychiatric nurses are critical in the healing process of individuals, families, and communities. This process involves helping the client understand the stress responses, process the traumatic event, and develop adaptive coping mechanisms. Integrating
Greenlund, Andrew C.
Urinary catheterization is a common procedure, particularly among patients with neurogenic bladder secondary to spinal cord injury. Urethral catheterization is associated with the well-recognized complications of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and limited genitourinary trauma. Unintentional ureteral cannulation represents a rare complication of urethral catheterization and has been previously described in only eight cases within the literature. We describe two cases of aberrant ureteral cannulation involving two patients with quadriplegia. These cases along with prior reports identify the spastic, insensate bladder and altered pelvic sensorium found in upper motor neuron syndromes as major risk factors for ureteral cannulation with a urinary catheter. PMID:25405021
Thierry Lebret; Jean-Marie Hervé; Philippe Barré; François Gaudez; Pierre-Marie Lugagne; Michel Barbagelatta; Henry Botto
Objective: The management of the male urethra after cystectomy for bladder cancer continues to be a dilemma. Patients who undergo a cystectomy require either urinary diversion or bladder substitution. Therefore, the use of the urethra to ensure voiding is important. On the other hand, the probable risk of urethral carcinoma recurrence is generally estimated at approximately 10%. The aim of
Wilhelm A. Hiibner; Flavio Trigo-Rocha; Eugen G. Plas; Emil A. Tanagho
To study the function of the pelvic floor and the isolated urethra after removal of the bladder, 5 male and 5 female mongrel dogs were used in an acute in vivo experiment. Urethral pressure changes secondary to unilateral stimulation of the pelvic and pudendal nerves were recorded. After baseline data of the intact system were documented, the following procedures were
Y Adu-Sarkodie; M J Steiner; J Attafuah; K Tweedy
Objectives: To evaluate the training of pharmacists in Accra, Ghana, in the syndromic management of STIs.Methods: We randomly selected 50 pharmacy outlets that had received the training (intervention) and 50 outlets that had not received the training (no intervention). Simulated clients described the symptoms of urethral discharge to the first pharmacy staff encountered and completed a standardised questionnaire after each
Marsico, Giovanni Antonio; Boasquevisque, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; Loureiro, Gustavo Lucas; Marques, Rodrigo Felipe; Clemente, Antonio Miraldi
Traumatic lung herniation is an unusual clinical problem. We present a case of a large left post-traumatic lung hernia on the left, anterior, second intercostal space following blunt chest trauma. An important factor in the etiology of these lesions is the relative lack of muscular support of the anterior part of the chest. This report describes the diagnosis and management of a post-traumatic lung hernia. PMID:21537748
H. Hamdy; M. A. Awadhi; K. H. Rasromani
A technique of urethral mobilization and advancement in hypospadias repair using the urethral elasticity to partially or\\u000a completely bridge the defect in urethral length was employed in 56 children. In 46 with distal hypospadias it was the only\\u000a procedure used. In 10 with proximal hypospadias, it was combined with other techniques. In distal hypospadias, no postoperative\\u000a fistula occurred. Complications of
D. Latal; J. Mraz; P. Zerhau; M. Susani; M. Marberger
No information has been available to date on the long-term behavior of nitinol (nickel-titanium alloy) urethral stents. In the present study, prostheses of this type were implanted in 18 German shepherd dogs in order to evaluate the reaction of the mucosa, muscles and periurethral tissue. Follow-up examinations performed after 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months included
Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)
Very concise description of what constitutes a traumatic brain injury and the cost to society in hospitalizations, injuries and deaths resulting from traumatic brain injury. It also looks very concisely at new understandings of the nature of TBIs and the research being done to find better treatments.
Turo, Rafal; Smolski, Michal; Kujawa, Magda; Brown, Stephen C.W.; Brough, Richard; Collins, Gerald N.
We present a case of a 51-year-old woman with acute urinary retention caused by a urethral calculus. Urethral calculi in women are extremely rare and are usually formed in association with underlying genitourinary pathology. In this case, however, no pathology was detected via thorough urological evaluation. We discuss the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of urethral calculi. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of a primary urethral calculus in a female with an anatomically normal urinary tract and the first in a middle-aged Caucasian female. PMID:24554984
Jonathan I. Bisson
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an increasingly recognized and potentially preventable condition. Certain factors, especially the severity of the trauma, perceived lack of social support and peri-traumatic dissociation have been associated with its development. In recent years, a more robust evidence base regarding the management of individuals involved in traumatic events has emerged. Immediately after a traumatic event, simple practical,
Niggemann, P; Simons, P; Kuchta, J; Beyer, H K; Frey, H; Grosskurth, D
We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI. PMID:19253068
Javalkar, Vijayakumar; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Nanda, Anil
This study evaluated the outcomes, complications, and recurrence rates of posterior cranial fossa meningiomas. We retrospectively reviewed our surgical experience with 64 posterior cranial fossa meningiomas. Mean age was 56 years with a female preponderance (67.2%). Headache was the most common symptom. Retrosigmoid approach was the commonest surgical procedure (23.4%). The incidence of cranial nerve related complications was 28%. Postoperatively facial nerve weakness was observed in 11%. The incidence of cerebrospinal fluid leak was 4.6%. Gross total resection was achieved in 37 patients (58%). Sixteen patients (25%) with residual tumors underwent Gamma knife radiosurgery. Recurrence or tumor progression was observed in 12 patients (18.7%). Operative mortality was 3.1%. At their last follow-up, 93% of the cases achieved Glasgow Outcome Scale scores 4 or 5. Total excision is the ideal goal which can be achieved with meningiomas located in certain location, such as lateral convexity, but for other posterior fossa meningiomas the close proximity of critical structures is a major obstacle in achieving this goal. In practicality, a balance between good functional outcome and extent of resection is important for posterior cranial fossa meningiomas in proximity to critical structures. PMID:23372989
I BEGGS; J ADDISON
Fracture of the posterior vertebral endplate is a cause of low back pain in adolescents and young adults. Clinically it resembles an acute disc prolapse with low back pain and radiculopa- thy, but may present with neurogenic claudication due to spinal stenosis in older patients. The lesions may be incidental findings. Plain radiographs are diagnostic in about 40% of cases.
Da Pozzo, L F; Colombo, R; Montorsi, F; Guazzoni, G; Rigatti, P
Between August 1991 and July 1994, an original balloon-expanding urethral suture guide (24 F) was used in 157 consecutive cases of radical retropubic prostatectomy. Both the instrument and its clinical use are described. This guide guarantees good intraoperative exposure of the sectioned urethral stump during vesical reanastomosis, thus improving the technical feasibility of radical prostatectomy. PMID:7571230
... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... external force that affects the functioning of the brain. It can be caused by a bump or ...
... their thumb Emotionally-numb, anxious, or depressed Separation anxiety ... Develop coping strategies to help with fear and anxiety Let teachers know about traumatic events in your child's life. Keep open communication about changes in your ...
Rothberg, M L; Klingman, R R; Peetz, D; Ferraris, V A; Berry, W R
Thoracobiliary fistulas are a commonly reported complication of subphrenic or liver abscesses and biliary tract obstruction. However, they are a rare and unusual complication of traumatic thoracoabdominal wounds. Due to their rarity, the experience of any one surgeon is minimal, and there is a paucity of information available in the literature regarding their treatment. We describe a case of a traumatic thoracobiliary fistula, review the existing literature, and discuss the proper management of this potentially lethal sequela of trauma. PMID:8311617
Sharma, Arindam; Kurtz, Michael P.; Eswara, Jairam R.
Introduction: While the development of fistulae is a well-known complication of radiotherapy, such fistulae can often be challenging to manage. Case Presentation: We describe the case of a 37 year old male who developed in succession a urethrocutaneous fistula to the thigh, a rectourethral fistula and a peritoneo-urethral fistula 35 years after radiotherapy for pediatric pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma. These complications were managed successfully after multiple surgical procedures. Discussion: We subsequently discuss the different approaches currently employed for the management of radiation induced urinary fistulas and describe the rationale behind our approach towards their surgical management. PMID:24783170
Jonathan Duckett; Maya Basu
Introduction and hypothesis The aim of the study was to determine whether a 6-week course of 5 mg of solifenacin succinate used to treat mixed incontinence,\\u000a produces measurable changes in the appearance of the urethral sphincter.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Twenty-six women undergoing treatment for mixed incontinence were recruited from a urogynaecology unit after failing to improve\\u000a with conservative treatments and bladder drill. All underwent dual
Blyth, Brian J.; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) refers to the clinical condition of transient alteration of consciousness as a result of traumatic injury to the brain. The priority of emergency care is to identify and facilitate the treatment of rare but potentially life threatening intra-cranial injuries associated with mTBI through the judicious application of appropriate imaging studies and neurosurgical consultation. Although post-mTBI symptoms quickly and completely resolve in the vast majority of cases, a significant number of patients will complain of lasting problems that may cause significant disability. Simple and early interventions such as patient education and appropriate referral can reduce the likelihood of chronic symptoms. Although definitive evidence is lacking, mTBI is likely to be related to significant long-term sequelae such as Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative processes. PMID:20709244
Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Yildirim, Zubeyde; Bayol, Umit; Diniz, Gulden; Karaca, Cezmi; Zorlu, Ferruh
Primary urethral carcinomas are uncommon, with urothelial carcinoma as the most common subtype. Urethral diverticulum is also rarely seen in men. A 44-year-old male presented with voiding symptoms. Abdominoperineal resection, prostatectomy, bladder neck excision, and proximal urethral excision were performed. A pathological examination revealed a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) located inside an urethral diverticulum. We report this unusual case because primary SCC of the male urethral diverticulum is extremely rare. To our knowledge, our patient is only the second reported case.
Solyga, Volker Moræus; Western, Elin; Solheim, Hanne; Hassel, Bjørnar; Kerty, Emilia
BACKGROUND Posterior cortical atrophy is a neurodegenerative condition with atrophy of posterior parts of the cerebral cortex, including the visual cortex and parts of the parietal and temporal cortices. It presents early, in the 50s or 60s, with nonspecific visual disturbances that are often misinterpreted as ophthalmological, which can delay the diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to present current knowledge about symptoms, diagnostics and treatment of this condition.METHOD The review is based on a selection of relevant articles in PubMed and on the authors' own experience with the patient group.RESULTS Posterior cortical atrophy causes gradually increasing impairment in reading, distance judgement, and the ability to perceive complex images. Examination of higher visual functions, neuropsychological testing, and neuroimaging contribute to diagnosis. In the early stages, patients do not have problems with memory or insight, but cognitive impairment and dementia can develop. It is unclear whether the condition is a variant of Alzheimer's disease, or whether it is a separate disease entity. There is no established treatment, but practical measures such as the aid of social care workers, telephones with large keypads, computers with voice recognition software and audiobooks can be useful.INTERPRETATION Currently available treatment has very limited effect on the disease itself. Nevertheless it is important to identify and diagnose the condition in its early stages in order to be able to offer patients practical assistance in their daily lives. PMID:26037756
Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Chao-Jung; Yeh, Shuyuan; Lin, Yu-Ning; Wu, Yang-Chang; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Wu, Bor-Tsang; Ma, Wen-Lung; Chen, Wen-Chi; Chang, Chawnshang; Chen, Huey-Yi
Estrogen has various regulatory functions in the growth, development, and differentiation of the female urogenital system. This study investigated the roles of ER? in stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Wild-type (ER?+/+) and knockout (ER??/?) female mice were generated (aged 6–8 weeks, n?=?6) and urethral function and protein expression were measured. Leak point pressures (LPP) and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) were assessed in mice under urethane anesthesia. After the measurements, the urethras were removed for proteomic analysis using label-free quantitative proteomics by nano-liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The interaction between these proteins was further analysed using MetaCore. Lastly, Western blot was used to confirm the candidate proteins. Compared with the ER?+/+ group, the LPP and MUCP values of the ER??/? group were significantly decreased. Additionally, we identified 85 differentially expressed proteins in the urethra of ER??/? female mice; 57 proteins were up-regulated and 28 were down-regulated. The majority of the ER? knockout-modified proteins were involved in cell-matrix adhesion, metabolism, immune response, signal transduction, nuclear receptor translational regelation, and muscle contraction and development. Western blot confirmed the up-regulation of myosin and collagen in urethra. By contrast, elastin was down-regulated in the ER??/? mice. This study is the first study to estimate protein expression changes in urethras from ER??/? female mice. These changes could be related to the molecular mechanism of ER? in SUI. PMID:25275480
Cho, Dae Sung; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Se Joong; Kim, Sun Il
Introduction: We investigate the influence of stretched membranous urethral length (SUL) and urethral circumference (UC) on postoperative recovery of continence after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods: To evaluate the distal continence zone intraoperatively, we individually measured and recorded stretched membranous urethral length (distance between the urogenital diaphragm and the prostate apex with cephalad retraction, SUL) and urethral circumference (UC) after exposure of the urethra. We analyzed the association between magnetic resonance imaging-measured membranous urethral length (MRIL) and urethral diameter (MRID) and intraoperative SUL and UC and influence on return to continence. Results: The mean patient age, SUL and UC were 66.5 ± 6.0 years, 24.2 ± 3.3 mm, and 27.5 ± 4.4 mm, respectively. MRIL and MRID were 11.3 ± 1.6 mm and 10.6 ± 1.9mm, respectively. In the bivariate correlation analysis, there was no statistically significant correlation between SUL and MRIL (p = 0.201) and between UC and MRID (p = 0.124). In the Kaplan-Meier curve analysis, cumulative continence rates between the two groups dichotomized at the median value according to age (p = 0.0519), SUL (p = 0.6583), UC (p = 0.4031), MRIL (p = 0.4042), and MRID (p = 0.8191) were not significantly different. High SUL-to-MRIL ratio (>2.2) was the only significant predictor of lower cumulative continence rate (p = 0.0457). Conclusions: MRIL measured during surgery was not associated with postoperative continence recovery after RP. We observed that an excessively long membranous urethra compared to the urethral length on preoperative MRI is predictive of poorer postoperative continence recovery. However, small sample size and potential confounding surgical factors limit the significance of this study.
Munoz, John A.; Riemer, Jennifer D.; Hayes, Gary B.; Negus, Dan; Fried, Nathaniel M.
Two cases involving Erbium:YAG laser incision of proximal bulbar urethral strictures are described. Erbium:YAG laser radiation with a wavelength of 2.94 ?m, pulse energy of 10 mJ, and a pulse repetition rate of 15 Hz, was delivered through a 2-m-long, 250-?m-core sapphire optical fiber in contact with tissue. Total laser irradiation time was 5 min. The first patient suffering from a virgin urethral stricture was treated and is stricture-free. The second patient suffering from a recurrent urethral stricture required further treatment. This case report describes the first clinical application of the Er:YAG laser in urology.
Yildirim, Erkan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Baskent University Medical School Ankara, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Cicek, Tufan; Istanbulluoglu, Okan; Ozturk, Bulent [Baskent University Medical School Ankara, Department of Urology (Turkey)
The peripheral cutting balloon has been used to treat various nonvascular strictures as well as vascular stenosis. In this article, we describe for the first time the use of the cutting balloon in the treatment of patients with urethral stricture. Four patients with bulbar urethral stricture were included in the study. All strictures were successfully dilated with the cutting balloon, and patients were free of symptoms at 6-month follow-up. Cutting-balloon dilatation is a safe, easy-to-perform, and effective treatment for patients with tight urethral strictures.
Baid, Mayank; Dutta, Arindam
Urethral duplication is a rare congenital malformation mainly affecting men and boys. Although a number of theories have been proposed to describe this condition, the actual mechanism of this disorder is still not clear. This article highlights a case of urethral duplication in a 15-year-old boy. The malformation was characterized by the presence of continent epispadic and normal apical urethra. Retrograde urethrogram through both urethral tracts simultaneously revealed the malformation as Effmann type IIA2. The patient was not offered surgical intervention as he was asymptomatic and had no problems except for a double stream of urine. PMID:25337048
Chi Hang Yee; Lap Yin Ho; Hing Hoi Hung; Wai Hee Steve Chan
Introduction and hypothesis While primary bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in women has become an increasingly recognized entity over the past few years,\\u000a the optimal management for such condition is yet to be defined. We assessed the effect of urethral calibration in the treatment\\u000a of female BOO.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A retrospective review of female patients undergoing urethral calibration with urethral dilator for BOO from
Akesen, Burak; Mutlu, Müren; Kara, Kür?at; Ayd?nl?, Ufuk
Study Design?Case report and review of the literature. Objective?To report a case of traumatic L5–S1 spondyloptosis and review the literature. Method?A 28-year-old man presented with severe low back pain, numbness at the soles of feet, and bowel and bladder dysfunction. Two days before admission, a tree trunk fell on his back while he was seated. A two-stage posterior-anterior procedure was performed. At the first stage, posterior decompression, reduction, and fusion with instrumentation were performed. At the second stage, which was performed 6 days after the first stage, the patient underwent anterior lumbar interbody fusion. The patient received physical therapy 1?week after the second stage. Results?The patient's numbness improved immediately after the first posterior surgery. His fecal and urinary incontinence improved 6 months after discharge. He has been pain-free for a year and has returned to work. Conclusion?A PubMed search was performed using the following keywords: lumbosacral spondyloptosis, lumbosacral dislocation, and L5–S1 traumatic dislocation. The search returned only nine reported cases of traumatic spondyloptosis. Traumatic spondyloptosis at the lumbosacral junction is a rare ailment that should be suspected in cases of high, direct, and posterior impact on the low lumbar area, and surgical treatment should be the standard choice of care. PMID:24494183
Ingves, Matthew V; Lau, Timothy; Fedoroff, J Paul; Levine, Sharon
Polyembolokoilamania is the act of inserting foreign objects into bodily orifices and can be classified as a paraphilia if done for sexual pleasure. Although problematic sexual behaviors are common in dementia, the majority of case reports of urethral polyembolokoilamania in the elderly have occurred in the absence of dementia or cognitive impairment. Little empirical evidence exists for managing problematic sexual behaviors in the elderly and in dementia. Most evidence in the form of case reports demonstrates that behavioral, environmental, and pharmacological interventions can be effective. In this case report, we describe the management of sexually disinhibited behavior in the form of polyembolokoilamania in a 67-year-old man suffering from treatment-resistant depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and early signs of frontotemporal dementia. The successful treatment included a course of electroconvulsive therapy. PMID:24569921
Patel, Ramnik V; Brimioulle, Marina; Govani, Dhaval; Youssef, Talaat
We report a case of juvenile allergic urethritis secondary to double concentrate orange squash of a famous brand in a 3-year-old boy who developed bilateral urethro-ejaculatory reflux (UER) and severe urethral, perineal and scrotal pain referred to both lower limbs intermittently predominantly during and after micturition-simulating features of bilateral intermittent testicular torsion. Accurate history, urinalysis, ultrasound, colour Doppler and food challenge were helpful in diagnosis. Topical steroids, antihistaminic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory medications together with withdrawal of the allergen produced complete recovery. Allergic urethritis in association with bilateral UER causing secondary seminal vesiculitis and epididymitis is rare. It presented as acute scrotum and responded to innovative treatment. Allergic disease can have a dramatic effect on a child's quality of life. This is the first documented case of allergic urethritis and associated UER presenting as juvenile acute scrotum. Steroids, antihistamines and anti-inflammatory agents together with avoidance of the allergen helped achieve recovery. PMID:26150614
Primary urethral carcinoma is extremely rare and is marked by a variety of clinical symptoms. Primary carcinoma of a urethral diverticulum is still rarer and clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra is particularly uncommon (Swartz et al., 2006). Such infrequency has led to inadequate management guidance in the literature for a disease that is often late in presentation and carries substantial morbidity and mortality. This treatable but grave disease deserves definitive curative treatment. We present the first published instance in which it was treated with robotic anterior exenteration. In our case, a 47-year-old female was referred to the urology service for investigation of recurring urinary tract infections. During the workup, the patient was found to have an advanced clear cell urethral adenocarcinoma originating in a urethral diverticulum. We discuss the natural history of this condition, its consequences, and the first instance of its treatment using robotic anterior pelvic exenteration. PMID:24454400
Children experience grief when they suffer the loss of a close relationship. When that loss also traumatizes children, they experience additional emotional reactions. It is important that adults educate themselves and others who deal with children about typical, healthy grief reactions. Following a non-violent loss, the initial reactions of…
Joseph Yuk Sang Ting; Sang Ting
Background: Blunt traumatic aortic injury (TAI) is clinically difficult to diagnose, as signs and symptoms are unreliable and variable. The identification of TAI may be obscured by other injuries that are more apparent. Furthermore, radiologic evaluation of the mediastinum for this injury is not well defined. Most patients with TAI die immediately. Survivors have a contained rupture which requires crucial
Joseph Yuk; Sang Ting
Background: Blunt traumatic aortic injury (TAI) is clini- cally difficult to diagnose, as signs and symptoms are unreliable and variable. The identification of TAI may be obscured by other injuries that are more apparent. Furthermore, radiologic evaluation of the mediastinum for this injury is not well defined. Most patients with TAI die immediately. Survivors have a contained rupture which requires
... fracture of the skull or bleeding, bruising or blood clots in the brain. Treatment How is a traumatic brain injury treated? ... there is a skull fracture, if there are blood clots that need to be removed from the brain or if there is too much pressure inside ...
John E. O’Toole; Kurt M. Eichholz; Richard G. Fessler
\\u000a Posterior decompressive procedures are fundamental tools in the surgical treatment of symptomatic cervical degenerative spine\\u000a disease [1–4]. Even as anterior cervical procedures have gained prominence, posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy still provides\\u000a symptomatic relief in 92–97% of patients with radiculopathy from foraminal stenosis or lateral herniated discs [3, 5]. Similarly,\\u000a posterior cervical decompression for cervical stenosis achieves neurological improvement in 62.5–83% of
The keratoprosthesis is the last solution for corneally blind patients that cannot benefit from corneal transplants. Keratoprostheses that have been designed to be affixed anteriorly usually necessitate multi-step surgical procedures and are continuously subjected to the extrusion forces generated by the positive intraocular pressure; therefore, clinical results in patients prove inconsistent. We proposed a novel keratoprosthesis concept that utilizes posterior corneal fixation which `a priori' minimizes the risk of aqueous leakage and expulsion. This prosthesis is implanted in a single procedure thereby reducing the number of surgical complications normally associated with anterior fixation devices. In addition, its novel design makes this keratoprosthesis implantable in phakic eyes. With an average follow-up of 13 months (range 3 to 25 months), our results on 21 cases are encouraging. Half of the keratoprostheses were implanted in severe burn cases, with the remainder in cases of pseudo- pemphigus. Good visual results and cosmetic appearance were obtained in 14 of 21 eyes.
Geraldo de Aguiar Cavalcanti; Homero Bruschini; Gilberto M. Manzano; Lydia P. Giuliano; João Antônio M. Nóbrega; Miguel Srougi
Aims of study The sensory evaluation of the lower urinary tract is summarized in the bladder proprioceptive sensitivity during cystometry.\\u000a Experimental studies suggest that abnormalities of the urethral innervation and micturition reflex can be related to the presence\\u000a of continence disturbances. This study aimed to measure the urethral sensory threshold and the urethro-anal reflex latency\\u000a in healthy volunteers, establishing reading criteria,
Kenneth I. Barron; Judith A. Savageau; Stephen B. Young; Lisa C. Labin; Abraham N. Morse
We set out to identify predictors of successful voiding immediately after outpatient mid-urethral sling. The charts of 126 patients who underwent an outpatient mid-urethral sling procedure were identified. Using discharge without a urinary catheter as the dependent variable, logistic regression analysis modeled the relationship of independent variables including demographic, preoperative urodynamic, and perioperative variables. Sixty-one percent of the patients passed
Jason E. Elliott; Ken D. Maslow
Bowel perforation is a rare complication of mid-urethral sling procedures and is usually reported shortly after the surgery.\\u000a We report a remotely discovered asymptomatic bowel injury found at the time of subsequent surgery. The patient with a history\\u000a of several prior pelvic surgeries underwent an uneventful retropubic mid-urethral sling placement. Five years later, during\\u000a an abdominal sacrocolpopexy procedure, mesh from
James, Philip; Glackin, Anthony; Doherty, Alan
Purpose. To assess the risks and benefits of early urethral catheter removal following laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Materials and Methods. Between June 2009 and April 2011, 114 patients underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for clinically organ-confined prostate cancer. Candidates for early removal of the urethral catheter were selected intraoperatively on the basis of the integrity of the vesicourethral anastamosis and the ease of recatheterisation. In the selected cohort of patients, the urethral catheter was removed at day 2. Recatheterisation rates within this group were recorded and analysed. Results. Of the 114 patients who underwent laparoscopic prostatectomy, 64 (56%) were deemed suitable for removal of catheter on second postoperative day prior to discharge. The first 20 patients selected for early removal of urethral catheter were covered with a suprapubic catheter inserted at the time of surgery. Out of 64 patients deemed suitable for early removal of urethral catheter, 53 (83%) were able to pass urine without complication. 11 patients (17%) developed urinary retention that necessitated recatheterisation. In all cases, reinsertion of catheter was performed easily and successfully without the need for cystoscopic guidance or adjuncts. Conclusions. Removal of the urethral catheter at day 2 following laparoscopic prostatectomy is a safe procedure in carefully selected patients. PMID:22957273
Kent Drescher; David W. Foy
Members of the clergy serve on the front lines as caregivers for individuals whose lives have been forever changed by life-threatening\\u000a traumatic events, and by the sudden traumatic deaths of loved ones. This article is intended to provide useful information\\u000a to clergy about the nature of traumatic experiences, predictable human reactions to them, and ways that clergy can be helpful
Robbins, Michael; Mallon, Zachary; Roberto, Rolando; Patel, Ravi; Gupta, Munish; Klineberg, Eric
Study Design?Retrospective chart review and review of literature. Objective?Few case reports of traumatic L5–S1 displacement have been presented in the literature. Here we present two cases of traumatic spondylolisthesis showing both anterior and posterior displacement, the treatment algorithm, and a review of the literature. Methods?The authors conducted a retrospective review of representative patients and a literature review of traumatic spondylolisthesis at the L5–S1 junction. Two representative patients were identified with traumatic spondylolisthesis: one with an anterior dissociation, and the other with a posterior dissociation. Results?Radiographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging illustrated the bony and soft tissue injury found in each patient, as well as the final stabilization and outcomes. Operative stabilization was necessary, and both patients were treated with open reduction internal fixation. The patient with posterior dissociation had complete recovery without neurologic sequelae. The patient with anterior dissociation had persistent bilateral L5–S1 radiculopathy with intact rectal tone, due to neurologic compression. Conclusions?Few cases of traumatic spondylopelvic dissociation that are isolated to the L5–S1 disk space are described in the literature. We examined both an anterior and a posterior dissociation and treated both with L5–S1 posterior spinal fusion. The patient with anterior dissociation had persistent L5–S1 root injury; however, the patient with posterior dissociation had no neurologic deficits. This is the opposite of what is expected based on anatomy. These cases offer insight into the management of anterior and posterior L5–S1 spondylopelvic dissociation. PMID:26131390
John P. Gearhart; Benjamin R. Lee; Alan W. Partin; Jonathan I. Epstein; John A. Gosling; Barry A. Kogan
A quantitative histological study was performed on specimens of 33 ureters obtained from 14 male and 19 female patients 5 days to 14 years old (mean age 1.2 years). A high resolution color image video analysis system was used to quantify and compare collagen and smooth muscle components of the muscularis layers to normal control ureters from patients of similar
C. Davis; L. Symon
Summary Sixteen patients with posterior fossa ependymomas are presented. This tumour is relatively uncommon in adults and is usually associated with a relatively “benign” course when compared with other posterior fossa glial tumours. The natural history and treatment of these tumours is discussed.
Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, WV (United States); Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, WV (United States) and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Butler, Wayne M. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, and University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Kurko, Brian [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, WV (United States); Anderson, Richard L. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, WV (United States); Murray, Brian C. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, WV (United States); Galbreath, Robert W. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Ohio University Eastern, St. Clairsville, OH (United States)
Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between urinary morbidity after prostate brachytherapy and urethral doses calculated at the base, midprostate, apex, and urogenital diaphragm. Methods and Materials: From February 1998 through July 2002, 186 consecutive patients without a prior history of a transurethral resection underwent monotherapeutic brachytherapy (no supplemental external beam radiation therapy or androgen deprivation therapy) with urethral-sparing techniques (average urethral dose 100%-140% minimum peripheral dose) for clinical T1c-T2b (2002 AJCC) prostate cancer. The median follow-up was 45.5 months. Urinary morbidity was defined by time to International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) resolution, maximum increase in IPSS, catheter dependency, and the need for postimplant surgical intervention. An alpha blocker was initiated approximately 2 weeks before implantation and continued at least until the IPSS returned to baseline. Evaluated parameters included overall urethral dose (average and maximum), doses to the base, midprostate, apex, and urogenital diaphragm, patient age, clinical T stage, preimplant IPSS, ultrasound volume, isotope, and D90 and V100/150/200. Results: Of the 186 patients, 176 (94.6%) had the urinary catheter permanently removed on the day of implantation with only 1 patient requiring a urinary catheter >5 days. No patient had a urethral stricture and only 2 patients (1.1%) required a postbrachytherapy transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). For the entire cohort, IPSS on average peaked 2 weeks after implantation with a mean and median time to IPSS resolution of 14 and 3 weeks, respectively. For the entire cohort, only isotope predicted for IPSS resolution, while neither overall average prostatic urethra nor segmental urethral dose predicted for IPSS resolution. The maximum postimplant IPSS increase was best predicted by preimplant IPSS and the maximum apical urethral dose. Conclusions: With the routine use of prophylactic alpha blockers and strict adherence to urethral-sparing techniques, detailed urethral dosimetry did not substantially improve the ability to predict urinary morbidity. Neither the average dose to the prostatic urethra nor urethral doses stratified into base, midprostate, apex, or urogenital diaphragm segments predicted for IPSS normalization. Radiation doses of 100%-140% minimum peripheral dose are well tolerated by all segments of the prostatic urethra with resultant tumorcidal doses to foci of periurethral cancer.
Lamy, C; Oppenheim, C; Mas, J L
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a recently proposed cliniconeuroradiologic entity with several well-known causes, such as hypertensive encephalopathy, eclampsia, and the use of cytotoxic and immunosuppressive drugs, as well as some causes more recently described. PRES is characterized by neuroimaging findings of reversible vasogenic subcortical edema without infarction. The pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Two opposing hypotheses are commonly cited, but the issue is controversial: (1) the current more popular theory suggests that severe hypertension exceeds the limits of autoregulation, leading to breakthrough brain edema; (2) the earlier original theory suggests that hypertension leads to cerebral autoregulatory vasoconstriction, ischemia, and subsequent brain edema. The clinical syndrome of PRES typically involves headache, encephalopathy, visual symptoms, and seizures. The clinical presentation is often nonspecific, and therefore the diagnosis of PRES has come to increasingly rely on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities consistent with PRES with documented recovery clinically and on repeated neuroimaging. The diagnosis has important therapeutic and prognostic implications because the reversibility of the clinical and radiologic abnormalities is contingent on the prompt control of blood pressure and/or discontinuing the offending drug. PMID:24365441
Og?odek, Ewa; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander
As civilization advanced, the number of disasters, including their types and size of the threat to humanity. In addition to natural disasters and wars, there are currently a disaster communication, environmental and technological. Disasters "new generation" include increasingly frequent bombings and terrorist attacks. These events are an impediment to long-lasting and deep impact on the mental functioning of the victims of the event. This represents a potential risk of a variety of psychopathological symptoms, which go beyond the limits of human suffering. ICD-I0 classification includes individuals sickness arising as a consequence of pathological after surviving the disaster, which include: acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), post-traumatic stress disorder linked to depression, symptoms anxiety, addictions, dissociative disorders and personality changes and permanent after the disaster. PMID:22400171
\\u000a Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem, often referred to as a silent epidemic due to lack of public\\u000a awareness . TBI is still the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world for individuals under the age of 45\\u000a . In the United States alone, based on population data from 1995 to 2001, 1.4 million
\\u000a Head injuries are common among children, and they result in a significant number of visits to emergency departments and physicians’\\u000a offices each year. In children 15yr old and under, the estimated incidence of traumatic brain injury is 180 per 100,000 children\\u000a per year, totaling more than 1 million injuries annually in the United States and accounting for more than 10%
Risdall, Jane E.; Menon, David K.
There is an increasing incidence of military traumatic brain injury (TBI), and similar injuries are seen in civilians in war zones or terrorist incidents. Indeed, blast-induced mild TBI has been referred to as the signature injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Assessment involves schemes that are common in civilcian practice but, in common with civilian TBI, takes little account of information available from modern imaging (particularly diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging) and emerging biomarkers. The efficient logistics of clinical care delivery in the field may have a role in optimizing outcome. Clinical care has much in common with civilian TBI, but intracranial pressure monitoring is not always available, and protocols need to be modified to take account of this. In addition, severe early oedema has led to increasing use of decompressive craniectomy, and blast TBI may be associated with a higher incidence of vasospasm and pseudoaneurysm formation. Visual and/or auditory deficits are common, and there is a significant risk of post-traumatic epilepsy. TBI is rarely an isolated finding in this setting, and persistent post-concussive symptoms are commonly associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic pain, a constellation of findings that has been called the polytrauma clinical triad. PMID:21149359
ITO, KEIICHI; KENJI, SEGUCHI; YOSHII, HIDEHIKO; HAMADA, SHINSUKE; ASAKUMA, JUNICHI; TASAKI, SHINSUKE; KURODA, KENJI; SATO, AKINORI; HORIGUCHI, AKIO; ASANO, TOMOHIKO
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of our modified posterior musculofascial plate reconstruction (PMPR) procedure in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). Prior to 2010, four operative procedures were used to expedite continence recovery: preserving the fascia covering the levator ani muscle, preserving the bladder neck, securing a functional urethral length by using a lateral-view dissection technique and suspending the vesicourethral anastomosis from the puboprostatic ligaments. Since February, 2010, a running suture between Denonvilliers' fascia (DF) and the median fibrous raphe (MFR, the fibrous tissue that lies immediately underneath the urethra) has also been used. In vesicourethral anastomosis, a double-armed running suture was performed. At the beginning of the anastomosis, the first stitches (at 1 and 11 o'clock positions on the bladder neck) were placed 1–2 cm dorsocephalad to the bladder neck (first through the seromuscular layer and then through the full thickness of the bladder neck). At the 5 and 7 o'clock positions of the urethra, the stitches were placed through the urethral mucosa as well as the the reconstructed musculofascial plate. The bladder shape was evaluated by postoperative cystography and the clinical results were compared between patients undergoing LRP without PMPR (group A) and those undergoing LRP with PMPR (group B). The cystograms demonstrated that the PMPR significantly shortened the vertical length of the bladder and significantly decreased the posterior vesicourethral angle. At 1, 3 and 6 months after LRP, the number of daily used pads was significantly lower in group B compared to that in group A and the time to achieve a pad-free status was significantly shorter in group B. Our modified PMPR procedure significantly improved the recovery of urinary continence following LRP and this improvement may be due in part to changes of the bladder shape. PMID:24649279
Hirosuke Fujisawa; Hiroyasu Yonaha; Katsuki Okumoto; Hidekatsu Uehara; Tomotsugu Ie; Yoshihiko Nagata; Eiichi Suehiro; Michiyasu Suzuki
Case report A 7-year-old boy was involved in a road traffic accident. A computed tomography scan revealed an acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) of the posterior fossa, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, and distortion of the brain stem. Removal of the ASDH was completed 3.5 h after injury. After extubation, the patient rapidly recovered consciousness. He was able to follow commands, although he did
Tupikina, Nataliya; Pushkar, Dmitry
Introduction Objectives were to evaluate safety and patient reported perception of the Martius fibroadipose flap for complex female urethra reconstruction. Material and methods Patients operated with a Martius flap were contacted again via telephone to rate their self–perception on cosmetic appearance, pain or numbness of the flap harvest site. Results 37 women (mean age of 46.8 yrs.) were operated with Martius flaps. Complications were limited to bleeding from the flap bed in 19% (7/37); hematomas – 5.4% (2/37); and lymphorrhea from the labial incision in 13.5% (5/37) and labial wound infection in 5.4% of cases (2/37). For self–perception 65% of patients (24/37) were phone interviewed (mean follow up – 54.2 months). Only 17% of women (4/24) complained to cosmetic problems. Two patients (8%) complained to a periodical mild pain. And 12.5% (3/24) of the women had decreased sensation or numbness at the labia. Conclusions Martius flap is safe and it is not causing significant complications during female urethral reconstruction. However, an informed consent for decreased sensation and numbness at the flap harvesting area should be obtained. PMID:25140241
Cheng, Chen-Li; de Groat, William C.
Purpose The postmenopausal hypoestrogen condition is associated with various lower urinary tract dysfunctions, including frequency, urgency, stress urinary incontinence and recurrent urinary infection. We determined whether hypoestrogen induced lower urinary tract dysfunction after ovariectomy is also associated with an alteration in external urethral sphincter activity. Materials and Methods Bilateral ovariectomy was performed in female Sprague-Dawley® rats and sham operated rats served as controls. Transvesical cystometry and external urethral sphincter electromyogram activity were monitored 4, 6 and 12 weeks after sham operation or bilateral ovariectomy and at 6 weeks in bilaterally ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen. Results The micturition reflex was elicited in sham operated and bilaterally ovariectomized, urethane anesthetized animals. Post-void residual urine increased and voiding efficiency decreased in rats with 4 to 12 weeks of bilateral ovariectomy. The silent period of external urethral sphincter electromyogram activity was shortened significantly and progressively at increased times after bilateral ovariectomy. These effects were prevented by estradiol treatment. Conclusions As evidenced by shortening of the external urethral sphincter electromyogram silent period in ovariectomized rats, the disruption of coordination between the external urethral sphincter and the detrusor muscle could decrease urine outflow and in turn voiding efficiency. Estrogen replacement reverses these changes, suggesting that the central pathways responsible for detrusor-sphincter coordination are modulated by gonadal hormones. PMID:21600603
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a real illness. You can get PTSD after living through or seeing a traumatic event, such as war, a ... sexual assault, physical abuse, or a bad accident. PTSD makes you feel stressed and afraid after the ...
Bandettini, Peter A.
-traumatic stress disorder. #12;· · · · · · What is post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD? PTSD is a real illness.You can get PTSD after living through or seeing a dangerous event, such as war, a hurricane, or bad accident. PTSD makes you feel stressed and afraid after the danger is over. It affects your life
Bandettini, Peter A.
-Traumatic Stress Disorder What is post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD? PTSD is a real illness. You can get PTSD after living through or seeing a dangerous event, such as war, a hurricane, or bad accident. PTSD makes. If you have PTSD, you can get treatment and feel better. Who gets PTSD? PTSD can happen to anyone at any
Johan J. M. Pel; Ron van Mastrigt
A novel, non-invasive method to diagnose bladder outlet obstruction involves the recording of noise with a contact microphone pressed against the perineum (between anus and scrotum). This noise results from flow-generated vortices caused by prostatic obstruction. We developed a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) urethral model including urethral geometry to study the relation between generated noise and the degree of obstruction.
Triguero, D; Costa, G; Labadía, A; Jiménez, E; García-Pascual, A
In the present work we have characterized the relaxant response induced by light stimulation (LS) in the lower urinary tract from sheep, pig and rat, establishing its relationship with nitrergic neurotransmission. Urethral, but not detrusor, preparations showed pronounced photo-relaxation (PR) which declined progressively following repetitive LS. Sheep urethral PR was again restored either spontaneously or (to a greater extent) by exogenous nitric oxide (NO) addition and by electrical field stimulation (EFS) of intrinsic nitrergic nerves. Greater NO generation was detected from sheep urethral than from detrusor homogenates following illumination. Sheep urethral PR was inhibited by oxyhaemoglobin, but not by methaemoglobin, carboxy-PTIO, extracellular superoxide anion generators or superoxide dismutase. Guanylyl cyclase but not adenylyl cyclase activation mediates urethral relaxation to LS. Urethral PR was more resistant to inhibition by L-thiocitrulline than EFS-induced responses, although this agent prevented PR restoration by high-frequency EFS. Urethral PR was TTX insensitive and partially modified in high-K+ solutions. Cold storage for 24 h greatly impaired urethral PR, although it was restored by high-frequency EFS. Repetitive exposure to LS, EFS or exogenous NO induced changes in the shape of the EFS-induced nitrergic relaxation, possibly by pre-synaptic mechanisms. In conclusion, we suggest the presence of an endogenous, photo-labile, nitro-compound store in the urethra, which seems to be replenished by neural nitric oxide synthase activity, indicating a close functional relationship with the nitrergic neurotransmitter. PMID:10713968
Reddy, K Rajeshwar
Stricture urethra, though a rare condition, still is a rational and troublesome problem in the international society. Major complications caused by this disease are obstructed urine flow, urine stasis leading to urinary tract infection, calculi formation, etc. This condition can be correlated with Mutramarga Sankocha in Ayurveda. Modern medical science suggests urethral dilatation, which may cause bleeding, false passage and fistula formation in few cases. Surgical procedures have their own complications and limitations. Uttarabasti, a para-surgical procedure is the most effective available treatment in Ayurveda for the diseases of Mutravaha Strotas. In the present study, total 60 patients of urethral stricture were divided into two groups and treated with Uttarabasti (Group A) and urethral dilatation (Group B). The symptoms like obstructed urine flow, straining, dribbling and prolongation of micturation were assessed before and after treatment. The results of the study were significant on all the parameters. PMID:24250127
Sergouniotis, Fotios; Jarlshammar, Björn; Larsson, Per-Göran
AIM: To analyze the clinical features, diagnostic modalities, and the surgical management of urethral complications after tension-free vaginal tape procedures. METHODS: This study encompasses a retrospective review of nine patients presented with urethral complications after midurethral sling procedures. The patients underwent the procedures during a period from 1999 to 2012 in three different regional hospitals in the southwest part of Sweden. The time from sling placement to diagnosis, the risk factors, clinical features, diagnosis, surgical management, and functional outcome are presented. The presenting symptoms were described as either early onset (< 12 mo) or late onset (> 12 mo) according to when they were first reported. RESULTS: Eight cases of urethral erosion and one case of bladder-neck erosion were detected. The mean interval for diagnoses of the erosions ranged from 3 mo to 11 years. The most common presenting symptoms included de novo urgency with or without incontinence (7/9 patients), urinary retention/voiding dysfunction (4/9 patients), urethritis (4/9 patients), relapse of stress-incontinence (3/9 patients), recurrent urinary tract infections (5/9 patients), and hematuria (1/9 patient). In most cases, voiding dysfunction and urethritis occurred early after the operation. The surgical management applied in most cases was transurethral resection of the intraurethral part of the mesh. The removal of the intraurethral mesh resulted in improvement or complete cure of urgency symptoms in 5/7 patients with urgency. Four patients were reoperated with a new stress-incontinence surgery, one with laparoscopic Burch, and three with retropubic tension-free vaginal tape procedures. CONCLUSION: Urethral complications should be suspected in the case of de novo urgency and relapse of stress-incontinence. Transurethral excision of the intraurethral mesh is the recommended treatment.
Goel, Apul; Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Manmeet
Introduction: We describe the combined use of the Orandi flap and the scrotal skin advancement flap to reduce complications for pendulous urethral stricture in men >40 years old. Methods: Over the last 40 months, 10 men underwent urethroplasty for pendulous stricture by the modified Orandi urethroplasty. In this, additionally, a midline hairless scrotal skin flap of the size of the ventral skin defect on the pendulous portion was raised based on the dartos fascia. This flap was mobilized so that it reached the pendulous portion without tension and covered the penile defect. The catheter was removed after 4 weeks. Patients were followed every 3 months using uroflowmetry and the American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score. Results: The mean age was 55.5. Of the 10 patients, the etiology was post-catheterization in 5 and idiopathic in the remaining 5. Three men also had stricture extending into the bulbous urethra (repaired using buccal graft). The mean additional time needed for the flap coverage was 36.2 minutes (range: 30–45). The median follow-up was 12 months (range: 3–40). The mean postoperative symptom score was 5.2 and the mean flow rate was 20.1 mL/sec. In 2 men, the meatus got retracted to the distal penile part (probably due to downward traction by scrotal skin). No patient complained of disfigurement. Two men reported recurrence (1 each in bulbous and penile urethra). The limitations are small number of patients and the observational nature of this study. Conclusions: The intermediate-term results show that the modified Orandi urethroplasty is an acceptable treatment option with acceptable cosmetic results. PMID:26085873
de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; OLTRAMARI-NAVARRO, Paula Vanessa Pedron; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; NAVARRO, Ricardo de Lima; MARQUES, Henry Victor Alves
Posterior crossbite is defined as an inadequate transversal relationship of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Even when eliminating the etiologic factors, this malocclusion does not have a spontaneous correction, and should be treated with maxillary expansion as early as possible. This treatment aims at providing a better tooth/skeletal relationship, thereby improving masticatory function, and establishing a symmetrical condyle/fossa relationship. Should posterior crossbite not be treated early, it may result in skeletal changes, demanding a more complex approach. Additionally, an overcorrection expansion protocol should be applied in order to improve the treatment stability. Although the literature has reported a high rate of relapse after maxillary expansion, the goal of this study was to demonstrate excellent stability of the posterior crossbite correction 21 years post treatment. PMID:22666850
Xiong, Yan; Wang, Yong
Myelolipoma in posterior mediastinum is indeed rare. As a benign tumor, it consists of mature fat with scattered foci of haematopoietic elements resembling bone marrow. The computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are effective methods to detect them, while the definite diagnosis still depends on pathological diagnosis. Up to now, there is no standard treatment for this disease. Surgery is thought to be the best choice in some literatures reports. In this paper, two patients with primary posterior mediastinal tumor are reported, both of whom were underwent Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Postoperative pathological diagnosis was myelolipoma. PMID:25276393
Plekhanov, A N
Historical and statistical data on traumatic diaphragmatic hernias are presented. It was shown that frequency of occurrence of the pathology in question was dependent on principal causes of its development, anatomic features of diaphragmatic hernias and mechanisms of damage of the diaphragm. In the article the author notes that the worsening of criminogenic situation, increased number of road and traffic accidents were principal causes of the development of diaphragmatic hernias. Special place in the review is given to strangulated diaphragmatic hernias. The basic diagnostic methods for this pathology are radiological investigation, computed tomography and ultrasonic scanning. In addition, the methods of treatment, prognosis of the development of diaphragmatic hernias, complications included, are presented. PMID:23227757
... examples of traumatic events are a natural disaster, rape, severe car crash or fighting in a war. ... or victims of war or combat Survivors of rape, domestic violence, physical assault such as a mugging ...
Yanni, Daniel S.; Mammis, Antonios; Thaker, Nikhil G.; Goldstein, Ira M.
Spinal dural meningoceles and diverticula are meningeal cysts that have a myriad of clinical presentations and sequelae, secondary to local mass effect. Our objective is to report a technical case report, illustrating a traumatic spinal injury with multiple pedicle fractures, secondary to atrophic lumbar pedicles as well as the diagnostic workup and surgical management of this problem. Posterior lumbar decompression, resection of the meningeal cyst, ligation of the cyst ostium, instrumentation, and fusion were performed with the assistance of intraoperative isocentric fluoroscopy. The cyst's point of communication was successfully located with intraoperative fluoroscopy and the lesion was successfully excised. We suggest that patients with traumatic spinal injuries, having evidence of pre-existing anomalous bony architecture, undergo advanced imaging studies, to rule out intraspinal pathology. The positive clinical and radiographic results support the removal and closure of the pre-existing meningeal cyst at the time of treatment of traumatic spinal injury. Intraoperative isocentric fluoroscopy is a helpful tool in the operative management of these lesions. PMID:22022654
Sang Woo Park; Deuk Jae Sung; Eun Jung Choi; Min Woo Lee; Young Jun Kim; Jeong Geun Yi; Hae Jeong Jeon; Jeong Hee Park
Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of standing and lateral cystograms for differentiation of intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD) from urethral hypermobility (UH) causing stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Materials and Methods: 67 female patients with urinary incontinence undergoing measurement of the Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP) were included. 14 patients with VLPP <60 cm H2O were operated for ISD causing SUI while
V. Herrmann; L. A. Arya; D. L. Myers; N. D. Jackson; P. C. Palma; C. L. Riccetto
The aim of this study was to evaluate a new method to measure urethral resistance among 66 women with urinary incontinence. A stainless steel sphere attached to a guide wire was developed. The sphere is inserted into the bladder and withdrawn through the urethra at a steady rate. Serial measurements with spheres of 5, 6 and 7 mm were performed. The
Burghartz, Melanie; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Voget, Sonja; Daniel, Rolf; Overmann, Jörg
Myroides sp. A21, isolated from a urethral catheterized patient without symptoms of a urinary tract infection in Germany, proved to be extensively drug resistant. Here, we report the 4.16-Mb complete genome sequence of strain A21, carrying unusual pathogenicity islands and explaining the features of multidrug resistance. PMID:25745004
Jafar Kolahi; Mohamadreza Abrishami; Mohamad Fazilati; Ahmad Soolari
BACKGROUND: Oral sex among teenagers is on the rise. Similarity between the oral flora and organisms recovered from nongonococcal urethritis and prostatitis, points to retrograde entry of bacteria from oral cavity into the urethra following insertive oral intercourse. PRESENTATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS: Chlorhexidine has a wide spectrum of anti-bactericidal activity encompassing gram positive and negative bacteria. It is also effective
Jung Hun Lee; Khae Hawn Kim; Hyo Won Lee; Kye Hyun Kim; Joong Sub Choi; Sang Jin Yoon; Jong Sul Han; Kyo Won Lee
Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to assess the objective and subjective efficacy of the distal urethral polypropylene sling (DUPS) for urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) in Korean women. Patients and Methods: We performed DUPS in 89 consecutive patients with USI. The Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) were used to evaluate the surgical outcomes.
Zeng, Jianwen; Ekman, Mari; Grossi, Mario; Svensson, Daniel; Nilsson, Bengt-Olof; Jiang, Chonghe; Uvelius, Bengt; Swärd, Karl
Caveolae are 50-100nm large invaginations in the cell membrane that are considered to play roles in receptor signaling. Here we aimed to investigate the expression and distribution of the arginine-vasopressin (AVP) V1a receptor and its functional dependence on caveolin-1 (Cav1) in the mouse urethra. Female Cav1 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice were used, and urethral preparations were micro-dissected for mechanical experiments. Methyl-?-cyclodextrin (m?cd) was used to deplete cholesterol and to disrupt caveolae. Protein expression and localization was determined using immunofluorescence and western blotting and transcript expression was determined by qRT-PCR. We found that Cav1 and AVP V1a receptors were expressed in urethral smooth muscle cells with apparent co-localization at the cell membrane. AVP caused urethral contraction that was inhibited by the V1a receptor antagonist SR49059. Concentration-response curves for AVP were right-shifted and maximal contraction was reduced in Cav1 KO mice and after m?cd treatment. In addition to caveolin-1 we also detected caveolin-2, cavin-1 and cavin-3 in the mouse urethra by western blotting. Caveolin-2, cavin-1 and cavin-3 as well as V1a receptor expression was reduced in KO urethra. We conclude that AVP regulates urethral contractility via the V1a receptor through a Cav1-dependent mechanism involving, in part, altered V1a receptor expression. PMID:25637087
Singh, Sunita; Rawat, Jiledar
Aims: Report of seven children with Y-type urethral duplication (YUD). Materials and Methods: (A) Four staged operations were performed in patients having extensive perineal dissection (for rectourinary fistula separation and anterior mobilization of ventral urethra (VU)), tension rectocutaneous anastomosis, and children who were not toilet trained). These stages are (1) diversion sigmoid colostomy with anterior mobilization of VU as perineal urethrostomy via anterior sagittal approach; (2) Orthotopic urethral (OU) reconstruction; (3) anastomosis of OU and perineal urethra; (4) colostomy closure with management of complications. (B) The patients having VU onto the perineum underwent single stage urethral reconstruction. Results: The VU was urethrorectal/urethroanal in five and urethroperineal in two. Low anorectal malformation and upper urinary tract anomalies were present in 57.1% (4/7) and 14.7% (1/7) patients, respectively. Buccal mucosa free graft, transverse inner preputial flap, and perineal skin were tubularized for OU reconstruction. Mean age at 1st , 2nd , 3rd , and 4th surgery was 5 ± 0.78, 28 ± 0.78, 36 ± 0.78, 49 ± 0.78 months respectively. Three patients needed surgery for complications (urethrocutaneous fistula in two and urethral diverticulum in one) in a mean 3.12 ± 0.34 years of follow-up. Final uroflowmetry and fecal continence were good in all patients. Conclusions: The YUD is a difficult entity to manage. Although, staged procedure appears to be time consuming, but good and promising results can be achieved by staging the procedure. PMID:24019640
Cuélar-Avaroma, A; King-Hayata, M; Martínez-de Anda, M C; King-Martinez, A C
Posterior tibial tendinitis occurs commonly in patients involved in sports activities. It may result from either excessive use or sudden overload of the tendon. This tendinitis may also occur in patients with systemic inflammatory conditions and is classified as posterior tibial tendon dysfunction stage I. Initial treatment, which has produced good results, is based on immobilization and rehabilitation. In cases without clinical improvement or in which tendinitis is associated with partial tendon rupture, open techniques may be used to perform tenosynovectomy and tendon revisions to improve painful symptoms. With the advent of minimally invasive techniques broad tendon revisions may be done that cause minimal damage or they may be combined with traditional techniques in cases of partial rupture. This paper describes the clinical case of a 35 year-old female patient with posterior tibial pathology and chronic pain. She underwent posterior tibial tenoscopy and was followed-up postoperatively for 24 months. Endoscopic and/or tenoscopic treatment is a simple and reproducible technique. We obtained excellent functional and cosmetic results in this patient. We need larger case series of patients subjected to this treatment. PMID:26016290
Joos, Zachary P; Adesina, Ore-Ofe O; Katz, Bradley J
We present the magnetic resonance imaging findings of posterior ischemic optic neuropathy in a patient with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome secondary to hypertensive emergency. PMID:24647142
Mayer, Cynthia L.; Huber, Bertrand R.; Peskind, Elaine
Concussions following head and/or neck injury are common, and although most people with mild injuries recover uneventfully, a subset of individuals develop persistent post-concussive symptoms that often include headaches. Post-traumatic headaches vary in presentation and may progress to become chronic and in some cases debilitating. Little is known about the pathogenesis of post-traumatic headaches, although shared pathophysiology with that of the brain injury is suspected. Following primary injury to brain tissues, inflammation rapidly ensues; while this inflammatory response initially provides a defensive/reparative function, it can persist beyond its beneficial effect, potentially leading to secondary injuries because of alterations in neuronal excitability, axonal integrity, central processing, and other changes. These changes may account for the neurological symptoms often observed after traumatic brain injury, including headaches. This review considers selected aspects of the inflammatory response following traumatic brain injury, with an emphasis on the role of glial cells as mediators of maladaptive post-traumatic inflammation. PMID:24090534
Papadogianis, Y; Boyer, D B; Lakes, R S
The creep of microspecimens of posterior dental composites was studied using a torsional creep apparatus. Shear stresses were maintained for 3 h and recovery was followed for 50 h. Creep curves were obtained at 21, 37, and 50 degrees C and four torque levels. The effect of conditioning the specimens in water up to 8 weeks was studied. The posterior composites exhibited linear viscoelastic behavior at low deformations. They had higher shear moduli and greater resistance to creep than conventional and microfilled composites. In aging experiments, maximum shear moduli occurred when specimens were 48 h to 1 week old. Subsequent softening was attributed to water absorption. Residual strain was highest when the composites were stressed within 24 h of initiating polymerization. Residual strain was very low in specimens 48 h to 8 weeks of age. PMID:4077874
Phillips, Flip; Voshell, Martin G
The study of spatial vision is a long and well traveled road (which, of course, converges to a vanishing point at the horizon). Its various distortions have been widely investigated empirically, and most concentrate, pragmatically, on the space anterior to the observer. The visual world behind the observer has received relatively less attention and it is this perspective the current experiments address. Our results show systematic perceptual distortions in the posterior visual world when viewed statically. Under static viewing conditions, observer's perceptual representation was consistently 'spread' in a hyperbolic fashion. Directions to distant, peripheral locations were consistently overestimated by about 11 degrees from the ground truth and this variability increased as the target was moved toward the center of the observer's back. The perceptual representation of posterior visual space is, no doubt, secondary to the more immediate needs of the anterior visual world. Still, it is important in some domains including certain sports, such as rowing, and in vehicular navigation. PMID:19764306
... with post-traumatic stress need early treatment with methods that are used to treat other trauma victims. ... symptoms of post-traumatic stress. The crisis intervention method aims to relieve distress and help the patient ...
Patwardhan, Maneesha Anil
Isolated traumatic oculomotor nerve palsy caused by a trivial fall is extremely rare. We report a case of this condition. A 49-year-old woman had distal radius fracture and ptosis on the same side after having a trivial domestic fall. She did not show any clinical or radiological signs of head injury. Computerized tomography revealed a calcified posterior petroclinoid ligament which has direct anatomical and pathological relation with the oculomotor nerve. PMID:25767590
Dashottar, Amitabh; Borstad, John
Glenohumeral joint posterior capsule contracture may cause shoulder pain by altering normal joint mechanics. Contracture is commonly noted in throwing athletes but can also be present in nonthrowers. The cause of contracture in throwing athletes is assumed to be a response to the high amount of repetitive tensile force placed on the tissue, whereas the mechanism of contracture in nonthrowers is unknown. It is likely that mechanical and cellular processes interact to increase the stiffness and decrease the compliance of the capsule, although the exact processes that cause a contracture have not been confirmed. Cadaver models have been used to study the effect of posterior capsule contracture on joint mechanics and demonstrate alterations in range of motion and in humeral head kinematics. Imaging has been used to assess posterior capsule contracture, although standard techniques and quantification methods are lacking. Clinically, contracture manifests as a reduction in glenohumeral internal rotation and/or cross body adduction range of motion. Stretching and manual techniques are used to improve range of motion and often decrease symptoms in painful shoulders. PMID:24265649
S. C. Radley; C. R. Chapple; I. C. Mitsogiannis; K. S. Glass
Objective: To assess the results of transurethral implantation of Macroplastique® in women with stress incontinence secondary to urethral sphincter deficiency using subjective and objective outcome measures.Methods: A total of 60 women with genuine stress incontinence secondary to intrinsic urethral sphincter deficiency were treated with transurethral implantation of Macroplastique. The patients had undergone a mean of 1.9 (range 0–7) previous episodes
Anthony P. Mannarino; Judith A. Cohen
Although different types of childhood trauma have many common characteristics and mental health outcomes, traumatic loss in children and adolescents has a number of distinctive features. Most importantly, youth who experience a traumatic loss may develop childhood traumatic grief (CTG), which is the encroachment of trauma symptoms on the grieving process and prevents the child from negotiating the typical steps
Watson, Helena; Stasiowska, Ewa
A 38-year old female presented with the acute onset of a vulval mass associated with pain and vaginal bleeding. She is female phenotype but has 46XY karyotype and Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS). At 15 years old she had a laparotomy and bilateral orchidectomy. Following admission, an examination under anaesthesia and cystoscopy was performed. A diagnosis of strangulated complete urethral prolapse was made. The lesion was excised with diathermy and the meatal skin was reanastomosed to the urethra. At follow-up, the urethra was well healed. The patient now attends Menopause Clinic for oestrogen-replacement therapy. We hope this case raises awareness of the possibility of urethral prolapse in younger women who are oestrogen deficient. It provides further incentive for compliance with hormone replacement therapy for patients with CAIS following gonadectomy, or other women with premature menopause. PMID:25017598
Marrs, Carl F; Zhang, Lixin; Tallman, Patricia; Manning, Shannon D; Somsel, Patricia; Raz, Paul; Colodner, Raul; Jantunen, Maria E; Siitonen, Anja; Saxen, Harri; Foxman, Betsy
A total of 868 isolates was screened from seven different collections of organisms from previous studies - pyelonephritis in children aged 1-24 months; first, second and recurring urinary tract infection (UTI) in women aged 18-39 years; UTI in women aged 40-65 years and peri-urethral and faecal isolates from women aged 18-39 years - for the presence of 10 potential Escherichia coli UTI virulence genes. Previously reported differences between the frequency of these genes in UTI compared with faecal isolates were confirmed and extended. A single virulence signature (strains containing aer, kpsMT, ompT, fim and papGAD) occurred in 29% of the pyelonephritic isolates, but in no more than 11% of the other collections. Peri-urethral isolates were found to have frequencies of these 10 genes that differed from those found for both UTI and faecal isolates. PMID:11863265
Ogino, Y; Suzuki, K; Haraguchi, R; Satoh, Y; Dolle, P; Yamada, G
The process of fetal external genitalia development might be divided into two processes. The first process accomplishes the initial outgrowth of the anlage, genital tubercle (GT). Previous analysis suggests that the distal urethral epithelium (DUE) of the GT, the Fgf8-expressing region, regulates the outgrowth of the GT. The second process eventually generates the sexually dimorphic development of the external genitalia, which is dependent on the action of steroid hormones. Several key genes, for example, RARs, RXRs, RALDH2, and CYP26, were dynamically expressed during GT development. The teratogenic dose of RA at 9.0 d.p.c. induced a drastic malformation of the urethral plate during GT formation, but did not show gross abnormalities in its outgrowth. In RA-treated embryos, Fgf8 expression was still detected in the distal GT regions. Possible regulatory roles of the FGF and RA signaling systems in external genitalia formation are discussed. PMID:11795391
Walker, Helen; Brooker, Thomas; Gelman, Wolf
We report a rare postoperative complication of a mid-urethral tape. The patient presented with a chronic infection resistant to treatment with several weeks of antibiotics, with eventual surgical removal, and the resulting complications of an infected incisional hernia and vesico-cutaneous fistula required reconstruction of the abdominal wall with Permacol and excision of the vesico-cutaneous fistula. We also look briefly at the impact of health tourism on the National Health Service. PMID:19730929
F. Frauscher; G. Helweg; H. Strasser; B. Enna; A. Klauser; R. Knapp; K. Colleselli; G. Bartsch; D. Zur Nedden
. The aim of our study was to evaluate the striated urethral sphincter (rhabdosphincter) in incontinent females by means of\\u000a intraurethral ultrasound (IUUS). Thirty-four incontinent and 11 continent female patients were examined by means of 12.5-MHz\\u000a endoluminal ultrasound (US). The distance between the inner contour of the sphincter muscle and the US catheter was measured\\u000a in the contracted and the
Aisha Khalali Taylor; Elodi Dielubanza; John Hairston
The use of injectable bulking agents is a well-established approach to management of patients with stress urinary incontinence\\u000a (SUI). No single bulking agent to date has been shown to be superior or consistently durable in the literature. Novel therapeutic\\u000a strategies, including the use of injectable, muscle-derived stem cell therapy, have shown promising results in investigational\\u000a stages. Urethral bulking agent therapy
D. Stickler; N. Morris; M.-C. Moreno; N. Sabbuba
A model of the catheterised bladder was used to test the ability of urease-producing urinary tract pathogens to encrust urethral catheters. Encrustation was assessed by determining the amounts of calcium and magnesium deposited on the catheters and visualised by scanning electron microscopy. Urease-positiveMorganella morganii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, andPseudomonas aeruginosa failed to raise the urinary pH and form crystalline biofilms. In contrast,
L. Velemir; J. Amblard; B. Jacquetin; B. Fatton
Urethral erosion (UE) is an uncommon but potentially severe complication after suburethral synthetic slings. We aimed to identify\\u000a the risk factors and diagnostic modalities of UE and also functional outcome after UE surgical management. We retrospectively\\u000a analyzed eight cases of UE managed in our department between 1997 and 2007. The main presumptive risk factors of UE were excessive\\u000a sling tensioning
C. Spence-Jones; E. DeMarco; M.-C. Lemieux; H. P. Drutz
The results of 143 women who underwent a modified urethral sling using Marlex mesh for the correction of stress urinary incontinence and latent stress incontinence, as diagnosed by clinical and urodynamic testing, are examined. The overall success rate for the surgical correction of genuine stress urinary incontinence was 99% during a median follow-up time of 1 year (range 0.12–4 years).
Wang, Guifang; Lin, Guiting; Zhang, Haiyang; Qiu, Xuefeng; Ning, Hongxiu; Banie, Lia; Fandel, Thomas; Albersen, Maarten; Lue, Tom F.; Lin, Ching-Shwun
Purpose To investigate the effects of prolonged vaginal distension and beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) on urinary patterns and urethral structure in female virgin rats. Materials and Methods Female virgin rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 7 rats each. The control group received no intervention; the VD group was treated with prolonged vaginal distension (VD) via balloon inflation; the VD+BAPN group was treated with VD plus i.p. injection of 150 mg/kg of BAPN every 3 days. Three weeks later all rats were subjected to conscious cystometric analysis and then sacrificed for histological analysis of the urethra. Results Conscious cystometry identified 0, 3, and 5 rats in the control, VD, and VD+BAPN groups, respectively, as having abnormal voiding pattern. Urethral collagen content was significantly lower in the VD and VD+BAPN rats when compared to control rats. Urethral elastic fibers were disorganized and shorter in the VD and VD+BAPN rats, and were fragmented, lacking the inter-muscle connections in the VD+BAPN rats. Urethral striated muscle fibers were shorter and more widely spaced in VD and VD+BAPN rats than in control rats. Additionally, those in the VD+BAPN group exhibited an abnormal wavy shape suggestive of lacking architectural support. Conclusions Prolonged vaginal distension caused urodynamic changes and histological abnormalities in the urethra including reduced collagen content, fragmented elastic fibers, as well as sparsely arranged and shortened striated muscle fibers. BAPN appears to interfere with the restoration of collagen and elastic fibers. PMID:21982017
R. L. Summitt; A. E. Bent; D. R. Ostergard; Toni A. Harris
Forty-eight patients with genuine stress incontinence and low urethral closure pressure have undergone a suburethral sling procedure using polytetrafluoroethylene. Forty-five of the 48 patients have been followed up beyond 3 months, allowing assessment of postoperative complications. Ten patients required intermittent self-catheterization, 6 continuing beyond 3 months secondary to obstructed voiding or vesical dysfunction. Six slings were removed due to graft
Suzuki, Kentaro; Numata, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Hiroko; Raga, Dennis Diana; Ipulan, Lerrie Ann; Yokoyama, Chikako; Matsushita, Shoko; Hamada, Michito; Nakagata, Naomi; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Kume, Shoen; Takahashi, Satoru; Yamada, Gen
Masculinization of external genitalia is an essential process in the formation of the male reproductive system. Prominent characteristics of this masculinization are the organ size and the sexual differentiation of the urethra. Although androgen is a pivotal inducer of the masculinization, the regulatory mechanism under the control of androgen is still unknown. Here, we address this longstanding question about how androgen induces masculinization of the embryonic external genitalia through the identification of the v-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog B (Mafb) gene. Mafb is expressed prominently in the mesenchyme of male genital tubercle (GT), the anlage of external genitalia. MAFB expression is rarely detected in the mesenchyme of female GTs. However, exposure to exogenous androgen induces its mesenchymal expression in female GTs. Furthermore, MAFB expression is prominently down-regulated in male GTs of androgen receptor (Ar) KO mice, indicating that AR signaling is necessary for its expression. It is revealed that Mafb KO male GTs exhibit defective embryonic urethral formation, giving insight into the common human congenital anomaly hypospadias. However, the size of Mafb KO male GTs is similar with that of wild-type males. Moreover, androgen treatment fails to induce urethral masculinization of the GTs in Mafb KO mice. The current results provide evidence that Mafb is an androgen-inducible, sexually dimorphic regulator of embryonic urethral masculinization. PMID:25362053
Mishra, Akash; Agrawal, Deepak; Gupta, Deepak; Sinha, Sumit; Satyarthee, Guru D; Singh, Pankaj K
OBJECT Spondyloptosis represents the most severe form of spondylolisthesis, which usually follows high-energy trauma. Few reports exist on this specific condition, and the largest series published to date consists of only 5 patients. In the present study the authors report the clinical observations and outcomes in a cohort of 20 patients admitted to a regional trauma center for severe injuries including spondyloptosis. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective chart review of patients admitted with spondyloptosis at their department over a 5-year period (March 2008-March 2013). Clinical, radiological, and operative details were reviewed for all patients. RESULTS In total, 20 patients with spondyloptosis were treated during the period reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 27 years (range 12-45 years), and 17 patients were male (2 boys and 15 men) and 3 were women. Fall from height (45%) and road traffic accidents (35%) were the most common causes of the spinal injuries. The grading of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) was used to assess the severity of spinal cord injury, which for all patients was ASIA Grade A at the time of admission. In 11 patients (55%), the thoracolumbar junction (T10-L2) was involved in the injury, followed by the dorsal region (T1-9) in 7 patients (35%); 1 patient (5%) had lumbar and 1 patient (5%) sacral spondyloptosis. In 19 patients (95%), spondyloptosis was treated surgically, involving the posterior route in all cases. In 7 patients (37%), corpectomy was performed. None of the patients showed improvement in neurological deficits. The mean follow-up length was 37.5 months (range 3-60 months), and 5 patients died in the follow-up period from complications due to formation of bedsores (decubitus ulcers). CONCLUSIONS To the authors' best knowledge, this study was the largest of its kind on traumatic spondyloptosis. Its results illustrate the challenges of treating patients with this condition. Despite deformity correction of the spine and early mobilization of patients, traumatic spondyloptosis led to high morbidity and mortality rates because the patients lacked access to rehabilitation facilities postoperatively. PMID:25768668
Summary Bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare condition. In most cases the patients with bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture\\u000a have a general degenerative disease. This case story present a middle-aged male, who became a traumatic bilateral quadriceps\\u000a tendon rupture. Though treated acutely and trained intensively he did not achieve full range of motion.
The National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system is a death certificate-based census of occupational injury deaths. Death certificates are obtained from the 50 States, New York City, and the District of Columbia for decedent's ages 16 years or older with ...
... News & Meetings Science Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Images, Videos and More > The Body's Response to Traumatic Injury ... Health ® USA.gov National Institute of General Medical Sciences 45 Center Drive MSC 6200 Bethesda, MD 20892-6200 Tel: 301-496-7301 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
... United States population will have PTSD at some point in their lives and about 5.2 million adults have PTSD during a given year. Traumatic events that may trigger PTSD ... Spotlights Acupuncture May Help Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (06/ ...
Bassuk, Ellen L.; Konnath, Kristina; Volk, Katherine T.
The unexpected loss of a loved one, a car accident, or exposure to a violent experience is familiar to many. Everyone reacts to such events, but the responses vary widely, ranging from numbness and withdrawal, to crying, nervousness, and agitation. Because traumatic events are prevalent, cause profound suffering, and may lead to life altering…
Bandettini, Peter A.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) National Institute of Mental Health U.S. Department of Healt, or PTSD? 1 Who gets PTSD? 1 What are the symptoms of PTSD? 1 Do children react differently than adults? 3 How is PTSD detected? 3 Why do some people get PTSD and other people do not? 4 How is PTSD
Erol, Kemal; Karahan, Ali Yavuz; Kerimo?lu, Ülkü; Ordahan, Banu; Tekin, Levent; ?ahin, Muhammed; Kaydok, Ercan
Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is an important cause of acquired pes planus that frequently observed in adults. Factors that play a role in the development of PTTD such as age-related tendon degeneration, inflammatory arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, peritendinous injections and more rarely acute traumatic rupture of the tendon. PTT is the primary dynamic stabilizer of medial arch of the foot. Plantar flexion and inversion of the foot occurs with contraction of tibialis posterior tendon, and arch of the foot becomes elaveted while midtarsal joints are locked and midfoot-hindfoot sets as rigid. Thus, during the walk gastrocnemius muscle works more efficiently. If the PTT does not work in the order, other foot ligaments and joint capsule would be increasingly weak and than pes planus occurs. We present a 10-year-old female patient diagnosed as PTTD and conservative treatment with review of the current literature. PMID:25918629
Rehder, Peter; Schillfahrt, Florian; Skradski, Viktor
The question is whether the urethral sphincter may be reconstructed after longitudinal injury similar to anal sphincter injuries. Analogue to obstetric, anal sphincter repair, an approximation repair of the sphincter may be feasible. An overlap repair is possible in anal sphincter repair, but because of the little tissue available in the urethral sphincter this is not an option. We describe three cases of urethral sphincter injury of different aetiologies. All resulted in a total longitudinal disruption of the muscular components of the urethral sphincter complex. After making the diagnosis of urethral sphincter injury, a primary approximation repair was done. Follow-up of at least two and up to three years is promising with one male patient being completely continent and the two female patients needing one safety pad per day. Longitudinal disruption of the muscular elements of the sphincteric urethra may be primarily reconstructed with good success using an approximation technique with simple interrupted sutures. PMID:25258694
Kumar, Gopalan Senthil; Mahesha, Kanthila Bhat
Study Design A retrospective study was undertaken to delineate the characteristics of non-traumatic sequestrated epidurally migrated cervical disc prolapse. Purpose To present first case series of eight such cases diagnosed preoperatively and to discuss their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and their management. Overview of Literature Non-traumatic spontaneous migration of the sequestrated disc fragment epidurally behind cervical vertebral body is rare. Only ten cases have been reported in literature. Methods Detailed clinico-radiological profiles of these 8 cases are presented. In six cases their clinical picture was suggestive of cervical myelopathy. MRI scan showed single level epidural migrated disc behind body of C4, C6, and C7 in six patients and two cases with multiple levels (C5-C6). In six cases, anterior corpectomy with excision of the disc was performed and the seventh patient underwent dorsal laminectomy. The eighth patient chose not to undergo surgery. Results T1 images of the MRI scan showed an isointense signal in all the 8 cases. T2 images revealed a varying intensity. In six cases who underwent anterior corpectomy, there was a rent in the posterior longitudinal ligament. Among those in two cases multiple disc fragments were seen. In the rest four cases, a single large fragment was observed. These patients improved after anterior corpectomy and disc excision. There was no improvement in the patient who had undergone dorsal laminectomy. The eighth patient who refused surgery progressively deteriorated. Conclusions We opine that MRI scan especially T1 images are useful in these cases. We prefer to treat these cases through anterior corpectomy with excision of the sequestrated disc which proved to result in excellent outcome. PMID:22164316
Mckee, Ann C; Daneshvar, Daniel H
Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, is divided into three grades of severity: mild, moderate, and severe, based on the Glasgow Coma Scale, the loss of consciousness, and the development of post-traumatic amnesia. Although mild traumatic brain injury, including concussion and subconcussion, is by far the most common, it is also the most difficult to diagnose and the least well understood. Proper recognition, management, and treatment of acute concussion and mild traumatic brain injury are the fundamentals of an emerging clinical discipline. It is also becoming increasingly clear that some mild traumatic brain injuries have persistent, and sometimes progressive, long-term debilitating effects. Evidence indicates that a single traumatic brain injury can precipitate or accelerate multiple age-related neurodegenerations, increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and motor neuron disease, and that repetitive mild traumatic brain injuries can provoke the development of a tauopathy, chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Clinically, chronic traumatic encephalopathy is associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction, memory loss, and cognitive impairments that begin insidiously and progress slowly over decades. Pathologically, chronic traumatic encephalopathy produces atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes, thalamus, and hypothalamus, septal abnormalities, and abnormal deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau (?) as neurofibrillary tangles and disordered neurites throughout the brain. The incidence and prevalence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and the genetic risk factors critical to its development are currently unknown. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy frequently occurs as a sole diagnosis, but may be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, and motor neuron disease. Currently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy can be diagnosed only at autopsy; however, promising efforts to develop imaging, spinal fluid, and peripheral blood biomarkers are underway to diagnose and monitor the course of disease in living subjects. PMID:25702209
Bellantone, Rocco; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Bossola, Maurizio; Fadda, Guido; Salvatori, Massimo; Princi, Pietro
A case is presented of a posterior mediastinal mass arising in a 57-year-old woman with severe compressive cervical symptoms and hyperthyroidism. Computed tomography showed intrathoracic thyroid tissue that displaced the trachea towards the front and the right and invaded the posterior mediastinum. Pathological examination showed features of a poorly differentiated (insular) thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a posterior mediastinal insular thyroid carcinoma with thyroid hyperfunction. PMID:16277105
Al-Hasani, Omer Hussain
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality within society. TBI may result in both focal and diffuse brain injury. Diffuse traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is an important pathological substrate of TBI, and can...
Ray, Bradley; Sapp, Dona; Kincaid, Ashley
Research on traumatic brain injury among inmates has focused on comparing the rate of traumatic brain injury among offenders to the general population, but also how best to screen for traumatic brain injury among this population. This study administered the short version of the Ohio State University Traumatic Brain Injury Identification Method to all male inmates admitted into Indiana state prisons were screened for a month (N = 831). Results indicate that 35.7% of the inmates reported experiencing a traumatic brain injury during their lifetime and that these inmates were more likely to have a psychiatric disorder and a prior period of incarceration than those without. Logistic regression analysis finds that a traumatic brain injury predicts the likelihood of prior incarceration net of age, race, education, and psychiatric disorder. This study suggests that brief instruments can be successfully implemented into prison screenings to help divert inmates into needed treatment. PMID:24588316
Matthew B. Potts; Hita Adwanikar; Linda J. Noble-Haeusslein
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies of human TBI demonstrate that\\u000a the cerebellum is sometimes affected even when the initial mechanical insult is directed to the cerebral cortex. Some of the\\u000a components of TBI, including ataxia, postural instability, tremor, impairments in balance and fine motor skills, and even\\u000a cognitive deficits, may be
Post-traumatic auricular deformity is a unique and varied problem that taxes the ingenuity of the plastic surgeon. Case individualization is repeatedly demanded and a systematic assessment of the residual tissue is requisite to planning an appropriate reconstruction. A basic guideline is presented to emphasize fundamental principles of plastic surgery and tissue transplantation as they are applied to this challenging area of our specialty. PMID:359222
Claeys, Stéphanie; Rustichelli, Frederico; Noël, Stéphanie; Hamaide, Annick
The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the efficacy of a single daily oral dose of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) in the treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) in bitches. Nine bitches diagnosed with USMI were treated with a single daily dose [1.5 mg/kg body weight (BW)] of PPA for at least 1 month. Urethral pressure profiles (UPP) were performed in 7 dogs before treatment and repeated in 4 of them after treatment. Treatment with PPA resulted in long-term continence in 8/9 bitches. One dog did not respond to PPA and was treated surgically later. Recheck UPPs showed a significant increase in maximal urethral closure pressure in the 4 bitches after treatment with PPA compared to before treatment. In conclusion, long-term continence can be achieved in bitches affected with USMI after administration of a single daily dose of PPA (1.5 mg/kg BW). PMID:22043069
Bürger, R A; Gerharz, C D; Bunn, H; Engelmann, U H; Hohenfellner, R
In 65 male rats a comparative study was undertaken to investigate a Neodymium-YAG and CO2 laser system for the microsurgical repair of longitudinal incisions of the rat urethra. Postoperative investigations included patency tests, necropsy and light microscopy. Use of the laser systems did not reduce operation time. The highest rate of postoperative strictures (90%), urethral fistulas (30%), urinomas (20%) and postoperative deaths (70%) was seen in the Neodymium-YAG laser group. CO2 laser repair was almost as efficacious as microsuture repair, except for a higher rate of urethral fistulas resulting from the initially weak laser weld. Based on these findings, the Neodymium-YAG laser seems unsuitable for urethral repair. Further studies in larger animals are warranted using a CO2 laser in combination with postoperative cystostomy for urinary diversion in order to avoid fistulas in the early postoperative period. PMID:2398546
Paul M. Keller; K. Donald Shelbourne; John R. McCarroll; Arthur C. Rettig
To evaluate the theory that isolated posterior cruciate ligament injuries do well when treated nonoperatively, we reviewed 40 patients (mean age, 33 years at fol lowup ; average interval from injury, 6 years) who com pleted a modified Noyes knee questionnaire and were reevaluated by physical examination, radiographs, and isokinetic testing. Thirty of the injuries to the posterior cruciate ligament
Warwick J. Peacock; Leila J. Arens; Barbara Berman
We have performed selective posterior rhizotomies on 60 children with cerebral palsy. The procedure involves lumbar laminectomy with stimulation of the rootlets (fascicles) of the second lumbar to the first sacral posterior roots bilaterally; those rootlets associated with an abnormal motor response, as evidenced by sustained or diffused muscular contraction, are divided leaving intact rootlets associated with a brief localized
Consistency of Posterior Distributions for Neural Networks Herbert Lee \\Lambda May 21, 1998 Abstract In this paper we show that the posterior distribution for feedforward neural networks is asymp neural networks for nonparametric regression in a Bayesian framework. Keywords: Bayesian statistics
Melanie B. Fukui; Jeffery P. Hogg; A. Julio Martinez
Summary: We report an unusual case of an extraaxial ependy- moma of the posterior fossa in an adult. MR imaging showed a heterogeneously enhancing extraaxial mass with a cystic com- ponent. Ependymoma should be included in the differential diag- nosis of uncommon extraaxial masses of the posterior fossa.
Shepard, Maurice C.; Lunceford, Carl D.
An agar growth inhibition method for serotyping Ureaplasma urealyticum is described, and the results of applying this method to serotyping 338 strains of the organism are presented. The serotyped strains consisted of cloned isolates from male patients with primary and recurrent nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), isolates from symptomatic patients with other genitourinary tract infections and disorders, and isolates from asymptomatic carriers of U. urealyticum in the genitourinary tract (controls). Among 122 male patients with NGU, serotype 4 was associated most frequently (52%) with this disease at Camp Lejeune, N.C. Seventeen percent of the isolates were type 2. The remaining isolates consisted of types 1, 3, 6, and 8 and accounted for 6 to 9% each of the serotypes isolated from the NGU group. Types 5 and 7 were not isolated. Among 91 symptomatic patients with other genitourinary tract infections and disorders, U. urealyticum type 4 also was associated most frequently (37%) with these disorders. The remaining isolates, represented by types 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8, accounted for 9 to 15% each of the types isolated from this group. Type 5 was not isolated. Among 125 symptomfree carriers of U. urealyticum in the genitourinary tract, type 8 was recovered most frequently (30%), whereas type 4 was isolated next most frequently (24%). The remaining isolates consisted of types 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 and accounted for 2 to 15% each in this asymptomatic control group. Type 7 was not isolated. Of the present eight serotypes of U. urealyticum studied in this investigation, type 4 was associated most frequently with disease (NGU) and certain other disorders of the genitourinary tract at Camp Lejeune. A previously unknown association of U. urealyticum with frequently abacteriuric, unexplained pyuria (with or without urethral pruritis and dysuria) is reported, suggesting the existence of asymptomatic Ureaplasma urethritis. Images PMID:730828
Anding, R; van Ahlen, H; Müller, S C; Latz, S
We report on a negative outcome after implantation of a magnetic urethral closure device, consisting of one part screwed into the pubic bone and one part as a vaginal cone, for the treatment of urinary stress incontinence grade III. Continence was never achieved for the patient. The urethra narrowed over time due to erosion and scarring and the patient started intermittent catheterization, because spontaneous micturition was not possible. The magnet was broken, the bladder neck was eroded, several fragments were found in the bladder, and numerous fragments were scattered throughout the small pelvis. Surgery consisted of removing most of the fragments, followed by bladder neck closure and suprapubic diversion. PMID:25989875
Boaz, Ranil Johann; John, Nirmal Thampi; Kekre, Nitin
A 65-year-old man with stricture urethra underwent drainage of periurethral abscess and suprapubic cystostomy (SPC) placement. He presented to us 3 months later with a fungating ulcer at the site of perineal incision, the biopsy of which revealed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). He underwent a total penile amputation, wide local excision scrotum, radical urethrocystoprostatectomy, ileal conduit with the en-bloc excision of the SPC tract. Histopathological examination of the suprapubic tract also revealed SCC. This is the first documented case of SCC of a suprapubic tract in the presence of primary urethral SCC. PMID:25624581
Kerkeni, W; Chahwan, C; Lenormand, C; Dubray, B; Benyoucef, A; Pfister, C
Brachytherapy is a possible treatment for localized low risk prostate cancer. Although this option is minimally invasive, some side effects may occur. Acute retention of urine (ARU) has been observed in 5% to 22% of cases and can be prevented in most cases by alpha-blocker treatment. Several alternatives have been reported in the literature for the management of ARU following brachytherapy: prolonged suprapubic catheterization, transurethral resection of the prostate and also intermittent self-catheterization. The authors report an original endoscopic approach, using urethral endoprosthesis, with a satisfactory voiding status. PMID:24560204
Stephens, Scott P; Paisley, Kevin C; Jeng, Jeffrey; Dutta, Anil K; Wirth, Michael A
? Chronic osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint, traumatic injury, post-reconstruction arthropathy, and developmental conditions such as glenoid dysplasia can result in posterior glenoid bone loss and excessive retroversion of the glenoid. Shoulder replacement in this setting is technically challenging and characterized by higher rates of complications and revisions.? Current options that should be considered for managing glenoid bone loss that results in >15° of retroversion include bone-grafting, augmented glenoid components, and reverse total shoulder replacement.? Asymmetric reaming is commonly used to improve version but should be limited to correction of 10° to 15° of retroversion in order to preserve subchondral bone.? Bone-grafting of glenoid defects has had mixed results and has been associated with graft-related complications, periprosthetic radiolucencies, and glenoid component failure; however, it provides a biologic option for patients with severe bone loss.? Implantation of an augmented polyethylene glenoid component offers the potential to improve version while preserving subchondral bone, but the procedure is technically demanding and without clinical follow-up data at this point.? Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty offers improved fixation and stability compared with an anatomic prosthesis for elderly patients with severe glenoid bone loss but is associated with a high complication rate.? Glenoid dysplasia is defined as a deformity that results in >25° of glenoid retroversion. Advanced imaging needs to be obtained in order to ensure enough glenoid bone stock is present to allow anatomic glenoid component placement. PMID:25653326
deYoung, Mary; Lowry, Judith A.
"Traumatic bonding" is defined as "the evolution of emotional dependency between...a child and an adult [in] a relationship characterized by periodic sexual abuse." Maintains that the concept holds promise for explaining confusing dynamics of incest. Demonstrates ways in which traumatic bonding can be applied to cases of incest and discusses…
Personality traits such as adventurousness and an active, external orientation may both predispose persons to traumatic injury and assist them in adjustment to disabilities resulting from such injury. Using the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) and the Derogatis Symptom Checklist (SCL-90), personality and level of distress were assessed for 111 rehabilitation patients with either traumatic or nontraumatic disabilities associated with either
Leslie A. Burton; Derek M. Leahy; Bruce Volpe
There is much evidence that deficits in physical and psychological functioning persist long after traumatic brain injury occurs. This paper presents a brief outcome interview (BOI) that can be administered in person or over the telephone, with evaluation of change in functioning in three areas: (a) occupational status, (b) mobility\\/activities of daily living (ADL), and (c) social relationships. Forty-four traumatic
This paper is a clinical discussion of post-traumatic stress disorder and violence, particularly as it applies to the Vietnam Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome. In the first section, the syndrome is described as the sudden onset of explosive rage and unprovoked violence with little or no warning, accompanied by a drastic change in personality. It is…
Shah, Darshan H; Ganpule, Arvind P; Sabnis, Ravindra B; Desai, Mahesh R
Duplication of the urethra is a rare congenital anomaly. Urethral duplication with the presence of diverticulum is a rare combination and to the best of our knowledge has not been previously reported. We report a case of a 16 month old male child with duplication of the urethra and diverticulum arising from the ventral urethra. We also cover the intricacies and challenges in the management of such a case. The opening of the narrowed accessory dorsal urethra at the verumontanum was cauterized and gradually the dorsal urethra became atrophied. The ventral urethral diverticulum was excised. This case is unique due to: The unusual presentation of swelling over the dorsum of the penis, together with duplication of the urethra with diverticulum.The use of cauterization as a treatment modality. Cauterization of the ventral urethra with a Bugbee electrode and diverticulectomy was performed. A glidewire helped in identifying the small opening of the dorsal urethra at the level of the verumontanum. The case also highlights the importance of endoscopic management of this clinical entity. PMID:25254101
Despretz, D.; Camart, J.C.; Michel, C.; Fabre, J.J. [Univ. des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve D`Ascq (France)] [Univ. des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve D`Ascq (France); Prevost, B. [Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France)] [Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Sozanski, J.P. [INSERM, Lille (France)] [INSERM, Lille (France); Chive, M. [Univ. des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve D`Ascq (France)] [Univ. des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve D`Ascq (France); [INSERM, Lille (France)
Microwave thermotherapy systems used for benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment generally operate with urethral or rectal applicator to deliver the microwave energy in the prostate. This technique does not allow an efficient heating of all the gland particularly in the case of large adenoma or when the treatment is limited to only one heating session. A solution to this problem is given by using simultaneously the rectal and urethral applicators. A complete 915-MHz microwave thermotherapy system is presented with two applicators which can operate independently or simultaneously to deliver the microwave energy in the prostate. Electromagnetic and thermal modeling have been developed for the applicator antenna optimization, to calculate the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the thermal pattern in the prostate for each applicator alone and when they operate together in phase. Different canine experiments have been performed to prove the interest of using the two applicators simultaneously as compared when they operate alone. Histological examination cuts of the prostate gland after heating have been carried out.
Breyer, Benjamin N.; Shindel, Alan W.
OBJECTIVE To determine whether men who perform recreational sounding are at increased risk of engaging in unsafe sexual behaviours, developing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS In a cross-sectional, international, internet-based survey of the sexual practices of >2000 men who have sex with men, subjects were asked if they had engaged in urethral sounding for sexual gratification. We compared ethnodemographic and health-related variables between the sounding and non-sounding populations. The International Prostate Symptom Score and a modified validated version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to quantify LUTS and erectile dysfunction (ED) in both populations. RESULTS There were 2122 respondents with complete data, 228 (10.7%) of whom had engaged in recreational sounding. Men who had engaged in sounding were more likely to report certain high risk sexual behaviours (e.g. multiple sexual partners and sex with partners who were not well known) and had increased odds of reporting STIs. Men who had engaged in sounding had a slight but statistically significant increase in LUTS but no significant difference in prevalence of ED. CONCLUSIONS Urethral sounding is a sexual practice that is associated with higher risk sexual behaviour and carries the potential for morbidity. Research on means for risk reduction for men who choose to engage in recreational sounding requires further study. PMID:22221824
Praud, Christophe; Sebe, Philippe; Biérinx, Anne-Sophie; Sebille, Alain
Sphincteric deficiency is the most common cause of urinary incontinence in humans. Various treatments have lead to disappointing results due to a temporary benefit. Recent studies raised the possibility that sphincteric deficiency could be treated by implanting skeletal myoblasts. In the present study, we developed in the female rat a model of chronic sphincteric defect to assess the benefit of myoblast injection. Sphincter deficiency was induced by freezing, longitudinal sphincterotomy, and notexin injection, respectively, to obtain a reproducible and irreversible incontinence. Autologous tibialis anteriors were cultured to be injected in the best model. Functional results were evaluated by measuring the urethral pressure with an open catheter. Histology was performed in the excised urethras. Of the three techniques, only longitudinal sphincterotomy caused definitive incontinence by irreversibly destroying the striated sphincter muscle fibers: a 45% decrease of the closure pressure was observed 21 days after the sphincterotomy. At this time, we injected myoblasts at the sphincterotomy site. In the sham-injected group (n = 18), the closure pressure decrease was not significantly modified 21 days after injection. By comparison, a return to near normal value was observed after cell grafting (n = 21). These results and those obtained by others strongly suggest that the use of myoblasts could be a potential innovative therapy for urethral deficiencies leading to incontinence. PMID:18019363
In sexually transmitted infections and more precisely in uncomplicated urethritis and cervicitis, the two infectious agents most commonly identified in France are Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococci) and Chlamydia trachomatis, alone or associated. The resistance of N. gonorrhoeae to ciprofloxacin has reached over 20 % in France. A new national strategy for the therapeutic management of probabilistic treatment applied to uncomplicated urethritis and cervicitis is required. Bacteriological sampling before treatment is mandatory. Anti-gonococcal probabilistic treatment is a monodose using one of the following molecules: third generation cephalosporin: ceftriaxone (intra-muscular or intra-venous), cefixime (oral); aminoside: spectinomycin (intra- muscular); fluoroquinolone (bacteriologically controlled): ciprofloxacin (oral); An oral anti-Chlamydia treatment must be associated: azithromycin (monodose); or doxycycline (standard treatment). Blood tests (screening for syphilis, HIV infection, hepatitis B, hepatitis C) must be performed taking into account the delay for sero-conversion. Hepatitis B vaccination must be offered to any non-immunized patient. Protected intercourse (using condoms) must be recommended. PMID:16502519
de Groat, William C.
The urethral rhabdosphincter and pelvic floor muscles are important in maintenance of urinary continence and in preventing descent of pelvic organs [i.e., pelvic organ prolapse (POP)]. Despite its clinical importance and complexity, a comprehensive review of neural control of the rhabdosphincter and pelvic floor muscles is lacking. The present review places historical and recent basic science findings on neural control into the context of functional anatomy of the pelvic muscles and their coordination with visceral function and correlates basic science findings with clinical findings when possible. This review briefly describes the striated muscles of the pelvis and then provides details on the peripheral innervation and, in particular, the contributions of the pudendal and levator ani nerves to the function of the various pelvic muscles. The locations and unique phenotypic characteristics of rhabdosphincter motor neurons located in Onuf's nucleus, and levator ani motor neurons located diffusely in the sacral ventral horn, are provided along with the locations and phenotypes of primary afferent neurons that convey sensory information from these muscles. Spinal and supraspinal pathways mediating excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the motor neurons are described; the relative contributions of the nerves to urethral function and their involvement in POP and incontinence are discussed. Finally, a detailed summary of the neurochemical anatomy of Onuf's nucleus and the pharmacological control of the rhabdosphincter are provided. PMID:20484700
Prabhuswamy, Vinod Kumar; Tiwari, Rahul; Krishnamoorthy, Ramakrishnan
Calculi in the urethra are an uncommon entity. Giant calculi in prostatic urethra are extremely rare. The decision about treatment strategy of calculi depends upon the size, shape, and position of the calculus and the status of the urethra. If the stone is large and immovable, it may be extracted via the perineal or the suprapubic approach. In most of the previous reported cases, giant calculi were extracted via the transvesical approach and external urethrotomy. A 38-year-old male patient presented with complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms. Further investigations showed a giant urethral calculus secondary to stricture of bulbo-membranous part of the urethra. Surgical removal of calculus was done via transvesical approach. Two calculi were found and extracted. One was a huge dumbbell calculus and the other was a smaller round calculus. This case was reported because of the rare size and the dumbbell nature of the stone. Giant urethral calculi are better managed by open surgery. PMID:23762742
Fernandez-Rodriguez, Eva; Bernabeu, Ignacio; Castro, Ana I; Casanueva, Felipe F
The prevalence of hypopituitarism after traumatic brain (TBI) injury is widely variable in the literature; a meta-analysis determined a pooled prevalence of anterior hypopituitarism of 27.5%. Growth hormone deficiency is the most prevalent hormone insufficiency after TBI; however, the prevalence of each type of pituitary deficiency is influenced by the assays used for diagnosis, severity of head trauma, and time of evaluation. Recent studies have demonstrated improvement in cognitive function and cognitive quality of life with substitution therapy in GH-deficient patients after TBI. PMID:25732651
Manitoba, University of
changes in sacral afferents innervating the urethra, perineum and hindlimb skin of the cat during during micturition and in response to stimulation of lumbosacral afferents. Increases in excitability was observed in sacral urethral, perineal and hindlimb cutaneous afferents in response to electrical
K.-D. Sievert; C. Selent-Stier; J. Wiedemann; T.-O. Greiner; B. Amend; A. Stenzl; G. Feil; J. Seibold
PurposeThe aim of this tissue engineering study was to investigate urethral stricture formation for evaluating different treatment modalities in the large animal model and to validate the most current, comparable effect of human stricture development for use in successful human clinical application.
Karl B Thor
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the most common form of incontinence, continues to be a largely underdiagnosed problem that imposes large financial and quality-of-life burdens on many women but has few treatment options. Ongoing animal and early human studies have shown that monoamine neurotransmitters play key roles in controlling urethral storage and micturition reflexes. Motor neurons found in the Onuf nucleus
Stéphanie Claeys; Stéphanie Noël; Annick Hamaide
Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) is the most common cause of urinary incontinence in dogs. Surgery may be recommended if the animal does not respond to medical treatment or becomes refractory. In this third part of a three-part review, surgical options for the treatment of USMI are described. Colposuspension is the most frequently described procedure and offers a fair prognosis,
Y. TANIGUCHI; M. YOSHIDA; T. TAMAKI
Posterior interosseous nerve palsy associated with pseudogout of the elbow joint in a 71-year-old woman is described. Local steroid injection and administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug was effective in treatment.
Renals, Steve; Hochberg, Mike
In this paper we present a novel, efficient search strategy for large vocabulary continuous speech recognition (LVCSR). The search algorithm, based on stack decoding, uses posterior phone probability estimates to substantially ...
Williams, Gethin; Renals, Steve
In this paper we introduce a set of related confidence measures for large vocabulary continuous speech recognition (LVCSR) based on local phone posterior probability estimates output by an acceptor HMM acoustic model. In ...
Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Grumet, Robert C.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.
Context: Posterior hip pain is a relatively uncommon but increasingly recognized complaint in the orthopaedic community. Patient complaints and presentations are often vague or nonspecific, making diagnosis and subsequent treatment decisions difficult. The purposes of this article are to review the anatomy and pathophysiology related to posterior hip pain in the athletic patient population. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature via a MEDLINE search of all relevant articles between 1980 and 2010. Results: Many patients who complain of posterior hip pain actually have pain referred from another part of the body—notably, the lumbar spine or sacroiliac joint. Treatment options for posterior hip pain are typically nonoperative; however, surgery is warranted in some cases. Conclusions: Recent advancements in the understanding of hip anatomy, pathophysiology, and treatment options have enabled physicians to better diagnosis athletic hip injuries and select patients for appropriate treatment. PMID:23015944
Traumatic Brain Injury An International Knowledge-Based Approach Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a multifaceted condi tion, not an event. Traumatic brain injury is broadly de fined as an alteration in brain, at work, during sports ac tivities, and on the battlefield. Traumatic brain injury is an important cause
Sarah E. Ullman; Judith M. Siegel
The relationship of traumatic events to physical health was examined in a randomized community survey (N=2,364) of Los Angeles residents, 16% of whom had experienced a lifetime traumatic event. This study tested hypotheses that individuals experiencing traumatic events have poorer physical health and that the negative impact of traumatic events on physical health is greater among disadvantaged sociodemographic groups. Regression
Jin, F; Prestage, G P; Mao, L; Kippax, S C; Pell, C M; Donovan, B; Cunningham, P H; Templeton, D J; Kaldor, J M; Grulich, A E
Background Early detection and treatment of bacterial sexually transmitted infections has been advocated as an HIV prevention strategy. Aim To inform screening guidelines, the incidence and risk factors for urethral and anal gonorrhoea and chlamydia were studied in a prospective cohort of community?based HIV negative homosexual men in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Methods All participants were offered annual screening for gonorrhoea and chlamydia (study?visit diagnoses) on urine and anal swabs using nucleic acid amplification. Participants also reported diagnoses of gonorrhoea and chlamydia made elsewhere between interviews (interval diagnoses). All diagnoses were summed to create a combined incidence rate, and detailed data on specific sexual practices with casual and regular partners were collected. Results Among 1427 men enrolled, the combined incidence rates were 3.49 and 2.96 per 100?person?years for urethral and anal gonorrhoea, respectively; and 7.43 and 4.98 per 100?person?years for urethral and anal chlamydia, respectively. Urethral infections were associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with HIV?positive partners (hazard ratio (HR)?=?2.58, 95% CI 1.10 to 6.05 for urethral gonorrhoea) and with frequent insertive oral sex (p for trend 0.007 for urethral chlamydia). Anal infections were associated with receptive UAI (p for trend 0.001 for both anal gonorrhoea and chlamydia) and other receptive anal sexual practices. Stratified analyses showed the independence of the associations of insertive oral sex with urethral infections and of non?intercourse receptive anal practices with anal infections. Conclusion Incident gonorrhoea and chlamydia were common. Risk behaviours for both urethral and anal infections were not restricted to UAI. Screening that includes tests for anal and urethral infections should be considered for all sexually active homosexual men, not just for those who report UAI. PMID:17005541
A. Zellner; A. Siow
Summary Bayesian posterior odds ratios for frequently encountered hypotheses about parameters of the normal linear multiple regression\\u000a model are derived and discussed. For the particular prior distributions utilized, it is found that the posterior odds ratios\\u000a can be well approximated by functions that are monotonic in usual sampling theoryF statistics. Some implications of this finding and the relation of our work
Kim, Kyongsong; Isu, Toyohiko; Sugawara, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Isobe, Masanori; Morimoto, Daijiro; Mishina, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shiro; Yoshida, Daizo; Teramoto, Akira
Posterior decompression of the cervical spine is an accepted treatment for patients with cervical canal disease, but some patients experience postoperative axial pain and C5 or C6 palsy that affect their quality of life. Here we describe selective posterior decompression using a spinous process-splitting approach to prevent these complications performed in 17 patients with myelopathy treated at median 2.4 levels by selective posterior decompression via the transspinous approach. Clinical symptoms, axial pain, and C5 or C6 palsy were compared before and after treatment. The range of motion of the cervical spine and shift of the cervical cord were studied at the C5 level. All patients experienced symptom improvement and none suffered deterioration or required reoperation. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association score improved from 10.9 to 14.4 points and none of the patients reported C5 or C6 palsy or axial pain at the last follow-up visit. There was no statistically significant change in pre- and postoperative cervical alignment and range of motion. The posterior shift of the spinal cord at the C5 level was 1.7 mm. None of our 17 patients experienced significant postoperative axial pain after selective posterior decompression via the transspinous approach. Minimal spinal cord shift at the C5 level may have contributed to the reduced incidence of postoperative C5 or C6 palsy in our series. Selective posterior decompression is less invasive and effective in some patients with cervical canal disease. PMID:21358151
Sadiq, S; Taylor, S; Copas, A; Bennett, J; Kaye, S; Drake, S; Kirk, S; Pillay, D; Weller, I
Objectives: To examine the effects of urethritis and its treatment on semen plasma HIV-1 RNA load in HIV-1 infected men not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), in a developed world setting. Methods: Prospective case-control study. HIV-1 infected homosexual men, not receiving ART for at least 3 months, with (cases) and without (controls) symptomatic urethritis, were recruited. Blood and semen were collected for HIV-1 RNA quantification at presentation, before antibiotic therapy, and at 1 and 2 weeks. Results: 20 cases (13 gonococcal urethritis and/or chlamydial urethritis (GU/CU) and seven non-specific urethritis (NSU)) and 35 controls were recruited. Baseline characteristics and blood plasma viral load were similar in cases and controls. Mean log semen plasma viral loads were higher among those with GU/CU compared with controls (4.27 log versus 3.55 log respectively; p = 0.01) but not in those with NSU (3.48 log; p = 0.82). Following antibiotics, semen plasma viral loads fell by a mean of 0.25 log (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.47) in those with GU/CU. Semen plasma viral loads did not fall in those with NSU. Conclusions: In this study of 55 homosexual men not on ART, semen plasma viral loads were approximately fivefold higher in those with GU/CU, but not NSU, compared with controls. Treatment of GU/CU resulted in reduction in semen plasma viral loads. Although absolute effects were considerably lower when compared to patients from a similar study from sub-Saharan Africa, our data demonstrate the potential for sexually transmitted infections to enhance HIV infectivity of men not receiving ART in the developed world. PMID:15800087
Peirce, Jessica M.; Burke, Christopher K.; Stoller, Kenneth B.; Neufeld, Karin J.; Brooner, Robert K.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis requires first identifying a traumatic event, but very few studies have evaluated methods of potential traumatic event assessment and their impact on PTSD diagnosis. The authors compared a behaviorally specific comprehensive multiple-item traumatic event measure with a single-item measure to…
Miyazato, Minoru; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Kamo, Izumi; Kitta, Takeya; Chancellor, Michael B; Sugaya, Kimio; Arai, Yoichi; de Groat, William C; Yoshimura, Naoki
To clarify the role of spinal serotonergic mechanisms in preventing stress urinary incontinence (SUI) during sneezing, we investigated the effect of intrathecal (it) application of 8-OH-DPAT (a 5-HT(1A) agonist), mCPP (a 5-HT(2B/2C) agonist), and fluoxetine (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor) using a rat model that can examine the neurally evoked continence reflex during sneezing. Amplitudes of urethral pressure responses during sneezing (A-URS), urethral baseline pressure (UBP) at the midurethra, and sneeze-induced leak point pressure (S-LPP) were measured in normal female adult rats and rats with SUI induced by vaginal distention (VD). In normal rats, 8-OH-DPAT decreased A-URS by 48.9%, whereas mCPP increased A-URS by 33.6%. However, A-URS was not changed after fluoxetine. 8-OH-DPAT, mCPP, or fluoxetine did not alter UBP. The effect of 8-OH-DPAT and mCPP was antagonized by WAY-100635 (it), a selective 5-HT(1A) antagonist, and RS-102221 (it), a selective 5-HT(2C) antagonist, respectively. Fluoxetine in the presence of WAY-100635 did not change either A-URS or UBP, but fluoxetine in the presence of RS-102221 decreased A-URS. In VD rats, S-LPP was decreased by 14.6 cmH2O after 8-OH-DPAT, whereas it was increased by 12.8 cmH2O after mCPP. However, S-LPP was not changed after fluoxetine. These results indicate that activation of 5-HT(2C) receptors enhances the active urethral closure reflex during sneezing at the spinal level, whereas 5-HT(1A) inhibits it and that no apparent changes in the sneeze-induced continence reflex after fluoxetine treatment are due to coactivation of excitatory 5-HT(2C) receptors and inhibitory 5-HT receptors other than the 5-HT(1A) subtype. Thus, activation of excitatory 5-HT receptor subtypes such as 5-HT(2C) could be effective for the treatment of SUI. PMID:19640898
... Urologic Conditions Search Conditions Common Conditions What is Urology? The Urinary Tract System Free Patient Education Materials ... difficult to identify. Share About This Content The Urology Care Foundation is in the process of re- ...
... Urologic Conditions Search Conditions Common Conditions What is Urology? The Urinary Tract System Free Patient Education Materials ... from the surgery. Share About This Content The Urology Care Foundation is in the process of re- ...
... and not near the muscles that control the exit from the bladder, the stricture may be cut ... work, a urinary diversion called an appendicovesicostomy (Mitrofanoff procedure) may be done. This lets you drain your ...
Nason, Gregory J.; Burke, Matthew J.; Aslam, Asadullah; Kelly, Michael E.; Walsh, Leon G.; Flood, Hugh D.; Giri, Subhasis K.
Introduction: Laparoscopic appendicectomy (LA) is the most commonly performed surgical emergency procedure. The aim of this study was to highlight a series of iatrogenic bladder injuries during LA and suggest a simple method of prevention. Methods: A retrospective review was carried out of all LA performed in a university teaching hospital over a two year period 2012–2013. Iatrogenic visceral injuries were identified and operative notes examined. Results: During the study period 1124 appendicectomies were performed. Four iatrogenic bladder injuries occurred related to secondary trocar insertion. No patient was catheterised preoperatively. One of the injuries was identified intra-operatively, another in the early postoperative period where as two re-presented acutely unwell post-discharge from hospital. Three were repaired by laparotomy and one laparoscopically. Conclusion: Iatrogenic secondary trocar induced bladder injuries are a rare but preventable and potentially serious complication of LA. Urethral catheterisation during LA is a safe and simple method which can prevent this complication. PMID:25737758
Frauscher, F; Helweg, G; Strasser, H; Enna, B; Klauser, A; Knapp, R; Colleselli, K; Bartsch, G; Zur Nedden, D
The aim of our study was to evaluate the striated urethral sphincter (rhabdosphincter) in incontinent females by means of intraurethral ultrasound (IUUS). Thirty-four incontinent and 11 continent female patients were examined by means of 12.5-MHz endoluminal ultrasound (US). The distance between the inner contour of the sphincter muscle and the US catheter was measured in the contracted and the non-contracted condition. The US findings were correlated with those obtained by urodynamic studies. Partial or complete loss of sphincter function was detected in patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Reduced sphincter function was not observed in patients with urge incontinence and continent volunteers. The findings on US were found to correlate well with the grade of SUI. The IUUS technique offers the benefit of direct visualization of the sphincter mechanism. Therefore, endoluminal US may become an important adjunct in the diagnostic evaluation of SUI and will possibly provide new insights for a better therapeutic strategy. PMID:9442128
Alli, Nuran; Yorulmaz, Ahu
Abstract Isotretinoin (Iso) is the most effective drug against severe nodulocystic acne. As a synthetic oral retinoid, Iso exerts its actions by modulating cell growth and differentiation. Targeting all the pathophysiologic processes in acne development, Iso has been considered to be an unique drug, however it has several side effects. While chelitis, xerosis, ocular sicca, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, hyperlipidemia are the most common side effects, teratogenicity and depressive symptoms are the most concerning ones. In addition, Iso has unusual side effects which have been described for the first time in the literature. Here, we report a remarkable side effect of Iso in a 23-years-old male patient with retinoid dermatitis affecting the external uretral meatus. To our knowledge, only few cases of retinoid dermatitis in the urethral mucosa due to Iso have been reported in the literature so far. PMID:24964168
Bülow, H; Bülow, U; Levine, S; Wurster, H; Frohmüller, H
The main difference between the conventional methods of urethrotomy and the laser method is that the scar tissue of the urethral stricture is not cut but removed by evaporisation. At present only neodymium: YAG and argon ion lasers are available for clinical endoscopic use. For the purpose of removing tissue neodymium: YAG lasers need irrigation with a gas in contrast to argon ion lasers that can be utilized with the well known water irrigation. Certain considerations and experiences suggest the carbon dioxide lasers to be the best ones for evaporating stricture tissue since they cause very limited zones of necrosis with immediate sealing of the wound edges. Transurethral carbon dioxide laser application, however, is still at an experimental stage, since convenient light transmission systems are not available for clinical use at the present time. PMID:6795783
Brabson, Tamera L; Bloch, Christopher P; Johnson, Justine A
Seventy-five male cats with urethral obstruction were prospectively enrolled to evaluate gross urine color at urinary catheter placement for correlation with diagnostic findings. Cats with darker red urine were more likely to be azotemic (serum creatinine concentration >2.0 mg/dl [177 µmol/l]), and urine color correlated well with serum creatinine and serum potassium concentrations. Darker urine color was negatively correlated with urine specific gravity. Urine color was not associated with the presence or absence of lower urinary tract stones on radiographs or ultrasound. Cats with darker red urine at the time of urinary catheter placement are likely to have more significant metabolic derangements and may require more aggressive supportive care. PMID:25117491
Garcia, Cindy; Chin, Peter; Rashid, Prem; Woo, Henry H.
Prostatic urethral lift (PUL) is a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The procedure may be performed under local, spinal, or general anesthesia. The PUL procedure involves the delivery of implants that retract obstructing prostate lobes. Unlike other benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment options including pharmacological therapy, and the current invasive gold-standard transurethral resection of the prostate, the PUL procedure achieves quantifiable improvements in functional outcomes and quality of life, in the absence of major adverse events. Furthermore, improvement in LUTS may be attained while preserving erectile and ejaculatory function. Adverse effects associated with the PUL procedure are mild to moderate, and are transient in nature. The PUL procedure provides an alternative for men seeking treatment for bothersome LUTS, with fewer side-effects. PMID:26157759
Kokkonouzis, Ioannis; Antoniou, Georgios; Droulias, Athanasios
Background Self-induced injections of liquid substances mainly for penis enlargement is a well-documented but still rather uncommon practice in the western world. Case presentation Herein we present the case of a 30-year-old male who self-inflicted, twice in a six-month-period, intra-urethral liquid paraffin and tied up his penis with a cord in order to achieve both enlargement and elongation. He arrived in our emergency department suffering from suprapubic pain; physical examination revealed a rather unique deformity of the penis. He finally refused any treatment and absconded. Conclusion Side effects after paraffin administration are various and sometimes severe. Most of the times surgical treatment is needed and radical excision together with follow-up seems the best modality. Such practices emphasize on the public's misbelieves and that some aspects of sexual medicine are yet covered with the veil of misconception. PMID:18840268
Greenwald, M J; Weiss, A; Oesterle, C S; Friendly, D S
Five infants who were victims of physical abuse had extensive bilateral retinal hemorrhages on initial evaluation and subsequently developed signs of permanent retinal damage. None showed external evidence of trauma to the eyes. Vitreous hemorrhage developed after a delay of several days or more in three cases that were followed closely from the time of the traumatic incident. In several eyes, apparent intraretinal blood-filled cavities were seen acutely in the macular region and elsewhere. Late scarring of the macula typically had a cystic or crater-like configuration. Electroretinography showed loss or reduction of the positive B-wave with preservation of the negative A-wave in every case. We propose that splitting of the retina resulting from the direct mechanical effects of violent shaking was responsible for all of these findings. PMID:3725321
Brandão, Sofia; Parente, Marco; Mascarenhas, Teresa; da Silva, Ana Rita Gomes; Ramos, Isabel; Jorge, Renato Natal
Excessive mobility of the bladder neck and urethra are common features in stress urinary incontinence. We aimed at assessing, through computational modelling, the bladder neck position taking into account progressive impairment of the pelvic ligaments. Magnetic resonance images of a young healthy female were used to build a computational model of the pelvic cavity. Appropriate material properties and constitutive models were defined. The impairment of the ligaments was simulated by mimicking a reduction in their stiffness. For healthy ligaments, valsalva maneuver led to an increase in the ? angle (between the bladder neck-symphysis pubis and the main of the symphysis) from 91.8° (at rest) to 105.7°, and 5.7 mm of bladder neck dislocation, which was similar to dynamic imaging of the same woman (? angle from 80° to 103.3°, and 5mm of bladder neck movement). For 95% impairment, they enlarged to 124.28° and 12 mm. Impairment to the pubourethral ligaments had higher effect than that of vaginal support (115° vs. 108°, and 9.1 vs. 7.3mm). Numerical simulation could predict urethral motion during valsalva maneuver, for both healthy and impaired ligaments. Results were similar to those of continent women and women with stress urinary incontinence published in the literature. Biomechanical analysis of the pubourethral ligaments complements the biomechanical study of the pelvic cavity in urinary incontinence. It may be useful in young women presenting stress urinary incontinence without imaging evidence of urethral and muscle lesions or organ descend during valsalva, and for whom fascial damage are not expected. PMID:25527889
Stewart, Laurence; McCammon, Kurt; Metro, Michael; Virasoro, Ramon
We reviewed the current literature on lichen sclerosus as it related to urethral stricture disease using MEDLINE and PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) up to the current time. We identified 65 reports, 40 of which were considered relevant and form the basis of this review. Lichen sclerosus is now the accepted term, and balanitis xerotica obliterans is no longer acceptable. This common chronic inflammatory skin condition, mainly affecting the genitalia, remains an enigma, with uncertain etiology, varied presentation, and multiple treatments. In the early stages of the condition, a short course of steroids may be beneficial for some patients. If persistent, patients need long-term surveillance because of the potential development of squamous cell carcinoma. If diagnosed early, lichen sclerosus can be controlled, preventing progression. But once the disease has progressed, it is very difficult to treat. Surgical treatment by circumcision can be curative if the disease is treated early when still localized. Once progression to urethral involvement has occurred, treatment is much more difficult. Meatal stenosis alone is likely to require meatotomy or meatoplasty. Treatment of the involved urethra requires urethroplasty. Single-stage and multiple-stage procedures using oral mucosa have both been reported to give acceptable results, but the use of skin, genital or nongenital, is not recommended, because being skin, it remains prone to lichen sclerosus. With extensive disease, affecting the full length of the urethra, consideration should be given to perineal urethrostomy. A significant number of patients may prefer this simpler option. PMID:24268357
Lewis, Paul O.; Xie, Wangang; Chen, Ming-Hui; Fan, Yu; Kuo, Lynn
We present two distinctly different posterior predictive approaches to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection and illustrate these methods using examples from green algal protein-coding cpDNA sequences and flowering plant rDNA sequences. The Gelfand–Ghosh (GG) approach allows dissection of an overall measure of model fit into components due to posterior predictive variance (GGp) and goodness-of-fit (GGg), which distinguishes this method from the posterior predictive P-value approach. The conditional predictive ordinate (CPO) method provides a site-specific measure of model fit useful for exploratory analyses and can be combined over sites yielding the log pseudomarginal likelihood (LPML) which is useful as an overall measure of model fit. CPO provides a useful cross-validation approach that is computationally efficient, requiring only a sample from the posterior distribution (no additional simulation is required). Both GG and CPO add new perspectives to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection based on the predictive abilities of models and complement the perspective provided by the marginal likelihood (including Bayes Factor comparisons) based solely on the fit of competing models to observed data. [Bayesian; conditional predictive ordinate; CPO; L-measure; LPML; model selection; phylogenetics; posterior predictive.] PMID:24193892
Melinda J. Cromie; Robert A. Siston; Nicholas J. Giori; Scott L. Delp
Abnormal anterior translation of the femur on the tibia has been observed in mid flexion (20-608) following posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty. The underlying biomechanical causes of this abnormal motion remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of posterior cruciate ligament removal on knee motion after total knee arthroplasty. We posed two questions: Does removing
Rodríguez Sánchez, María José
From a personal perspective based on her experience, the author explains various "tricks" and skills which can be used when facing different emergency situations. In this article, the author's recommendations deal with poly-traumatic cases. PMID:18689215
The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had developed and maintains a surveillance system to understand the magnitude and characteristics of hospitalized and fatal traumatic brain injuries in the United State...
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-10% of patients with closed head injury (CHI) Cervical collar placed on all trauma patients In line traction indications Hypoxia Cervical spine injury present in 1Clinical Management of Traumatic Brain Injury Janet Rossi Children's Hospital LSUHSC Neuroscience
Dai, Tianhong; Kharkwal, Gitika B; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Huang, Ying-Ying; Bil de Arce, Vida J
Background: Despite advances in traumatic wound care and management, infections remain a leading cause of mortality, morbidity and economic disruption in millions of wound patients around the world. Animal models have become standard tools for studying a wide array of external traumatic wound infections and testing new antimicrobial strategies. Results: Animal models of external traumatic wound infections reported by different investigators vary in animal species used, microorganism strains, the number of microorganisms applied, the size of the wounds and for burn infections, the length of time the heated object or liquid is in contact with the skin. Methods: This review covers experimental infections in animal models of surgical wounds, skin abrasions, burns, lacerations, excisional wounds and open fractures. Conclusions: As antibiotic resistance continues to increase, more new antimicrobial approaches are urgently needed. These should be tested using standard protocols for infections in external traumatic wounds in animal models. PMID:21701256
Yun, Xuyan; Li, Wei; Qiu, Jiang; Jou, Jerwen; Wei, Dongtao; Tu, Shen; Zhang, Qinglin
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured to study the electrophysiological mechanisms of subliminal priming of traumatic episodic memory. Twenty-four Chinese subjects who had experienced the great Sichuan earthquake in 2008 were classified either as normal control or as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subjects. Results showed that subliminally presented earthquake-related words elicited two significantly more positive ERP deflections (P2 and P300) than did earthquake-unrelated words between 250-300 ms and 340-400 ms post-stimulus periods for the PTSD group, but not for the control group. Dipole source analysis showed that the P2 was mainly generated in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), which appeared to be related to unconscious attentional resource allocation to the earthquake-related words. In addition, the P300 was found to be generated in the parahippocampal gyrus, which seemed to be related to the involuntary activation of traumatic episodic memory. These results indicated that catastrophic earthquake experiences made some subjects extremely sensitive and hyper-responsive to trauma-related information. PMID:21536103
Corrigan, Frank; Grand, David
Brainspotting is a psychotherapy based in the observation that the body activation experienced when describing a traumatic event has a resonating spot in the visual field. Holding the attention on that Brainspot allows processing of the traumatic event to flow until the body activation has cleared. This is facilitated by a therapist focused on the client and monitoring with attunement. We set out testable hypotheses for this clinical innovation in the treatment of the residues of traumatic experiences. The primary hypothesis is that focusing on the Brainspot engages a retinocollicular pathway to the medial pulvinar, the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, and the intraparietal sulcus, which has connectivity with the insula. While the linkage of memory, emotion, and body sensation may require the parietal and frontal interconnections - and resolution in the prefrontal cortex - we suggest that the capacity for healing of the altered feeling about the self is occurring in the midbrain at the level of the superior colliculi and the periaqueductal gray. PMID:23570648
Mouaffak, Y; Mikou, M M; Benyacob, A; Mosaddek, A; Faroudy, M; Ababou, A; Lazreq, C; Sbihi, A
Traumatic thrombosis of vena cava is rare. Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava diagnosed by uroscanner after blunt abdominal trauma involving the kidney is reported. The Doppler exam confirmed the floating character of the clot. Three days after the initiation of anticoagulant therapy, the thrombus disappeared without any clinical or radiological signs of pulmonary embolism. Fifteen cases of traumatic thrombosis of the inferior vena cava have been described in the literature. Mechanisms, clinical pictures and the management are discussed. PMID:15324965
C. K. Maves; A. Souza; E. C. Prenger; D. R. Kirks
Ten cases of traumatic atlanto-occipital disruption in pediatric patients are reported. All injuries resulted from motor vehicle accidents, the majority of which were pedestrian\\/automobile. Three patients survived their injury for a period greater than one year. The importance of recognizing atlanto-occipital disruption is stressed because of its relative frequency in severely traumatized pediatric patients, particularly pedestrian\\/vehicle incidents, and because of
Nguyen, Cattram D; Lee, Katherine J; Carlin, John B
Multiple imputation is gaining popularity as a strategy for handling missing data, but there is a scarcity of tools for checking imputation models, a critical step in model fitting. Posterior predictive checking (PPC) has been recommended as an imputation diagnostic. PPC involves simulating "replicated" data from the posterior predictive distribution of the model under scrutiny. Model fit is assessed by examining whether the analysis from the observed data appears typical of results obtained from the replicates produced by the model. A proposed diagnostic measure is the posterior predictive "p-value", an extreme value of which (i.e., a value close to 0 or 1) suggests a misfit between the model and the data. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the posterior predictive p-value as an imputation diagnostic. Using simulation methods, we deliberately misspecified imputation models to determine whether posterior predictive p-values were effective in identifying these problems. When estimating the regression parameter of interest, we found that more extreme p-values were associated with poorer imputation model performance, although the results highlighted that traditional thresholds for classical p-values do not apply in this context. A shortcoming of the PPC method was its reduced ability to detect misspecified models with increasing amounts of missing data. Despite the limitations of posterior predictive p-values, they appear to have a valuable place in the imputer's toolkit. In addition to automated checking using p-values, we recommend imputers perform graphical checks and examine other summaries of the test quantity distribution. PMID:25939490
Chen, Shih-Ching; Cheng, Chen-Li; Fan, Wen-Jia; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Lai, Chien-Hung; Peng, Chih-Wei
Although serotonergic agents have been used to treat patients with stress urinary incontinence, the characteristics of the external urethral sphincter (EUS) activity activated by 5-HT receptors have not been extensively studied. This study examined the effects of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), on the EUS-electromyography and resistance of the urethra in a rat model with bilateral pudendal nerve injury (BPNI). Two measurements were utilized to assess the effects of the drug on bladder and urethral functions: the simultaneous recordings of transvesical pressure under isovolumetric conditions [isovolumetric intravesical pressure (IVP)] and urethral perfusion pressure, and the simultaneous recordings of IVP during continuously isotonic transvesical infusion with an open urethra (isotonic IVP) and EUS-electromyography. This study also evaluated the urethral continence using leak point pressure testing. The urethral perfusion pressure and leak point pressure measurements of BPNI rats reveal that 8-OH-DPAT significantly increased urethral resistance during the bladder storage phase, yet decreased resistance during the voiding phase. The entire EUS burst period was significantly prolonged, within which the average silent period increased and the frequency of burst discharges decreased. 8-OH-DPAT also improved the voiding efficiency, as evidenced by the detection of decreases in the contraction amplitude and residual volume, with increases in contraction duration and voided volume. These findings suggest that 8-OH-DPAT not only improved continence function, but also elevated the voiding function in a BPNI rat model. PMID:21490366
Occhipinti, Mariaelena; Heidinger, Benedikt H.; Franquet, Elisa; Eisenberg, Ronald L.; Bankier, Alexander A.
The posterior mediastinum contains several structures that can produce a wide variety of pathologic conditions. Descending thoracic aorta, esophagus, azygos and hemiazygos veins, thoracic duct, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, and nerves are all located in this anatomical region and can produce diverse abnormalities. Although chest radiography may detect many of these pathologic conditions, computed tomography and magnetic resonance are the imaging modalities of choice for further defining the relationship of posterior mediastinal lesions to neighboring structures and showing specific imaging features that narrow the differential diagnosis. This review emphasizes modality-related answers to morphologic questions, which provide precise diagnostic information. PMID:25993732
Wolf Petersen; Gerrit Hohmann; Thomas Pufe; Michael Tsokos; Thore Zantop; Friedrich Paulsen; Bernhard Tillmann
Background The most common site of rupture of the posterior tibial tendon is the retromalleolar region where the tendon changes its direction\\u000a of pull. The aim of this study was to characterize the tissue of the gliding zone of the tibialis posterior tendon to gain\\u000a further knowledge about possible structural causes for spontaneous tendon rupture.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and
Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Nish, David; Leonard, Noelle R.; Strauss, Shiela M.
In the present report we describe patterns of traumatic events and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), both partial and full, among homeless youth and those at risk for homelessness, with an emphasis on gender differences. Participants were 85 homeless and at-risk youth (49% female) recruited from a drop-in center in New York City in 2000.…
W. H. Williams; J. J. Evans; B. A. Wilson
Introduction. We present two cases to illustrate the assessment and management of post-traumatic stress disorder (PtSD) in the context of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Case KE suffered a TBI in a road traffic accident (RTA) in which his girlfriend was killed. Case CM survived a penetrating neurological injury from a severe knife attack. Both suffered cognitive difficulties, primarily in attention
Williams, Julie K.; Hall, James A.
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relationship between past traumatic events and the level of current traumatic stress among mothers experiencing homelessness. The data for this study were gathered from 75 homeless mothers between May 2006 and October 2006 using a cross-sectional survey design with purposive sampling. All mothers…
Chao-Bao Luo; Michael Mu-Huo Teng; Feng-Chi Chang; Jiing-Feng Lirng; Cheng-Yen Chang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Simultaneous traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulas (TCCFs) and traumatic cerebral aneurysms (TCAs) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are rare. We describe the pitfalls of detecting a TCA before TCCF occlusion and the endovascular management of the TCA and TCCF. METHODS: Over 12 years, 156 patients with TCCFs were treated at our institute. In four men (mean age, 34
Shefchyk, Susan J
The external urethral sphincter motoneurons in the sacral ventral horn control the striated external urethral sphincter muscles that circle the urethra. Activity in these motoneurons and muscle normally contribute to continence but during micturition, when urine must pass through the urethra, the motoneurons and striated muscle must be silenced. Following injury to descending pathways in the spinal cord, the ability to inhibit sphincter activity is disrupted or lost, resulting in bladder-sphincter dyssynergia and functional obstruction of the urethra during voiding. This chapter will first review the various reflex pathways and neuronal properties that contribute to continence, and which must be modulated during micturition in the spinal intact animal. A discussion about how the dyssynergia seen with spinal cord injury may be produced will then be presented. PMID:16198695
Vasileff, William Kelton; Moutzouros, Vasilios
Achilles tendon ruptures are a relatively common athletic injury but are exceedingly rare in the pediatric population. We describe the case of a 10-year-old ice hockey player who experienced an Achilles tendon injury from a laceration to the posterior leg from a skate blade that led to a partial tendon laceration. This tendon injury was initially unrecognized despite an emergency department evaluation. The patient continued to complain of weakness and paresthesia after the skin laceration had healed. A traumatic dorsiflexion injury while running several weeks later led to a traumatic complete tendon rupture. The clinical, operative, and physical therapy records were reviewed to complete the history, treatment, and rehabilitation progress. The initial laceration injury had occurred 6 weeks before presentation, and the traumatic dorsiflexion injury had occurred 2 days before referral to an acute orthopedics clinic. Open repair was performed several days after the traumatic completion of the laceration, and the patient was immobilized in a cast for 5 weeks. The patient had weaned off crutches by 10 weeks postoperatively and had returned to some activities and light skating at 5.5 months. A full return to running and ice hockey had been achieved by 8 months postoperatively. The optimal repair for this injury has not been well established in published studies. We have concluded that laceration injuries have the potential to mask tendon injuries and that prolonged symptoms after a laceration should suggest occult pathologic features. Open tendon repair is a viable treatment option in the pediatric patient with Achilles tendon ruptures. A return to activities within a reasonable period can be expected with robust physical therapy. PMID:24713492
Lewis, Paul O; Xie, Wangang; Chen, Ming-Hui; Fan, Yu; Kuo, Lynn
We present two distinctly different posterior predictive approaches to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection and illustrate these methods using examples from green algal protein-coding cpDNA sequences and flowering plant rDNA sequences. The Gelfand-Ghosh (GG) approach allows dissection of an overall measure of model fit into components due to posterior predictive variance (GGp) and goodness-of-fit (GGg), which distinguishes this method from the posterior predictive P-value approach. The conditional predictive ordinate (CPO) method provides a site-specific measure of model fit useful for exploratory analyses and can be combined over sites yielding the log pseudomarginal likelihood (LPML) which is useful as an overall measure of model fit. CPO provides a useful cross-validation approach that is computationally efficient, requiring only a sample from the posterior distribution (no additional simulation is required). Both GG and CPO add new perspectives to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection based on the predictive abilities of models and complement the perspective provided by the marginal likelihood (including Bayes Factor comparisons) based solely on the fit of competing models to observed data. PMID:24193892
Several Markov chain methods are available for sampling from a posterior distribution. Two important examples are the Gibbs sampler and the Metropolis algorithm. In addition, several strategies are available for constructing hybrid algorithms. This paper outlines some of the basic methods and strategies and discusses some related theoretical and practical issues. On the theoretical side, results from the theory of
Chih-Hwa Chen; Wen-Jer Chen; Chun-Hsiung Shih
Purpose: Considerable controversies remain on the graft choice and fixation methods in the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare, at minimal 2-year follow-up, the outcomes of PCL reconstruction between using quadriceps tendon autograft and using quadruple hamstring tendon autograft. Type of Study: Case series. Methods: All patients received only PCL reconstruction without combined
Shields, Christopher B.; Shields, Lisa B. E.; Jiang, Yi Dan; Yao, Tom; Zhang, Yi Ping; Sun, David A.
Background: Intraoperative monitoring with brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) provides an early warning signal of potential neurological injury and may avert tissue damage to the auditory pathway or brainstem. Unexplained loss of the BAER signal in the operating room may present a dilemma to the neurosurgeon. Methods: This paper documents two patients who displayed a unique mechanism of suppression of the BAER apparent within minutes following dural opening for resection of a posterior fossa meningioma. Results: In two patients with anterior cerebellopontine angle and clival meningiomas, there was a significant deterioration of the BAER soon after durotomy but prior to cerebellar retraction and tumor removal. Intracranial structures in the posterior fossa lying between the tumor and dural opening were shifted posteriorly after durotomy. Conclusion: We hypothesized that the cochlear nerve and vessels entering the acoustic meatus were compressed or stretched when subjected to tissue shift. This movement caused cochlear nerve dysfunction that resulted in BAER suppression. BAER was partially restored after the tumor was decompressed, dura repaired, and bone replaced. BAER was not suppressed following durotomy for removal of a meningioma lying posterior to the cochlear complex. Insight into the mechanisms of durotomy-induced BAER inhibition would allay the neurosurgeon's anxiety during the operation. PMID:25883849
Michael S. Edwards; Victor A. Levin; Charles B. Wilson
Results of chemotherapy of recurrent posterior fossa tumors in children are presented. Cerebellar astrocytoma, ependymoma, and brain stem glioma have all shown objectively determined responses to treatment with nitrosourea compounds (BCNU or CCNU). Medulloblastoma has shown objectively determined response to various chemotherapeutic agents; but in our experience the best responses have been obtained with a combination of a nitrosourea (CCNU),
Mahmoud G. Nagib; Therese O’Fallon
Over a period extending from 1984 to 1993, 16 children ranging in ages from 2 months to 12 years with posterior fossa ependymoma were treated. Four of these tumors were classified as lateral ependymomas because of their configuration and suspected site of origin. These 4 patients’ ages ranged from
T. Chang; M. M. H. Teng; J. F. Lirng
We reviewed clinical and CT findings in 133 posterior cranial fossa tumours in children. All had histological diagnosis, apart from 20 cases of brain stem glioma. The majority were intra-axial tumours, including 53 medulloblastomas (40%), 31 cerebellar astrocytomas (23%), 28 brain stem gliomas (21%), 14 ependymomas (11%), and single cases of ganglioglioma, haemangioblastoma and teratoma. Extra-axial tumours formed only 3%,
John J Klutke; Bruce I Carlin; Carl G Klutke
Objectives. To prospectively assess the degree of urethral hypermobility in the preoperative and postoperative periods after the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure and correlate our findings with surgical outcome.Methods. Twenty patients with stress incontinence underwent the TVT procedure. A Q-tip test was performed before the procedure and at the 3-week postoperative follow-up visit. Cure was defined as the absence of
RUPESH RAINA; KALYANA C. NANDIPATI; ASHOK AGARWAL; DAVID MANSOUR; DAVID C. KAELBER; CRAIG D. ZIPPE
The objective of our study was to assess the effec- tiveness of combining medicated urethral system for erection (MUSE) with sildenafil citrate in men unsatisfied with the sildenafil alone. Baseline and follow-up data from 23 patients (mean age, 62.5 6 5.23 years) unsatisfied with the use of the sildenafil citrate alone for the treatment of erectile dysfunction following nerve-sparing rad-
MacKenzie, Kelly; Verity, David; Ali, Nadeem
A man, aged 67 years, sustained monocular trauma to the left eye while gardening, presenting with light perception, complete absence of abduction, and chorioretinitis sclopetaria. At surgery, the lateral rectus was found to be transected at the equator of the globe, with an area of locally abraded sclera. A few posterior muscle fibers were identified and sutured to the residual anterior fibers. With a partial improvement of the esodeviation, after a further 6 months he proceeded to lateral transposition of the superior and inferior recti to healthy sclera 4?mm from the limbus, with adjunctive medial rectus botulinum toxin. Six months later, the angle of primary deviation remained stable at 4 prism diopters base out with improved abduction. Vision in the eye remained reduced at 20/200 (with eccentric fixation) due to macular changes secondary to the sclopetaria. In conclusion, this case describes a rare example of complete traumatic transection of the lateral rectus with chorioretinitis sclopetaria, due to orbital injury. With appropriate surgery, the angle of deviation can be considerably improved despite complete muscle transection and scleral injury. PMID:25790075
Reddy, Ramachandra P; Bodanapally, Uttam K; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Van der Byl, Giulia; Dreizin, David; Katzman, Lee; Shin, Robert Kang
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between admission visual acuity (VA) and facial computed tomographic (CT) findings of traumatic optic neuropathy (TON). We retrospectively evaluated CT findings in 44 patients with TON. Mid-facial fractures, extraconal and intraconal hematomas, hematomas along the optic nerve and the posterior globe, optic canal fracture, nerve impingement by optic canal fracture fragment, and extraconal and intraconal emphysema were evaluated. CT variables of patients with and without available VA were compared. VA was converted into logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) to provide a numeric scale for the purpose of statistical analysis. The risk factors related to poor VA on univariate analysis were as follows: intraconal hematoma [median logMAR -4.7 versus -1.15, p?=?0.016] and hematoma along the optic nerve [median -4.7 versus -1.3, p?=?0.029]. Intraconal hematoma was the best predictor of poor VA (coefficient, 1.01; SE, 0.34; and p?=?0.008). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the presence of intraconal hematoma and hematoma along the optic nerve predicted poor VA (logMAR of -3.7 or lower) with an area under the curve of 0.8 and 0.85, respectively. TON patients at higher risk of severe visual impairment may be identified based on admission facial CT. PMID:25563705
Engdahl, B.; Leuthold, A. C.; Tan, H.-R. M.; Lewis, S. M.; Winskowski, A. M.; Dikel, T. N.; Georgopoulos, A. P.
In a recent paper (Georgopoulos et al 2010 J. Neural Eng. 7 016011) we reported on the power of the magnetoencephalography (MEG)-based synchronous neural interactions (SNI) test to differentiate post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subjects from healthy control subjects and to classify them with a high degree of accuracy. Here we show that the main differences in cortical communication circuitry between these two groups lie in the miscommunication of temporal and parietal and/or parieto-occipital right hemispheric areas with other brain areas. This lateralized temporal-posterior pattern of miscommunication was very similar but was attenuated in patients with PTSD in remission. These findings are consistent with observations (Penfield 1958 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 44 51-66, Penfield and Perot 1963 Brain 86 595-696, Gloor 1990 Brain 113 1673-94, Banceaud et al 1994 Brain 117 71-90, Fried 1997 J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 9 420-8) that electrical stimulation of the temporal cortex in awake human subjects, mostly in the right hemisphere, can elicit the re-enactment and re-living of past experiences. Based on these facts, we attribute our findings to the re-experiencing component of PTSD and hypothesize that it reflects an involuntarily persistent activation of interacting neural networks involved in experiential consolidation.
Feyen, B F E; Sener, S; Jorens, P G; Menovsky, T; Maas, A I R
Current approaches to monitoring in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) include a wide array of modalities, providing insight into pressure parameters, oxygenation, perfusion, electrophysiology and metabolism of the brain. The intent of "multimodality monitoring" is to obtain a better understanding of what is going on within the brain of an individual patient in order to target treatment more appropriately. In this review we highlight the current status of neuromonitoring for TBI with a specific focus on how advanced analysis and integration of these parameters may be used to implement more personalized treatment approaches. In particular, combining information from different parameters and performing dynamic testing offers the potential to better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms active in the brain of a particular patient. Rather than persisting in a standardized "one size fits all" approach to therapy or continuing down the separate tracts of goal directed therapy, we suggest to think more in terms of "individualized therapeutic strategies" more focused on the specific requirements of each patient. Given the considerable data overload in multimodality monitoring and the complexity in interpretation of signals from multiple sources, specific attention needs to be directed to data processing and user-friendly displays. Intense collaboration and interaction between clinicians, basic researchers, IT-experts, nurses and industry will be required to further advance the fields towards more personalized approaches. PMID:22643541
Aubriot, J H
Degenerative changes and arthritis are one of the most important sequelae after knee injury. The reasons of deterioration of the cartilage are different in each injury. After fractures the most important pejorative factors are incongruity of the articular surface and malunion specially in varus deformities. With long term follow up the arthrosis is observed between 15 and 50%, dependent of the localisations and the gravity of the injury. After menisco-ligamentous injury the kinematic of the knee is disturbed and the medial femoro-tibial compartment is too overlead specially when the meniscus was resected and when the patient has a morphology in genu varum. With long term follow up the arthrosis is observed between 15 and 20%. The early repair of the anterior cruciate ligamentous and the "meniscal economy" can predict significative decrease. The treatment of this knee post-traumatic arthrosis is essentially based on the good balance of frontal femoro-tibial stress by osteotomy. When the osteo-ligamentous lesions are diffuse and important, it's possible to propose a semi-contained total prosthesis. PMID:9834658
Shin, Samuel S; Dixon, C Edward; Okonkwo, David O; Richardson, R Mark
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a significant public health problem and is a leading cause of death and disability in many countries. Durable treatments for neurological function deficits following TBI have been elusive, as there are currently no FDA-approved therapeutic modalities for mitigating the consequences of TBI. Neurostimulation strategies using various forms of electrical stimulation have recently been applied to treat functional deficits in animal models and clinical stroke trials. The results from these studies suggest that neurostimulation may augment improvements in both motor and cognitive deficits after brain injury. Several studies have taken this approach in animal models of TBI, showing both behavioral enhancement and biological evidence of recovery. There have been only a few studies using deep brain stimulation (DBS) in human TBI patients, and future studies are warranted to validate the feasibility of this technique in the clinical treatment of TBI. In this review, the authors summarize insights from studies employing neurostimulation techniques in the setting of brain injury. Moreover, they relate these findings to the future prospect of using DBS to ameliorate motor and cognitive deficits following TBI. PMID:25170668
Saulle, Michael; Greenwald, Brian D.
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is a long-term consequence of single or repetitive closed head injuries for which there is no treatment and no definitive pre-mortem diagnosis. It has been closely tied to athletes who participate in contact sports like boxing, American football, soccer, professional wrestling and hockey. Risk factors include head trauma, presence of ApoE3 or ApoE4 allele, military service, and old age. It is histologically identified by the presence of tau-immunoreactive NFTs and NTs with some cases having a TDP-43 proteinopathy or beta-amyloid plaques. It has an insidious clinical presentation that begins with cognitive and emotional disturbances and can progress to Parkinsonian symptoms. The exact mechanism for CTE has not been precisely defined however, research suggest it is due to an ongoing metabolic and immunologic cascade called immunoexcitiotoxicity. Prevention and education are currently the most compelling way to combat CTE and will be an emphasis of both physicians and athletes. Further research is needed to aid in pre-mortem diagnosis, therapies, and support for individuals and their families living with CTE. PMID:22567320
Bados, Arturo; Toribio, Lidia; García-Grau, Eugeni
Tonic immobility is a basic defense strategy which has not been studied in depth in humans. Data suggest that it may be a relatively frequent phenomenon in victims of rape and sexual abuse, but its occurrence has not been systematically explored in other types of trauma. We carried out a retrospective study in a sample of 100 university students to establish whether tonic immobility varies depending on the nature of the worst trauma experienced, defined subjectively by each participant. Immobility was assessed using the Tonic Immobility Scale and traumas were assessed using the modified Traumatic Events Questionnaire. Seventy percent of the sample had experienced trauma of some kind. There were no significant differences in tonic immobility between different types of trauma (e.g., physical abuse, assault or aggression, serious accident), except that the mean tonic immobility score was significantly higher in the group with trauma due to physical/psychological or sexual abuse than in the group with trauma due to receiving news of the mutilation, serious injury, or violent or sudden death of a loved one. We conclude tentatively that tonic immobility may be typical not only of sexual traumas, but of other kinds of directly experienced traumas as well. PMID:18988436
Grossbach, Andrew J; Abel, Taylor J; Hodis, Brendan; Wassef, Shafik N; Greenlee, Jeremy D W
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a well characterized entity resulting from the inability of cerebral autoregulation to adequately protect the brain from uncontrolled hypertension. It primarily affects the occipital lobes, but can also involve the structures in the posterior fossa including the brainstem and cerebellum. Treatment usually consists of strict blood pressure control, but more aggressive management may be indicated with acutely worsening neurological status. We present a patient with hypertensive encephalopathy that resulted in hydrocephalus and brainstem compression necessitating surgical decompression requiring ventriculostomy and suboccipital craniectomy. In rare cases, PRES can present with severe brainstem compression requiring emergent posterior fossa decompression. When brainstem signs are present on exam, emergent posterior fossa decompression may be safer than ventriculostomy alone. PMID:24126039
Park, Jin Hoon; Roh, Sung Woo; Rhim, Seung Chul
OBJECT The optimal treatment for cervical facet dislocations is controversial, but the generally accepted process recommends an initial closed reduction with the next step determined according to the success of the closed reduction and the presence of traumatic disc herniation. This study aimed to show the efficacy of a posterior approach performed with an open reduction and pedicle screw fixation with removal of disc particles, if required, in the management of subaxial cervical dislocations. METHODS Between March 2012 and September 2013, 21 consecutive patients with cervical facet dislocations were enrolled. The affected levels were as follows: 4 at C3-4; 2 at C4-5; 5 at C5-6; and 10 at the C6-7 level. Seven patients had traumatic disc herniations. Closed reduction was not attempted; a prompt posterior cervical surgery was performed instead. After open reduction, pedicle screw fixation was performed. In cases with traumatic disc herniation, herniated disc fragments were excised via a posterolateral approach and successful decompressions were determined by postoperative MRI studies. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grading system. Radiological outcomes were assessed by comparing the degree of subluxation and the angle of segmental lordosis between pre- and postoperative CT scans. RESULTS All patients improved neurologically. The mean segmental angles improved from 7.3° ± 8.68° to -5.9° ± 4.85°. The mean subluxation improved from 23.4% ± 16.52% to 2.6% ± 7.19%. Disc fragments were successfully removed from the 7 patients with herniated discs, as shown on MRI. CONCLUSIONS Open reduction followed by pedicle screw fixation or posterolateral removal of herniated disc fragments is a good treatment option for cervical facet dislocations. PMID:25909272
Julia Kempf; Esther Werth; Philippe R Kaiser; Claudio L Bassetti; Christian R Baumann
Background6 months after traumatic brain injury (TBI), almost three out of four patients suffer from sleep–wake disturbances (SWD) such as post-traumatic hypersomnia (increased sleep need of ?2 h compared with before injury), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), fatigue and insomnia. The long-term course of post-traumatic SWD, however, is unknown.ObjectivesTo assess the prevalence and characteristics of post-traumatic SWD 3 years after trauma.DesignProspective
Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Khan, Qurat ul Ain; Murray, Melissa E.; Krishnan, Siddharth; Aakre, Jeremiah; Pankratz, V. Shane; Nguyen, Thuy; Ma, Li; Bisceglio, Gina; Petersen, Ronald C.; Younkin, Steven G.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.
Objective: To investigate association of genetic risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) with risk of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), a syndrome of visual impairment with predominant Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in posterior cortical regions, and with risk of “posterior AD” neuropathology. Methods: We assessed 81 participants with PCA diagnosed clinically and 54 with neuropathologic diagnosis of posterior AD vs 2,523 controls for association with 11 significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from published LOAD risk genome-wide association studies. Results: There was highly significant association with APOE ?4 and increased risk of PCA (p = 0.0003, odds ratio [OR] = 3.17) and posterior AD (p = 1.11 × 10?17, OR = 6.43). No other locus was significant after corrections for multiple testing, although rs11136000 near CLU (p = 0.019, OR = 0.60) and rs744373 near BIN1 (p = 0.025, OR = 1. 63) associated nominally significantly with posterior AD, and rs3851179 at the PICALM locus had significant association with PCA (p = 0.0003, OR = 2.84). ABCA7 locus SNP rs3764650, which was also tested under the recessive model because of Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, also had nominally significant association with PCA risk. The direction of association at APOE, CLU, and BIN1 loci was the same for participants with PCA and posterior AD. The effects for all SNPs, except rs3851179, were consistent with those for LOAD risk. Conclusions: We identified a significant effect for APOE and nominate CLU, BIN1, and ABCA7 as additional risk loci for PCA and posterior AD. Our findings suggest that at least some of the genetic risk factors for LOAD are shared with these atypical conditions and provide effect-size estimates for their future genetic studies. PMID:24670887
Faroudy, M; Mosadik, A; Mouelhi, S; Ababou, A; Lazreq, C; Sbihi, A
The post-traumatic pancreatitis is the main reason of mortality in the traumatisms of the pancreas, its concurrence is related to the lesions of the pancreatic channels. It represents only 1% of the pancreatitis. In a descriptive retrospective study, four cases of post-traumatic pancreatitis are described. PMID:16546346
Kaplowitz, Kevin; Nobe, Matthew; Abazari, Azin; Honkanen, Robert
A case report of a traumatic hyphema in a patient with sickle cell trait is presented. A review of the published literature in PubMed was performed and medical management strategies and surgical treatment indications for traumatic hyphema are discussed. We support the case for temporary trabeculectomy in patients with traumatic hyphema and sickle cell disease. PMID:24251431
Lee, K. S.; Doh, J. W.; Bae, H. G.; Yun, I. G.
Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) and subdural hygroma (SDG) occur in the subdural space, usually after trauma. We tried to find a certain relationship among these three traumatic subdural lesions in 436 consecutive patients. We included all subdural lesions regardless of whether they were main or not. We evaluated the distribution, age incidence and interval from injury to diagnosis of these lesions, and the frequency of new subdural lesions in each lesion. ASDH constituted 68.6%, SDG 15.8%, and CSDH 15.6%, Age incidence of CSDH was similar to that of SDG, but differed from that of ASDH. Mean interval from injury to diagnosis was 0.4 days in ASDH, 13.4 days in SDG, and 51.6 days in CSDH. Focal brain injuries accompanied in 37.5% of ASDH, 5.8% of SDG, and no CSDH. In ASDH, 2 recurrent ASDHs, 17 SDGs and 9 CSDHs occurred. In SDG, 3 postoperative ASDHs and 8 CSDHs occurred. In CSDH, 2 postoperative ASDHs, 2 SDGs and 1 CSDH occurred. These results suggest that the origin of CSDH is not only ASDH, but also SDG in upto a half of cases. SDG is produced as an epiphenomenon by separation of the dural border cell layer when the potential subdural space is sufficient. A half of CSDHs may originate from ASDHs. ASDH may occur in CSDH by either a repeated trauma or surgery. Such transformation or development of new lesions is a function of a premorbid condition and the dynamics between the absorption capacity and expansile force of the lesion. PMID:8703371
Lee, H K
In this paper we show that the posterior distribution for feedforward neural networks is asymptotically consistent. This paper extends earlier results on universal approximation properties of neural networks to the Bayesian setting. The proof of consistency embeds the problem in a density estimation problem, then uses bounds on the bracketing entropy to show that the posterior is consistent over Hellinger neighborhoods. It then relates this result back to the regression setting. We show consistency in both the setting of the number of hidden nodes growing with the sample size, and in the case where the number of hidden nodes is treated as a parameter. Thus we provide a theoretical justification for using neural networks for nonparametric regression in a Bayesian framework. PMID:10987516
da Rocha-Bastos, Ricardo António; Silva, Sérgio Estrela; Prézia, Flávio; Falcão-Reis, Fernando; Melo, António B
The presence of pseudoexfoliation material on the surface of an intraocular lens (IOL) is a rare finding. We report a series of seven cases with different patterns of pseudoexfoliation material deposition on the posterior chamber IOLs, recognized 2–20 years after cataract surgery. Six patients had an IOL implanted in the capsular bag and one in the ciliary sulcus. Two patients had undergone posterior capsulotomy. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical significance of this finding remain unknown, the careful follow-up of pseudophakic patients with known or suspected pseudoexfoliation syndrome is essential to monitor the development or progression of glaucoma, since deposition of pseudoexfoliation material continues even after cataract surgery. PMID:25143707
Muzumdar, Dattatraya; Ventureyra, Enrique C G
The most common posterior fossa tumors in children are medulloblastoma, astrocytoma and ependymoma. Atypical rhabdoid teratoid tumors and brain stem gliomas are relatively rare. As the posterior fossa is a limited space, the tumors presenting in this region cause symptoms early on and require prompt treatment to avoid potential morbidity and mortality. Early detection and diagnosis of these tumors and prompt neurosurgical consultation is crucial in the optimum management of pediatric infratentorial brain tumors. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, as it provides biopsy and decompression of the tumor. Adjuvant therapy is required in the majority of cases. Recent advances in the field of radiation biology and pharmacology have improved dose and delivery techniques of chemoradiation therapy. In the current era, advances in translational research and molecular genetics have assumed a major role in the pursuit of achieving a 'cure' for these potentially malignant tumors. PMID:20367206
Bruns, Tim M.; Bhadra, Narendra; Gustafson, Kenneth J.
Reflex bladder excitation has been evoked via pudendal nerve, pudendal nerve branch and intraurethral stimulation; however, afferent-evoked bladder emptying has been less efficient than direct activation of the bladder via sacral root stimulation. A stimulation method that improves activation of the urethra-bladder excitatory reflex with minimal sphincter recruitment may lead to improved bladder emptying. Fine wire electrodes were placed in the wall of the urethra in five cats. Placement of electrodes near the proximal urethra evoked bladder contractions with minimal sphincter activation. On these electrodes, lower frequency burst-patterned stimuli evoked greater bladder voiding efficiencies (71.2 ± 27.8%) than other stimulus patterns on the same electrodes (50.4 ± 41.5%, p > 0.05) or any stimulus pattern on electrodes that elicited urethral closure (16.5 ± 12.7%, p < 0.05). Fine wire electrodes specifically targeted afferent fibers in the urethra, indicating the feasibility of clinical evaluations using the same method. This work may improve the translation of next generation neuroprostheses for bladder control.
Xelhuantzi, Nicte; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás, Leticia; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita
In rodents, vaginal distention after delivery or experimental manipulation affects innervations as well as the amount of striated/smooth musculature or collagen in both the urethra and vagina. These changes are associated with modifications in excretory and reproductive processes. Although successive and consecutive vaginal deliveries (multiparity) affect the contractile and functional properties of the female lower urogenital tract (LUT), its impact on LUT morphometry, including persistency, has been barely studied. The caudal urethra (CU) and cranial (V1) and caudal (V2) pelvic vaginal regions were excised from young and adult nulliparous (YN and AN, respectively) and multiparous (YM and AM, respectively) rabbits. Tissues were histologically processed and stained with Masson's trichrome. The thickness of the tissue layers and areas covered by tissue components were measured and compared using two-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newmann-Keuls tests to determine statistical differences (P???0.05). Compared to YN, YM, and AN tissues showed a reduction in the thickness of the epithelium, as well as in areas covered by striated musculature, collagen, and blood vessels of the LUT. In comparison with YM, only some morphometric changes were recovered in the AM group. Our study shows that multiparity and age can be associated with epithelial and muscular atrophy of urethral and vaginal walls. The morphometry of the LUT between young and adult female rabbits varies with multiparity. These findings may help to better understand the effects of multiparity on young and adult females and its correlation with the development of pelvic dysfunctions. PMID:25111579
Date, Tomonori; Muraki, Osamu
This report describes a rare case of an 86-year-old man with an indwelling urethral catheter who developed severe abdominal pain and was diagnosed with intraperitoneal urinary bladder perforation. A home-visiting nurse suspected catheter obstruction and performed a catheter exchange. However, bladder irrigation could not subsequently be performed. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis after transurethral perfusion of contrast medium demonstrated extravasation of the contrast material into the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, the Foley catheter balloon was positioned in the peritoneal cavity through the bladder. The patient was diagnosed with peritonitis due to spontaneous intraperitoneal perforation of the urinary bladder, and exploratory laparotomy was performed. During exploration, a perforated tear at the top of the bladder was discovered where the Foley catheter had penetrated the bladder. The Foley catheter balloon was floating freely in the peritoneal cavity. There was no evidence of pathologic lesions, such as cancer or inflammatory mass at the site of the injured peritoneum. Successful closure of the damaged peritoneum and bladder was performed. Since the proportion of elderly individuals continues to increase in the general Japanese population, the incidence of the chronic Foley catheterization is expected to increase. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of this potential complication. PMID:24078894
Wylie, Glenn R.; Freeman, Kalev; Thomas, Alex; Shpaner, Marina; OKeefe, Michael; Watts, Richard; Naylor, Magdalena R.
Functional neuroimaging studies in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have been largely limited to patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, utilizing images obtained months to years after the actual head trauma. We sought to distinguish acute and delayed effects of mild traumatic brain injury on working memory functional brain activation patterns < 72 hours after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and again one-week later. We hypothesized that clinical and fMRI measures of working memory would be abnormal in symptomatic mTBI patients assessed < 72 hours after injury, with most patients showing clinical recovery (i.e., improvement in these measures) within 1 week after the initial assessment. We also hypothesized that increased memory workload at 1 week following injury would expose different cortical activation patterns in mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, compared to those with full clinical recovery. We performed a prospective, cohort study of working memory in emergency department patients with isolated head injury and clinical diagnosis of concussion, compared to control subjects (both uninjured volunteers and emergency department patients with extremity injuries and no head trauma). The primary outcome of cognitive recovery was defined as resolution of reported cognitive impairment and quantified by scoring the subject’s reported cognitive post-concussive symptoms at 1 week. Secondary outcomes included additional post-concussive symptoms and neurocognitive testing results. We enrolled 46 subjects: 27 with mild TBI and 19 controls. The time of initial neuroimaging was 48 (+22 S.D.) hours after injury (time 1). At follow up (8.7, + 1.2 S.D., days after injury, time 2), 18 of mTBI subjects (64%) reported moderate to complete cognitive recovery, 8 of whom fully recovered between initial and follow-up imaging. fMRI changes from time 1 to time 2 showed an increase in posterior cingulate activation in the mTBI subjects compared to controls. Increases in activation were greater in those mTBI subjects without cognitive recovery. As workload increased in mTBI subjects, activation increased in cortical regions in the right hemisphere. In summary, we found neuroimaging evidence for working memory deficits during the first week following mild traumatic brain injury. Subjects with persistent cognitive symptoms after mTBI had increased requirement for posterior cingulate activation to complete memory tasks at 1 week following a brain injury. These results provide insight into functional activation patterns during initial recovery from mTBI and expose the regional activation networks that may be involved in working memory deficits. PMID:25962067
Wylie, Glenn R; Freeman, Kalev; Thomas, Alex; Shpaner, Marina; OKeefe, Michael; Watts, Richard; Naylor, Magdalena R
Functional neuroimaging studies in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have been largely limited to patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, utilizing images obtained months to years after the actual head trauma. We sought to distinguish acute and delayed effects of mild traumatic brain injury on working memory functional brain activation patterns < 72 hours after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and again one-week later. We hypothesized that clinical and fMRI measures of working memory would be abnormal in symptomatic mTBI patients assessed < 72 hours after injury, with most patients showing clinical recovery (i.e., improvement in these measures) within 1 week after the initial assessment. We also hypothesized that increased memory workload at 1 week following injury would expose different cortical activation patterns in mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, compared to those with full clinical recovery. We performed a prospective, cohort study of working memory in emergency department patients with isolated head injury and clinical diagnosis of concussion, compared to control subjects (both uninjured volunteers and emergency department patients with extremity injuries and no head trauma). The primary outcome of cognitive recovery was defined as resolution of reported cognitive impairment and quantified by scoring the subject's reported cognitive post-concussive symptoms at 1 week. Secondary outcomes included additional post-concussive symptoms and neurocognitive testing results. We enrolled 46 subjects: 27 with mild TBI and 19 controls. The time of initial neuroimaging was 48 (+22 S.D.) hours after injury (time 1). At follow up (8.7, + 1.2 S.D., days after injury, time 2), 18 of mTBI subjects (64%) reported moderate to complete cognitive recovery, 8 of whom fully recovered between initial and follow-up imaging. fMRI changes from time 1 to time 2 showed an increase in posterior cingulate activation in the mTBI subjects compared to controls. Increases in activation were greater in those mTBI subjects without cognitive recovery. As workload increased in mTBI subjects, activation increased in cortical regions in the right hemisphere. In summary, we found neuroimaging evidence for working memory deficits during the first week following mild traumatic brain injury. Subjects with persistent cognitive symptoms after mTBI had increased requirement for posterior cingulate activation to complete memory tasks at 1 week following a brain injury. These results provide insight into functional activation patterns during initial recovery from mTBI and expose the regional activation networks that may be involved in working memory deficits. PMID:25962067
Irith Reider-Groswasser; Amiram Catz; Shaul Harel
Forty-three children with CT studies demonstrating abnormalities in the posterior fossa are presented. Tumors constitute the largest group of lesions (53.5%). Their mean size at time of diagnosis was 39.5 mm. Astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, and ependymomas were the most frequent tumors and their CT features are described and discussed. The congenital group of lesions comprised 18.6% of the cases — the
Kunitz, Selma C.; Gross, Cynthia
A number of university hospital centers are participating in the pilot of a national computerized clinical data bank for traumatic coma. Patient data including history, symptoms, treatment, and outcome are collected prospectively during the patient care and follow up process according to common definitions. The data bank was implemented to demonstrate its usefulness for clinical research and patient management. To achieve these goals, a clinical data bank requires research methodology and computer technology linked with the needs of the patient environment. This paper describes the research design, the implementation, and the computer system of the Traumatic Coma Data Bank, which began in 1979.
Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Jack, Clifford R.; Kantarci, Kejal; Weigand, Stephen D.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Knopman, David S.; Drubach, Daniel A.; Tang-Wai, David F.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Josephs, Keith A.
The aim of this study was to compare patterns of cerebral atrophy on MRI, and neurochemistry on magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), in subjects with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and typical Alzheimer's disease (AD). Voxel-based morphometry was used to assess grey matter atrophy in 38 subjects with PCA, 38 subjects with typical AD, and 38 controls. Clinical data was assessed in all PCA subjects. Single-voxel 1H MRS located in the posterior cingulate was analyzed in a subset of subjects with PCA, typical AD, and control subjects. PCA showed a pattern of atrophy affecting occipital, parietal and posterior temporal lobes, compared to controls. The pattern was bilateral, but more severe on the right. Subjects with PCA showed greater atrophy in the right visual association cortex than subjects with typical AD, whereas those with AD showed greater atrophy in the left hippocampus than those with PCA. 1H MRS suggested loss of neuronal integrity and glial activation in subjects with PCA and AD. The differing patterns of atrophy on MRI suggest that PCA should be considered a distinct entity from typical AD. PMID:16797786
Leech, Robert; Sharp, David J
The posterior cingulate cortex is a highly connected and metabolically active brain region. Recent studies suggest it has an important cognitive role, although there is no consensus about what this is. The region is typically discussed as having a unitary function because of a common pattern of relative deactivation observed during attentionally demanding tasks. One influential hypothesis is that the posterior cingulate cortex has a central role in supporting internally-directed cognition. It is a key node in the default mode network and shows increased activity when individuals retrieve autobiographical memories or plan for the future, as well as during unconstrained 'rest' when activity in the brain is 'free-wheeling'. However, other evidence suggests that the region is highly heterogeneous and may play a direct role in regulating the focus of attention. In addition, its activity varies with arousal state and its interactions with other brain networks may be important for conscious awareness. Understanding posterior cingulate cortex function is likely to be of clinical importance. It is well protected against ischaemic stroke, and so there is relatively little neuropsychological data about the consequences of focal lesions. However, in other conditions abnormalities in the region are clearly linked to disease. For example, amyloid deposition and reduced metabolism is seen early in Alzheimer's disease. Functional neuroimaging studies show abnormalities in a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders including Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, autism, depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as ageing. Our own work has consistently shown abnormal posterior cingulate cortex function following traumatic brain injury, which predicts attentional impairments. Here we review the anatomy and physiology of the region and how it is affected in a range of clinical conditions, before discussing its proposed functions. We synthesize key findings into a novel model of the region's function (the 'Arousal, Balance and Breadth of Attention' model). Dorsal and ventral subcomponents are functionally separated and differences in regional activity are explained by considering: (i) arousal state; (ii) whether attention is focused internally or externally; and (iii) the breadth of attentional focus. The predictions of the model can be tested within the framework of complex dynamic systems theory, and we propose that the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex influences attentional focus by 'tuning' whole-brain metastability and so adjusts how stable brain network activity is over time. PMID:23869106
Sharp, David J.
The posterior cingulate cortex is a highly connected and metabolically active brain region. Recent studies suggest it has an important cognitive role, although there is no consensus about what this is. The region is typically discussed as having a unitary function because of a common pattern of relative deactivation observed during attentionally demanding tasks. One influential hypothesis is that the posterior cingulate cortex has a central role in supporting internally-directed cognition. It is a key node in the default mode network and shows increased activity when individuals retrieve autobiographical memories or plan for the future, as well as during unconstrained ‘rest’ when activity in the brain is ‘free-wheeling’. However, other evidence suggests that the region is highly heterogeneous and may play a direct role in regulating the focus of attention. In addition, its activity varies with arousal state and its interactions with other brain networks may be important for conscious awareness. Understanding posterior cingulate cortex function is likely to be of clinical importance. It is well protected against ischaemic stroke, and so there is relatively little neuropsychological data about the consequences of focal lesions. However, in other conditions abnormalities in the region are clearly linked to disease. For example, amyloid deposition and reduced metabolism is seen early in Alzheimer’s disease. Functional neuroimaging studies show abnormalities in a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, autism, depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as ageing. Our own work has consistently shown abnormal posterior cingulate cortex function following traumatic brain injury, which predicts attentional impairments. Here we review the anatomy and physiology of the region and how it is affected in a range of clinical conditions, before discussing its proposed functions. We synthesize key findings into a novel model of the region’s function (the ‘Arousal, Balance and Breadth of Attention’ model). Dorsal and ventral subcomponents are functionally separated and differences in regional activity are explained by considering: (i) arousal state; (ii) whether attention is focused internally or externally; and (iii) the breadth of attentional focus. The predictions of the model can be tested within the framework of complex dynamic systems theory, and we propose that the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex influences attentional focus by ‘tuning’ whole-brain metastability and so adjusts how stable brain network activity is over time. PMID:23869106
Loukas, Marios; Louis, Robert G; Wartmann, Christopher T; Tubbs, R Shane; Gupta, Ankmalika A; Apaydin, Nihal; Jordan, Robert
In classical anatomy textbooks the serratus posterior superior muscle was said to elevate the superior four ribs, thus increasing the AP diameter of the thorax and raising the sternum. However, electromyographic and other studies do not support its role in respiration. In order to help resolve this controversy and provide some insight into their possible functionality, the present study aimed at examining the morphology, topography and morphometry of serratus posterior superior and inferior muscles in both normal specimens and those derived from patients with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). These muscles were examined in 50 human cadavers with an age range of 58-82 years. In 18 of the cadavers their histories revealed that they were suffering from COPD. There was no significant difference between right and left sides, race, gender and age and positive COPD history in regard to dimensions and nerves supply of serratus posterior superior and inferior muscles (P > 0.05). Based upon our findings that no morphometric differences exist between the of serratus posterior superior and inferior muscles of COPD patients versus controls, we are suggesting that no respiratory function be attributed to either of the serratus posterior superior and inferior muscles. PMID:18196199
Cameo Borntrager; James C. Caringi; Richard van den Pol; Lindsay Crosby; Kelsey OConnell; Ashley Trautman; Molly McDonald
Although research has examined secondary traumatic stress (STS) among mental health workers, no studies have systematically addressed STS among public school personnel. Given the amount of time children spend in school (7–8 h per day) and high national estimates of youth trauma exposure, this line of inquiry is warranted. Participants included 229 school staff members across six schools in the northwestern
Corthell, David W., Ed.
Intended to serve as a resource guide on traumatic brain injury for rehabilitation practitioners, the book's 10 chapters are grouped into sections which provide an introduction and examine aspects of evaluation, treatment and placement planning, and unresolved issues. Chapters have the following titles and authors: "Scope of the Problem" (Marilyn…
Fowler, Marc; McCabe, Paul C.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and lifelong disability in the United States for individuals below the age of 45. Current estimates from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) indicate that at least 1.4 million Americans sustain a TBI annually. TBI affects 475,000 children under age 14 each year in the United States alone.…
Mott, Timothy F; McConnon, Michael L; Rieger, Brian P
Although a universally accepted definition is lacking, mild traumatic brain injury and concussion are classified by transient loss of consciousness, amnesia, altered mental status, a Glasgow Coma Score of 13 to 15, and focal neurologic deficits following an acute closed head injury. Most patients recover quickly, with a predictable clinical course of recovery within the first one to two weeks following traumatic brain injury. Persistent physical, cognitive, or behavioral postconcussive symptoms may be noted in 5 to 20 percent of persons who have mild traumatic brain injury. Physical symptoms include headaches, dizziness, and nausea, and changes in coordination, balance, appetite, sleep, vision, and hearing. Cognitive and behavioral symptoms include fatigue, anxiety, depression, and irritability, and problems with memory, concentration and decision making. Women, older adults, less educated persons, and those with a previous mental health diagnosis are more likely to have persistent symptoms. The diagnostic workup for subacute to chronic mild traumatic brain injury focuses on the history and physical examination, with continuing observation for the development of red flags such as the progression of physical, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms, seizure, progressive vomiting, and altered mental status. Early patient and family education should include information on diagnosis and prognosis, symptoms, and further injury prevention. Symptom-specific treatment, gradual return to activity, and multidisciplinary coordination of care lead to the best outcomes. Psychiatric and medical comorbidities, psychosocial issues, and legal or compensatory incentives should be explored in patients resistant to treatment. PMID:23198672
Christopher C. Giza
The number one cause of death and disability in children and teenagers is traumatic brain injury. Despite this fact, this clinical scourge receives limited research investigation. Given the remarkable recovery often seen after focal childhood brain injuries (infarction, hemorrhage, surgical excision), there is a common misconception that the younger brain is always more resilient. However, increasing evidence suggests that this
Trudel, Tina M.; Scherer, Marcia J.; Elias, Eileen
This article is the first of a multi-part series on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Historically, TBI has received very limited national public policy attention and support. However since it has become the signature injury of the military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, TBI has gained the attention of elected officials, military leaders,…
E. C. G. Ventureyra; M. J. Higgins
We report four pediatric traumatic intracranial aneurysms occurring before the age of 10 years. Two of these aneurysms were the results of closed head injury. The remaining two were iatrogenic aneurysms which occurred in unusual circumstances. These four children represent 33% of the pediatric intracranial aneurysms seen at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario from 1974 to 1992. Diagnosis of
Young, T B
A case is reported of simultaneous traumatic rupture of quadriceps tendons diagnosed in the accident and emergency department within 2 hours of injury. This is an extremely rare injury and diagnosis is often missed. Possible mechanism of the injury, predisposing factors, guidelines for diagnosis and results of surgical treatment are discussed, and the literature is reviewed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:4015792
Patrick M. Kochanek
In this review, five questions serve as the framework to discuss the importance of age-related differences in the pathophysiology and therapy of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The following questions are included: (1) Is diffuse cerebral swelling an important feature of pediatric TBI and what is its etiology? (2) Is the developing brain more vulnerable than the adult brain to apoptotic
Schwarzbold, Marcelo; Diaz, Alexandre; Martins, Evandro Tostes; Rufino, Armanda; Amante, Lúcia Nazareth; Thais, Maria Emília; Quevedo, João; Hohl, Alexandre; Linhares, Marcelo Neves; Walz, Roger
Psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are frequent. Researches in this area are important for the patients’ care and they may provide hints for the comprehension of primary psychiatric disorders. Here we approach epidemiology, diagnosis, associated factors and treatment of the main psychiatric disorders after TBI. Finally, the present situation of the knowledge in this field is discussed. PMID:19043523
Coagulation Factors in Controlling Traumatic Bleeds: FFP, PCC, or Lucky Sevens? Rose Sohraby, Pharm IV. Mechanisms of blood coagulation1,5 a. Blood coagulation cascade (SEE APPENDIX B) #12;R. Sohraby 3 coagulation activates FIX and FX i. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI): inhibits catalytic action of TF
TERESA A. ASHMAN; WAYNE A. GORDON; JOSHUA B. CANTOR; MARY R. HIBBARD
At least 1.4 million people die, or receive hospital or emergency care every year in the United States as a result of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Many more are treated in other settings or receive no treatment at all. Thus TBI is often unidentified, with subsequent cognitive, behavioral, emotional and physical sequelae that are not linked to the injury. Yet,
Jonathan Davidson; Susan Roth; Elana Newman
Fluoxetine was given to five nonveteran patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The maximum doses ranged from 20 to 80 mg\\/day, and treatment was continued for between 8 and 32 weeks. In contrast to published reports of other drugs, which were noted to improve only the intrusive symptoms of PTSD, fluoxetine was associated with marked improvement of both intrusive and
Opara, N; Ma?ecka, I; Szczygiel, M
Abstract Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Every year, about 1.5 million affected people die and several millions receive emergency treatment. Most of the burden (90%) is in low and middle-income countries. The costs of care depend on the level of disability. The burden of care after traumatic brain injury is caused by disability as well as by psychosocial and emotional sequelae of injury. The final consequence of brain injury is the reduction of quality of life. It is very difficult to predict the outcome after traumatic brain injury. The basic clinical model included four predictors: age, score in Glasgow coma scale, pupil reactivity, and the presence of major extracranial injury. These are the neuroradiological markers of recovery after TBI (CT, MRI and PET) and biomarkers: genetic markers of ApoE Gene, ectoenzyme CD 38 (cluster of differentiation 38), serum S100B, myelin basic protein (MBP), neuron specific endolase (NSE), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GPAP). These are many clinimetric scales which are helpful in prognosing after head injury. In this review paper, the most commonly used scales evaluating the level of consciousness after traumatic brain injury have been presented. PMID:25408714
Tripathi, F M; Sinha, J K; Bhattacharya, V; Bariar, L M
Due to the use of high speed machinery in industry and the rapid mechanisation of agriculture an increasing number of avulsion injuries are being referred for treatment. This paper describes our experience in the management of ten patients with extensive traumatic avulsion of the penile and scrotal skin, treated by primary split-thickness skin grafting. PMID:6758901
National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.
This fact sheet describes traumatic brain injury (TBI), an injury of the brain caused by the head being hit by something or being shaken violently. It discusses the incidence of TBI, and describes its symptoms as changes in thinking and reasoning, understanding words, remembering things, paying attention, solving problems, thinking abstractly,…
Hooker, James Stewart; Moore, Daniel P
This article describes the difficulty of diagnosing traumatic brain injury (TBI), treatment protocols provided through the military, an alternative therapy with scientific evidence of its effectiveness in repairing injured brain tissue, challenges faced by brain-injured veterans seeking community reintegration, and state services that are available to help veterans. PMID:25856354
Yang, Sung; Stepien, David; Hanseman, Dennis; Robinson, Bryce; Goodman, Michael D.; Pritts, Timothy A.; Caldwell, Charles C.; Remick, Daniel G.; Lentsch, Alex B.
Objectives Traumatic brain injury results in significant morbidity and mortality and is associated with infectious complications, particularly pneumonia. However, whether traumatic brain injury directly impacts the host response to pneumonia is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the nature of the relationship between traumatic brain injury and the prevalence of pneumonia in trauma patients and investigate the mechanism of this relationship using a murine model of traumatic brain injury with pneumonia. Design Data from the National Trauma Data Bank and a murine model of traumatic brain injury with postinjury pneumonia. Setting Academic medical centers in Cincinnati, OH, and Boston, MA. Patients/Subjects Trauma patients in the National Trauma Data Bank with a hospital length of stay greater than 2 days, age of at least 18 years at admission, and a blunt mechanism of injury. Subjects were female ICR mice 8–10 weeks old. Interventions Administration of a substance P receptor antagonist in mice. Measurements and Main Results Pneumonia rates were measured in trauma patients before and after risk adjustment using propensity scoring. In addition, survival and pulmonary inflammation were measured in mice undergoing traumatic brain injury with or without pneumonia. After risk adjustment, we found that traumatic brain injury patients had significantly lower rates of pneumonia compared to blunt trauma patients without traumatic brain injury. A murine model of traumatic brain injury reproduced these clinical findings with mice subjected to traumatic brain injury demonstrating increased bacterial clearance and survival after induction of pneumonia. To determine the mechanisms responsible for this improvement, the substance P receptor was blocked in mice after traumatic brain injury. This treatment abrogated the traumatic brain injury–associated increases in bacterial clearance and survival. Conclusions The data demonstrate that patients with traumatic brain injury have lower rates of pneumonia compared to non–head-injured trauma patients and suggest that the mechanism of this effect occurs through traumatic brain injury–induced release of substance P, which improves innate immunity to decrease pneumonia. PMID:25014065
Fan, Bo-Zhen; Xia, Hong; Li, Huai-Fang; Ouyang, Yi-Qin; Yang, Xiang; Tong, Xiao-Wen
Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of a new complementary mid-urethral sling surgery (Tong’s hammock anterior, THA) in treatment of recurrent or persist stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in females after primary synthetic mid-urethral slings (MUSs). Methods: THA was performed in 27 females with recurrent or persist SUI after primary MUSs from June 2005 and July 2010. These patients were followed up for one year, and clinical data including main complaints, operation duration, blood loss, efficacy and complications were reviewed. Results: All 27 SUI patients were treated with THA surgery, a trans-vaginal mid-urethral sling on the descending pubic ramus. The average operation time was 39 min (range: 25-70 min), average blood loss was 70 ml (range: 20-120 ml). After urinary catheter removal, all patients could micturate and their average residual urine was 25.2 ml (range: 0-80 ml). The average hospital stay was 4.7 days (rage: 3-7 days). SUI symptom was persistent in 2 patients after THA surgery and the effective rate reached 92.5%. At 3 months, 6 months and 1 year after surgery, the effective rate was 92.5% (25/27), 92% (23/25) and 87.5% (21/24), respectively. 6 months after THA surgery, 2 were lost to follow up; 1 had recurrent SUI at 1 year and 1 had mesh erosion, 1 died of other diseases, and operative complications were absent after surgery. Conclusions: THA surgery is an effective method for treating recurrent or persistent SUI after primary MUSs. It is cheap, efficient, and easy to handle. PMID:24482697
Mansour, Ahmad; Taha, Samar
Purpose To present a case series on the use of dexmedetomidine (Precedex) sedation in painful posterior segment surgery performed under topical anesthesia, similar to its use in cataract surgery. Methods A prospective review of cases that had posterior segment surgery under topical anesthesia and that needed sedation. Dexmedetomidine-loading infusion was 1 mcg/kg over 10 minutes, followed by a maintenance infusion (0.5 mcg/kg/h). Results Nine patients were operated on under topical anesthesia: two scleral buckle, five cryopexy, one scleral laceration, and one pars plana vitrectomy with very dense laser therapy in an albinotic fundus; six patients had retinal detachment. General or local anesthesia were not possible due to medical or ocular morbidities, use of anticoagulants, or the surgery plan changed intraoperatively when new pathologies were discovered. The surgeon achieved good surgical control in eight of nine cases, with one patient having ocular and bodily movements that were disturbing. Six patients had no pain, while three patients reported mild pain. No adverse effects were noted and all patients had successful surgical outcomes. Heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were well controlled throughout the procedures. The most frequent adverse reactions of dexmedetomidine reported in the literature in less than 5% (hypotension, bradycardia, and dry mouth) were not recorded in the present study. Conclusion When a surgeon has planned to do a pars plana vitrectomy under topical anesthesia and the surgical situation dictates the addition of cryopexy, scleral buckle, or intense laser retinopexy, then sedation with dexmedetomidine can help in the control of ocular pain in the majority of cases, with good intraoperative and immediate postoperative hemodynamic control with the possibility of supplemental rescue analgesia. Dexmedetomidine, a sedative analgesic, is devoid of respiratory depressant effects, and its use in posterior segment surgery under topical anesthesia is reported here for the first time. PMID:23271889
Chai, Toby C.; Huang, Liyuan; Kenton, Kim; Richter, Holly E.; Baker, Jan; Kraus, Stephen; Litman, Heather
Aims To explore how baseline demographic, clinical and urodynamic variables correlate with measures of urethral function in women planning midurethral sling surgery. Methods Women with predominant stress urinary incontinence (SUI) as part of the Trial of Mid-Urethral Slings (TOMUS) were characterized preoperatively including: demographics, body mass index (BMI), responses to the Medical and Epidemiologic Social Aspects of Aging (MESA) and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI) questionnaires, pad weight (PW), incontinence duration, prior SUI surgery, prolapse, strength of pelvic contraction, Q-tip test, uroflow, cystometrogram and detrusor pressures at maximum flow (Pdet at Qmax). Multivariate regression analysis and modeling confirmed variables with significant correlations with maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP), functional urethral length (FUL) and Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP). Results Five-hundred thirty nine women were included in the analysis. In multivariable analyses, PW (p=0.045) and age (p<0.0001) were negatively correlated with MUCP (as PW and age increased, MUCP decreased); BMI (p=0.02) and Pdet at Qmax (p<0.0001) were positively correlated with MUCP (as BMI and Pdet at Qmax increased, MUCP increased). Age (p=0.002) was negatively correlated with FUL; Qtip delta (p=0.006), POPQ stage (p=0.002) and strength of pelvic contraction (p=0.03) were positively correlated with FUL. Duration of incontinence (p=0.01) was negatively correlated with VLPP; Qtip delta (p=0.02), BMI (p=0.0005) and Pdet at Qmax (p=0.0005) were positively correlated with VLPP. Conclusions Age, BMI, Qtip delta and Pdet at Qmax were variables that correlated with two or more measures of urethral function. These correlations may help direct future research in female urethral function. PMID:22378483
Jiang, Hai-Hong; Pan, Hui Q; Gustilo-Ashby, A. Marcus; Gill, Bradley; Glaab, Jonathan; Zaszczurynski, Paul; Damaser, Margot
Aims Pelvic floor muscle trauma and pudendal nerve injury have been implicated in stress urinary incontinence (SUI) development after childbirth. In this study, we investigated how combinations of these injuries affect recovery. Methods Sixty-seven female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent vaginal distension (VD), pudendal nerve crush (PNC), PNC and VD (PNC+VD), pudendal nerve transection (PNT), or served as unmanipulated controls. Four days, 3 weeks, or 6 weeks after injury, we simultaneously recorded pudendal nerve motor branch potentials (PNMBP), external urethral sphincter electromyography (EUS EMG), and transurethral bladder pressure under urethane anesthesia. The presence of a guarding reflex (increased frequency & amplitude of PNMBP or EUS EMG activity) during leak point pressure (LPP) testing was determined. Results Controls consistently demonstrated a guarding reflex. Four days after VD, EUS EMG activity was eliminated, but PNMBP activity reflected the guarding reflex; EUS EMG activity recovered after 3 weeks. Four days after PNC, both EUS EMG and PNMBP activity were eliminated, but demonstrated significant recovery at 3 weeks. Four days after PNC+VD both EUS EMG and nerve activity were eliminated, and little recovery was observed after 3 weeks with significant recovery of the guarding reflex 6 weeks after injury. Little recovery was observed at all time points after PNT. LPP results mirrored the reduction in EUS EMG activity. Conclusion Functional recovery occurs more slowly after PNC+VD than after either PNC or VD alone. Future work will be aimed at testing methods to facilitate neuroregeneration and recovery after this clinically relevant dual injury. PMID:18973146
Skála-Rosenbaum, Ji?í; Džupa, Valér; Krbec, Martin
Traumatic atlantooccipital dislocation is a rare injury in survivors with 15 % share in deaths due to spinal injury. The authors present a case of a patient with concurrent atlantooccipital and atlantoaxial instability of the upper cervical spine, which he suffered after a fall from height. Atlantooccipital dislocation in surviving patients is a rare injury, for which in some cases coincident bone injury is reported to upper cervical spine, such as occipital fracture or contingent odontoid (C2 dens) fracture. In our case, it is combined with atlantoaxial instability and this combined type of injury has not yet been described in the literature. We performed realignment of the dislocation and posterior occipitocervical (C0-C3) fusion. After the surgery, the patient manifested neurological improvement almost to a normal neurological outcome with persistent residual finding after subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:24292344
Fugazzotto, Paul; Melnick, Philip R; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad
The maxillary posterior edentulous region presents a challenge when planning for restoring missing teeth with a dental implant. The available bone in such cases is often not dense and not adequate for the placement of a properly sized implant because of maxillary sinus pneumatization and alveolar bone loss. Maxillary sinus lift is a predictable procedure to provide adequate bone height for the purpose of implant placement. However, complications are encountered during or after the execution of the sinus lift procedure. In this article, the prevention and management of maxillary sinus complications are discussed. PMID:25434561
Aulakh, Puneet; Fatakhov, Eduard; Koch, Christopher Francis; Kapil, Shikha
We present a case of a 78-year-old African-American man with a history of hypertension, and with no prior history of seizure. The patient presented with hypertensive urgency as well as stroke such as symptoms of confusion, seizure, postictal confusion, left hemianopsia and hyponatraemia. MRI findings were suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). The patient was treated with appropriate medications with the resolution of his stroke-like symptoms. This case report discusses a patient with PRES, in the setting of hyponatraemia, and how prompt recognition may prevent permanent neurological sequela such as epilepsy. PMID:23904416
Rosalyn M. Aranas; Shyam Prabhakaran; Vivien H. Lee
Background Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological entity characterized by headache, encephalopathy,\\u000a visual disturbances, and seizures in association with reversible vasogenic edema on neuroimaging. Intracerebral hemorrhage\\u000a associated with PRES (PRES-ICH) is generally considered an atypical finding.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Retrospective case series.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Seven patients were identified with PRES-ICH, four males and three females. The presenting clinical symptoms included headache\\u000a (2), encephalopathy (5),
Wang, Xin; Xie, Hong; Cotton, Andrew S; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Brickman, Kristopher R; Lewis, Terrence J; McLean, Samuel A; Liberzon, Israel
In a motor vehicle collision (MVC), survivors often receive mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI). Although there have been some reports of early white matter changes after an mTBI, much less is known about early cortical structural changes. To investigate early cortical changes within a few days after an MVC, we compared cortical thickness of mTBI survivors with non-mTBI survivors, then reexamined cortical thickness in the same survivors 3 months later. MVC survivors were categorized as mTBI or non-mTBI based on concussive symptoms documented in emergency departments (EDs). Cortical thickness was measured from MRI images using FreeSurfer within a few days and again at 3 months after MVC. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and physical conditions were also assessed. Compared with the non-mTBI group (n = 23), the mTBI group (n = 21) had thicker cortex in the left rostral middle frontal (rMFG) and right precuneus gyri, but thinner cortex in the left posterior middle temporal gyrus at 7.2 ± 3.1 days after MVC. After 3 months, cortical thickness had decreased in left rMFG in the mTBI group but not in the non-mTBI group. The cortical thickness of the right precuneus region in the initial scans was positively correlated with acute traumatic stress symptoms for all survivors and with the number of reduced activity days for mTBI survivors who completed the follow-up. The preliminary results suggest that alterations in cortical thickness may occur at an early stage of mTBI and that frontal cortex structure may change dynamically over the initial 3 months after mTBI. PMID:25118568
Narayana, Ponnada A.; Yu, Xintian; Hasan, Khader M.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Levin, Harvey S.; Hunter, Jill V.; Miller, Emmy R.; Patel, Vipul Kumar S.; Robertson, Claudia S.; McCarthy, James J.
Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that included high resolution structural imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) were performed in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients with negative computed tomographic scans and in an orthopedic-injured (OI) group without concomitant injury to the brain. The OI group served as a comparison group for mTBI. MRI scans were performed both in the acute phase of injury (~24 h) and at follow-up (~90 days). DTI data was analyzed using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS). Global and regional atrophies were calculated using tensor-based morphometry (TBM). MTR values were calculated using the standard method. MRSI was analyzed using LC Model. At the initial scan, the mean diffusivity (MD) was significantly higher in the mTBI cohort relative to the comparison group in several white matter (WM) regions that included internal capsule, external capsule, superior corona radiata, anterior corona radiata, posterior corona radiata, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, forceps major and forceps minor of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corticospinal tract in the right hemisphere. TBSS analysis failed to detect significant differences in any DTI measures between the initial and follow-up scans either in the mTBI or OI group. No significant differences were found in MRSI, MTR or morphometry between the mTBI and OI cohorts either at the initial or follow-up scans with or without family wise error (FWE) correction. Our study suggests that a number of WM tracts are affected in mTBI in the acute phase of injury and that these changes disappear by 90 days. This study also suggests that none of the MRI-modalities used in this study, with the exception of DTI, is sensitive in detecting changes in the acute phase of mTBI. PMID:25610770
Szpila, K; Hall, M J R; Wardhana, A H; Pape, T
There are only three fly species that are obligate agents of traumatic myiasis of humans and livestock: a single species of flesh fly, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Sarcophagidae), and two species of blow flies, Chrysomya bezziana and Cochliomyia hominivorax (Calliphoridae). The morphology of their first instar larvae is thoroughly and consistently documented here with light microscopy photographs and scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The following morphological structures are documented: pseudocephalon, antennal complex, maxillary palpus, oral ridges, thoracic and abdominal spinulation, spiracular field, posterior spiracles and cephaloskeleton. New diagnostic features drawn from the cephaloskeleton and the spinulation of abdominal segments, including the anal pad, are discovered and extensively described. Earlier descriptions in the literature are revisited, and major discrepancies between these and the results of the current study are discussed. The present results allow clarification, correction and, especially, complementation of information provided by earlier authors. The relatively distant taxonomic position of all three species is evidence that obligatory myiasis has arisen independently, and the extensively similar morphology in the first instar larvae of Chrysomya bezziana, Cochliomyia hominivorax and W. magnifica in comparison to necrophagous species, especially the enhancement of the anterior part of the cephaloskeleton and the segmental spinulation, is therefore best interpreted as homoplasic adaptations to a life strategy as obligate vertebrate parasites. An identification key for first instar larvae of all obligatory traumatic myiasis agents of mammals is provided. PMID:24553979
Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Negida, Ahmed Said; Sanei Taheri, Morteza; Hashemi, Behrooz; Hosseini Selkisari, Samaneh
Background: Discrepancy between X-ray readings of emergency physicians (EPs) versus radiologists was reported between 0.95% and 16.8% in different studies. The discordance was even higher when specific studies such as chest X-rays (CXR) were probed. Objectives: This prospective study was conducted to assess the discrepancies between emergency and radiology departments with respect to interpretation of the traumatic chest X-rays. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from March to April 2014. Based on Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines, plain chest radiography (CXR) was ordered for all patients in two standard views of posterior-anterior and lateral. All CXRs were interpreted by a corresponding emergency medicine specialist and a radiologist blind to the clinical findings of the patients. Finally, the results of two interpretations were compared. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of traumatic CXR interpretation were calculated by EPs with 95% of confidence interval (CI). Results: The evaluation of EPs was identical to that of the radiologists in 89.5% of the cases. Ninety-eight percent (98%) indicated total agreement and 1.5 percent total disagreement. Conclusions: There is a high agreement between EPs and radiologists in CXR interpretations in Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital. Thus, EPs can substitute radiologists in the emergency department. More improvements are recommended to achieve the standard level of agreement. PMID:25738133
Qiu, Robert S; Safain, Mina G; Shutran, Max; Hernandez, Alejandra M; Hwang, Steven W; Riesenburger, Ron I
Atlantooccipital dislocation can be complicated by a traumatic durotomy that may lead to the rare development of a retropharyngeal pseudomeningocele. To our knowledge this has been reported only five times previously. We present the case of a 60-year-old man involved in a motor vehicle accident who suffered an atlantooccipital dislocation and C5-C6 three-column injury. A unique MRI image of a defect in the ventral dura posterior to C2 was appreciated. He underwent occiput to T2 internal fixation and arthrodesis. During surgery, CSF egress was seen caudal to the right C2 nerve root. A DuraMatrix onlay patch reinforced with DuraSeal was placed to stop the CSF leak. A lumbar subarachnoid drain was also placed. The patient made a satisfactory recovery with residual mild weakness of his right upper extremity. In this report, we demonstrate that careful MRI review can reveal a ventral durotomy in a traumatic atlantooccipital dislocation and, if discovered, effective treatment including a lumbar subarachnoid drain for CSF diversion may prevent progression to a retropharyngeal pseudomeningocele. The literature on this rare presentation and associated durotomy is provided. PMID:26064761
Schulz, C.; Kunz, U.; Mauer, U. M.; Mathieu, R.
Purpose. In cases of traumatic thoracolumbar fractures, percutaneous vertebral augmentation can be used in addition to posterior stabilisation. The use of an augmentation technique with a bone-filled polyethylene mesh as a stand-alone treatment for traumatic vertebral fractures has not yet been investigated. Methods. In this retrospective study, 17 patients with acute type A3.1 fractures of the thoracic or lumbar spine underwent stand-alone augmentation with mesh and allograft bone and were followed up for one year using pain scales and sagittal endplate angles. Results. From before surgery to 12 months after surgery, pain and physical function improved significantly, as indicated by an improvement in the median VAS score and in the median pain and work scale scores. From before to immediately after surgery, all patients showed a significant improvement in mean mono- and bisegmental kyphoses. During the one-year period, there was a significant loss of correction. Conclusions. Based on this data a stand-alone approach with vertebral augmentation with polyethylene mesh and allograft bone is not a suitable therapy option for incomplete burst fractures for a young patient collective. PMID:25688302
Qiu, Robert S.; Safain, Mina G.; Shutran, Max; Hernandez, Alejandra M.; Hwang, Steven W.; Riesenburger, Ron I.
Atlantooccipital dislocation can be complicated by a traumatic durotomy that may lead to the rare development of a retropharyngeal pseudomeningocele. To our knowledge this has been reported only five times previously. We present the case of a 60-year-old man involved in a motor vehicle accident who suffered an atlantooccipital dislocation and C5-C6 three-column injury. A unique MRI image of a defect in the ventral dura posterior to C2 was appreciated. He underwent occiput to T2 internal fixation and arthrodesis. During surgery, CSF egress was seen caudal to the right C2 nerve root. A DuraMatrix onlay patch reinforced with DuraSeal was placed to stop the CSF leak. A lumbar subarachnoid drain was also placed. The patient made a satisfactory recovery with residual mild weakness of his right upper extremity. In this report, we demonstrate that careful MRI review can reveal a ventral durotomy in a traumatic atlantooccipital dislocation and, if discovered, effective treatment including a lumbar subarachnoid drain for CSF diversion may prevent progression to a retropharyngeal pseudomeningocele. The literature on this rare presentation and associated durotomy is provided.
Marra, A; Vargas, M; Striano, P; Del Guercio, L; Buonanno, P; Servillo, G
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterised by headache, visual disorders, seizures, altered mentation, consciousness disturbances and focal neurological signs. Initially described in patients with pre and eclampsia, severe hypertension, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome can occur in other clinical conditions such as infection, sepsis, shock, cancer chemotherapy, autoimmune diseases and hypercalcemia. Pathogenesis of brain lesions in PRES is not full understood and two opposite theories have been proposed. Both models are based on the central role of hypertension. According to the first theory, hypertension could cause a breakdown of the autoregulatory system in cerebral circulation, leading to brain edema. The second theory suggests that hypertension causes activation of autoregulatory system, which finally results in a vasoconstriction of brain vessels with hypoperfusion, ischemia and subsequent fluid leakage. However a large number of patients, with PRES, doesn't show hypertension. We here describe the hypothesis of the crucial role of endothelial dysfunction and activation in PRES pathogenesis. Our hypothesis offers a common pathogenetic mechanism in which every PRES-related condition can be set. In our model, the activation of immune system and the consequent endothelial activation start a molecular cascade which finally causes the production of molecules which alter the normal homeostasis of blood-brain barrier. This alteration consists in a weakening of brain vessel tight junctions, which allows fluid leakage and edema. In this scenario, hypertension would be an epiphenomenon of the underlying mechanism and not the cause and, for this reason, it can be present or not in PRES. PMID:24613735
Goyal, Ravi; De Gruttola, Victor; Blitzstein, Joseph
Recent research indicates that knowledge about social networks can be leveraged to increase efficiency of interventions (Valente, 2012). However, in many settings, there exists considerable uncertainty regarding the structure of the network. This can render the estimation of potential effects of network-based interventions difficult, as providing appropriate guidance to select interventions often requires a representation of the whole network. In order to make use of the network property estimates to simulate the effect of interventions, it may be beneficial to sample networks from an estimated posterior predictive distribution, which can be specified using a wide range of models. Sampling networks from a posterior predictive distribution of network properties ensures that the uncertainty about network property parameters is adequately captured. The tendency for relationships among network properties to exhibit sharp thresholds has important implications for understanding global network topology in the presence of uncertainty; therefore, it is essential to account for uncertainty. We provide detail needed to sample networks for the specific network properties of degree distribution, mixing frequency, and clustering. Our methods to generate networks are demonstrated using simulated data and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. PMID:25339990
Jack C. Hughston
Over a 10 year period, 24 of 54 acute PCL tears in cases of straight medial instability demonstrated an absent or an equivocal posterior drawer test. Most of these (22, 91.6%) were contact injuries, and in the 11 cases where the mechanism of injury was known (45.8%), were incurred by a blow to the outer aspect of the leg while
Wintermark, M; Coombs, L; Druzgal, T J; Field, A S; Filippi, C G; Hicks, R; Horton, R; Lui, Y W; Law, M; Mukherjee, P; Norbash, A; Riedy, G; Sanelli, P C; Stone, J R; Sze, G; Tilkin, M; Whitlow, C T; Wilde, E A; York, G; Provenzale, J M
The past decade has seen impressive advances in the types of neuroimaging information that can be acquired in patients with traumatic brain injury. However, despite this increase in information, understanding of the contribution of this information to prognostic accuracy and treatment pathways for patients is limited. Available techniques often allow us to infer the presence of microscopic changes indicative of alterations in physiology and function in brain tissue. However, because histologic confirmation is typically lacking, conclusions reached by using these techniques remain solely inferential in almost all cases. Hence, a need exists for validation of these techniques by using data from large population samples that are obtained in a uniform manner, analyzed according to well-accepted procedures, and correlated with closely monitored clinical outcomes. At present, many of these approaches remain confined to population-based research rather than diagnosis at an individual level, particularly with regard to traumatic brain injury that is mild or moderate in degree. A need and a priority exist for patient-centered tools that will allow advanced neuroimaging tools to be brought into clinical settings. One barrier to developing these tools is a lack of an age-, sex-, and comorbidities-stratified, sequence-specific, reference imaging data base that could provide a clear understanding of normal variations across populations. Such a data base would provide researchers and clinicians with the information necessary to develop computational tools for the patient-based interpretation of advanced neuroimaging studies in the clinical setting. The recent "Joint ASNR-ACR HII-ASFNR TBI Workshop: Bringing Advanced Neuroimaging for Traumatic Brain Injury into the Clinic" on May 23, 2014, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, brought together neuroradiologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, neuropsychologists, neuroimaging scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke, industry representatives, and other traumatic brain injury stakeholders to attempt to reach consensus on issues related to and develop consensus recommendations in terms of creating both a well-characterized normative data base of comprehensive imaging and ancillary data to serve as a reference for tools that will allow interpretation of advanced neuroimaging tests at an individual level of a patient with traumatic brain injury. The workshop involved discussions concerning the following: 1) designation of the policies and infrastructure needed for a normative data base, 2) principles for characterizing normal control subjects, and 3) standardizing research neuroimaging protocols for traumatic brain injury. The present article summarizes these recommendations and examines practical steps to achieve them. PMID:25655872
Peirce, Jessica M.; Burke, Christopher K.; Stoller, Kenneth B.; Neufeld, Karin J.; Brooner, Robert K.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis requires first identifying a traumatic event, but very few studies have evaluated methods of potential traumatic event assessment and their impact on PTSD diagnosis. We compared a behaviorally-specific comprehensive multiple-item traumatic event measure to a single-item measure to determine their impact on traumatic event identification and subsequent PTSD diagnosis. In a within-subject, counterbalanced design, the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ; Kubany et al., 2000) was compared to the single-question traumatic event assessment in the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1998) in 129 participants in opioid dependence treatment. The TLEQ produced a 9-fold higher rate of traumatic events reported by the participants as compared to the SCID. As a result, PTSD diagnoses in the sample increased to 33% after the TLEQ measure from 24% after the SCID. The increase in potential traumatic event identification and PTSD diagnosis was greater in women than men. This study provides strong support for the use of comprehensive traumatic event assessments to measure traumatic events and PTSD diagnoses, particularly in women. PMID:19485675
Mazaheri, Tina; Rad, Mona Vahidi; Fareghi, Mehdi; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad
Complete urethral duplication is a rare congenital genitourinary anomaly with various symptoms. Since anatomical place of urethra greatly varies between cases, surgical management of the patients is personalized according to the type of the duplication and requires a careful workup before planning for any intervention. In this case report, a 4-year-old boy with finding of complete proximal hypospadiac urethral duplication is presented with double-stream voiding. He was passing a normal stream of urine through the hypospadiac tract, while a thin stream came out from the normal meatal site. Examination revealed a hypoplastic orthotopic urethra with an accessory penoscrotal hypospadiac urethra. The patient was successfully managed with hydrodistension technique which was used to resolve the stricture of hypoplastic dorsal urethra followed by end-to-end anastomosis to penoscrotal hypospadias. This approach gives an insight that the technique could be possibly considered as a simple alternative to avoid proximal hypospadias repair which is comparatively a challenging surgical task. PMID:24859321
Kim, In Gul; Oh, Se Heang; Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Ji Youl; Lee, Jin Ho
In our previous study, growth factor (basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF] or vascular endothelial growth factor)-immobilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/Pluronic F127 porous beads were fabricated by an isolated particle-melting/melt-molding particulate-leaching method. The growth factors were easily immobilized onto the pore surfaces of the PCL/F127 beads via heparin binding, and were continuously released for up to 28 days. In this study, the growth factor-immobilized porous beads were investigated for their potential use as an injectable urethral bulking agent for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). From the in vivo study using Sprague-Dawley rats as an urinary incontinent animal model, it was observed that the growth factor (bFGF or vascular endothelial growth factor)-immobilized porous beads had effective cure behaviors for SUI as follows: the narrowed urethral lumen and the regeneration of smooth muscle around the urethra. In particular, the bFGF-immobilized PCL/F127 porous beads showed desirable smooth muscle regeneration and electrical contractility, which indicates it can be a good candidate as an injectable bioactive bulking agent for the treatment of SUI. PMID:21275847
Szulczewski, D H; Kleinheinz, J; Werkmeister, R; Meyer, U; Roth, S; Joos, U
The use of free buccal mucosal grafts in the treatment of urethral strictures has become very popular. In 1996 and 1997 we harvested free buccal mucosal grafts up to 7 cm long and 4 cm wide from 12 patients who underwent urologic surgery for urethral strictures. In 2 patients the donor site was closed primarily by sutures. Four patients received Lyodura and another 4 patients received Syspurderm as temporary wound coverage. In 2 patients Ethisorp patches were used. Donor site pain was judged by the patients on a visual analogue scale during the first postoperative week. The 2 patients who received the Ethisorp patches complained of more intense pain, probably caused by the rigidity of the material. In all patients regeneration of the donor site mucosa was good. During the follow-up period of 4-18 months scar formation at the lower vestibulum was noticed as the only complication. Permanent limitation of mouth opening, stenosis of the parotid duct or hypesthesia did not occur. PMID:10077966
...RIN 2900-AO20 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program...regulations governing the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection...that expanded the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury...
Bansal, Somendra; Vyas, Kailash C
Traumatic abdominal wall hernias are rare injuries despite the high incidence of blunt abdominal traumas. The mechanism of this injury includes a sudden increase in intra-abdominal pressure and extensive shear forces applied to the abdominal wall. We report a case of traumatic hernia of the anterior abdominal wall in a 42-year-old woman presented with blunt injury of the upper abdomen. She was attacked by a bull. She had a clinically evident abdominal fascial disruption with intact skin and was hemodynamically stable. The presence of localized pain, bruising and a reducible swelling or a cough impulse suggested the diagnosis. An emergency mesh repair of the defect was performed, and she recovered well. PMID:25972694
Lenihan, Michael W; Jordan, Barry D
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder attributed to repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. The diagnosis in a living individual can be challenging and can be made definitively only at autopsy. The symptoms are often nonspecific and overlap with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Higher exposure to repetitive head trauma increases the risk of CTE. Genetic risk factors such as presence of an apolipoprotein E ?4 allele may be important. Individuals have varying degrees of cognitive, behavioral, and motor decline. Limitations in the manner in which data have been obtained over the years have led to different clinical descriptions of CTE. At present, there are no biomarkers to assist in the diagnosis. Standard neuroimaging may show nonspecific atrophic changes; however, newer imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) show promise. Neuropsychological testing may be helpful in determining the pattern of cognitive or behavioral decline. PMID:25772999
Ronald M. Ruff; Christina Weyer Jamora
Over the last 20 years, the Courts and the legal community have increasingly relied on neuropsychologists to provide opinions,\\u000a guidance, and expertise in the area of brain–behavior relationships. The purpose of this article is to review issues neuropsychologists\\u000a commonly face when asked to evaluate cases with suspected mild traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in the civil or criminal legal\\u000a context. In particular,
Hall, Christy Ann
PTSD-I, AAQ, and Substance Use Scores by Identity of Perpetrator. 37 When reviewing the history of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Gersons and Carlier (1992) explain the disorder as a reasonable reaction to psychic trauma that, if it does... differences. Another factor in the types of trauma experienced by the sexes is the identity of the perpetrator in violent and sexual Dansky, et al. (1996) found there were no gender differences in assault or crime- related PTSD prevalence rates, except...
William E. Copeland; Gordon Keeler; Adrian Angold; E. Jane Costello
Results: More than two thirds of children reported at least 1 traumatic event by 16 years of age, with 13.4% of thosechildrendevelopingsomePTSsymptoms.FewPTS symptoms or psychiatric disorders were observed for in- dividuals experiencing their first event, and any effects were short-lived. Less than 0.5% of children met the cri- teria for full-blown DSM-IV PTSD. Violent or sexual trauma were associated with
Paul Houle; Dennis E. McDonnell; John Vender
Traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation is seen in approximately 25% of fatal pediatric trauma. This was previously considered to be a rare and fatal entity, however with improvements in resuscitation in the field, many patients who previously might have died are now evaluated in the hospital. Treatment of atlanto-occipital instability is internal fixation. Many authors have advocated supplemental external immobilization with a
Suresh Kumar Shetty, B; Jagadish Rao, P P; Menezes, Ritesh G
Injury to the male external genitalia is relatively uncommon when compared with other parts of the human body. Trauma to external genitalia could result from accidents involving motor vehicles, power farm machinery, gun shot and stab injuries. We present a rare case of traumatic degloving injury of male external genitalia associated with partial penile amputation and loss of both testes sparing the internal abdominal and pelvic organs, resulting from run over by a heavy vehicle tyre. PMID:18926510
Background Traumatic perforation of the tympanic membrane may be due to direct or indirect source. The aim of the study is to profile the various aetiologies of traumatic tympanic membrane perforation in Ilorin, north central Nigeria. A retrospective review of 64 patients seen at the University of Ilorin Teaching hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria over a ten year period (January 1998 to Dec 2007) with history of traumatic tympanic membrane perforation from various causes, these also included multiply injured patients with bleeding from middle ear as part of their presentations. The data retrieved included the biodata, the clinical presentations, source of injury, the clinical findings and the treatment outcome. The data were entered into an SPSS version 11 computer soft ware and analyzed descriptively. Findings Sixty four (64) ears were analysed, Age range 6 months to 50 yrs, mean age of 29.2 yrs 7.9% of them were ?5 years, 29.7% between 21-34 years, and 37.7% were 35 years and above. The male to female ratio was 2.5:1.0. Commonest aetiology was from slaps, then road traffic injury (RTI) in 35.9% and 23.5%, Majority of the slap injury were from fights (30.5%), security agents, senior students and cultists at schools (17.4% each). Sudden hearing loss was a typical presentation (95.3%), majority of the patient defaulted from follow up once the symptoms of bleeding and pain subsided. Only 7.8% had neomembrane formation on follow up Conclusion Traumatic perforation of the tympanic membrane is an uncommon injury that is under-reported, there is the need to educate on alternative punitive measure among students and security agents, unskilled removal of foreign body, early identification, evaluation and referral of patients reduces the attendant morbidity. PMID:19930586
This paper discusses an investigation carried out on choosing the appropriate brain-body interface for a group of non-verbal severely brain injured participants to aid communication and recreation. Although extensive research has been carried out in the last few years with invasive and non-invasive brain-body interfaces for the traumatic brain injured community, not enough has filtered through to be used as
Michael J. Larson; William M. Perlstein; Jason A. Demery; David A. Stigge-Kaufman
The componential nature of impaired cognitive control following traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains uncertain. We examined regulative and evaluative components of cognitive control in mild and moderate-to-severe (M\\/S) TBI patients and demographically-matched comparison participants using the AX-CPT task. We also examined relationships of cognitive control impairment to ratings of cognitive, behavioral, and affective symptomatology on the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). Results
Fujii, Daryl E; Ahmed, Iqbal
Psychosis is a rare and severe sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI). This article assists clinicians in differential diagnosis by providing literature-based guidance with regard to use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders 5 criteria for this condition. This article also describes potential relationships between TBI and the development of a psychosis within the conceptualization of psychosis as a neurobehavioral syndrome. PMID:24529427
Charles, Janice; Harrison, Christopher; Britt, Helena
Over 2000 general practice encounters per year (2.3%) in BEACH are with repatriation health card holders, referred to here as veterans. The patients are veterans of Australia's defence force or war widows, widowers or dependent children. We compared the rate at which post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was managed among veterans and non-veterans from April 2009 to June 2014. PMID:25393458
Burgess, Paula; E Sullivent, Ernest; M Sasser, Scott; M Wald, Marlena; Ossmann, Eric; Kapil, Vikas
Explosions and bombings are the most common deliberate cause of disasters with large numbers of casualties. Despite this fact, disaster medical response training has traditionally focused on the management of injuries following natural disasters and terrorist attacks with biological, chemical, and nuclear agents. The following article is a clinical primer for physicians regarding traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by explosions and bombings. The history, physics, and treatment of TBI are outlined. PMID:20606794
Jasbir Sra; David Krum; Angela Malloy; Atul Bhatia; Ryan Cooley; Zalmen Blanck; Anwer Dhala; Alfred J. Anderson; Masood Akhtar
Background Radiofrequency energy delivered throughout the cardiac cycle has the potential to cause thermal injury to the esophagus if the anatomical relationship between the posterior left atrium and the esophagus changes during cardiac motion.Objective To assess the posterior left atrial–esophageal relationship throughout the cardiac cycle.Methods In this study, the anatomical relationship between the posterior left atrium and the esophagus was assessed throughout the
Lott, T; El Gammal, T; Volcan, I
Valuable neuroradiologic information can be obtained with routine examination of the posterior fossa by computer assisted tomography (CAT). The diagnosis can be difficult in the posterior fossa due to the relatively small size of the compartment and its proximities to large bony masses and air in the mastoid cells. However, many lesions can be accurately diagnosed when close attention is given to anatomic detail and the frequent use of contrast enhancement. We introduced a new CAT classification of posterior fossa neoplasms. PMID:877637
Quinal, Leonida; Harford, Stephanie; Rutledge, Dana N
As empathetic caregivers, oncology staff may be prone to secondary traumatic stress (STS). Secondary traumatic stress results from exposure to persons who have experienced trauma and from giving care to such persons. The presence of STS among oncology staff has not been documented. This correlational descriptive study examined STS among oncology staff at a 500-bed Magnet-designated community hospital by determining the presence of individual symptoms and frequency with which diagnostic criteria for STS are met. Also determined were associations between STS demographic characteristics and specific stress-reduction activities.In this study, 43 staff members from an inpatient oncology unit completed mailed surveys. The Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale assessed the frequency of intrusion, avoidance, and arousal symptoms associated with STS; also assessed were use/helpfulness of stress-reduction activities. In this first study to document the prevalence of STS among oncology staff, prevalence ranged from 16% (Bride's method) to 37% (cutoff-score method). Most common symptoms were difficulty sleeping, intrusive thoughts about patients, and irritability. Least common were avoidance of people, places, and things and disturbing dreams about patients. Current use of massage was significantly predictive of not having STS. Ethnicity of staff member was related to having STS. Further research is warranted evaluating STS prevalence in different groups of oncology staff along with the effect of STS on burnout and job retention. PMID:19444086
Schmitt, Sarah; Dichter, Marc A
Following a traumatic brain injury (TBI), the brain undergoes numerous electrophysiologic changes. The most common techniques used to evaluate these changes include electroencepalography (EEG) and evoked potentials. In animals, EEGs immediately following TBI can show either diffuse slowing or voltage attenuation, or high voltage spiking. Following a TBI, many animals display evidence of hippocampal excitability and a reduced seizure threshold. Some mice subjected to severe TBI via a fluid percussion injury will eventually develop seizures, which provides a useful potential model for studying the neurophysiology of epileptogenesis. In humans, the EEG changes associated with mild TBI are relatively subtle and may be challenging to distinguish from EEG changes seen in other conditions. Quantitative EEG (QEEG) may enhance the ability to detect post-traumatic electrophysiologic changes following a mild TBI. Some types of evoked potential (EP) and event related potential (ERP) can also be used to detect post-traumatic changes following a mild TBI. Continuous EEG monitoring (cEEG) following moderate and severe TBI is useful in detecting the presence of seizures and status epilepticus acutely following an injury, although some seizures may only be detectable using intracranial monitoring. CEEG can also be helpful for assessing prognosis after moderate or severe TBI. EPs, particularly somatosensory evoked potentials, can also be useful in assessing prognosis following severe TBI. The role for newer technologies such as magnetoencephalography and bispectral analysis (BIS) in the evaluation of patients with TBI remains unclear. PMID:25702226
Sarimo, J; Rantanen, J; Heikkilä, J; Orava, S
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the events leading to acute traumatic extension deficit of the knee and the arthroscopic findings in these patients. A total of 78 consecutive patients treated in the Turku university hospital during the years 1994-1996 were included. The mean annual incidence of acute traumatic extension deficits of the knee in our study was 1.1 per 10 000 inhabitants. The single most common (33%) event causing the extension deficit was non-sports related twisting of the knee. Various sports related activities accounted for 42% of the extension deficits, and soccer was the most common sport in this group. In conclusion, acute traumatic extension deficit of the knee is usually a sign of serious intra-articular damage, and the most likely finding (in 82% of the patients in our study) is either a meniscal rupture, an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, a patellar dislocation, or a combination of these. The lesions in these knees require prompt evaluation by an orthopaedic surgeon mainly because of the high number of bucket-handle and menisco-capsular insertion ruptures of the menisci, which are possibly suitable for repair. PMID:12753487
Rompalo, A.; Taylor, S.; Seña, A. C.; Martin, D. H.; Lopez, L. M.; Lensing, S.; Lee, J. Y.
Background.?Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) is a common chlamydia-associated syndrome in men; however, Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium are associated with its etiology and should be considered in approaches to therapy. We sought to determine whether the addition of tinidazole, an anti-trichomonal agent, to the treatment regimen would result in higher cure rates than those achieved with treatment with doxycycline or azithromycin alone. A secondary aim was to compare the efficacy of doxycycline therapy and with that of azithromycin therapy. Methods.?Randomized, controlled, double-blinded phase IIB trial of men with NGU. Participants were randomized to receive doxycycline plus or minus tinidazole or azithromycin plus or minus tinidazole and were observed for up to 45 days. Results.?The prevalences of Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium, and T. vaginalis were 43%, 31%, and 13%, respectively. No pathogens were identified in 29% of participants. Clinical cure rates at the first follow-up visit were 74.5% (111 of 149 patients) for doxycycline-containing regimens and 68.6% (107 of 156 patients) for azithromycin-containing regimens. By the final visit, cure rates were 49% (73 of 149 patients) for doxycycline-containing regimens and 43.6% (68 of 156 patients) for azithromycin-containing regimens. There were no significant differences in clinical response rates among the treatment arms. However, the chlamydia clearance rate was 94.8% (55 of 58 patients) for the doxycycline arm and 77.4% (41 of 53 patients) for the azithromycin arm (P?=?.011), and the M. genitalium clearance rate was 30.8% (12 of 39 patients) for the doxycycline arm and 66.7% (30 of 45 patients) for the azithromycin arm (P?=?.002). Conclusions.?Addition of tinidazole to the treatment regimen did not result in higher cure rates but effectively eradicated trichomonas. Clinical cure rates were not significantly different between patients treated with doxycycline and those treated with azithromycin; however, doxycycline had significantly better efficacy against Chlamydia, whereas azithromycin was superior to doxycycline for the treatment of M. genitalium. PMID:21288838
Lee, Yong Seuk
There is little consensus on how to optimally reconstruct the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and the natural history of injured PCL is also unclear. The graft material (autograft vs. allograft), the type of tibial fixation (tibial inlay vs. transtibial tunnel), the femoral tunnel position within the femoral footprint (isometric, central, or eccentric), and the number of bundles in the reconstruction (1 bundle vs. 2 bundles) are among the many decisions that a surgeon must make in a PCL reconstruction. In addition, there is a paucity of information on rehabilitation after reconstruction of the PCL and posterolateral structures. This article focused on the conflicting issues regarding the PCL, and the scientific rationales behind some critical points are discussed. PMID:24340144
Jaiswal, Riddhi; Rani, Poonam; Devenraj, Vijayant
We present a young patient with occasional chest pain and an incidentally found posterior mediastinal mass on radiology which was confirmed as mature teratoma on histopathology. The gross specimen received in the department of pathology was globular measuring 9.0×7.0×5.5 cm and varying in consistency from soft cystic to firm. Cut surface showed numerous hair entangled in pultaceous material. Representative sections were taken and stained with H&E stain. Histopathology revealed haphazardly distributed mature derivatives of all the three germ layers comprising of epidermis, pilo sebaceous units, nerve bundles (ectodermal), cartilage, bone, salivary gland clusters, blood vessels, muscle bundles, fibrous tissue infiltrated by foreign body giant cells, lymphoid follicles (mesodermal) and pseudostratified columnar epithelium (mesodermal), thus establishing the diagnosis of mature teratoma. PMID:24654248
Ducrocq, F; Vaiva, G; Cottencin, O; Molenda, S; Bailly, D
Although they are likely to add their effects, physical and psychic traumata (or traumas) can provoke in different ways the appearance of depressive symptoms sometimes common. Post-traumatic depression, reactional depression, major depressive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder represent different clinical and nosographic disorders in despite of their occasionally common symptomatic core. Historically, it is interesting to note during the XXth century the true semantic change of the terms of trauma from the somatic field to the psychic sphere. Physical traumatism is often represented by a material shock for the subject and by its organic consequences. It is defined as an event that leaves its mark which itself inflicts and handicaps the vital trajectory of the subject. It primarily comprises brain and rachis injuries, whose evolution is frequently characterized by the occurrence/appearance of a depressive disorder, whose genesis rests on psychological but also neurobiologic and physical arguments. Thus major depressive disorders are often present in the course of various physical traumatisms mainly related to nervous system. In accordance with several studies, the prevalence of major depressive disorders ranges from 25% to 50%. These mood disorders occur in the year which follows the accidental event. Their average time of revelation is estimated at four months and their average duration lies between three and six months. Lastly, although these depressive illnesses present clinical symptoms comparable with those observed in other contexts, some nuances can be raised. Nonetheless, they confine sometimes with true clinical forms depending on the intensity, the form, the circumstances or the consequences of the trauma. Psychic traumatism doesn't have the same profile and rests for much dedicated with the reexperiencing. Thus for some authors, depression illness represents a disorder that occurs after a traumatic event whereas others see a differential diagnosis which exludes or which represents a comorbidity with post-traumatic stress disorder. The review of the literature allows us to emphasize the complexity of the links as well as the clinical and epidemiologic differences between stress disorder and major depressive disorder. From the clinical point of view, the major features of PTSD are articulated around a triad of symptoms. They include the reexperiencing symptoms of the traumatic event such as intrusive memories and recurrent nightmares, the protective reactions such as avoidance of the stimuli associated with the trauma and emotional numbing, and the arousal symptoms such as the startled response and hypervigilance. The complexity of this syndrom is due to the frequent combination of these symptoms with other nonspecific ones. As far as the mood is concerned (the mood symptoms are concerned), the regrouping of some of these symptoms allows the clinician to sometimes releave a depressive symptomatology without being able to assess the DSM diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Epidemiologic studies dealing with the risk of installation of a PTSD after a traumatic event reveal differences in the prevalence depending on the nature of the traumatic events: ranging from 1% in general population to 80% following some situations of extreme and durable psychic suffering. Between both poles, one finds a prevalence ranging between 20 and 50% following other events such as serious accidents, natural disasters or criminal assaults. The clinical features of depressive episodes comorbid or associated with PTSD have some characteristics making it possible to individualize various clinical forms as a function of traumatic event type: asthenic, characterial or with somatic symptoms. According to the majority of authors, the co-occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder is high although differential diagnosis is sometimes difficult. However, conceptual differences remain and two conceptions are distinguished. For some authors, like Bleich and Shalev, there would not be true chronological evo
Cheung, N. K.; James, A.; Kumar, R.
Traumatic pneumatoceles are a rare complication of blunt chest trauma in children. Although they characteristically present as small, regular shaped lesions which can be safely treated nonoperatively, larger traumatic pneumatoceles pose diagnostic and management difficulties for clinicians. This case study reports one of the largest traumatic pneumatoceles reported to date in the paediatric population, which resulted in aggressive surgical intervention for both diagnostic and treatment reasons. This case adds further evidence to the current literature that significantly large traumatic pneumatoceles with failure of initial conservative management warrant surgical exploration and management to optimise recovery and prevent complications. PMID:24187643
Lekic, Tim; Ani, Chizobam
Posterior circulation stroke refers to the vascular occlusion or bleeding, arising from the vertebrobasilar vasculature of the brain. Clinical studies show that individuals who experience posterior circulation stroke will develop significant brain injury, neurologic dysfunction, or death. Yet the therapeutic needs of this patient subpopulation remain largely unknown. Thus understanding the causative factors and the pathogenesis of brain damage is important, if posterior circulation stroke is to be prevented or treated. Appropriate animal models are necessary to achieve this understanding. This paper critically integrates the neurovascular and pathophysiological features gleaned from posterior circulation stroke animal models into clinical correlations. PMID:22665986
Lekic, Tim; Ani, Chizobam
Posterior circulation stroke refers to the vascular occlusion or bleeding, arising from the vertebrobasilar vasculature of the brain. Clinical studies show that individuals who experience posterior circulation stroke will develop significant brain injury, neurologic dysfunction, or death. Yet the therapeutic needs of this patient subpopulation remain largely unknown. Thus understanding the causative factors and the pathogenesis of brain damage is important, if posterior circulation stroke is to be prevented or treated. Appropriate animal models are necessary to achieve this understanding. This paper critically integrates the neurovascular and pathophysiological features gleaned from posterior circulation stroke animal models into clinical correlations. PMID:22665986
Scheer, Justin K.; Bakhsheshian, Joshua; Fakurnejad, Shayan; Oh, Taemin; Dahdaleh, Nader S.; Smith, Zachary A.
Study Design?Systematic literature review. Objective?The management of traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures (TLBF) remains challenging, and analyzing the levels of evidence (LOEs) for treatment practices can reform the decision-making process. However, no review has yet evaluated the operative management of traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures with particular attention placed on LOE from an established methodology. The objective of the present study was to characterize the literature evidence for TLBF, specifically for operative management. Methods?A comprehensive search of the English literature over the past 20 years was conducted using PubMed (MEDLINE). The inclusion criteria consisted of (1) traumatic burst fractures (2) in the thoracic or lumbar spine. Exclusion criteria included (1) osteoporotic burst fractures, (2) pathologic burst fractures, (3) cervical fractures, (4) biomechanical studies or those involving cadavers, and (5) computer-based studies. Studies were assigned an LOE and those meeting level 1 or 2 were included. Results?From 1,138 abstracts, 272 studies met the criteria. Twenty-three studies (8.5%) met level 1 (n?=?4, 1.5%) or 2 (n?=?19, 7.0%) criteria. All 23 studies were reported. Conclusions?The literature contains a high LOE to support the operative management of traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures. For patients who are neurologically intact, a high LOE demonstrated similar functional outcomes, lower complication rates, and less costs with conservative management when compared with surgical management. There is a high LOE for short- or long-segment pedicle instrumentation without fusion and less invasive (percutaneous and paraspinal) approaches. Furthermore, the posterior approaches are associated with lower complications as opposed to the anterior or combined approaches. PMID:25648401
Lee, Hong-seock; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Heung-Pyo
Objective Personality is defined as the trait-like qualities of a person. However, it has been recently suggested that the state effect of a situation leads to changes in scores on personality assessments. We predicted that traumatic experiences would induce changes not only in personality scores but also in the factor structures of personality assessments. Methods MethodsaaWe conducted a cross-sectional, case-controlled study using two data sets: a traumatized adolescent sample (n=71) and a non-traumatized adolescent sample (n=296). Personality factor structures were compared between the two samples using exploratory factor analyses for 25 lower-ordered subscales of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). In the non-traumatized sample, evaluation of the scree plot suggested a five-factor solution supporting TCI's original seven-factor model. Results The traumatized sample showed a three-factor structure representing a biological factor, a social factor and an existential factor. This decrease in number of personality factors was caused by strengthened correlations among personality subscales related to coping with traumatic situations. Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality (i.e., temperament-character) was adequate in capturing personality traits of non-traumatized adolescents, but the tripartite view of existential psychology (i.e., body-mind-spirit) clearly corresponded to the factor structure of the traumatized adolescents. Conclusion The three-factor solution of the present traumatized group is consistent with the tripartite model of personality (i.e., body-mind-spirit), while the five-factor solution of the non-traumatized group corresponds to Cloninger's seven-factor model. This is the first study to describe the state effects of traumatic experiences on personality structure. PMID:23251200
McAninch, J W; Kahn, R I; Jeffrey, R B; Laing, F C; Krieger, M J
Major injuries to the testicles, penis, and genital skin from trauma and infection were seen in 62 patients over a 6-year period (1977 to 1983). Urethral injuries were excluded. In the past blunt testicle injuries were infrequently diagnosed and surgically ignored because of large surrounding hematomas. With the use of real-time ultrasound, 17 of 18 cases of testicle rupture were correctly diagnosed preoperatively. Surgical repair resulted in testicle salvage in 16 patients. Penetrating testicle injuries resulted in a high orchiectomy rate secondary to the infrequently described but recognized entity of self-emasculation in transsexuals. Penile rupture from blunt injuries (8) was successfully repaired and complete function was recovered. Penetrating penile injuries (4) were extensive and involved the urethra in two cases; full function returned after reconstruction. Major skin loss of the penis and/or scrotum (19) occurred from necrotizing fasciitis, burns, avulsion and penetrating injuries. Early debridement, bowel and urinary diversion followed by penile skin grafting, thigh pouches to protect testicles, and scrotal reconstruction resulted in acceptable cosmetic and functional results in all cases of major skin loss. PMID:6368854
Buchholz, Avery Lee; Morgan, Steven L; Robinson, Leslie C; Frankel, Bruce M
OBJECT Most cases of traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis (hangman's fracture) can be treated nonoperatively with reduction and subsequent immobilization in a rigid cervical collar or halo. However, in some instances, operative management is necessary and can be accomplished by using either anterior or posterior fusion techniques. Because open posterior procedures can result in significant blood loss, pain, and limited cervical range of motion, other less invasive options for posterior fixation are needed. The authors describe a minimally invasive, navigation-guided technique for surgical treatment of Levine-Edwards (L-E) Type II hangman's fractures. METHODS For 5 patients with L-E Type II hangman's fracture requiring operative reduction and internal fixation, percutaneous screw fixation directed through the fracture site was performed. This technique was facilitated by use of intraoperative 3D fluoroscopy and neuronavigation. RESULTS Of the 5 patients, 2 were women, 3 were men, and age range was 46-67 years. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. All patients wore a rigid cervical collar, and flexion-extension radiographs were obtained at 6 months. For all patients, dynamic imaging demonstrated a stable construct. CONCLUSIONS L-E type II hangman's fractures can be safely repaired by using percutaneous minimally invasive surgical techniques. This technique may be appropriate, depending on circumstances, for all L-E Type I and II hangman's fractures; however, the degree of associated ligament injury and disc disruption must be accounted for. Percutaneous fixation is not appropriate for L-E Type III fractures because of significant displacement and ligament and disc disruption. This report is meant to serve as a feasibility study and is not meant to show superiority of this procedure over other surgical options. PMID:25723118
Champ L. Baker; Lyle A. Norwood; Jack C. Hughston
This report concerns 13 consecutive patients (13 knees) who underwent operative treatment for acute combined posterior cruciate and posterolateral instabil ity due to combined injury to the posterior cruciate ligament and the arcuate ligament complex. Our pur pose was to examine the method of diagnosis and the results in these patients. There were 12 males and 1 female (average age,
Takkar, Brijesh; Mahajan, Deepankur; Azad, Shorya; Sharma, Yog; Azad, Rajvardhan
Spontaneous posterior capsule rupture is a very rare entity and its association with lens-nucleus dislocation even more. Herein we report such a case of spontaneous posterior capsule rupture with lens dislocation in a case of Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome. PMID:23627342
Assessing the Calibration of Naive Bayes' Posterior Estimates Paul N. Bennett September 12, 2000 In this paper, we give evidence that the posterior distribution of Naive Bayes goes to zero or one exponen likelihood scheme, and the results are evaluated. Email: email@example.com #12; Keywords: Naive Bayes
A. Brant Lipscomb; Allen F. Anderson; Emily D. Norwig; W. David Hovis; David L. Brown
From 1973 to 1987, 28 patients seen at our institution sustained isolated posterior cruciate ligament tears. Of these 28 patients, 25 were reevaluated at an average followup of 7 years and 1 month after secondary recon struction of the posterior cruciate ligament using the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons alone or with an extraarticular procedure.Subjectively, 22 of 25 patients related no
Fabio Roberti; Laligam N Sekhar; Chandrasekar Kalavakonda; Donald C Wright
BACKGROUNDWe report the clinical, radiological, and surgical findings of patients with posterior fossa meningiomas surgically treated at our institution over the last 6 years.METHODSWe reviewed 161 consecutive cases of posterior fossa meningiomas operated on between April 1993 and April 1999 at The George Washington University Medical Center.RESULTSThere were 128 female and 33 male patients (mean age 47 years, range of
S. Akmal; E. Tsoi; R. Howard; E. Osei; K. H. Nicolaides
Objective To investigate if occiput posterior delivery is the consequence of persistence of an initial occiput posterior position or malrotation from an initial occiput anterior or transverse position. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving transabdominal sonography to determine fetal occipital position in 918 singleton pregnancies with cephalic presentation in active labor at 37-42 weeks of gestation. The relationship between
Daniel S. Mojon
Aims: To present a novel, minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS) technique for rectus muscle posterior fixation. Methods: This study reports the results of 32 consecutive MISS rectus muscle posterior fixation surgeries performed on 19 patients by applying only two small L-shaped openings where the two retroequatorial scleromuscular sutures were placed. Results: On the first postoperative day, in primary position, redness
Tadanori Tomita; David G. McLone; Lakshmi Das; William N. Brand
A series of 22 infants and children with posterior fossa benign ependymomas treated surgically during the past 12 years is presented. All patients were operated on with posterior fossa craniotomy: visible total resection in 10, subtotal resection in 9, partial resection in 2 and biopsy only in 1. One patient (4.5%) died shortly after surgery. Only 5 patients had documented
Lee, Jeffrey Joon Taek
HOW DOES Wnt SIGNALING POSTERIORIZE THE NEURAL PLATE? An Undergraduate Research Scholars Thesis By JEFFREY JOON TAEK LEE Submitted to Honors and Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University In partial fulfillment of the requirements...??????????????????????........19 REFERENCES..............................................................................................................................21 2 ABSTRACT How does the Wnt signaling posteriorize the neural plate? (May 2013) Jeffrey Joon...
Deborah Doxey; Derek Bruce; Frederick Sklar; Dale Swift; Ken Shapiro
Cerebellar mutism was first described by Rekate et al. in 1985 as a transient condition which occurs after posterior fossa operations in children. Posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) and cerebellar mutism are often used interchangeably in the literature. In our experience, we found cerebellar mutism to be a reversible component of a persistent neurologic syndrome. The cause and identifiable risk factors
Robert A. Zimmerman; Larissa T. Bilaniuk; Susan Rebsamen
MR detected abnormality in all 115 pediatric patients who subsequently had pathologically proven posterior fossa tumors. In 114, the initial magnetic resonance (MR) diagnosis was that of brain tumor. In 1, with less than 1-cm2 area of gadolinium enhancement, the significance of the initial finding was uncertain. Common posterior fossa tumor subgroups (brainstem gliomas, cerebellar astrocytomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and
Introduction Regeneration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, but the capacity to restore damaged or missing tissue varies greatly between different phyla and even within the same phylum. However, the distantly related Acoelomorpha and Platyhelminthes share a strikingly similar stem-cell system and regenerative capacity. Therefore, comparing the underlying mechanisms in these two phyla paves the way for an increased understanding of the evolution of this developmental process. To date, Isodiametra pulchra is the most promising candidate as a model for the Acoelomorpha, as it reproduces steadily under laboratory conditions and is amenable to various techniques, including the silencing of gene expression by RNAi. In order to provide an essential framework for future studies, we report the succession of regeneration events via the use of cytochemical, histological and microscopy techniques, and specify the total number of cells in adult individuals. Results Isodiametra pulchra is not capable of regenerating a new head, but completely restores all posterior structures within 10 days. Following amputation, the wound closes via the contraction of local muscle fibres and an extension of the dorsal epidermis. Subsequently, stem cells and differentiating cells invade the wound area and form a loosely delimited blastema. After two days, the posterior end is re-patterned with the male (and occasionally the female) genital primordium being apparent. Successively, these primordia differentiate into complete copulatory organs. The size of the body and also of the male and female copulatory organs, as well as the distance between the copulatory organs, progressively increase and by nine days copulation is possible. Adult individuals with an average length of 670 ?m consist of approximately 8100 cells. Conclusion Isodiametra pulchra regenerates through a combination of morphallactic and epimorphic processes. Existing structures are “re-modelled” and provide a framework onto which newly differentiating cells are added. Growth proceeds through the intercalary addition of structures, mirroring the embryonic and post-embryonic development of various organ systems. The suitability of Isodiametra pulchra for laboratory techniques, the fact that its transcriptome and genome data will soon be available, as well as its small size and low number of cells, make it a prime candidate subject for research into the cellular mechanisms that underlie regeneration in acoelomorphs. PMID:24160844
Regine, Renato; De Siero, Michele; Rescigno, Antonio; Sica, Vincenzo; Cantarela, Raffaele; Villari, Vincenzo
Purpose The aim of our study is to verify the feasibility and the efficacy of Onyx as embolization agent in the treatment of traumatic and non-traumatic peripheral vascular lesions. Materials and Methods In the period between September 2006 and March 2012, we treated with Onyx 26 patients (14 males/12 females; age range, 18–85 years old; mean age, 65 years old), 11 of which with traumatic peripheral vascular lesions and 15 with non-traumatic vascular lesions (9 neoplastic hemorrhagic lesions, 3 arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and 3 aneurysms). Follow-up controls were performed with clinical examination and by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) imaging 1, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. Results All peripheral vascular lesions were embolized with Onyx; 3 patients with aneurysms were treated with Onyx associated with endovascular coils. Four elective and 22 emergency embolization procedures were performed. In all patients, we obtained cessation of bleeding and the complete and permanent embolization of all vascular lesions. Conclusions Onyx is an effective and safe embolization agent for peripheral vascular lesions. PMID:25838923
Patki, Gaurav; Salvi, Ankita; Liu, Hesong; Salim, Samina
It is becoming increasingly recognized that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be acquired vicariously from witnessing traumatic events. Recently, we published an animal model called the "Trauma witness model" (TWM) which mimics PTSD-like symptoms in rats from witnessing daily traumatic events (social defeat of cage mate) . Our TWM does not result in any physical injury. This is a major procedural advantage over the typical intruder paradigm in which it is difficult to delineate the inflammatory response of tissue injury and the response elicited from emotional distress. Using TWM paradigm, we examined behavioral and cognitive effects in rats  however, the long-term persistence of PTSD-like symptoms or a time-course of these events (anxiety and depression-like behaviors and cognitive deficits) and the contribution of olfactory and auditory stress vs visual reinforcement were not examined. This study demonstrates that some of the features of PTSD-like symptoms in rats are reversible after a significant time lapse of the witnessing of traumatic events. We also have established that witnessing is critical to the PTSD-like phenotype and cannot be acquired solely due to auditory or olfactory stresses. PMID:26044989
Valentine, Pamela Vest
Traumatic Incident Reduction (TIR) is an intervention that proved effective in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder and in increasing self-efficacy in women inmates (N=123). Discusses both the treatment protocol and the research design of this study. Offers suggestions for practice and research related to…
Pekçevik, Yeliz; Pekçevik, R?dvan
Posterior fossa emissary veins are valveless veins that pass through cranial apertures. They participate in extracranial venous drainage of the posterior fossa dural sinuses. The mastoid emissary vein, condylar veins, occipital emissary vein, and petrosquamosal sinus are the major posterior fossa emissary veins. We believe that posterior fossa emissary veins can be detected by radiologists before surgery with a thorough understanding of their anatomy. Describing them using temporal bone computed tomography (CT), CT angiography, and cerebral magnetic resonance (MR) venography examinations results in more detailed and accurate preoperative radiological interpretation and has clinical importance. This pictorial essay reviews the anatomy of the major and clinically relevant posterior fossa emissary veins using high-resolution CT, CT angiography, and MR venography images and discusses the clinical importance of reporting these vascular variants. PMID:24047723
Mumby, Peter J.
Traumatic Brain Injury and Crime Dr Seena Fazel & Prof. Huw Williams NHS Centre for Clinical Neuropsychological Research (CCNR) #12;Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Moderate-Severe TBI (e.g. 30 mins + LoC) insult to the brain from an external mechanical force. E.g. blow to the head - "fast- stop" in a crash
-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The model is based on insights from the neurological literature on how specific phenomena that are typical for PTSD patients can occur, such as re-experiencing the strong feeling related-based training or in gaming or virtual stories. Keywords: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), computational
Friess, Stuart H.; Kilbaugh, Todd J.; Huh, Jimmy W.
While the cornerstone of monitoring following severe pediatric traumatic brain injury is serial neurologic examinations, vital signs, and intracranial pressure monitoring, additional techniques may provide useful insight into early detection of evolving brain injury. This paper provides an overview of recent advances in neuromonitoring, neuroimaging, and biomarker analysis of pediatric patients following traumatic brain injury. PMID:22675618
Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.
Following traumatic deaths children may develop Childhood Traumatic Grief (CTG), a condition in which trauma symptoms interfere with adaptive child grieving. Educators have an important role in supporting children who have CTG. Key contributions that educators can make are to (a) recognize CTG symptoms in school settings; (b) refer children for…
This practical handbook for anyone who works with traumatized children--teachers, parents, as well as professionals--provides needed information to understand and guide a child suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through to recovery. It describes the physical and emotional effects of trauma, shows how to recognize maladaptive…
Jennifer H. Marwitz; Katrina Lesher; William C. Walker; Tamara Bushnik
The present study used the National Institute on Disability Rehabilitation and Research (NIDRR) funded Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) database to examine the effect of gender on presentation of executive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and variables that might impact the course and degree of recovery. The Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST) was chosen as a measure of
Brian M. Landry; Eun Kyoung Choe; Stephen McCutcheon; Julie A. Kientz
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a condition in which a person responds to a traumatic event, such as war, a car accident, or physical abuse, with prolonged feelings of fear, helplessness, or horror. This disorder can have a significant detrimental impact on the lives of those affected by PTSD as well as their friends and family. In this paper, we
Explores issues for counsellors relating to the identification and understanding of post-traumatic stress disorder. Suggests aims for therapeutic intervention and argues for an integrated approach to counselling post-traumatic stress-disordered clients, drawing on the contribution of humanistic counselling, behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy.
Witten, Molly Romer
Responses to traumatic stress during the earliest years of life can change quickly and can be difficult to identify because of the young child's rapid rate of development. The symptoms of traumatic stress will depend on the child's developmental level and individual coping styles, as well as the quality and nature of the child's most important…
Mira, Mary P.; And Others
Seventy-one school psychologists were surveyed concerning their knowledge base, training, and experience in the area of traumatic head injury. Results indicated that school psychologists have received little systematic training in the area of traumatic head injury and do not have broad-based information about this group of children. (Author/JDD)
Trolley, Barbara C.
Provides support for connection between grief reactions and traumatic life events. Discusses reactions to life traumas (alcoholism, abuse, disability, divorce, infertility) within context of grief framework. Applies literature pertaining to responses to suicide and murder to traumatic life events. Discusses and dissolves proposed differences…
Rahmani, Azadeh; Rasmussen, Ann Q.; Honge, Jesper L.; Ostli, Bjorn; Levine, Robert A.; Hagège, Albert; Nygaard, Hans; Nielsen, Sten L.; Jensen, Morten O.
Background and aim of the study Attention towards the optimization of mitral valve repair methods is increasing. Patch augmentation is one strategy used to treat functional ischemic mitral regurgitation (FIMR). The study aim was to investigate the force balance changes in specific chordae tendineae emanating from the posterior papillary muscle in a FIMR-simulated valve, following posterior leaflet patch augmentation. Methods Mitral valves were obtained from 12 pigs (body weight 80 kg). An in vitro test set-up simulating the left ventricle was used to hold the valves. The left ventricular pressure was regulated with water to simulate different static pressures during valve closure. A standardized oval pericardial patch (17 × 29 mm) was introduced into the posterior leaflet from mid P2 to the end of the P3 scallop. Dedicated miniature transducers were used to record the forces exerted on the chordae tendineae. Data were acquired before and after 12 mm posterior and 5 mm apical posterior papillary muscle displacement to simulate the effect from one of the main contributors of FIMR, before and after patch augmentation. Results The effect of displacing the posterior papillary muscle induced tethering on the intermediate chordae tendineae to the posterior leaflet, and resulted in a 39.8% force increase (p = 0.014). Posterior leaflet patch augmentation of the FIMR valve induced a 31.1% force decrease (p = 0.007). There was no difference in force between the healthy and the repaired valve simulations (p = 0.773). Conclusion Posterior leaflet patch augmentation significantly reduced the forces exerted on the intermediate chordae tendineae from the posterior papillary muscle following FIMR simulation. As changes in chordal tension lead to a redistribution of the total stress exerted on the valve, patch augmentation may have an adverse long-term influence on mitral valve function and remodeling. PMID:23610985
Murray, Richard F.; Patel, Khushbu; Yee, Alan
Probability matching is a classic theory of decision making that was first developed in models of cognition. Posterior probability matching, a variant in which observers match their response probabilities to the posterior probability of each response being correct, is being used increasingly often in models of perception. However, little is known about whether posterior probability matching is consistent with the vast literature on vision and hearing that has developed within signal detection theory. Here we test posterior probability matching models using two tools from detection theory. First, we examine the models’ performance in a two-pass experiment, where each block of trials is presented twice, and we measure the proportion of times that the model gives the same response twice to repeated stimuli. We show that at low performance levels, posterior probability matching models give highly inconsistent responses across repeated presentations of identical trials. We find that practised human observers are more consistent across repeated trials than these models predict, and we find some evidence that less practised observers more consistent as well. Second, we compare the performance of posterior probability matching models on a discrimination task to the performance of a theoretical ideal observer that achieves the best possible performance. We find that posterior probability matching is very inefficient at low-to-moderate performance levels, and that human observers can be more efficient than is ever possible according to posterior probability matching models. These findings support classic signal detection models, and rule out a broad class of posterior probability matching models for expert performance on perceptual tasks that range in complexity from contrast discrimination to symmetry detection. However, our findings leave open the possibility that inexperienced observers may show posterior probability matching behaviour, and our methods provide new tools for testing for such a strategy. PMID:26079134
Murray, Richard F; Patel, Khushbu; Yee, Alan
Probability matching is a classic theory of decision making that was first developed in models of cognition. Posterior probability matching, a variant in which observers match their response probabilities to the posterior probability of each response being correct, is being used increasingly often in models of perception. However, little is known about whether posterior probability matching is consistent with the vast literature on vision and hearing that has developed within signal detection theory. Here we test posterior probability matching models using two tools from detection theory. First, we examine the models' performance in a two-pass experiment, where each block of trials is presented twice, and we measure the proportion of times that the model gives the same response twice to repeated stimuli. We show that at low performance levels, posterior probability matching models give highly inconsistent responses across repeated presentations of identical trials. We find that practised human observers are more consistent across repeated trials than these models predict, and we find some evidence that less practised observers more consistent as well. Second, we compare the performance of posterior probability matching models on a discrimination task to the performance of a theoretical ideal observer that achieves the best possible performance. We find that posterior probability matching is very inefficient at low-to-moderate performance levels, and that human observers can be more efficient than is ever possible according to posterior probability matching models. These findings support classic signal detection models, and rule out a broad class of posterior probability matching models for expert performance on perceptual tasks that range in complexity from contrast discrimination to symmetry detection. However, our findings leave open the possibility that inexperienced observers may show posterior probability matching behaviour, and our methods provide new tools for testing for such a strategy. PMID:26079134
Barman, Sarah A.; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Boyce, James F.; Sanguinetti, Giorgia; Hollick, Emma J.; Meacock, William R.; Spalton, David J.; Paplinski, Andrew P.
After Cataract surgery where a plastic implant lens is implanted into the eye to replace the natural lens, many patients suffer from cell growth across a membrane situated at the back of the lens which degrades their vision. The cell growth is known as Posterior Capsule Opacification (or PCO). It is important to be able to quantify PCO so that the effect of different implant lens types and surgical techniques may be evaluated. Initial results obtained using a neural network to detect PCO from implant lenses are compared to an established but less automated method of detection, which segments the images using texture segmentation in conjunction with co- occurrence matrices. Tests show that the established method performs well in clinical validation and repeatability trials. The requirement to use a neural network to analyze the implant lens images evolved from the analysis of over 1000 images using the established co-occurrence matrix segmentation method. The work shows that a method based on neural networks is a promising tool to automate the procedure of calculating PCO.
Heilbronner, Sarah R.; Hayden, Benjamin Y.; Platt, Michael L.
Despite its phylogenetic antiquity and clinical importance, the posterior cingulate cortex (CGp) remains an enigmatic nexus of attention, memory, motivation, and decision making. Here we show that CGp neurons track decision salience – the degree to which an option differs from a standard – but not the subjective value of a decision. To do this, we recorded the spiking activity of CGp neurons in monkeys choosing between options varying in reward-related risk, delay to reward, and social outcomes, each of which varied in level of decision salience. Firing rates were higher when monkeys chose the risky option, consistent with their risk-seeking preferences, but were also higher when monkeys chose the delayed and social options, contradicting their preferences. Thus, across decision contexts, neuronal activity was uncorrelated with how much monkeys valued a given option, as inferred from choice. Instead, neuronal activity signaled the deviation of the chosen option from the standard, independently of how it differed. The observed decision salience signals suggest a role for CGp in the flexible allocation of neural resources to motivationally significant information, akin to the role of attention in selective processing of sensory inputs. PMID:21541308
Hayden, Benjamin Y.; Smith, David V.; Platt, Michael L.
Efficiently shifting between tasks is a central function of cognitive control. The role of the default network – a constellation of areas with high baseline activity that declines during task performance – in cognitive control remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that task switching demands cognitive control to shift the balance of processing toward the external world, and therefore predicted that switching between the two tasks would require suppression of activity of neurons within the posterior cingulate cortex (CGp). To test this idea, we recorded the activity of single neurons in CGp, a central node in the default network, in monkeys performing two interleaved tasks. As predicted, we found that basal levels of neuronal activity were reduced following a switch from one task to another and gradually returned to pre-switch baseline on subsequent trials. We failed to observe these effects in lateral intraparietal cortex, part of the dorsal fronto-parietal cortical attention network directly connected to CGp. These findings indicate that suppression of neuronal activity in CGp facilitates cognitive control, and suggest that activity in the default network reflects processes that directly compete with control processes elsewhere in the brain. PMID:21160560
Roitman, Jamie D.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Platt, Michael L.
Humans and animals appear to share a similar representation of number as an analog magnitude on an internal, subjective scale. Neurological and neurophysiological data suggest that posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is a critical component of the circuits that form the basis of numerical abilities in humans. Patients with parietal lesions are impaired in their ability to access the deep meaning of numbers. Acalculiac patients with inferior parietal damage often have difficulty performing arithmetic (2 + 4?) or number bisection (what is between 3 and 5?) tasks, but are able to recite multiplication tables and read or write numerals. Functional imaging studies of neurologically intact humans performing subtraction, number comparison, and non-verbal magnitude comparison tasks show activity in areas within the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Taken together, clinical cases and imaging studies support a critical role for parietal cortex in the mental manipulation of numerical quantities. Further, responses of single PPC neurons in non-human primates are sensitive to the numerosity of visual stimuli independent of low-level stimulus qualities. When monkeys are trained to make explicit judgments about the numerical value of such stimuli, PPC neurons encode their cardinal numerical value; without such training PPC neurons appear to encode numerical magnitude in an analog fashion. Here we suggest that the spatial and integrative properties of PPC neurons contribute to their critical role in numerical cognition. PMID:22666194
Kaushal, Mohinder; Sen, Ramesh
Background: Posterior endoscopic discectomy is an established method for treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Many studies have not been reported in literature for lumbar discectomy by Destandau Endospine System. We report a series of 300 patients operated for lumbar dissectomy by Destandau Endospine system. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 patients suffering from lumbar disc herniations were operated between January 2002 and December 2008. All patients were operated as day care procedure. Technique comprised localization of symptomatic level followed by insertion of an endospine system devise through a 15 mm skin and fascial incision. Endoscopic discectomy is then carried out by conventional micro disc surgery instruments by minimal invasive route. The results were evaluated by Macnab's criteria after a minimum followup of 12 months and maximum up to 24 months. Results: Based on modified Macnab's criteria, 90% patients had excellent to good, 8% had fair, and 2% had poor results. The complications observed were discitis and dural tear in five patients each and nerve root injury in two patients. 90% patients were able to return to light and sedentary work with an average delay of 3 weeks and normal physical activities after 2 months. Conclusion: Edoscopic discectomy provides a safe and minimal access corridor for lumbar discectomy. The technique also allows early postoperative mobilization and faster return to work. PMID:22345812
Acar, Baver; Ba?ar?r, Kerem; Armangil, Mehmet; Binnet, Mehmet Serdar
Introduction: Main evidence of the heavy knee dislocations is the rupture of both Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) and Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL). There are limited sources for the treatment of both ligaments at a single stage. Materials-method: One-staged anatomic double-bundle ACL and PCL reconstruction technique has been applied to 2 cases aged 20 and 36 with traumatic knee dislocation. Lateral collateral ligament and posteriolateral corner reconstruction added to one case, and medial collateral ligament and posteriomedial corner reconstruction for the other case. Because of additional femur fractures of the both cases, ligament reconstructions have been applied after the main treatment. Anterior tibialis tendon (ATT) allograft has been used for graft for both cases because of other stabilization deficiencies of knees. It has been confirmed that femoral and tibial tunnels constructed with anatomic double-bundle technique are fitting to anatomic locations by the post-operation CT results. Post fixation screw has been used for tibia, and endobutton at femur. Results: Tracking records of patients at 8th month shows that; Lysholm score of the case aged 20 was 89, and 85 for the case aged 36. While KT-1000 values was 3.7 mm, and 4.1 mm for 15 N power; and 9.1 mm-9.6 mm with the maximum power. Conclusion: Surgical technical details of one-staged double-bundle reconstruction for ACL and PCL injuries which is gaining popularity recently has been stated. PMID:25419422
Thorpe, E M; Stamm, W E; Hook, E W; Gall, S A; Jones, R B; Henry, K; Whitworth, G; Johnson, R B
STUDY GOAL: To compare the efficacy and safety of single 1 g oral azithromycin with doxycycline, 100 mg twice daily for seven days for treatment of uncomplicated urogenital chlamydial infection. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised, unblinded, comparative trial, involving 597 patients demonstrating clinical evidence of genital chlamydia and a positive non-culture assay for Chlamydia trachomatis. RESULTS: Among the azithromycin- and doxycycline-treated patients 61% and 60%, respectively, were asymptomatic within one week after the first dose. At two weeks, these figures increased to 86% and 83%, respectively. Bacteriological eradication, based on a negative assay, occurred in 338 (97%) of 347 azithromycin-treated patients and 161 (99%) of 163 doxycycline-treated patients. CONCLUSION: Treatment of uncomplicated chlamydial cervicitis and urethritis with single 1 g oral azithromycin is equivalent to standard therapy with doxycycline. Drug-related adverse events were approximately twice as common as previously reported for both drugs. PMID:8698374
Yazar, Ugur; Kanat, Ayhan; Akca, Nezih; Gazioglu, Gurkan; Arda, Irfan S; Kazdal, Hizir
Hydrocephalus in its various forms constitutes one of the major problems in pediatric neurosurgical practice. The placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is the most common form of treatment for hydrocephalus, so that all neurosurgeons struggle with shunt malfunctions and their complications. Well-known complications are connected with the use of the valve systems (malfunction, infectious, overdrainage, secondary craniosynostosis, etc.). We report an unusual case of protruding abdominal catheter from the urethra. This girl had received a VP shunt for hydrocephalus following surgery of posterior fossa medulloblastoma 4 years ago. After admission, the entire system was removed, antibiotic treatment was administered for 2 weeks, and a new VP shunt was placed. The postoperative course was uneventful. This complication is extremely rare. PMID:23248688
B. V. Agirdir; M. Sindel; G. Arslan; F. B. Yildirim; E. I. Balkan; O. Dinç
The canal of the posterior ampullar nerve is located between the inferior part of the internal acoustic meatus and ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal. It permits a more accurate localisation of the underlying labyrinth in inner-ear surgery. An anatomical and radiological study was undertaken to determine the importance the relationship between the canal and the labyrinth. Ten dry and
Stein, Deborah M; Roddy, Vincent; Marx, John; Smith, Wade S; Weingart, Scott D
Traumatic spine injuries (TSIs) carry significantly high risks of morbidity, mortality, and exorbitant health care costs from associated medical needs following injury. For these reasons, TSI was chosen as an ENLS protocol. This article offers a comprehensive review on the management of spinal column injuries using the best available evidence. Though the review focuses primarily on cervical spinal column injuries, thoracolumbar injuries are briefly discussed as well. The initial emergency department clinical evaluation of possible spinal fractures and cord injuries, along with the definitive early management of confirmed injuries, are also covered. PMID:22965323