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Sample records for traumatic posterior urethral

  1. Posterior Urethral Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Joel; Wisenbaugh, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic fracture urethral injuries are typically partial and more often complete disruptions of the most proximal bulbar and distal membranous urethra. Emergency management includes suprapubic tube placement. Subsequent primary realignment to place a urethral catheter remains a controversial topic, but what is not controversial is that when there is the development of a stricture (which is usually obliterative with a distraction defect) after suprapubic tube placement or urethral catheter removal, the standard of care is delayed urethral reconstruction with excision and primary anastomosis. This paper reviews the management of patients who suffer pelvic fracture urethral injuries and the techniques of preoperative urethral imaging and subsequent posterior urethroplasty. PMID:26691883

  2. Traumatic posterior urethral fistula to hip joint following gunshot injury: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Urinary system fistula to the hip joint is a rare complication. We report a case of delayed posterior urethral fistula to the hip joint following penetrating gunshot wound injury. Case presentation A 37-year-old Iranian Balochi male was shot with a firearm in the superior part of his right pelvis. He underwent primary closure on the same day. Ten months later, he developed urinary retention. He underwent retrograde urethrography and antegrade cystography which showed a stricture measuring 5 cm in length. There was also a history of progressive pain in the right hip joint accompanied by low grade fever which started 2 months after the initial injury. Hip X-ray showed evidence of an acetabular cavity and femoral head destruction diagnostic of complicated septic arthritis. The patient subsequently underwent reconstructive surgery for the urethral stricture and urethral fistula via a transperineal approach followed by total hip arthroplasty. Conclusion Hip joint contamination with urine following a urethro-acetabular fistula can lead to severe and disabling complications such as septic arthritis. We recommend that every clinician should keep these fistulas in mind as a complication of penetrating urethral injury and every attempt should be made for their early diagnosis and prompt treatment. PMID:20062771

  3. Complex posterior urethral injury

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Sanjay B.; Joshi, Pankaj M.; Hunter, Craig; Surana, Sandesh; Shahrour, Walid; Alhajeri, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess treatment strategies for seven different scenarios for treating complex pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI), categorised as repeat surgery for PFUI, ischaemic bulbar urethral necrosis (BUN), repair in boys and girls aged ?12 years, in patients with a recto-urethral fistula, or bladder neck incontinence, or with a double block at the bulbomembranous urethra and bladder neck/prostate region. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed the success rates and surgical procedures of these seven complex scenarios in the repair of PFUI at our institution from 2000 to 2013. Results In all, >550 PFUI procedures were performed at our centre, and 308 of these patients were classified as having a complex PFUI, with 225 patients available for follow-up. The overall success rates were 81% and 77% for primary and repeat procedures respectively. The overall success rate of those with BUN was 76%, using various methods of novel surgical techniques. Boys aged ?12 years with PFUI required a transpubic/abdominal approach 31% of the time, compared to 9% in adults. Young girls with PFUI also required a transpubic/abdominal urethroplasty, with a success rate of 66%. In patients with a recto-urethral fistula the success rate was 90% with attention to proper surgical principles, including a three-stage procedure and appropriate interposition. The treatment of bladder neck incontinence associated with the tear-drop deformity gave a continence rate of 66%. Children with a double block at the bulbomembranous urethra and at the bladder neck-prostate junction were all continent after a one-stage transpubic/abdominal procedure. Conclusion An understanding of complex pelvic fractures and their appropriate management can provide successful outcomes. PMID:26019978

  4. Observations on persistently dilated ureter after posterior urethral valve ablation.

    PubMed

    Glassberg, K I; Schneider, M; Haller, J O; Moel, D; Waterhouse, K

    1982-07-01

    The persistent ureteral dilatation frequently seen months or even years after posterior urethral valve ablation, continues to present a dilemma to the urologist. We have classified these dilated ureters into 3 types: (I) unobstructed with either an empty or filling bladder, (II) unobstructed with an empty bladder but obstructed with a filling bladder, and (III) obstructed with either an empty or filling bladder. The majority of ureters with persistent dilatation were found to be of the type II variety where appropriate treatment is not obvious. Classic ureteral tailoring and reimplantation offers little advantage since in such cases a narrower ureter is passed through a new hiatus in an otherwise unchanged bladder. When high renal pelvic pressures are found only with bladder filling, then consideration must be given to not only reconstructing the ureter but also to affecting the dynamics of the bladder and the large urinary output characteristically found in these patients. PMID:7112792

  5. Management for the anterior combined with posterior urethral stricture: a 9-year single centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Tuo; Liao, Banghua; Luo, Deyi; Liu, Bing; Wang, Kunjie; Liu, Jiaming; Jin, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Therapy for anterior combined with posterior urethral stricture is difficult and controversial. This study aims to introduce a standard process for managing anterior combined with posterior urethral stricture. Patients and methods: 19 patients with anterior combined with posterior urethral stricture were treated following our standard process. Average (range) age was 52 (21-72) years old. In this standard process, anterior urethral stricture should be treated first. Endoscopic surgery is applied for anterior urethra stricture as a priority as long as obliteration does not occur, and operation for posterior urethral stricture can be conducted in the same stage. Otherwise, an open reconstructive urethroplasty for anterior urethral is needed; while in this condition, the unobliterated posterior urethra can also be treated with endoscopic surgery in the same stage; however, if posterior urethra obliteration exists, then open reconstructive urethroplasty for posterior urethral stricture should be applied 2-3 months later. Results: The median (range) follow-up time was 25.8 (3-56) months. All 19 patients were normal in urethrography after 1 month of the surgery. 4 patients (21.1%) recurred urethral stricture during follow-up, and the locations of recurred stricture were bulbomembranous urethra (2 cases), bulbar urethra (1 case) and bladder neck (1 case). 3 of them restored to health through urethral dilation, yet 1 underwent a second operation. 2 patients (10.5%) complaint of dripping urination. No one had painful erection, stress urinary incontinence or other complications. Conclusions: The management for anterior combined with posterior urethral stricture following our standard process is effective and safe. PMID:26064293

  6. A new technique for immediate endoscopic realignment of post-traumatic bulbar urethral rupture

    PubMed Central

    Han, Congxiang; Li, Jinyu; Lin, Xiacong; Yu, Zhongying; Zhu, Xianzhong; Xu, Weijie; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Urethral injury with partial or complete disruption of urethral integrity can lead to voiding problems and serious infections. We report a new management technique involving immediate endoscopic realignment with drainage via peel-away sheath for post-traumatic bulbar urethral rupture. Methods: Thirteen patients presenting with post-traumatic bulbar urethral rupture between July 2010 and May 2013 were treated. An 18F peel-away sheath was inserted into the anterior urethra, then a ureteroscope or nephroscope was inserted into the peel-away sheath with continuous normal saline infusion and drainage through the cavity between ureteroscope and sheath to maintain operative field clarity. A guide wire was negotiated across the disruption to the bladder and an 18F Foley catheter inserted for 2-4 weeks. Rupture severity was evaluated by urethroscopy during operation. Two patients had partial urethral rupture and 11 complete rupture. Before Foley catheter removal, pericatheter urethrography was performed to determine if urinary extravasation had occurred. Urethroscopy was performed after catheter removal. Follow-up uroflowmetry was conducted monthly for 1 year. Results: This technique was successful in all patients and none experienced urinary extravasation or required open surgery. Mean operation time was 4.9±1.6 min (3-8 min) and the mean Foley catheter indwelling time was 25.8±5.3 days. During follow-up (18.4±5.4 months, 12-26 months), 6 patients developed urethral strictures (8.7±10.5 weeks, 1-28 weeks post-treatment). Strictures were managed by internal urethrotomy (1 patient) or urethral sound dilation (5) without open urethroplasty. Conclusions: Immediate endoscopic realignment with drainage via peel-away sheath is a fast, effective, and safe technique for bulbar urethral rupture. PMID:26550310

  7. Segmental urethrectomy and urethrorrhaphy for treatment of fresh and late traumatic urethral lesions.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, C; Jardin, A; Le Guillou, M; Perron, J; Petit, M; Küss, R

    1975-01-01

    For 16 years we have used segmental urethrectomy with end-to-end urethrorrhaphy for treatment of traumatic urethral lesions, in preference to two-stage urethroplasties. The approach has been transperineal, retropubic, and if necessary transpubic. Good results in 41 cases with long-term follow-up allow us to say that this is a good operation. It provides in two thirds of the patients a correct and stable urethral stream, complete bladder emptying, and does not affect urinary control or sexual function if this was normal following the injury. PMID:1233178

  8. Solitary Crossed Renal Ectopia: Concurrence of Posterior Urethral Valve and Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Amin; Khorramirouz, Reza; Keihani, Sorena; Fareghi, Mehdi; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Solitary crossed renal ectopia (SCRE) represents an exceedingly rare congenital disorder. Although skeletal and genitourinary abnormalities most commonly accompany this condition, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has been described in only a few cases. Here, we present two unique cases of SCRE complicated by high-grade VUR concomitant with posterior urethral valve in one case and hypospadias in the other one. We also provide a brief review of the literature on this subject. PMID:26167315

  9. Use of Silodosin to Visualize the Posterior Urethra in Pelvic Floor Urethral Distraction Defect Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Nikhil; Singh, Rana Pratap; Ahmed, Ahsan; Kumar, Vijoy; Singh, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Retrograde urethrogram and voiding cystourethrogram are used to define length and location of urethral stricture prior to surgery. We used a single dose of silodosin prior to VCUG to relax the bladder neck and achieve visualization of posterior urethra. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of silodosin in visualization of posterior urethra during VCUG, and to compare the findings with a control group. Patients and Methods: Patients were divided into two groups A and B containing 20 and 15 patients, respectively. Patients in group A were given a single dose of silodosin prior to radiological studies. Results: In group A 19 out of 20 patients were able to achieve satisfactory bladder neck opening while in group B 10 out of 15 patients were able to achieve bladder neck opening. Conclusions: Silodosin use prior to VCUG confers a statistically significant increase in bladder neck opening and visualization of posterior urethra. PMID:26543831

  10. [Implantation of posterior chamber IOL after traumatic cataract extraction].

    PubMed

    Chen, G L

    1989-09-01

    Traumatic cataracts are often complicated with posterior capsule perforation and opacity to render implantation of posterior chamber IOL difficult. The authors operated on 62 cases using McIntyre's canula and Peyman's vitrophage with satisfactory results. The visual acuity was 0.5 or better in 66%, 0.7 or better in 45%, less than 0.1 in 3 patients because of vitreous opacity and corneal leucoma. In 2 cases associated with aniridia, the IOL was implanted into the capsule bag to obtain visual acuity of 1.2 and 1.0. In 4 patients with intraocular foreign body, the combined operation of foreign body and cataract extraction, vitrectomy, and posterior chamber IOL implantation was performed. PMID:2633900

  11. [Urethral stent to treat a refractory traumatic urethra stricture in a male hunting dog].

    PubMed

    Vogt, S; Schneider, M; Peppler, C; Günther, C; Kramer, M

    2014-01-01

    In a 1.5-year-old male hunting dog, a urethral defect distal to the pelvic flexure and the resulting urethral fistula were treated with a mucosal graft and a transurethral catheter. Six months postoperatively a stricture of the urethra occurred. Following balloon dilatation, urination was normal. One month after dilatation, urethral narrowing relapsed and was treated using a combination of balloon dilatation and urethral stent implantation. Ten months following stent implantation the dog continued to show normal urination, although a deformation of the proximal part of the stent was diagnosed radiographically. During the 1-year follow-up no additional complications were observed. In the future, urethral stents may replace surgical resection of the narrowed urethral region and re-anastomosis of the urethra. PMID:24920145

  12. Pelvic-fracture urethral injury in children

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Judith C.; Voelzke, Bryan B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review paediatric posterior urethral injuries and the current potential management options; because urethral injury due to pelvic fracture in children is rare and has a low incidence, the management of this type of trauma and its complications remains controversial. Methods We reviewed previous reports identified by searching the PubMed Medline electronic database for clinically relevant articles published in the past 25 years. The search was limited to the keywords ‘pediatric’, ‘pelvic fracture’, ‘urethral injury’, ‘stricture’, ‘trauma’ and ‘reconstruction’. Results Most paediatric urethral injuries are a result of pelvic fractures after high-impact blunt trauma. After the diagnosis, immediate bladder drainage via a suprapubic cystotomy, or urethral realignment, are the initial management options, except for a possible immediate primary repair in girls. The common complications of pelvic fracture-associated urethral injury include urethral stricture formation, incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Excellent results can be achieved with delayed urethroplasty for pelvic fracture-associated urethral injuries. Conclusion Traumatic injury to the paediatric urethra is rare and calls for an immediate diagnosis and management. These devastating injuries have a high complication rate and therefore a close follow-up is warranted to assure adequate delayed repair by a reconstructive urologist. PMID:26019977

  13. One step arthroscopically assisted Latarjet and posterior bone-block, for recurrent posterior instability and anterior traumatic dislocation

    PubMed Central

    D’Ambrosi, Riccardo; Perfetti, Carlo; Garavaglia, Guido; Taverna, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    This case presents the challenges of the surgical management for a patient with a history of recurrent posterior shoulder instability and subsequently traumatic anterior dislocation. The patient was already on the waiting list for an arthroscopic posterior stabilization with anchors, when a car accident caused an additional anterior shoulder dislocation. This traumatic anterior dislocation created a bone loss with a glenoid fracture and aggravated the preexisting posterior instability. In order to address both problems, we decided to perform an arthroscopically assisted Latarjet procedure for anterior instability and to stabilize with a bone graft for posterior instability. To our best knowledge, this type of surgical procedure has so far never been reported in the literature. The purpose of this report is to present the surgical technique and to outline the decision making process. PMID:26288539

  14. One-stage Anastomotic Urethroplasty for Traumatic Urethral Strictures. January 2004–January 2013

    PubMed Central

    Odoemene, Charles Azuwike; Okere, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: One-stage anastomotic urethroplasty is an attractive procedure for reconstructing the urethra following trauma. This prospective study highlights the advantages of the procedure and outcome of treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 patients, age range 11–68 years with a mean of 35.4 years were included in the study. These patients were seen at two tertiary Institutions in South East Nigeria. The stricture lengths varied between 0.8 cm and 3.2 cm. All had suprapubic cystostomy initially followed by an end to end perineal anastomosis after thorough work up. Preoperatively 9 (10.3%) patients had impotence from the trauma. Postoperatively the patients were assessed with peri-catheter retrograde urethrogram, micturating cystourethrogram, and uroflowmetery. Results: All the patients were males. At 6 months, 13 out of 21 (62%) patients who had bulbo-prostatic anastomosis and 62 out of 66 (94%) patients that had bulbo-membranous, bulbo-bulbar anastomosis had satisfactory micturition with urine flow rate >15 ml/s. Totally, 12 (13.8%) patients had urine flow rate of <12 ml/s. At 1-year, there were 12 re-strictures, no urinary incontinence and four cases of a decrease in the strength of penile erection that needed no treatment. Conclusion: Delayed one-stage anastomotic urethroplasty provides for decreased incidence of postoperative morbidity, re-stricture, impotence and urinary incontinence for most short segment posttraumatic urethral strictures. PMID:26425066

  15. Management of traumatic double-level spondyloptosis of the thoracic spine with posterior spondylectomy: case report.

    PubMed

    Rahimizadeh, Abolfazl; Rahimizadeh, Ava

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic spondyloptosis of the thoracic spine is an uncommon injury. In most cases, spondyloptosis is confined to one vertebral body, whereas double-level spondyloptosis is extremely rare. Most patients who sustain traumatic spondyloptosis immediately become paraplegic, but in some cases neurological function is preserved. If this occurs, it is due to detachment of the pedicles from the corresponding vertebral body, resulting in spontaneous decompression of neural elements. Herein, the authors describe a case of undetected traumatic double-level spondyloptosis in the upper thoracic region in an adult male patient who was neurologically intact for 2 days but later became paraplegic. Initially, management of this pathology seemed a very challenging scenario. However, with review of the reconstructed CT images and reproduction of the injury on a plastic model, a posterior-only approach was chosen as an alternative operative solution for this catastrophic injury. Via this single-stage posterior approach, long-segment pedicle screw/rod instrumentation resulted in successful reduction, restoration of alignment, and stabilization after 1-level posterior spondylectomy. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first example reported in the literature of double-level spondyloptosis of the thoracic and the lumbar spine. This report describes the rationale, mechanism, and technical details afforded for reduction and stabilization of this rare injury. PMID:26296192

  16. Judo-related traumatic posterior sternoclavicular joint dislocation in a child.

    PubMed

    Galanis, Nikiforos; Anastasiadis, Prodromos; Grigoropoulou, Foteini; Kirkos, John; Kapetanos, George

    2014-05-01

    Judo is a combat sport with high risk of injury. We present a rare case of traumatic left posterior sternoclavicular (SC) joint dislocation, inflicted to a 12-year-old boy during a judo contest. An extensive literature review did not reveal any case of posterior SC joint dislocation in judo. The patient was treated with closed reduction under general anesthesia. At 2-year follow-up, his left upper extremity had full range of motion, and he did not complain of any residual symptoms. He decided to discontinue judo training; however, he participates in other physically demanding sports. Although not often encountered, posterior SC joint dislocation is a challenging and critical medical problem that can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated on time and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of trauma-related anterior chest pain. PMID:24172655

  17. Unilateral Scleral Fixation of Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lenses in Pediatric Complicated Traumatic Cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Dong Won; Cho, Sung Won

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcomes and complications of unilateral scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (SF-PCIOLs) in pediatric complicated traumatic cataracts without capsular support. Methods This study involved five eyes of five children who underwent unilateral SF-PCIOL. All patients had a unilateral complicated traumatic cataract associated with anterior or posterior segment injury. Visual acuity (VA), IOL position, and postoperative complications were assessed during follow-up. Results The mean age of patients at the time of SF-PCIOL was 90 months (range, 66-115). The mean duration of follow-up time after surgery was 22 months (range, 5-55). In all patients, the best-corrected VA was either improved or was stable at last follow-up following SF-PCIOL implantation. There were no serious complications. Conclusions Unilateral scleral fixation of PCIOL can be a safe and effective procedure for pediatric, unilateral, complicated traumatic cataracts without capsular support in selected cases. PMID:19794939

  18. The spectrum of pelvic fracture urethral injuries and posterior urethroplasty in an Italian high-volume centre, from 1980 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Barbagli, Guido; Sansalone, Salvatore; Romano, Giuseppe; Lazzeri, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the emergency and delayed treatment of patients with pelvic fracture urethral injuries (PFUI) presenting to an Italian high-volume centre. Patients and methods In a retrospective, observational study we evaluated the spectrum of PFUI and posterior urethroplasty in an Italian high-volume centre, from 1980 to 2013. Patients requiring emergency treatment for PFUI and delayed treatment for pelvic fracture urethral defects (PFUD) were included. Patients with incomplete clinical records were excluded from the study. Descriptive statistical methods were applied. Results In all, 159 male patients (median age 35 years) were included in the study. A traffic accident was the most frequent (42.8%) cause of PFUI, and accidents at work were reported as the cause of trauma in 34% of patients. Agricultural accidents decreased from 24.4% to 6.2% over the course of the survey. A suprapubic cystostomy was the most frequent (49%) emergency treatment in patients with PFUI. The use of surgical realignment decreased from 31.7% to 6.2%, and endoscopic realignment increased from 9.7% to 35.3%. A bulbo-prostatic anastomosis was the most frequent (62.9%) delayed treatment in patients with PFUD. The use of the Badenoch pull-through decreased from 19.5% to 2.6%, and endoscopic holmium laser urethrotomy increased from 4.9% to 32.7%. Conclusions The spectrum of PFUI and subsequent treatment of PFUD has changed greatly over the last 10 years at our centre. These changes involved patient age, aetiology, emergency and delayed treatments, and were found to be related to changes in the economy and lifestyle of the Italian patients. PMID:26019976

  19. Primary urethral tuberculosis masquerading as a urethral caruncle: a diagnostic curiosity!

    PubMed

    Singh, Iqbal; Hemal, A K

    2002-01-01

    Primary urethral tuberculosis associated with a caruncle is an extremely rare entity and ours is the second such case to be reported. A middle-aged woman presented with symptoms of frequency dysuria syndrome for the last 2 years. Local examination and cystoscopy revealed localized parurethral induration, tenderness and a urethral caruncle with chronic obliterative urethritis. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed a solid lesion arising from the posterior urethral wall. Excision of the caruncle and transurethral resection of the paraurethral mass lesion revealed chronic granulomatous inflammation with chronic urethritis and fibrocollagenous tissue. The literature regarding the genesis of urethral caruncle, the underlying conditions, its differential diagnosis and management has been reviewed. PMID:12549649

  20. Maximizing the visual outcome in traumatic cataract cases: The value of a primary posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mehul A; Shah, Shreya M; Patel, Krunal D; Shah, Ashit H; Pandya, Jaimini S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to provide evidence-based care for patients with traumatic cataracts, we assessed whether a posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy, as part of the primary surgical procedure, could be a positive predictor of final visual outcome. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective randomized control trial. Patients presenting at our hospital between January 2010 and December 2012 having ocular trauma and traumatic cataracts were enrolled, according to the inclusion criteria. We enrolled two groups: Those with and without primary posterior capsulotomy and vitrectomy. Information regarding demographic and ocular trauma were collected using the World Eye Trauma Registry form at the first visit and follow-up, and specific information was collected for both the group who underwent posterior capsulectomies and vitrectomies as a part of the primary procedure, and the control group. Data were analyzed to evaluate the predictive value of primary posterior capsulectomy and anterior vitrectomy. Results: We enrolled 120 cases, 60 in each group, comprising 31 females and 89 males. When all other variables were controlled for, the visual outcome (best corrected visual acuity) differed significantly (P < 0.001) between the groups. Conclusion: Performance of posterior capsulectomy and anterior vitrectomy as part of the primary procedure improves the final visual outcome. PMID:25494250

  1. Outcome of in-the-bag implanted square-edge polymethyl methacrylate intraocular lenses with and without primary posterior capsulotomy in pediatric traumatic cataract

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Neelam; Ram, Jagat; Sukhija, Jaspreet; Pandav, Surinder S.; Gupta, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the outcome of in-the-bag implanted square-edge polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) intraocular lenses (IOL) with and without primary posterior capsulotomy in pediatric traumatic cataract. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken in a tertiary care center. Thirty eyes of 30 children ranging in age from 4 to 16 years with traumatic cataract which underwent cataract extraction with capsular bag implantation of IOL were prospectively evaluated. Group A included 15 eyes of 15 children where primary posterior capsulotomy (PPC) and anterior vitrectomy with capsular bag implantation of square-edge PMMA IOL (Aurolab SQ3602, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India) was performed. Group B comprised 15 eyes of 15 children in which the posterior capsule was left intact. Postoperative visual acuity, visual axis opacification (VAO) and possible complications were analyzed. Results: Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/40 or better was achieved in 12 of 15 eyes in both groups. Amblyopia was the cause of no improvement in visual acuity in the remaining eyes. Visual axis opacification was significantly high in Group B as compared to Group A (P=0.001). Postoperative fibrinous uveitis occurred in most of the eyes in both groups. Pupillary capture was observed in one eye in each group. Conclusion: Primary posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy with capsular bag implantation of square-edge PMMA significantly helps to maintain a clear visual axis in children with traumatic cataract. PMID:21836338

  2. Stages of Urethral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Urethral cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the urethra. The ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the urethra or to other ...

  3. Controversies in urethral reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Barbagli, G; Sansalone, S; Romano, G; Lazzeri, M

    2011-09-01

    Urethral strictures are a frequent source of lower urinary tract symptoms in men. Open urethroplasty is regarded as the gold-standard treatment for urethral stricture disease. The treatment for urethral strictures is a continually evolving process and there is renewed controversy over the best approach to take in reconstructing the urethra, since the superiority of one approach over another has not yet been clearly defined. Anterior urethroplasty can be treated, with low morbidity, in an outpatient surgical setting, thus decreasing the impact of urethroplasty. In order to improve outcome in adult patients when the penile shaft is involved, reconstructive urethral surgeons have learned to apply the principles of delicate tissue handling, and the development of minimally invasive techniques. Genital or extra-genital skin has been used as a free graft or harvested as a flap for some time, thanks to its location, hairless skin and durability. Since the early 1990s, the use of oral mucosa was introduced in genital reconstructive surgery and has become popular for urethral reconstructions. Urethral reconstructive surgery is changing rapidly and this change has posed problems for surgeons who see the principles that previously defined their profession becoming obsolete or unworkable. New techniques and new engineered material are a part of our future. PMID:21993323

  4. Traumatic Dislodgement of Tibial Polyethylene Insert after a High-Flex Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Astoul Bonorino, Juan Felix; Slullitel, Pablo Ariel Isidoro; Kido, Gonzalo Rodrigo; Bongiovanni, Santiago; Vestri, Renato; Carbó, Lisandro

    2015-01-01

    Many pathologic entities can produce a painful total knee replacement (TKR) that may lead to potential prosthetic failure. Polyethylene insert dissociation from the tibial baseplate has been described most frequently after mobile-bearing and cruciate-retaining TKRs. However, only 3 tibial insert dislocations in primary fixed-bearing High-Flex posterior-stabilized TKRs have been reported. We present a new case of tibial insert dislocation in a High-Flex model that shares similarities and differences with the cases reported, facilitating the analysis of the potential causes, which still remain undefined. PMID:26457215

  5. Urethral diverticula in women.

    PubMed

    Greenwell, Tamsin J; Spilotros, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Female urethral diverticula are rare, benign epithelium-lined outpouchings of the female urethra. Patients can present with a multitude of symptoms, most commonly urinary incontinence, recurrent UTIs and dyspareunia. These presenting symptoms are often confused with other diagnoses leading to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Diagnosis and preoperative assessment of bladder function is most accurate using a combination of clinical examination, T2-weighted postvoid MRI and videocystometrography. Best treatment is by vaginal excision, a procedure with a very low recurrence rate and high patient acceptability. Excision also results in high cure rates for associated dyspareunia, UTI and voiding dysfunction. Pre-existing urodynamically proven stress urinary incontinence (USUI) resolves in 50% of patients after excision of the diverticulum with Martius labial fat pad interposition without the need for further treatment. Potential adverse effects after surgery are new-onset USUI, urethrovaginal fistula and urethral stricture. The rate of onset of these potential adverse effects is low and related to the preoperative appearance of the diverticulum on an MRI scan and the complexity of the diverticulum. PMID:26458752

  6. Peyronie’s disease after urethral swab, an unusual complication: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Paulis, Gianni; Barletta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Urethral swabs are still currently used as a diagnostic tool when urethritis or prostatitis are suspected. Urologists are certainly aware that Peyronie’s disease may occur after traumatic urethral instrumentation (catheterization, urethrocystoscopy, etc), but onset of Peyronie’s disease after urethral swab for diagnostic purposes has never been reported in the literature. This paper presents the case of a patient who developed Peyronie’s disease after a clumsy urethral swab insertion. It is an unusual, and to date unreported, complication which we would like to call attention to. In the case of our patient, the swab had been inserted to a greater depth than normally required and strong pressure had also been applied. During the procedure, the patient experienced severe urethral and penile pain, which was followed by urethrorrhagia, and later penile curvature. The patient was treated conservatively with good results, partly because the disease was still in its active stage and not yet stable. In the light of what we report, when ordering a urethral swab, physicians should always recommend that it be performed at testing centers that follow accurate, rigorous standards. Patients should also be informed that the test they are to undergo consists of a swab being inserted into the urethra for a short distance, not more than 2–3 cm. PMID:26605209

  7. Treatment Options for Urethral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Urethral cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the urethra. The ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the urethra or to other ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Urethral Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Urethral cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the urethra. The ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the urethra or to other ...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator is a device that consists of a slender hollow or solid instrument made of metal, plastic, or other suitable material in a cylindrical form and in a...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator is a device that consists of a slender hollow or solid instrument made of metal, plastic, or other suitable material in a cylindrical form and in a...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator is a device that consists of a slender hollow or solid instrument made of metal, plastic, or other suitable material in a cylindrical form and in a...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator is a device that consists of a slender hollow or solid instrument made of metal, plastic, or other suitable material in a cylindrical form and in a...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator is a device that consists of a slender hollow or solid instrument made of metal, plastic, or other suitable material in a cylindrical form and in a...

  14. Urethral stricture after transurethral resection.

    PubMed

    Fuhse, J; Knüpper, M

    1984-01-01

    After 101 transurethral resections, iatrogenic postoperative urethral strictures have occurred in 10 cases due to pathologic changes in the bladder and bladder neck. Urethral stricture after transurethral resection (TUR) thus has represented the most common postoperative complication. No morbidity increase of urethral strictures after TUR could be demonstrated in one of the analysed groups. Fifty per cent of the incidence rate of strictures was localized in the pars pendulans urethrae. Factors causing the stricture have been demonstrated, and the incidence rate of strictures was reduced when these factors were taken into consideration. Preference is given either to conservative or surgical therapy depending on the localization of the stricture, even though endoscopic methods are used more frequently now in the treatment of stenoses of the urethra. PMID:6724828

  15. An unusual urethral foreign body?

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Krishanth; Chung, Amanda; Mulcahy, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Lower urinary tract foreign body insertions have a low incidence. The motives for insertion of a variety of objects are difficult to comprehend. This case warrants discussion given the great management challenge faced by the oddity and infrequency with which a fork is encountered in the penile urethra. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 70-year-old man presents to the Emergency Department with a bleeding urethral meatus following self-insertion of a fork into the urethra to achieve sexual gratification. Multiple retrieval methods were contemplated with success achieved via forceps traction and copious lubrication. DISCUSSION The presentation of urethral foreign bodies can vary widely, as can the type of object inserted. The most prevalent motivation for self-insertion of urethral foreign bodies is autoerotism. Motivations ought to be explored in light of possible underlying psychological or psychiatric conditions. The most appropriate surgical extraction technique can be guided by physical examination and imaging. Endoscopic removal is often successful, depending on the object's physical attributes and morphology. It is important to arrange appropriate follow-up, as late complications can occur such as urethral strictures. CONCLUSION Psychological and surgical arms encompass the management plan. Foreign body retrieval is determined by its physical attributes and morphology with the aim to minimise urothelial trauma and preserve erectile function. Essentially, endourological extraction serves the primary means of retrieval. Cystourethoscopy is important to diagnose urothelial injuries and to ensure complete removal of foreign bodies following extraction. PMID:24055017

  16. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876.4590 Food...Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two...

  17. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876.4590 Food...Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two...

  18. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876.4590 Food...Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two...

  19. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876.4590 Food...Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two...

  20. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876.4590 Food...Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two...

  1. Buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty in a case of urethral amyloidosis presenting with long anterior urethral stricture

    PubMed Central

    Kurbatov, Dmitry; Stojanovic, Borko; Dubskiy, Sergey; Lepetukhin, Alex; Djordjevic, Miroslav L.

    2015-01-01

    Urethral amyloidosis is a rare condition, but clinically relevant because it can mimic urothelial carcinoma. We report a case of localized urethral amyloidosis presenting with a long anterior urethral stricture. We used extensive grafts of buccal mucosa for standard augmentation urethroplasty, with a successful outcome at the 2-year follow-up. PMID:26600896

  2. Classification of pelvic fracture urethral injuries: Is there an effect on the type of delayed urethroplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Elbakry, Adel

    2011-01-01

    The posterior urethral injury due to pelvic fracture is a challenging problem. Because pelvic fractures are widely varying in severity, direction and mechanism, a wide spectrum of pelvic fracture urethral injuries (PFUIs) is clinically identified. Previously published data indicate that the proposed classifications of PFUIs are neither ideal nor universally acceptable. Moreover, these classifications might not have a significant effect on the delayed definitive techniques of urethral reconstruction. The currently available classifications and management strategies of PFUIs lack consensus and are based on accumulated surgical experience and clinical case studies. In the current era of evidence-based medicine there should be clear and appropriate guidelines for managing PFUIs, based on meta-analysis of well-designed controlled studies and evidence-based surgical science. In this way several controversies in the management of PFUIs will be resolved and the quality of life of patients who have sustained PFUIs will be improved.

  3. Urethral and penile war injuries: The experience from civil violence in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azzawi, Issam S.; Koraitim, Mamdouh M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence, mechanism of injury, wounding pattern and surgical management of urethral and penile injuries sustained in civil violence during the Iraq war. Patients and methods In all, 2800 casualties with penetrating trauma to the abdomen and pelvis were received at the Al-Yarmouk Hospital, Baghdad, from January 2004 to June 2008. Of these casualties 504 (18%) had genitourinary trauma, including 45 (8.9%) with urethral and/or penile injuries. Results Of 45 patients, 29 (64%) were civilians and 16 (36%) were Iraqi military personnel. The injury was caused by an improvised explosive device (IED) in 25 (56%) patients and by individual firearms in 20 (44%). Of the patients, 24 had penile injuries, 15 had an injury to the bulbar urethra and six had an injury to the posterior urethra. Anterior urethral injuries were managed by primary repair, while posterior urethral injuries were managed by primary realignment in five patients and by a suprapubic cystostomy alone in one. An associated injury to major blood vessels was the cause of death in eight of nine patients who died soon after surgery (P < 0.001). Conclusion Urethral and penile injuries were caused by IEDs and individual firearms with a similar frequency. Most of the casualties were civilians and a minority were military personnel. Injuries to the anterior urethra can be managed by primary repair, while injuries to the posterior urethra can be managed by primary realignment. An associated trauma to major blood vessels was the leading cause of death in these casualties. PMID:26019940

  4. Urethral Calculi in a 7-Year-old Boy Presenting as a Large Scrotal Mass After Surgery of Exstrophy-epispadias Repair.

    PubMed

    Telli, Onur; Gollu, Gulnur; Khanmammadov, Farid; Tastekin, Nil Yasam; Aktug, Tanju

    2015-08-01

    Urethral calculi are extremely rare in pediatric population and are usually presented with dysuria, hematuria, lower urinary tract obstruction, and rarely as a scrotal mass. We here report a giant primary urethral stone presenting as a scrotal mass that developed in the penile urethra resulting from a postsurgical complication of exstrophy-epispadias repair. A 7-year-old boy was admitted with the complaint of scrotal mass and dysuria. Computerized tomography confirmed giant urethral stone impacted to diverticulum of urethra. Cystoscopy revealed a nonobstructed stone in the urethra related to a posterior diverticulum. After scrotal incision, stone was removed with open diverticulectomy. PMID:26199152

  5. Bladder neck incompetence at posterior urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Koraitim, Mamdouh M.

    2015-01-01

    The finding of an incompetent bladder neck (BN) at the time of posterior urethroplasty will necessarily exacerbate the already difficult situation. In such cases the aim of the treatment is not only to restore urethral continuity by end-to-end urethral anastomosis, but also to restore the function of the BN to maintain urinary continence. Fortunately, the incidence of incompetence of the BN at posterior urethroplasty is uncommon, usually ?4.5%. It seems that pelvic fracture-related BN injuries, in contrast to urethral injuries which result from a shearing force, are due to direct injury by the sharp edge of the fractured and displaced pubic bone. The risk of injuries to the BN is greater in children, in patients with a fracture involving both superior and inferior pubic rami on the same side, and in those managed initially by primary realignment. An incompetent BN is suspected by finding an open rectangular BN on cystography, and a fixedly open BN on suprapubic cystoscopy. An incompetent BN can be treated either subsequent to or concomitant with the urethral repair, according to whether a perineal or a perineo-abdominal urethroplasty is used, respectively. Several options have been reported to treat pelvic fracture-related BN incompetence, including reconstructing the BN, forming a new sphincter by tubularisation of a rectangular flap of the anterior bladder wall, and mechanical occlusion by an artificial sphincter or collagen injection. Reconstruction of the BN by the Young-Dees-Leadbetter?? procedure probably provides the most successful results. PMID:26019982

  6. [Urethral and scrotal pain syndromes].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Cerdá, J L

    2007-04-01

    Painful diseases of the pelvis are not rare. Urethral and scrotal pains are part of the chronic pelvic pain syndromes along with chronic prostatitis and painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis. The objective of this review is to update the current knowledge about epidimiology, etiology, diagnosis and best treatment for patients with urethral and scrotal pain syndromes. Epidemiological data for both syndromes are scant. We lack of uniform definition or readily available diagnostic marker and aetiology remains unclear. The pain could be a neuropathic without a specific stimulus or disproportionate to the stimulus intensity. Regarding diagnosis, there is no evidence to qualify or quantify the symptoms to include or exclude patients. Nevertheless, it is very important to know functional neuroanatomy in the evaluation of these patients. Treatment always should be primary conservatively. Surgery should be avoided if possible. As no specific treatment is available, decrease the pain is the main objective, therefore urologist should know how to manage analgesics, antidepressant and anticonvulsants. PMID:17633918

  7. Urethritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... semen Burning pain while urinating ( dysuria ) Discharge from penis Fever (rare) Frequent or urgent urination Itching, tenderness, or swelling in penis Enlarged lymph nodes in the groin area Pain ...

  8. Ultrasound diagnosis and management of urethral stones.

    PubMed

    Solivetti, F M; D'Ascenzo, R; Orazi, C; Valenti, P

    1989-12-01

    The authors report three cases of urethral obstruction caused by stones. The diagnosis was made with ultrasound and the stones removed immediately by a transurethral catheter guided by ultrasound. PMID:2685346

  9. [Iatrogenic urethral stenosis. Apropos of 100 cases].

    PubMed

    Boujnah, H; Abid, I; Trabelsi, N; Zmerli, S

    1989-03-01

    Iatrogenic causes of stenosis of urethra appear to be increasing in frequency. 100 cases out of a total of 582 patients being of iatrogenic origin. The principal cause is the use of a urethral catheter. Various therapeutic methods are used, preference being given quite clearly to internal urethrotomy. Prevention is of fundamental importance and is based on the less untimely routine use of urethral catheters, particularly after general surgical operations and in intensive care. PMID:2659605

  10. Scrotal and perineal flaps for anterior urethral reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Gerald H

    2002-05-01

    The use of scrotal and perineal flaps for anterior and posterior urethral reconstruction has been unfairly maligned with claims of poor waterproofing qualities, formation of diverticula, and the potential to import hair into the urethra. Actually, scrotal and perineal skin do not appear to differ from other genital skin with regards to permeability to surface liquids, and although these islands are difficult to tailor, when properly prepared they are no more likely to create diverticula than other genital skin islands. Similarly, if the flap is prepared from hirsute skin, hair will be imported into the urethra; however, hairless scrotal areas can be mobilized as skin islands, and the skin overlying the perineal artery is non-hirsute or nearly non-hirsute in many individuals. PMID:12371232

  11. Thermo-expandable metallic urethral stents for managing recurrent bulbar urethral strictures: To use or not?

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Selim, Mohamed; Abdelbakey, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the role of temporary thermally expandable urethral stents in maintaining urethral patency in patients with a recurrent bulbar urethral stricture. Patients and methods Twenty-three men with a recurrent bulbar urethral stricture after several attempts at direct visual internal urethrotomy (DVIU) and/or failed urethroplasty were managed with a thermally expandable, biocompatible nickel–titanium alloy urethral stent (Memokath® MK044, Pnn Medical, Kvistgaard, Denmark). The stents were applied by a special mounting device via a rigid urethroscope after DVIU. All patients were followed using plain radiography, uroflowmetry and urine analysis every 3 months for 1 year, and then every 6 months. Results The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (7.3) years and the mean (SD) stricture length was 3.6 (1.2) cm. All patients tolerated the stent, with minimal discomfort in some patients. Four patients (17%) had urinary tract infections, three (13%) had haematuria, three (13%) had obstructed stents due to encrustation, in five (22%) the stent migrated, and two patients had no delayed complications. The mean (SD) follow-up was 17.4 (6.1) months. Conclusion Urethral stenting with nickel–titanium alloy thermally expandable stents can be an acceptable temporary procedure for patients with recurrent bulbar urethral strictures who are unfit for or who refuse urethroplasty. However, they have limitations; the search for an ideal urethral stent continues.

  12. Urethral Diverticulum Masquerading as Anterior Vaginal Wall Cyst: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Sharma, Abha; Suneja, Amita; Guleria, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Urethral diverticulum (UD) is a condition in which a variably sized outpouching forms, next to the urethra. Because it connects to the urethra, this outpouching repeatedly gets filled with urine during micturition, thus causing symptoms. In females, it presents as a bulge in anterior vagina, mimicking a vaginal wall cyst. Various aetiologies proposed attributing to urethral diverticulum formation is repeated infection of the periurethral gland, childbirth trauma, iatrogenic and urethral instrumentation. Patients of UD present with non specific irritative lower urinary tract symptoms such as increased frequency, urgency and dysuria; symptoms may not correlate with the size of the diverticulum. Recurrent cystitis or urinary tract infection is seen in one-third of patients. Pain, hematuria, post-void dribbling, dyspareunia, urinary retention or incontinence is other symptoms. In some cases, there may be associated urethral calculi or carcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of UD, although non invasive sonography may be the first line investigation. Treatment is by transvaginal diverticulectomy or marsupialization. A 60-year-old P9L6 postmenopausal lady, presented with a tender, hard suburethral anterior vaginal wall mass. Cystourethroscopy revealed a small opening in posterior urethra, with stone visible through it. With the final diagnosis of suburethral diverticulum with retained multiple calculi, excision of the diverticulum and repair of urethra was done vaginally. Correct evaluation and treatment of this condition can lead to avoidance of urinary tract injury. PMID:26557574

  13. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal...

  14. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal...

  15. Optical urethrotomy under local urethral anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Greenland, J E; Lynch, T H; Wallace, D M

    1991-04-01

    A series of 46 patients underwent 76 optical urethrotomies under local urethral anaesthesia in the out-patient clinic; in 70% of patients the strictures were controlled by local anaesthetic urethrotomy alone; 61% felt either no pain or mild pain during the procedure; 72% expressed a preference for local anaesthesia should the procedure have to be repeated and 82% were happy with the result of their treatment. Optical urethrotomy under local urethral anaesthesia produces results comparable to those reported by others using general anaesthesia. If large numbers of patients are to be treated, possibly repeatedly, then out-patient urethrotomy may result in more efficient use of resources. PMID:2032078

  16. Posterior Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Uy, Harvey Siy; Yu-Keh, Ellen; Chan, Pik Sha

    2016-01-01

    Posterior uveitis is a major cause of ocular morbidity worldwide. Systemic corticosteroids (CS) remain the primary method of treatment for noninfectious posterior uveitis; however, CS are associated with many side effects. Immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) is recommended when inflammatory control is not attained with a tolerable level of systemic CS (<10 mg/day of prednisone). IMT agents are associated with several toxicities and limited benefits in some patients. Locally administered therapies (e.g. intravitreal CS implants) offer the promise of providing therapeutic levels of anti-inflammatory agents while avoiding systemic complications. This chapter will briefly discuss common posterior uveitis entities that are amenable to retinal pharmacotherapy. PMID:26502276

  17. Advances in the Understanding and Treatment of Male Urethritis.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Laura H; Manhart, Lisa E; Martin, David H; Seña, Arlene C; Dimitrakoff, Jordan; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2015-12-15

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are well-documented urethral pathogens, and the literature supporting Mycoplasma genitalium as an etiology of urethritis is growing. Trichomonas vaginalis and viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and adenovirus) can cause urethritis, particularly in specific subpopulations. New data are emerging regarding the potential role of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria in urethritis, although results are inconsistent regarding the pathogenic role of Ureaplasma urealyticum in men. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma parvum do not appear to be pathogens. Men with suspected urethritis should undergo evaluation to confirm urethral inflammation and etiologic cause. Although nucleic acid amplification testing would detect N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis (or T. vaginalis if utilized), there is no US Food and Drug Administration-approved clinical test for M. genitalium available in the United States at this time. The varied etiologies of urethritis and lack of diagnostic options for some organisms present treatment challenges in the clinical setting. PMID:26602615

  18. Traumatic Grief

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Neglect Physical Abuse Refugee and War Zone Trauma School Violence Sexual Abuse Terrorism Traumatic Grief Resources for Mental Health Professionals Resources for Parents and Caregivers Resources for Military Children and Families Resources ...

  19. Neural and genetic markers of vulnerability to post-traumatic stress symptoms among survivors

    E-print Network

    Ochsner, Kevin

    a small but rare sample of high-exposure 9/11 survivors. Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSDNeural and genetic markers of vulnerability to post-traumatic stress symptoms among survivors in distress following trauma. Keyword: post-traumatic stress; posterior cingulate cortex; polymorphism; 9

  20. Isolated posterior capsular rupture following blunt head trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Jaroudi, Mahmoud O; Hamam, Rola N; Maalouf, Fadi C

    2014-01-01

    Closed-globe traumatic cataract is not uncommon in males in the pediatric age group. However, there is a relative paucity of literature on isolated posterior lens capsule rupture associated with closed-globe traumatic cataract. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with white cataract 1 day after blunt trauma to the forehead associated with posterior capsular rupture that was detected by B-scan ultrasonography preoperatively. No stigmata of trauma outside the posterior capsule could be detected by slit-lamp exam, funduscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implant was performed 24 hours after trauma, with the patient achieving 6/6 visual acuity 1 week and 6 months after surgery. Our case is unique, being the youngest (amblyogenic age) to be reported, with prompt surgical intervention, and with no signs of trauma outside the posterior capsule. PMID:25506201

  1. The incidence of erectile dysfunction after pelvic fracture urethral injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Blaschko, Sarah D.; Sanford, Melissa T.; Schlomer, Bruce J.; Alwaal, Amjad; Yang, Glen; Villalta, Jacqueline D.; Wessells, Hunter; McAninch, Jack W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI) is associated with a high risk of erectile dysfunction (ED). The effect of the type of posterior urethral disruption repair on erectile function has not been clearly established. We systematically reviewed and conducted a meta-analysis of the proportion of patients with ED at (i) baseline after pelvic fracture with PFUI, (ii) after immediate primary realignment, and (iii) after delayed urethroplasty. Methods Using search terms for primary realignment or urethroplasty and urethral disruption, we systematically reviewed PubMed and EMBASE. A meta-analysis of the proportion of patients with ED was conducted assuming a random-effects model. Results Of 734 articles found, 24 met the inclusion criteria. The estimate of the proportion (95% confidence interval) of patients with ED after (i) PFUI was 34 (25–45)%, after (ii) immediate primary realignment was 16 (8–26)%, and after (iii) delayed urethroplasty was an additional 3 (2–5)% more than the 34% after pelvic fracture in this cohort. Conclusions After pelvic fracture, 34% of patients had ED. After primary endoscopic alignment, patients had a lower reported rate of ED (16%). Delayed urethroplasty conferred an additional 3% risk above the 34% associated with PFUI alone, with 37% of patients having de novo ED. The difference in de novo ED after primary endoscopic alignment vs. delayed urethroplasty is probably due to reporting differences in ED and/or patients with less severe injury undergoing primary realignment. PMID:26019983

  2. Intraoperative posterior capsule flutter in posterior lentiglobus.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Mamidipudi R; Vasavada, Abhay R; Koul, Archana; Ravat, Farida A; Trivedi, Rupal H; Shah, Sajani K; Vasavada, Vaishali A

    2010-08-01

    Posterior capsules of pediatric eyes with lens disorders have complex morphological variations with differing etiologies and visual prognoses. We describe a unique case of intraoperative posterior capsule flutter in an eye of a child undergoing cataract surgery, which we interpret as a possible expression of posterior lentiglobus. PMID:20598928

  3. In-vivo laser induced urethral stricture animal model for investigating the potential of LDR-brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Lellig, Katja; Bader, Markus; Stief, Christian; Weidlich, Patrick; Wechsel, G.; Assmann, Walter; Becker, R.; Fedorova, O.; Khoder, Wael

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Treatment of urethral strictures is a major challenge in urology. For investigation of different treatment methods an animal model was developed by reproducible induction of urethral strictures in rabbits to mimic the human clinical situation. By means of this model the potential of endoluminal LDR brachytherapy using ?-irradiation as prophylaxis of recurrent urethral strictures investigated. Material and Methods: A circumferential urethral stricture was induced by energy deposition using laser light application (wavelength ?=1470 nm, 10 W, 10 s, applied energy 100 J) in the posterior urethra of anaesthetized New Zealand White male rabbits. The radial light emitting fiber was introduced by means of a children resectoscope (14F). The grade of urethral stricture was evaluated in 18 rabbits using videourethroscopy and urethrography at day 28 after stricture induction. An innovative catheter was developed based on a ?-irradiation emitting foil containing 32P, which was wrapped around the application system. Two main groups (each n=18) were separated. The "internal urethrotomy group" received after 28days of stricture induction immediately after surgical urethrotomy of the stricture the radioactive catheter for one week in a randomized, controlled and blinded manner. There were 3 subgroups with 6 animals each receiving 0 Gy, 15 Gy and 30 Gy. In contrast animals from the "De Nuovo group" received directly after the stricture induction (day 0) the radioactive catheter also for the duration of one week divided into the same dose subgroups. In order to determine the radiation tolerance of the urethral mucosa, additional animals without any stricture induction received a radioactive catheter applying a total dose of 30 Gy (n=2) and 15 Gy (n=1). Cystourethrography and endoscopic examination of urethra were performed on all operation days for monitoring treatment progress. Based on these investigation a classification of the stricture size was performed and documented for correlation. At further 28 days after catheter removal the animals were euthanasized and the urethra tissue was harvested. Histological examination of tissue with assessment of radiation damage, fibrotic and inflammatory changes were performed. After deblinding histological finding were correlated with the applied dose. Results: All animals developed a stricture, while 15/18 (83,3%) showed a significant, high grade stricture with more than 90% lumen narrowing. Histopathological examination including evaluation of urethral inflammation, fibrosis and collagen content were investigated in additional 6 rabbits confirming the former findings. No rabbits died prematurely during the study. The experiments showed that the procedure of the application of radioactive catheter was safe without any problems in contamination and protection handling. The combination of internal urethrotomy and LDR-brachytherapy results in a stricture free rate of 66.7% in the 15-Gy group, compared with only 33.3% among animals from the 0- and 30-Gy groups. Furthermore histological classification of inflammation and fibrosis of 0 Gy and 15 Gy showed similar extent. Conclusion: This new method of laser induced urethral stricture was very efficient and showed a high reproducibility, thus being useful for studying stenosis treatments. The experiments showed that application of local ?-irradiation by means of radioactive catheters modulated the stenosis development. This kind of LDR-brachytherapy shows potential for prophylaxis of urethral stricture. As this was an animal pilot experiment a clinical dose response study is needed.

  4. Posterior ankle impingement in athletes: Pathogenesis, imaging features and differential diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Daichi; Roemer, Frank W; D'Hooghe, Pieter; Guermazi, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Posterior ankle impingement is a clinical diagnosis which can be seen following a traumatic hyper-plantar flexion event and may lead to painful symptoms in athletes such as female dancers ('en pointe'), football players, javelin throwers and gymnasts. Symptoms of posterior ankle impingement are due to failure to accommodate the reduced interval between the posterosuperior aspect of the talus and tibial plafond during plantar flexion, and can be due to osseous or soft tissue lesions. There are multiple causes of posterior ankle impingement. Most commonly, the structural correlates of impingement relate to post-traumatic synovitis and intra-articular fibrous bands-scar tissue, capsular scarring, or bony prominences. The aims of this pictorial review article is to describe different types of posterior ankle impingement due to traumatic and non-traumatic osseous and soft tissue pathology in athletes, to describe diagnostic imaging strategies of these pathologies, and illustrate their imaging features, including relevant differential diagnoses. PMID:26239710

  5. Female Urethral Diverticulum: Current Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Crescenze, Iryna M; Goldman, Howard B

    2015-10-01

    While urethral diverticulum (UD) affects less than 20 per 1,000,000 women overall, it is thought to represent 1.4% of women with incontinence presenting to urology practices. It is hypothesized to evolve from periurethral glands that become obstructed, infected, and dilated over time, and patients typically present with dyspareunia, bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and/or recurrent UTIs. In many patients, a periurethral mass can be appreciated on exam. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the imaging test of choice for diagnosis of UD, but ultrasound (US) is a readily available alternative and provides good specificity at a lower cost. Surgical excision of the diverticulum with tension-free, water-tight, three-layer closure continues to be the mainstay of treatment of UD with most studies reporting cure rates of >90%. Concomitant treatment of preexisting stress incontinence with autologous fascial pubovaginal sling can be used at the time of diverticulectomy to avoid a secondary procedure. However, since secondary anti-incontinence procedures are needed in only a small number of patients, up-front stress incontinence treatment may result in significant overtreatment, and staged anti-incontinence procedures continue to be a reasonable option for patients with persistent bothersome stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after diverticulectomy. PMID:26267225

  6. Necrotizing Urethritis due to Aerococcus urinae

    PubMed Central

    Babaeer, Abdulrahman A.; Nader, Claudia; Iacoviello, Vito; Tomera, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    A 49-year-old male presented to the emergency with hematuria and pain in the shaft of the penis for one day. The patient was found to be in a state of shock. The shaft of the penis and the scrotum were swollen and tender. No skin necrosis was observed and no crepitus was palpable. Serum white count (WBC) was 29.5 × 103/?L. A CT scan showed gas in the corpus spongiosum. Antibiotics were started with IV metronidazole, vancomycin, and piperacillin/tazobactam. Metronidazole was then replaced by clindamycin. Exploration was performed but no necrotic tissue was identified. Cystourethroscopy revealed dusky looking urethra. A suprapubic tube and a urethral catheter were placed in the bladder. WBC trended down to 13.9 × 103/?L on the fourth postoperative day. Urine culture grew Aerococcus urinae and blood cultures grew Alpha Hemolytic Streptococcus. On the sixth day, the patient was feeling worse and WBC increased. MRI revealed absent blood flow to the corpus spongiosum. Urethroscopy revealed necrosis of the urethra. Urethrectomy was performed via perineal approach. The patient immediately improved. The patient was discharged on the sixth postoperative day to continue ampicillin/sulbactam IV every 6 hours for a total of 4 weeks from the day of urethrectomy. PMID:26171271

  7. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Center PTACs Workspaces Log-in Search for: Traumatic Brain Injury A legacy resource from NICHCY Disability Fact ... in her. Back to top What is Traumatic Brain Injury? A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an ...

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Traumatic Brain Injury Information Page Clinical Trials Phase 2 Pediatric ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Traumatic Brain Injury? Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a form of ...

  9. Staphylococcus saprophyticus in the aetiology of nongonococcal urethritis.

    PubMed Central

    Hovelius, B; Thelin, I; Mårdh, P A

    1979-01-01

    The occurrence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urethral specimens of 252 men attending a venereal disease clinic was studied. When using a selective broth medium containing novobiocin and nalidixic acid, Staph. saprophyticus was isolated from 20.8% of 178 men with symptoms of urethritis and from 14.9% of 74 men without such symptoms. Staph. saprophyticus was found significantly less often in controls (7.1% of 56) than in the men with symptoms of urethritis. In the 35 men from whom Staph. saprophyticus was recovered more than 10 leucocytes per high power field in urethral smears occurred more often than in those from whom this organism, or either of the other two agents, were not isolated. No differences were found in the symptoms reported by the men harbouring Staph. saprophyticus or C. trachomatis or those with negative cultures. The results of the present study tend to suggest that Staph. saprophyticus is the aetiological agent of some cases of nongonococcal urethritis. PMID:116708

  10. [Mesonephric adenocarcinoma arising in the female urethral diverticulum].

    PubMed

    Okubo, Y; Fukui, I; Sakano, Y; Yoshimura, K; Maeda, H; Yonese, J; Yamauchi, T; Kawai, T

    1996-09-01

    A forty four-year-old house-wife presented with gross hematuria and difficulty on urination of a year and 3 months duration. Transvaginal examination showed a hen egg-sized soft mass on the anterior vaginal wall. Urine cytology revealed many clusters of malignant cells suggestive of adenocarcinoma. Cystourethrography revealed two urethral diverticula, whose orifices were cystoscopically located at the proximal and distal side of urethral sphincter, respectively. By vaginal digital pressing, a soy-bean sized papillary tumor came out of the proximal diverticulum. Histopathological examination of the biopsied tumor suggested poorly differentiated transitional cell carcinoma with inverted growth. Under the diagnosis of carcinoma arising in the urethral diverticulum, anterior pelvic exenteration with formation of Indiana pouch was carried out. The tumor in the proximal diverticulum was histologically composed of a variety of adenocarcinomatous pattern, such as tubular, papillary and cystic structure with a distinctive pattern of tubules lined by a superficial layer of hobnail cells, leading to the diagnosis of mesonephric adenocarcinoma of urethral diverticulum. Postoperative radiation therapy was given because the diverticulum was adherent to the pubic bone, though lymph node metastasis was negative. She has been well with no evidence of the disease for 1 year and 4 months after the operation. Although the histogenesis of female urethral mesonephric adenocarcinoma was still controversial, this case seems to be the forty fourth case in the world literature. PMID:8914398

  11. Management of bulbar urethral strictures: review of current practice.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Ammar; Mohammed, Aza; Nasir, Sharjeel; Plamer, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Male urethral stricture disease is one of the common conditions encountered in the day-to-day urological practice. It can present at any age and has a wide range of etiological factors including infection, trauma and instrumentation. It usually manifests itself as lower urinary tract symptoms or urinary tract infections with significant impairment in the quality of life. There are several treatment options for this condition and these mainly depend on the site, length, the underlying cause and previous treatment. The management of bulbar urethral strictures has greatly evolved over the last few decades with more patients being offered reconstructive surgical operations as a primary treatment option. This article provides an overview on the management of bulbar urethral strictures and the wide range of surgical procedures offered to the patients. PMID:21703039

  12. Medication Effects on Periurethral Sensation and Urethral Sphincter Activity

    PubMed Central

    Greer, W. Jerod; Gleason, Jonathan L.; Kenton, Kimberly; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Goode, Patricia S; Richter, Holly E

    2014-01-01

    Aim To characterize urethral neuromuscular function before and 2 weeks after medication therapy. Methods Premenopausal women without lower urinary tract symptoms were randomly allocated to one of six medications for 2 weeks (pseudoephedrine ER 120mg, imipramine 25mg, cyclobenzaprine 10mg, tamsulosin 0.4mg, solifenacin 5mg or placebo). At baseline and after medication, participants underwent testing: quantitative concentric needle EMG (CNE) of the urethral sphincter using automated Multi-Motor Unit Action Potential (MUP) software; current perception threshold (CPT) testing to measure periurethral sensation; and standard urodynamic pressure flow studies (PFS). Nonparametric tests were used to compare pre-post differences. Results 56 women had baseline testing; 48 (85.7%) completed follow-up CNE, and 49 (87.5%) completed follow-up CPT and PFS testing. Demographics showed no significant differences among medication groups with respect to age (mean 34.3 ± 10.1), BMI (mean 31.8 ± 7.5), parity (median 1, range 0–7), or race (14% Caucasian, 80% African American). PFS parameters were not significantly different within medication groups. No significant pre-post changes in CNE values were noted; however, trends in amplitudes were in a direction consistent with the expected physiologic effect of the medications. With CPT testing, a trend toward increased urethral sensation at the 5 Hz stimulation level, was observed following treatment with pseudoephedrine (0.15 to 0.09 mA at 5Hz; P=0.03). Conclusion In women without LUTS, pseudoephedrine improved urethral sensation, but not urethral neuromuscular function on CNE or pressure flow studies. Imipramine, cyclobenzaprine, tamsulosin, solifenacin, and placebo did not change urethral sensation or neuromuscular function. PMID:25185603

  13. Development of an artificial urethral valve using SMA actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonan, S.; Jiang, Z. W.; Tani, J.; Orikasa, S.; Tanahashi, Y.; Takagi, T.; Tanaka, M.; Tanikawa, J.

    1997-08-01

    The development of an artificial urethral valve for the treatment of urinary incontinence which occurs frequently in the aged is described. The prototype urethral valve is assembled in hand-drum form with four thin shape memory alloy (SMA) (nickel - titanium alloy) plates of 0.3 mm thickness. The shape memory effect in two directions is used to replace the urinary canal sphincter muscles and to control the canal opening and closing functions. The characteristic of the SMA is to assume the shape of a circular arc at normal temperatures and a flat shape at higher temperatures. Experiments have been conducted using a canine bladder and urinary canal.

  14. Delayed urethral obstruction after uterine torsion in a pregnant dog.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Debbie; Campbell, Bonnie G

    2011-01-01

    A 4 yr old pregnant female shih tzu was presented with abdominal discomfort and bloody vulvar discharge. The nongravid uterine horn was reflected caudally over the trigone, obstructing urine outflow. A cesarian section and ovariohysterectomy were performed. Postoperatively, the hematuria and pollakiuria resolved. Seventeen days later, the pelvic urethra was completely obstructed by a soft tissue mass that was identified by rectal palpation, blocked catheterization attempts, contrast radiography, ultrasonography, and surgery. Management included temporary cystostomy tube and definitive prepubic urethrostomy. Histologic diagnosis was severe, multifocal, necrosuppurative urethritis with fibroplasia, fibrosis, and cellulitis, apparently secondary to ischemia. Delayed urethral obstruction is a potential complication of canine uterine torsion. PMID:21896835

  15. [Serious pelvic traumatisms in children].

    PubMed

    Allouis, M; Bracq, H; Catier, P; Babut, J M

    1981-01-01

    The rareness of pelvic fractures in children is due to the resilience of bony tissue and to the thickness of the periosteum at this age. Therefore, such fractures are most often seen after violent traumatisms, which explains their frequent association with visceral lesions that determine the gravity and dominate the prognosis. The authors have presented 9 observations of fractures of the pelvis, with or without pelvis dislocation, which were the most often associated with urological lesions either acute (urethral rupture, bladder rupture) neither chronic (hydronephrosis) but sometimes with vasculo-nervous, gynecological or others lesions. The different therapeutic techniques and their indications in the treatment of such fractures are similar to those used in the adult. Excepting those cases of polytraumatisms, where mortality remains elevated, the treatment of such fractures is most often satisfactory in the short term, but requires a thorough and prolonged monitoring in children presenting associated urological and gynecological lesions in order to evaluate with precision the long term prognosis. PMID:7226352

  16. Traumatic amputations

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Arul

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic amputations remain one of the most emotionally disturbing wounds of conflict, as demonstrated by their frequent use in films to illustrate the horrors of war. Unfortunately, they remain common injuries, particularly following explosions, and, in addition, many survivors require primary amputation for unsalvageable injuries or to save their life. A third group, late amputations, is being increasingly recognised, often as a result of the sequelae of complex foot injuries. This article will look at the epidemiology of these injuries and their acute management, complications and outcome. PMID:26516502

  17. [A bilateral posterior shoulder dislocation caused by humeral head osteonecrosis].

    PubMed

    Barbier, O; Van Gaver, E; Rigal, S

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of simultaneous bilateral posterior shoulders dislocations in a 46-year-old male with antecedent of high-dose corticotherapy. The mechanism was non-traumatic after a contraction of the sub scapularis muscle in internal rotation. The interscapular pain was not initially diagnosed although a tomodensitometry was realized to eliminate a cardiovascular emergency. After reduction, the shoulders were unstable and the MRI showed an osteonecrosis of the humeral heads. The patient underwent surgery with an iliac spongy bone graft in the humeral nick. At 3 months, there was no recurrence and mobilities were good. Bilateral posterior shoulders dislocations are unusual and it is the first case of non-traumatic dislocation. Aetiology are often epilepsy, electrocution, and extreme traumatism. Diagnosis is often misrecognized and the treatment is not well codified. PMID:20093062

  18. A Method for Recording Urethral Pressure Profiles in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengfei; Li, Xiaohui; Xu, Lei; Chen, Biao; Tan, Huibing; Du, Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    Aims Urethral pressure profile (UPP) and leak-point pressure (LPP) measurements as well as external urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyography (EMG) and videourodynamic analyses are the primary methods for evaluating urethral function in humans. However, UPP recording in female rats, a widely used animal model, is challenging due to their small body sizes. This study reports a novel method for recording UPP in female rats. Materials and Methods Seventeen anesthetized female rats were studied. LPP data for 14 rats were included. The other 3 rats were excluded because of death or abnormal urogenital organs. UPP curves were recorded using a modified water-perfusion catheter system, with the lateral hole facing the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-o’clock positions in a randomized sequence. LPP, functional urethral length (FUL) and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) were analyzed. Results The mean LPP was 64.39 ± 20.29 cm H2O. The mean FUL and MUCP values at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-o’clock positions were 12.90 ± 1.20, 16.70 ± 1.95, 13.90 ± 2.42, and 11.60 ± 0.97 mm, respectively, and 38.70 ± 11.85, 33.90 ± 11.82, 37.40 ± 11.95, and 71.90 ± 23.01 cm H2O, respectively. The FUL at the 6-o’clock position and MUCP at the 12-o’clock position were significantly greater than those at the other 3 positions. The FUL and MUCP of repeated UPP recordings were not significantly different than those of the first recordings. Conclusions UPP recording using a modified method based on a water-perfusion catheter system is feasible and replicable in female rats. It produces UPP curves that sensitively and appreciably reflect detailed pressure changes at different points within the urethra and thus provides opportunity to evaluate urethral structures, especially the urethral sphincter, in detail. These results may enhance the utility of female rat models in research of urinary sphincter mechanisms. PMID:26502072

  19. Cerulean posterior capsule opacity.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Miran; Oetting, Thomas A

    2007-09-01

    We present a case of light-blue posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in a patient who had cerulean cataracts removed 1 year earlier. The color of the PCO was similar to that of the cerulean cataracts prior to extraction. Posterior capsule opacification is a common complication after cataract surgery; however, we could not find a similar case of cerulean posterior capsule opacity in the literature. The findings in this case suggest that the mechanism of the light-blue color formation in the cataract was also present in the lens epithelial cells forming the posterior capsule opacity. PMID:17720089

  20. Posterior pharyngeal wall augmentation.

    PubMed

    Perez, Colleen F; Brigger, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    Posterior pharyngeal wall augmentation is a useful technique in selected patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency who have a small central velopharyngeal gap. Options for augmenting this region include using posterior pharyngeal wall flaps to create bulk and implanting various materials to fill in the central deficiency. Autologous and nonautologous implant materials are available and may be implanted through an incision or directly injected into the posterior pharyngeal wall. Previously described materials for implantation include cartilage, fat, fascia, silicone, acellular dermis, polytetrafluoroethylene, and calcium hydroxyapatite. Patient evaluation and surgical techniques for posterior pharyngeal wall augmentation are described. PMID:25733235

  1. Understanding Child Traumatic Stress

    MedlinePLUS

    Understanding Child Traumatic Stress Page Contents: Responding to Danger When Danger Turns Into Trauma What a Traumatic Situation is Like for a Young ... malevolence, and human accountability. Back to Top Posttraumatic Stress Responses For reasons that are basic to survival, ...

  2. Sonourethrography in anterior urethral stricture: comparison to radiographic urethrography.

    PubMed

    Arda, K; Basar, M; Deniz, E; Yildiz, S; Akpìnar, L; Olçer, T

    1995-09-01

    Twenty-three male patients with known or suspected urethral stricture disease were evaluated using sonourethrography and standard retrograde x-ray urethrography for comparative analysis of two techniques. Results were evaluated statistically. These two methods can substitute each other in determining the stricture area length of anterior urethra. Due to advantages, if both of these methods are used combining each other, we believe that they will be much more sensitive. PMID:7581525

  3. Cholinergic urethral brush cells are widespread throughout placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Deckmann, Klaus; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Rafiq, Amir; Herden, Christine; Wichmann, Judy; Knauf, Sascha; Nassenstein, Christina; Grevelding, Christoph G; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Bschleipfer, Thomas; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    We previously identified a population of cholinergic epithelial cells in murine, human and rat urethrae that exhibits a structural marker of brush cells (villin) and expresses components of the canonical taste transduction signaling cascade (?-gustducin, phospholipase C?2 (PLC?2), transient receptor potential cation channel melanostatin 5 (TRPM5)). These cells serve as sentinels, monitoring the chemical composition of the luminal content for potentially hazardous compounds such as bacteria, and initiate protective reflexes counteracting further ingression. In order to elucidate cross-species conservation of the urethral chemosensory pathway we investigated the occurrence and molecular make-up of urethral brush cells in placental mammals. We screened 11 additional species, at least one in each of the five mammalian taxonomic units primates, carnivora, perissodactyla, artiodactyla and rodentia, for immunohistochemical labeling of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), villin, and taste cascade components (?-gustducin, PLC?2, TRPM5). Corresponding to findings in previously investigated species, urethral epithelial cells with brush cell shape were immunolabeled in all 11 mammals. In 8 species, immunoreactivities against all marker proteins and ChAT were observed, and double-labeling immunofluorescence confirmed the cholinergic nature of villin-positive and chemosensory (TRPM5-positive) cells. In cat and horse, these cells were not labeled by the ChAT antiserum used in this study, and unspecific reactions of the secondary antiserum precluded conclusions about ChAT-expression in the bovine epithelium. These data indicate that urethral brush cells are widespread throughout the mammalian kingdom and evolved not later than about 64.5millionyears ago. PMID:26044348

  4. Posterior shoulder approach.

    PubMed

    Norwood, L A; Matiko, J A; Terry, G C

    1985-12-01

    A posterior shoulder surgical approach combines the subperiosteal detachment of the deltoid from the scapular spine, described by McWhorter, with a lateral extension to include the lateral deltoid splitting of Codman. The glenohumeral joint is superiorly approached between the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons, or inferiorly between the infraspinatus and teres minor tendons. This approach was used in 42 shoulders with rotator cuff tears or posterior instability without complications of infection, failure of deltoid healing, or compromise of suprascapular or axillary nerves. This combined surgical approach provides excellent exposure of the superior and posterior shoulder, which is difficult to obtain by anterior or superior approaches. This approach may be used for repair of rotator cuff tears, posterior instability, and displaced posterior glenoid fractures. PMID:4064401

  5. Posterior polar cataracts: a predisposition to intraoperative posterior capsular rupture.

    PubMed

    Osher, R H; Yu, B C; Koch, D D

    1990-03-01

    We performed phacoemulsification or planned extracapsular cataract extraction on posterior polar cataracts in 31 eyes of 22 patients and experienced eight cases of posterior capsular rupture (26%). Capsular rupture occurred during removal of the posterior polar opacity or during cleaning of the posterior capsule after the opacity had been removed. We believe that excessive adherence of the opacity to the posterior capsule and unusual thinness of the capsule predisposed these eyes to posterior capsular rupture. PMID:2329471

  6. Diabetes Insipidus after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Capatina, Cristina; Paluzzi, Alessandro; Mitchell, Rosalid; Karavitaki, Niki

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many age groups. Neuroendocrine dysfunction has been recognized as a consequence of TBI and consists of both anterior and posterior pituitary insufficiency; water and electrolyte abnormalities (diabetes insipidus (DI) and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)) are amongst the most challenging sequelae. The acute head trauma can lead (directly or indirectly) to dysfunction of the hypothalamic neurons secreting antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or of the posterior pituitary gland causing post-traumatic DI (PTDI). PTDI is usually diagnosed in the first days after the trauma presenting with hypotonic polyuria. Frequently, the poor general status of most patients prevents adequate fluid intake to compensate the losses and severe dehydration and hypernatremia occur. Management consists of careful monitoring of fluid balance and hormonal replacement. PTDI is associated with high mortality, particularly when presenting very early following the injury. In many surviving patients, the PTDI is transient, lasting a few days to a few weeks and in a minority of cases, it is permanent requiring management similar to that offered to patients with non-traumatic central DI. PMID:26239685

  7. Diabetes Insipidus after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Capatina, Cristina; Paluzzi, Alessandro; Mitchell, Rosalid; Karavitaki, Niki

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many age groups. Neuroendocrine dysfunction has been recognized as a consequence of TBI and consists of both anterior and posterior pituitary insufficiency; water and electrolyte abnormalities (diabetes insipidus (DI) and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)) are amongst the most challenging sequelae. The acute head trauma can lead (directly or indirectly) to dysfunction of the hypothalamic neurons secreting antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or of the posterior pituitary gland causing post-traumatic DI (PTDI). PTDI is usually diagnosed in the first days after the trauma presenting with hypotonic polyuria. Frequently, the poor general status of most patients prevents adequate fluid intake to compensate the losses and severe dehydration and hypernatremia occur. Management consists of careful monitoring of fluid balance and hormonal replacement. PTDI is associated with high mortality, particularly when presenting very early following the injury. In many surviving patients, the PTDI is transient, lasting a few days to a few weeks and in a minority of cases, it is permanent requiring management similar to that offered to patients with non-traumatic central DI. PMID:26239685

  8. Glandular diphallus with urethral duplication: Conventional technique for a rare congenital anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Aihole, Jayalaxmi S.; Babu, Narendra; Shankar, Gauri

    2015-01-01

    Diphallus is a rare anomaly and its association with urethral duplication is extremely rare. Numerous associated genitourinary and gastrointestinal anomalies have been reported with this condition. Challenges in the management are incorporation of the glans and the dominant urethra during reconstruction. We report the successful management of a case of glandular diphallus with complete urethral duplication retaining the dorsal urethra.

  9. Etiology of urethral discharge in West Africa: the role of Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed Central

    Pépin, J.; Sobéla, F.; Deslandes, S.; Alary, M.; Wegner, K.; Khonde, N.; Kintin, F.; Kamuragiye, A.; Sylla, M.; Zerbo, P. J.; Baganizi, E.; Koné, A.; Kane, F.; Mâsse, B.; Viens, P.; Frost, E.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the etiological role of pathogens other than Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral discharge in West African men. METHODS: Urethral swabs were obtained from 659 male patients presenting with urethral discharge in 72 primary health care facilities in seven West African countries, and in 339 controls presenting for complaints unrelated to the genitourinary tract. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to detect the presence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. FINDINGS: N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis, and M. genitalium--but not U. urealyticum--were found more frequently in men with urethral discharge than in asymptomatic controls, being present in 61.9%, 13.8%, 13.4% and 10.0%, respectively, of cases of urethral discharge. Multiple infections were common. Among patients with gonococcal infection, T. vaginalis was as frequent a coinfection as C. trachomatis. M. genitalium, T. vaginalis, and C. trachomatis caused a similar clinical syndrome to that associated with gonococcal infection, but with a less severe urethral discharge. CONCLUSIONS: M. genitalium and T. vaginalis are important etiological agents of urethral discharge in West Africa. The frequent occurrence of multiple infections with any combination of four pathogens strongly supports the syndromic approach. The optimal use of metronidazole in flowcharts for the syndromic management of urethral discharge needs to be explored in therapeutic trials. PMID:11242818

  10. Comparative effects of xylazine and propofol on the urethral pressure profile of healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Combrisson, H; Robain, G; Cotard, J P

    1993-12-01

    The effects of 2 drugs, xylazine and propofol, on the urethral pressure profile were compared. Seven female dogs were sedated by administration of one drug, then the other, and urethral variables were measured. In the dogs sedated with propofol, the mean +/- SD, maximal urethral closure pressure (51 +/- 7.4 cm of H2O) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the value when dogs were sedated with xylazine (23.3 +/- 7.6 cm of H2O). Results were compared with those obtained by various authors, in particular for nonsedated dogs. It is concluded that propofol is a good drug for investigation of the urethral pressure profile, whatever its effect on maximal urethral closure pressure. PMID:8116926

  11. Anteromedian external urethral sphincterotomy: technique, rationale and complications.

    PubMed

    Yalla, S V; Fam, B A; Gabilondo, F B; Jacobs, S; Di Benedetto, M; Rossier, A B; Gittes, R F

    1977-04-01

    Experiences are presented with bilateral (3 and 9 o'clock incisions) and anteromedian (12 o'clock incision) external urethral sphincterotomy in 84 patients with neuropathic vesicourethral dysfunctions. Hemorrhage and loss of reflexogenic erections have been notably absent in 31 patients who underwent anteromedian sphincterotomy. The rationale is discussed for the preference of anteromedian over bilateral sphincterotomy based on postoperative complications. The postoperative, radiologically aided cystosphincterometric and electromyographic studies during micturition indicated the adequacy of the surgical procedures, satisfying the urodynamic criteria, although dyssynergic myolectric activity of the periurethral striated muscle continued to exist. PMID:850324

  12. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t Hurt Yourself For More Information Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Easy-to-Read) Order a free hardcopy ... post-traumatic stress disorder. What is post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD? PTSD is a real illness. ...

  13. Clinical Experience with Urethral Reconstruction Using Tissue-engineered Oral Mucosa: A Quiet Revolution.

    PubMed

    Barbagli, Guido; Lazzeri, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    Finalising the use of tissue-engineered materials for urethral reconstruction still represents a difficult challenge. We must not deceive patients into thinking that this "quiet revolution" in urethral reconstruction will be available soon for all urethral conditions (congenital or acquired, simple vs complex) requiring surgery. This research and its clinical application require a prospective, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, and placebo-controlled/comparative phase 3 study for a large series of patients, and we are still far from this step. PMID:26056069

  14. [A case of female urethral diverticulum calculus associated with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Oida, T; Araki, I

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of urethral diverticulum with a calculus in a 52-year-old female. She had suffered from transverse myelopathy (flaccid paralysis) as a result of multiple sclerosis. She presented with total incontinence and urinary tract infection that did not respond to antibiotic therapy. We found a urethral diverticulum calculus by X-ray imaging and urethroscopy. Transvaginal urethral diverticulectomy with removal of stone was carried out without any complications. The removed stone was 35 x 31 x 19 mm in size and was composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and calcium phosphate. PMID:11235224

  15. Laser deposition of TiO2 for urethral catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Remsa, Jan; Zezulová, Markéta

    2010-10-01

    Catheters and medicals tubes are widely used to introduce pharmaceuticals and nutrients into arteries and veins, and to drain fluids or urine from urethra or the digestive organs. It is well known that illuminated TiO2 photocatalysts can decompose most noxious or toxic organic compounds. We studied the properties of titanium dioxide layers created by pulsed laser deposition from pure titanium and titanium dioxide targets with the goal to develop urethral catheter using TiO2 coated plastic tube. To reach crystalline structure at low substrate temperatures the radio-frequency discharge between the target and the substrate was implemented. The crystalline structure of layers was determined by X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Morphology was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Using RF discharge, mixture of anatase and rutile was found at substrate temperature of 90°C (which was reached only by RF discharge).

  16. A man with urethral polyembolokoilamania successfully treated with electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Ingves, Matthew V; Lau, Timothy; Fedoroff, J Paul; Levine, Sharon

    2014-08-01

    Polyembolokoilamania is the act of inserting foreign objects into bodily orifices and can be classified as a paraphilia if done for sexual pleasure. Although problematic sexual behaviors are common in dementia, the majority of case reports of urethral polyembolokoilamania in the elderly have occurred in the absence of dementia or cognitive impairment. Little empirical evidence exists for managing problematic sexual behaviors in the elderly and in dementia. Most evidence in the form of case reports demonstrates that behavioral, environmental, and pharmacological interventions can be effective. In this case report, we describe the management of sexually disinhibited behavior in the form of polyembolokoilamania in a 67-year-old man suffering from treatment-resistant depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and early signs of frontotemporal dementia. The successful treatment included a course of electroconvulsive therapy. PMID:24569921

  17. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury

    MedlinePLUS

    Cruciate ligament injury - posterior; PCL injury; Knee injury - posterior cruciate ligament (PCL); Hyperextended knee ... signs of PCL injury. This includes moving the knee joint in various ways. Your doctor may also ...

  18. Primary Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of a Urethral Diverticulum Treated with Multidisciplinary Robotic Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Primary urethral carcinoma is extremely rare and is marked by a variety of clinical symptoms. Primary carcinoma of a urethral diverticulum is still rarer and clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra is particularly uncommon (Swartz et al., 2006). Such infrequency has led to inadequate management guidance in the literature for a disease that is often late in presentation and carries substantial morbidity and mortality. This treatable but grave disease deserves definitive curative treatment. We present the first published instance in which it was treated with robotic anterior exenteration. In our case, a 47-year-old female was referred to the urology service for investigation of recurring urinary tract infections. During the workup, the patient was found to have an advanced clear cell urethral adenocarcinoma originating in a urethral diverticulum. We discuss the natural history of this condition, its consequences, and the first instance of its treatment using robotic anterior pelvic exenteration. PMID:24454400

  19. Juvenile allergic urethritis with urethro-ejaculatory reflux presenting as acute intermittent bilateral testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ramnik V; Brimioulle, Marina; Govani, Dhaval; Youssef, Talaat

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of juvenile allergic urethritis secondary to double concentrate orange squash of a famous brand in a 3-year-old boy who developed bilateral urethro-ejaculatory reflux (UER) and severe urethral, perineal and scrotal pain referred to both lower limbs intermittently predominantly during and after micturition-simulating features of bilateral intermittent testicular torsion. Accurate history, urinalysis, ultrasound, colour Doppler and food challenge were helpful in diagnosis. Topical steroids, antihistaminic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory medications together with withdrawal of the allergen produced complete recovery. Allergic urethritis in association with bilateral UER causing secondary seminal vesiculitis and epididymitis is rare. It presented as acute scrotum and responded to innovative treatment. Allergic disease can have a dramatic effect on a child's quality of life. This is the first documented case of allergic urethritis and associated UER presenting as juvenile acute scrotum. Steroids, antihistamines and anti-inflammatory agents together with avoidance of the allergen helped achieve recovery. PMID:26150614

  20. White matter integrity in highly traumatized adults with and without post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Fani, Negar; King, Tricia Z; Jovanovic, Tanja; Glover, Ebony M; Bradley, Bekh; Choi, Kisueng; Ely, Timothy; Gutman, David A; Ressler, Kerry J

    2012-11-01

    Prior structural imaging studies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have observed smaller volumes of the hippocampus and cingulate cortex, yet little is known about the integrity of white matter connections between these structures in PTSD samples. The few published studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure white matter integrity in PTSD have described individuals with focal trauma rather than chronically stressed individuals, which limits generalization of findings to this population; in addition, these studies have lacked traumatized comparison groups without PTSD. The present DTI study examined microstructural integrity of white matter tracts in a sample of highly traumatized African-American women with (n=25) and without (n=26) PTSD using a tract-based spatial statistical approach, with threshold-free cluster enhancement. Our findings indicated that, relative to comparably traumatized controls, decreased integrity (measured by fractional anisotropy) of the posterior cingulum was observed in participants with PTSD (p<0.05). These findings indicate that reduced microarchitectural integrity of the cingulum, a white matter fiber that connects the entorhinal and cingulate cortices, appears to be associated with PTSD symptomatology. The role of this pathway in problems that characterize PTSD, such as inadequate extinction of learned fear, as well as attention and explicit memory functions, are discussed. PMID:22871912

  1. A simple method to take urethral sutures for neobladder reconstruction and radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Satheesan, B.; Kathiresan, N.

    2007-01-01

    For the reconstruction of urethra-vesical anastamosis after radical prostatectomy and for neobladder reconstruction, taking adequate sutures to include the urethral mucosa is vital. Due to the retraction of the urethra and unfriendly pelvis, the process of taking satisfactory urethral sutures may be laborious. Here, we describe a simple method by which we could overcome similar technical problems during surgery using Foley catheter as the guide for the suture. PMID:19718310

  2. Palliative Surgery for Rare Cases of Anterior Urethral Metastasis in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Gómez, Enrique; Carrasco Aznar, Jose Carlos; Moreno Rodríguez, Maria del Mar; Valero Rosa, José; Requena Tapia, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Penis metastasis from prostate cancer is very rare, and its management varies from case to case as there are very few cases reported in the literature. We describe a patient with prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy who presented with urethral bleeding as a symptom of anterior urethral metastasis during followup. We propose a way to manage this and review the literature. PMID:25161796

  3. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... external force that affects the functioning of the brain. It can be caused by a bump or ...

  5. Traumatic events and children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stabbing of a person Sudden death of a parent or trusted caregiver Hospitalization Examples of traumatic events that your child experiences over and over are: Physical or emotional abuse Sexual abuse Gang violence War Terrorist events

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... time it doesn't involve a loss of consciousness. A person who has a concussion may feel ... a mild traumatic brain injury include: Loss of consciousness Headache Confusion Feeling dizzy or lightheaded Blurry vision ...

  7. Tissue Engineering for Human Urethral Reconstruction: Systematic Review of Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    de Kemp, Vincent; de Graaf, Petra; Fledderus, Joost O.; Ruud Bosch, J. L. H.; de Kort, Laetitia M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Techniques to treat urethral stricture and hypospadias are restricted, as substitution of the unhealthy urethra with tissue from other origins (skin, bladder or buccal mucosa) has some limitations. Therefore, alternative sources of tissue for use in urethral reconstructions are considered, such as ex vivo engineered constructs. Purpose To review recent literature on tissue engineering for human urethral reconstruction. Methods A search was made in the PubMed and Embase databases restricted to the last 25 years and the English language. Results A total of 45 articles were selected describing the use of tissue engineering in urethral reconstruction. The results are discussed in four groups: autologous cell cultures, matrices/scaffolds, cell-seeded scaffolds, and clinical results of urethral reconstructions using these materials. Different progenitor cells were used, isolated from either urine or adipose tissue, but slightly better results were obtained with in vitro expansion of urothelial cells from bladder washings, tissue biopsies from the bladder (urothelium) or the oral cavity (buccal mucosa). Compared with a synthetic scaffold, a biological scaffold has the advantage of bioactive extracellular matrix proteins on its surface. When applied clinically, a non-seeded matrix only seems suited for use as an onlay graft. When a tubularized substitution is the aim, a cell-seeded construct seems more beneficial. Conclusions Considerable experience is available with tissue engineering of urethral tissue in vitro, produced with cells of different origin. Clinical and in vivo experiments show promising results. PMID:25689740

  8. Suprapubic Bladder Aspiration or Urethral Catheterization: Which is More Painful in Uncircumcised Male Newborns?

    PubMed Central

    Badiee, Zohreh; Sadeghnia, Alireza; Zarean, Noushin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim was to compare the intensity of pain caused by suprapubic aspiration (SPA) and urethral catheterization for urine sampling in premature infants. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled design with 80 premature infants in Alzahra University Hospital, Isfahan, Iran was conducted. Premature newborns who needed urine samples for microbiologic analysis were randomly assigned into two groups: SPA group and urethral catheterization group. Newborn faces and upper parts of the body were videotaped during the study and the pain was assessed during urine collection using Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score. Furthermore, crying time compared between groups. Results: The mean crying time was significantly higher in SPA than urethral catheterization group (77 vs. 34.4 s) (P < 0.001). The PIPP score was significantly lower in urethral catheterization group (13.4) than SPA group (11.5) P < 0.001. The success rate of SPA was 53% compared with 71% success rate of urethral catheterization. Conclusions: SPA is more painful than urethral catheterization in premature male infants as assessed by PIPP score and is more likely leads to procedure failure. PMID:25317295

  9. Urethral condylomas in men: experience in 123 patients without previous treatment.

    PubMed

    Vives, Álvaro; Vazquez, Andrés; Rajmil, Oswaldo; Cosentino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) is infection by human papillomavirus. There are more than 100 types of human papillomavirus, and over 30 of them involve the genital area. Urethral involvement is uncommon and usually limited to the distal 3?cm of the meatus. There are various treatments for urethral condylomas; as a rule, they are limited by a difficult approach, by recurrences, and by potential complications, the most significant of which is urethral stenosis. The purpose of the treatments is to remove the warts and induce lesion-free periods. Such treatments do not eliminate the infection nor do they prevent continued transmission of the virus. We retrospectively evaluated 123 patients diagnosed and treated for condylomas in the genital area at our Institution between April 2009 and April 2012. The patients' mean age was 28.7 years (range 19-51). Of the 123 patients included, 48 (39%) had a history of previous STIs, most frequently gonococcal urethritis. Three of them had a urethral malformation in the form of hypospadias, and another three reported a previous urologic manipulation (catheterisation). Meatal/urethral condylomas are rare, cryotherapy is simple, easy to apply, and has a very low risk of complications in patients with externally accessible warts. PMID:25712107

  10. Normal anatomic relationship between urethral sphincter complex and zones of prostrate in young Chinese males on MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangdong; Liu, Tieyan; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Jingyi; Chen, Yuefeng; Sun, Pengyu; Wang, Xuesong; Liu, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this research, the normal anatomic relationship between urethral sphincter complex and zones of prostrate in young Chinese males has been studied. Methods: The sagittal, coronal, and axial T2-weighted non-fat suppressed fast spin-echo images of pelvic cavities of 86 Chinese young males were studied. Result: Urethral sphincter complex threaded through the prostate and divided it into 2 parts: transition zone (TZ), periurethral glands internal to the urethral sphincter and peripheral zone (PZ), central zone (CZ), anterior fibromuscular stroma (AFS) zone external to the urethral sphincter. The length of urethral striated sphincter is 12.26-20.94 mm (mean 16.59 mm) at membranous urethra. Conclusions: In this paper, we summarized the normal anatomic relationship between urethral sphincter complex and zones of prostrate in young Chinese males with no urinary control problems. PMID:26629244

  11. Posterior Tibial Tendon Transfer.

    PubMed

    Shane, Amber M; Reeves, Christopher L; Cameron, Jordan D; Vazales, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    When performed correctly with the right patient population, a tibialis posterior muscle/tendon transfer is an effective procedure. Many different methods have been established for fixating the tendon, each of which has its' own indications. Passing through the interosseous membrane is the preferred and recommended method and should be used unless this is not possible. Good surgical planning based on patient needs and expectations, along with excellent postoperative care including early range of motion and physical therapy minimizes risk of complications and allows for the optimal outcome to be achieved. PMID:26590722

  12. Posterior tibial tendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Manuel; Maceira, Ernesto

    2015-03-01

    The posterior tibial tendon (PTT) helps the triceps surae to work more efficiently during ambulation. Disorders of the PTT include tenosynovitis, acute rupture, degenerative tears, dislocation, instability, enthesopathies, and chronic tendinopathy with dysfunction and flat foot deformity. Open surgery of the PTT has been the conventional approach to deal with these disorders. However, tendoscopy has become a useful technique to diagnose and treat PTT disorders. This article focuses on PTT tendoscopy and tries to provide an understanding of the pathomechanics of the tendon, indications for surgery, surgical technique, advantages, complications, and limitations of this procedure. PMID:25726479

  13. Traumatic Alterations in Consciousness: Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Brian J.; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) refers to the clinical condition of transient alteration of consciousness as a result of traumatic injury to the brain. The priority of emergency care is to identify and facilitate the treatment of rare but potentially life threatening intra-cranial injuries associated with mTBI through the judicious application of appropriate imaging studies and neurosurgical consultation. Although post-mTBI symptoms quickly and completely resolve in the vast majority of cases, a significant number of patients will complain of lasting problems that may cause significant disability. Simple and early interventions such as patient education and appropriate referral can reduce the likelihood of chronic symptoms. Although definitive evidence is lacking, mTBI is likely to be related to significant long-term sequelae such as Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative processes. PMID:20709244

  14. Palladium interstitial implant in combination with external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy for the definitive treatment of a female urethral carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bagshaw, Hilary P.; Williams, Ned L.; Huang, Y. Jessica; Tward, Jonathan D.; Gaffney, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Primary urethral cancer is a rare diagnosis, especially in females. This report presents the utilization of a palladium interstitial implant and a review of the retrospective data published on the management of female urethral cancer. Excellent local control and survival has been obtained with the use of a palladium interstitial implant in combination with external beam radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. This modality represents a novel and effective way to treat primary urethral cancer in females. PMID:26425719

  15. Posterior Cortical Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Lehmann, Manja; Schott, Jonathan M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rossor, Martin N; Fox, Nick C

    2013-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is characterized by a progressive decline in visuospatial, visuoperceptual, literacy and praxic skills. The progressive neurodegeneration affecting parietal, occipital and occipito-temporal cortices which underlies PCA is attributable to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the majority of patients. However, alternative underlying aetiologies including Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and prion disease have also been identified, and not all PCA patients have atrophy on clinical imaging. This heterogeneity has led to diagnostic and terminological inconsistencies, caused difficulty comparing studies from different centres, and limited the generalizability of clinical trials and investigations of factors driving phenotypic variability. Significant challenges remain in identifying the factors associated with both the selective vulnerability of posterior cortical regions and the young age of onset seen in PCA. Greater awareness of the syndrome and agreement over the correspondence between syndrome-and disease-level classifications are required in order to improve diagnostic accuracy, research study design and clinical management. PMID:22265212

  16. Posterior Fossa Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Essam A.; Taibah, Abdel Kader; Achilli, Vittorio; Aristegui, Miguel; Mazzoni, Antonio; Sanna, Mario

    1994-01-01

    Posterior fossa meningioma is the second most common tumor in the cerebellopontine angle. It has a higher rate of postoperative morbidity and mortality compared to acoustic neuroma. Forty posterior fossa meningioma patients managed in our centers were reviewed. Thirty-nine patients were managed surgically with 42 surgical procedures. The approaches used were the translabyrinthine approach in 18 patients (43%), the modified transcochlear in 11 cases (26%), the petro-occipital transsigmoid in 5 cases (12%), the suboccipital in 4 cases (10%), the petro-occipital trassigmoid transcervical in 2 cases (5%), the petro-occipital transsigmoid transtentorial in 1 case (2%), and a subtemporal transtentorial for another case (2%). Facial nerve anatomical integrity was preserved in 87% of procedures but was interrupted in 5 cases, with 4 of the latter subsequently repaired. Total tumor removal was accomplished in 38 cases. A second-stage total tumor removal is planned for the remaining case. There was only one case of perioperative death and no cases of radiological recurrence so far. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4p206-bFigure 5p207-bFigure 5 PMID:17171173

  17. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI) DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Traumatic Brain Injury National Data Center (TBINDC) at Kessler Medical Rehabilitation Research and Education Center is the coordinating center for the research and dissemination efforts of the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) program funded by the National Instit...

  18. Coping with Traumatic Stress Reactions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... here Enter ZIP code here Coping with Traumatic Stress Reactions Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Coping with Traumatic Stress Reactions Available in Spanish: Cómo Afrontar las Reacciones ...

  19. Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    understanding traumatic stress in Children ELLEN L. BASSUK, M.D. KRISTINA KONNATH, LICSW KATHERINE T. VOLK, MA February 2006 We are ... their willingness to share their expertise on traumatic stress and children.We would like to thank the ...

  20. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Research

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention (2 items) Treatments (2 items) Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Research Fact Sheet Order a free hardcopy ... I Get More Information? References Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that some ...

  1. Novel posterior fixation keratoprosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, Emmanuel

    1992-08-01

    The keratoprosthesis is the last solution for corneally blind patients that cannot benefit from corneal transplants. Keratoprostheses that have been designed to be affixed anteriorly usually necessitate multi-step surgical procedures and are continuously subjected to the extrusion forces generated by the positive intraocular pressure; therefore, clinical results in patients prove inconsistent. We proposed a novel keratoprosthesis concept that utilizes posterior corneal fixation which `a priori' minimizes the risk of aqueous leakage and expulsion. This prosthesis is implanted in a single procedure thereby reducing the number of surgical complications normally associated with anterior fixation devices. In addition, its novel design makes this keratoprosthesis implantable in phakic eyes. With an average follow-up of 13 months (range 3 to 25 months), our results on 21 cases are encouraging. Half of the keratoprostheses were implanted in severe burn cases, with the remainder in cases of pseudo- pemphigus. Good visual results and cosmetic appearance were obtained in 14 of 21 eyes.

  2. Premedication with midazolam for urethral catheterization of febrile infants.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Giora; Cohen, Dana; Krauss, Baruch; Galbraith, Roger; Shavit, Itai

    2014-08-01

    Febrile infants undergoing urethral catheterization (UC) are often not treated for pain and distress. The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of midazolam premedication. We compared a convenience sample of infants who underwent UC with midazolam with those who did not receive midazolam. Outcome measures were Visual Analog Scale assessment, duration of cry, and emergency department length of stay. Thirty-two study participants and 18 controls were prospectively enrolled. Midazolam premedication showed a 53% decrease in the mean Visual Analog Scale score when parents assessed distress (33.6 vs. 71.7, P<0.0001) and a 48% decrease when nurses assessed distress (28.7 vs. 55.5, P<0.0002); the median cry duration was significantly shorter (0 vs. 240 s). Serious adverse events were not observed during sedation and at 48 h after discharge. Study participants had longer emergency department length of stay compared with the controls (191.5 vs. 139 min, P<0.017). In this cohort, midazolam significantly reduced the distress associated with UC without causing serious adverse events. PMID:24323046

  3. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our disclaimer about external links Menu Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can ... military combat. For Consumers General Information Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder ( NIMH ) Anxiety Information Stress Information Depression Information ...

  4. Coping with a Traumatic Event

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). What Is PTSD? Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an intense ... www.adaa.org/index.cfm National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (NCPTSD) is part of the Department of Veterans ...

  5. Urethral Pain Among Prostate Cancer Survivors 1 to 14 Years After Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, Niclas; Olsson, Caroline; Tucker, Susan L.; Alsadius, David; Wilderaeng, Ulrica; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Steineck, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how treatment-related and non-treatment-related factors impact urethral pain among long-term prostate cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: Men treated for prostate cancer with radiation therapy at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Goeteborg, Sweden from 1993 to 2006 were approached with a study-specific postal questionnaire addressing symptoms after treatment, including urethral burning pain during urination (n=985). The men had received primary or salvage external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or EBRT in combination with brachytherapy (BT). Prescribed doses were commonly 70 Gy in 2.0-Gy fractions for primary and salvage EBRT and 50 Gy plus 2 Multiplication-Sign 10.0 Gy for EBRT + BT. Prostatic urethral doses were assessed from treatment records. We also recruited 350 non-pelvic-irradiated, population-based controls matched for age and residency to provide symptom background rates. Results: Of the treated men, 16% (137 of 863) reported urethral pain, compared with 11% (27 of 242) of the controls. The median time to follow-up was 5.2 years (range, 1.1-14.3 years). Prostatic urethral doses were similar to prescription doses for EBRT and 100% to 115% for BT. Fractionation-corrected dose and time to follow-up affected the occurrence of the symptom. For a follow-up {>=}3 years, 19% of men (52 of 268) within the 70-Gy EBRT + BT group reported pain, compared with 10% of men (23 of 222) treated with 70 Gy primary EBRT (prevalence ratio 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.2-3.0). Of the men treated with salvage EBRT, 10% (20 of 197) reported urethral pain. Conclusions: Survivors treated with EBRT + BT had a higher risk for urethral pain compared with those treated with EBRT. The symptom prevalence decreased with longer time to follow-up. We found a relationship between fractionation-corrected urethral dose and pain. Among long-term prostate cancer survivors, the occurrence of pain was not increased above the background rate for prostatic urethral doses up to 70 Gy{sub 3}.

  6. 2015 UK National Guideline on the management of non-gonococcal urethritis.

    PubMed

    Horner, P; Blee, K; O'Mahony, C; Muir, P; Evans, C; Radcliffe, K

    2016-02-01

    We present the updated British Association for Sexual Health and HIV guideline for the management of non-gonococcal urethritis in men. This document includes a review of the current literature on its aetiology, diagnosis and management. In particular it highlights the emerging evidence that azithromycin 1?g may result in the development of antimicrobial resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium and that neither azithromycin 1?g nor doxycycline 100?mg twice daily for seven days achieves a cure rate of >90% for this micro-organism. Evidence-based diagnostic and management strategies for men presenting with symptoms suggestive of urethritis, those confirmed to have non-gonococcal urethritis and those with persistent symptoms following first-line treatment are detailed. PMID:26002319

  7. Transition after Traumatic Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuban, Caelan

    2011-01-01

    Children experience grief when they suffer the loss of a close relationship. When that loss also traumatizes children, they experience additional emotional reactions. It is important that adults educate themselves and others who deal with children about typical, healthy grief reactions. Following a non-violent loss, the initial reactions of…

  8. Urethral complications after tension-free vaginal tape procedures: A surgical management case series

    PubMed Central

    Sergouniotis, Fotios; Jarlshammar, Björn; Larsson, Per-Göran

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinical features, diagnostic modalities, and the surgical management of urethral complications after tension-free vaginal tape procedures. METHODS: This study encompasses a retrospective review of nine patients presented with urethral complications after midurethral sling procedures. The patients underwent the procedures during a period from 1999 to 2012 in three different regional hospitals in the southwest part of Sweden. The time from sling placement to diagnosis, the risk factors, clinical features, diagnosis, surgical management, and functional outcome are presented. The presenting symptoms were described as either early onset (< 12 mo) or late onset (> 12 mo) according to when they were first reported. RESULTS: Eight cases of urethral erosion and one case of bladder-neck erosion were detected. The mean interval for diagnoses of the erosions ranged from 3 mo to 11 years. The most common presenting symptoms included de novo urgency with or without incontinence (7/9 patients), urinary retention/voiding dysfunction (4/9 patients), urethritis (4/9 patients), relapse of stress-incontinence (3/9 patients), recurrent urinary tract infections (5/9 patients), and hematuria (1/9 patient). In most cases, voiding dysfunction and urethritis occurred early after the operation. The surgical management applied in most cases was transurethral resection of the intraurethral part of the mesh. The removal of the intraurethral mesh resulted in improvement or complete cure of urgency symptoms in 5/7 patients with urgency. Four patients were reoperated with a new stress-incontinence surgery, one with laparoscopic Burch, and three with retropubic tension-free vaginal tape procedures. CONCLUSION: Urethral complications should be suspected in the case of de novo urgency and relapse of stress-incontinence. Transurethral excision of the intraurethral mesh is the recommended treatment. PMID:26167464

  9. The Use of Flaps and Grafts in the Treatment of Urethral Stricture Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wisenbaugh, Eric S.; Gelman, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The use of various grafts and flaps plays a critical role in the successful surgical management of urethral stricture disease. A thorough comprehension of relevant anatomy and principles of tissue transfer techniques are essential to understanding the appropriate use of grafts or flaps to optimize outcomes. We briefly review these principles and discuss which technique may be best suited for a given anterior urethral stricture, depending on the location and length of the stricture, the presence or absence of an intact corpus spongiosum, and the availability of adequate and healthy penile skin. PMID:26664357

  10. Impaired Pituitary Axes Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Scranton, Robert A.; Baskin, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is significant and rarely considered by clinicians. This topic has received much more attention in the last decade. The incidence of post TBI anterior pituitary dysfunction is around 30% acutely, and declines to around 20% by one year. Growth hormone and gonadotrophic hormones are the most common deficiencies seen after traumatic brain injury, but also the most likely to spontaneously recover. The majority of deficiencies present within the first year, but extreme delayed presentation has been reported. Information on posterior pituitary dysfunction is less reliable ranging from 3%–40% incidence but prospective data suggests a rate around 5%. The mechanism, risk factors, natural history, and long-term effect of treatment are poorly defined in the literature and limited by a lack of standardization. Post TBI pituitary dysfunction is an entity to recognize with significant clinical relevance. Secondary hypoadrenalism, hypothyroidism and central diabetes insipidus should be treated acutely while deficiencies in growth and gonadotrophic hormones should be initially observed. PMID:26239686

  11. Traumatic L5 Posterolateral Spondyloptosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Brandon C; Curtis, Erik; Gonda, David; Ciacci, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic retrolisthesis of the lumbar spine is a rare clinical entity. Only a few case reports have shown retrolisthesis of the fractured fragment over the inferior vertebral body. Fracture dislocations of the spine are unstable injuries that require operative fixation to restore alignment and prevent progressive deformity. We present the case of a traumatic L5-S1 fracture dislocation with retrolisthesis of the L5 vertebral body over the superior aspect of S1 managed with anterior, middle, and posterior column reconstruction. The patient presented with paraplegia and bowel and bladder incontinence. Retrolisthesis fracture dislocations injuries are rare, and as such, there are no guidelines regarding their management. In our case, we performed an L5 vertebrectomy with anterior, middle, and posterior column reconstruction via a posterior approach using a lumbosacral-pelvic construct. The patient did not regain function in his distal lower extremities postoperatively. PMID:26180701

  12. Traumatic Spondylopelvic Dissociation: A Report of Two Cases of Spondylolisthesis at L5–S1 and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Michael; Mallon, Zachary; Roberto, Rolando; Patel, Ravi; Gupta, Munish; Klineberg, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Retrospective chart review and review of literature. Objective?Few case reports of traumatic L5–S1 displacement have been presented in the literature. Here we present two cases of traumatic spondylolisthesis showing both anterior and posterior displacement, the treatment algorithm, and a review of the literature. Methods?The authors conducted a retrospective review of representative patients and a literature review of traumatic spondylolisthesis at the L5–S1 junction. Two representative patients were identified with traumatic spondylolisthesis: one with an anterior dissociation, and the other with a posterior dissociation. Results?Radiographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging illustrated the bony and soft tissue injury found in each patient, as well as the final stabilization and outcomes. Operative stabilization was necessary, and both patients were treated with open reduction internal fixation. The patient with posterior dissociation had complete recovery without neurologic sequelae. The patient with anterior dissociation had persistent bilateral L5–S1 radiculopathy with intact rectal tone, due to neurologic compression. Conclusions?Few cases of traumatic spondylopelvic dissociation that are isolated to the L5–S1 disk space are described in the literature. We examined both an anterior and a posterior dissociation and treated both with L5–S1 posterior spinal fusion. The patient with anterior dissociation had persistent L5–S1 root injury; however, the patient with posterior dissociation had no neurologic deficits. This is the opposite of what is expected based on anatomy. These cases offer insight into the management of anterior and posterior L5–S1 spondylopelvic dissociation. PMID:26131390

  13. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ACFAS | Información en Español Advanced Search Home » Foot & Ankle Conditions » Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD) Text Size ... the arch, and an inward rolling of the ankle. As the condition progresses, the symptoms will change. ...

  14. Post-traumatic headaches.

    PubMed

    Riechers, Ronald G; Walker, Mark F; Ruff, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain, especially headache, is an exceedingly common complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). In fact, paradoxically, the milder the TBI, the more likely one is to develop headaches. The environment of injury and the associated comorbidities can have a significant impact on the frequency and severity of headaches and commonly serve to direct management of the headaches. Trauma likely contributes to the development of headaches via alterations in neuronal signaling, inflammation, and musculoskeletal changes. The clinical picture of the patient with post-traumatic headaches is often that of a mixed headache disorder with features of tension-type headaches as well as migrainous headaches. Treatment of these headaches is thus often guided by the predominant characteristics of the headaches and can include pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies. Pharmacologic therapies include both abortive and prophylactic agents with prophylaxis targeting comorbidities, primarily impaired sleep. Nonpharmacologic interventions for post-traumatic headaches include thermal and physical modalities as well as cognitive behavioral approaches. As with many postconcussive symptoms, headaches can lessen with time but in up to 25% of patients, chronic headaches are long-term residua. PMID:25701908

  15. The urethral plug: a new treatment modality for genuine urinary stress incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K K; Kromann-Andersen, B; Jacobsen, H; Nielsen, E M; Nordling, J; Holm, H H; Larsen, J F

    1990-11-01

    A new modality, the urethral plug, was used to treat 22 women with genuine urinary stress incontinence. The plug is made of thermoplastic elastomer (Kraton G), and consists of a meatal plate, a soft stalk and 1 or 2 spheres along the stalk. The spheres were located according to the result of the urethral pressure profile. The midpoint of the proximal sphere was placed at the bladder neck and the distal sphere was placed just above the maximum urethral pressure point. At voiding the plug was removed and afterwards a new plug was inserted. The plug with 2 spheres was tested in week 1 (period 1) and the plug with only the distal sphere was tested in week 2 (period 2). A total of 22 patients completed period 1. Eight patients did not complete period 2, mostly due to either unchanged incontinence during period 1 or a repeated loss of the plug with 1 sphere. In periods 1 and 2, 73 and 79% of the patients were subjectively and objectively continent or improved. A total of 14 patients completed both periods. Eight patients preferred the plug with 2 spheres, 1 preferred the other plug and 5 had no preference. The side effects were few. This preliminary study shows that the urethral plug seems to be a promising alternative treatment for female genuine urinary stress incontinence. PMID:2231895

  16. Severe Guillain-Barré syndrome following urethritis with cardiovascular and ophthalmic involvement

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, A. J.; Rogerson, F. Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    A patient with a severe form of the Guillain-Barré syndrome is described and the case illustrates the rare cardiovascular and ophthalmic complications which can occur. Urethritis, probably due to gonorrhoea, preceded neurological symptoms and this association has not been previously reported. PMID:1197163

  17. FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF MULTI-PROBE CRYOSURGERY WITH A URETHRAL WARMER

    E-print Network

    Wan, Richard G.

    -28, 2004, Madrid, Spain, John Middleton & N. Shrive, Editors #12;above freezing. Water flows through. Muldrew3 1. ABSTRACT From a clinical point of view, it is very important to control the ice ball growth of the freezing of a prostate using a multi-cryoprobe system including a urethral warmer. We address the effect

  18. The Microbial Communities in Male First Catch Urine Are Highly Similar to Those in Paired Urethral Swab Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Evelyn; Diao, Lixia; Gao, Xiang; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Urine is the CDC-recommended specimen for STI testing. It was unknown if the bacterial communities (microbiomes) in urine reflected those in the distal male urethra. We compared microbiomes of 32 paired urine and urethral swab specimens obtained from adult men attending an STD clinic, by 16S rRNA PCR and deep pyrosequencing. Microbiomes of urine and swabs were remarkably similar, regardless of STI status of the subjects. Thus, urine can be used to characterize urethral microbiomes when swabs are undesirable, such as in population-based studies of the urethral microbiome or where multiple sampling of participants is required. PMID:21603636

  19. Surgical Outcome of Urethroplasty Using Penile Circular Fasciocutaneous Flap for Anterior Urethral Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Rok; Suh, Jun-Gyo; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Penile circular fasciocutaneous flap urethroplasty is a useful technique for a long anterior urethral stricture due to the flap's hairless nature and ample length. We investigated the surgical outcomes of urethroplasty for a complex anterior urethral stricture, performed using a penile circular fasciocutaneous flap. Materials and Methods Between 2008 and 2013, we performed a retrospective review of 29 patients who underwent urethroplasty using a penile circular fasciocutaneous flap and had at least 6 months of follow-up. A total of 20 cases utilized only a fasciocutaneous flap, while 9 cases combined a fasciocutaneous flap with other surgery. Success was defined as no requirement of additional urethral instrumentation. Results The overall success rate was 68.9% (20 out of 29 cases) at a median follow-up of 19 months. Furthermore, fasciocutaneous flap urethroplasty rendered the actual stricture-free rate of 79.3%. The location of recurrence was mostly at the junction of the flap. Among 9 surgical failures, 5 cases were treated successfully by using an additional surgical procedure. Fistula repair was needed in 1 case 4 months later. Further, periodic urethral dilation was performed in the remaining 3 cases. The failure rate was significantly higher in patients with suprapubic cystostomy than in patients without suprapubic cystostomy. The most common complication was post-micturition dribbling. Conclusions Penile circular fasciocutaneous flap urethroplasty is a useful method for the reconstruction of a long anterior urethral stricture. A sufficient healthy margin should be acquired for better surgical results due to the fact that most recurrence occurs at the junction of the flap. PMID:25237658

  20. Treatment of Childhood Traumatic Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.

    2004-01-01

    Childhood traumatic grief (CTG) is a condition in which trauma symptoms impinge on children's ability to negotiate the normal grieving process. Clinical characteristics of CTG and their implications for treatment are discussed, and data from a small number of open-treatment studies of traumatically bereaved children are reviewed. An empirically…

  1. Posterior polar cataract: A review

    PubMed Central

    Kalantan, Hatem

    2011-01-01

    Posterior polar cataract is a rare form of congenital cataract. It is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant disease, yet it can be sporadic. Five genes have been attributed to the formation of this disease. It is highly associated with complications during surgery, such as posterior capsule rupture and nucleus drop. The reason for this high complication rate is the strong adherence of the opacity to the weak posterior capsule. Different surgical strategies were described for the handling of this challenging entity, most of which emphasized the need for gentle maneuvering in dealing with these cases. It has a unique clinical appearance that should not be missed in order to anticipate, avoid, and minimize the impact of the complications associated with it. PMID:23960967

  2. Posterior polar cataract: A review.

    PubMed

    Kalantan, Hatem

    2012-01-01

    Posterior polar cataract is a rare form of congenital cataract. It is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant disease, yet it can be sporadic. Five genes have been attributed to the formation of this disease. It is highly associated with complications during surgery, such as posterior capsule rupture and nucleus drop. The reason for this high complication rate is the strong adherence of the opacity to the weak posterior capsule. Different surgical strategies were described for the handling of this challenging entity, most of which emphasized the need for gentle maneuvering in dealing with these cases. It has a unique clinical appearance that should not be missed in order to anticipate, avoid, and minimize the impact of the complications associated with it. PMID:23960967

  3. [Traumatic neurogenic shock].

    PubMed

    Maurin, O; de Régloix, S; Caballé, D; Arvis, A-M; Perrochon, J-C; Tourtier, J-P

    2013-05-01

    Traumatic neurogenic shock is a rare but serious complication of spinal cord injury. It associates bradycardia and hypotension caused by a medullary trauma. It is life-threatening for the patient and it aggravates the neurological deficit. Strict immobilization and a quick assessment of the gravity of cord injury are necessary as soon as prehospital care has begun. Initial treatment requires vasopressors associated with fluid resuscitation. Steroids are not recommended. Early decompression is recommended for incomplete deficit seen in the first 6 hours. We relate the case of secondary spinal shock to a luxation C6/C7 treated in prehospital care. PMID:23566590

  4. Ventral inlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty: A novel surgical technique for the management of urethral stricture disease

    PubMed Central

    Terlecki, Ryan Patrick

    2015-01-01

    To describe the novel technique of ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty for the management of male anterior urethral stricture disease. A 58-year-old gentleman with multifocal bulbar stricture disease measuring 7 cm in length was treated using a ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty. A dorsal urethrotomy was created, and the ventral urethral plated was incised. The edges of the urethral plate were mobilized without violation of the ventral corpus spongiosum. A buccal mucosa graft was harvested and affixed as a ventral inlay to augment the caliber of the urethra. The dorsal urethrotomy was closed over a foley catheter. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. Postoperative imaging demonstrated a widely patent urethra. After three years of follow-up, the patient continues to do well with no voiding complaints and low postvoid residuals. Ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty appears to be a safe and feasible technique for the management of bulbar urethral strictures. PMID:25685305

  5. Trichomonas vaginalis infection: How significant is it in men presenting with recurrent or persistent symptoms of urethritis?

    PubMed

    Ng, Andrea; Ross, Jonathan Dc

    2016-01-01

    Persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis has been reported to affect up to 10-20% of men attending sexual health clinics. An audit was undertaken to review the management of persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis in men presenting at Whittall Street Clinic, Birmingham, UK. Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection was with the newly-introduced nucleic acid amplification test. A total of 43 (8%) of 533 men treated for urethritis re-attended within three months with persistent or recurrent symptoms. Chlamydia trachomatis infection was identified in 13/40 (33%), T. vaginalis in 1/27 (4%) and Mycoplasma genitalium in 6/12 (50%). These findings suggest that the prevalence of T. vaginalis infection remains low in our clinic population and may not contribute significantly to persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis. PMID:25663246

  6. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ask About Cancer Research Cancer-Related Post-traumatic Stress (PDQ®) Overview Key Points Cancer-related post-traumatic ... during or after treatment. Cancer-related post-traumatic stress (PTS) is a lot like post-traumatic stress ...

  7. Children's Understanding of Posterior Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girotto, Vittorio; Gonzalez, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Do young children have a basic intuition of posterior probability? Do they update their decisions and judgments in the light of new evidence? We hypothesized that they can do so extensionally, by considering and counting the various ways in which an event may or may not occur. The results reported in this paper showed that from the age of five,…

  8. Ejaculatory ducts opening into accessory urethral channel with hypospadias and absent verumontanum: a rare association.

    PubMed

    Ravi Kumar, Valkodai Ramanthan; Duraisami, Vijayagiri

    2013-12-01

    Ejaculatory ducts draining into accessory urethral channel opening into perineum is rare. This is a case report of a 27-year-old male who had hypospadias surgery at 3 years of age, presenting with discharge of semen through the perineal opening from adolescence. Cystoscopy and dye study showed that it was a short channel communicating with both ejaculatory ducts. Cystoscopy of the native urethra revealed that the vermontanum had not developed. The mucous lined accessory urethra was anastomosed to the bulbar urethra. Urethrogram done after one year showed that the accessory urethra was draining well into the bulbar urethra. Such type of accessory urethral channel communicating with ejaculatory ducts and associated with hypospadias and absent vermontanum has not been reported so far. PMID:23965229

  9. Methotrexate elimination in a patient with an orthotopic neobladder with and without a urethral catheter.

    PubMed

    Wire, P D; Dupuis, R E; Mohler, J L; Bernard, S A; Lindley, C M

    1996-01-01

    Placement of a urethral catheter has been recommended to ensure adequate methotrexate elimination in patients with a neobladder; however, the need for this and its impact on methotrexate elimination have not been determined. A 53-year-old man with a cecal continent urinary diversion received intravenous methotrexate 30 mg/m2 on two occasions, with and without urethral catheter drainage of the neobladder. Serum methotrexate concentrations declined at a rate that resulted in 24- and 48-hour values falling below the accepted toxic concentration threshold of 5-50 mumol/L, and 0.05 mumol/L, respectively. In this man, who received low-dose methotrexate, catheterization of the neobladder did not alter methotrexate elimination sufficiently to justify its cost, risk, and inconvenience. PMID:8888094

  10. Delayed repair of pelvic fracture urethral injuries: Preoperative decision-making.

    PubMed

    Osman, Nadir I; Mangera, Altaf; Inman, Richard D; Chapple, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    Pelvic fracture urethral injuries comprise one of the most challenging reconstructive procedures in urology. The obliterated or stenosed urethra can usually be effectively repaired by an end-to-end anastomosis (bulbomembranous anastomosis). To achieve this, a progression of surgical steps can be used to make a tension-free anastomosis. Before undertaking surgery it is important to comprehensively assess the patient to define their anatomical defects, in particular the site of the stenosis, the length of the distraction injury and the integrity of the bladder neck, and thus guide preoperative decision-making. Contemporary reports suggest that most pelvic fracture urethral distraction defects (PFUDD) can be adequately managed by a perineal approach. Nevertheless it is essential that all surgeons treating these injuries are familiar with the whole spectrum of operative steps that are necessary to repair PFUDD. PMID:26413351

  11. FKBP5 Genotype and Structural Integrity of the Posterior Cingulum

    PubMed Central

    Fani, Negar; King, Tricia Z; Reiser, Emily; Binder, Elisabeth B; Jovanovic, Tanja; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the microarchitecture of the posterior cingulum (PC), a white matter tract proximal to the hippocampus that facilitates communication between the entorhinal and cingulate cortices, have been observed in individuals with psychiatric disorders, such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PC decrements may be a heritable source of vulnerability for the development of affective disorders; however, genetic substrates for these white matter abnormalities have not been identified. The FKBP5 gene product modulates glucocorticoid receptor function and has been previously associated with differential hippocampal structure, function, and affect disorder risk. Thus, FKBP5 is an attractive genetic target for investigations of PC integrity. We examined associations between PC integrity, measured through diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fractional anisotropy (FA; an index of white matter integrity), and polymorphisms in the FKBP5 SNP rs1360780 in a sample of 82 traumatized female civilians. Findings indicated that, compared with individuals without this allele, individuals who carried two ‘risk' alleles for this FKBP5 SNP (T allele; previously associated with mood and anxiety disorder risk) demonstrated significantly lower FA in the left PC, even after statistically controlling for variance associated with age, trauma exposure, and PTSD symptoms. These data suggest that specific allelic variants for an FKBP5 polymorphism are associated with decrements in the left PC microarchitecture. These white matter abnormalities may be a heritable biological marker that indicates increased vulnerability for the development of psychiatric disorders, such as PTSD. PMID:24253961

  12. Urethral Hairballs as a Long-Term Complication of Hypospadias Repair: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Kampantais, Spyridon; Dimitriadis, Charalampos; Laskaridis, Leonidas; Perdikis, Ioannis; Kirtsis, Petros; Toutziaris, Chrysovalantis

    2012-01-01

    Many times hair-bearing urethral grafts have been used inadvertently in the treatment of hypospadias. This can be accompanied with numerous troublesome long-term complications such as formation of stones, diverticula, and hairballs. We report two cases of men with a history of hypospadias repair being affected by such complications. We also discuss about their management and the effect of thioglycolic acid instillation to stop hair growth in the urethra mucosa in the second case. PMID:22924153

  13. Efficacy of mitomycin C in reducing recurrence of anterior urethral stricture after internal optical urethrotomy

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Muhammad; Orakzai, Nasir; Khan, Ihsanullah; Ahmad, Mubashira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the efficacy of mitomycin C in reducing the recurrence of anterior urethral stricture after internal optical urethrotomy (IOU). Materials and Methods This was a randomized controlled trial conducted in the Department of Urology at the Institute of Kidney Diseases Peshawar from March 2011 to December 2013. A total of 151 patients who completed the study were divided into two groups by the lottery method. Group A (cases) comprised 78 patients in whom mitomycin C 0.1% was injected submucosally in the stricture after conventional IOU. Group B (controls) comprised 73 patients in whom IOU only was performed. Self-clean intermittent catheterization was not offered in either group. All patients were regularly followed up for 18 months. Recurrence was diagnosed by use of retrograde urethrogram in all patients and flexible urethroscopy in selected cases. Data were collected on a structured pro forma sheet and were analyzed by SPSS. Results The mean age of the patients in group A was 37.31±10.1 years and that in group B was 40.1±11.4 years. Recurrence of urethral stricture was recorded in 11 patients (14.1%) in group A and in 27 patients (36.9%) in group B (p=0.002). The mitomycin group also showed a delay in recurrence compared with the control group (p=0.002). Conclusions Recurrence of urethral stricture is high after optical urethrotomy. Mitomycin C was found to be highly effective in preventing the recurrence of urethral stricture after IOU. PMID:26366278

  14. A Case of Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma Presenting as a Lobulated Protrusion From the Urethral Meatus at Birth.

    PubMed

    Bethell, George S; Johal, Navroop S; Cuckow, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    This is the first reported case of rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as a mass protruding from the urethral meatus present at birth. A male neonate was transferred to a tertiary pediatric urology center on day 4 of life where the mass was surgically excised. Histology confirmed an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and chemotherapy commenced. The patient completed chemotherapy at the age of 8 months. The child is now 3.5 years old and well with no recurrence of disease. PMID:26166669

  15. [Inflammatory pseudo-tumor of the bladder expelled through the urethral meatus in a girl].

    PubMed

    Sarr, A; Thiam, I; Gueye, D; Sow, Y; Fall, B; Thiam, A; Sine, B; Ba, M; Diagne, B A

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory pseudo-tumors of the bladder are rare benign tumors that mostly arise in the differential diagnosis of sarcomas in children. The authors report an unusual case of pedunculated inflammatory pseudo-tumor of the bladder that externalized by the urethral meatus in a 13-year-old girl. The treatment consisted of a ligation-resection of the pedicle, followed by resection of the tumor. After regular follow-up for 18 months there was no tumor recurrence. PMID:26552617

  16. Intravitreal bevacizumab for posterior capsule neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mohaimeed, Mansour; Al-Gehedan, Saeed; Dhibi, Hassan Al

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of rapid regression of extensive posterior capsule neovascularization in a 67-year-old diabetic male patient, who developed posterior capsule opacity with neovascularization one year post cataract surgery, after a single injection of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) followed by neodymium:YAG capsulotomy. Rapid regression of the posterior capsule neovascularization, and visual improvement was observed 9 days after the intervention. Posterior capsulotomy was performed successfully without bleeding. Prior to posterior capsulotomy, intravitreal bevacizumab can result in rapid and dramatic regression of posterior capsule neovascularization. PMID:23960877

  17. Intravitreal bevacizumab for posterior capsule neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohaimeed, Mansour; Al-Gehedan, Saeed; Dhibi, Hassan Al

    2010-04-01

    We report a case of rapid regression of extensive posterior capsule neovascularization in a 67-year-old diabetic male patient, who developed posterior capsule opacity with neovascularization one year post cataract surgery, after a single injection of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) followed by neodymium:YAG capsulotomy. Rapid regression of the posterior capsule neovascularization, and visual improvement was observed 9 days after the intervention. Posterior capsulotomy was performed successfully without bleeding. Prior to posterior capsulotomy, intravitreal bevacizumab can result in rapid and dramatic regression of posterior capsule neovascularization. PMID:23960877

  18. Sexually dimorphic expression of Mafb regulates masculinization of the embryonic urethral formation

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kentaro; Numata, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Hiroko; Raga, Dennis Diana; Ipulan, Lerrie Ann; Yokoyama, Chikako; Matsushita, Shoko; Hamada, Michito; Nakagata, Naomi; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Kume, Shoen; Takahashi, Satoru; Yamada, Gen

    2014-01-01

    Masculinization of external genitalia is an essential process in the formation of the male reproductive system. Prominent characteristics of this masculinization are the organ size and the sexual differentiation of the urethra. Although androgen is a pivotal inducer of the masculinization, the regulatory mechanism under the control of androgen is still unknown. Here, we address this longstanding question about how androgen induces masculinization of the embryonic external genitalia through the identification of the v-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog B (Mafb) gene. Mafb is expressed prominently in the mesenchyme of male genital tubercle (GT), the anlage of external genitalia. MAFB expression is rarely detected in the mesenchyme of female GTs. However, exposure to exogenous androgen induces its mesenchymal expression in female GTs. Furthermore, MAFB expression is prominently down-regulated in male GTs of androgen receptor (Ar) KO mice, indicating that AR signaling is necessary for its expression. It is revealed that Mafb KO male GTs exhibit defective embryonic urethral formation, giving insight into the common human congenital anomaly hypospadias. However, the size of Mafb KO male GTs is similar with that of wild-type males. Moreover, androgen treatment fails to induce urethral masculinization of the GTs in Mafb KO mice. The current results provide evidence that Mafb is an androgen-inducible, sexually dimorphic regulator of embryonic urethral masculinization. PMID:25362053

  19. The urethral plug II: an alternative treatment in women with genuine urinary stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K K; Walter, S; Maegaard, E; Kromann-Andersen, B

    1993-10-01

    An improved design of the recently developed urethral plug was evaluated for the treatment of women with genuine urinary stress incontinence. The plug consists of an oval meatal plate, a soft stalk and 1 or 2 spheres along the stalk with fixed distances between the meatal plate and the spheres. Inside the stalk is a removable semi-rigid guide pin to ease insertion. Forty women were randomly allocated to treatment with either the 2-sphere or the 1-sphere plug during period 1 (2 weeks). In period 2 (2 weeks) the patients used the other plug. They then continued with what they judged to be the better plug in period 3 (2 months). Eighteen patients (45%) completed period 3 with the "preference" plug and 17 were subjectively and objectively continent or improved. Fourteen of these women preferred the 2-sphere device. The plugs were equally effective in patients with mild or severe incontinence. To accommodate variations in urethral length and to avoid the loss of plugs, the devices are available in different lengths. Six women developed urinary tract infections and 2 of these had a plug in the bladder. The urethral plug is an effective treatment in a group of women with stress incontinence. Removal by hand is advisable in order to avoid retention of plugs in the bladder. PMID:8261298

  20. Human balanced translocation and mouse gene inactivation implicate Basonuclin 2 in distal urethral development

    PubMed Central

    Bhoj, Elizabeth J; Ramos, Purita; Baker, Linda A; Cost, Nicholas; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Elder, Frederick F; Bleyl, Steven B; Bowles, Neil E; Arrington, Cammon B; Delhomme, Brigitte; Vanhoutteghem, Amandine; Djian, Philippe; Zinn, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    We studied a man with distal hypospadias, partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, mild limb-length inequality and a balanced translocation involving chromosomes 9 and 13. To gain insight into the etiology of his birth defects, we mapped the translocation breakpoints by high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), using chromosome 9- and 13-specific tiling arrays to analyze genetic material from a spontaneously aborted fetus with unbalanced segregation of the translocation. The chromosome 13 breakpoint was ?400?kb away from the nearest gene, but the chromosome 9 breakpoint fell within an intron of Basonuclin 2 (BNC2), a gene that encodes an evolutionarily conserved nuclear zinc-finger protein. The BNC2/Bnc2 gene is abundantly expressed in developing mouse and human periurethral tissues. In all, 6 of 48 unrelated subjects with distal hypospadias had nine novel nonsynonymous substitutions in BNC2, five of which were computationally predicted to be deleterious. In comparison, two of 23 controls with normal penile urethra morphology, each had a novel nonsynonymous substitution in BNC2, one of which was predicted to be deleterious. Bnc2?/? mice of both sexes displayed a high frequency of distal urethral defects; heterozygotes showed similar defects with reduced penetrance. The association of BNC2 disruption with distal urethral defects and the gene's expression pattern indicate that it functions in urethral development. PMID:21368915

  1. Human balanced translocation and mouse gene inactivation implicate Basonuclin 2 in distal urethral development.

    PubMed

    Bhoj, Elizabeth J; Ramos, Purita; Baker, Linda A; Garg, Vidu; Cost, Nicholas; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Elder, Frederick F; Bleyl, Steven B; Bowles, Neil E; Arrington, Cammon B; Delhomme, Brigitte; Vanhoutteghem, Amandine; Djian, Philippe; Zinn, Andrew R

    2011-05-01

    We studied a man with distal hypospadias, partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, mild limb-length inequality and a balanced translocation involving chromosomes 9 and 13. To gain insight into the etiology of his birth defects, we mapped the translocation breakpoints by high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), using chromosome 9- and 13-specific tiling arrays to analyze genetic material from a spontaneously aborted fetus with unbalanced segregation of the translocation. The chromosome 13 breakpoint was ?400 ?kb away from the nearest gene, but the chromosome 9 breakpoint fell within an intron of Basonuclin 2 (BNC2), a gene that encodes an evolutionarily conserved nuclear zinc-finger protein. The BNC2/Bnc2 gene is abundantly expressed in developing mouse and human periurethral tissues. In all, 6 of 48 unrelated subjects with distal hypospadias had nine novel nonsynonymous substitutions in BNC2, five of which were computationally predicted to be deleterious. In comparison, two of 23 controls with normal penile urethra morphology, each had a novel nonsynonymous substitution in BNC2, one of which was predicted to be deleterious. Bnc2(-/-) mice of both sexes displayed a high frequency of distal urethral defects; heterozygotes showed similar defects with reduced penetrance. The association of BNC2 disruption with distal urethral defects and the gene's expression pattern indicate that it functions in urethral development. PMID:21368915

  2. Treatment of Urethral Strictures from Irradiation and Other Nonsurgical Forms of Pelvic Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Khourdaji, Iyad; Parke, Jacob; Chennamsetty, Avinash; Burks, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT), external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), brachytherapy (BT), photon beam therapy (PBT), high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and cryotherapy are noninvasive treatment options for pelvic malignancies and prostate cancer. Though effective in treating cancer, urethral stricture disease is an underrecognized and poorly reported sequela of these treatment modalities. Studies estimate the incidence of stricture from BT to be 1.8%, EBRT 1.7%, combined EBRT and BT 5.2%, and cryotherapy 2.5%. Radiation effects on the genitourinary system can manifest early or months to years after treatment with the onus being on the clinician to investigate and rule-out stricture disease as an underlying etiology for lower urinary tract symptoms. Obliterative endarteritis resulting in ischemia and fibrosis of the irradiated tissue complicates treatment strategies, which include urethral dilation, direct-vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU), urethral stents, and urethroplasty. Failure rates for dilation and DVIU are exceedingly high with several studies indicating that urethroplasty is the most definitive and durable treatment modality for patients with radiation-induced stricture disease. However, a detailed discussion should be offered regarding development or worsening of incontinence after treatment with urethroplasty. Further studies are required to assess the nature and treatment of cryotherapy and HIFU-induced strictures. PMID:26494994

  3. Post-traumatic stress disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a type of anxiety disorder . It can occur after you have gone through an extreme ... Normally, after the event, the body recovers. The stress hormones and chemicals the body releases due to ...

  4. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... examples of traumatic events are a natural disaster, rape, severe car crash or fighting in a war. ... or victims of war or combat Survivors of rape, domestic violence, physical assault such as a mugging ...

  5. Endoscopic-assisted removal of traumatic brain hemorrhage: case report and technical note.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Clarissa Nóbrega Gambarra; Amorim, Robson Luis; Mandel, Maurício; do Espírito Santo, Marcelo Prudente; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Andrade, Almir Ferreira; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2015-01-01

    The endoscopic technique has been described as a minimally invasive method for spontaneous hematoma evacuation, as a safe and effective treatment. Nevertheless, to our knowledge, there is no description of a technical report of traumatic intracerebral hematoma removal using the neuroendoscope. A 47-year-old man was admitted sustaining 13 points in Glasgow coma scale with brain computed tomography (CT) scan showing a temporal contusion. Guided by a 3D reconstructed CT, using the program OsiriX®, the posterior limit of the hematoma was identified. A burr hole was placed at the posterior temporal region, and we used the neuroendoscope to assist the hematoma evacuation. The postoperative tomography showed adequate hematoma removal. He was discharged from hospital 48 h after surgery. Two weeks later, he was conscious and oriented temporally. This endoscopic-assisted technique can provide safe removal of traumatic hematomas of the temporal lobe. PMID:26537390

  6. Endoscopic-assisted removal of traumatic brain hemorrhage: case report and technical note

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Clarissa Nóbrega Gambarra; Amorim, Robson Luis; Mandel, Maurício; do Espírito Santo, Marcelo Prudente; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Andrade, Almir Ferreira; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2015-01-01

    The endoscopic technique has been described as a minimally invasive method for spontaneous hematoma evacuation, as a safe and effective treatment. Nevertheless, to our knowledge, there is no description of a technical report of traumatic intracerebral hematoma removal using the neuroendoscope. A 47-year-old man was admitted sustaining 13 points in Glasgow coma scale with brain computed tomography (CT) scan showing a temporal contusion. Guided by a 3D reconstructed CT, using the program OsiriX®, the posterior limit of the hematoma was identified. A burr hole was placed at the posterior temporal region, and we used the neuroendoscope to assist the hematoma evacuation. The postoperative tomography showed adequate hematoma removal. He was discharged from hospital 48 h after surgery. Two weeks later, he was conscious and oriented temporally. This endoscopic-assisted technique can provide safe removal of traumatic hematomas of the temporal lobe. PMID:26537390

  7. Posterior capsule opacification: experimental analyses.

    PubMed

    Odrich, M G; Hall, S J; Worgul, B V; Trokel, S L; Rini, F J

    1985-01-01

    The lenses of New Zealand White and Flemish Giant rabbits were removed using five techniques representative of the different clinical approaches to extracapsular cataract extraction currently employed. Posterior capsule opacification developed in all experimental animals within 6 weeks of the operation. None of the techniques reduced the incidence of the capsular opacification. Histological analyses including immunofluorescent and tritiated thymidine labelling were used to determine the nature of the cellular constitutents of the secondary membrane. The evidence indicates that the opacity is due not only to lens cells remaining after the operation but also consists of cells of nonlenticular origin. The data strongly implicate the anterior uvea as the source of those cells. Furthermore, the findings suggest that posterior capsule opacification is the product of a migration and a proliferation of both cell populations. PMID:3885127

  8. Distortions of posterior visual space.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Flip; Voshell, Martin G

    2009-01-01

    The study of spatial vision is a long and well traveled road (which, of course, converges to a vanishing point at the horizon). Its various distortions have been widely investigated empirically, and most concentrate, pragmatically, on the space anterior to the observer. The visual world behind the observer has received relatively less attention and it is this perspective the current experiments address. Our results show systematic perceptual distortions in the posterior visual world when viewed statically. Under static viewing conditions, observer's perceptual representation was consistently 'spread' in a hyperbolic fashion. Directions to distant, peripheral locations were consistently overestimated by about 11 degrees from the ground truth and this variability increased as the target was moved toward the center of the observer's back. The perceptual representation of posterior visual space is, no doubt, secondary to the more immediate needs of the anterior visual world. Still, it is important in some domains including certain sports, such as rowing, and in vehicular navigation. PMID:19764306

  9. Preservation of Hypermobile Teeth by Establishing Posterior Occlusal Support Using Implant Prostheses: A 5-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Doh, Re-Mee; Park, Wonse; Kim, Kee-Deog; Jung, Bock-Young

    2015-08-01

    For patients with periodontally compromised, hypermobile teeth, implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) or removable dentures are often used after extracting mobile teeth. The loss of native teeth may carry social consequences, depending upon the patient's age, state of health, and degree of social functioning. This report represents successful stabilization and preservation of questionable, hypermobile teeth that have been damaged by traumatic occlusion due to the loss of posterior support with a cross-arch splinted FDP, as well as the implementation of posterior support using implant-supported prostheses. PMID:25521857

  10. Post-traumatic neurodegeneration and chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, Daniel H; Goldstein, Lee E; Kiernan, Patrick T; Stein, Thor D; McKee, Ann C

    2015-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity around the world. Concussive and subconcussive forms of closed-head injury due to impact or blast neurotrauma represent the most common types of TBI in civilian and military settings. It is becoming increasingly evident that TBI can lead to persistent, long-term debilitating effects, and in some cases, progressive neurodegeneration and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The epidemiological literature suggests that a single moderate-to-severe TBI may be associated with accelerated neurodegeneration and increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or motor neuron disease. However, the pathologic phenotype of these post-traumatic neurodegenerations is largely unknown and there may be pathobiological differences between post-traumatic disease and the corresponding sporadic disorder. By contrast, the pathology of CTE is increasingly well known and is characterized by a distinctive pattern of progressive brain atrophy and accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau neurofibrillary and glial tangles, dystrophic neurites, 43 kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) neuronal and glial aggregates, microvasculopathy, myelinated axonopathy, neuroinflammation, and white matter degeneration. Clinically, CTE is associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction, memory deficits, and cognitive impairments that begin insidiously and most often progress slowly over decades. Although research on the long-term effects of TBI is advancing quickly, the incidence and prevalence of post-traumatic neurodegeneration and CTE are unknown. Critical knowledge gaps include elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms, identification of genetic risk factors, and clarification of relevant variables-including age at exposure to trauma, history of prior and subsequent head trauma, substance use, gender, stress, and comorbidities-all of which may contribute to risk profiles and the development of post-traumatic neurodegeneration and CTE. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Traumatic Brain Injury'. PMID:25758552

  11. Use of intraocular lenses in children with traumatic cataract in south India

    PubMed Central

    Eckstein, M.; Vijayalakshmi, P; Killedar, M.; Gilbert, C.; Foster, A.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To assess the long term results of intraocular lens (IOL) implantation for traumatic cataract in young children in a developing country.?METHODS—Prospective hospital based study of 52 children (age 2-10 years) undergoing unilateral cataract extraction and IOL insertion for traumatic cataract performed by a single surgeon in south India. Children were reviewed regularly and followed up initially for 3 years.?RESULTS—There were no serious operative complications. Clinically significant posterior capsule opacification was almost universal (92%) and YAG capsulotomy or membranectomy was performed on 48 eyes. Some degree of pupil capture affected 35% of eyes and was complete in 6%. Visual acuity was 6/12 or better in 67% of eyes at the last follow up examination.?CONCLUSION—The visual acuity results 3 years after implantation of posterior chamber IOLs in older children with traumatic cataracts in south India were encouraging. In developing countries where follow up is unreliable it is essential to plan to clear the axial part of the posterior capsule either at the time of surgery or soon afterwards.?? Keywords: intraocular lens; children; cataract; India PMID:9828776

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging in assessment of stress urinary incontinence in women: Parameters differentiating urethral hypermobility and intrinsic sphincter deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Macura, Katarzyna Jadwiga; Thompson, Richard Eugene; Bluemke, David Alan; Genadry, Rene

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To define the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters differentiating urethral hypermobility (UH) and intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD) in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). METHODS: The static and dynamic MR images of 21 patients with SUI were correlated to urodynamic (UD) findings and compared to those of 10 continent controls. For the assessment of the urethra and integrity of the urethral support structures, we applied the high-resolution endocavitary MRI, such as intraurethral MRI, endovaginal or endorectal MRI. For the functional imaging of the urethral support, we performed dynamic MRI with the pelvic phased array coil. We assessed the following MRI parameters in both the patient and the volunteer groups: (1) urethral angle; (2) bladder neck descent; (3) status of the periurethral ligaments, (4) vaginal shape; (5) urethral sphincter integrity, length and muscle thickness at mid urethra; (6) bladder neck funneling; (7) status of the puborectalis muscle; (8) pubo-vaginal distance. UDs parameters were assessed in the patient study group as follows: (1) urethral mobility angle on Q-tip test; (2) Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP) measured at 250 cc bladder volume; and (3) maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP). The UH type of SUI was defined with the Q-tip test angle over 30 degrees, and VLPP pressure over 60 cm H2O. The ISD incontinence was defined with MUCP pressure below 20 cm H2O, and VLPP pressure less or equal to 60 cm H2O. We considered the associations between the MRI and clinical data and UDs using a variety of statistical tools to include linear regression, multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 9.0 (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX). RESULTS: In the incontinent group, 52% have history of vaginal delivery trauma as compared to none in control group (P < 0.001). There was no difference between the continent volunteers and incontinent patients in body habitus as assessed by the body mass index. Pubovaginal distance and periurethral ligament disruption are significantly associated with incontinence; periurethral ligament symmetricity reduces the odds of incontinence by 87%. Bladder neck funneling and length of the suprapubic urethral sphincter are significantly associated with the type of incontinence on UDs; funneling reduced the odds of pure UH by almost 95%; increasing suprapubic urethral sphincter length at rest is highly associated with UH. Both MRI variables result in a predictive model for UDs diagnosis (area under the ROC = 0.944). CONCLUSION: MRI may play an important role in assessing the contribution of hypermobility and sphincteric dysfunction to the SUI in women when considering treatment options. PMID:26644825

  13. CO2 laser posterior transverse cordotomy for isolated type IV posterior glottic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Gaboriau, H; Laccourreye, O; Laccourreye, H; Brasnu, D

    1995-01-01

    One case of isolated type IV posterior glottic stenosis successfully treated with CO2 laser posterior transverse cordotomy is presented. This report emphasized the value of the CO2 laser posterior transverse cordotomy in this situation. A review of the various therapeutic options advocated in the medical literature to treat isolated posterior glottic stenosis is also presented. PMID:7503381

  14. [Traumatic rectal injuries].

    PubMed

    Steinman, E; Cunha, J C; Branco, P D; Bevilacqua, R G; Birolini, D

    1990-01-01

    The authors review the cases of traumatic rectal injuries admitted to the Emergency Service of the "Hospital das Clínicas", University of São Paulo Medical School, during the period of July 1981 to July 1988. Forty-five patients (62.5%) had their injuries due to gunshot, 14 (19.4%) due to foreign bodies on the rectum, 10 (13.8%) due to blunt trauma and 3 (4.1%) due to stab wounds. The intraperitoneal rectum was injured in 32 patients (44.4%) and extraperitoneal portion of the rectum in 40 patients (55.5%). On the intraperitoneal injuries the management adopted were simple suture (14 patients), associated with a colostomy (17 patients) and in one patient the Hartmann procedure was adopted. On the extraperitoneal wounds the management adopted were rectal repair (when feasible), colostomy, distal washout and drainage. The complications rate was 27.8%, and from them, the majority (70%) were related to infectious nature. Seven patients died (9.7%), four of them as a consequence of sepsis. The morbidity and mortality of the rectal injuries were closed related to infectious complications as a consequence of late diagnosis. For this reason, the authors consider that all efforts should be employed to establish the prompt diagnosis. PMID:2099139

  15. Tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the medial meniscus in a skeletally-immature child - a case report.

    PubMed

    Matava, Matthew J; Kim, Young-Mo

    2011-01-01

    It has been theorized that a traumatic tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the medial meniscus (MM) is the cause of the so-called meniscus ossicle (MO). We report the delayed appearance of a tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM after a valgus, twisting injury in a 12-year-old boy with open physes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans performed 3 days after the injury did not demonstrate a definitive tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM; whereas, a repeat MRI for 3 months post-injury did. Medial extrusion of the MM was also noted on the 3 month MRI. Arthroscopic reattachment of the avulsed posterior root of the MM using a trans-physeal nonabsorbable suture tied over a proximal tibia staple was performed. Follow-up MRI at 6 months postoperatively demonstrated healing of the tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM in an anatomic position. The patient had a complete resolution of symptoms and there was no angular deformity or limb-length discrepancy at 2 years postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM in a skeletally-immature patient successfully treated by a trans-physeal arthroscopic suture. This case also illustrates the development of the MO of the posterior root of the MM. PMID:20199863

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury: Hope through Research

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Traumatic Brain Injury: Hope Through Research Clinical Trials Phase 2 ... end of this document. What is a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)? A TBI occurs when physical, external ...

  17. Clinical evaluation of a single daily dose of phenylpropanolamine in the treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in the bitch

    PubMed Central

    Claeys, Stéphanie; Rustichelli, Frederico; Noël, Stéphanie; Hamaide, Annick

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the efficacy of a single daily oral dose of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) in the treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) in bitches. Nine bitches diagnosed with USMI were treated with a single daily dose [1.5 mg/kg body weight (BW)] of PPA for at least 1 month. Urethral pressure profiles (UPP) were performed in 7 dogs before treatment and repeated in 4 of them after treatment. Treatment with PPA resulted in long-term continence in 8/9 bitches. One dog did not respond to PPA and was treated surgically later. Recheck UPPs showed a significant increase in maximal urethral closure pressure in the 4 bitches after treatment with PPA compared to before treatment. In conclusion, long-term continence can be achieved in bitches affected with USMI after administration of a single daily dose of PPA (1.5 mg/kg BW). PMID:22043069

  18. Longevity of Posterior Composite Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Opdam, N.J.M.; van de Sande, F.H.; Bronkhorst, E.; Cenci, M.S.; Bottenberg, P.; Pallesen, U.; Gaengler, P.; Lindberg, A.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; van Dijken, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis, based on individual participant data from several studies, was to investigate the influence of patient-, materials-, and tooth-related variables on the survival of posterior resin composite restorations. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a search resulting in 12 longitudinal studies of direct posterior resin composite restorations with at least 5 years’ follow-up. Original datasets were still available, including placement/failure/censoring of restorations, restored surfaces, materials used, reasons for clinical failure, and caries-risk status. A database including all restorations was constructed, and a multivariate Cox regression method was used to analyze variables of interest [patient (age; gender; caries-risk status), jaw (upper; lower), number of restored surfaces, resin composite and adhesive materials, and use of glass-ionomer cement as base/liner (present or absent)]. The hazard ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals were determined, and annual failure rates were calculated for subgroups. Of all restorations, 2,816 (2,585 Class II and 231 Class I) were included in the analysis, of which 569 failed during the observation period. Main reasons for failure were caries and fracture. The regression analyses showed a significantly higher risk of failure for restorations in high-caries-risk individuals and those with a higher number of restored surfaces. PMID:25048250

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma of suprapubic cystostomy tract in a male with locally advanced primary urethral malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Boaz, Ranil Johann; John, Nirmal Thampi; Kekre, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old man with stricture urethra underwent drainage of periurethral abscess and suprapubic cystostomy (SPC) placement. He presented to us 3 months later with a fungating ulcer at the site of perineal incision, the biopsy of which revealed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). He underwent a total penile amputation, wide local excision scrotum, radical urethrocystoprostatectomy, ileal conduit with the en-bloc excision of the SPC tract. Histopathological examination of the suprapubic tract also revealed SCC. This is the first documented case of SCC of a suprapubic tract in the presence of primary urethral SCC. PMID:25624581

  20. Glans reconstruction with the use of an inverted urethral flap after distal penile amputation for carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sansalone, Salvatore; Garaffa, Giulio; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Zucchi, Alessandro; Kuehhas, Franklin Emmanuel; Herwig, Ralf; Silvani, Mauro; Pecoraro, Stefano; Loreto, Carla; Leonardi, Rosario

    2013-03-01

    Restoration of adequate cosmesis and preservation of sexual and urinary function are the main goals of penile reconstructive surgery following amputation for carcinoma. Split thickness skin grafts and oral mucosa grafts have been widely used for the creation of a pseudoglans with excellent cosmetic and functional results. The main drawbacks associated with the use of grafts are donor site morbidity, the lack of engorgement of the pseudoglans and the risk of poor graft take, which may lead to contracture and poor cosmetic results. In the present series the long term cosmetic and functional outcomes of glans reconstruction with an inverted distal urethral flap are described. PMID:23695401

  1. [Necrotizing fasciitis and double bowel perforation after retropubic sub-urethral sling].

    PubMed

    Carassou-Maillan, A; Savary, D; Jacquetin, B

    2014-10-01

    A 60-year-old woman without medical history developed after a Tension-free Vaginal Tape (TVT) procedure a necrotizing fasciitis and an abscess. After unadapted initial treatment, surgical procedure revealed 2 bowel perforations caused by the sling. Treatment was achieved by total mesh removal, bowel repair, necrosis excision and vacuum-assisted closure system. This is the first case report about the association of necrotizing fasciitis and double bowel perforations after TVT procedure. Any critical sepsis or with unsatisfactory evolution after retropubic sub-urethral sling has to make look for a digestive wound. PMID:24332737

  2. Memory for Traumatic Experiences in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordon, Ingrid M.; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Sayfan, Liat; Melinder, Annika; Goodman, Gail S.

    2004-01-01

    Traumatic experiences in early childhood raise important questions about memory development in general and about the durability and accessibility of memories for traumatic events in particular. We discuss memory for early childhood traumatic events, from a developmental perspective, focusing on those factors that may equally influence memories for…

  3. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae;…

  4. Surgical Reconstruction of the Urinary Sphincter after Traumatic Longitudinal Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Rehder, Peter; Schillfahrt, Florian; Skradski, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The question is whether the urethral sphincter may be reconstructed after longitudinal injury similar to anal sphincter injuries. Analogue to obstetric, anal sphincter repair, an approximation repair of the sphincter may be feasible. An overlap repair is possible in anal sphincter repair, but because of the little tissue available in the urethral sphincter this is not an option. We describe three cases of urethral sphincter injury of different aetiologies. All resulted in a total longitudinal disruption of the muscular components of the urethral sphincter complex. After making the diagnosis of urethral sphincter injury, a primary approximation repair was done. Follow-up of at least two and up to three years is promising with one male patient being completely continent and the two female patients needing one safety pad per day. Longitudinal disruption of the muscular elements of the sphincteric urethra may be primarily reconstructed with good success using an approximation technique with simple interrupted sutures. PMID:25258694

  5. A mild and rare form of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome presenting with urethral bleeding due to penile hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Ye?ilolva, Yavuz; K?l?nç, Ali; Aktoz, Tevfik; Onen, Abdurrrahman

    2011-02-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is characterized by a triad of cutaneous port-wine capillary malformations, hemihypertrophy, and varicose veins. Intermittent gross painless hematuria is usually the first clinical sign. An 8-year-old boy with multiple hemangiomas, including glans penis, and associated with KTS presented with urethral bleeding. Radiologic and endoscopic evaluation revealed neither intra-abdominal nor intravesical hemangioma. Urethral bleeding was thought to be related to glanular hemangioma extending to the anterior penile urethra. Although we were able to manage the case conservatively, many patients require endoscopic or surgical interventions. Radiologic and endoscopic evaluations and careful follow-up is essential for diagnosis and prompt treatment. PMID:20719363

  6. Surgical technique and results of primary repair in recent urethral injuries: a review of 49 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Janosz, F; Zieli?ski, J; Szkodny, A; Czopik, J; Piekarski, J

    1975-01-01

    Late results after primary repair in 49 recent urethral injuries of the urethra treated through a perineal approach by sutures of realignment with splinting, and suprapublic and perineal drainage were assessed by measuring urethral flow, urethrography, urine analysis and other examinations. In 15 straddle injuries the results were excellent. Of 34 injuries associated with pelvic fracture 50% had satisfactory results. 12% had marked, but tolerable difficulties in micturition. Important details of operative technique are mentioned. A preference for primary repair in comparison with early cybstostomy and delayed reconstruction of the urethra is confirmed. PMID:1233196

  7. An Important Cause of Pes Planus: The Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Erol, Kemal; Karahan, Ali Yavuz; Kerimo?lu, Ülkü; Ordahan, Banu; Tekin, Levent; ?ahin, Muhammed; Kaydok, Ercan

    2015-01-01

    Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is an important cause of acquired pes planus that frequently observed in adults. Factors that play a role in the development of PTTD such as age-related tendon degeneration, inflammatory arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, peritendinous injections and more rarely acute traumatic rupture of the tendon. PTT is the primary dynamic stabilizer of medial arch of the foot. Plantar flexion and inversion of the foot occurs with contraction of tibialis posterior tendon, and arch of the foot becomes elaveted while midtarsal joints are locked and midfoot-hindfoot sets as rigid. Thus, during the walk gastrocnemius muscle works more efficiently. If the PTT does not work in the order, other foot ligaments and joint capsule would be increasingly weak and than pes planus occurs. We present a 10-year-old female patient diagnosed as PTTD and conservative treatment with review of the current literature. PMID:25918629

  8. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J; Berkowitz, Steven J

    2015-11-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae; however, this topic has been understudied. This review considers the rationale for examining traumatic events and related symptomology in individuals with ASD and summarizes the limited research on this topic. A conceptual framework for understanding the interplay of ASD, trauma and traumatic sequelae is proposed and recommendations for future research presented. PMID:25711547

  9. [The urethral plug--an alternative treatment of women with urinary stress incontinence].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K K; Walter, S; Maegaard, E; Kromann-Andersen, B

    1995-05-29

    A developed urethral plug was evaluated for the treatment of women with genuine urinary stress incontinence. The plug consists of an oval meatal plate, a soft stalk and one or two spheres along the stalk with fixed distances between the meatal plate and the spheres. Inside the stalk is a removable semi-rigid guide pin to ease insertion. Forty women were randomly allocated to treatment with either the two-sphere or the one-sphere plug during period one (two weeks). In period two (two weeks) the patients used the other plug. They then continued with what they judged to be the better plug in period three (two months). Eighteen patients (45%) completed period three with the "preference" plug and 17 were subjectively and objectively continent or improved. Fourteen of these women preferred the two-sphere device. The plugs were equally effective in patients with mild or severe incontinence. Six women developed urinary tract infections and two of these had a plug in the bladder. The urethral plug is an effective treatment in a group of women with stress incontinence. Removal by hand is advisable in order to avoid retention of plugs in the bladder. PMID:7770983

  10. Pudendal denervation affects the structure and function of the striated, urethral sphincter in female rats.

    PubMed

    Heidkamp, M C; Leong, F C; Brubaker, L; Russell, B

    1998-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the effects of denervation on urethral anatomy and urine voiding pattern. Rats usually void at one end of their cage, which gives a behavioral index of continence. The voiding preference for denervated rats was decreased to 88.8 + 4.7%, n = 32, P < 0.001, compared to improvements with time for unoperated (117 +/- 10%, n = 16) or sham-operated rats (105 +/- 8%, n = 5). The volume of urine or the frequency of voidings between denervated, unoperated or sham-operated rats did not differ significantly. Urethral sections were analyzed immunochemically and quantified morphometrically. Smooth muscle volume remained constant but skeletal muscle volume decreased after denervation, from 43 +/- 2% to 36 +/- 3% (P < 0.05, n = 5). Fiber diameter decreased from 14.3 +/- 1.4 microm to 8.5 +/- 0.7 microm (P < 0.005). We concluded that pudendal nerve transection in female rats causes behavioral alterations in voiding and muscular atrophy of the striated sphincter. PMID:9694137

  11. The Urethral Rhabdosphincter, Levator Ani Muscle, and Perineal Membrane: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hinata, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Gen

    2014-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the rhabdosphincter and adjacent tissues is mandatory during urologic surgery to ensure reliable oncologic and functional outcomes. To characterize the levator ani (LA) function for the urethral sphincter, we described connective tissue morphology between the LA and urethral rhabdosphincter. The interface tissue between the LA and rhabdosphincter area in males contained abundant irregularly arrayed elastic fibers and smooth muscles. The male rhabdosphincter was positioned alongside the LA to divide the elevation force and not in-series along the axis of LA contraction. The male perineal membrane was thin but solid and extends along the inferior margin or bottom of the rhabdosphincter area. In contrast, the female rhabdosphincter, including the compressor urethrae and urethrovaginal sphincter muscles, was embedded in the elastic fiber mesh that is continuous with the thick, multilaminar perineal membrane. The inferomedial edge of the female LA was attached to the upper surface of the perineal membrane and not directly attached to the rhabdosphincter. We presented new diagrams showing the gender differences in topographical anatomy of the LA and rhabdosphincter. PMID:24877147

  12. Recreational urethral sounding is associated with high risk sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Benjamin N.; Shindel, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether men who perform recreational sounding are at increased risk of engaging in unsafe sexual behaviours, developing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS In a cross-sectional, international, internet-based survey of the sexual practices of >2000 men who have sex with men, subjects were asked if they had engaged in urethral sounding for sexual gratification. We compared ethnodemographic and health-related variables between the sounding and non-sounding populations. The International Prostate Symptom Score and a modified validated version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to quantify LUTS and erectile dysfunction (ED) in both populations. RESULTS There were 2122 respondents with complete data, 228 (10.7%) of whom had engaged in recreational sounding. Men who had engaged in sounding were more likely to report certain high risk sexual behaviours (e.g. multiple sexual partners and sex with partners who were not well known) and had increased odds of reporting STIs. Men who had engaged in sounding had a slight but statistically significant increase in LUTS but no significant difference in prevalence of ED. CONCLUSIONS Urethral sounding is a sexual practice that is associated with higher risk sexual behaviour and carries the potential for morbidity. Research on means for risk reduction for men who choose to engage in recreational sounding requires further study. PMID:22221824

  13. Urethral polyp-like lesions on prostatic urethra caused by Chlamydia trachomatis infection: a case report.

    PubMed

    Muranaka, Takashi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Hirose, Takaoki; Hattori, Atsuo

    2014-11-01

    Urethral polyp is one of differential diagnoses for the male patients complain of gross-hematuria and/or hematospermia. However, there have been limited numbers of case reports including infectious etiology. Here we reported clinical course and pathological findings of one rare case who was diagnosed and treated as urethral polyp-like lesions on the prostatic urethra caused by Chlamydia trachomatis infection. A 25 year-old man who had a past history of frequent sexual intercourse with unspecified female sexual partner visited the clinic. His chief complaint was gross-hematuria and hematospermia. Endoscopic findings showed that non-specific hemorrhagic polyp-like lesions. To determine the pathological findings including malignant diseases and diagnosis, transurethral resection was performed. Because the pathological findings were similar to those of chlamydial proctitis, additional examination was done. As the results, nucleic acid amplification test of C. trachomatis in urine specimen was positive and immunohistochemical staining of specific chlamydia antigen in resected specimen was also positive. Treatment by orally minocyline 100 mg twice daily for 4 weeks was introduced. After the treatment, symptom was disappeared and nucleic acid amplification test of C. trachomatis in urine specimen turned to be negative. No recurrence was reported 2 years posttreatment. PMID:25129857

  14. [Urethral Fistula and Scrotal Abscess Associated with Colovesical Fistula Due to the Sigmoid Colon Cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Uemura, Motohide; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio

    2015-09-01

    We report here a rare case of urethral fistula and scrotal abscess associated with colovesical fistula due to sigmoid colon cancer. An 84-year-old male was referred to our hospital complaining of macrohematuria, fecaluria, pneumaturia and micturitional pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed colovesical fistula. Other examinations, including colonoscopy and cystoscopy, did not reveal a clear cause for the colovesical fistula. Only an elevated serum level of the tumor marker CA19-9 suggested the possibility of sigmoid colon cancer. Eleven days after hospitalization, bilateral scrotal contents had swollen rapidly to the size of a goose egg. CT suggested urethral fistula with scrotal abscess formation. Drainage of scrotal abscess and colostomy were performed. Intraoperatively, the fistula of the bulbar urethra was revealed. Because increased serum CA19-9 suggested a diagnosis of sigmoid colon cancer, cystectomy and sigmoid colectomy with right nephrectomy were performed. Pathological examination revealed adenocarcinoma of sigmoid colon with bladder invasion. His condition was improved with rehabilitation 6 months after operation. PMID:26497865

  15. NATIONAL TRAUMATIC OCCUPATIONAL FATALITIES (NTOF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system is a death certificate-based census of occupational injury deaths. Death certificates are obtained from the 50 States, New York City, and the District of Columbia for decedent's ages 16 years or older with ...

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury Inpatient Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Brian; Schrer, Marcia J.; Gaeta, Raphael; Elias, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) can cause multiple medical and functional problems. As the brain is involved in regulating nearly every bodily function, a TBI can affect any part of the body and aspect of cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning. However, TBI affects each individual differently. Optimal management requires understanding the…

  17. Evaluation after Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudel, Tina M.; Halper, James; Pines, Hayley; Cancro, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    It is important to determine if a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has occurred when an individual is assessed in a hospital emergency room after a car accident, fall, or other injury that affects the head. This determination influences decisions about treatment. It is essential to screen for the injury, because the sooner they begin appropriate…

  18. Responding after a Traumatic Event

    E-print Network

    Wapstra, Erik

    to physical safety such as a suicide or serious fire on campus. THE IMPACT OF A TRAUMATIC EVENT Exposure to plan an appropriate response · Assisting staff to draft emails or letters regarding the incident on their wellbeing and offering any practical assistance · Setting up a support room where those affected can find

  19. Reconsidering Post-Traumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This article serves to challenge the prevailing wisdom that suggests that most trauma is followed by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and is best treated with critical incident stress debriefing (CISD). Instead, recent evidence suggests that many individuals exposed to stress do not experience stress responses. Even those who do, however,…

  20. A Review of Lesions of the Posterior Fourchette, Posterior Vestibule (Fossa Navicularis), and Hymen.

    PubMed

    Heller, Debra S

    2015-07-01

    Lesions specific to the posterior fourchette, posterior vestibule (fossa navicularis), and hymen are reviewed. Knowledge of these regional lesions will be helpful if such a patient is encountered. PMID:25943866

  1. Assessment of the aetiological factors of non-specific (non gonococcal) urethritis, taking burning micturition as criteria.

    PubMed

    Kuravi, A

    1999-01-01

    Out of 90 cases of non-specific urethritis investigated, aetiological factors could be found in 58 cases. However, in 45 cases i.e. 50%, the causative factors turned out to be common factors like pyogenic, fungal, and trichomonal infections only. PMID:20921633

  2. Outcomes of Direct Vision Internal Urethrotomy for Bulbar Urethral Strictures: Technique Modification with High Dose Triamcinolone Injection

    PubMed Central

    Modh, Rishi; Cai, Peter Y.; Sheffield, Alyssa; Yeung, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the recurrence rate of bulbar urethral strictures managed with cold knife direct vision internal urethrotomy and high dose corticosteroid injection. Methods. 28 patients with bulbar urethral strictures underwent direct vision internal urethrotomy with high dose triamcinolone injection into the periurethral tissue and were followed up for recurrence. Results. Our cohort had a mean age of 60 years and average stricture length of 1.85?cm, and 71% underwent multiple previous urethral stricture procedures with an average of 5.7 procedures each. Our technique modification of high dose corticosteroid injection had a recurrence rate of 29% at a mean follow-up of 20 months with a low rate of urinary tract infections. In patients who failed treatment, mean time to stricture recurrence was 7 months. Patients who were successfully treated had significantly better International Prostate Symptom Scores at 6, 9, and 12 months. There was no significant difference in maximum flow velocity on Uroflowmetry at last follow-up but there was significant difference in length of follow-up (p = 0.02). Conclusions. High dose corticosteroid injection at the time of direct vision internal urethrotomy is a safe and effective procedure to delay anatomical and symptomatic recurrence of bulbar urethral strictures, particularly in those who are poor candidates for urethroplasty. PMID:26576148

  3. [Laser capsulotomy in cases of posterior capsule opacity in pseudophakia, aphakia and traumatic cataracts].

    PubMed

    Palacz, O; Sylwestrzak, Z; Palacz, A

    1993-01-01

    The results of Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy performed in 94 eyes of 90 patients (48 males and 42 females) are presented. Visual acuity 0.5 and better was achieved in 58.4% of cases. The authors discussed the techniques of the operations and some possible complications. PMID:8072276

  4. Secondary closure of posterior continuous circular capsulorhexis.

    PubMed

    Tassignon, M J; De Groot, V; Smets, R M; Tawab, B; Vervecken, F

    1996-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that removing the center of the posterior capsule would reduce the risk for posterior opacification (PCO). We considered the prevalence of post-operative complications after PCCC like retinal detachment and cystoid macular edema, as found after Nd-YAG laser capsulotomy. PMID:9009367

  5. RESEARCH ARTICLE Posterior Probability Matching and Human

    E-print Network

    Murray, Richard

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Posterior Probability Matching and Human Perceptual Decision Making Richard F making that was first developed in mod- els of cognition. Posterior probability matching, a variant probability matching behaviour, and our meth- ods provide new tools for testing for such a strategy. Author

  6. The management of moderate and severe congenital penile torsion associated with hypospadias: Urethral mobilisation is not a panacea against torsion

    PubMed Central

    Elbakry, Adel; Zakaria, Ahmed; Matar, Adel; El Nashar, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of urethral mobilisation for correcting moderate and severe penile torsion associated with distal hypospadias. Patients and methods Nineteen patients with distal hypospadias and congenital moderate and severe penile torsion were treated surgically. The hypospadias was at the distal shaft, coronal and glanular in seven, eight and four patients, respectively, and six had mild chordee. The mean (SD, range) angle of torsion was 94.7 (19.9, 75–160)°. The urethra was mobilised down to the perineum. If the urethral mobilisation was insufficient the right border of the tunica albuginea was anchored to the pubic periosteum. The hypospadias was repaired using the urethral mobilisation and advancement technique, with a triangular plate flap for meatoplasty. The patients were followed up for 12–18 months. Results All patients had a successful functional and cosmetic outcome, with no residual torsion. Two patients had a small subcutaneous haematoma that resolved after conservative treatment. Massive oedema occurred in three patients and was treated conservatively. Urethral mobilisation did not correct the penile torsion completely. Although the mean (SD, range) angle of torsion was reduced to 86.1 (14.3, 65–130)°, statistically significantly different (P = 0.001), it was not clinically important. The presence of chordee had no significant correlation with the reduction of penile torsion. Conclusion Urethral mobilisation cannot completely correct moderate and severe penile torsion but it might only partly decrease the angle of torsion. Periosteal anchoring of the tunica albuginea might be the most reliable manoeuvre for the complete correction of penile torsion.

  7. Posterior capsule staining and posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis in congenital cataract.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Taketoshi; Yamamoto, Narumichi

    2002-11-01

    We report 2 cases of indocyanine green (ICG) staining used for posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (PCCC) in congenital cataract combined with anterior vitrectomy. In the first case, because of corneal opacity, the visibility of the posterior capsule was poor without staining. After the extraction of the cataract, a PCCC was performed after ICG staining of the posterior capsule. In the second case, after cataract removal, ICG staining was used to better visualize the posterior capsule. In both cases, the PCCC was successfully completed because of better visualization of the stained posterior capsule flap against the transparent anterior hyaloid face of the vitreous. Clear visual axes have been maintained. PMID:12457683

  8. Urethral Trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Conditions What is Urology? The Urinary Tract System Free Patient Education Materials We provide free patient education ... Materials For Health Care Providers Browse Through Our Free Educational Materials We provide free patient education materials ...

  9. Urethral Diverticulum

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tender anterior vaginal wall mass, which upon gentle compression may reveal retained urine or pus discharge through ... of stress urinary incontinence prior to repair. A video-urodynamic study may also be used as a ...

  10. Radiographic assessment of posterior malleolar ankle fractures.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Olga; Fleming, Justin J; Meyr, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the posterior tibial malleolus plays an important role in the structure and function of the ankle mortise. With specific respect to ankle fractures, the presence, size, and displacement of posterior malleolar fractures (Volkmann's fracture) helps determine which will be amendable to operative fixation. The objective of the present study was to increase the body of knowledge with respect to the ability of foot and ankle reconstructive surgeons to assess posterior malleolar ankle fractures using plain film radiography. Three different variables were investigated on Sawbones(®) models: (1) differing size of posterior malleolar fractures (10%, 25%, and 50% of the tibial plafond), (2) differing displacement of posterior malleolar fractures (0 and 5 mm of proximal displacement), and (3) 2 different radiographic projections (standard lateral and externally rotated lateral projections). Accurate identification of the posterior malleolar fracture occurred on 86.67% (26 of 30) of standard lateral radiographs and 100% (30 of 30) of externally rotated lateral radiographs. Furthermore, the surgeons described the fracture with greater precision and had greater interclass correlation coefficient values with respect to measurement of sagittal plane displacement (0.977 versus 0.939) and percentage of involvement of the tibial plafond (0.972 versus 0.775) with an externally rotated lateral projection compared with a standard lateral projection. Our results provide evidence that an externally rotated lateral radiographic projection can provide surgeons with some additional information with respect to the presence, size, and displacement of posterior malleolar ankle fractures. PMID:25262838

  11. Congenital basis of posterior fossa anomalies.

    PubMed

    Cotes, Claudia; Bonfante, Eliana; Lazor, Jillian; Jadhav, Siddharth; Caldas, Maria; Swischuk, Leonard; Riascos, Roy

    2015-06-01

    The classification of posterior fossa congenital anomalies has been a controversial topic. Advances in genetics and imaging have allowed a better understanding of the embryologic development of these abnormalities. A new classification schema correlates the embryologic, morphologic, and genetic bases of these anomalies in order to better distinguish and describe them. Although they provide a better understanding of the clinical aspects and genetics of these disorders, it is crucial for the radiologist to be able to diagnose the congenital posterior fossa anomalies based on their morphology, since neuroimaging is usually the initial step when these disorders are suspected. We divide the most common posterior fossa congenital anomalies into two groups: 1) hindbrain malformations, including diseases with cerebellar or vermian agenesis, aplasia or hypoplasia and cystic posterior fossa anomalies; and 2) cranial vault malformations. In addition, we will review the embryologic development of the posterior fossa and, from the perspective of embryonic development, will describe the imaging appearance of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. Knowledge of the developmental bases of these malformations facilitates detection of the morphological changes identified on imaging, allowing accurate differentiation and diagnosis of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. PMID:26246090

  12. Prostatic urethral lift: A minimally invasive treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Cindy; Chin, Peter; Rashid, Prem; Woo, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic urethral lift (PUL) is a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The procedure may be performed under local, spinal, or general anesthesia. The PUL procedure involves the delivery of implants that retract obstructing prostate lobes. Unlike other benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment options including pharmacological therapy, and the current invasive gold-standard transurethral resection of the prostate, the PUL procedure achieves quantifiable improvements in functional outcomes and quality of life, in the absence of major adverse events. Furthermore, improvement in LUTS may be attained while preserving erectile and ejaculatory function. Adverse effects associated with the PUL procedure are mild to moderate, and are transient in nature. The PUL procedure provides an alternative for men seeking treatment for bothersome LUTS, with fewer side-effects. PMID:26157759

  13. 45 CFR 1308.16 - Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. 1308.16 Section 1308.16...1308.16 Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. A child is classified as having traumatic brain injury whose brain injuries are...

  14. 45 CFR 1308.16 - Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. 1308.16 Section 1308.16...1308.16 Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. A child is classified as having traumatic brain injury whose brain injuries are...

  15. 45 CFR 1308.16 - Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. 1308.16 Section 1308.16...1308.16 Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. A child is classified as having traumatic brain injury whose brain injuries are...

  16. 45 CFR 1308.16 - Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. 1308.16 Section 1308.16...1308.16 Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. A child is classified as having traumatic brain injury whose brain injuries are...

  17. 45 CFR 1308.16 - Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. 1308.16 Section 1308.16...1308.16 Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. A child is classified as having traumatic brain injury whose brain injuries are...

  18. Compliance With Guideline Statements for Urethral Catheterization in an Iranian Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Taleschian-Tabrizi, Negar; Farhadi, Fereshteh; Madani, Neda; Mokhtarkhani, Mohaddeseh; Kolahdouzan, Kasra; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is believed that healthcare staff play an important role in minimizing complications related to urethral catheterization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not healthcare staff complied with the standards for urethral catheterization. Methods: This study was conducted in Imam Reza teaching hospital, Tabriz, Iran, from July to September 2013. A total of 109 catheterized patients were selected randomly from surgical and medical wards and intensive care units (ICUs). A questionnaire was completed by healthcare staff for each patient to assess quality of care provided for catheter insertion, while catheter in situ, draining and changing catheter bags. Items of the questionnaire were obtained from guidelines for the prevention of infection. Data analysis was performed with SPSS 16. Results: The mean age of the patients was 50.54 ± 22.13. Of the 109 patients, 56.88% were admitted to ICUs. The mean duration of catheter use was 15.86 days. Among the 25 patients who had a urinalysis test documented in their hospital records, 11 were positive for urinary tract infection (UTI). The lowest rate of hand-washing was reported before bag drainage (49.52%). The closed drainage catheter system was not available at all. Among the cases who had a daily genital area cleansing, in 27.63% cases, the patients or their family members performed the washing. In 66.35% of cases, multiple-use lubricant gel was applied; single-use gel was not available. The rate of documentation for bag change was 79%. Conclusion: The majority of the guideline statements was adhered to; however, some essential issues, such as hand hygiene were neglected. And some patients were catheterized routinely without proper indication. Limiting catheter use to mandatory situations and encouraging compliance with guidelines are recommended. PMID:26673464

  19. SIU/ICUD Consultation on Urethral Strictures: Anterior urethra-lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Laurence; McCammon, Kurt; Metro, Michael; Virasoro, Ramon

    2014-03-01

    We reviewed the current literature on lichen sclerosus as it related to urethral stricture disease using MEDLINE and PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) up to the current time. We identified 65 reports, 40 of which were considered relevant and form the basis of this review. Lichen sclerosus is now the accepted term, and balanitis xerotica obliterans is no longer acceptable. This common chronic inflammatory skin condition, mainly affecting the genitalia, remains an enigma, with uncertain etiology, varied presentation, and multiple treatments. In the early stages of the condition, a short course of steroids may be beneficial for some patients. If persistent, patients need long-term surveillance because of the potential development of squamous cell carcinoma. If diagnosed early, lichen sclerosus can be controlled, preventing progression. But once the disease has progressed, it is very difficult to treat. Surgical treatment by circumcision can be curative if the disease is treated early when still localized. Once progression to urethral involvement has occurred, treatment is much more difficult. Meatal stenosis alone is likely to require meatotomy or meatoplasty. Treatment of the involved urethra requires urethroplasty. Single-stage and multiple-stage procedures using oral mucosa have both been reported to give acceptable results, but the use of skin, genital or nongenital, is not recommended, because being skin, it remains prone to lichen sclerosus. With extensive disease, affecting the full length of the urethra, consideration should be given to perineal urethrostomy. A significant number of patients may prefer this simpler option. PMID:24268357

  20. A de-epithelialised 'turnover dartos flap' in the repair of urethral fistula.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev B

    2009-03-01

    We report our experience in the management of urethrocutaneous fistulae following hypospadias repair by using a turnover, de-epithelialiszed dartos flap. From May 2003 to June 2007 we operated on 10 patients with urethral fistulae following hypospadias repair. Their ages ranged from 4 to 25 years (mean: 7 years). Four of these patients had their urethroplasty done elsewhere and reported for fistula repair alone. These four patients had no record of the urethroplasty procedure that was used. A solitary fistula was located at the corona in two patients, on the mid-shaft in three patients, and proximal penile in one patient. Two patients had multiple fistulae on the shaft, one patient had two fistulae on the shaft, and one patient had a long fistula from the proximal penile to peno-scrotal region. The technique involves using a circumscribing incision around the fistula and closing the inner skin edges by an inverting subcuticular stitch to form the urethral layer. A flap is marked on the skin adjacent to the circumscribing incision and de-epithelialised. It is raised with underlying dartos fascia/muscle and turned over the first layer of closure and secured. The vascular supply to the flap is based on a hinge of tissue around the defect. A long skin flap developed from shaft or the scrotum is approximated over this layer to complete the repair. Alternatively, the skin is closed in a 'pants over vest' technique. An indwelling catheter is placed for 3-4 days. Nine patients healed without complications, and one patient with multiple fistulae on the shaft had a residual tiny pin-point fistula which closed spontaneously. Thus, the success rate with this technique was 100%. Although dartos flaps have been used for many years as a waterproofing layer in urethroplasties or while repairing urethrocutaneous fistulae, their use as a 'de-epithelialised turnover flap' provides another reliable tool in the surgical repertoire. PMID:18640885

  1. A Posterior Approach for Microphone Array Based Speech Recognition 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Dong; Himawan, Ivan; Frankel, Joe; King, Simon

    2008-01-01

    posterior-based approach for array-based speech recognition. The main idea is, instead of enhancing speech signals, we try to enhance the posterior probabilities that frames belonging to recognition units, e.g., phones. These enhanced posteriors...

  2. Congenital Hairy Polyp of Posterior Tonsillar Pillar

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Shahid; Talat, Nabila; Saleem, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Congenital hairy polyps are exceedingly rare congenital anomalies. We report a case of congenital hairy polyp arising from posterior tonsillar pillar which was excised with bipolar cautry. PMID:26023478

  3. Posterior Hip Pain in an Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Grumet, Robert C.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Posterior hip pain is a relatively uncommon but increasingly recognized complaint in the orthopaedic community. Patient complaints and presentations are often vague or nonspecific, making diagnosis and subsequent treatment decisions difficult. The purposes of this article are to review the anatomy and pathophysiology related to posterior hip pain in the athletic patient population. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature via a MEDLINE search of all relevant articles between 1980 and 2010. Results: Many patients who complain of posterior hip pain actually have pain referred from another part of the body—notably, the lumbar spine or sacroiliac joint. Treatment options for posterior hip pain are typically nonoperative; however, surgery is warranted in some cases. Conclusions: Recent advancements in the understanding of hip anatomy, pathophysiology, and treatment options have enabled physicians to better diagnosis athletic hip injuries and select patients for appropriate treatment. PMID:23015944

  4. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Treatment (Posterior Blepharitis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Treatment What are Meibomian (Oil) Glands? Meibomian glands are glands that are arranged ... lashes. The force of an eyelid blink causes oil to be excreted onto the posterior lid margin. ...

  5. Confidence measures from local posterior probability estimates 

    E-print Network

    Williams, Gethin; Renals, Steve

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a set of related confidence measures for large vocabulary continuous speech recognition (LVCSR) based on local phone posterior probability estimates output by an acceptor HMM acoustic model. In ...

  6. A comparison of surgical outcomes of perineal urethrostomy plus penile resection and perineal urethrostomy in twelve calves with perineal or prescrotal urethral dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Marzok, M.A.; El-khodery, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis, ultrasonographic findings, surgical management, outcome, and survival rate of perineal or prescrotal urethral dilatation in 12 male calves are described. All calves were crossbred and intact males. The most noticeable clinical presentations were perineal (n= 10) or prescrotal (n= 2) swellings and micturition problems. The main ultrasonographic findings were oval shaped dilatation of the urethra in all animals with dimensions of 40-75 X 30-62 mm. The calves with perineal urethral dilatation were treated by perineal urethrostomy (n= 4) and partial penile transection including the dilated urethra and urethral fistulation (n= 6). Prescrotal urethral dilatations were treated by penile transection proximal to the dilatation site (n= 2). Cystitis and stricture of the urethra were recorded postoperatively for two of the calves that underwent perineal urethrostomy. Nine animals were slaughtered at normal body weight approximately 6-8 months after the surgical treatment. Three animals were slaughtered after approximately three to four months, two of them having gained insufficient body weight. Our study shows that ultrasonography is a useful tool for the diagnosis of urethral dilatation in bovine calves. Our study also shows that the partial penile transection may be a suitable and satisfactory choice of surgical treatment for correcting the urethral dilatation in bovine calves.

  7. An unusual cause of posterior mediastinal cyst

    PubMed Central

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Muthu, Valliappan; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the mediastinum may be congenital or acquired. The differential diagnosis depends on their location in the mediastinum. Cysts in the posterior mediastinum are generally developmental cysts and are neurogenic or of foregut origin. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy, who presented with dry cough and progressively increasing breathlessness, and was found to have a cystic lesion in the posterior mediastinum. Fine needle aspiration from the cyst helped make a diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  8. Posterior Shoulder Instability in Overhead Athletes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward S; Greco, Nicholas J; McClincy, Michael P; Bradley, James P

    2016-01-01

    Posterior shoulder instability in overhead athletes presents a unique and difficult challenge. Often, this group has an inherent capsular laxity and/or humeral retroversion to accommodate the range of motion necessary to throw. This adaptation makes the diagnosis of posterior capsulolabral pathology challenging, as the examiner must differentiate between adaptive capsular laxity and pathologic instability. Further complicating matters, the intraoperative surgeon must find the delicate balance of achieving stability while still allowing the necessary range of motion. PMID:26614932

  9. Posterior Wnts Have Distinct Roles in Specification and Patterning of the Planarian Posterior Region.

    PubMed

    Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Pascual-Carreras, Eudald; Adell, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The wnt signaling pathway is an intercellular communication mechanism essential in cell-fate specification, tissue patterning and regional-identity specification. A ?catenin-dependent signal specifies the AP (Anteroposterior) axis of planarians, both during regeneration of new tissues and during normal homeostasis. Accordingly, four wnts (posterior wnts) are expressed in a nested manner in central and posterior regions of planarians. We have analyzed the specific role of each posterior wnt and the possible cooperation between them in specifying and patterning planarian central and posterior regions. We show that each posterior wnt exerts a distinct role during re-specification and maintenance of the central and posterior planarian regions, and that the integration of the different wnt signals (?catenin dependent and independent) underlies the patterning of the AP axis from the central region to the tip of the tail. Based on these findings and data from the literature, we propose a model for patterning the planarian AP axis. PMID:26556349

  10. Posterior Wnts Have Distinct Roles in Specification and Patterning of the Planarian Posterior Region

    PubMed Central

    Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Pascual-Carreras, Eudald; Adell, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The wnt signaling pathway is an intercellular communication mechanism essential in cell-fate specification, tissue patterning and regional-identity specification. A ?catenin-dependent signal specifies the AP (Anteroposterior) axis of planarians, both during regeneration of new tissues and during normal homeostasis. Accordingly, four wnts (posterior wnts) are expressed in a nested manner in central and posterior regions of planarians. We have analyzed the specific role of each posterior wnt and the possible cooperation between them in specifying and patterning planarian central and posterior regions. We show that each posterior wnt exerts a distinct role during re-specification and maintenance of the central and posterior planarian regions, and that the integration of the different wnt signals (?catenin dependent and independent) underlies the patterning of the AP axis from the central region to the tip of the tail. Based on these findings and data from the literature, we propose a model for patterning the planarian AP axis. PMID:26556349

  11. Surgically Confirmed Intra- and Extratesticular Hematoma Clinically Mimicing Epididymo-Orchitis and Radiologically Mimicing Traumatic Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Sinan; Kaygisiz, Mustafa; Oztas, Muharrem; Turgut, Mustafa Suphi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Scrotal blunt trauma may result in injuries, such as testicular rupture, dislocation, torsion, hematoma, spermatic cord injury or contusion, and epididymal, scrotal, and urethral injuries. Ultrasonography (US) has a crucial role in the evaluation of those kinds of pathologies. Early diagnosis of testicular rupture may lead to the salvaging of the testicle by prompt surgical exploration within 72 h. Case Report A 21-year-old male with right scrotal swelling and pain complaints was admitted to another hospital one month ago. Epididymo-orchitis was diagnosed and the patient was given medical treatment. The patient was admitted to our emergency service with ongoing complaints. The patient stated that the pain and swelling suddenly developed after prolonged marching. On US, a large hematoma was detected between the leaves of the tunica vaginalis, and rupture from the lower pole was diagnosed. On color Doppler US, no vascularity was observed in the heterogeneous testicular parenchyma. Traumatic torsion was primarily suggested. Intraoperatively, an extratesticular hematoma, hematocele, and rupture were confirmed but torsion was not found. Because the hematoma entirely replaced the normal parenchyma, orchiectomy was performed. Conclusions Testicular rupture may occur even after moderate sportive action such as prolonged marching. If any delay occurs in diagnosis and/or operation, the coagulum may replace the entire parenchyma. We think that US and clinical findings may sometimes mislead the physicians and cause misdiagnoses, such as inflammation or torsion. In this paper, we present a complex delayed diagnosed example case of testicular rupture clinically mimicing epididymo-orchitis and radiologically mimicing traumatic testicular torsion. PMID:26600877

  12. Arthroscopic Repair of Inferior Labrum From Anterior to Posterior Lesions Associated With Multidirectional Instability of the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Burt, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder may arise spontaneously; however, recent evidence suggests that traumatic events may play a role in this syndrome. Variable degrees of injury around the circumference of the glenoid have been reported, ranging from Bankart and Kim lesions to 270° of injury and even 360° of injury. Hyperabduction injury may cause inferior subluxation of the shoulder and result in traumatic isolated injury to the inferior labrum from anterior to posterior. This particular lesion spans approximately 180° of the inferior hemisphere and may lead to symptomatic MDI. In contrast to open or arthroscopic plication procedures for atraumatic MDI without labral injury, the goal in these cases is anatomic arthroscopic repair of the inferior labrum tear without the need for capsular plication, volume reduction, or rotator interval closure. PMID:25685683

  13. Traumatic Bonding: Clinical Implications in Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deYoung, Mary; Lowry, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    "Traumatic bonding" is defined as "the evolution of emotional dependency between...a child and an adult [in] a relationship characterized by periodic sexual abuse." Maintains that the concept holds promise for explaining confusing dynamics of incest. Demonstrates ways in which traumatic bonding can be applied to cases of incest and discusses…

  14. The Effects of Traumatic and Abusive Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orzeck, Tricia L.; Rokach, Ami; Chin, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to understand what constitutes a traumatic relationship experience for adults in abusive intimate relationships and what effects, losses, and coping strategies were the most salient for these participants. A total of 101 individuals (42 males, 59 females) who reported experiencing an abusive or traumatic relationship…

  15. Liver scan in traumatic right hemidiaphragmatic hernia

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Liver imaging was performed in two patients with traumatic right hemidiaphragmatic hernia. It has elucidated the cause of obliteration of the right hemidiaphragmatic shadow on the chest x-ray. These cases are illustrative of the usefulness of liver imaging in the diagnosis of traumatic right hemidiaphragmatic hernia as well as hepatic injury.

  16. Traumatic atlanto-occipital dissociation presenting as locked-in syndrome.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rupen; Kinon, Merritt D; Loriaux, Daniel B; Bagley, Carlos A

    2015-12-01

    We present an unusual presentation of unstable atlanto-occipital dissociation as locked-in syndrome. Traumatic atlanto-occipital dissociation is a severe injury that accounts for 15-20% of all fatal cervical spinal injuries. A disruption occurs between the tectorial ligaments connecting the occipital condyle to the superior articulating facets of the atlas, resulting in anterior, longitudinal, or posterior translation, and it may be associated with Type III odontoid fractures. Furthermore, the dissociation may be complete (atlanto-occipital dislocation) or incomplete (atlanto-occipital subluxation), with neurologic findings ranging from normal to complete quadriplegia with respiratory compromise. PMID:26190221

  17. Viability and MR detectability of iron labeled mesenchymal stem cells used for endoscopic injection into the porcine urethral sphincter.

    PubMed

    Will, Susanne; Martirosian, Petros; Eibofner, Frank; Schick, Fritz; Bantleon, Rüdiger; Vaegler, Martin; Grözinger, Gerd; Claussen, Claus D; Kramer, Ulrich; Schmehl, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    Direct stem cell therapies for functionally impaired tissue require a sufficient number of cells in the target region and a method for verifying the fate of the cells in the subsequent time course. In vivo MRI of iron labeled mesenchymal stem cells has been suggested to comply with these requirements. The study was conducted to evaluate proliferation, migration, differentiation and adhesion effects as well as the obtained iron load of an iron labeling strategy for mesenchymal stem cells. After injection into the porcine urethral sphincter, the labeled cells were monitored for up to six months using MRI. Mesenchymal stem cells were labeled with ferucarbotran (60/100/200 µg/mL) and ferumoxide (200 µg/mL) for the analysis of migration and viability. Phantom MR measurements were made to evaluate effects of iron labeling. For short and long term studies, the iron labeled cells were injected into the porcine urethral sphincter and monitored by MRI. High resolution anatomical images of the porcine urethral sphincter were applied for detection of the iron particles with a turbo-spin-echo sequence and a gradient-echo sequence with multiple TE values. The MR images were then compared with histological staining. The analysis of cell function after iron labeling showed no effects on proliferation or differentiation of the cells. Although the adherence increases with higher iron dose, the ability to migrate decreases as a presumed effect of iron labeling. The iron labeled mesenchymal stem cells were detectable in vivo in MRI and histological staining even six months after injection. Labeling with iron particles and subsequent evaluation with highly resolved three dimensional data acquisition allows sensitive tracking of cells injected into the porcine urethral sphincter for several months without substantial biological effects on mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:26147577

  18. Chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) blending hydrogel coating improves the surface characteristics of segmented polyurethane urethral catheters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Hua; Lee, Yu-Sheng J; Lin, Feng-Huei; Yang, Jen-Ming; Chen, Ko-Shau

    2007-11-01

    Segmented polyurethane (SPU) is commonly used to manufacture urethral catheters. Surface modifications for SPU catheters are needed to reduce friction and protein adsorption, in order to minimize catheter-related complications, including urethral trauma, encrustation, catheter obstruction, bacterial colonization, and infection. In this study, a four-step surface modification method was developed to create a thin lubricious layer of chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel on the SPU catheter. Modification steps included oxidation of the SPU surface, functionalities modification, carbodiimide reaction and coupling, and hydrogel crosslinking. The success of each modification step was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Measurement of the water contact angle revealed that hydrogel coating created a highly hydrophilic surface and atomic force microscope analyses demonstrated that the surface was slippery. Protein absorption of the SPU catheter was significantly reduced by coating hydrogel. Chitosan in the hydrogel could provide antimicrobial activity, and the hydrogel coating SPU samples showed significant antibacterial effects in this study. In summary, the four-step modification method developed in this study provided a simple and effective way to coat the surface of SPU catheters with a chitosan/PVA blending hydrogel that could help to minimize the risk of complications related to the use of urethral catheters. PMID:17410571

  19. Surgical Repair of Bulbar Urethral Strictures: Advantages of Ventral, Dorsal, and Lateral Approaches and When to Choose Them

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Krishnan; Blakely, Stephen; Nikolavsky, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To review the available literature describing the three most common approaches for buccal mucosal graft (BMG) augmentation during reconstruction of bulbar urethral strictures. Due to its excellent histological properties, buccal mucosa graft is now routinely used in urethral reconstruction. The best approach for the placement of such a graft remains controversial. Methods. PubMed search was conducted for available English literature describing outcomes of bulbar urethroplasty augmentation techniques using dorsal, ventral, and lateral approaches. Prospective and retrospective studies as well as meta-analyses and latest systematic reviews were included. Results. Most of the studies reviewed are of retrospective nature and majority described dorsal or ventral approaches. Medium- and long-term outcomes of all three approaches were comparable ranging between 80 and 88%. Conclusion. Various techniques of BMG augmentation urethroplasty have been described for repairs of bulbar urethral strictures. In this review, we describe and compare the three most common “competing” approaches for bulbar urethroplasty with utilization of BMG. PMID:26576149

  20. The second nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from male urethritis in Japan, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Uehara, Shinya; Hayami, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Shingo; Minamitani, Shinichi; Watanabe, Akira; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kadota, Junichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Naito, Seiji; Kuroiwa, Kentaro; Hirayama, Hideo; Narita, Harunori; Hosobe, Takahide; Ito, Shin; Ito, Kenji; Kawai, Shuichi; Ito, Masayasu; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Matsumura, Masaru; Yoshioka, Masaru; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Takayama, Kazuo; Kaji, Shinichi; Kawahara, Motoshi; Sumii, Toru; Kadena, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Maeda, Shinichi; Nishi, Shohei; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Shirane, Takeshi; Yoh, Mutsumasa; Akiyama, Kikuo; Imai, Toshio; Kano, Motonori

    2015-05-01

    Worldwide, the most important concern in the treatment of sexually transmitted infections is the increase in antimicrobial resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains including resistance to cephalosporins, penicillins, fluoroquinolones or macrolides. To investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility among N. gonorrhoeae strains isolated from male patients with urethritis, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the second nationwide surveillance study. Urethral discharge was collected from male patients with urethritis at 26 medical facilities from March 2012 to January 2013. Of the 151 specimens, 103 N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested for susceptibility to 20 antimicrobial agents. None of the strains was resistant to ceftriaxone, but the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 90% of ceftriaxone increased to 0.125 ?g/ml, and 11 (10.7%) strains were considered less susceptible with an MIC of 0.125 ?g/ml. There were 11 strains resistant to cefixime, and the MICs of these strains were 0.5 ?g/ml. The distributions of the MICs of fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tosufloxacin, were bimodal. Sitafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, showed strong activity against all strains, including strains resistant to other three fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tosufloxacin. The azithromycin MICs in 2 strains were 1 ?g/ml. PMID:25727286

  1. Arthroscopic Findings After Traumatic Shoulder Instability in Patients Older Than 35 Years

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elisabeth C.; Thangamani, Vijay B.; Kuhn, Michael A.; Ross, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shoulder instability in the older patient traditionally has received less attention in the literature than in the younger patient population. However, when traumatic dislocation does occur, these patients often still have frequent pain, disability, and even continued instability. Purpose: To characterize the pathoanatomy of traumatic anterior shoulder instability in the older patient population and to discuss the correlating symptoms that ultimately led to operative treatment. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Patients with a history of an initial traumatic anterior shoulder instability event occurring after the age of 35 years who underwent arthroscopic surgical intervention were prospectively enrolled. Exclusion criteria included posterior instability, major fractures of the shoulder girdle, and multidirectional instability. All patients initially underwent a period of nonoperative rehabilitation. Operative treatment was performed if a patient continued to have pain and/or instability. Operative reports and arthroscopic pictures were reviewed for pathoanatomical findings. Results: A total of 27 patients (28 shoulders) met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed in this study (22 men and 5 women; mean age, 55 years; age range, 35-74 years). Surgical intervention was performed for recurrent instability in 7 patients, pain for 8 patients, and pain with instability for 13 patients. Arthroscopic findings demonstrated 18 rotator cuff tears (RCTs) (64.3%) and 18 Bankart lesions (64.3%). Nine patients had both an RCT combined with a Bankart lesion (32.1%). Three humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (HAGL) lesions (10.7%) and 2 anterior labral periosteal sleeve avulsion (ALPSA) lesions (7.1%) were found. All shoulders demonstrated Hill-Sachs lesions of various size and depth. Conclusion: Traumatic shoulder instability in the older patient may result in a wide array of pathologic findings as well as a diversity of clinical presentations. These findings suggest that the clinical diagnostician should maintain a high index of suspicion for RCT, Bankart lesions, and HAGL lesions in older patients who remain symptomatic after traumatic anterior shoulder instability.

  2. The Spectrum of Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Ann C.; Stein, Thor D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Alvarez, Victor E.; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Hall, Garth; Wojtowicz, Sydney M.; Baugh, Christine M.; Riley, David O.; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Cormier, Kerry A.; Jacobs, Matthew A.; Martin, Brett R.; Abraham, Carmela R.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Reichard, Robert Ross; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Goldstein, Lee E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Cantu, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive tauopathy that occurs as a consequence of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. We analysed post-mortem brains obtained from a cohort of 85 subjects with histories of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury and found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in 68 subjects: all males, ranging…

  3. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Removal Contributes to Abnormal Knee Motion during Posterior Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty

    E-print Network

    Delp, Scott

    the prosthesis. Passively flexing and extending the knee, we calculated anterior femoral translationPosterior Cruciate Ligament Removal Contributes to Abnormal Knee Motion during Posterior Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty Melinda J. Cromie,1,2 Robert A. Siston,1,2,3,4 Nicholas J. Giori,2,5 Scott L

  4. Incidence of posterior capsule opacification in eyes with and without posterior chamber intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Nishi, O

    1986-09-01

    The incidence of posterior capsule opacification after extracapsular cataract extraction was significantly lower in eyes implanted with posterior chamber intraocular lenses than in nonimplanted eyes. The number of loops fixated in the bag was significantly smaller in the eyes that became opacified than in those that did not. These findings suggest that the posterior chamber lens suppresses the two processes that lead to opacification: the development of a ring-shaped opacity at the site of contact between the anterior capsule rim and the posterior capsule and the migration of lens epithelial cells toward the center of the capsule. These suppressive effects were greater when the posterior chamber lens was fixated in the bag. PMID:3772787

  5. Posterior predictive checking of multiple imputation models.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cattram D; Lee, Katherine J; Carlin, John B

    2015-07-01

    Multiple imputation is gaining popularity as a strategy for handling missing data, but there is a scarcity of tools for checking imputation models, a critical step in model fitting. Posterior predictive checking (PPC) has been recommended as an imputation diagnostic. PPC involves simulating "replicated" data from the posterior predictive distribution of the model under scrutiny. Model fit is assessed by examining whether the analysis from the observed data appears typical of results obtained from the replicates produced by the model. A proposed diagnostic measure is the posterior predictive "p-value", an extreme value of which (i.e., a value close to 0 or 1) suggests a misfit between the model and the data. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the posterior predictive p-value as an imputation diagnostic. Using simulation methods, we deliberately misspecified imputation models to determine whether posterior predictive p-values were effective in identifying these problems. When estimating the regression parameter of interest, we found that more extreme p-values were associated with poorer imputation model performance, although the results highlighted that traditional thresholds for classical p-values do not apply in this context. A shortcoming of the PPC method was its reduced ability to detect misspecified models with increasing amounts of missing data. Despite the limitations of posterior predictive p-values, they appear to have a valuable place in the imputer's toolkit. In addition to automated checking using p-values, we recommend imputers perform graphical checks and examine other summaries of the test quantity distribution. PMID:25939490

  6. Assessing Traumatic Event Exposure: Comparing the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire to the Structured Clinical Interview for "DSM-IV"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce, Jessica M.; Burke, Christopher K.; Stoller, Kenneth B.; Neufeld, Karin J.; Brooner, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis requires first identifying a traumatic event, but very few studies have evaluated methods of potential traumatic event assessment and their impact on PTSD diagnosis. The authors compared a behaviorally specific comprehensive multiple-item traumatic event measure with a single-item measure to…

  7. Posterior ankle impingement in dancers and athletes.

    PubMed

    Roche, Andrew J; Calder, James D F; Lloyd Williams, R

    2013-06-01

    The diagnosis of posterior ankle impingement requires an accurate history and specific examination. Computed tomography is a useful investigation to diagnose bony impingement, especially where plain radiography and/or magnetic resonance imaging are sometimes inconclusive. Accurate ultrasound-guided steroid/anesthetic injections are useful interventions to locate the symptomatic lesions and reduce symptoms and occasionally prove curative. If surgical debridement or excision is deemed necessary, arthroscopic surgery via a posterior approach is recommended to excise impingement lesions with a quicker return to sport expected and minimal complications. Open surgical excision, however, remains a viable treatment option. PMID:23707179

  8. Large posterior abdominal masses: computed tomographic localization

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, I.A.; Auh, Y.H.; Rubenstein, W.A.; Whalen, J.P.; Kazam, E.

    1983-10-01

    Large posterior abdominal masses, particularly those in the right upper abdomen, may be difficult to localize correctly into the peritoneal or retroperitoneal compartments. The following signs were found to be reliable CT indicators of retroperitoneal location: obliteration of the perinephric fat outlining the psoas muscle; lateral displacement of the fat outlining the posterior right lobe of the liver; rotation of the intrahepatic portal veins to the left; anterior displacement of the inferior vena cava and renal veins; and anterior displacement of the ascending colon, descending duodenum, or pancreatic head.

  9. Imaging the posterior mediastinum: a multimodality approach

    PubMed Central

    Occhipinti, Mariaelena; Heidinger, Benedikt H.; Franquet, Elisa; Eisenberg, Ronald L.; Bankier, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    The posterior mediastinum contains several structures that can produce a wide variety of pathologic conditions. Descending thoracic aorta, esophagus, azygos and hemiazygos veins, thoracic duct, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, and nerves are all located in this anatomical region and can produce diverse abnormalities. Although chest radiography may detect many of these pathologic conditions, computed tomography and magnetic resonance are the imaging modalities of choice for further defining the relationship of posterior mediastinal lesions to neighboring structures and showing specific imaging features that narrow the differential diagnosis. This review emphasizes modality-related answers to morphologic questions, which provide precise diagnostic information. PMID:25993732

  10. Differential effects of urethane and isoflurane on external urethral sphincter electromyography and cystometry in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hui-Yi; Havton, Leif A.

    2008-01-01

    Urethane is a common and often preferred anesthetic agent for urodynamic recordings in rats, but its use is often restricted to terminal procedures because of a prolonged duration of action and potentially toxic effects. When urodynamic recordings are part of survival procedures in rodent experimental models, inhalation anesthetics, such as isoflurane, are frequently used and generally well tolerated. In this study, we compared the effects of urethane and isoflurane on lower urinary tract function. For this purpose, adult female rats were anesthetized by subcutaneous administration of urethane (n = 6) or by inhalation of isoflurane (n = 5). Micturition reflexes were assessed by concurrent cystometrogram and external urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyography (EMG) recordings to determine bladder contractile properties, EUS activation patterns, and the coordination between bladder contractions and EUS activation. Compared with urethane, isoflurane reduced frequency of bursts, firing frequency, and amplitude of EUS EMG activity during voiding as well as the EUS EMG amplitude during the bladder filling phase. Isoflurane also prolonged the bladder intercontractile intervals. Other several key functional aspects of the bladder contractile properties as well as the coordination between bladder contractions were not different between the two experimental groups. We conclude that micturition reflexes were differentially affected by isoflurane and urethane. Specifically, isoflurane exhibited a significant suppression of the EUS EMG activity and prolonged the bladder intercontractile intervals compared with urethane. We suggest that these anesthetic properties be taken into consideration during the experimental design and interpretation of urodynamic recordings in rodent models. PMID:18753298

  11. Tissue alterations in urethral and vaginal walls related to multiparity in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Xelhuantzi, Nicte; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás, Leticia; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita

    2014-10-01

    In rodents, vaginal distention after delivery or experimental manipulation affects innervations as well as the amount of striated/smooth musculature or collagen in both the urethra and vagina. These changes are associated with modifications in excretory and reproductive processes. Although successive and consecutive vaginal deliveries (multiparity) affect the contractile and functional properties of the female lower urogenital tract (LUT), its impact on LUT morphometry, including persistency, has been barely studied. The caudal urethra (CU) and cranial (V1) and caudal (V2) pelvic vaginal regions were excised from young and adult nulliparous (YN and AN, respectively) and multiparous (YM and AM, respectively) rabbits. Tissues were histologically processed and stained with Masson's trichrome. The thickness of the tissue layers and areas covered by tissue components were measured and compared using two-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newmann-Keuls tests to determine statistical differences (P???0.05). Compared to YN, YM, and AN tissues showed a reduction in the thickness of the epithelium, as well as in areas covered by striated musculature, collagen, and blood vessels of the LUT. In comparison with YM, only some morphometric changes were recovered in the AM group. Our study shows that multiparity and age can be associated with epithelial and muscular atrophy of urethral and vaginal walls. The morphometry of the LUT between young and adult female rabbits varies with multiparity. These findings may help to better understand the effects of multiparity on young and adult females and its correlation with the development of pelvic dysfunctions. PMID:25111579

  12. A simplified protocol for evaluating and monitoring urethral stricture patients minimizes cost without compromising patient outcome.

    PubMed

    Okorie, Chukwudi O; Pisters, Louis L; Ndasi, Henry T; Fekadu, Arega

    2010-07-01

    Uroflowmetry, urethrocystoscopy and urethrography are either not readily available or the cost is prohibitive for many patients in low-resource countries. This paper examines the use of clinical history in post-urethroplasty follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed the outcome of 54 post-urethroplasty patients. Preoperative diagnostic work-up included simple blood tests and a retrograde urethrography, and postoperatively we did not perform any immediate diagnostic work-up. Follow-up of these patients was done through mobile phone calls and personal contacts. Eighty-nine per cent of our patients reported acceptable voiding over a mean follow-up period of 48.4 months - 79.6% were followed using mobile phone contact. In the majority of the urethral strictures cases, diagnostic work up can be kept to a minimum, thereby reducing cost. Follow-up can be done via phone calls and personal contact in many African countries where compliance is frequently less than encouraging. The spread of mobile phone networks across the continent has been remarkable. PMID:20413547

  13. Clinical Trials of a Urethral Dose Measurement System in Brachytherapy Using Scintillation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Suchowerska, Natalka; Jackson, Michael; Lambert, Jamil; Yin, Yong Bai; Hruby, George; McKenzie, David R.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To report on the clinical feasibility of a novel scintillation detector system with fiberoptic readout that measures the urethral dose during high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment of the prostate. Methods and Materials: The clinical trial enrolled 24 patients receiving high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment to the prostate. After the first 14 patients, three improvements were made to the dosimeter system design to improve clinical reliability: a dosimeter self-checking facility; a radiopaque marker to determine the position of the dosimeter, and a more robust optical extension fiber. Results: Improvements to the system design allowed for accurate dose measurements to be made in vivo. A maximum measured dose departure of 9% from the calculated dose was observed after dosimeter design improvements. Conclusions: Departures of the measured from the calculated dose, after improvements to the dosimetry system, arise primarily from small changes in patient anatomy. Therefore, we recommend that patient response be correlated with the measured in vivo dose rather than with the calculated dose.

  14. Pathology of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Finnie, John W

    2014-12-01

    Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently encountered in veterinary practice in companion animals, livestock and horses, inflicted head injury is a common method of euthanasia in domestic livestock, and malicious head trauma can lead to forensic investigation, the pathology of TBI has generally received little attention in the veterinary literature. This review highlights the pathology and pathogenesis of cerebral lesions produced by blunt, non-missile and penetrating, missile head injuries as an aid to the more accurate diagnosis of neurotrauma cases. If more cases of TBI in animals that result in fatality or euthanasia are subjected to rigorous neuropathological examination, this will lead to a better understanding of the nature and development of brain lesions in these species, rather than extrapolating data from human studies. PMID:25178417

  15. Concussion in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Thor D.; Alvarez, Victor E.; McKee, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in association with repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. It is associated with a variety of clinical symptoms in multiple domains, and there is a distinct pattern of pathological changes. The abnormal tau pathology in CTE occurs uniquely in those regions of the brain that are likely most susceptible to stress concentration during trauma. CTE has been associated with a variety of types of repetitive head trauma, most frequently contact sports. In cases published to date, the mean length of exposure to repetitive head trauma was 15.4 years. The clinical symptoms of the disease began after a mean latency of 14.5 years with a mean age of death of 59.3 years. Most subjects had a reported history of concussions with a mean of 20.3. However, 16 % of published CTE subjects did not have a history of concussion suggesting that subconcussive hits are sufficient to lead to the development of CTE. Overall, the number of years of exposure, not the number of concussions, was significantly associated with worse tau pathology in CTE. This suggests that it is the chronic and repetitive nature of head trauma, irrespective of concussive symptoms, that is the most important driver of disease. CTE and exposure to repetitive head trauma is also associated with a variety of other neurodegenerations, including Alzheimer disease. In fact, amyloid ? peptide deposition is altered and accelerated in CTE and is associated with worse disease. Here, we review the current exposure, clinical, and pathological associations of CTE. PMID:26260277

  16. Concussion in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Stein, Thor D; Alvarez, Victor E; McKee, Ann C

    2015-10-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in association with repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. It is associated with a variety of clinical symptoms in multiple domains, and there is a distinct pattern of pathological changes. The abnormal tau pathology in CTE occurs uniquely in those regions of the brain that are likely most susceptible to stress concentration during trauma. CTE has been associated with a variety of types of repetitive head trauma, most frequently contact sports. In cases published to date, the mean length of exposure to repetitive head trauma was 15.4 years. The clinical symptoms of the disease began after a mean latency of 14.5 years with a mean age of death of 59.3 years. Most subjects had a reported history of concussions with a mean of 20.3. However, 16 % of published CTE subjects did not have a history of concussion suggesting that subconcussive hits are sufficient to lead to the development of CTE. Overall, the number of years of exposure, not the number of concussions, was significantly associated with worse tau pathology in CTE. This suggests that it is the chronic and repetitive nature of head trauma, irrespective of concussive symptoms, that is the most important driver of disease. CTE and exposure to repetitive head trauma is also associated with a variety of other neurodegenerations, including Alzheimer disease. In fact, amyloid ? peptide deposition is altered and accelerated in CTE and is associated with worse disease. Here, we review the current exposure, clinical, and pathological associations of CTE. PMID:26260277

  17. Posterior instability caused by batter's shoulder.

    PubMed

    Kang, Richard W; Mahony, Gregory T; Harris, Thomas C; Dines, Joshua S

    2013-10-01

    In summary, batter’s shoulder is a rare and only recently recognized entity. This condition is posterior shoulder instability caused by a missed attempt at hitting a pitch, especially with an outside pitch. The lack of counterforce from hitting a ball produces increased forces imparted on the posterior capsulolabral complex of the lead shoulder during batting. If the player fails conservative management, she or he can undergo an arthroscopic posterior labral repair instead of debridement. After treatment, the player can expect to return to play after approximately 6 to 7 months. Initial results from a small, retrospective series demonstrate greater than 90% excellent results. These findings are similar to current literature for arthroscopic treatment of posterior instability, which reports success rates that range from 75% to 91%. Longer-term follow-up will be needed to determine the natural history and prognosis or batter’s shoulder. Based on initial results, the authors predict good to excellent results for most players with batter’s shoulder who undergo proper treatment. Additionally, with the exception of switch hitters, the nonthrowing arm is affected. This can also improve the athlete’s return to play. PMID:24079435

  18. BAER suppression during posterior fossa dural opening

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Christopher B.; Shields, Lisa B. E.; Jiang, Yi Dan; Yao, Tom; Zhang, Yi Ping; Sun, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intraoperative monitoring with brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) provides an early warning signal of potential neurological injury and may avert tissue damage to the auditory pathway or brainstem. Unexplained loss of the BAER signal in the operating room may present a dilemma to the neurosurgeon. Methods: This paper documents two patients who displayed a unique mechanism of suppression of the BAER apparent within minutes following dural opening for resection of a posterior fossa meningioma. Results: In two patients with anterior cerebellopontine angle and clival meningiomas, there was a significant deterioration of the BAER soon after durotomy but prior to cerebellar retraction and tumor removal. Intracranial structures in the posterior fossa lying between the tumor and dural opening were shifted posteriorly after durotomy. Conclusion: We hypothesized that the cochlear nerve and vessels entering the acoustic meatus were compressed or stretched when subjected to tissue shift. This movement caused cochlear nerve dysfunction that resulted in BAER suppression. BAER was partially restored after the tumor was decompressed, dura repaired, and bone replaced. BAER was not suppressed following durotomy for removal of a meningioma lying posterior to the cochlear complex. Insight into the mechanisms of durotomy-induced BAER inhibition would allay the neurosurgeon's anxiety during the operation. PMID:25883849

  19. Posterior Probabilities for a Consensus Ordering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fligner, Michael A.; Verducci, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of consensus ordering is defined, and formulas for exact and approximate posterior probabilities for consensus ordering are developed under the assumption of a generalized Mallows' model with a diffuse conjugate prior. These methods are applied to a data set concerning 98 college students. (SLD)

  20. Vitreous occlusion of tube implant in a phakic patient with traumatic glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Suneeta; Pegu, Julie; Agarwal, Manisha; Agrawal, Anugya

    2014-01-01

    Tube implants or glaucoma drainage devices have become an important method of intraocular pressure reduction when treating complex cases of traumatic glaucoma. However, it is not uncommon to have complications associated with tube implants. The optimal treatment of patients who have undergone glaucoma implant surgery complicated by vitreous incarceration is uncertain. If vitreous is present or is able to prolapse into anterior chamber, as in aphakic or pseudophakic patient without an intact posterior capsule, a concurrent anterior vitrectomy is usually performed. In such cases, pars plana vitrectomy has been found to be more effective in several studies. However, there are no set guidelines for management of such a case in a phakic eye and the management can be more challenging especially when there is no obvious deficiency in posterior capsule, zonular dialysis, or loose vitreous gel in the anterior chamber prior to or during tube implantation. We describe a case of 14-year-old phakic patient with traumatic glaucoma without vitreous gel in anterior chamber whose tube implant became occluded by vitreous resulting in increased intra ocular pressure. This is the first documented report of vitreous incarceration in a phakic patient and its successful management. PMID:25378882

  1. Traumatic Spondylolisthesis of the Axis Vertebra in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schleicher, Philipp; Scholz, Matti; Pingel, Andreas; Kandziora, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Narrative review. Objective?To elucidate the current concepts in diagnosis and treatment of traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis. Methods?Literature review using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases. Results?The traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis accounts to 5% of all cervical spine injuries and is defined by a bilateral separation of the C2 vertebral body from the neural arch. The precise location of the fracture line may vary widely. For understanding the pathobiomechanics, the involvement of the C2–C3 disk is essential. Although its synonym “hangman's fracture” suggests an extension moment as primary injury mechanism, flexion moments are also proven to cause such fracture morphology. The axial force vector (distraction versus compression) is thought to have a significant effect on the neurologic involvement. The most widely accepted classifications, according to Effendi and modified by Levine, regard the displacement of the C2 vertebral body and possible locking of the facet joints. For decisions on conservative versus surgical therapy, a definitive statement about the stability is essential. The stability is determined by involvement of the C2–C3 disk and longitudinal ligaments, which frequently cannot be assessed by X-ray or computed tomography alone. The assessment of this soft tissue injury therefore requires additional imaging either by magnetic resonance imaging to display the disk and longitudinal ligaments or dynamic fluoroscopy to assess functional behavior of the C2–C3 motion segment. If stability is proven, an immobilization of the cervical spine in a semirigid cervical collar is sufficient. Unstable lesions require surgical stabilization. The standard procedure is an anterior C2–C3 diskectomy and fusion, because of the lower morbidity of the anterior approach and the motion preservation between C1 and C2. In rare cases (irreducible locked facet joints, the necessity of decompression of the vertebral artery, contraindication for anterior approach), a posterior approach is sometimes necessary. Isolated direct screw osteosynthesis is of little value, because it only makes sense in cases with an intact C2–C3 disk, which is usually regarded as stable and therefore might be treated conservatively. Conclusions?Overall, the clinical evidence regarding traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis is very low and mainly based on small case series, expert opinion, laboratory findings, and theoretical considerations. PMID:26225285

  2. [Posterior capsule opacification after extracapsular extraction with a posterior chamber implant].

    PubMed

    Teodoru, A

    1996-01-01

    The opacity of posterior capsule after the extracapsular extraction of the crystalline with implant of an artificial crystalline in the posterior chamber is a post-operatory complication which is meeting in 5.33% operated eyes with a subjective consequence which is a visual acuity diminuation with the appearance of some bright bands in the visual field of the operated eyes especially in the night. The principal reasons was founded to be the patient age and the disposal of pseudophakia in the ciliary sulcus what is permitting the contact of the anterior chamber's remains with the posterior capsule which is the place of beginning to the epithelium proliferation. PMID:8962855

  3. Animal models of external traumatic wound infections

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Kharkwal, Gitika B; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Huang, Ying-Ying; Bil de Arce, Vida J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite advances in traumatic wound care and management, infections remain a leading cause of mortality, morbidity and economic disruption in millions of wound patients around the world. Animal models have become standard tools for studying a wide array of external traumatic wound infections and testing new antimicrobial strategies. Results: Animal models of external traumatic wound infections reported by different investigators vary in animal species used, microorganism strains, the number of microorganisms applied, the size of the wounds and for burn infections, the length of time the heated object or liquid is in contact with the skin. Methods: This review covers experimental infections in animal models of surgical wounds, skin abrasions, burns, lacerations, excisional wounds and open fractures. Conclusions: As antibiotic resistance continues to increase, more new antimicrobial approaches are urgently needed. These should be tested using standard protocols for infections in external traumatic wounds in animal models. PMID:21701256

  4. Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Oregon, the Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress has developed several brief, educational fact sheets. They ... Being in Children After a Disaster Managing the Stress of Children After a Disaster Leadership Communication: Anticipating ...

  5. Symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder 

    E-print Network

    Hall, Christy Ann

    2013-02-22

    Previous studies have indicated a possible relationship between Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) resulting from exposure to a trauma and other measures of functioning, such as attachment style and substance use. The sample for this study...

  6. Traumatic injury among females: does gender matter?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trauma remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Generally, the incidence of traumatic injuries is disproportionately high in males. However, trauma in females is underreported. Aim To study the epidemiology and outcome of different mechanisms and types of traumatic injuries in women. Methods We conducted a traditional narrative review using PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE, searching for English-language publications for gender-specific trauma between January 1993 and January 2013 using key words “trauma”, “gender”, “female” and “women”. Results Among 1150 retrieved articles, 71 articles were relevant over 20 years. Although it is an important public health problem, traumatic injuries among females remain under-reported. Conclusion There is a need for further research and evaluation of the exact burden of traumatic injuries among females together with the implementation of effective community based preventive programs. PMID:25089153

  7. Traumatic Wound Dehiscence after Keratoplasty: Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Visual Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Goweida, Mohamed Bahgat; Helaly, Hany Ahmed; Ghaith, Alaa Atef

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The study aimed at evaluating the patients' characteristics, risk factors, complications, and visual outcome of traumatic wound dehiscence after keratoplasty. Patients and Methods. A retrospective case series that included 20 eyes of 20 patients who had undergone a previous keratoplasty procedure followed by traumatic wound dehiscence. Records of the selected patients were reviewed. The mean duration of follow-up after repair was 21 months. Included patients were recalled for the final follow-up visit. Results. The procedure of corneal transplantation was penetrating (PKP) in 16 eyes and deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in 4 eyes. The associated anterior segment injuries included iris prolapse in 17 eyes and lens extrusion in 12 eyes. The associated posterior segment injuries included vitreous hemorrhage in 11 eyes and retinal detachment in 4 eyes. The final BSCVA was 0.1 or better in 5 cases (25 %) and was better than hand motions (HM) to less than 0.1 in 7 cases (35 %). Conclusion. Traumatic wound dehiscence following keratoplasty results in poor visual outcome. Cases following DALK may have less wound extent and better final visual outcome. The dehiscence seems most likely to occur during the first year. PMID:26240756

  8. Traumatic pulmonary pseudocyst due to thoracic trauma.

    PubMed

    Gulbahar, Gultekin; Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Kaplan, Tevfik; Kocer, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic pulmonary pseudocyst is uncommon and usually regresses spontaneously with conservative treatment. In rare cases, surgical intervention may be necessary. A pseudocyst may be treated surgically to prevent potential complications if the patient undergoes a thoracotomy for another reason. We present a patient with hemopneumothorax and traumatic pulmonary pseudocyst after a motor vehicle accident, who was operated on electively due to massive air leak. PMID:26187463

  9. Arthroscopic Reconstruction of Chronic Isolated Posterior Cruciate Ligament Instability in a Professional Dancer

    PubMed Central

    Aksu, Neslihan; Abay, Burak; Soydan, Ramazan; Ercan, Ertu?rul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Chronic isolated injuries of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) are very rare in the literature. PCL injuries are often presented undiagnosed because of the weak signs of the injury compared to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. We report the surgical outcome of arthroscopic reconstruction of the chronic isolated PCL rupture with ipsilateral autologous hamstring tendon in a professional Caucasian dancer. Methods: A 21-year-old male professional Caucasian dancer presented severe instability without any pain in his right knee lasting for one year. The patient did not describe any specific traumatic event but his both knees received repeatitive direct pretibial trauma during hyperflexion of the knee while landing to the floor. At the physical examination, posterior sagging of the tibia was observed on the affected side at 90o of knee flexion and step off test and posterior drawer test were positive preoperatively under general anesthesia. The Tegner Lysholm score was evaluated as 59 (poor). A magnetic resonance image (MRI) revealed the isolated total rupture of PCL. The treatment of choice was arthroscopic single bundle reconstruction of PCL with ipsilateral autologous hamstring tendon. A standard arthroscopic exploration of the joint was performed preoperatively and we didn't observe any meniscal, cartilage or ligamentous lesion. Anteromedial and anterolateral portals were made in order to visualize the posterior cortex of the tibia with a 70 degree scope. Intra-operative fluroscopy was used to confirm proper tunnel position. During postoperatively first week, the patient was allowed to mobilize nonweight bearing with the use of two crutches without functional knee brace. Quadriceps musculature and passive range of motion was trained. Results: At the 6 month- follow-up, the patient achieved full symmetric restoration of motion. He had returned to full daily activies. The Tegner Lysholm score was evaluated as 95 (excellent) postoperatively. Functional examination of the right knee reveled 140 of flexion, and full knee extension. No posterior sagging was observed and step off test and posterior drawer test was negative. The complaint of instability was disappeared. At 1-year follow-up, clinical findings were unremarkable, with no sign of re-rupture and he returned to his professional career. Conclusion: Surgical reconstruction technique of the PCL and associated rehabilitation protocols has not yet been fully standardized and much work still has be done optimizing correct treatment of PCL injuries. The arthroscopic reconstruction of chronic isolated PCL instability is a very difficult technique as well as its diagnosis. The reconstruction is very beneficial in the athletes and the patients who are not responding well to the conservative treatment.

  10. Posterior cruciate-retaining versus posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bercik, Michael J; Joshi, Ashish; Parvizi, Javad

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare outcomes of posterior cruciate-retaining and posterior stabilized prostheses. A computerized literature search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the clinical outcomes of cruciate-retaining and posterior-stabilized designs. The table of contents of four major Orthopaedic journals and the references section of two arthroplasty text books were reviewed to identify other relevant studies. Ultimately, 1114 patients (1265 knees) were compared. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in flexion and range of motion in favor of posterior-stabilized knees, but no difference in complication rates. The clinical importance of this remains unknown. The decision to use one design versus the other should rest with the surgeon's preference and comfort with a particular design. PMID:23433255

  11. Hypertensive posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome causing posterior fossa edema and hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Grossbach, Andrew J; Abel, Taylor J; Hodis, Brendan; Wassef, Shafik N; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2014-02-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a well characterized entity resulting from the inability of cerebral autoregulation to adequately protect the brain from uncontrolled hypertension. It primarily affects the occipital lobes, but can also involve the structures in the posterior fossa including the brainstem and cerebellum. Treatment usually consists of strict blood pressure control, but more aggressive management may be indicated with acutely worsening neurological status. We present a patient with hypertensive encephalopathy that resulted in hydrocephalus and brainstem compression necessitating surgical decompression requiring ventriculostomy and suboccipital craniectomy. In rare cases, PRES can present with severe brainstem compression requiring emergent posterior fossa decompression. When brainstem signs are present on exam, emergent posterior fossa decompression may be safer than ventriculostomy alone. PMID:24126039

  12. An Unusual Cause of Posterior Elbow Impingement: Detachment of a Hypertrophied Posterior Fat Pad

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Daisuke; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Sugiura, Kosuke; Higuchi, Tadahiro; Suzue, Naoto; Goto, Tomohiro; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Wada, Keizo; Fukuta, Shoji; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 47-year-old woman who developed posterior impingement of the elbow due to detachment of a hypertrophied posterior fat pad. She reported acute left elbow pain after leaning back onto a hard object with her hand and subsequently experienced a “catching” sensation. Comparison with the magnetic resonance images of a normal elbow revealed a hypertrophied posterior fat pad interposed between the olecranon and olecranon fossa in both elbows, with the fat pad in the left elbow located more inferiorly than that in the right elbow. Elbow arthroscopy showed the olecranon fossa covered by the fat pad, a portion of which was detached from the rest of the pad. Debridement of the detached portion was performed until no impingement was evident. Postoperatively, full extension of the elbow did not elicit pain. Clinicians should include this pathology among the differential diagnoses for posterior elbow pain. PMID:26613057

  13. External urethral sphincter motoneuron properties in adult female rats studied in vitro.

    PubMed

    Carp, Jonathan S; Tennissen, Ann M; Liebschutz, Jennifer E; Chen, Xiang Yang; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2010-09-01

    The external urethral sphincter (EUS) muscle plays a crucial role in lower urinary tract function: its activation helps maintain continence, whereas its relaxation contributes to micturition. To determine how the intrinsic properties of its motoneurons contribute to its physiological function, we have obtained intracellular current-clamp recordings from 49 EUS motoneurons in acutely isolated spinal cord slices from adult female rats. In all, 45% of EUS motoneurons fired spontaneously and steadily (average rate = 12-27 pulses/s). EUS motoneurons were highly excitable, having lower rheobase, higher input resistance, and smaller threshold depolarization than those of rat hindlimb motoneurons recorded in vitro. Correlations between these properties and afterhyperpolarization half-decay time are consistent with EUS motoneurons having characteristics of both fast and slow motor unit types. EUS motoneurons with a slow-like spectrum of properties exhibited spontaneous firing more often than those with fast-like characteristics. During triangular current ramp-induced repetitive firing, recruitment typically occurred at lower current levels than those at derecruitment, although the opposite pattern occurred in 10% of EUS motoneurons. This percentage was likely underestimated due to firing rate adaptation. These findings are consistent with the presence of a basal level of persistent inward current (PIC) in at least some EUS motoneurons. The low EUS motoneuron current and voltage thresholds make them readily recruitable, rendering them well suited to their physiological role in continence. The expression of firing behaviors consistent with PIC activation in this highly reduced preparation raises the possibility that in the intact animal, PICs contribute to urinary function not only through neuromodulator-dependent but also through neuromodulator-independent mechanisms. PMID:20573976

  14. Long-term recording of external urethral sphincter EMG activity in unanesthetized, unrestrained rats

    PubMed Central

    LaPallo, Brandon K.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.; Chen, Xiang Yang

    2014-01-01

    The external urethral sphincter muscle (EUS) plays an important role in urinary function and often contributes to urinary dysfunction. EUS study would benefit from methodology for longitudinal recording of electromyographic activity (EMG) in unanesthetized animals, but this muscle is a poor substrate for chronic intramuscular electrodes, and thus the required methodology has not been available. We describe a method for long-term recording of EUS EMG by implantation of fine wires adjacent to the EUS that are secured to the pubic bone. Wires pass subcutaneously to a skull-mounted plug and connect to the recording apparatus by a flexible cable attached to a commutator. A force transducer-mounted cup under a metabolic cage collected urine, allowing recording of EUS EMG and voided urine weight without anesthesia or restraint. Implant durability permitted EUS EMG recording during repeated (up to 3 times weekly) 24-h sessions for more than 8 wk. EMG and voiding properties were stable over weeks 2–8. The degree of EUS phasic activity (bursting) during voiding was highly variable, with an average of 25% of voids not exhibiting bursting. Electrode implantation adjacent to the EUS yielded stable EMG recordings over extended periods and eliminated the confounding effects of anesthesia, physical restraint, and the potential for dislodgment of the chronically implanted intramuscular electrodes. These results show that micturition in unanesthetized, unrestrained rats is usually, but not always, associated with EUS bursting. This methodology is applicable to studying EUS behavior during progression of gradually evolving disease and injury models and in response to therapeutic interventions. PMID:24990895

  15. Vaginal excision of the sub-urethral sling: analysis of indications, safety and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, George; Kociszewski, Jacek; Kuszka, Andrzej; Fabian, Margarethe; Grothey, Susane; Zwierzchowska, Aneta; Majkusiak, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sling techniques are the method of choice in stress urinary incontinence management, despite the high rates of complications leading sometimes to the necessity of re-operation, and the tape transection and resection are of the greatest importance. The study was aimed at analyzing the indications, technique and effects of transvaginal tape excision. Material and methods A retrospective study including 100 patients who underwent surgical removal of the sub-urethral sling in Evangelisches Krankenhaus Hagen-Haspe was conducted. The analyzed measures were: sling type, onset of symptoms, rates of particular complications, safety and outcome of the operative procedure. Results Most complications occurred in the first 2 years after surgery. The most common indications for re-operation were: overactive bladder (OAB) (64%), persistent stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (59%), pain (40%), urinary retention (40%), and erosion (29%). Some of the complications co-existed (i.e. vaginal erosion with postoperative pain, infections with urinary retention). During the procedure 1 bladder was injured and 1 patient had a hematoma. In women with OAB, 24-hour frequency decreased from 13.3 to 8.5 (p < 0.001), the mean voiding volume increased from 131.7 to 216.4 ml (p < 0.001), and nocturia increased from 3.28 to 1.19 (p < 0.001). Intensity of urgency decreased from 8.78 to 0.92 in the 10-point visual score (p < 0.001). Pain and urinary retention resolved in 39 out of 40 patients (p < 0.0001). The rate of SUI increased from 59% to 83% (p < 0.001). Conclusions Sling removal is safe and associated with a minimal rate of complications. Removing the tape causes resolution of most of the complications, but SUI recurs or worsens. PMID:26528340

  16. Incidence of Female Urethral Diverticulum: A Population-Based Analysis and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    El-Nashar, Sherif A.; Bacon, Melissa M.; Kim-Fine, Shunaha; Weaver, Amy L.; Gebhart, John B.; Klingele, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Hypothesis Urethral diverticulum (UD) is a protrusion of the urethra through the periurethral fascia. We aimed to determine the population-based incidence of female UD. Methods Using the records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP), we identified women 18 years and older with a new diagnosis of UD in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2011. We also identified cases meeting the same criteria diagnosed at Mayo Clinic, regardless of county of residency. Incidence rates were calculated and trends for changes in incidence over time were tested. We conducted a systematic search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from inception through March 30, 2013, to identify published reports of UD incidence or prevalence. Results We identified 164 incidence cases, including 26 women residing in Olmsted County. Age-adjusted annual incidence of UD in Olmsted County was 17.9 per 1,000,000 women (<0.02%) per year (95% CI, 10.9–24.9). We observed a trend for increased incidence during the past 3 decades (P=.03). In our literature review, only 7 studies included an estimate of incidence or prevalence of UD; these estimates ranged from 6.4 per 1,000,000 per year (<0.01%) having surgical intervention related to UD to a 4.7% rate of UD diagnosed in asymptomatic women admitted for gynecologic or obstetric issues. Conclusion In this population-based study, female UD was a rare disease, affecting fewer than 20 per 1,000,000 women (<0.02%) per year. PMID:23857063

  17. A Cadaveric Study of Bilateral Configuration of Posterior Bifurcation of Posterior Communicating Artery in Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Anubha; Mandal, Shyamash

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Various studies have been done regarding variations of circle of Willis, but few literatures are available about the detail configurations on Indian population. Posterior communicating artery is the main collateral channel between the vertebrobasilar and carotid system. It may act as a main source of blood flow via posterior cerebral artery if fetal configuration is present. Aim of the study is to see the bilateral configurations to compare the blood supply of both cerebral hemispheres via posterior cerebral artery in human cadavers. Materials and Methods: Fifty six formalin fixed brains were used for study. The specimens were classified into 3 types and 21 subtypes according to the configuration of the vessel of both hemispheres. As hemodynamic balance is dependent on the calibre of the vessel, the diameter of the arteries were also taken into consideration. Pearson’s correlation had been done. Result: In present study type I is 57.2%, type II is 37.5% and type III is 5.4%. Incidence of unilateral fetal type posterior cerebral artery is in high percentage (33.9%). Greatest diameter of posterior communicating artery is 3.8mm on right and 3.6mm on left side. Significant correlations also have been found between arterial segments of different types. Conclusion: It is expected that the study will help to enrich the knowledge about the arterial predominance of origin of posterior cerebral artery of both cerebral hemispheres in normal or variant cases and its effect on perfusion images. PMID:25954608

  18. Posterior Pole Sparing Laser Photocoagulation Combined with Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection in Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Rebecca; Kim, Yu Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To report the results of the posterior pole sparing laser photocoagulation combined with intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVB) in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods. A retrospective chart review of premature babies with ROP, all of whom received laser photocoagulation with IVB. Eleven eyes of 6 infants with advanced zone I ROP underwent laser ablation sparing posterior pole with concurrent IVB. The results were compared with those of full-laser treatment combined with IVB to 8 eyes of 5 infants with advanced ROP without involvement of the posterior pole. Results. The posterior pole sparing laser with IVB was performed with zone I, stage 3+ ROP at the mean postmenstrual age of 36 weeks and 5 days. The plus sign decreased significantly at postoperative day 1, the neovascular proliferation regressed by postoperative week 1, and the normal vascularization started at postoperative day 32 on the average. Two months after treatment, vascularization of the spared avascular area was completed. There was no macular dragging, tractional retinal detachment, foveal destruction by laser scars, or any other adverse event. No significant anatomical differences were identified from those of full-laser ablation combined with IVB. Conclusions. Posterior pole sparing laser with IVB can give favorable results without destruction of posterior pole retina. PMID:25614828

  19. Monte Carlo validation and optimisation of detector packaging for spectroscopic dosimetry for in vivo urethral dosimetry during low dose rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Nourbehesht, L K; Cutajar, D L; Guatelli, S; Rosenfeld, A B

    2015-09-01

    The urethral mini-dosimeter, developed by the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, uses spectroscopic dosimetry to provide real time point dose measurements along the urethra during low dose rate prostate brachytherapy. Spectroscopic dosimetry uses the measured spectrum of the treatment isotope to estimate the dose rate at the point of measurement, however, the silicon mini-detectors employed in the urethral mini-dosimeter require water proof encapsulation which must be capable of providing electromagnetic shielding without greatly increasing the size of the probe. The introduction of non-tissue equivalent materials within the encapsulation can change the spectrum of radiation incident on the detector, which may influence the application of spectroscopic dosimetry within the urethral dosimeter. The Monte Carlo code Geant4 was adopted to study the effect of encapsulation on the operation of the urethral mini-dosimeter, as well as to determine whether an appropriate thickness of aluminium shielding was possible for electromagnetic screening. The depth dose response and angular dependence of the urethral mini-dosimeter with three thicknesses of aluminium shielding (20, 50, 100 µm) was compared with the urethral mini-dosimeter without aluminium shielding. The aluminium shielding had the effect of increasing the depth dose response (up to 3 % within 30 mm and up to 5 % within 50 mm), slightly reduced the azimuth angular dependence and slightly increased the polar angular dependence. The 100 µm thick shielding provided the least azimuth angular dependence (±2 %) and provided a polar angular dependence of ±1.4 % within the angles of -45° to 45°. PMID:26239932

  20. Stress and Traumatic Stress: How Do Past Events Influence Current Traumatic Stress among Mothers Experiencing Homelessness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julie K.; Hall, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relationship between past traumatic events and the level of current traumatic stress among mothers experiencing homelessness. The data for this study were gathered from 75 homeless mothers between May 2006 and October 2006 using a cross-sectional survey design with purposive sampling. All mothers…

  1. Classroom Strategies for Teaching Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinski, Jennifer Blevins

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary institutions currently face the largest influx of veteran students since World War II. As the number of veteran students who may experience learning problems caused by Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and/or Traumatic Brain Injury continues to rise, the need for instructional strategies that address their needs increases. Educators may…

  2. Gender Differences in Traumatic Events and Rates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Nish, David; Leonard, Noelle R.; Strauss, Shiela M.

    2007-01-01

    In the present report we describe patterns of traumatic events and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), both partial and full, among homeless youth and those at risk for homelessness, with an emphasis on gender differences. Participants were 85 homeless and at-risk youth (49% female) recruited from a drop-in center in New York City in 2000.…

  3. Autonomic dysreflexia and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matias, Ana Catarina; Rocha, João; Cerqueira, Maria Emília; Pereira, João Manuel

    2013-05-01

    Autonomic dysreflexia is a syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge in patients who had a spinal cord injury above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow resulting in a sudden increase in blood pressure. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) refers to a clinicoradiologic entity characterized by headache, consciousness impairment, visual disturbances, seizures, and posterior transient changes on neuroimaging (cerebral vasogenic edema). Hypertension is a common cause of PRES. The authors describe two case reports of patients with tetraplegia who developed PRES after an autonomic dysreflexia episode. One of them had recurrence of PRES in a similar clinical context. The authors discuss further aspects of PRES and its recurrence, which seems to be unusual particularly after autonomic dysreflexia. PMID:23117272

  4. Intraneural neurofibromas involving the posterior interosseous nerve

    PubMed Central

    Lallemand, R. C.; Weller, R. O.

    1973-01-01

    Two patients presented with a posterior interosseous nerve palsy with supinator weakness. In each case an intraneural neurofibroma was found proximal to the supinator tunnel with no other stigmata of von Recklinghausen's disease. Both tumours showed a whorl-like histological pattern that has been previously confused with onion-bulb structures in hypertrophic polyneuropathy. Electron-microscopy was useful for the pathological diagnosis. The prognosis and treatment of the lesions are discussed. Images PMID:4772730

  5. Post-traumatic stress disorder: a right temporal lobe syndrome?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engdahl, B.; Leuthold, A. C.; Tan, H.-R. M.; Lewis, S. M.; Winskowski, A. M.; Dikel, T. N.; Georgopoulos, A. P.

    2010-12-01

    In a recent paper (Georgopoulos et al 2010 J. Neural Eng. 7 016011) we reported on the power of the magnetoencephalography (MEG)-based synchronous neural interactions (SNI) test to differentiate post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subjects from healthy control subjects and to classify them with a high degree of accuracy. Here we show that the main differences in cortical communication circuitry between these two groups lie in the miscommunication of temporal and parietal and/or parieto-occipital right hemispheric areas with other brain areas. This lateralized temporal-posterior pattern of miscommunication was very similar but was attenuated in patients with PTSD in remission. These findings are consistent with observations (Penfield 1958 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 44 51-66, Penfield and Perot 1963 Brain 86 595-696, Gloor 1990 Brain 113 1673-94, Banceaud et al 1994 Brain 117 71-90, Fried 1997 J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 9 420-8) that electrical stimulation of the temporal cortex in awake human subjects, mostly in the right hemisphere, can elicit the re-enactment and re-living of past experiences. Based on these facts, we attribute our findings to the re-experiencing component of PTSD and hypothesize that it reflects an involuntarily persistent activation of interacting neural networks involved in experiential consolidation.

  6. Traumatic transection of the lateral rectus muscle with chorioretinitis sclopetaria.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Kelly; Verity, David; Ali, Nadeem

    2015-03-01

    A man, aged 67 years, sustained monocular trauma to the left eye while gardening, presenting with light perception, complete absence of abduction, and chorioretinitis sclopetaria. At surgery, the lateral rectus was found to be transected at the equator of the globe, with an area of locally abraded sclera. A few posterior muscle fibers were identified and sutured to the residual anterior fibers. With a partial improvement of the esodeviation, after a further 6 months he proceeded to lateral transposition of the superior and inferior recti to healthy sclera 4?mm from the limbus, with adjunctive medial rectus botulinum toxin. Six months later, the angle of primary deviation remained stable at 4 prism diopters base out with improved abduction. Vision in the eye remained reduced at 20/200 (with eccentric fixation) due to macular changes secondary to the sclopetaria. In conclusion, this case describes a rare example of complete traumatic transection of the lateral rectus with chorioretinitis sclopetaria, due to orbital injury. With appropriate surgery, the angle of deviation can be considerably improved despite complete muscle transection and scleral injury. PMID:25790075

  7. Posterior capsular contracture of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Bach, H Gregory; Goldberg, Benjamin A

    2006-05-01

    Posterior capsular contracture is a common cause of shoulder pain in which the patient presents with restricted internal rotation and reproduction of pain. Increased anterosuperior translation of the humeral head occurs with forward flexion and can mimic the pain reported with impingement syndrome; however, the patient with impingement syndrome presents with normal range of motion. Initial management of posterior capsular contracture should be nonsurgical, emphasizing range-of-motion stretching with the goal of restoring normal motion. For patients who fail nonsurgical management, arthroscopic posterior capsule release can result in improved motion and pain relief. In the throwing athlete, repetitive forces on the posteroinferior capsule may cause posteroinferior capsular hypertrophy and limited internal rotation. This may be the initial pathologic event in the so-called dead arm syndrome, leading to a superior labrum anteroposterior lesion and, possibly, rotator cuff tear. Management involves regaining internal rotation such that the loss of internal rotation is not greater than the increase in external rotation. In the athlete who fails nonsurgical management, a selective posteroinferior capsulotomy can improve motion, reduce pain, and prevent further shoulder injury. PMID:16675620

  8. Neurostimulation for traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Shin, Samuel S; Dixon, C Edward; Okonkwo, David O; Richardson, R Mark

    2014-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a significant public health problem and is a leading cause of death and disability in many countries. Durable treatments for neurological function deficits following TBI have been elusive, as there are currently no FDA-approved therapeutic modalities for mitigating the consequences of TBI. Neurostimulation strategies using various forms of electrical stimulation have recently been applied to treat functional deficits in animal models and clinical stroke trials. The results from these studies suggest that neurostimulation may augment improvements in both motor and cognitive deficits after brain injury. Several studies have taken this approach in animal models of TBI, showing both behavioral enhancement and biological evidence of recovery. There have been only a few studies using deep brain stimulation (DBS) in human TBI patients, and future studies are warranted to validate the feasibility of this technique in the clinical treatment of TBI. In this review, the authors summarize insights from studies employing neurostimulation techniques in the setting of brain injury. Moreover, they relate these findings to the future prospect of using DBS to ameliorate motor and cognitive deficits following TBI. PMID:25170668

  9. [Traumatic wounds of the esophagus].

    PubMed

    Steinman, E; Utiyama, E M; Pires, P W; Birolini, D

    1990-01-01

    Thirty four (75.5%) individuals sustained gunshot wounds, nine (20%) stab wounds, while two (4.4%) suffered blunt trauma. Thirty four patients (75%) displayed severance of the cervical portion of the esophagus, seven (15.5%) of the thoracic segment and only four (8.8%) had injuries on the abdominal portion. The cervical esophagus was surgically approached through oblique left side cervicotomy with primary suture and drainage with Penrose drain. A postero-lateral right side thoracotomy was employed for lesions of the upper and intermediate portion of the thoracic esophagus. When the lower portion of the esophagus was injured, a left side thoracotomy was employed. When the injury involved less than half of the perimeter of the esophagus suturing with ample drainage was adopted. In more extensive injuries involving over half of the perimeter total esophagectomy was the treatment of choice. In abdominal esophageal injuries laparotomy, suture and drainage were performed. Complications occurred in 40% of all patients. Seven patients died though only one from direct consequences of the esophageal injury. The authors believe that an early surgical approach for traumatic esophageal injuries is the best procedure. Primary suture and drainage score the best results. Other measures (esophagectomy, esophagostomy, gastrostomy) should be adopted only when the injury is either extensive or mediastinal contamination is present. PMID:2135819

  10. Medical interventions for traumatic hyphema

    PubMed Central

    Gharaibeh, Almutez; Savage, Howard I; Scherer, Roberta W; Goldberg, Morton F; Lindsley, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Background Traumatic hyphema is the entry of blood into the anterior chamber (the space between the cornea and iris) subsequent to a blow or a projectile striking the eye. Hyphema uncommonly causes permanent loss of vision. Associated trauma (e.g., corneal staining, traumatic cataract, angle recession glaucoma, optic atrophy, etc.) may seriously affect vision. Such complications may lead to permanent impairment of vision. Patients with sickle cell trait/disease may be particularly susceptible to increases of elevated intraocular pressure. If rebleeding occurs, the rates and severity of complications increase. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of various medical interventions in the management of traumatic hyphema. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1950 to June 2010), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2010), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) and ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov). We searched the reference lists of identified trial reports to find additional trials. We also searched the ISI Web of Science Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) to find studies that cited the identified trials. There were no language or date restrictions in the search for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 25 June 2010. Selection criteria Two authors independently assessed the titles and abstracts of all reports identified by the electronic and manual searches. In this review, we included randomized and quasi-randomized trials that compared various medical interventions to other medical interventions or control groups for the treatment of traumatic hyphema following closed globe trauma. There were no restrictions regarding age, gender, severity of the closed globe trauma or level of visual acuity at the time of enrollment. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted the data for the primary and secondary outcomes. We entered and analyzed data using Review Manager (RevMan) 5. We performed meta-analyses using a fixed-effect model and reported dichotomous outcomes as odds ratios and continuous outcomes as mean differences. Main results Nineteen randomized and seven quasi-randomized studies with 2,560 participants were included in this review. Interventions included antifibrinolytic agents (oral and systemic aminocaproic acid, tranexamic acid, and aminomethylbenzoic acid), corticosteroids (systemic and topical), cycloplegics, miotics, aspirin, conjugated estrogens, monocular versus bilateral patching, elevation of the head, and bed rest. No intervention had a significant effect on visual acuity whether measured at two weeks or less after the trauma or at longer time periods. The number of days for the primary hyphema to resolve appeared to be longer with the use of aminocaproic acid compared to no use, but was not altered by any other intervention. Systemic aminocaproic acid reduced the rate of recurrent hemorrhage (odds ratio (OR) 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.5), but a sensitivity analysis omitting studies not using an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis reduced the strength of the evidence (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.09). We obtained similar results for topical aminocaproic acid (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.10). We found tranexamic acid had a significant effect in reducing the rate of secondary hemorrhage (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.49), as did aminomethylbenzoic acid as reported in a single study (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.32). The evidence to support an associated reduction in the risk of complications from secondary hemorrhage (i.e., corneal blood staining, peripheral anterior synechiae, elevated intraocular pressure, and development of optic atrophy) by antifibrinolytics was limited by the small number of these events. Use of aminocaproic acid was associated with increased nausea, vomiting, and other adverse events compares with plac

  11. Medical interventions for traumatic hyphema

    PubMed Central

    Gharaibeh, Almutez; Savage, Howard I; Scherer, Roberta W; Goldberg, Morton F; Lindsley, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Background Traumatic hyphema is the entry of blood into the anterior chamber (the space between the cornea and iris) subsequent to a blow or a projectile striking the eye. Hyphema uncommonly causes permanent loss of vision. Associated trauma (e.g. corneal staining, traumatic cataract, angle recession glaucoma, optic atrophy, etc.) may seriously affect vision. Such complications may lead to permanent impairment of vision. Patients with sickle cell trait/disease may be particularly susceptible to increases of elevated intraocular pressure. If rebleeding occurs, the rates and severity of complications increase. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of various medical interventions in the management of traumatic hyphema. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 8), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMED-LINE (January 1946 to August 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 30 August 2013. Selection criteria Two authors independently assessed the titles and abstracts of all reports identified by the electronic and manual searches. In this review, we included randomized and quasi-randomized trials that compared various medical interventions versus other medical interventions or control groups for the treatment of traumatic hyphema following closed globe trauma. We applied no restrictions regarding age, gender, severity of the closed globe trauma, or level of visual acuity at the time of enrolment. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted the data for the primary and secondary outcomes. We entered and analyzed data using Review Manager 5. We performed meta-analyses using a fixed-effect model and reported dichotomous outcomes as odds ratios and continuous outcomes as mean differences. Main results We included 20 randomized and seven quasi-randomized studies with 2643 participants in this review. Interventions included antifibrinolytic agents (oral and systemic aminocaproic acid, tranexamic acid, and aminomethylbenzoic acid), corticosteroids (systemic and topical), cycloplegics, miotics, aspirin, conjugated estrogens, traditional Chinese medicine, monocular versus bilateral patching, elevation of the head, and bed rest. No intervention had a significant effect on visual acuity whether measured at two weeks or less after the trauma or at longer time periods. The number of days for the primary hyphema to resolve appeared to be longer with the use of aminocaproic acid compared with no use, but was not altered by any other intervention. Systemic aminocaproic acid reduced the rate of recurrent hemorrhage (odds ratio (OR) 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.57), but a sensitivity analysis omitting studies not using an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis reduced the strength of the evidence (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.09). We obtained similar results for topical aminocaproic acid (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.10). We found tranexamic acid had a significant effect in reducing the rate of secondary hemorrhage (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.49), as did aminomethylbenzoic acid as reported in one study (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.32). The evidence to support an associated reduction in the risk of complications from secondary hemorrhage (i.e. corneal blood staining, peripheral anterior synechiae, elevated intraocular pressure, and development of optic atrophy) by antifibrinolytics was limited by the small number of these events. Use of aminocaproic acid was associated with increased nausea, vomiting, and other adverse events compared with placebo. We found no difference in the number of adverse events with the use of

  12. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy and athletes.

    PubMed

    Meehan, William; Mannix, Rebekah; Zafonte, Ross; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-10-27

    Recent case reports have described athletes previously exposed to repetitive head trauma while participating in contact sports who later in life developed mood disorders, headaches, cognitive difficulties, suicidal ideation, difficulties with speech, and aggressive behavior. Postmortem discoveries show that some of these athletes have pathologic findings that are collectively termed chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Current hypotheses suggest that concussions or perhaps blows to the head that do not cause the signs and symptoms necessary for making the diagnosis of concussion, so-called subconcussive blows, cause both the clinical and pathologic findings. There are, however, some athletes who participate in contact sports who do not develop the findings ascribed to CTE. Furthermore, there are people who have headaches, mood disorders, cognitive difficulties, suicidal ideation, and other clinical problems who have neither been exposed to repeated head trauma nor possessed the pathologic postmortem findings of those currently diagnosed with CTE. The current lack of prospective data and properly designed case-control studies limits the current understanding of CTE, leading to debate about the causes of the neuropathologic findings and the clinical observations. Given the potential for referral and recall bias in available studies, it remains unclear whether or not the pathologic findings made postmortem cause the presumed neurobehavioral sequela and whether the presumed risk factors, such as sports activity, cerebral concussions, and subconcussive blows, are solely causative of the clinical signs and symptoms. This article discusses the current evidence and the associated limitations. PMID:26253448

  13. Determining injuries from posterior and flank stab wounds using computed tomography tractography.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Vishal; Reid, Chris M; Fortlage, Dale; Lee, Jeanne; Kobayashi, Leslie; Doucet, Jay; Coimbra, Raul

    2014-04-01

    Unlike anterior stab wounds (SW), in which local exploration may direct management, posterior SW can be challenging to evaluate. Traditional triple contrast computed tomography (CT) imaging is cumbersome and technician-dependent. The present study examines the role of CT tractography as a strategy to manage select patients with back and flank SW. Hemodynamically stable patients with back and flank SW were studied. After resuscitation, Betadine- or Visipaque®-soaked sterile sponges were inserted into each SW for the estimated depth of the wound. Patients underwent abdominal helical CT scanning, including intravenous contrast, as the sole abdominal imaging study. Images were reviewed by an attending radiologist and trauma surgeon. The tractogram was evaluated to determine SW trajectory and injury to intra- or retroperitoneal organs, vascular structures, the diaphragm, and the urinary tract. Complete patient demographics including operative management and injuries were collected. Forty-one patients underwent CT tractography. In 11 patients, tractography detected violation of the intra- or retroperitoneal cavity leading to operative exploration. Injuries detected included: the spleen (two), colon (one), colonic mesentery (one), kidney (kidney), diaphragm (kidney), pneumothorax (seven), hemothorax (two), iliac artery (one), and traumatic abdominal wall hernia (two). In all patients, none had negative CT findings that failed observation. In this series, CT tractography is a safe and effective imaging strategy to evaluate posterior torso SW. It is unknown whether CT tractography is superior to traditional imaging modalities. Other uses for CT tractography may include determining trajectory from missile wounds and tangential penetrating injuries. PMID:24887674

  14. The diagnostic dilemma of the posterior mediastinal thymus: CT manifestations

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.D.; Weber, T.R.; Sequeira, F.W.; Vane, D.W.; King, H.

    1983-03-01

    Extension of the normal thymus into the posterior mediastinum is rare. The CT appearance of this anomaly in an infant is presented. A mass of soft-tissue density extended from the anterior mediastinum to the posterior chest wall. The absence of any tissue-cleavage plane in the lesion and a smooth continuous lateral margin are signs of posterior extension of the thymus, and they help to distinguish this from a normal anterior thymus being present with a posterior tumor.

  15. Electrocardiographic diagnosis of remote posterior wall myocardial infarction using unipolar posterior lead V9

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, M.W.; Imburgia, M.; King, T.R.; Fischer, K.C.; Kovach, K.L. )

    1989-09-01

    The accuracy of four electrocardiographic criteria for diagnosing remote posterior myocardial infarction was assessed prospectively in 369 patients undergoing exercise treadmill testing with thallium scintigraphy. Criteria included the following: (1) R-wave width greater than or equal to 0.04 s and R-wave greater than or equal to S-wave in V1; (2) R-wave greater than or equal to S-wave in V2; (3) T-wave voltage in V2 minus V6 greater than or equal to 0.38 mV (T-wave index); (4) Q-wave greater than or equal to 0.04 s in left paraspinal lead V9. Twenty-seven patients (7.3 percent) met thallium criteria for posterior myocardial infarction, defined as a persistent perfusion defect in the posterobase of the left ventricle. Sensitivities for the four criteria ranged from 4 to 56 percent, and specificities ranged from 64 to 99 percent. Posterior paraspinal lead V9 provided the best overall predictive accuracy (94 percent), positive predictive value (58 percent), and ability to differentiate patients with and without posterior myocardial infarction of any single criterion (p less than .0001). Combining the T-wave index with lead V9 further enhanced the diagnostic yield: the sensitivity for detecting posterior infarction by at least one of these criteria was 78 percent, and when both criteria were positive, specificity was 98.5 percent. It is concluded that a single, unipolar posterior lead in the V9 position is superior to standard 12-lead electrocardiographic criteria in diagnosing remote posterior myocardial infarction, and that combining V9 with the T-wave index maximizes the diagnostic yield.

  16. Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Migraine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disorder and Migraine Print Email Abuse, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Migraine ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... your e-mail address below. Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Migraine Gretchen E. Tietjen, MD and ...

  17. The effects of the tension-free vaginal tape on proximal urethral position: a prospective, longitudinal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lukacz, Emily S; Luber, Karl M; Nager, Charles W

    2003-08-01

    This study was designed to determine the anatomic effects of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT). A cohort of 94 patients was followed for 1 year. Urethral position was quantified using the Q-tip angle. Statistical analysis employed the ANOVA and paired t tests. A total of 54 (57%) patients met the criteria for analysis. In these 54 patients the success rate was 81%. Straining Q-tip angles decreased from a mean preoperative value of 52 degrees to 28 degrees before 1 month, 34 degrees at 1-6 months, 41 degrees at 6-12 months, and 45 degrees at 1 year ( P <0.05). The postoperative resting angles remained essentially unchanged. The sling initially provides support to the proximal urethra which diminishes over time. Unchanged resting Q-tip angles confirm the tension-free concept and there appears to be no shrinkage or tightening of the sling. We concluded that the success of the TVT is not due to proximal urethral support. PMID:12955339

  18. The role of stent grafts in the management of traumatic tibial artery pseudoaneurysms: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Joglar, Fernando; Kabutey, Nii-Kabu; Maree, Andrew; Farber, Alik

    2010-07-01

    Tibial artery pseudoaneurysms can occur in the setting of trauma. Operative exposure and repair of these injuries can be challenging, and surgical management options include direct arterial repair, interposition grafting, or arterial ligation. Other techniques including duplex-guided compression, thrombin injection, and endovascular intervention have been described. We present the case of a 39-year-old man who sustained blunt trauma to his right lower extremity and developed a delayed symptomatic pseudoaneurysm of the posterior tibial artery. He was successfully managed with endovascular stent graft exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm. Endovascular stent-grafting techniques can be successfully applied to the management of traumatic tibial pseudoaneurysms. PMID:20484071

  19. 45 CFR 1308.16 - Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. 1308... DISABILITIES Health Services Performance Standards § 1308.16 Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. A child is classified as having traumatic brain injury whose brain injuries are caused by an...

  20. 45 CFR 1308.16 - Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. 1308... DISABILITIES Health Services Performance Standards § 1308.16 Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. A child is classified as having traumatic brain injury whose brain injuries are caused by an...

  1. 38 CFR 9.20 - Traumatic injury protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...spinal cord or associated nerves, or to the brain, that is deemed clinically stable and...from traumatic injury AND/OR Traumatic Brain injury resulting in inability to perform...18) Hospitalization due to traumatic brain injury:* • at 15 consecutive day...

  2. 38 CFR 9.20 - Traumatic injury protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...spinal cord or associated nerves, or to the brain, that is deemed clinically stable and...from traumatic injury AND/OR Traumatic Brain injury resulting in inability to perform...18) Hospitalization due to traumatic brain injury:* • at 15 consecutive day...

  3. 38 CFR 9.20 - Traumatic injury protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...spinal cord or associated nerves, or to the brain, that is deemed clinically stable and...from traumatic injury AND/OR Traumatic Brain injury resulting in inability to perform...18) Hospitalization due to traumatic brain injury:* • at 15 consecutive day...

  4. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Opportunities & Challenges for Computing Technology

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Opportunities & Challenges for Computing Technology Brian M. Landry-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a condition in which a person responds to a traumatic event, such as war, a car have a significant detrimental impact on the lives of those affected by PTSD as well as their friends

  5. Trabeculectomy for traumatic hyphema in sickle cell trait.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, Kevin; Nobe, Matthew; Abazari, Azin; Honkanen, Robert

    2015-07-01

    A case report of a traumatic hyphema in a patient with sickle cell trait is presented. A review of the published literature in PubMed was performed and medical management strategies and surgical treatment indications for traumatic hyphema are discussed. We support the case for temporary trabeculectomy in patients with traumatic hyphema and sickle cell disease. PMID:24251431

  6. Resolving Child and Adolescent Traumatic Grief: Creative Techniques and Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar-Bailey, Meredith; Kress, Victoria E.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a review of creative interventions that can be helpful in facilitating the resolution of traumatic grief in children and adolescents. Traumatic grief is conceptualized as a condition in which a person loses a close loved one (e.g., a parent or a sibling) in a traumatic manner, and ensuing trauma-related symptoms disrupt the…

  7. Brief Information on Childhood Traumatic Grief for School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This information sheet summarizes material found in the "In-Depth General Information Guide to Childhood Traumatic Grief" and "In-Depth Information on Childhood Traumatic Grief for School Personnel." Childhood traumatic grief is a condition that some children develop after the death of a close friend or family member. Children who develop…

  8. Childhood Traumatic Grief Educational Materials for School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This guide to childhood traumatic grief for school personnel builds on the "In-Depth General Information Guide to Childhood Traumatic Grief" and the "Brief Information on Childhood Traumatic Grief" and should be read in conjunction with them. This guide for school personnel pays special attention to the reactions and symptoms school personnel…

  9. RESEARCH ARTICLE Binge Ethanol Prior to Traumatic Brain Injury

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, Timothy E.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Binge Ethanol Prior to Traumatic Brain Injury Worsens Sensorimotor Functional traumatic brain injury (TBI) have a high blood alcohol level at the time of injury. Furthermore, drinking Americans suffer a traumatic brain injury (TBI) every year[1]. Of those hospital- ized, approximately 50

  10. Discriminating military and civilian traumatic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Reid, Matthew W; Velez, Carmen S

    2015-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs at higher rates among service members than civilians. Explosions from improvised explosive devices and mines are the leading cause of TBI in the military. As such, TBI is frequently accompanied by other injuries, which makes its diagnosis and treatment difficult. In addition to postconcussion symptoms, those who sustain a TBI commonly report chronic pain and posttraumatic stress symptoms. This combination of symptoms is so typical they have been referred to as the "polytrauma clinical triad" among injured service members. We explore whether these symptoms discriminate civilian occurrences of TBI from those of service members, as well as the possibility that repeated blast exposure contributes to the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Traumatic Brain Injury'. PMID:25827093

  11. Early Altered Resting-State Functional Connectivity Predicts the Severity of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Acutely Traumatized Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ling-di; Wan, Jie-qing; Sun, Ya-wen; Su, Shan-shan; Ding, Wei-na; Xu, Jian-rong

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between resting-state functional connectivity and the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 15 people who developed PTSD following recent trauma. Fifteen participants who experienced acute traumatic events underwent a 7.3-min resting functional magnetic resonance imaging scan within 2 days post-event. All the patients were diagnosed with PTSD within 1 to 6 months after trauma. Brain areas in which activity was correlated with that of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were assessed. To assess the relationship between the severity of PTSD symptoms and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas positively correlated with the PCC were correlated with the subject’s Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale scores (CAPS) when they were diagnosed. Furthermore, the PCC, medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral amygdala were selected to assess the correlation of the strength of functional connectivity with the CAPS. Resting state connectivity with the PCC was negatively correlated with CAPS scores in the left superior temporal gyrus and right hippocampus/amygdala. Furthermore, the strength of connectivity between the PCC and bilateral amygdala, and even between the bilateral amygdala could predict the severity of PTSD symptoms later. These results suggest that early altered resting-state functional connectivity of the PCC with the left superior temporal gyrus, right hippocampus and amygdala could predict the severity of the disease and may be a major risk factor that predisposes patients to develop PTSD. PMID:23056477

  12. Anterior and posterior fixation for delayed treatment of posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without fracture.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai Ming; Malhotra, Karan; Butler, Joseph S; Wu, Shi Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Posterior atlantoaxial dislocation (PAAD) without fracture of the odontoid process is a rare injury. Authors have variously reported closed or open reduction, followed by either anterior or posterior fixation, but there is no consensus on best treatment. We present a particularly unstable case of PAAD. Open reduction through a retropharyngeal approach with odontoidectomy was required for reduction. Anterior fixation with transarticular lag screws was required prior to posterior fixation with pedicle screws. Despite non-compliance with postoperative immobilisation, imaging at 20-month follow-up confirmed solid fusion. The patient is pain-free with a good range of movement of the neck and has returned to a manual job. Our case had a greater degree of instability than was previously reported, which necessitated 360° fixation. This is the first reported case of this treatment strategy, which provided a very stable fixation allowing fusion despite early movement and without causing undue stiffness. PMID:26516249

  13. Toxicological findings in victims of traumatic deaths.

    PubMed

    Bastos, M L; Galante, L

    1976-01-01

    The toxicological findings from 6037 analyses of viscera obtained from victims of traumatic death are used to correlate the relative incidence of carbon monoxide, ethyl alcohol, narcotics, hypnotics, analgesics, and tranquilizers-antidepressants in deaths occurring under the following circumstances: fire related, asphyxia by hanging, by use of plastic bags, from physical obstruction of trachae, and by drowning; traumatic injury from impact of moving train, fall from height, and occupational accident; traumatic injury to pedestrian, driver, and passenger from vehicular accidents; and from violent death by shooting, stabbing, strangulation, and beating. The influence of alcohol, narcotic drugs, and tranquilizers on carbon monoxide can be seen in some of these traumatic deaths. Ethanol alone and in combination with other drugs was present in 42.3% and 19.5% of driver and pedestrian victims, respectively, of vehicular accidents in the year 1974. Comparative analysis is presented for the toxicological data obtained on victims of homicide (shooting, stabbing, strangulation, and beating) in New York City and similar data reported for victims of homicide in Detroit. In New York City 45.9% of such victims died while under the influence of alcohol or narcotic drugs, or both, with methadone predominating in the latter category. Tissue concentrations of drugs found in victims of traumatic death are presented. Diphenylhydantoin, diazepam, meperidine, and slow-acting barbiturates were found in normal therapeutic levels. Higher concentrations of amitriptyline, chlorpromazine, propoxyphene, short-acting barbiturates, and methadone were observed. The concentration of methadone in blood and brain (0.13 +/- 0.14 mg/100 ml) and in liver (0.53 +/- 0.42 mg/100 ml) in cases of traumatic death are not different from those observed in deaths classified as due to methadone overdose. PMID:1249550

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis ompA genotypes in male patients with urethritis in Greece: conservation of the serovar distribution and evidence for mixed infections with Chlamydophila abortus.

    PubMed

    Psarrakos, Panagiotis; Papadogeorgakis, Eleni; Sachse, Konrad; Vretou, Evangelia

    2011-08-01

    PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the ompA gene of Chlamydia trachomatis were used to determine the prevalence and distribution of genotypes in 51 urine and urethral specimens from Greek male patients with urethritis, that were positive by the COBAS Amplicor test. A single C. trachomatis serovar was identified in 43 of the 51 amplified samples. Serovars F and E were the most prevalent (both 12, 28%), followed by D (9, 21%), G (4, 9%), B and K (both 2, 5%) and H and J (both 1, 2%). Over one third of the samples bared a variant ompA genotype that had been previously identified in other areas worldwide. Two results in this study, both observed for the first time, were of particular interest. First, the emergence of the unique variant genotype D/Ep6 (X77364.2) identified in 3 urethral samples. Second, the ompA genotype OCLH196 of the animal pathogen Chlamydophila abortus as well as a 23S rRNA gene fragment of this species detected by the assay ArrayTube™ was found in 7 urethral samples. The implications resulting from this observation for the health of the general population are discussed. PMID:21530642

  15. Diagnostic imaging of posterior fossa anomalies in the fetus and neonate: part 2, Posterior fossa disorders.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Teresa; Mahalingam, Sowmya; Ishak, Gisele E; Nixon, Jason N; Siebert, Joseph; Dighe, Manjiri K

    2015-01-01

    This second portion of a two-part review illustrates examples of posterior fossa disorders detectable on prenatal ultrasound and MRI, with postnatal or pathology correlation where available. These disorders are discussed in the context of an anatomic classification scheme described in Part 1 of this posterior fossa anomaly review. Assessment of the size and formation of the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis is critical. Diagnoses discussed here include arachnoid cyst, Blake's pouch cyst, Dandy-Walker malformation, vermian agenesis, Joubert syndrome, rhombencephalosynapsis, Chiari II malformation, ischemia, and tumors. PMID:25457569

  16. Management of Major Traumatic Upper Extremity Amputations.

    PubMed

    Solarz, Mark K; Thoder, Joseph J; Rehman, Saqib

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic upper extremity amputation is a life-altering event, and recovery of function depends on proper surgical management and postoperative rehabilitation. Many injuries require revision amputation and postoperative prosthesis fitting. Care should be taken to preserve maximal length of the limb and motion of the remaining joints. Skin grafting or free tissue transfer may be necessary for coverage to allow preservation of length. Early prosthetic fitting within 30 days of surgery should be performed so the amputee can start rehabilitation while the wound is healing and the stump is maturing. Multidisciplinary care is essential for the overall care of the patient following a traumatic amputation of the upper limb. PMID:26614927

  17. Treating traumatic injuries of the diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Sankalp; Banode, Pankaj; Gharde, Pankaj; Bhatt, Manisha; Ratanlal Johrapurkar, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic diaphragmatic injury (DI) is a unique clinical entity that is usually occult and can easily be missed. Their delayed presentation can be due to the delayed rupture of the diaphragm or delayed detection of diaphragmatic rupture, making the accurate diagnosis of DI challenging to the trauma surgeons. An emergency laparotomy and thorough exploration followed by the repair of the defect is the gold standard for the management of these cases. We report a case of blunt DI in an elderly gentleman and present a comprehensive overview for the management of traumatic injuries of the diaphragm. PMID:20606795

  18. What is post-traumatic stress disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Andreasen, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are categorized as separate and discrete disorders, the boundary between them is sometimes indistinct. Their separation is based on the assumption that PTSD results primarily from psychological stress, while TBI is the consequence of an identifiable injury to the brain. This distinction is based on an antiquated polarity between mind and brain, and the separation of the two disorders often becomes arbitrary in day-to-day psychiatric practice and research. PMID:22033951

  19. Complications when augmenting the posterior maxilla.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, Paul; Melnick, Philip R; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad

    2015-01-01

    The maxillary posterior edentulous region presents a challenge when planning for restoring missing teeth with a dental implant. The available bone in such cases is often not dense and not adequate for the placement of a properly sized implant because of maxillary sinus pneumatization and alveolar bone loss. Maxillary sinus lift is a predictable procedure to provide adequate bone height for the purpose of implant placement. However, complications are encountered during or after the execution of the sinus lift procedure. In this article, the prevention and management of maxillary sinus complications are discussed. PMID:25434561

  20. Posterior shoulder instability in the contact athlete.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, Eric P; Sekiya, Jon K

    2013-10-01

    Historically, posterior shoulder instability has been a challenging problem for contact athletes and orthopedic surgeons alike. A complete understanding of the normal shoulder anatomy and biomechanics and the pathoanatomy responsible for the instability is necessary for a successful clinical outcome. In addition, the surgeon must be familiar with the diagnostic imaging and physical examination maneuvers required for the correct diagnosis without missing any other concurrent abnormalities. This understanding will allow orthopedists to plan and execute the appropriate management, whether this may involve conservative or surgical intervention. The goal should always be to correct the abnormality and have the patient return to play with full strength and no recurrent instability. PMID:24079434

  1. Cognitive Improvement after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Measured with Functional Neuroimaging during the Acute Period

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Glenn R.; Freeman, Kalev; Thomas, Alex; Shpaner, Marina; OKeefe, Michael; Watts, Richard; Naylor, Magdalena R.

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have been largely limited to patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, utilizing images obtained months to years after the actual head trauma. We sought to distinguish acute and delayed effects of mild traumatic brain injury on working memory functional brain activation patterns < 72 hours after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and again one-week later. We hypothesized that clinical and fMRI measures of working memory would be abnormal in symptomatic mTBI patients assessed < 72 hours after injury, with most patients showing clinical recovery (i.e., improvement in these measures) within 1 week after the initial assessment. We also hypothesized that increased memory workload at 1 week following injury would expose different cortical activation patterns in mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, compared to those with full clinical recovery. We performed a prospective, cohort study of working memory in emergency department patients with isolated head injury and clinical diagnosis of concussion, compared to control subjects (both uninjured volunteers and emergency department patients with extremity injuries and no head trauma). The primary outcome of cognitive recovery was defined as resolution of reported cognitive impairment and quantified by scoring the subject’s reported cognitive post-concussive symptoms at 1 week. Secondary outcomes included additional post-concussive symptoms and neurocognitive testing results. We enrolled 46 subjects: 27 with mild TBI and 19 controls. The time of initial neuroimaging was 48 (+22 S.D.) hours after injury (time 1). At follow up (8.7, + 1.2 S.D., days after injury, time 2), 18 of mTBI subjects (64%) reported moderate to complete cognitive recovery, 8 of whom fully recovered between initial and follow-up imaging. fMRI changes from time 1 to time 2 showed an increase in posterior cingulate activation in the mTBI subjects compared to controls. Increases in activation were greater in those mTBI subjects without cognitive recovery. As workload increased in mTBI subjects, activation increased in cortical regions in the right hemisphere. In summary, we found neuroimaging evidence for working memory deficits during the first week following mild traumatic brain injury. Subjects with persistent cognitive symptoms after mTBI had increased requirement for posterior cingulate activation to complete memory tasks at 1 week following a brain injury. These results provide insight into functional activation patterns during initial recovery from mTBI and expose the regional activation networks that may be involved in working memory deficits. PMID:25962067

  2. Posterior consistency in conditional distribution estimation

    PubMed Central

    Pati, Debdeep; Dunson, David B.; Tokdar, Surya T.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of priors have been proposed for nonparametric Bayesian estimation of conditional distributions, and there is a clear need for theorems providing conditions on the prior for large support, as well as posterior consistency. Estimation of an uncountable collection of conditional distributions across different regions of the predictor space is a challenging problem, which differs in some important ways from density and mean regression estimation problems. Defining various topologies on the space of conditional distributions, we provide sufficient conditions for posterior consistency focusing on a broad class of priors formulated as predictor-dependent mixtures of Gaussian kernels. This theory is illustrated by showing that the conditions are satisfied for a class of generalized stick-breaking process mixtures in which the stick-breaking lengths are monotone, differentiable functions of a continuous stochastic process. We also provide a set of sufficient conditions for the case where stick-breaking lengths are predictor independent, such as those arising from a fixed Dirichlet process prior. PMID:25067858

  3. Experimental models for posterior capsule opacification research.

    PubMed

    Wormstone, Ian Michael; Eldred, Julie Ann

    2016-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide are blinded due to cataract formation. At present the only means of treating a cataract is through surgical intervention. A modern cataract operation involves the creation of an opening in the anterior lens capsule to allow access to the fibre cells, which are then removed. This leaves in place a capsular bag that comprises the remaining anterior capsule and the entire posterior capsule. In most cases, an intraocular lens is implanted into the capsular bag during surgery. This procedure initially generates good visual restoration, but unfortunately, residual lens epithelial cells undergo a wound-healing response invoked by surgery, which in time commonly results in a secondary loss of vision. This condition is known as posterior capsule opacification (PCO) and exhibits classical features of fibrosis, including hyperproliferation, migration, matrix deposition, matrix contraction and transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts. These changes alone can cause visual deterioration, but in a significant number of cases, fibre differentiation is also observed, which gives rise to Soemmering's ring and Elschnig's pearl formation. Elucidating the regulatory factors that govern these events is fundamental in the drive to develop future strategies to prevent or delay visual deterioration resulting from PCO. A range of experimental platforms are available for the study of PCO that range from in vivo animal models to in vitro human cell and tissue culture models. In the current review, we will highlight some of the experimental models used in PCO research and provide examples of key findings that have resulted from these approaches. PMID:25939555

  4. Posterior surgical approaches to the rectum.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, K C; Lang, N P; Broadwater, J R; Thompson, B W

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes experience with 19 posterior approaches to the rectum including nine trans-sacral (Kraske) and ten trans-sphincteric (Mason) procedures. This study included 12 men and 7 women, ranging in age from 18 to 89 years. Surgical indications included villous tumors in nine patients, various benign problems in four patients, primary carcinomas in three patients, and recurrent cancer in three patients. Eight complications developed in the 19 patients including: four fecal fistulae, two wound dehiscences, one rectal stricture, and one sacrococcygeal hernia. Spontaneous closure of the fecal fistulae occurred in two patients, and two patients required proximal colostomies. Fecal continence was achieved in 18 of the 19 patients. No patient died as a complication of the procedure. No recurrent tumors have developed. The conclusion is that a posterior approach to the rectum is a safe and effective procedure for various benign and for selected malignant conditions. It is particularly suitable for villous tumors that are too high for transanal resection and too low for transabdominal resection. It is an effective procedure for small, exophytic, mobile carcinomas of the lower 10 cm of the rectum in selected patients. PMID:7082059

  5. Posterior malleolar fractures of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Bartoní?ek, J; Rammelt, S; Tu?ek, M; Na?ka, O

    2015-12-01

    Despite an increasing awareness of injuries to PM in ankle fracture-dislocations, there are still many open questions. The mere presence of a posterior fragment leads to significantly poorer outcomes. Adequate diagnosis, classification and treatment require preoperative CT examination, preferably with 3D reconstructions. The indication for surgical treatment is made individually on the basis of comprehensive assessment of the three-dimensional outline of the PM fracture and all associated injuries to the ankle including syndesmotic instability. Anatomic fixation of the avulsed posterior tibiofibular ligament will contribute to syndesmotic stability and restore the integrity of the incisura tibiae thus facilitating anatomic reduction of the distal fibula. A necessary prerequisite is mastering of posterolateral and posteromedial approaches and the technique of direct reduction and internal fixation. Further clinical studies with higher numbers of patients treated by similar methods and evaluation of pre- and postoperative CT scans will be necessary to determine reliable prognostic factors associated with certain types of PM fractures and associated injuries to the ankle. PMID:26253884

  6. GNSS integer ambiguity validation based on posterior probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zemin; Bian, Shaofeng

    2015-10-01

    GNSS integer ambiguity validation is considered to be a challenge task for decades. Several kinds of validation tests are developed and widely used in these years, but theoretical basis is their weakness. Ambiguity validation theoretically is an issue of hypothesis test. In the frame of Bayesian hypothesis testing, posterior probability is the canonical standard that statistical decision should be based on. In this contribution, (i) we derive the posterior probability of the fixed ambiguity based on the Bayesian principle and modify it for practice ambiguity validation. (ii) The optimal property of the posterior probability test is proved based on an extended Neyman-Pearson lemma. Since validation failure rate is the issue users most concerned about, (iii) we derive the failure rate upper bound of the posterior probability test, so the user can use the posterior probability test either in the fixed posterior probability or in the fixed failure rate way. Simulated as well as real observed data are used for experimental validations. The results show that (i) the posterior probability test is the most effective within the R-ratio test, difference test, ellipsoidal integer aperture test and posterior probability test, (ii) the posterior probability test is computational efficient and (iii) the failure rate estimation for posterior probability test is useful.

  7. Traumatic Brain Injury. Fact Sheet Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet describes traumatic brain injury (TBI), an injury of the brain caused by the head being hit by something or being shaken violently. It discusses the incidence of TBI, and describes its symptoms as changes in thinking and reasoning, understanding words, remembering things, paying attention, solving problems, thinking abstractly,…

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury and Personality Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Marc; McCabe, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and lifelong disability in the United States for individuals below the age of 45. Current estimates from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) indicate that at least 1.4 million Americans sustain a TBI annually. TBI affects 475,000 children under age 14 each year in the United States alone.…

  9. School Reentry Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deidrick, Kathleen K. M.; Farmer, Janet E.

    2005-01-01

    Successful school reentry following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is critical to recovery. Physical, cognitive, behavioral, academic, and social problems can affect a child's school performance after a TBI. However, early intervention has the potential to improve child academic outcomes and promote effective coping with any persistent changes in…

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury and Vocational Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corthell, David W., Ed.

    Intended to serve as a resource guide on traumatic brain injury for rehabilitation practitioners, the book's 10 chapters are grouped into sections which provide an introduction and examine aspects of evaluation, treatment and placement planning, and unresolved issues. Chapters have the following titles and authors: "Scope of the Problem" (Marilyn…

  11. Adolescent Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, William

    2003-01-01

    Based on over a decade of work in the area of PTSD, including a longitudinal study of PTSD among adolescents, Dr. Yule provides an introduction to post-traumatic stress disorder as it occurs in youth. This includes a look at the manifestations of stress reactions, the incidence and prevalence of PTSD, and the relationship between levels of…

  12. Treating Childhood Traumatic Grief: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Knudsen, Kraig

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the potential efficacy and specific timing of treatment response of individual child and parent trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for childhood traumatic grief (CTG), a condition in which trauma symptoms impinge on the child's ability to successfully address the normal tasks of grieving. Method: Twenty-two children…

  13. Understanding Traumatic Brain Injury: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudel, Tina M.; Scherer, Marcia J.; Elias, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    This article is the first of a multi-part series on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Historically, TBI has received very limited national public policy attention and support. However since it has become the signature injury of the military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, TBI has gained the attention of elected officials, military leaders,…

  14. Amnemonic traces: Traumatic after-effects.

    PubMed

    Potamianou, A

    2015-08-01

    ?his article addresses the problem of amnemonic traces. The author considers various effects that traumatic experiences can have on the psychic apparatus and, more specifically, those that give rise to situations in which nothing is remembered and nothing is repeated by the patient. She presents data from the analyses of two patients and explores whether it might be possible to give a more accurate description of factors and processes that accelerate the fading of traumatic experiences from the memory network. As somatic disturbances, or illnesses, often accompany or follow traumatic upheavals, the author examines some examples of how somatic events can be viewed as linked to traumatic turmoil and understood as channels of expression of what remains silent in the mental realm. Some suggestions concerning prerequisites for analytic work with patients who confront the analyst with ruptures and erasures in mental functioning and with reductions in mental processing are discussed. How the analyst's psychic economy is involved while working with such patients is also considered. PMID:25885524

  15. Psychiatric disorders and traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzbold, Marcelo; Diaz, Alexandre; Martins, Evandro Tostes; Rufino, Armanda; Amante, Lúcia Nazareth; Thais, Maria Emília; Quevedo, João; Hohl, Alexandre; Linhares, Marcelo Neves; Walz, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are frequent. Researches in this area are important for the patients’ care and they may provide hints for the comprehension of primary psychiatric disorders. Here we approach epidemiology, diagnosis, associated factors and treatment of the main psychiatric disorders after TBI. Finally, the present situation of the knowledge in this field is discussed. PMID:19043523

  16. [Is posterior lumbar epidural space partitioned?].

    PubMed

    Morisot, P

    1992-01-01

    The anatomy of the posterior lumbar epidural space (PLES) has been extensively studied. Besides the anatomists, surgeons, radiologists and anaesthetists have taken an interest in this. However, because each one has considered the PLES from his own specialist field, descriptions are not always concordant. In particular, the reality of a medial partition in the PLES has been suggested by epidurography and intraoperative observations. Lewit and Sereghy and Luyendijk opened the debate by reporting, on antero-posterior epidurographic films, a clear-cut, medial, vertical and narrow picture which partitioned the PLES. However, this was not constant. Savolaine et al. also recognized this partition on epidurographic CT scans. During laminectomies, Luyendijk has taken photographs of a medial fold of the dura mater which appeared to hold it to the posterior vertebral arch, being collapsed on either side of the midline. He named it "plica mediana dorsalis durae matris" (PMD). Several anaesthetists considered that this could explain why epidural analgesia sometimes acted on one side only. Husemeyer and White, and Harrison et al., have tried to confirm this experimentally by making casts with polymerizing resins in cadavers. They did not get very convincing results. Blomberg also tried to see this space by epiduroscopy in the cadaver. Unfortunately, for technical reasons, his photographs were of poor quality. He, however, reported having seen each time the PMD and a band of connective tissue fixing it to the vertebral arch in the midline. However, all these anatomical studies used methods which alter the natural structures. Their results are therefore questionable. The PLES is a virtual space. Histological studies have shown that it is filled with fatty tissue between the dura and the vertebral arch. It is therefore conceivable that any liquid injected into the PLES, such as contrast medium or local anaesthetic, must push back the dura, the only tissue which can move to give it any room. The fatty tissue could therefore be compressed and take any of the shapes which have been described on epidurography. On the other hand, should it be torn, it seems this fatty tissue could make up these haphazard fibrous tracts tensed between the dura and the vertebral arch, such as described in classical anatomy, as Bonica recalled. These can be clearly seen during surgical and anatomical dissections, and during endoscopies carried out on cadavers with sufficient optical means, as opposed to the medial fibrous band fixing the dura to the vertebral arch.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1443817

  17. Is there a way to predict failure after direct vision internal urethrotomy for single and short bulbar urethral strictures?

    PubMed Central

    Harraz, Ahmed M.; El-Assmy, Ahmed; Mahmoud, Osama; Elbakry, Amr A.; Tharwat, Mohamed; Omar, Helmy; Farg, Hashim; Laymon, Mahmoud; Mosbah, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify patient and stricture characteristics predicting failure after direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU) for single and short (<2 cm) bulbar urethral strictures. Patients and methods We retrospectively analysed the records of adult patients who underwent DVIU between January 2002 and 2013. The patients’ demographics and stricture characteristics were analysed. The primary outcome was procedure failure, defined as the need for regular self-dilatation (RSD), redo DVIU or substitution urethroplasty. Predictors of failure were analysed. Results In all, 430 adult patients with a mean (SD) age of 50 (15) years were included. The main causes of stricture were idiopathic followed by iatrogenic in 51.6% and 26.3% of patients, respectively. Most patients presented with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms (68.9%) and strictures were proximal bulbar, i.e. just close to the external urethral sphincter, in 35.3%. The median (range) follow-up duration was 29 (3–132) months. In all, 250 (58.1%) patients did not require any further instrumentation, while RSD was maintained in 116 (27%) patients, including 28 (6.5%) who required a redo DVIU or urethroplasty. In 64 (6.5%) patients, a redo DVIU or urethroplasty was performed. On multivariate analysis, older age at presentation [odds ratio (OR) 1.017; P = 0.03], obesity (OR 1.664; P = 0.015), and idiopathic strictures (OR 3.107; P = 0.035) were independent predictors of failure after DVIU. Conclusion The failure rate after DVIU accounted for 41.8% of our present cohort with older age at presentation, obesity, and idiopathic strictures independent predictors of failure after DVIU. This information is important in counselling patients before surgery. PMID:26609447

  18. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, S.

    1987-12-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula.

  19. Cysticercosis in the posterior cranial fossa.

    PubMed

    Cheepsattayakorn, R; Tantachamroon, T

    1994-10-01

    Two cases of neurocysticercosis from Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital were reported with autopsy and surgical findings. The autopsy case was a 14-year-old girl who had a single cyst at the cisterna ambiens of the pineal region, causing hydrocephalus and severe brain edema accompanied with increased intracranial pressure and psychiatric problems but no definite localizing signs. The surgical case was a 35-year-old man with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure, localizing signs of ataxia of the left lower extremity and hearing loss in the right ear. Computed brain tomography showed a posterior fossa cyst with obstructive hydrocephalus. The cyst and the tissues from CP angle region were removed and sent to the Department of Pathology. Histopathologic appearance of both cases showed cysticercosis. PMID:7745377

  20. Management of Neglected Traumatic Bilateral Cervical Facet Dislocations Without Neurological Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Farooque, Kamran; Khatri, Kavin; Gupta, Babita; Sharma, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sub axial cervical spine dislocations are common and managing these cases by closed reduction is successful in the majority of cases. However, treatment of old and neglected cases is difficult and the results may vary in terms of neurological and functional outcomes. Case Presentation: We present two cases of traumatic bilateral cervical facet dislocation with no neurological deficit (ND) who referred four months after the injury. They were managed via single stage anterior discectomy, posterior facet reduction, instrumentation, and then anterior reconstruction with bone graft and cervical plate. The patients had no ND in the postoperative period and returned to work. Discussion: Patients presenting with neck pain after a history of trauma should be evaluated thoroughly with radiographs and computed tomography. The management of old neglected facet dislocations is difficult, lengthy, and fraught with potential neurological complications; operative intervention can substantially improve the quality of life in these patients. PMID:26543838

  1. Clinical Management of a Patient with Chronic Recurrent Vertigo Following a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric G.

    2009-01-01

    Vertigo, was provoked and right torsional up-beat nystagmus was observed in a 47-year-old patient when she was placed into the right Hallpike-Dix test position using infrared goggle technology. The clinical diagnosis was benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), specifically right posterior canalithiasis, resulting from a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) suffered approximately six-months earlier. Previous medical consultations did not include vestibular system examination, and Meclizine was prescribed to suppress her chief complaint of vertigo. Ultimately, the patient was successfully managed by performing two canalith repositioning maneuvers during a single clinical session. The patient reported 100% resolution of symptoms upon reexamination the following day, and the Hallpike-Dix test was negative. Continued symptom resolution was subjectively reported 10 days postintervention via telephone consultation. This case report supports previous publications concerning the presence of BPPV following TBI and the need for inclusion of vestibular system examination during medical consultation. PMID:19826635

  2. Descemet's Stripping-Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty for Traumatic Aniridia and Aphakia

    PubMed Central

    Jastaneiah, Sabah S.

    2012-01-01

    This Interventional case reports a challenging case of descemet's stripping-automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in a young male patient with traumatic aniridia, aphakia, and corneal edema. Surgery was planned in two stages; first was implantation of aniridia intraocular lens (AIOL), few months later, DSAEK procedure was performed. Successful outcome of both procedures was achieved as measured by the stability of the AIOL, clarity of the cornea, attachment of the lenticule, and improvement in vision. Aniridia implant supports a sufficient amount of air in the anterior chamber especially if the posterior segment is well formed, while providing the required lens power to improve vision. DSAEK procedure challenges that include iris defects and aphakia may be overcome by stepwise planning of the procedure. PMID:22606506

  3. Visual Rehabilitation by Scleral Fixation of Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lenses in Amblyopic Aphakic Children

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Anuradha; Bialasiewicz, Alexander A.; Al-Zuhaibi, Sana M.; Sabt, Buthaina I.; Ganguly, Shyam S.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims: To report on the outcome of scleral fixated posterior chamber intraocular lens (S-IOL) implantation in aphakic amblyopic children after 1 year. Methods: Amblyopic children with aphakia after traumatic and congenital cataract surgery unsuitable for spectacle or contact lens correction were operated with an anterior vitrectomy and inside-out double thread scleral fixation of an Alcon CZ70BD pcIOL. Refraction and vision was compared after 12 months. Results: From 2001-2006, 23 S-IOLs were implanted in 16 children (19 unilateral, 4 bilateral) aged 2-16 years: 10 eyes with traumatic [Group A], and 13 eyes with congenital cataracts including 3 eyes with ectopia lentis [Group B]. Preoperative UCVA compared to postoperative UCVA improved in 9/10 eyes in group A and 12/13 eyes in group B. Preoperative BCVA compared to postoperative UCVA improved in 9/10 eyes (90 percent) in group A and 4/13 eyes (31 percent) in group B. Mean age at surgery in group A was 6.8 years (1.5-16yrs) and in group B 10.5 years (4-16 years). More than one year elapsed in 2/10 eyes of group A and 8/13 eyes in group B. Postoperative refraction was within 2.0D of target in 17/23 eyes. Complications included temporary IOP rise in 2, vitreous hemorrhage in 1, and iris capture in 3 eyes. Two eyes required revision surgery. Conclusion: S-IOL implantation may be beneficial for aphakic children lacking other means for visual rehabilitation to improve vision. Amblyopia may be improved in most trauma, but only few congenital cataract eyes. PMID:21346839

  4. Diagnostics for insufficiencies of posterior calculations in Bayesian signal inference.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Sebastian; Oppermann, Niels; Ensslin, Torsten A

    2013-11-01

    We present an error-diagnostic validation method for posterior distributions in Bayesian signal inference, an advancement of a previous work. It transfers deviations from the correct posterior into characteristic deviations from a uniform distribution of a quantity constructed for this purpose. We show that this method is able to reveal and discriminate several kinds of numerical and approximation errors, as well as their impact on the posterior distribution. For this we present four typical analytical examples of posteriors with incorrect variance, skewness, position of the maximum, or normalization. We show further how this test can be applied to multidimensional signals. PMID:24329375

  5. An ancestral regulatory network for posterior development in arthropods.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alistair P; Pechmann, Matthias; Schwager, Evelyn E; Damen, Wim Gm

    2009-01-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated posterior development in several different arthropods. As previously found in spiders, it has been discovered that Delta-Notch signaling is required for the development of posterior segments in an insect, the cockroach Periplaneta americana. Furthermore analysis of Wnt8 function in the spider Achaearanea tepidariorum and the beetle Tribolium castaneum demonstrates that this Wnt ligand is required for the establishment of the growth zone and development of posterior segments in both these arthropods. Taken together these studies provide an interesting insight into the architecture of the genetic network that regulated posterior development in the common ancestor of the arthropods. PMID:19513274

  6. An ancestral regulatory network for posterior development in arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Pechmann, Matthias; Schwager, Evelyn E; Damen, Wim GM

    2009-01-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated posterior development in several different arthropods. As previously found in spiders, it has been discovered that Delta-Notch signaling is required for the development of posterior segments in an insect, the cockroach Periplaneta americana. Furthermore analysis of Wnt8 function in the spider Achaearanea tepidariorum and the beetle Tribolium castaneum demonstrates that this Wnt ligand is required for the establishment of the growth zone and development of posterior segments in both these arthropods. Taken together these studies provide an interesting insight into the architecture of the genetic network that regulated posterior development in the common ancestor of the arthropods. PMID:19513274

  7. Multi-modal MRI of mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Ponnada A; Yu, Xintian; Hasan, Khader M; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Levin, Harvey S; Hunter, Jill V; Miller, Emmy R; Patel, Vipul Kumar S; Robertson, Claudia S; McCarthy, James J

    2015-01-01

    Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that included high resolution structural imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) were performed in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients with negative computed tomographic scans and in an orthopedic-injured (OI) group without concomitant injury to the brain. The OI group served as a comparison group for mTBI. MRI scans were performed both in the acute phase of injury (~24 h) and at follow-up (~90 days). DTI data was analyzed using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS). Global and regional atrophies were calculated using tensor-based morphometry (TBM). MTR values were calculated using the standard method. MRSI was analyzed using LC Model. At the initial scan, the mean diffusivity (MD) was significantly higher in the mTBI cohort relative to the comparison group in several white matter (WM) regions that included internal capsule, external capsule, superior corona radiata, anterior corona radiata, posterior corona radiata, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, forceps major and forceps minor of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corticospinal tract in the right hemisphere. TBSS analysis failed to detect significant differences in any DTI measures between the initial and follow-up scans either in the mTBI or OI group. No significant differences were found in MRSI, MTR or morphometry between the mTBI and OI cohorts either at the initial or follow-up scans with or without family wise error (FWE) correction. Our study suggests that a number of WM tracts are affected in mTBI in the acute phase of injury and that these changes disappear by 90 days. This study also suggests that none of the MRI-modalities used in this study, with the exception of DTI, is sensitive in detecting changes in the acute phase of mTBI. PMID:25610770

  8. Multi-modal MRI of mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Narayana, Ponnada A.; Yu, Xintian; Hasan, Khader M.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Levin, Harvey S.; Hunter, Jill V.; Miller, Emmy R.; Patel, Vipul Kumar S.; Robertson, Claudia S.; McCarthy, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that included high resolution structural imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) were performed in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients with negative computed tomographic scans and in an orthopedic-injured (OI) group without concomitant injury to the brain. The OI group served as a comparison group for mTBI. MRI scans were performed both in the acute phase of injury (~24 h) and at follow-up (~90 days). DTI data was analyzed using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS). Global and regional atrophies were calculated using tensor-based morphometry (TBM). MTR values were calculated using the standard method. MRSI was analyzed using LC Model. At the initial scan, the mean diffusivity (MD) was significantly higher in the mTBI cohort relative to the comparison group in several white matter (WM) regions that included internal capsule, external capsule, superior corona radiata, anterior corona radiata, posterior corona radiata, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, forceps major and forceps minor of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corticospinal tract in the right hemisphere. TBSS analysis failed to detect significant differences in any DTI measures between the initial and follow-up scans either in the mTBI or OI group. No significant differences were found in MRSI, MTR or morphometry between the mTBI and OI cohorts either at the initial or follow-up scans with or without family wise error (FWE) correction. Our study suggests that a number of WM tracts are affected in mTBI in the acute phase of injury and that these changes disappear by 90 days. This study also suggests that none of the MRI-modalities used in this study, with the exception of DTI, is sensitive in detecting changes in the acute phase of mTBI. PMID:25610770

  9. Morphology of the first instar larva of obligatory traumatic myiasis agents (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae).

    PubMed

    Szpila, K; Hall, M J R; Wardhana, A H; Pape, T

    2014-05-01

    There are only three fly species that are obligate agents of traumatic myiasis of humans and livestock: a single species of flesh fly, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Sarcophagidae), and two species of blow flies, Chrysomya bezziana and Cochliomyia hominivorax (Calliphoridae). The morphology of their first instar larvae is thoroughly and consistently documented here with light microscopy photographs and scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The following morphological structures are documented: pseudocephalon, antennal complex, maxillary palpus, oral ridges, thoracic and abdominal spinulation, spiracular field, posterior spiracles and cephaloskeleton. New diagnostic features drawn from the cephaloskeleton and the spinulation of abdominal segments, including the anal pad, are discovered and extensively described. Earlier descriptions in the literature are revisited, and major discrepancies between these and the results of the current study are discussed. The present results allow clarification, correction and, especially, complementation of information provided by earlier authors. The relatively distant taxonomic position of all three species is evidence that obligatory myiasis has arisen independently, and the extensively similar morphology in the first instar larvae of Chrysomya bezziana, Cochliomyia hominivorax and W. magnifica in comparison to necrophagous species, especially the enhancement of the anterior part of the cephaloskeleton and the segmental spinulation, is therefore best interpreted as homoplasic adaptations to a life strategy as obligate vertebrate parasites. An identification key for first instar larvae of all obligatory traumatic myiasis agents of mammals is provided. PMID:24553979

  10. Biomechanical Characterization of a Model of Noninvasive, Traumatic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Maerz, Tristan; Kurdziel, Michael D; Davidson, Abigail A; Baker, Kevin C; Anderson, Kyle; Matthew, Howard W T

    2015-10-01

    The onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) remains prevalent following traumatic joint injury such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, and animal models are important for studying the pathomechanisms of PTOA. Noninvasive ACL injury using the tibial compression model in the rat has not been characterized, and it may represent a more clinically relevant model than the common surgical ACL transection model. This study employed four loading profiles to induce ACL injury, in which motion capture analysis was performed, followed by quantitative joint laxity testing. High-speed, high-displacement loading repeatedly induces complete ACL injury, which causes significant increases in anterior-posterior and varus laxity. No loading protocol induced valgus laxity. Tibial internal rotation and anterior subluxation occurs up to the point of ACL failure, after which the tibia rotates externally as it subluxes over the femoral condyles. High displacement was more determinative of ACL injury compared to high speed. Low-speed protocols induced ACL avulsion from the femoral footprint whereas high-speed protocols caused either midsubstance rupture, avulsion, or a combination injury of avulsion and midsubstance rupture. This repeatable, noninvasive ACL injury protocol can be utilized in studies assessing PTOA or ACL reconstruction in the rat. PMID:25777293

  11. Comparing the Interpretation of Traumatic Chest X-Ray by Emergency Medicine Specialists and Radiologists

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Negida, Ahmed Said; Sanei Taheri, Morteza; Hashemi, Behrooz; Hosseini Selkisari, Samaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Discrepancy between X-ray readings of emergency physicians (EPs) versus radiologists was reported between 0.95% and 16.8% in different studies. The discordance was even higher when specific studies such as chest X-rays (CXR) were probed. Objectives: This prospective study was conducted to assess the discrepancies between emergency and radiology departments with respect to interpretation of the traumatic chest X-rays. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from March to April 2014. Based on Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines, plain chest radiography (CXR) was ordered for all patients in two standard views of posterior-anterior and lateral. All CXRs were interpreted by a corresponding emergency medicine specialist and a radiologist blind to the clinical findings of the patients. Finally, the results of two interpretations were compared. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of traumatic CXR interpretation were calculated by EPs with 95% of confidence interval (CI). Results: The evaluation of EPs was identical to that of the radiologists in 89.5% of the cases. Ninety-eight percent (98%) indicated total agreement and 1.5 percent total disagreement. Conclusions: There is a high agreement between EPs and radiologists in CXR interpretations in Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital. Thus, EPs can substitute radiologists in the emergency department. More improvements are recommended to achieve the standard level of agreement. PMID:25738133

  12. Traumatic brain injury imaging research roadmap.

    PubMed

    Wintermark, M; Coombs, L; Druzgal, T J; Field, A S; Filippi, C G; Hicks, R; Horton, R; Lui, Y W; Law, M; Mukherjee, P; Norbash, A; Riedy, G; Sanelli, P C; Stone, J R; Sze, G; Tilkin, M; Whitlow, C T; Wilde, E A; York, G; Provenzale, J M

    2015-03-01

    The past decade has seen impressive advances in the types of neuroimaging information that can be acquired in patients with traumatic brain injury. However, despite this increase in information, understanding of the contribution of this information to prognostic accuracy and treatment pathways for patients is limited. Available techniques often allow us to infer the presence of microscopic changes indicative of alterations in physiology and function in brain tissue. However, because histologic confirmation is typically lacking, conclusions reached by using these techniques remain solely inferential in almost all cases. Hence, a need exists for validation of these techniques by using data from large population samples that are obtained in a uniform manner, analyzed according to well-accepted procedures, and correlated with closely monitored clinical outcomes. At present, many of these approaches remain confined to population-based research rather than diagnosis at an individual level, particularly with regard to traumatic brain injury that is mild or moderate in degree. A need and a priority exist for patient-centered tools that will allow advanced neuroimaging tools to be brought into clinical settings. One barrier to developing these tools is a lack of an age-, sex-, and comorbidities-stratified, sequence-specific, reference imaging data base that could provide a clear understanding of normal variations across populations. Such a data base would provide researchers and clinicians with the information necessary to develop computational tools for the patient-based interpretation of advanced neuroimaging studies in the clinical setting. The recent "Joint ASNR-ACR HII-ASFNR TBI Workshop: Bringing Advanced Neuroimaging for Traumatic Brain Injury into the Clinic" on May 23, 2014, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, brought together neuroradiologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, neuropsychologists, neuroimaging scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke, industry representatives, and other traumatic brain injury stakeholders to attempt to reach consensus on issues related to and develop consensus recommendations in terms of creating both a well-characterized normative data base of comprehensive imaging and ancillary data to serve as a reference for tools that will allow interpretation of advanced neuroimaging tests at an individual level of a patient with traumatic brain injury. The workshop involved discussions concerning the following: 1) designation of the policies and infrastructure needed for a normative data base, 2) principles for characterizing normal control subjects, and 3) standardizing research neuroimaging protocols for traumatic brain injury. The present article summarizes these recommendations and examines practical steps to achieve them. PMID:25655872

  13. Deep Posterior Compartment Strength and Foot Kinematics in Subjects With Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Christopher; Flemister, Adolph S.; Houck, Jeff R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Tibialis posterior muscle weakness has been documented in subjects with Stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) but the effect of weakness on foot structure remains unclear. The association between strength and flatfoot kinematics may guide treatment such as the use of strengthening programs targeting the tibialis posterior muscle. Materials and Methods Thirty Stage II PTTD subjects (age; 58.1 ± 10.5 years, BMI 30.6 ± 5.4) and 15 matched controls (age; 56.5 ± 7.7 years, BMI 30.6 ± 3.6) volunteered for this study. Deep Posterior Compartment strength was measured from both legs of each subject and the strength ratio was used to compare each subject’s involved side to their uninvolved side. A 20% deficit was defined, a priori, to define two groups of subjects with PTTD. The strength ratio for each group averaged; 1.06 ± 0.1 (range 0.87 to 1.36) for controls, 1.06 ± 0.1 (range, 0.89 to 1.25), for the PTTD strong group, and 0.64 ± 0.2 (range 0.42 to 0.76) for the PTTD weak group. Across four phases of stance, kinematic measures of flatfoot were compared between the three groups using a two-way mixed effect ANOVA model repeated for each kinematic variable. Results Subjects with PTTD regardless of group demonstrated significantly greater hindfoot eversion compared to controls. Subjects with PTTD who were weak demonstrated greater hindfoot eversion compared to subjects with PTTD who were strong. For forefoot abduction and MLA angles the differences between groups depended on the phase of stance with significant differences between each group observed at the pre-swing phase of stance. Conclusion Strength was associated with the degree of flatfoot deformity observed during walking, however, flatfoot deformity may also occur without strength deficits. PMID:20371019

  14. Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG): toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Geert E.; Kleber, Rolf J.; de la Rie, Simone M.; Bos, Jannetta B. A.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Boelen, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms of) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) following confrontation with a traumatic loss. Trauma survivors, who are frequently from different cultural backgrounds, have often experienced multiple losses and ambiguous loss (missing family members or friends). Current evidence-based treatments for PTSD do not focus on traumatic grief. Objective To develop a treatment for traumatic grief combining treatment interventions for PTSD and PCBD that may accommodate cultural aspects of grief. Method To provide a rationale for treatment, we propose a cognitive stress model of traumatic grief. Based on this model and on existing evidence-based treatments for PTSD and complicated grief, we developed Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG) for the treatment of patients with traumatic grief. The treatment is presented along with a case vignette. Results Processes contributing to traumatic grief include inadequately integrating the memory of the traumatic loss, negative appraisal of the traumatic loss, sensitivity to matching triggers and new stressors, and attempting to avoid distress. BEP-TG targets these processes. The BEP-TG protocol consists of five parts with proven effectiveness in the treatment of PCBD, PTSD, and MDD: information and motivation, grief-focused exposure, memorabilia and writing assignments, finding meaning and activation, and a farewell ritual. Conclusion Tailored to fit the needs of trauma survivors, BEP-TG can be used to address traumatic grief symptoms related to multiple losses and ambiguous loss, as well as cultural aspects of bereavement through its different components. PMID:26154434

  15. Neurotherapy of Traumatic Brain Injury/Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Vietnam Veterans.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David V; Esty, Mary Lee

    2015-10-01

    Previous report suggested the beneficial effects of an adaptation of the Flexyx Neurotherapy System (FNS) for the amelioration of mixed traumatic brain injury/post-traumatic stress symptoms in veterans of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. As a novel variant of electroencephalograph biofeedback, FNS falls within the bioenergy domain of complementary and alternative medicine. Rather than learning voluntary control over the production/inhibition of brain wave patterns, FNS involves offsetting stimulation of brain wave activity by means of an external energy source, specifically, the conduction of electromagnetic energy stimulation via the connecting electroencephalograph cables. Essentially, these procedures subliminally induce strategic distortion of ongoing brain wave activity to presumably facilitate resetting of more adaptive patterns of activity. Reported herein are two cases of Vietnam veterans with mixed traumatic brain injury/post-traumatic stress symptoms, each treated with FNS for 25 sessions. Comparisons of pre- and post-treatment questionnaire assessments revealed notable decreases for all symptoms, suggesting improvements across the broad domains of cognition, pain, sleep, fatigue, and mood/emotion, including post-traumatic stress symptoms, as well as for overall activity levels. Findings suggest FNS treatment may be of potential benefit for the partial amelioration of symptoms, even in some individuals for whom symptoms have been present for decades. PMID:26444476

  16. Chronic Endocrinopathies in Traumatic Brain Injury Disease.

    PubMed

    Masel, Brent E; Urban, Randy

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this review was to explain the role played by pituitary hormonal deficiencies in the traumatic brain injury (TBI) disease process. Chronic dysfunction of the pituitary axis is observed in approximately 35% of individuals who sustain a moderate-to-severe TBI. The most common deficiency is that of growth hormone, followed by gonadotropin, cortisol, and thyroid. The medical, psychological, and psychiatric consequences of untreated hypopituitarism are extensive and can be devastating. Many of the consequences of a chronic symptomatic TBI have, in the past, been solely attributed to the brain injury per se. Analysis of the signs and symptoms of pituitary axis dysfunction suggests that many of these consequences can be attributed to post-traumatic hypopituitarism (PTH). PTH may well play a significant role in the progressive signs and symptoms that follow a chronic TBI. PMID:25325517

  17. The clinical presentation of chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Lenihan, Michael W; Jordan, Barry D

    2015-05-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder attributed to repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. The diagnosis in a living individual can be challenging and can be made definitively only at autopsy. The symptoms are often nonspecific and overlap with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Higher exposure to repetitive head trauma increases the risk of CTE. Genetic risk factors such as presence of an apolipoprotein E ?4 allele may be important. Individuals have varying degrees of cognitive, behavioral, and motor decline. Limitations in the manner in which data have been obtained over the years have led to different clinical descriptions of CTE. At present, there are no biomarkers to assist in the diagnosis. Standard neuroimaging may show nonspecific atrophic changes; however, newer imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) show promise. Neuropsychological testing may be helpful in determining the pattern of cognitive or behavioral decline. PMID:25772999

  18. Traumatic globe luxation: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Ekta; Chakraborty, Soumen; Ray, Biswarup

    2015-01-01

    Globe luxation is a rare clinical event. Most of the cases are usually traumatic, although spontaneous globe luxation has also been reported. The majority of the posttraumatic cases are usually associated with the injury or fracture of the bony orbit. We report here a case of globe luxation that occurred per se without any injury to the orbital or maxillo-facial bony structures. PMID:26576530

  19. Managing traumatic brain injury secondary to explosions

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Paula; E Sullivent, Ernest; M Sasser, Scott; M Wald, Marlena; Ossmann, Eric; Kapil, Vikas

    2010-01-01

    Explosions and bombings are the most common deliberate cause of disasters with large numbers of casualties. Despite this fact, disaster medical response training has traditionally focused on the management of injuries following natural disasters and terrorist attacks with biological, chemical, and nuclear agents. The following article is a clinical primer for physicians regarding traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by explosions and bombings. The history, physics, and treatment of TBI are outlined. PMID:20606794

  20. POSTERIOR CONSISTENCY IN NONPARAMETRIC REGRESSION PROBLEMS UNDER GAUSSIAN PROCESS PRIORS

    E-print Network

    POSTERIOR CONSISTENCY IN NONPARAMETRIC REGRESSION PROBLEMS UNDER GAUSSIAN PROCESS PRIORS By Taeryon regression is to put a nonparametric prior distribution on the unknown regression function using Gaussian processes. In this paper, we study posterior consistency in nonparametric regression problems using Gaussian

  1. 77 FR 13578 - Disability and Rehabilitation Research Project; Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Centers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...Rehabilitation Research Project; Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Centers AGENCY: Office...Rehabilitation Research Project--Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Centers. CFDA Number...Projects (DRRPs) to serve as Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS)...

  2. 77 FR 34363 - Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program; Traumatic Brain Injury Model...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ...Projects and Centers Program; Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Centers AGENCY: Office...Research Project (DRRP)-- Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Centers. SUMMARY...notice announces a priority for Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS)...

  3. 78 FR 9929 - Current Traumatic Brain Injury State Implementation Partnership Grantees; Non-Competitive One...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ...Services Administration Current Traumatic Brain Injury State Implementation Partnership...One-Year Extension Funds for Current Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) State Implementation Partnership...was initially authorized by the Traumatic Brain Injury Act of 1996 (Pub. L....

  4. 77 FR 73366 - Secondary Service Connection for Diagnosable Illnesses Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...Diagnosable Illnesses Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs...7: Long-Term Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury, regarding the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and five diagnosable...

  5. 78 FR 13600 - Proposed Priority-National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Traumatic Brain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ...and Rehabilitation Research--Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Centers Collaborative...Research Project (DRRP) on Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Centers Collaborative...phrase ``Proposed Priority for Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Centers...

  6. 78 FR 27036 - Final Priority. National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Traumatic Brain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ...and Rehabilitation Research--Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Centers Collaborative...Research Project (DRRP) on Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Centers Collaborative...outcomes among individuals with traumatic brain injuries. DATES: This priority is...

  7. 78 FR 76196 - Secondary Service Connection for Diagnosable Illnesses Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...Diagnosable Illnesses Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs...7: Long-Term Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury, regarding the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and five diagnosable...

  8. How to Choose a Therapist for Post-Traumatic Stress and Dissociative Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How to Choose a Therapist for Post-Traumatic Stress and Dissociative Conditions Home / Resources / For Survivors and ... How to Choose a Therapist for Post-Traumatic Stress and Dissociative Conditions Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress ...

  9. Cerebral Vascular Injury in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Kimbra; Amyot, Franck; Haber, Margalit; Pronger, Angela; Bogoslovsky, Tanya; Moore, Carol; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic cerebral vascular injury (TCVI) is a very frequent, if not universal, feature after traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is likely responsible, at least in part, for functional deficits and TBI-related chronic disability. Because there are multiple pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies that promote vascular health, TCVI is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention after TBI. The cerebral microvasculature is a component of the neurovascular unit (NVU) coupling neuronal metabolism with local cerebral blood flow. The NVU participates in the pathogenesis of TBI, either directly from physical trauma or as part of the cascade of secondary injury that occurs after TBI. Pathologically, there is extensive cerebral microvascular injury in humans and experimental animal, identified with either conventional light microscopy or ultrastructural examination. It is seen in acute and chronic TBI, and even described in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Non-invasive, physiologic measures of cerebral microvascular function show dysfunction after TBI in humans and experimental animal models of TBI. These include imaging sequences (MRI-ASL), Transcranial Doppler (TCD), and Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS). Understanding the pathophysiology of TCVI, a relatively under-studied component of TBI, has promise for the development of novel therapies for TBI. PMID:26048614

  10. Traumatic panhypopituitarism resulting in acute adrenal crisis.

    PubMed

    Ham, Phillip Benson; Cunningham, Aaron Joseph; Mentzer, Caleb James; Ahmad, Anbar; Young, Lester S; Abuzeid, Adel M

    2015-09-01

    Pituitary function plays an integral role in the physiologic response to traumatic injury. A significant proportion of trauma patients develop partial pituitary insufficiency. While isolated deficiencies of individual pituitary hormones are common, there are few reports in the literature of traumatic pan-pituitary failure with deficiency of all major pituitary hormones. We present a case of a patient involved in a motorcycle accident who sustained a sella turcica fracture, epidural hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, optic nerve palsy, and bilateral abducens nerve palsies. Three days after the accident, the patient became hypotensive and progressed to cardiopulmonary arrest. He was resuscitated and had spontaneous return of circulation. Despite adequate fluid resuscitation and vasopressor support, he remained profoundly hypotensive. Following administration of hydrocortisone, his blood pressures dramatically improved. He was found to have laboratory abnormalities, suggesting deficiencies of corticotropins, somatotropins, thyrotropins, gonadotropins, prolactin, and antidiuretic hormone. This is the first reported case of a patient with traumatic total panhypopituitarism complicated by acute adrenal crises during initial postinjury hospitalization. A review of the literature with comparison with other studies of trauma patients with deficiencies in five or more axes is presented. A high level of suspicion for central adrenal insufficiency and prompt administration of corticosteroids in the setting of symptomatic pituitary trauma can result in favorable outcomes. Screening for and treating posttraumatic hypopituitarism can result in improved rehabilitation and increased quality of life for trauma patients. PMID:26307884

  11. Traumatic injury rates in meatpacking plant workers.

    PubMed

    Culp, Kennith; Brooks, Mary; Rupe, Kerri; Zwerling, Craig

    2008-01-01

    This was a 3-year retrospective cohort study of traumatic injuries in a midwestern pork meatpacking plant. Based on n = 5410 workers, this was a diverse workforce: Caucasian (56.6%), Hispanic (38.9%), African American (2.7%), Asian (1.1%) and Native American (0.8%). There were n = 1655 employees with traumatic injuries during this period. At 6 months of employment, the probability of injury was 33% in the harvest workers who were responsible for slaughter operations. The overall incidence injury rate was 22.76 per 100 full-time employees per year. Women experienced a higher incidence for injury than men. The risk ratio (RR) for traumatic injury was significantly lower in Hispanic workers compared to Caucasians (RR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.49-0.60) and nonsignificantly higher in African American and Native American workers after adjusting for age, gender, work section assignment, and experience (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21-1.47). These findings suggest that either Hispanics are very safe employees or they underreport injuries. We make the case for the latter in the discussion. PMID:19042688

  12. Facilitating text reading in posterior cortical atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rajdev, Kishan; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Leff, Alexander P.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We report (1) the quantitative investigation of text reading in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), and (2) the effects of 2 novel software-based reading aids that result in dramatic improvements in the reading ability of patients with PCA. Methods: Reading performance, eye movements, and fixations were assessed in patients with PCA and typical Alzheimer disease and in healthy controls (experiment 1). Two reading aids (single- and double-word) were evaluated based on the notion that reducing the spatial and oculomotor demands of text reading might support reading in PCA (experiment 2). Results: Mean reading accuracy in patients with PCA was significantly worse (57%) compared with both patients with typical Alzheimer disease (98%) and healthy controls (99%); spatial aspects of passages were the primary determinants of text reading ability in PCA. Both aids led to considerable gains in reading accuracy (PCA mean reading accuracy: single-word reading aid = 96%; individual patient improvement range: 6%–270%) and self-rated measures of reading. Data suggest a greater efficiency of fixations and eye movements under the single-word reading aid in patients with PCA. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate how neurologic characterization of a neurodegenerative syndrome (PCA) and detailed cognitive analysis of an important everyday skill (reading) can combine to yield aids capable of supporting important everyday functional abilities. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with PCA, 2 software-based reading aids (single-word and double-word) improve reading accuracy. PMID:26138948

  13. "Apperceptive" alexia in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Mario F; Shapira, Jill S; Clark, David G

    2007-02-01

    The most common presenting complaint in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is reading difficulty. Although often described as an alexia without agraphia, alexia in PCA may have multiple causes, including a primary visuoperceptual etiology, attentional alexia, and central reading difficulty. This study evaluated 14 patients with early PCA and disturbances in reading ability in comparison to 14 normal controls. All 14 patients had a progressive disorder of complex visual functions and neuroimaging evidence of occipitoparietal dysfunction. They underwent a task requiring identification of single letters with and without flanking distractors. They also read single words consisting of regular English spelling or irregular grapheme-phoneme correspondence (irregular words) and pronounceable nonsense words (pseudowords). The PCA patients made errors in letter identification when letters were flanked by visually similar letters or numbers. They could read most single regular and irregular words but made visual errors and had particular trouble with pseudowords. They could not use a letter-by-letter reading strategy effectively. The PCA patients had similar difficulties on other visuoperceptual tests. These findings are consistent with an alexia manifested by perceptual and attentional difficulty on attempting serial visual processing of letters in the context of other letters. This "apperceptive alexia" results when the configuration of letters into words is impaired during letter-by-letter reading. Disproportionate difficulty reading pseudowords suggests an additional impairment in phonological processing. PCA patients have variable neuropathology and individual patients may have other contributions to their reading impairment. PMID:17405672

  14. Automatic quantification of posterior capsule opacification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Sarah A.; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Boyce, James F.; Sanguinetti, Giorgia; Hollick, Emma J.; Meacock, William R.; Spalton, David J.; Paplinski, Andrew P.

    2000-06-01

    After Cataract surgery where a plastic implant lens is implanted into the eye to replace the natural lens, many patients suffer from cell growth across a membrane situated at the back of the lens which degrades their vision. The cell growth is known as Posterior Capsule Opacification (or PCO). It is important to be able to quantify PCO so that the effect of different implant lens types and surgical techniques may be evaluated. Initial results obtained using a neural network to detect PCO from implant lenses are compared to an established but less automated method of detection, which segments the images using texture segmentation in conjunction with co- occurrence matrices. Tests show that the established method performs well in clinical validation and repeatability trials. The requirement to use a neural network to analyze the implant lens images evolved from the analysis of over 1000 images using the established co-occurrence matrix segmentation method. The work shows that a method based on neural networks is a promising tool to automate the procedure of calculating PCO.

  15. Abnormal visual phenomena in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Lehmann, Manja; Gorgoraptis, Nikos; Kaski, Diego; Ryan, Natalie; Husain, Masud; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) report a host of unusual and poorly explained visual disturbances. This preliminary report describes a single patient (CRO), and documents and investigates abnormally prolonged colour afterimages (concurrent and prolonged perception of colours complimentary to the colour of an observed stimulus), perceived motion of static stimuli, and better reading of small than large letters. We also evaluate CRO's visual and vestibular functions in an effort to understand the origin of her experience of room tilt illusion, a disturbing phenomenon not previously observed in individuals with cortical degenerative disease. These visual symptoms are set in the context of a 4-year longitudinal neuropsychological and neuroimaging investigation of CRO's visual and other cognitive skills. We hypothesise that prolonged colour after-images are attributable to relative sparing of V1 inhibitory interneurons; perceived motion of static stimuli reflects weak magnocellular function; better reading of small than large letters indicates a reduced effective field of vision; and room tilt illusion effects are caused by disordered integration of visual and vestibular information. This study contributes to the growing characterisation of PCA whose atypical early visual symptoms are often heterogeneous and frequently under-recognised. PMID:20818540

  16. [Anterior chamber versus posterior chamber phakic IOLs].

    PubMed

    Cochener, B

    2007-05-01

    At a time when some of the limitations of photoablation have been defined, such as worry concerning secondary ectasia, a renewed interest in phakic implantation has arisen. This is driven by the goal of avoiding correcting high ametropia with LASIK and is based on the development of soft foldable biomaterials. When all phakic IOLs are in front of the natural lens, two varieties of lenses can be distinguished, depending on whether it is located in the anterior or posterior chamber. The various models available in 2006 and those under current evaluation are reviewed. We do not report details of clinical studies that vary in cohort size and follow-up. The advantages and limitations are discussed for each type of phakic IOL. Adequate although not exclusive indications are deduced. There is no phakic lens that has proved to be superior to the others in terms of safety. All have the ability to provide a visual benefit with a gain in best corrected visual acuity. The difference is based on anatomical effects, requiring long-term follow-up in the evaluation of angles, lens, iris, and endothelium. PMID:17568350

  17. Posterior Reversible Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome Associated with Pazopanib

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Robert; Welzel, Thomas; Debus, Juergen; Gruellich, Carsten; Jaeger, Dirk; Potthoff, Karin

    2013-01-01

    A 62-year-old female patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma under third-line treatment with pazopanib for 8 weeks suddenly developed severe headaches, grand mal seizures and paresis of the left arm in combination with gait instability as well as nausea and vomiting during her vacation abroad. The emergency physician measured systolic blood pressure values over 300 mm Hg and suspected a stroke. The CT imaging without contrast agent in a local hospital did not show any pathologic findings despite bone metastases. The colleagues suspected cerebral metastases or meningeosis carcinomatosa and referred the patient to our department for further diagnostics and treatment planning. An MRI scan ruled out the suspected cerebral metastases or meningeosis carcinomatosa, but showed signs of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) in the form of band-like hyperintensities as a sign of cytotoxic edema in the gray and white matter of the left parietal lobe. The patient then reported that similar blood pressure values had been measured shortly after the start of a first-line therapy with sunitinib, so that we discontinued the current treatment with pazopanib. Within 6 days the neurologic symptoms vanished and the patient was discharged. An intermittent hypertension persisted. A follow-up MRI 3 weeks later showed an RPLS-typical cortical infarction in the affected area. RPLS should be considered as the actual reason for neurologic findings in hypertensive patients with known metastatic cancers under tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. PMID:23626562

  18. Glioependymal cyst in the posterior fossa.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, T; Kawamoto, K; Sakai, N; Tsutsumi, A

    1997-01-01

    A large cyst filled with clear fluid was resected from the cerebellum of a 29-year-old man. By light microscopy the cyst was lined by flat epithelial cells. These epithelial cells abutted on a glial layer and immunohistochemical staining revealed that some of them expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein. Corpora amylacea were noted within the glial layer. Ultrastructurally, 2 types of cells lining the cyst were identified. One was characterized by electron-dense cytoplasm, cytoplasmic vacuoles, microvilli without surface-coated material, cilia, and basal bodies. The other was a cell with a smooth cytoplasmic membrane, round nucleus, and clear cytoplasm. Zonulae adherentes was observed between cyst lining cells and the cyst lining cells were shown to rest directly on the glial layer. Surprisingly, myelinated axons were identified in the glial layer, although nerve cells were not identified. These findings are compatible with those of a glioependymal cyst. The origin of glioependymal cysts of the posterior fossa is not understood, but possibilities include neuroglial heterotopia, persistent Blake's pouch (diverticulum of the roof of fourth ventricle), and remnants of a tela chorioidea. The location of the cyst and the presence of myelinated axons in the cyst wall may be best explained by an origin from neuroglial heterotopia. PMID:9020388

  19. Efficacy of standard therapies against Ureaplasma species and persistence among men with non-gonococcal urethritis enrolled in a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Khosropour, Christine M.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Gillespie, Catherine W.; Lowens, M. Sylvan; Golden, Matthew R.; Jensen, Nicole L.; Kenny, George E.; Totten, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective U. urealyticum biovar 2 (UU-2) but not U. parvum (UP) has been associated with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), but little is known about species-specific responses to standard therapies. We examined species-specific treatment outcomes and followed men with treatment failure for 9 weeks. Methods From May 2007-July 2011, men aged ?16 attending an STD clinic in Seattle, Washington with NGU (urethral discharge or urethral symptoms plus ?5 PMNs/HPF) were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized trial. Participants received active azithromycin (1g) + placebo doxycycline or active doxycycline (100mg bid × 7d) + placebo azithromycin. Ureaplasmas were detected in culture followed by species-specific PCR. Outcomes were assessed at 3, 6, and 9 weeks. At 3 weeks, men with persistent Ureaplasmas received “reverse therapy” (e.g., active doxycycline if they first received active azithromycin). At 6 weeks, persistently-positive men received moxifloxacin (400mg × 7d). Results Of 490 men, 107 (22%) and 60 (12%) were infected with UU-2 and UP, respectively, and returned at 3 weeks. Persistent infection was similar for UU-2-infected men initially treated with azithromycin or doxycycline (25% vs. 31%, P=0.53), but differed somewhat for men with UP (45% vs. 24%; P=0.11). At 6 weeks, 57% of UU-2-infected and 63% of UP-infected men who received both drugs had persistent infection. Failure after moxifloxacin occurred in 30% and 36%, respectively. Persistent detection of UU-2 or UP was not associated with signs/symptoms of NGU. Conclusion Persistent infection after treatment with doxycycline, azithromycin, and moxifloxacin was common for UU and UP, but not associated with persistent urethritis. PMID:25616607

  20. Posterior Corneal Surface Stability after Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Cagini, Carlo; Messina, Marco; Lupidi, Marco; Piccinelli, Francesco; Fiore, Tito; Fruttini, Daniela; Spadea, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate posterior corneal surface variation after femtosecond laser-assisted keratomileusis in patients with myopia and myopic astigmatism. Patients were evaluated by corneal tomography preoperatively and at 1, 6, and 12 months. We analyzed changes in the posterior corneal curvature, posterior corneal elevation, and anterior chamber depth. Moreover, we explored correlation between corneal ablation depth, residual corneal thickness, percentage of ablated corneal tissue, and preoperative corneal thickness. During follow-up, the posterior corneal surface did not have a significant forward corneal shift: no significant linear relationships emerged between the anterior displacement of the posterior corneal surface and corneal ablation depth, residual corneal thickness, or percentage of ablated corneal tissue. PMID:26483972

  1. Posterior Probability Matching and Human Perceptual Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Richard F.; Patel, Khushbu; Yee, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Probability matching is a classic theory of decision making that was first developed in models of cognition. Posterior probability matching, a variant in which observers match their response probabilities to the posterior probability of each response being correct, is being used increasingly often in models of perception. However, little is known about whether posterior probability matching is consistent with the vast literature on vision and hearing that has developed within signal detection theory. Here we test posterior probability matching models using two tools from detection theory. First, we examine the models’ performance in a two-pass experiment, where each block of trials is presented twice, and we measure the proportion of times that the model gives the same response twice to repeated stimuli. We show that at low performance levels, posterior probability matching models give highly inconsistent responses across repeated presentations of identical trials. We find that practised human observers are more consistent across repeated trials than these models predict, and we find some evidence that less practised observers more consistent as well. Second, we compare the performance of posterior probability matching models on a discrimination task to the performance of a theoretical ideal observer that achieves the best possible performance. We find that posterior probability matching is very inefficient at low-to-moderate performance levels, and that human observers can be more efficient than is ever possible according to posterior probability matching models. These findings support classic signal detection models, and rule out a broad class of posterior probability matching models for expert performance on perceptual tasks that range in complexity from contrast discrimination to symmetry detection. However, our findings leave open the possibility that inexperienced observers may show posterior probability matching behaviour, and our methods provide new tools for testing for such a strategy. PMID:26079134

  2. Comparative study between the use of a treatment with hyperthermia through the rectal approach versus the urethral approach for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Serrate, R G; Rius, G; Regué, R; Prats, J; Franco, A

    1992-01-01

    200 patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia were treated with hyperthermia: 100 cases through the rectal approach and 100 through the urethral approach. Subjective symptoms were assessed as well as nycturia and objective data, urinary flow and postmicturition residue before treatment and 6 months after treatment. In the group of 100 patients treated rectally, the subjective symptoms and nycturia improved in 76; urine flow improved in 63, postmicturition residue decreased in 32 and the vesical catheter could be removed in 5 out of 8 patients. With the urethral approach, 77 patients out of 100 presented an improvement in their symptoms, nycturia improved in 53; urine flow improved in 28; the urine residue was decreased in 40 and the vesical catheter could be removed in 10 out of 16 patients who required it previously. Although slightly better results seem to be achieved with the use of rectal hyperthermia, as concerns nycturia and micturition flow, we prefer the urethral approach for its higher degree of convenience, easier handling, shorter time of treatment and reasonable effectiveness. PMID:1376691

  3. Evidence-Based Medicine of Traumatic Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures: A Systematic Review of Operative Management across 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Justin K.; Bakhsheshian, Joshua; Fakurnejad, Shayan; Oh, Taemin; Dahdaleh, Nader S.; Smith, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Systematic literature review. Objective?The management of traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures (TLBF) remains challenging, and analyzing the levels of evidence (LOEs) for treatment practices can reform the decision-making process. However, no review has yet evaluated the operative management of traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures with particular attention placed on LOE from an established methodology. The objective of the present study was to characterize the literature evidence for TLBF, specifically for operative management. Methods?A comprehensive search of the English literature over the past 20 years was conducted using PubMed (MEDLINE). The inclusion criteria consisted of (1) traumatic burst fractures (2) in the thoracic or lumbar spine. Exclusion criteria included (1) osteoporotic burst fractures, (2) pathologic burst fractures, (3) cervical fractures, (4) biomechanical studies or those involving cadavers, and (5) computer-based studies. Studies were assigned an LOE and those meeting level 1 or 2 were included. Results?From 1,138 abstracts, 272 studies met the criteria. Twenty-three studies (8.5%) met level 1 (n?=?4, 1.5%) or 2 (n?=?19, 7.0%) criteria. All 23 studies were reported. Conclusions?The literature contains a high LOE to support the operative management of traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures. For patients who are neurologically intact, a high LOE demonstrated similar functional outcomes, lower complication rates, and less costs with conservative management when compared with surgical management. There is a high LOE for short- or long-segment pedicle instrumentation without fusion and less invasive (percutaneous and paraspinal) approaches. Furthermore, the posterior approaches are associated with lower complications as opposed to the anterior or combined approaches. PMID:25648401

  4. 76 FR 75458 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program-Genitourinary Losses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... muscle(s) that requires permanent urinary diversion and/or hemodialysis, either of which is reasonably... damage to the urethra, ureter(s), both kidneys, bladder, or urethral sphincter muscle(s) that...

  5. 78 FR 37834 - Submission for OMB review; 30-Day Comment Request; Federal Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury Research (FITBIR) Informatics System Data Access Request SUMMARY: Under the... Collection: Federal Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury Research (FITBIR) Informatics System Data...

  6. 78 FR 12334 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Federal Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury Research (FITBIR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Research (FITBIR) Informatics System Data Access Request SUMMARY: In compliance with.... Proposed Collection: Federal Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury Research (FITBIR) Informatics System...

  7. Vitamin D deficiency and posterior subcapsular cataract

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Craig J; Akaichi, Faical

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate risk factors associated with posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) development and the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and etiology of PSC. Methods Of 195 consecutive patients from a private ophthalmology practice, diagnosed with PSC, serum vitamin D3 (25-OH D) levels were obtained for 175, and associations among risk factors, comorbidities, and PSC were assessed. Results In all 175 PSC patients, mean 25-OH D levels were low (24 ng/mL ±11 SD) compared with age/sex-matched standards. Significant differences in 25-OH D levels were noted between PSC subjects taking/not taking calcium supplements, systemic steroids, osteoporosis medications, etc. Alone, smoking status and calcium channel blockers and/or topical steroids use made no significant difference in PSC subjects 25-OH D levels, but two or more of these factors were associated with lowered levels of 25-OH D (P<0.001). Low vitamin D was correlated with female sex, autoimmune disease, and non-skin cancer diagnosis, but not with age, or other comorbidities or medication use. In five early-stage PSC patients taking 5,000 IU of 25-OH D daily for vitamin D deficiency, there was resolution of their cataracts during the 2-year follow-up period. Conclusion Vitamin D levels for most PSC patients fell below the 30 ng/mL calcium homeostasis threshold. Some comorbidities and non-ophthalmic interventions are associated with the development of PSC at less depressed levels of 25-OH D. In this series, vitamin D deficiency was associated with PSC cataract, suggesting that raising the level of vitamin D intake may reduce PSC incidence. PMID:26124632

  8. The language profile of Posterior Cortical Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Crutch, Sebastian J.; Lehmann, Manja; Warren, Jason D.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA) is typically considered to be a visual syndrome, primarily characterised by progressive impairment of visuoperceptual and visuospatial skills. However patients commonly describe early difficulties with word retrieval. This paper details the first systematic analysis of linguistic function in PCA. Characterising and quantifying the aphasia associated with PCA is important for clarifying diagnostic and selection criteria for clinical and research studies. Methods Fifteen patients with PCA, 7 patients with logopenic/phonological aphasia (LPA) and 18 age-matched healthy participants completed a detailed battery of linguistic tests evaluating auditory input processing, repetition and working memory, lexical and grammatical comprehension, single word retrieval and fluency, and spontaneous speech. Results Relative to healthy controls, PCA patients exhibited language impairments across all the domains examined, but with anomia, reduced phonemic fluency and slowed speech rate the most prominent deficits. PCA performance most closely resembled that of LPA patients on tests of auditory input processing, repetition and digit span, but was relatively stronger on tasks of comprehension and spontaneous speech. Conclusions The study demonstrates that in addition to the well-reported degradation of vision, literacy and numeracy, PCA is characterised by a progressive oral language dysfunction with prominent word retrieval difficulties. Overlap in the linguistic profiles of PCA and LPA, which are both most commonly caused by Alzheimer’s disease, further emphasises the notion of a phenotypic continuum between typical and atypical manifestations of the disease. Clarifying the boundaries between AD phenotypes has important implications for diagnosis, clinical trial recruitment and investigations into biological factors driving phenotypic heterogeneity in AD. Rehabilitation strategies to ameliorate the phonological deficit in PCA are required. PMID:23138762

  9. Military-related traumatic brain injury and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Ann C.; Robinson, Meghan E.

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) includes concussion, subconcussion, and most exposures to explosive blast from improvised explosive devices. mTBI is the most common traumatic brain injury affecting military personnel; however, it is the most difficult to diagnose and the least well understood. It is also recognized that some mTBIs have persistent, and sometimes progressive, long-term debilitating effects. Increasing evidence suggests that a single traumatic brain injury can produce long-term gray and white matter atrophy, precipitate or accelerate age-related neurodegeneration, and increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and motor neuron disease. In addition, repetitive mTBIs can provoke the development of a tauopathy, chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We found early changes of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in four young veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflict who were exposed to explosive blast and in another young veteran who was repetitively concussed. Four of the five veterans with early-stage chronic traumatic encephalopathy were also diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder. Advanced chronic traumatic encephalopathy has been found in veterans who experienced repetitive neurotrauma while in service and in others who were accomplished athletes. Clinically, chronic traumatic encephalopathy is associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction, memory loss, and cognitive impairments that begin insidiously and progress slowly over decades. Pathologically, chronic traumatic encephalopathy produces atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes, thalamus, and hypothalamus; septal abnormalities; and abnormal deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau as neurofibrillary tangles and disordered neurites throughout the brain. The incidence and prevalence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and the genetic risk factors critical to its development are currently unknown. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy has clinical and pathological features that overlap with postconcussion syndrome and posttraumatic stress disorder, suggesting that the three disorders might share some biological underpinnings. PMID:24924675

  10. Management of Posterior Malleolar Fractures: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Odak, Saurabh; Ahluwalia, Raju; Unnikrishnan, Puthanveettil; Hennessy, Michael; Platt, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Posterior malleolar fractures are relatively common and usually result from rotational ankle injuries. Although treatment of associated lateral and medial structures is well established, several controversies exist in the management of posterior malleolus fractures. We performed a systematic review of the current published data with regard to the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of posterior malleolus fractures. A total of 33 studies (8 biomechanical and 25 clinical) with >950 patients were reviewed. The outcome of ankle fractures with posterior malleolar involvement was poor; however, the evidence was not enough to prove that the size of the posterior malleolus affects the outcome. Significant heterogeneity was noted in the cutoff size of the posterior malleolar fragment in determining management. The outcome was related to other factors, such as fracture displacement, congruency of the articular surface, and residual tibiotalar subluxation. Indirect evidence showed that large fracture fragments were associated with fracture dislocations and ankle instability and, thus, might require surgical fixation. We have concluded that the evidence to prove that the size of the posterior malleolar affects the outcome of ankle fractures is not enough, and the decision to treat these fractures should be determined by other factors, as stated previously. PMID:26100091

  11. Managing Traumatic Stress: Tips for Recovering From Disasters and Other Traumatic Events

    E-print Network

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    such as aftershocks from earthquakes or the sounds of sirens, can trigger upsetting memories of the traumatic memories of the event. These flashbacks may occur for no apparent reason and may lead to physical reactions experience. These 'triggers' may be accompanied by fears that the stressful event will be repeated

  12. Embolization of traumatic and non-traumatic peripheral vascular lesions with Onyx

    PubMed Central

    Regine, Renato; De Siero, Michele; Rescigno, Antonio; Sica, Vincenzo; Cantarela, Raffaele; Villari, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of our study is to verify the feasibility and the efficacy of Onyx as embolization agent in the treatment of traumatic and non-traumatic peripheral vascular lesions. Materials and Methods In the period between September 2006 and March 2012, we treated with Onyx 26 patients (14 males/12 females; age range, 18–85 years old; mean age, 65 years old), 11 of which with traumatic peripheral vascular lesions and 15 with non-traumatic vascular lesions (9 neoplastic hemorrhagic lesions, 3 arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and 3 aneurysms). Follow-up controls were performed with clinical examination and by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) imaging 1, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. Results All peripheral vascular lesions were embolized with Onyx; 3 patients with aneurysms were treated with Onyx associated with endovascular coils. Four elective and 22 emergency embolization procedures were performed. In all patients, we obtained cessation of bleeding and the complete and permanent embolization of all vascular lesions. Conclusions Onyx is an effective and safe embolization agent for peripheral vascular lesions. PMID:25838923

  13. Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates from Tonsils and Posterior Oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Bissessor, M; Whiley, D M; Lee, D M; Snow, A F; Fairley, C K; Peel, J; Bradshaw, C S; Hocking, J S; Lahra, M M; Chen, M Y

    2015-11-01

    We examined the factors influencing gonorrhea detection at the pharynx. One hundred men infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae were swabbed from the tonsils and posterior oropharynx. N. gonorrhoeae was reisolated from the tonsils and posterior oropharynx in 62% and 52%, respectively (P = 0.041). Culture positivity was greater with higher gonococcal DNA loads at the tonsils (P = 0.001) and oropharynx (P < 0.001). N. gonorrhoeae can be cultured from the tonsils and posterior oropharynx with greater isolation rates where gonococcal loads are higher. PMID:26292303

  14. Incidence and surgical importance of the posterior gastric artery.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, K; Prates, J C; DiDio, L J

    1978-01-01

    In a series of 61 adult cadavers, the posterior gastric artery was found in 38 (62.3%), originating from the superior aspect of the mid-third of the splenic artery. The posterior gastric artery, running behind the parietal peritoneum of the omental bursa, produced a peritoneal fold before reaching the posterior wall of the superior portion of the gastric body, near the cardiac region, and the fundus. Its high incidence, hidden origin, deep course, and distribution make this artery very important for surgical procedures relating to the stomach, pancreas, spleen, and celiac region. It may be crucial, especially if partial gastric resection of splenectomy have obliterated other gastric vessels. PMID:629615

  15. Resilience and vulnerability among refugee children of traumatized and non-traumatized parents

    PubMed Central

    Daud, Atia; af Klinteberg, Britt; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to explore resilience among refugee children whose parents had been traumatized and were suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Methods The study comprised 80 refugee children (40 boys and 40 girls, age range 6–17 yrs), divided into two groups. The test group consisted of 40 refugee children whose parents had been tortured in Iraq before coming to Sweden. In accordance with DSM-IV criteria, these children were further divided in two sub-groups, those who were assessed as having PTSD-related symptoms (n = 31) and those who did not have PTSD-related symptoms (n = 9). The comparison group consisted of 40 children from Egypt, Syria and Morocco whose parents had not been tortured. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edn. (WISC-III), Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents- Revised (DICA-R), Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms checklist (PTSS), "I Think I am" (ITIA) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to assess IQ; PTSD-related symptoms; self-esteem; possible resilience and vulnerability. Results Children without PTSD/PTSS in the traumatized parents group had more favorable values (ITIA and SDQ) with respect to total scores, emotionality, relation to family, peer relations and prosocial behavior than the children in the same group with PTSD/PTSS and these values were similar to those the children in the comparison group (the non-traumatized parents group). The children in the non-traumatized parents group scored significantly higher on the IQ test than the children with traumatized parents, both the children with PTSD-related symptoms and those without PTSD-related symptoms. Conclusion Adequate emotional expression, supportive family relations, good peer relations, and prosociality constituted the main indicators of resilience. Further investigation is needed to explore the possible effects of these factors and the effects of IQ. The findings of this study are useful for treatment design in a holistic perspective, especially in planning the treatment for refugee children, adolescents and their families. PMID:18373846

  16. A Computational Agent Model for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders

    E-print Network

    Treur, Jan

    -Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The model is based on insights from the neurological literature on how specific phenomena that are typical for PTSD patients can occur, such as re-experiencing the strong feeling related-based training or in gaming or virtual stories. Keywords: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), computational

  17. Traumatic Brain Injury as a Cause of Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Marcia R.

    There is increasing evidence that many children and adolescents who display behavior disorders have sustained a traumatic brain injury. Traumatic brain injury can take the following forms: closed head trauma in which the brain usually suffers diffuse damage; open head injury which usually results in specific focal damage; or internal trauma (e.g.,…

  18. Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health & Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Defense Centers of Excellence For Psychological Health & Traumatic Brain Injury U.S. Department of Defense About DCoE Centers ... Options Tips for Treating mTBI and PTSD Traumatic Brain Injury Tips for Treating mTBI and PTSD DCoE ...

  19. Traumatic Events among Undergraduate Students: Prevalence and Associated Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Patricia; Anders, Samantha; Perera, Sulani; Tennen, Howard; Tashiro, Ty; Park, Crystal; Tomich, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This multisite study assessed the prevalence of exposure to traumatic events and associated symptoms among undergraduate students (N = 1,528) using online surveys. Most students (85%) reported having experienced a traumatic event in their lifetime (Time 1) and 21% reported experiencing an event over a 2-month period during college (Time 2). The…

  20. Traumatic Brain Injury: An Educator's Manual. [Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiegenbaum, Ed, Ed.; And Others

    This manual for the Portland (Oregon) Public Schools presents basic information on providing educational services to children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Individual sections cover the following topics: the brain, central nervous system and behavior; physical, psychological and emotional implication; traumatic brain injury in children versus…

  1. 38 CFR 9.20 - Traumatic injury protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...spinal cord or associated nerves, or to the brain, that is deemed clinically stable and...activities of daily living due to traumatic brain injury (§ 9.20(f)(17)), or...traumatic injury other than an injury to the brain (§ 9.20(f)(19)), a...

  2. 38 CFR 9.20 - Traumatic injury protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...spinal cord or associated nerves, or to the brain, that is deemed clinically stable and...activities of daily living due to traumatic brain injury (§ 9.20(f)(17)), or...traumatic injury other than an injury to the brain (§ 9.20(f)(19)), a...

  3. Traumatic event re-exposure in injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Peirce, Jessica M; Kolodner, Ken; Brooner, Robert K; Kidorf, Michael S

    2012-02-01

    Drug users have very high rates of lifetime exposure to traumatic events, leading to significant psychiatric complications. In spite of the high rate of lifetime exposure, very little is known about the rate of ongoing re-exposure to new traumatic events in drug users. We investigated the rate of traumatic event re-exposure in male and female injecting drug users using syringe exchange services in Baltimore (N?=?197). Participants were assessed monthly for traumatic event re-exposure for 16 months. Averaged over the entire follow-up period, 27% of participants were re-exposed to a traumatic event each month and 72% were re-exposed over the 16-month study period. Women were over twice as likely to report any traumatic event re-exposure as men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?2.48; 95% CI?=?1.54-3.99), with the specific events of life-threatening illness, death of a loved one, and injury or illness of a loved one being more common in women than men. Traumatic event re-exposure occurs far more often than previously reported, with women injecting drug users at the highest risk. Reassessment of traumatic events may help to identify people most in need and encourage entry into treatment. PMID:21989498

  4. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hematoma: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Pranshu; Grewal, Sarvpreet Singh; Gupta, Bharat; Jain, Vikas; Sobti, Harman

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic Basal ganglia hemorrhage is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage, and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. PMID:23293672

  5. A Bridge between Traumatic Life Events and Losses by Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trolley, Barbara C.

    1994-01-01

    Provides support for connection between grief reactions and traumatic life events. Discusses reactions to life traumas (alcoholism, abuse, disability, divorce, infertility) within context of grief framework. Applies literature pertaining to responses to suicide and murder to traumatic life events. Discusses and dissolves proposed differences…

  6. Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress among Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bride, Brian E.

    2007-01-01

    Social workers are increasingly being called on to assist survivors of childhood abuse, domestic violence, violent crime, disasters, and war and terrorism. It has become increasingly apparent that the psychological effects of traumatic events extend beyond those directly affected. Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is becoming viewed as an…

  7. Imagery Rescripting of Early Traumatic Memories in Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Negative self-images appear to play a role in the maintenance of social phobia and research suggests they are often linked to earlier memories of socially traumatic events. Imagery rescripting is a clinical intervention that aims to update such unpleasant or traumatic memories, and is increasingly being incorporated in cognitive behavioral therapy…

  8. Working with Traumatized Children: A Handbook for Healing. Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brohl, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This practical handbook for anyone who works with traumatized children--teachers, parents, as well as professionals--provides needed information to understand and guide a child suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through to recovery. It describes the physical and emotional effects of trauma, shows how to recognize maladaptive…

  9. Traumatic Experience in Infancy: How Responses to Stress Affect Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, Molly Romer

    2010-01-01

    Responses to traumatic stress during the earliest years of life can change quickly and can be difficult to identify because of the young child's rapid rate of development. The symptoms of traumatic stress will depend on the child's developmental level and individual coping styles, as well as the quality and nature of the child's most important…

  10. Supporting Children with Traumatic Grief: What Educators Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.

    2011-01-01

    Following traumatic deaths children may develop Childhood Traumatic Grief (CTG), a condition in which trauma symptoms interfere with adaptive child grieving. Educators have an important role in supporting children who have CTG. Key contributions that educators can make are to (a) recognize CTG symptoms in school settings; (b) refer children for…

  11. Anatomical Tracer Injections into the Lower Urinary Tract May Compromise Cystometry and External Urethral Sphincter Electromyography in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hui-Yi; Havton, Leif A.

    2010-01-01

    Physiological and anatomical investigations are commonly combined in experimental models. When studying the lower urinary tract (LUT), it is often of interest to perform both urodynamic studies and retrogradely labeled neurons innervating the peripheral target organs. However, it is not known whether the use of anatomical tracers for the labeling of e.g. spinal cord neurons may interfere with the interpretation of the physiological studies on micturition reflexes. We performed cystometry and external urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyography (EMG) under urethane anesthesia in adult female rats at 5-7 days after injection of a 5% fluorogold (FG) solution or vehicle into the major pelvic ganglia (MPG) or the EUS. FG and vehicle injections into the MPG and EUS resulted in decreased voiding efficiency. MPG injections increased the duration of both bladder contractions and the inter-contractile intervals. EUS injections decreased EUS EMG bursting activity during voiding as well as increased both the duration of bladder contractions and the maximum intravesical pressure. In addition, the bladder weight and size were increased after either MPG or EUS injections in both the FG and vehicle groups. We conclude that the injection of anatomical tracers into the MPG and EUS may compromise the interpretation of subsequent urodynamic studies and suggest investigators to consider experimental designs, which allow for physiological assessments to precede the administration of anatomical tracers into the LUT. PMID:20004710

  12. Characteristics of urethral and epididymal semen collected from domestic cats-A retrospective study of 214 cases.

    PubMed

    Prochowska, Sylwia; Ni?a?ski, Wojciech; Ochota, Ma?gorzata; Partyka, Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to describe and compare basic semen characteristics and sperm motility parameters obtained via computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) in feline semen collected from the urethra and epididymis, on the basis of large, unselected population of domestic cats. The semen collected from 214 males was subjected for routine semen assessment and CASA evaluation. Semen collected by urethral catheterization (CT) and by epididymal slicing (EP) has comparable characteristics according to total sperm count (47.7 ± 42.1 and 52.9 ± 45.0), subjective motility (71.1 ± 17.0 and 69.3 ± 13.9), viability (74.9 ± 13.4 and 76.7 ± 10.6), and morphology (52.6 ± 19.0 and 47.2 ± 17.4). The study of a large feline population confirmed a high incidence of teratospermy in cats, which negatively affects sperm motility parameters assessed by CASA. A lack of a correlation between CT and EP semen for total sperm count and viability, as well as occasional gross differences between the morphology of CT and EP semen of the same cat suggests that many factors may affect sperm cells, and the fertility and/or infertility of patients should not be assessed after examining only one sample. Additionally, technical problems with assessment of EP samples (understated results) suggest that CT semen is more appropriate for an analysis by CASA than EP. PMID:26359850

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis Infections in Men With Nongonococcal Urethritis: Predictors and Persistence After Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Seña, Arlene C.; Lensing, Shelly; Rompalo, Anne; Taylor, Stephanie N.; Martin, David H.; Lopez, Laureen M.; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Schwebke, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    Background.?Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are sexually transmitted infections (STIs) associated with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). We assessed their predictors and persistence after treatment. Methods.?We analyzed data from an NGU treatment trial among symptomatic heterosexual men aged 16–45 years from STI clinics. Nucleic acid amplification tests detected CT, MG, and TV at baseline and at 1 and 4 weeks after therapy. Associations between variables and STI detection were investigated. Results.?Among 293 participants, 44% had CT, 31% had MG, and 13% had TV at baseline. In multivariate analysis, CT infection was associated with young age and STI contact. Young age was also associated with MG, and having ?1 new partner was negatively associated with TV. We detected persistent CT in 12% and MG in 44% of participants at 4 weeks after therapy, which were associated with signs and symptoms of NGU. Persistent CT was detected in 23% of participants after azithromycin treatment vs 5% after doxycycline treatment (P = .011); persistent MG was detected in 68% of participants after doxycycline vs 33% after azithromycin (P = .001). All but 1 TV infection cleared after tinidazole. Conclusions.?Persistent CT and MG after treatment of NGU are common, and were associated with clinical findings and drug regimen. PMID:22615318

  14. Epidemiology of traumatic lenticular subluxation in India.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agrawal, Saurabh; Gupta, Shikha; Gogia, Varun; Agarwal, Tushar

    2014-04-01

    To study the epidemiological and clinical profile of patients with traumatic subluxated lenses at a tertiary care center in India. Ours was a non-comparative descriptive case series. Evaluation of 71 eyes of 71 consecutive patients presenting to the lens clinic over a period of 2 years with traumatic lenticular subluxation was done. Demographic and clinical profile of patients was acquired, followed by a biomicroscopic examination of the cornea, anterior chamber, iris, lens, angles, zonules, anterior vitreous and fundus. Most of the patients were adolescents and belonged to lower socioeconomic status. The mean time lag before presenting was 33.6 months (range 5 days to 40 years) and mean visual acuity in the affected eyes was 1.67 + 0.56 logMAR. Blunt trauma (63/71) was nine times more common than penetrating trauma in the etiology of manifest subluxation. Injury while playing accounted for the highest rate of injury; sports-related injury with a gulli danda or a cricket bat and ball were the most common mode of blunt trauma while bow and arrow injury was the commonest cause of injury in the penetrating trauma subgroup. Cataract was the most frequent ocular association (53.5 %). All eyes had broken zonules and most presented with inferior subluxation (46 %). Traumatic lenticular subluxation, a unilateral cause of zonulolysis usually occurs while playing with a gulli danda, bow and arrow, or cricket bat and ball in Northern India. It is a major cause of severe visual loss and a modification in risk factors is mandatory to decrease ocular morbidity from trauma. PMID:23783656

  15. Mandibular fracture patterns consistent with posterior maxillary fractures involving the posterior maxillary sinus, pterygoid plate or both: CT characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sukegawa, S; Kanno, T; Fujita, G; Yamamoto, N; Furuki, Y; Michizawa, M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of posterior maxillary fractures involving the posterior maxillary sinus wall, pterygoid plate or both, unrelated to major midface fractures in patients with mandibular fractures, and to characterize associated fractures. Methods: A CT study was performed in patients with mandibular fractures to identify posterior maxillary fractures. Patients aged under 16 years, those with mandibular fractures involving only dentoalveolar components and those with concurrent major midfacial fractures were excluded. Results: 13 (6.7%) of 194 patients with mandibular fractures also had posterior maxillary fractures (case group). The injury pattern correlated with the external force directed to the lateral side of the mandible (p?posterior mandible occurred with significant frequency (p?=?0.001) when the posterior maxillary fractures involved only the sinus. Conclusions: Mandibular fractures accompanied by posterior maxillary fractures are not rare. The finding of a unilateral posterior maxillary fracture on CT may aid the efficient radiological examination of the mandible based on possible patterns of associated fractures, as follows: in the ipsilateral posterior region as a direct fracture when the impact is a medially directed force, and in the symphysis/parasymphysis or contralateral condylar neck as an indirect fracture. PMID:24336313

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging in traumatic hip subluxation

    PubMed Central

    Flanigan, David C; De Smet, Arthur A; Graf, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Athletic traumatic hip subluxations are rare. Classic radiographic features have been well described. This case highlights the potential pitfalls of immediate magnetic resonance imaging. Femoral head contusions and acetabular rim fractures are common associated findings usually apparent with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, in this case an MRI done 3 hours post injury failed to show any edema in either location, making the appearance of these findings on subsequent MRIs difficult to interpret. An acute MRI more than 48 hours post injury may have been more helpful. PMID:21559109

  17. Traumatic rectal hematoma following anal rape.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y M; Davis, M; Ott, D J

    1986-07-01

    We describe the case of a 28-year-old male prisoner with a traumatic rectal hematoma caused by anal rape. Barium enema showed a large rectal mass confirmed to be a hematoma by proctoscopic examination. Surgery was performed due to a falling hemoglobin level, and an 800-mL hematoma was evacuated. The patient became febrile following surgery, and computed tomography revealed a pelvic mass consistent with recurrent hematoma or abscess. Repeat surgery showed recurrent hematoma. The patient recovered uneventfully. PMID:3487997

  18. Sports-related traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shawn; Woessner, Derek

    2015-06-01

    Concussions have garnered more attention in the medical literature, media, and social media. As such, in the nomenclature according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the term concussion has been supplanted by the term mild traumatic brain injury. Current numbers indicate that 1.7 million TBIs are documented annually, with estimates around 3 million annually (173,285 sports- and recreation-related TBIs among children and adolescents). The Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool 3 and the NFL Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool are commonly used sideline tools. PMID:25979585

  19. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Traumatic Spine Injury.

    PubMed

    Stein, Deborah M; Pineda, Jose A; Roddy, Vincent; Knight, William A

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic spine injuries (TSIs) carry significantly high risks of morbidity, mortality, and exorbitant health care costs from associated medical needs following injury. For these reasons, TSI was chosen as an ENLS protocol. This article offers a comprehensive review on the management of spinal column injuries using the best available evidence. Alhough the review focuses primarily on cervical spinal column injuries, thoracolumbar injuries are briefly discussed as well. The initial emergency department clinical evaluation of possible spinal fractures and cord injuries, along with the definitive early management of confirmed injuries, is also covered. PMID:26438460

  20. Neuropsychiatry of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Max, Jeffrey E.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem. Psychiatric disorders with onset before the injury appear to be more common than population base rates. Novel (postinjury onset) psychiatric disorders (NPD) are also common and complicate child function after injury. Novel disorders include personality change due to TBI, secondary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (SADHD), as well as other disruptive behavior disorders, and internalizing disorders. This article reviews preinjury psychiatric disorders as well as biopsychosocial risk factors and treatments for NPD. PMID:24529428

  1. Metabolic Response of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Prins, Mayumi L; Matsumoto, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the pediatric brain presents unique challenges as the complex cascades of metabolic and biochemical responses to TBI are further complicated ongoing maturational changes of the developing brain. TBIs of all severities have been shown to significantly alter metabolism and hormones which impair the ability of the brain to process glucose for cellular energy. Under these conditions, the brain's primary fuel (glucose) becomes a less favorable fuel and the ability of the younger brain to revert to ketone metabolism can an advantage. This review addresses the potential of alternative substrate metabolic intervention as a logical pediatric TBI neuroprotective strategy. PMID:25336427

  2. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. 872.3900 Section 872...3900 Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a porcelain device with...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. 872.3900 Section 872...3900 Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a porcelain device with...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. 872.3900 Section 872...3900 Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a porcelain device with...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. 872.3900 Section 872...3900 Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a porcelain device with...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. 872.3900 Section 872...3900 Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a porcelain device with...

  7. [Intensive care of traumatic brain injury in children].

    PubMed

    Kizilov, A V; Babaev, B D; Malov, A G; Ermolaev, V V; Mikha?lov, E V; Ostre?kov, I F

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury among other injuries of human body reaches up to 30-50% and, according to the WHO, it grows by 2%. Severe traumatic brain injury (such as severe brain contusion, epidural, subdural and intracerebral hematoma, intracerebral hygroma, diffuse axonal injury) in the structure of general trauma amounts 4-20%. The prognosis of traumatic brain injury mainly depends on the timeliness of the first aid. The therapeutic measures usually begin at the place of the accident or in the ambulance vehicle (hence the clear role of the specialist team). It is advised for children with severe traumatic brain injury to be directed to specialized neurosurgical or trauma hospitals, where it is possible to provide them with adequate medical care. This work is dedicated to the enhancement of the intensive care quality during severe traumatic brain injury in children of Chuvash Republic, by the means of integrated patient assessment. PMID:21513069

  8. Arthroscopic preparation of the posterior and posteroinferior glenoid labrum.

    PubMed

    Provencher, Matthew T; Romeo, Anthony A; Solomon, Daniel J; Bach, Bernard R; Cole, Brian J

    2007-11-01

    Using an anterior portal for a labral elevator and shaver instrument, with the arthroscope in the anterosuperior portal, allows the posterior and posteroinferior chondrolabral junction to be safely prepared. PMID:18019981

  9. Posterior-based confidence measures for spoken term detection 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Dong; Tejedor, Javier; Frankel, Joe; King, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Confidence measures play a key role in spoken term detection (STD) tasks. The confidence measure expresses the posterior probability of the search term appearing in the detection period, given the speech. Traditional ...

  10. Vitrectorhexis versus forceps posterior capsulorhexis in pediatric cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kochgaway, Lav; Biswas, Partha; Paul, Ajoy; Sinha, Sourav; Biswas, Rupak; Maity, Puspen; Banerjee, Sumita

    2013-01-01

    This study was done to compare the results of posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis created using forceps with those created using vitrector in eyes suffering from congenital cataract. Vitrectorhexis term was first used by Wilson et al in 1999.[1] Fifty eyes with congenital and developmental cataract were included in this study. The posterior capsulorhexis was created using utrata forceps in 17 eyes or through a vitrector in 33 eyes. Forceps capsulorhexis was performed before IOL implantation, while vitrectorhexis was performed after IOL implantation in the bag. The results of both the surgery were compared using the following criteria: incidence of extension of rhexis, ability to achieve posterior rhexis of appropriate size, ability to implant the IOL in the bag, the surgical time, and learning curve. Vitrectorhexis after IOL implantation was an easy to learn alternative to manual posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis in pediatric cataract surgery. It was more predictable and reproducible, with a short learning curve and lesser surgical time. PMID:23571249

  11. Vitrectorhexis versus forceps posterior capsulorhexis in pediatric cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Kochgaway, Lav; Biswas, Partha; Paul, Ajoy; Sinha, Sourav; Biswas, Rupak; Maity, Puspen; Banerjee, Sumita

    2013-07-01

    This study was done to compare the results of posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis created using forceps with those created using vitrector in eyes suffering from congenital cataract. Vitrectorhexis term was first used by Wilson et al in 1999. [1] Fifty eyes with congenital and developmental cataract were included in this study. The posterior capsulorhexis was created using utrata forceps in 17 eyes or through a vitrector in 33 eyes. Forceps capsulorhexis was performed before IOL implantation, while vitrectorhexis was performed after IOL implantation in the bag. The results of both the surgery were compared using the following criteria: incidence of extension of rhexis, ability to achieve posterior rhexis of appropriate size, ability to implant the IOL in the bag, the surgical time, and learning curve. Vitrectorhexis after IOL implantation was an easy to learn alternative to manual posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis in pediatric cataract surgery. It was more predictable and reproducible, with a short learning curve and lesser surgical time. PMID:23571249

  12. Comorbidity/Overlapping between ADHD and PTSD in Relation to IQ among Children of Traumatized/Non-Traumatized Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daud, Atia; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study explores the comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and PTSD in relation to IQ among refugee children of traumatized parents (TP) and non-traumatized parents (NTP). Method: The study compares 80 refugee children, 40 with TP with 40 with NTP. ADHD and PTSD are assessed using DICA. Children's cognitive functions are measured by…

  13. PTSD symptoms in response to traumatic and non-traumatic events: the role of respondent perception and A2 criterion.

    PubMed

    Boals, Adriel; Schuettler, Darnell

    2009-05-01

    The current study attempted to replicate the unexpected findings by Gold, Marx, Soler-Baillo, and Sloan [Gold, S. D., Marx, B. P., Soler-Baillo, J. M., & Sloan, D. M. (2005). Is life stress more traumatic than traumatic stress? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 687-698] that non-traumatic events were associated with greater levels of PTSD symptoms than traumatic events. The current study had two notable methodological differences. First, we included A2 trauma criteria (a response of intense fear, helplessness, or horror) in addition to A1 trauma criteria (the event is life-threatening) in defining traumatic events. Second, A1 and A2 trauma criteria were based on participants' ratings, as opposed to classification by coders. Using this alternative methodology, results obtained were opposite of Gold et al. PTSD symptoms were greater for DSM-defined traumatic events in comparison to non-traumatic events. In addition, A1 trauma criterion had little to no relationship to PTSD symptoms when A2 criterion was considered. These results call into question the role of A1 trauma criterion and the definition of traumatic events. PMID:19013754

  14. Abnormalities of fixation, saccade and pursuit in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Kaski, Diego; Yong, Keir X X; Paterson, Ross W; Slattery, Catherine F; Ryan, Natalie S; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-07-01

    The clinico-neuroradiological syndrome posterior cortical atrophy is the cardinal 'visual dementia' and most common atypical Alzheimer's disease phenotype, offering insights into mechanisms underlying clinical heterogeneity, pathological propagation and basic visual phenomena (e.g. visual crowding). Given the extensive attention paid to patients' (higher order) perceptual function, it is surprising that there have been no systematic analyses of basic oculomotor function in this population. Here 20 patients with posterior cortical atrophy, 17 patients with typical Alzheimer's disease and 22 healthy controls completed tests of fixation, saccade (including fixation/target gap and overlap conditions) and smooth pursuit eye movements using an infrared pupil-tracking system. Participants underwent detailed neuropsychological and neurological examinations, with a proportion also undertaking brain imaging and analysis of molecular pathology. In contrast to informal clinical evaluations of oculomotor dysfunction frequency (previous studies: 38%, current clinical examination: 33%), detailed eyetracking investigations revealed eye movement abnormalities in 80% of patients with posterior cortical atrophy (compared to 17% typical Alzheimer's disease, 5% controls). The greatest differences between posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease were seen in saccadic performance. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy made significantly shorter saccades especially for distant targets. They also exhibited a significant exacerbation of the normal gap/overlap effect, consistent with 'sticky fixation'. Time to reach saccadic targets was significantly associated with parietal and occipital cortical thickness measures. On fixation stability tasks, patients with typical Alzheimer's disease showed more square wave jerks whose frequency was associated with lower cerebellar grey matter volume, while patients with posterior cortical atrophy showed large saccadic intrusions whose frequency correlated significantly with generalized reductions in cortical thickness. Patients with both posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease showed lower gain in smooth pursuit compared to controls. The current study establishes that eye movement abnormalities are near-ubiquitous in posterior cortical atrophy, and highlights multiple aspects of saccadic performance which distinguish posterior cortical atrophy from typical Alzheimer's disease. We suggest the posterior cortical atrophy oculomotor profile (e.g. exacerbation of the saccadic gap/overlap effect, preserved saccadic velocity) reflects weak input from degraded occipito-parietal spatial representations of stimulus location into a superior collicular spatial map for eye movement regulation. This may indicate greater impairment of identification of oculomotor targets rather than generation of oculomotor movements. The results highlight the critical role of spatial attention and object identification but also precise stimulus localization in explaining the complex real world perception deficits observed in posterior cortical atrophy and many other patients with dementia-related visual impairment. PMID:25895507

  15. Abnormalities of fixation, saccade and pursuit in posterior cortical atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kaski, Diego; Yong, Keir X. X.; Paterson, Ross W.; Slattery, Catherine F.; Ryan, Natalie S.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2015-01-01

    The clinico-neuroradiological syndrome posterior cortical atrophy is the cardinal ‘visual dementia’ and most common atypical Alzheimer’s disease phenotype, offering insights into mechanisms underlying clinical heterogeneity, pathological propagation and basic visual phenomena (e.g. visual crowding). Given the extensive attention paid to patients’ (higher order) perceptual function, it is surprising that there have been no systematic analyses of basic oculomotor function in this population. Here 20 patients with posterior cortical atrophy, 17 patients with typical Alzheimer’s disease and 22 healthy controls completed tests of fixation, saccade (including fixation/target gap and overlap conditions) and smooth pursuit eye movements using an infrared pupil-tracking system. Participants underwent detailed neuropsychological and neurological examinations, with a proportion also undertaking brain imaging and analysis of molecular pathology. In contrast to informal clinical evaluations of oculomotor dysfunction frequency (previous studies: 38%, current clinical examination: 33%), detailed eyetracking investigations revealed eye movement abnormalities in 80% of patients with posterior cortical atrophy (compared to 17% typical Alzheimer’s disease, 5% controls). The greatest differences between posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer’s disease were seen in saccadic performance. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy made significantly shorter saccades especially for distant targets. They also exhibited a significant exacerbation of the normal gap/overlap effect, consistent with ‘sticky fixation’. Time to reach saccadic targets was significantly associated with parietal and occipital cortical thickness measures. On fixation stability tasks, patients with typical Alzheimer’s disease showed more square wave jerks whose frequency was associated with lower cerebellar grey matter volume, while patients with posterior cortical atrophy showed large saccadic intrusions whose frequency correlated significantly with generalized reductions in cortical thickness. Patients with both posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer’s disease showed lower gain in smooth pursuit compared to controls. The current study establishes that eye movement abnormalities are near-ubiquitous in posterior cortical atrophy, and highlights multiple aspects of saccadic performance which distinguish posterior cortical atrophy from typical Alzheimer’s disease. We suggest the posterior cortical atrophy oculomotor profile (e.g. exacerbation of the saccadic gap/overlap effect, preserved saccadic velocity) reflects weak input from degraded occipito-parietal spatial representations of stimulus location into a superior collicular spatial map for eye movement regulation. This may indicate greater impairment of identification of oculomotor targets rather than generation of oculomotor movements. The results highlight the critical role of spatial attention and object identification but also precise stimulus localization in explaining the complex real world perception deficits observed in posterior cortical atrophy and many other patients with dementia-related visual impairment. PMID:25895507

  16. Comparative Study of Modified Posterior Operation to Treat Kümmell's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Dachuan; Tan, Bingyi; Dong, Jun; Feng, Rongjie; Yuan, Zenong; Wang, Naiguo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed at examining the curative effect of modified posterior operation on treatment of Kümmell's disease. About 30 patients of Kümmell's disease with complete image and clinical data treated during June 2004 to July 2013 were conducted with anterior and posterior approaches, respectively. Kyphotic Cobb angle, fractured vertebra wedge angle, and the anterior and posterior heights of fractured vertebra were all measured through x-ray before and after operation, and the pain visual analog scale (VAS) was determined for evaluating the effect of operations. The injury and restoration of neurological function were assessed using Frankel classification. Patients in group A were treated with anterior operation, whereas group B was posterior operation. Postoperatively, VAS score, kyphotic Cobb angle, anterior vertebra height, and pathologic vertebra wedge angle were all significantly improved in patients with Kümmell's disease receiving modified posterior operation (group B). Similar results were also observed in patients with anterior operation. The improvement of VAS and correction rate of kyphotic Cobb angle indicated equivalent effects of posterior and anterior operations. Meanwhile, alleviated neurological function damage was observed in 2 groups. Relevant factor analysis illustrated that there was no significant correlation of the severity and improvement rate of pain symptoms with age, medical history, anterior and posterior vertebra heights, kyphotic Cobb angle, and pathological vertebra wedge angle. Compared with traditional anterior approach, modified posterior operation, adopting transpedicular vertebral body grafting combined with vertebral pedicle screw fixation, could produce equivalent effects on kyphosis correction, pain relief, and improvement of neurological function in patients with Kümmell's disease. PMID:26426639

  17. Posterior interosseous nerve palsy in a machine gunner.

    PubMed

    Sonna, L A; Scott, B R

    1995-07-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old Infantryman who developed posterior interosseous nerve palsy and a transient sensory deficit in a radial distribution after prolonged carrying of an M60 machine gun. Posterior interosseous nerve palsy has been reported in association with a variety of activities involving forceful, repetitive pronation and supination; however, to our knowledge, no previous cases of this palsy have been reported in association with use of a military weapon. PMID:7659246

  18. Comparative Study of Modified Posterior Operation to Treat Kümmell's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Dachuan; Tan, Bingyi; Dong, Jun; Feng, Rongjie; Yuan, Zenong; Wang, Naiguo

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed at examining the curative effect of modified posterior operation on treatment of Kümmell's disease. About 30 patients of Kümmell's disease with complete image and clinical data treated during June 2004 to July 2013 were conducted with anterior and posterior approaches, respectively. Kyphotic Cobb angle, fractured vertebra wedge angle, and the anterior and posterior heights of fractured vertebra were all measured through x-ray before and after operation, and the pain visual analog scale (VAS) was determined for evaluating the effect of operations. The injury and restoration of neurological function were assessed using Frankel classification. Patients in group A were treated with anterior operation, whereas group B was posterior operation. Postoperatively, VAS score, kyphotic Cobb angle, anterior vertebra height, and pathologic vertebra wedge angle were all significantly improved in patients with Kümmell's disease receiving modified posterior operation (group B). Similar results were also observed in patients with anterior operation. The improvement of VAS and correction rate of kyphotic Cobb angle indicated equivalent effects of posterior and anterior operations. Meanwhile, alleviated neurological function damage was observed in 2 groups. Relevant factor analysis illustrated that there was no significant correlation of the severity and improvement rate of pain symptoms with age, medical history, anterior and posterior vertebra heights, kyphotic Cobb angle, and pathological vertebra wedge angle. Compared with traditional anterior approach, modified posterior operation, adopting transpedicular vertebral body grafting combined with vertebral pedicle screw fixation, could produce equivalent effects on kyphosis correction, pain relief, and improvement of neurological function in patients with Kümmell's disease. PMID:26426639

  19. Erupted complex odontoma of the posterior maxilla: A rarity

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sonika; Arul, A. Sri Kennath J.; Arul, A. Sri Sennath J.; Chitra, S.

    2015-01-01

    Complex odontomas, hamartomas of aborted tooth development, mainly occur in posterior part of the mandible and rarely erupt into the oral cavity. The spontaneous eruption may be associated with pain, inflammation of adjacent soft tissues or recurrent infection. The present case of complex odontoma is of particular interest due to its apparent eruption in the maxillary posterior segment, its association with agenesis of the second molar and impacted third molar; with the lesion being completely asymptomatic. PMID:26604611

  20. Posterior partially edentulous jaws, planning a rehabilitation with dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Douglas R; Silva, Emily V F; Pellizzer, Eduardo P; Filho, Osvaldo Magro; Goiato, Marcelo C

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To discuss important characteristics of the use of dental implants in posterior quadrants and the rehabilitation planning. METHODS: An electronic search of English articles was conducted on MEDLINE (PubMed) from 1990 up to the period of March 2014. The key terms were dental implants and posterior jaws, dental implants/treatment planning and posterior maxilla, and dental implants/treatment planning and posterior mandible. No exclusion criteria were used for the initial search. Clinical trials, randomized and non randomized studies, classical and comparative studies, multicenter studies, in vitro and in vivo studies, case reports, longitudinal studies and reviews of the literature were included in this review. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-two articles met the inclusion criteria of treatment planning of dental implants in posterior jaw and were read in their entirety. The selected articles were categorized with respect to their context on space for restoration, anatomic considerations (bone quantity and density), radiographic techniques, implant selection (number, position, diameter and surface), tilted and pterygoid implants, short implants, occlusal considerations, and success rates of implants placed in the posterior region. The results derived from the review process were described under several different topic headings to give readers a clear overview of the literature. In general, it was observed that the use of dental implants in posterior region requires a careful treatment plan. It is important that the practitioner has knowledge about the theme to evaluate the treatment parameters. CONCLUSION: The use of implants to restore the posterior arch presents many challenges and requires a detailed treatment planning. PMID:25610852

  1. Computational modelling of mobile bearing TKA anterior-posterior dislocation.

    PubMed

    Müller, J H; Zakaria, T; van der Merwe, W; D'Angelo, F

    2016-04-01

    Anterior-posterior stability in an unconstrained mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and one with rotational constraints is compared in a computational model based on an ASTM test. Both TKA designs dislocate at loads greater than reported maximum in vivo forces. The posterior drawer forces (mean: 3027 N vs. 1817 N) needed to induce subluxation increase with a greater anterior jump distance (12 mm vs. 7 mm; refers to the vertical height of the anterior or posterior border of the tibial insert's articulating surface). The posterior jump distance for both tested TKA differed by 1.5 mm and had minimal effect on the magnitude of the anterior drawer forces at dislocation in mid-flexion (unconstrained vs. constrained: 445 N vs. 412 N). The unconstrained insert dislocated by means of spin-out whereas in the constrained TKA the femur dislocated from the bearing during posterior drawer and the bearing from the baseplate during anterior drawer. MCL function is an important consideration during ligament balancing since a ± 10% variation in MCL tension affects dislocation forces by ± 20%. The simulation platform provided the means to investigate TKA designs in terms of anterior-posterior stability as a function of knee flexion, collateral ligament function and mechanical morphology. PMID:26047039

  2. Traumatic brain injury in modern war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Hawley, Jason; Grimes, Jamie; Macedonia, Christian; Hancock, James; Jaffee, Michael; Dombroski, Todd; Ecklund, James M.

    2013-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common and especially with military service. In Iraq and Afghanistan, explosive blast related TBI has become prominent and is mainly from improvised explosive devices (IED). Civilian standard of care clinical practice guidelines (CPG) were appropriate has been applied to the combat setting. When such CPGs do not exist or are not applicable, new practice standards for the military are created, as for TBI. Thus, CPGs for prehospital care of combat TBI CPG [1] and mild TBI/concussion [2] were introduced as was a DoD system-wide clinical care program, the first large scale system wide effort to address all severities of TBI in a comprehensive organized way. As TBI remains incompletely understood, substantial research is underway. For the DoD, leading this effort are The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, National Intrepid Center of Excellence and the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury. This program is a beginning, a work in progress ready to leverage advances made scientifically and always with the intent of providing the best care to its military beneficiaries.

  3. Astrocyte roles in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Burda, Joshua E; Bernstein, Alexander M; Sofroniew, Michael V

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes sense changes in neural activity and extracellular space composition. In response, they exert homeostatic mechanisms critical for maintaining neural circuit function, such as buffering neurotransmitters, modulating extracellular osmolarity and calibrating neurovascular coupling. In addition to upholding normal brain activities, astrocytes respond to diverse forms of brain injury with heterogeneous and progressive changes of gene expression, morphology, proliferative capacity and function that are collectively referred to as reactive astrogliosis. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) sets in motion complex events in which noxious mechanical forces cause tissue damage and disrupt central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis, which in turn trigger diverse multi-cellular responses that evolve over time and can lead either to neural repair or secondary cellular injury. In response to TBI, astrocytes in different cellular microenvironments tune their reactivity to varying degrees of axonal injury, vascular disruption, ischemia and inflammation. Here we review different forms of TBI-induced astrocyte reactivity and the functional consequences of these responses for TBI pathobiology. Evidence regarding astrocyte contribution to post-traumatic tissue repair and synaptic remodeling is examined, and the potential for targeting specific aspects of astrogliosis to ameliorate TBI sequelae is considered. PMID:25828533

  4. The prehospital management of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Scott A; Rojanasarntikul, Dhanadol; Jagoda, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of death and disability, particularly in younger populations. The prehospital evaluation and management of TBI is a vital link between insult and definitive care and can have dramatic implications for subsequent morbidity. Following a TBI the brain is at high risk for further ischemic injury, with prehospital interventions targeted at reducing this secondary injury while optimizing cerebral physiology. In the following chapter we discuss the prehospital assessment and management of the brain-injured patient. The initial evaluation and physical examination are discussed with a focus on interpretation of specific physical examination findings and interpretation of vital signs. We evaluate patient management strategies including indications for advanced airway management, oxygenation, ventilation, and fluid resuscitation, as well as prehospital strategies for the management of suspected or impending cerebral herniation including hyperventilation and brain-directed hyperosmolar therapy. Transport decisions including the role of triage models and trauma centers are discussed. Finally, future directions in the prehospital management of traumatic brain injury are explored. PMID:25702228

  5. Bridge Between Neuroimmunity and Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Matthew L.; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of degenerative, infectious, inflammatory and traumatic diseases of the central nervous system includes a significant immune component. As to the latter, damage to the cerebral vasculature and neural cell bodies, caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) activates innate immunity with concomitant infiltration of immunocytes into the damaged nervous system. This leads to pro-inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandin production and lost synaptic integrity and more generalized neurotoxicity. Engagement of adaptive immune responses follows including the production of antibodies and lymphocyte proliferation. These affect the tempo of disease along with tissue repair and as such provide a number of potential targets for pharmacological treatments for TBI. However, despite a large body of research, no such treatment intervention is currently available. In this review we will discuss the immune response initiated following brain injuries, drawing on knowledge gained from a broad array of experimental and clinical studies. Our discussion seeks to address potential therapeutic targets and propose ways in which the immune system can be controlled to promote neuroprotection. PMID:24025052

  6. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in patients with traumatic brain injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, X. Q.; Wade, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    This article provides an overview of hypothalamic and pituitary alterations in brain trauma, including the incidence of hypothalamic-pituitary damage, injury mechanisms, features of the hypothalamic-pituitary defects, and major hypothalamic-pituitary disturbances in brain trauma. While hypothalamic-pituitary lesions have been commonly described at postmortem examination, only a limited number of clinical cases of traumatic hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction have been reported, probably because head injury of sufficient severity to cause hypothalamic and pituitary damage usually leads to early death. With the improvement in rescue measures, an increasing number of severely head-injured patients with hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction will survive to be seen by clinicians. Patterns of endocrine abnormalities following brain trauma vary depending on whether the injury site is in the hypothalamus, the anterior or posterior pituitary, or the upper or lower portion of the pituitary stalk. Injury predominantly to the hypothalamus can produce dissociated ACTH-cortisol levels with no response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a limited or failed metopirone test, hypothyroxinemia with a preserved thyroid-stimulating hormone response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, low gonadotropin levels with a normal response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone, a variable growth hormone (GH) level with a paradoxical rise in GH after glucose loading, hyperprolactinemia, the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH), temporary or permanent diabetes insipidus (DI), disturbed glucose metabolism, and loss of body temperature control. Severe damage to the lower pituitary stalk or anterior lobe can cause low basal levels of all anterior pituitary hormones and eliminate responses to their releasing factors. Only a few cases showed typical features of hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction. Most severe injuries are sufficient to damage both structures and produce a mixed endocrine picture. Increased intracranial pressure, which releases vasopressin by altering normal hypothalamic anatomy, may represent a unique type of stress to neuroendocrine systems and may contribute to adrenal secretion by a mechanism that requires intact brainstem function. Endocrine function should be monitored in brain-injured patients with basilar skull fractures and protracted posttraumatic amnesia, and patients with SIADH or DI should be closely monitored for other endocrine abnormalities.

  7. Robust whole-brain segmentation: application to traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ledig, Christian; Heckemann, Rolf A; Hammers, Alexander; Lopez, Juan Carlos; Newcombe, Virginia F J; Makropoulos, Antonios; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Menon, David K; Rueckert, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    We propose a framework for the robust and fully-automatic segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR) brain images called "Multi-Atlas Label Propagation with Expectation-Maximisation based refinement" (MALP-EM). The presented approach is based on a robust registration approach (MAPER), highly performant label fusion (joint label fusion) and intensity-based label refinement using EM. We further adapt this framework to be applicable for the segmentation of brain images with gross changes in anatomy. We propose to account for consistent registration errors by relaxing anatomical priors obtained by multi-atlas propagation and a weighting scheme to locally combine anatomical atlas priors and intensity-refined posterior probabilities. The method is evaluated on a benchmark dataset used in a recent MICCAI segmentation challenge. In this context we show that MALP-EM is competitive for the segmentation of MR brain scans of healthy adults when compared to state-of-the-art automatic labelling techniques. To demonstrate the versatility of the proposed approach, we employed MALP-EM to segment 125 MR brain images into 134 regions from subjects who had sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI). We employ a protocol to assess segmentation quality if no manual reference labels are available. Based on this protocol, three independent, blinded raters confirmed on 13 MR brain scans with pathology that MALP-EM is superior to established label fusion techniques. We visually confirm the robustness of our segmentation approach on the full cohort and investigate the potential of derived symmetry-based imaging biomarkers that correlate with and predict clinically relevant variables in TBI such as the Marshall Classification (MC) or Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS). Specifically, we show that we are able to stratify TBI patients with favourable outcomes from non-favourable outcomes with 64.7% accuracy using acute-phase MR images and 66.8% accuracy using follow-up MR images. Furthermore, we are able to differentiate subjects with the presence of a mass lesion or midline shift from those with diffuse brain injury with 76.0% accuracy. The thalamus, putamen, pallidum and hippocampus are particularly affected. Their involvement predicts TBI disease progression. PMID:25596765

  8. A Computational Model for Development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders by Hebbian Learning

    E-print Network

    Treur, Jan

    1 A Computational Model for Development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders by Hebbian Learning contributes a computational model for developing a Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), based on insights Introduction Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD) may develop in response to a traumatic event. Two primary

  9. [Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in bus drivers].

    PubMed

    Boyer, R; Brunet, A

    1996-01-01

    Many recent reports indicate that public transport employees constitute a group of workers at high risk of going through a traumatic event. Yet, very few scientific data on the impact of these events on this population are available. The authors present results of an epidemiological study conducted among Montreal bus drivers. A little more than a third of bus drivers have reported a traumatic event at work. Among the whole of traumatic events occurring during the course of their work, serious threats and assault constitute the majority of these events. Traumatic events are more frequent at work than in their private lives. The prevalence of PTSD for those exposed to a traumatic event at work is of 10.7% and of 21.3% for those bus drivers exposed to traumatic events in their private lives. Nine out of 100 drivers exposed to a traumatic event at work suffered a PTSD in the month preceding the study. When the authors consider the events occurring in the private lives, almost 15% of those exposed were victims of PTSD. When the two levels of expositions are reunited, 12% of those exposed presented a PTSD in the month preceding the research. PMID:8932226

  10. Two-stage urethroplasty is a better choice for proximal hypospadias with severe chordee after urethral plate transection: a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Da-Chao; Yao, Hai-Jun; Cai, Zhi-Kang; Da, Jun; Chen, Qi; Chen, Yan-Bo; Zhang, Ke; Xu, Ming-Xi; Lu, Mu-Jun; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    It is still debatable whether single- or two-stage urethroplasty is a more suitable technique for treating hypospadias with severe chordee after urethral plate transection. This retrospective study evaluated these two techniques. A total of 66 patients of proximal hypospadias with severe chordee were divided into two groups according to the techniques they underwent: 32 and 34 patients underwent single-stage (Duckett) or two-stage urethroplasty, respectively. Median ages at presentation were 7.5 years and 11.0 years in single-stage and two-stage repair groups, respectively. Median follow-ups were 28.5 months (20?60 months) and 35 months (18?60 months) in the single-stage and two-stage groups, respectively. The meatus of the neourethra was located at the top of the glans in all patients. No recurrence of chordee was found during follow-up, and all patients or parents were satisfied with the penile length and appearance. Complications were encountered in eight patients in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between the two techniques. The late complication rate of stricture was higher after the single-stage procedure (18.75% vs 0%). The complication rate after single-stage repairs was significantly lower in the prepubescent subgroup (10.52%) than in the postpubescent cohort (46.15%). These results indicate that the urethral plate transection effectively corrects severe chordee associated with proximal hypospadias during the intermediate follow-up period. Considering the higher rate of stricture after single-stage urethroplasty, two-stage urethroplasty is recommended for proximal hypospadias with severe chordee after urethral plate transection. PMID:25248656

  11. Urodynamic assessment of bladder and urethral function among men with lower urinary tract symptoms after radical prostatectomy: A comparison between men with and without urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hansol; Kim, Ki Bom; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Sang Wook; Kim, Myong; Cho, Sung Yong; Oh, Seung-June

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared bladder and urethral functions following radical prostatectomy (RP) between men with and without urinary incontinence (UI), using a large-scale database from SNU-experts-of-urodynamics-leading (SEOUL) Study Group. Materials and Methods Since July 2004, we have prospectively collected data on urodynamics from 303 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following RP at three affiliated hospitals of SEOUL Study Group. After excluding 35 patients with neurogenic abnormality, pelvic irradiation after surgery, or a history of surgery on the lower urinary tract, 268 men were evaluated. We compared the urodynamic findings between men who had LUTS with UI (postprostatectomy incontinence [PPI] group) and those who had LUTS without UI (non-PPI group). Results The mean age at an urodynamic study was 68.2 years. Overall, a reduced bladder compliance (?20 mL/cmH2O) was shown in 27.2% of patients; and 31.3% patients had idiopathic detrusor overactivity. The patients in the PPI group were older (p=0.001) at an urodynamic study and had a lower maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) (p<0.001), as compared with those in the non-PPI group. Bladder capacity and detrusor pressure during voiding were also significantly lower in the PPI group. In the logistic regression, only MUCP and maximum cystometric capacity were identified as the related factor with the presence of PPI. Conclusions In our study, significant number of patients with LUTS following RP showed a reduced bladder compliance and detrusor overactivity. PPI is associated with both impairment of the urethral closuring mechanism and bladder storage dysfunction. PMID:26682020

  12. Cell-seeded tubular acellular matrix for replacing a long circumferential urethral defect in a canine model: Is it clinically applicable?

    PubMed Central

    El-Tabey, Nasr; Shokeir, Ahmed; Barakat, Nashwa; El-Refaie, Hoda; El-Hamid, Mohamed Abd; Gabr, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of replacing a relatively long segment of the canine urethra by a tube of cell-seeded acellular collagen bladder matrix. Materials and methods The study included 14 female mongrel dogs in which a 3-cm segment of the whole urethral circumference was excised and replaced by a tube of acellular matrix seeded with autologous urothelial cells. The acellular matrix was obtained from the excised bladder of female donor dogs that were not included in the study. Autologous cells were obtained from the study dogs by open bladder biopsy, with subsequent in vitro expansion and cultivation. Urethroplasty was performed over a 16 F urethral catheter that was kept for 4 weeks. The dogs were killed humanely (one every week for 4 weeks and then one monthly for 10 months). After stent removal, retrograde urethrography was used each month in the living dogs. If retention occurred a urethrogram was taken and then the dog was killed humanely. All grafts from dogs were harvested and sent for histopathological examination. Results Exploration at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks showed progressive shrinkage in length, together with relative narrowing of the lumen. Three dogs developed retention within a week after stent removal and the other seven developed retention within 4 months. Retrograde urethrograms showed evidence of stricture and/or fistula at the graft site in all dogs. On exploration, grafts showed marked shrinkage (0.6–1.2 cm in length) with complete obliteration of their lumens. Histopathological examination showed extensive fibrosis of the matrix with no evident urothelial architecture. Conclusion Cell-seeded acellular matrix tube is insufficient to replace a 3-cm circumferential urethral defect in dogs. PMID:26558025

  13. Green synthesis of Kocuran-functionalized silver glyconanoparticles for use as antibiofilm coatings on silicone urethral catheters.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Ganesh; Sujitha, Pombala

    2014-08-15

    Microbial infections due to biofilm formation on medical implants are serious complications arising after surgery which can be prevented by using antimicrobial coatings on biomaterial surfaces. We developed a simple, rapid and green chemistry approach for synthesis of silver glyconanoparticles (AgNPs) using Kocuran, an exopolysaccharide produced by Kocuria rosea strain BS-1. Kocuran-capped AgNPs exhibited a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak around 435 nm. They were mono-dispersed, spherical with an average particle size of 12 nm. XRD and SAED studies suggested that AgNPs were crystalline in nature. AgNPs had a zeta potential of -33.9 mV and were anionic charged. They showed colloidal stability at different pH (6 to 10), temperatures (30 °C to 100 °C), in NaCl, NaNO3 and BSA solutions. Kocuran-capped AgNPs exhibited effective antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and cell death was mainly due to hydroxyl radical induction and depletion of NADH. They also inhibited the biofilm development by S. aureus and E. coli and confocal scanning laser microscopic images revealed the damage of intact cell architecture. In vitro evaluation of Kocuran-capped silver glyconanoparticles on human gingival fibroblasts demonstrated good cell proliferation as compared to commercial AgNPs suggesting that they are biocompatible and non-toxic in nature. This is a first report on Kocuran-functionalized AgNPs exhibiting potential antibacterial and antiadhesive properties for use as antimicrobial coatings against bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on silicone urethral catheters. PMID:25060660

  14. Green synthesis of Kocuran-functionalized silver glyconanoparticles for use as antibiofilm coatings on silicone urethral catheters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh Kumar, C.; Sujitha, Pombala

    2014-08-01

    Microbial infections due to biofilm formation on medical implants are serious complications arising after surgery which can be prevented by using antimicrobial coatings on biomaterial surfaces. We developed a simple, rapid and green chemistry approach for synthesis of silver glyconanoparticles (AgNPs) using Kocuran, an exopolysaccharide produced by Kocuria rosea strain BS-1. Kocuran-capped AgNPs exhibited a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak around 435 nm. They were mono-dispersed, spherical with an average particle size of 12 nm. XRD and SAED studies suggested that AgNPs were crystalline in nature. AgNPs had a zeta potential of -33.9 mV and were anionic charged. They showed colloidal stability at different pH (6 to 10), temperatures (30 °C to 100 °C), in NaCl, NaNO3 and BSA solutions. Kocuran-capped AgNPs exhibited effective antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and cell death was mainly due to hydroxyl radical induction and depletion of NADH. They also inhibited the biofilm development by S. aureus and E. coli and confocal scanning laser microscopic images revealed the damage of intact cell architecture. In vitro evaluation of Kocuran-capped silver glyconanoparticles on human gingival fibroblasts demonstrated good cell proliferation as compared to commercial AgNPs suggesting that they are biocompatible and non-toxic in nature. This is a first report on Kocuran-functionalized AgNPs exhibiting potential antibacterial and antiadhesive properties for use as antimicrobial coatings against bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on silicone urethral catheters.

  15. Pelvic organ cross-sensitization to enhance bladder and urethral pain behaviors in rats with experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, S; Kawamorita, N; Oguchi, T; Funahashi, Y; Tyagi, P; Chancellor, M B; Yoshimura, N

    2015-01-22

    Neural cross-sensitization has been postulated as a mechanism underlying overlaps of chronic pelvic pain disorders such as bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Animals with experimental colitis have been used to study the underlying mechanisms for overlapped pelvic pain symptoms, and shown to exhibit bladder overactivity evidenced by frequent voiding; however, it has not directly been evaluated whether pain sensation derived from the lower urinary tract is enhanced in colitis models. Also, the cross-sensitization between the colon and urethra has not been studied previously. In the present study, we therefore investigated pain behaviors induced by nociceptive stimuli in the lower urinary tract and the involvement of C-fiber afferent pathways using rats with colitis induced by intracolonic application of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). In TNBS-induced colitis rats at 10 days, intravesical application of resiniferatoxin (RTx) induced a significantly greater number of episodes of both licking and freezing behaviors, which were reduced by capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber afferent desensitization. Histochemical studies using fluorescent dye tracers injected into the colon, bladder or urethra showed that dichotomized afferent neurons comprised 6.9-14.5% of L1, L6 and S1 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the colon or the lower urinary tract. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) mRNA expression was significantly increased in, the bladder, urethra and S1 DRG in colitis rats. An increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was found in the colon, but not in the bladder or urethra after intracolonic TNBS treatment. These results indicate that TNBS-induced colitis increased pain sensitivity in the bladder and urethra via activation of C-fiber afferent pathways due to colon-to-bladder and colon-to-urethral cross-sensitization, suggesting the contribution of pelvic organ cross-sensitization mechanisms to overlapped pain symptoms in BPS/IC and IBS. PMID:25445197

  16. Relationships among Trait Resilience, Virtues, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, and Post-traumatic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Wenjie; Guo, Pengfei; Gan, Pei

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to examine the relationship between trait resilience and virtues in the context of trauma. A total of 537 participants who attended the preliminary investigation and completed the Life Events Checklist were screened. Of these participants, 142 suffered from personal traumatic experiences in the past year; these individuals were qualified and invited to respond to online questionnaires to assess trait resilience, virtues (i.e., Conscientiousness, Vitality, and Relationship), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and post-traumatic growth (PTG). The following questionnaires were used: Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-Revised, Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, PTSD Checklist-Specific, and Post-traumatic Growth Inventory-Chinese. Only 95 participants who manifested self-reported PTSD symptoms and PTG were involved in the current analyses. Trauma was positively and significantly correlated with PTSD in the current sample. Results indicated that trait resilience was positively associated with virtues and PTG; by contrast, PTSD scores were negatively but not significantly related to most of these factors. The three virtues contributed to PTG to a greater extent than trait resilience in non-PTSD and PTSD groups. However, trait resilience remained a significant predictor in the PTSD group even when the three virtues were controlled. The relationship between trait resilience and PTG was moderated by PTSD type (non-PTSD group vs. PTSD group). Our results further suggested that trait resilience and virtues were conceptually related but functionally different constructs. Trait resilience and virtues are positively related; thus, these factors contributed variances to PTG in the context of trauma; however, trait resilience is only manifested when virtues are controlled and when individuals are diagnosed as PTSD. Furthermore, implications and limitations of this study are discussed. PMID:25932954

  17. Health sciences librarians, patient contact, and secondary traumatic stress*

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Rachel W.; McCrillis, Aileen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) in health sciences librarians (HSLs) who have direct contact with traumatized individuals and their families. Methods: A twenty-five-item survey and the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale (STSS) were distributed via email to three Medical Library Association email discussion lists. Results: A total of fifty-five HSLs responded to the survey. Survey results indicate moderate levels of STS and variability of symptoms among participants. Conclusions: Library and employee assistance program managers should be aware of the emotional toll of patient and/or family contact for HSLs. PMID:25918488

  18. Postconcussional disorder and PTSD symptoms of military-related traumatic brain injury associated with compromised neurocircuitry.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ping-Hong; Wang, Binquan; Oakes, Terrence R; French, Louis M; Pan, Hai; Graner, John; Liu, Wei; Riedy, Gerard

    2014-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common combat injury, often through explosive blast, and produces heterogeneous brain changes due to various mechanisms of injury. It is unclear whether the vulnerability of white matter differs between blast and impact injury, and the consequences of microstructural changes on neuropsychological function are poorly understood in military TBI patients. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques were used to assess the neurocircuitry in 37 U.S. service members (29 mild, 7 moderate, 1 severe; 17 blast and 20 nonblast), who sustained a TBI while deployed, compared to 14 nondeployed, military controls. High-dimensional deformable registration of MRI diffusion tensor data was followed by fiber tracking and tract-specific analysis along with region-of-interest analysis. DTI results were examined in relation to post-concussion and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The most prominent white matter microstructural injury for both blast and nonblast patients was in the frontal fibers within the fronto-striatal (corona radiata, internal capsule) and fronto-limbic circuits (fornix, cingulum), the fronto-parieto-occipital association fibers, in brainstem fibers, and in callosal fibers. Subcortical superior-inferiorly oriented tracts were more vulnerable to blast injury than nonblast injury, while direct impact force had more detrimental effects on anterior-posteriorly oriented tracts, which tended to cause heterogeneous left and right hemispheric asymmetries of white matter connectivity. The tractography using diffusion anisotropy deficits revealed the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cerebellar-cortical (CSTCC) networks, where increased post-concussion and PTSD symptoms were associated with low fractional anisotropy in the major nodes of compromised CSTCC neurocircuitry, and the consequences on cognitive function were explored as well. PMID:24038816

  19. Expression of GABA receptor subunits in the hippocampus and thalamus after experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Drexel, Meinrad; Puhakka, Noora; Kirchmair, Elke; Hörtnagl, Heide; Pitkänen, Asla; Sperk, Günther

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and disability worldwide and often associated with post-traumatic epilepsy. We recently demonstrated that TBI induces acquired GABAA receptors channelopathy that associates with hyperexcitability in granule cell layer (GCL). We now assessed the expression of GABAA and GABAB receptor subunit mRNAs between 6 h and 6 months post-TBI in the hippocampus and thalamus. The expression of major GABAA receptor subunit mRNAs (?1, ?2, ?5, ?2, ?3, ?2 and ?) was, often bilaterally, down-regulated in the GCL and in the CA3 pyramidal cells. Instead, expression of ?4 (GCL, CA3, CA1), ?5 (CA1) and ?2 (GCL, CA3, CA1) mRNA was up-regulated after 10 d and/or 4 months. Many of these changes were reversible. In the thalamus, we found decreases in ?1, ?4, ?2, ?2 and ? mRNAs in the laterodorsal thalamus and in the area combining the posterior thalamic nuclear group, ventroposterolateral and ventroposteromedial complex at 6 h to 4 months post-TBI. Unlike in the hippocampus, thalamic subunit down-regulations were irreversible and limited to the ipsilateral side. However, contralaterally there was up-regulation of the subunits ? and ?4 6 h and 4 months after TBI, respectively. PCR array analysis suggested a mild long-lasting GABAA receptor channelopathy in the GCL and thalamus after TBI. Whereas TBI induces transient changes in the expression of GABAA receptor subunits in the hippocampus (presumably representing compensatory mechanisms), alterations of GABAA receptor subunit mRNAs in the thalamus are long-lasting and related to degeneration of receptor-containing neurons in thalamo-cortical relay nuclei. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled ‘GABAergic Signaling in Health and Disease’. PMID:25229716

  20. Surgical approaches to posterior polar cataract: a review

    PubMed Central

    Vasavada, A R; Raj, S M; Vasavada, V; Shrivastav, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of surgical methods used in the emulsification of posterior polar cataracts (PPCs) that have been devised to minimize the risk of posterior capsule rupture (PCR) and its consequences. A Pubmed and Medline search of relevant literature on PPC was done. Only articles relevant to the treatment of PPC were included. The posterior capsule in eyes with PPC are known to have an abnormal adhesion to the polar opacity or a pre-existing weakness of the capsule that predisposes the eye to PCR. To circumvent the consequences of cleaving the abnormal adhesion, a majority of the surgeons use the anterior approach through the limbus, whereas some advocate the posterior approach through the pars plana. Emulsifying the nucleus and cleaving the central opacity of the PPC off the posterior capsule without disrupting its integrity provides optimal surgical outcomes. To achieve this, various modifications have been applied by surgeons during different phases of surgery. The advantages, disadvantages, complications, and results of each method have been discussed. Phacoemulsification is the preferred technique for removing PPC. This review will provide methods to avoid and /or deal with intraocular surgical difficulties that can arise during emulsification. Employing these would result in least ocular morbidity and satisfactory visual outcomes for the patient. This is particularly relevant given the major advancements in technology and refinements in surgical techniques in phacoemulsification. PMID:22441026

  1. Surgical approaches to posterior polar cataract: a review.

    PubMed

    Vasavada, A R; Raj, S M; Vasavada, V; Shrivastav, S

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of surgical methods used in the emulsification of posterior polar cataracts (PPCs) that have been devised to minimize the risk of posterior capsule rupture (PCR) and its consequences. A Pubmed and Medline search of relevant literature on PPC was done. Only articles relevant to the treatment of PPC were included. The posterior capsule in eyes with PPC are known to have an abnormal adhesion to the polar opacity or a pre-existing weakness of the capsule that predisposes the eye to PCR. To circumvent the consequences of cleaving the abnormal adhesion, a majority of the surgeons use the anterior approach through the limbus, whereas some advocate the posterior approach through the pars plana. Emulsifying the nucleus and cleaving the central opacity of the PPC off the posterior capsule without disrupting its integrity provides optimal surgical outcomes. To achieve this, various modifications have been applied by surgeons during different phases of surgery. The advantages, disadvantages, complications, and results of each method have been discussed. Phacoemulsification is the preferred technique for removing PPC. This review will provide methods to avoid and /or deal with intraocular surgical difficulties that can arise during emulsification. Employing these would result in least ocular morbidity and satisfactory visual outcomes for the patient. This is particularly relevant given the major advancements in technology and refinements in surgical techniques in phacoemulsification. PMID:22441026

  2. Posterior sagittal approach in complicated Swenson's pull-through

    PubMed Central

    Sowande, O. A.; Adejuyigbe, O.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Swenson's pull-through is one of the standard operations for the treatment of children with Hirschsprung's disease. Complications arising from the operation are difficult to treat because of fibrosis in the pelvis. The posterior sagittal approach may be a safer alternative. Aims: The aim of this paper is to highlight our experience with the use of the posterior sagittal trans-sphincteric approach to treat unusual complications of Swenson's pull-through. Settings and Design: A retrospective study of four patients who had posterior sagittal repair of their complications of Swenson pull-through at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile Ife, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Four cases of Hirschsprung's disease that developed post-Swenson pull-through complications are presented. There were three males and one female. Their age ranged between 10 months and 15 years. The patients had rectovaginal fistula, rectourethral fistula, high trans-sphincteric fistula-in-ano and complete anastomotic disruption. Result: All the patients were successfully treated using the posterior sagittal approach. The approach was used twice in one patient without significant sequelae. The three patients were old enough to be assessed and had a Kelly score of 4-6 at follow-up. Conclusion: The posterior sagittal technique offers a safe approach to treat the complications of Swenson pull-through. PMID:20177480

  3. Flexor Digitorum Accessorius Longus: Importance of Posterior Ankle Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Jorge Pablo; del Vecchio, Jorge Javier; Golanó, Pau; Vega, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopy for the posterior region of the ankle through two portals is becoming more widespread for the treatment of a large number of conditions which used to be treated with open surgery years ago. The tendon of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) travels along an osteofibrous tunnel between the posterolateral and posteromedial tubercles of the talus. Chronic inflammation of this tendon may lead to painful stenosing tenosynovitis. The aim of this report is to describe two cases depicting an accessory tendon which is an anatomical variation of the flexor hallucis longus in patients with posterior friction syndrome due to posterior ankle impingement and associated with a posteromedial osteochondral lesion of the talus. The anatomical variation (FDAL) described was a finding during an endoscopy of the posterior region of the ankle, and we have spared it by sectioning the superior flexor retinaculum only. The accessory flexor digitorum longus is an anatomical variation and should be taken into account when performing an arthroscopy of the posterior region of the ankle. We recommend this treatment on this type of injury although we admit this does not make a definite conclusion. PMID:26060592

  4. Posterior myocardial infarction: the dark side of the moon.

    PubMed

    van Gorselen, E O F; Verheugt, F W A; Meursing, B T J; Oude Ophuis, A J M

    2007-01-01

    The clinical presentation of posterior myocardial infarction is not always easy, not even for the cardiologist. In this article a 70-year-old woman who presented with chest pain is described. The electrocardiogram at presentation showed marked ST-segment depression in leads V(1) to V(5) and slight ST-segment depression in leads I and aVL. There was ST-segment elevation in the posterior leads V(7) to V(9). Elevation of specific cardiac enzymes confirmed the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. True posterior myocardial infarction is difficult to recognise because the leads of the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram are not a direct representation of the area involved. Only with indirect changes in the precordial leads as such the diagnosis can be suspected. This review will highlight the electrocardiographic fine-tuned diagnosis of posterior myocardial infarction by using the posterior leads V(7) to V(9) leading to easier and faster recognition with consequences for treatment and improved prognosis. (Neth Heart J 2007;15:16-21.). PMID:17612703

  5. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms as Predictors of Suicide Behavior Among Veterans with and without a History of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) 

    E-print Network

    Villarreal, Edgar Javier

    2012-10-19

    Prior research has established that a history of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases the risk of suicide behavior. Few studies have examined the role of specific PTSD symptom clusters and suicide...

  6. Errors in imaging of traumatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Mariano; Iaselli, Francesco; Sica, Giacomo; Feragalli, Beatrice; Nicola, Refky

    2015-10-01

    The advent of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) has drastically improved the outcomes of patients with multiple traumatic injuries. However, there are still diagnostic challenges to be considered. A missed or the delay of a diagnosis in trauma patients can sometimes be related to perception or other non-visual cues, while other errors are due to poor technique or poor image quality. In order to avoid any serious complications, it is important for the practicing radiologist to be cognizant of some of the most common types of errors. The objective of this article is to review the various types of errors in the evaluation of patients with multiple trauma injuries or polytrauma with MDCT. PMID:26099475

  7. Traumatic Forefoot Reconstructions With Free Perforator Flaps.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue-Liang; He, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Yi; Lv, Qian; Fan, Xin-Yv; Xu, Yong-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The forefoot is critical to normal walking; thus, any reconstruction of forefoot defects, including the soft tissues, must be carefully done. The free perforator flap, with its physiologic circulation, lower donor site morbidity, and minimal thickness is the most popular technique in plastic and microsurgery, and is theoretically the most suitable for such forefoot reconstruction. However, these flaps are generally recognized as more difficult and time-consuming to create than other flaps. In 41 patients with traumatic forefoot defects, we reconstructed the forefoot integument using 5 types of free perforator flaps. The overall functional and cosmetic outcomes were excellent. Three flaps required repeat exploration; one survived. The most common complications were insufficient perfusion and the need for second debulking. The key to our success was thoroughly debriding devitalized bone and soft tissue before attaching the flap. Forefoot reconstruction with a free perforator flap provides better function, better cosmesis, better weightbearing, and better gait than the other flaps we have used. PMID:26190781

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury and Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Viola-Saltzman, Mari; Watson, Nathaniel F.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Sleep disturbance is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI), affecting 30–70% of individuals, many occurring after mild injuries. Insomnia, fatigue and sleepiness are the most frequent post-TBI sleep complaints with narcolepsy (with or without cataplexy), sleep apnea (obstructive and/or central), periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias occurring less commonly. In addition, depression, anxiety and pain are common TBI co-morbidities with substantial influence on sleep quality. Two types of TBI negatively impact sleep: contact injuries causing focal brain damage and acceleration/deceleration injuries causing more generalized brain damage. Diagnosis of sleep disorders after TBI may involve polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing and/or actigraphy. Treatment is disorder specific and may include the use of medications, continuous positive airway pressure (or similar device) and/or behavioral modifications. Unfortunately, treatment of sleep disorders associated with TBI often does not improve sleepiness or neuropsychological function. PMID:23099139

  9. [A case of traumatic intrapulmonary foreign body].

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, A; Hanaoka, S; Yamamoto, Y; Nakamura, T; Kitamura, F; Miyamoto, N

    1994-03-01

    A case of 60-year-old man with traumatic intrapulmonary foreign body that was not inhaled, but through the chest wall was described. In July 1992 a grass cutter was working in a forestry with a circular saw when he was struck into the right lung. He had a sharp pain in the anterior chest. No abnormality was seen in front of his neck and the chest wall. The next month he developed a cough with bloody sputum. The chest X-ray showed a metallic foreign body at the right side of manubrium. Computed tomogram showed a steel wire fragment lodging beside the innominate artery and vein and in the right lung. Median sternotomy was performed and a foreign body was successfully removed with partial resection of upper lobe. PMID:8114397

  10. An Unusual Traumatic Lamellar Laceration of Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Karkhanis, Amar; Shitole, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    Lamellar laceration of the cornea may occur following ocular trauma. The management of lamellar laceration will depend on whether the lacerated corneal flaps are displaced or undisplaced. We hereby report an unusual case of large traumatic lamellar corneal laceration in right eye in a 14-year-old girl presenting with diminution of vision. Slit lamp biomicroscopic examination showed partial thickness corneal flap of 11.5mm X 7mm from 11o’clock to 6 o’clock position with 3 mm superonasal displacement associated with stromal folds and shifting of inferior limbus and conjunctiva. Surgery was the appropriate option which included visualization of inferior limbus by incising conjunctiva, repositioning of displaced corneal flap and securing it with sutures. Immediate examination and proper surgical management of lamellar corneal injuries results in good visual outcome and prevention of complications like fibrous ingrowth and infection. PMID:26266144

  11. NONINVASIVE BRAIN STIMULATION IN TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Demirtas-Tatlidede, Asli; Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Andrew M.; Bernabeu, Montserrat; Tormos, Jose M.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Brain stimulation techniques have evolved in the last few decades with more novel methods capable of painless, noninvasive brain stimulation. While the number of clinical trials employing noninvasive brain stimulation continues to increase in a variety of medication-resistant neurological and psychiatric diseases, studies evaluating their diagnostic and therapeutic potential in traumatic brain injury (TBI) are largely lacking. This review introduces different techniques of noninvasive brain stimulation, which may find potential use in TBI. We cover transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and transcranial doppler sonography (TCD) techniques. We provide a brief overview of studies to date, discuss possible mechanisms of action, and raise a number of considerations when thinking about translating these methods to clinical use. PMID:21691215

  12. Animal models of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ye; Mahmood, Asim; Chopp, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in both civilian life and the battlefield worldwide. Survivors of TBI frequently experience long-term disabling changes in cognition, sensorimotor function and personality. Over the past three decades, animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of human TBI, to better understand the underlying pathophysiology and to explore potential treatments. Nevertheless, promising neuroprotective drugs, which were identified to be effective in animal TBI models, have all failed in phase II or phase III clinical trials. This failure in clinical translation of preclinical studies highlights a compelling need to revisit the current status of animal models of TBI and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23329160

  13. Attention impairment following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Stierwalt, Julie A G; Murray, Laura L

    2002-05-01

    The incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is approximately 2,000,000 cases annually, and approximately 5.3 million Americans are currently living with some degree of cognitive-linguistic impairment secondary to TBI. One frequent aspect of that impairment is disordered attention. Attention is a complex system comprised of several component skills, each of which may be compromised by TBI and thus must be carefully assessed to design appropriate treatment protocols. Attention treatments for patients with TBI frequently involve implementing environmental controls and designing individualized therapy tasks that vary in terms of information processing demands. This article provides a summary of those attention impairments frequently associated with TBI and outlines assessment and treatment guidelines for clinicians serving TBI patients with attention problems. PMID:11951173

  14. Diagnosing pseudobulbar affect in traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, William; Hammond, Flora M; Malec, James F

    2014-01-01

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is defined by episodes of involuntary crying and/or laughing as a result of brain injury or other neurological disease. Epidemiology studies show that 5.3%–48.2% of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may have symptoms consistent with (or suggestive of) PBA. Yet it is a difficult and often overlooked condition in individuals with TBI, and is easily confused with depression or other mood disorders. As a result, it may be undertreated and persist for longer than it should. This review presents the signs and symptoms of PBA in patients with existing TBI and outlines how to distinguish PBA from other similar conditions. It also compares and contrasts the different diagnostic criteria found in the literature and briefly mentions appropriate treatments. This review follows a composite case with respect to the clinical course and treatment for PBA and presents typical challenges posed to a provider when diagnosing PBA. PMID:25336956

  15. Mortality in late post-traumatic seizures.

    PubMed

    Englander, Jeffrey; Bushnik, Tamara; Wright, Jerry M; Jamison, Laura; Duong, Thao T

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the mortality rates in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who were classified as having experienced late post-traumatic seizures (LPTS) in the first 2 years post-TBI compared to those who were seizure-free (non-LPTS). Participants were a pooled sample (n = 508) from two studies which enrolled individuals with TBI who were injured between March 31, 1992 and December 20, 1999. The first sample was made up of individuals enrolled in a study of risk factors for LPTS development; the second sample was composed of individuals enrolled in the TBI National Database from a single rehabilitation center. Seventy-one (14%) participants had LPTS, of which 27% had died at 8-15 years post-injury, as compared to 10% of non-LPTS participants. Individuals with LPTS died at a younger age (54.1 versus 67.7 years; p = 0.01), but there were no statistically significant differences in either time from date of injury to death or highest GCS score in the first 24 h. Causes of death were variable and not specifically related to epilepsy. Of those with LPTS, risk factors for death include advanced age at time of injury and presence of subdural hematoma. The higher mortality rate and death at younger age with variable causes in TBI individuals with LPTS warrant close medical evaluation and monitoring of these individuals, particularly accessibility and compliance with ongoing general medical care, and education of primary care colleagues of the unique needs of this at-risk population. PMID:19508123

  16. The Effects of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Combined Mild Traumatic Brain Injury/Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder on Returning Veterans.

    PubMed

    Combs, Hannah L; Berry, David T R; Pape, Theresa; Babcock-Parziale, Judith; Smith, Bridget; Schleenbaker, Randal; Shandera-Ochsner, Anne; Harp, Jordan P; High, Walter M

    2015-07-01

    United States veterans of the Iraqi (Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF]) and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]) conflicts have frequently returned from deployment after sustaining mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and enduring stressful events resulting in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A large number of returning service members have been diagnosed with both a history of mTBI and current PTSD. Substantial literature exists on the neuropsychological factors associated with mTBI and PTSD occurring separately; far less research has explored the combined effects of PTSD and mTBI. The current study employed neuropsychological and psychological measures in a sample of 251 OIF/OEF veterans to determine whether participants with a history of mTBI and current PTSD (mTBI+PTSD) have poorer cognitive and psychological outcomes than participants with mTBI only (mTBI-o), PTSD only (PTSD-o), or veteran controls (VC), when groups are comparable on intelligence quotient, education, and age. The mTBI+PTSD group performed more poorly than VC, mTBI-o, and PTSD-o groups on several neuropsychological measures. Effect size comparisons suggest small deleterious effects for mTBI-o on measures of processing speed and visual attention and small effects for PTSD-o on measures of verbal memory, with moderate effects for mTBI+PTSD on the same variables. Additionally, the mTBI+PTSD group was significantly more psychologically distressed than the PTSD-o group, and PTSD-o group was more distressed than VC and mTBI-o groups. These findings suggest that veterans with mTBI+PTSD perform significantly lower on neuropsychological and psychiatric measures than veterans with mTBI-o or PTSD-o. The results also raise the possibility of mild but persisting cognitive changes following mTBI sustained during deployment. PMID:25350012

  17. Traumatic chylothorax: A case report and review.

    PubMed

    Sendama, Wezi; Shipley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Chylothorax is a rare entity characterised by leakage of lymphatic fluid into the pleural cavity from the thoracic duct. We present a case of traumatic chylothorax following a traumatic fracture of the L1 vertebra. An 84-year-old lady presented to the emergency department after being found collapsed at home. She gave a preceding history of one day of diarrhoea. Chest X-ray showed a rightsided effusion. Drainage of the effusion yielded a cloudy, off-white fluid that settled in layers in the drainage container. Pleural fluid examination revealed a lymphocyte-rich transudate with high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. CT imaging of the chest, abdomen and pelvis revealed an acute left sided pulmonary embolus, and a multisegment burst fracture of the L1 vertebra. The patient was anticoagulated for the pulmonary embolus. Conservative fracture management was advised. Chylous drainage of 1l/24hr was observed. Due to ongoing chylous leak the patient was commenced on a medium-chain fatty acid diet and octreotide. Whilst chylous drainage ceased the patient died from infected pressure sores, malnutrition and acute kidney injury. Spinal trauma can rarely cause disruption of the thoracic duct and chylothorax. Diagnosis of chylothorax hinges on the typically high triglyceride content of chylous fluid and the detection of chylomicrons where the triglyceride concentration is equivocal. Management options for persistently draining chylothorax are varied and range from non-invasive medical measures to radiological and surgical interventions (although the patient in the case we present was an unsuitable candidate for surgery). We discuss pertinent diagnostic testing and put forward possible medical management strategies for chylothorax. PMID:26029578

  18. Post-Traumatic Torticollis Due to Odontoid Fracture in a Patient With Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Shotaro; Inoue, Shinichi; Tachibana, Toshiya; Maruo, Keishi; Arizumi, Fumihiro; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2015-09-01

    Descriptive case report.To report a rare case of post-traumatic torticollis by odontoid fracture in a patient with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).Cervical fractures in DISH can result from minor trauma, and a delay in presentation often prevents their timely diagnosis. Cervical fractures in patients with spinal DISH usually occur in extension injuries, and almost always occur in the lower cervical spine. Reports of odontoid fractures with torticollis in patients with spinal DISH are rare.A 73-year-old man with DISH presented with severe neck pain and a cervical deformity presenting as torticollis without neurological deficits. He gave a history of a fall while riding a bicycle at a low speed 3 months ago. X-ray showed torticollis in the right side, and computed tomography (CT) showed a type-II odontoid fracture and subluxation at the C1-2 level.We performed a staged treatment because this patient had severe neck pain associated with a chronic course. Initially, the fracture dislocation was reduced under general anesthesia and was stabilized with a halo vest. We then performed posterior occipitocervical in situ fusion after confirming the correction of the cervical deformity by CT. The patient showed significant amelioration of neck symptoms postoperatively, and bony fusion was achieved 1 year after surgery.For post-traumatic torticollis due to an odontoid fracture, plain CT is useful for diagnosis and posterior occipitocervical in situ fusion following correction and immobilization with a halo vest is a safe and an effective treatment. PMID:26356707

  19. Quantification of Posterior Globe Flattening: Methodology Development and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkins, Sarah B.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Berggren, Michael D.; Ebert, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity exposure affects visual acuity in a subset of astronauts and mechanisms may include structural changes in the posterior globe and orbit. Particularly, posterior globe flattening has been implicated in the eyes of several astronauts. This phenomenon is known to affect some terrestrial patient populations and has been shown to be associated with intracranial hypertension. It is commonly assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) or B-mode Ultrasound (US), without consistent objective criteria. NASA uses a semiquantitative scale of 0-3 as part of eye/orbit MRI and US analysis for occupational monitoring purposes. The goal of this study was ot initiate development of an objective quantification methodology to monitor small changes in posterior globe flattening.

  20. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Ozyurek, Hamit; Oguz, Gulben; Ozen, Seza; Akyuz, Canan; Karli Oguz, Kader; Anlar, Banu; Aysun, Sabiha

    2005-12-01

    Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome is characterized clinically by headache, abnormalities of mental status and visual perception, and seizures. Despite its diverse causes, common precipitating factors are defined as abrupt elevations of blood pressure, renal decompensation, fluid retention, and immunosuppressive therapy. We report three children with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome presenting with generalized seizures and headache. The causes of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome were considered to be acute hypertension and immunosuppressive therapy in case 1 with systemic lupus erythematosus, chemotherapy (vincristine and/or actinomycin-D) and hyponatremia in case 2, and acute hypertension in case 3, admitted with a familial Mediterranean fever attack. In light of these cases, we review the literature for the etiology, clinical and laboratory findings, and pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease. PMID:16417849

  1. Endothelin: A novel peptide in the posterior pituitary system

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshizawa, Toshihiro; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Shinmi, Osamu; Kimura, Sadao; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Masaki, Tomoh; Uchiyama, Yasuo ); Giaid, A.; Gibson, S.J.; Polak, J.M. )

    1990-01-26

    Endothelin (ET), originally characterized as a 21-residue vasoconstrictor peptide from endothelial cells, is present in the porcine spinal cord and may act as a neuropeptide. Endothelin-like immunoreactivity has now been demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclear neurons and their terminals in the posterior pituitary of the pig and the rat. The presence of ET in the porcine hypothalamus was confirmed by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay. Moreover, in situ hybridization demonstrated ET messenger RNA in porcine paraventricular nuclear neurons. Endothelin-like immunoreactive products in the posterior pituitary of the rat were depleted by water deprivation, suggesting a release of ET under physiological conditions. These findings indicate that ET is synthesized in the posterior pituitary system and may be involved in neurosecretory functions.

  2. Quantification of Posterior Globe Flattening: Methodology Development and Validationc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkins, S. B.; Garcia, K. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.; Hamilton, D. R.; Berggren, M. D.; Antonsen, E.; Ebert, D.

    2011-01-01

    Microgravity exposure affects visual acuity in a subset of astronauts, and mechanisms may include structural changes in the posterior globe and orbit. Particularly, posterior globe flattening has been implicated in several astronauts. This phenomenon is known to affect some terrestrial patient populations, and has been shown to be associated with intracranial hypertension. It is commonly assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), or B-mode ultrasound (US), without consistent objective criteria. NASA uses a semi-quantitative scale of 0-3 as part of eye/orbit MRI and US analysis for occupational monitoring purposes. The goal of this study was to initiate development of an objective quantification methodology for posterior globe flattening.

  3. Even Mild Traumatic Brain Injury May Cause Brain Damage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE UNTIL 4 PM ET, July 16, 2014 Even Mild Traumatic Brain Injury May Cause ... according to a study published in the July 16, 2014, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal ...

  4. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-01-01

    Summary Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8–12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin. PMID:26648617

  5. The use of humor to cope with secondary traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Craun, Sarah W; Bourke, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    Professionals in the area of sexual violence often use humor, both lighthearted and gallows humor, in an attempt to counteract the effects of the work on their well-being. There is little research, however, on whether the use of humor is effective in reducing symptoms of secondary traumatic stress. In the current study, more than 500 Internet Crimes Against Children task force personnel were surveyed about their level of secondary traumatic stress and the coping techniques utilized to mitigate work-related stressors. The use of gallows and light-hearted humor were independently related to secondary traumatic stress scores, even controlling for other coping strategies. The two types of humor were not related to secondary traumatic stress in the same direction, nor at the same magnitude. PMID:25085244

  6. Traumatic loss and major disasters: strengthening family and community resilience.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Froma

    2007-06-01

    This article presents the core principles and value of a family and community resilience-oriented approach to recovery from traumatic loss when catastrophic events occur. In contrast to individually based, symptom-focused approaches to trauma recovery, this multisystemic practice approach contextualizes the distress in the traumatic experience and taps strengths and resources in relational networks to foster healing and posttraumatic growth. The intertwining of trauma and traumatic losses is discussed. Key family and social processes in risk and resilience in traumatic loss situations are outlined. Case illustrations, model programs, and intervention guidelines are described in situations of community violence and major disasters to suggest ways to foster family and community resilience. PMID:17593886

  7. Cephalo-traumatic secretion transfer in a hermaphrodite sea slug

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Rolanda; Werminghausen, Johanna; Anthes, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Mating rituals in the animal kingdom are often quite extraordinary, in particular when mating is traumatic. We here describe the exceptional traumatic mating behaviour of the currently undescribed sea slug, Siphopteron sp. 1. Similar to four congeners, Siphopteron sp. 1 routinely exhibits traumatic secretion transfer through a stylet-like penis appendage. Contrary to previous descriptions, however, prostate secretions are injected centrally into the partner's forehead, representing, to our knowledge, the first-known instance of ‘cephalo-traumatic secretion transfer’. We further provide a comparative quantification of within- and between-species variation in injection sites and derive a potential neurophysiological function of prostate secretions that are injected close to, or into, the central nervous system. PMID:24225459

  8. Tips for Survivors of a Traumatic Event: Managing Your Stress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Survivors of a Traumatic Event Managing Your Stress Know When to Get Help Sometimes things become ... anger, or desires revenge; or shows signs of stress (listed on this page) for several days or ...

  9. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose traumatic brain injury (TBI)? Skip sharing ... links Share this: Page Content To diagnose TBI, health care providers may use one or more tests that ...

  10. What Can I Do to Help Prevent Traumatic Brain Injury?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Saving Lives & Protecting People Home & Recreational Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Traumatic Brain Injury Injury Response Violence Prevention ... time you drive or ride in a motor vehicle. Never driving while under the influence of alcohol ...

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of All Topics All Traumatic Brain Injury - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  12. MRI Helps Detect Brain Bleeding Soon After Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Article URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154640.html MRI Helps Detect Brain Bleeding Soon After Traumatic Brain Injury Military study ...

  13. Post-Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistula of the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Koo; Hur, Jin Woo; Lee, Jong Won

    2015-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistula of the scalp is relatively rare disease. We report a traumatic arteriovenous fistula of the scalp treated with complete surgical excision and review the literature with regard to etiology, pathogenesis, and management of these unusual lesions. PMID:26539278

  14. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8-12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin. PMID:26648617

  15. Multidisciplinary approach on rehabilitation of primary teeth traumatism repercussion on the permanent successor: 6-year follow-up case report.

    PubMed

    Mello-Moura, A C V; Bonini, G A V C; Suga, S S; Navarro, R S; Wanderley, M T

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic lesions in primary teeth are frequent in pediatric patients and can cause problems both to the deciduous tooth and permanent successor. The impact strength on deciduous tooth can reach the growing permanent tooth, affecting its morphology, structure and position, or even hampering its proper development. This report describes an aesthetic-functional rehabilitation process in an 8 year 10 month old boy during a multidisciplinary treatment held at the Clinical Center of Dental Trauma in Primary Teeth of the Pediatric Dentistry of Dental College of University of São Paulo, Brazil. The patient presented bilateral posterior cross bite and the permanent left upper central incisor with ectopic eruption and enamel hypoplasy, preceded by avulsion of element 61, occurred when the patient was 1.6 years old. After diagnosis and treatment planning, a quick expansion of jaws was recommended with Hass-type rapid expander and orthodontic leveling with fixed braces. Due to the ectopic eruption, the gingival contour had been altered and hypertrophia was found, compromising aesthetics and avoiding local hygienic procedures. Gingivoplasty was carried out with high-intensity Diode Laser, followed by aesthetic restoration with compound resin. It was concluded that after deciduous teeth traumatism it is important that the patient undergoes clinic and radiographic assistance until the permanent teeth erupt so that an adequate multidisciplinary treatment can be offered to the patient. PMID:19736508

  16. A biomechanical comparison of repair techniques in posterior type II superior labral anterior and posterior (SLAP) lesions.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Chul; Ahn, Jin Hwan; Lee, Sang Hak; Lim, Hong Chul; Choi, Kui Won; Bae, Tae Soo; Lee, Chang Yang

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the 3 different fixation methods of posterior type superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) II lesion. Fifteen cadavers were randomly divided into 3 groups to compare the initial strength of 3 different fixation methods in posterior type II SLAP lesions. Group I used 1 anchor for 1-point fixation with a conventional simple suture; group II used 1 anchor passing both limbs through the posterior-superior labrum in a mattress fashion; and group III used 2 anchors for 2-point fixation with conventional simple sutures. Repair failure (2 mm permanent displacement of repaired site) and ultimate failure were measured. The mean load to (clinical) failure was 156 +/- 22 N in group I, 117 +/- 33 N in group II, and 161 +/- 44 N in group III. The mean load to ultimate failure was 198 +/- 6 N in group I, 189 +/- 23 N in group II, and 179 +/- 22 N in group III. The specimen stiffness was equivalent among groups. In mode of failure, clinical failure (more than 2 mm separations) first occurred between the markers on the biceps tendon just above (A) and below (B) compared to other markers, and ultimate failure occurred at the labral-implant interface. A single simple suture anchor repair in posterior type II SLAP seems sufficient to withstand the initial load without clinical failure. A mattress suture, although it anchors the biceps root, seems to be inferior than simple suture technique. PMID:18069010

  17. Morphologic study of posterior articular depression in Schatzker IV fractures.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qilin; Hu, Chengfang; Xu, Yafeng; Wang, Dan; Luo, Congfeng

    2015-02-01

    The Schatzker classification of tibial plateau fractures is widely accepted. Type IV fractures are medial tibial plateau fractures that are either split off as a wedge fragment or depressed and comminuted. Posterior articular surface depression in Schatzker type IV tibial plateau fractures can be seen as a unique variant that increases the difficulty of reduction of the articular surface. Its morphologic characteristics have not been fully studied, and the incidence is sometimes underestimated. The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphologic characteristics of posterior articular depression in Schatzker type IV fractures based on computed tomography measurements. From January 2009 to December 2011, the medical records, including digital radiologic data, of all patients treated for tibial plateau fracture at the authors' institution were retrospectively analyzed. Articular surface depression deeper than 5 mm was the criterion for study inclusion. The depression depth, precise location of the articular depression center, surface area percentage, and distance of the fracture gap to the depression center were calculated. One hundred fifteen cases of Schatzker type IV fracture were retrieved, and a total of 47.83% (55 of 115) cases had posterior articular surface depression. The average depth of the depressed articular surface was 12.41 mm, the surface area percentage was 20.15% of the entire tibial plateau, and the gap distance from the medial direction was 41.40 mm, 2.8 times longer than that from the posterior direction, which was 14.91 mm. Posterior articular surface depression occurs in nearly half of Schatzker type IV fractures, and the posterior approach provides more direct access to the depression than the medial approach. PMID:25665117

  18. INTRAOCULAR LENS IMPLANTATION IN PEDIATRIC EYES WITH POSTERIOR LENTIGLOBUS

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. Edward; Trivedi, Rupal H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To report the outcome of intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in pediatric eyes with posterior lentiglobus. Methods Retrospective chart review of pediatric cataract surgery cases with primary IOL implantation. Results Of 553 eyes that received IOL implantation by the lead author, 364 eyes were identified as having been implanted with an IOL at the time of surgery for a nontraumatic cataract. Nineteen (5.2%) of 364 eyes were diagnosed with posterior lentiglobus. The average age at surgery was 5.8 ± 3.8 years (range, 0.6 to 13.9) years. All eyes had monocular cataract. Gender and ethnic distribution were as follows: male-female ratio, 12:7, and African American–Caucasian ratio, 4:15. A preexisting posterior capsule tear was noted at surgery in eight eyes, six of which presented with leukocoria from white cataracts. Site of IOL implantation was as follows: in-the-bag in 14 and sulcus in five, with optic capture into the anterior and posterior capsulotomy in four of those five. The average postoperative follow-up was 3.7 ± 3.0 years. Median postoperative visual acuity was 20/30, and postoperative strabismus was noted in five eyes. Secondary surgery was required in one eye for visual axis opacification and one eye for lysis of synechiae (diagnosed with postoperative spike in intraocular pressure). No other intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed. Conclusion Posterior lentiglobus causes a progressive unilateral cataract. Spontaneous rupture can result in leukocoria from a total white cataract. IOL implantation with posterior lentiglobus provided a satisfactory outcome in children. PMID:17471338

  19. Traumatic aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery: case report.

    PubMed

    Fox, J T; Cordts, P R; Gwinn, B C

    1994-04-01

    Traumatic aneurysms of the temporal artery are uncommon, with less than 200 cases reported in the literature. A case resulting from a head injury from playing a popular new survival game known as "paintball" is presented here. A general review of the literature on traumatic temporal artery aneurysms is provided, as well as information on this new form of recreation and safety recommendations for "paintball" players. PMID:8158720

  20. Management of posterior reversible syndrome in preeclamptic women.

    PubMed

    Poma, S; Delmonte, M P; Gigliuto, C; Imberti, R; Delmonte, M; Arossa, A; Iotti, G A

    2014-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurological syndrome associated with a number of conditions including preeclampsia. It is characterized by seizures, alteration of consciousness, visual disturbances, and symmetric white matter abnormalities, typically in the posterior parietooccipital regions of the cerebral hemispheres, at computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRI). We report three new cases of PRES in preeclamptic patients and describe the management of these patients. We present a brief review of other cases in the literature, with particular attention to the anesthetic management. PMID:25506009