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1

‘Putting Life in Years’ (PLINY) telephone friendship groups research study: pilot randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Loneliness in older people is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We undertook a parallel-group randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone befriending for the maintenance of HRQoL in older people. An internal pilot tested the feasibility of the trial and intervention. Methods Participants aged >74 years, with good cognitive function, living independently in one UK city were recruited through general practices and other sources, then randomised to: (1) 6 weeks of short one-to-one telephone calls, followed by 12 weeks of group telephone calls with up to six participants, led by a trained volunteer facilitator; or (2) a control group. The main trial required the recruitment of 248 participants in a 1-year accrual window, of whom 124 were to receive telephone befriending. The pilot specified three success criteria which had to be met in order to progress the main trial to completion: recruitment of 68 participants in 95 days; retention of 80% participants at 6 months; successful delivery of telephone befriending by local franchise of national charity. The primary clinical outcome was the Short Form (36) Health Instrument (SF-36) Mental Health (MH) dimension score collected by telephone 6 months following randomisation. Results We informed 9,579 older people about the study. Seventy consenting participants were randomised to the pilot in 95 days, with 56 (80%) providing valid primary outcome data (26 intervention, 30 control). Twenty-four participants randomly allocated to the research arm actually received telephone befriending due to poor recruitment and retention of volunteer facilitators. The trial was closed early as a result. The mean 6-month SF-36 MH scores were 78 (SD 18) and 71 (SD 21) for the intervention and control groups, respectively (mean difference, 7; 95% CI, -3 to 16). Conclusions Recruitment and retention of participants to a definitive trial with a recruitment window of 1 year is feasible. For the voluntary sector to recruit sufficient volunteers to match demand for telephone befriending created by trial recruitment would require the study to be run in more than one major population centre, and/or involve dedicated management of volunteers. Trial registration ISRCTN28645428. PMID:24758530

2014-01-01

2

Disappointment and adherence among parents of newborns allocated to the control group: a qualitative study of a randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background When a child participates in a clinical trial, informed consent has to be given by the parents. Parental motives for participation are complex, but the hope of getting a new and better treatment for the child is important. We wondered how parents react when their child is allocated to the control group of a randomized controlled trial, and how it will affect their future engagement in the trial. Methods We included parents of newborns randomized to the control arm in the Danish Calmette study at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen. The Calmette study is a randomized clinical trial investigating the non-specific effects of early BCG-vaccine to healthy neonates. Randomization is performed immediately after birth and parents are not blinded to the allocation. We set up a semi-structured focus group with six parents from four families. Afterwards we telephone-interviewed another 19 mothers to achieve saturation. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes across the data sets. Results The parents reported good understanding of the randomization process. Their most common reaction to allocation was disappointment, though relief was also seen. A model of reactions to being allocated to the control group was developed based on the participants’ different positions along two continuities from ‘Our participation in trial is not important’ to ‘Our participation in trial is important’, and ‘Vaccine not important to us’ to ‘Vaccine important to us’. Four very disappointed families had thought of getting the vaccine elsewhere, and one had actually had their child vaccinated. All parents involved in the focus group and the telephone interviews wanted to participate in the follow-ups planned for the Calmette study. Conclusions This study identified an almost universal experience of disappointment among parents of newborns who were randomized to the control group, but also a broad expression of understanding and accepting the idea of randomization. The trial staff might use the model of reactions in understanding the parents’ disappointment and in this way support their motives for participation. A generalized version might be applicable across randomized controlled trials at large. Trial registration The Calmette study is registered in EudraCT (https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/) with trial number 2010-021979-85. PMID:24731249

2014-01-01

3

Remote clinic/patient monitoring for multicenter trials. Optic Neuritis Study Group.  

PubMed

Clinic monitoring is essential for the quality control of multicenter clinical trials. In studies of eye diseases, certification of visual function testers is integral to such monitoring. Routine site visits, while useful for evaluating clinic performance and certifying visual function testers, are expensive and not suitable for every study. As part of the Longitudinal Optic Neuritis Study (LONS), a follow-up study of the patients entered into the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial (ONTT), we established a central system for clinic monitoring and visual function tester certification in lieu of performing site visits. We also established a centralized and well-defined system for maintaining patient contact in an attempt to enhance follow-up visit compliance. Both have been used over the first three years of the LONS. Coordinators at two of the participating clinical centers were selected to serve as regional coordinators; each was responsible for overseeing seven or eight clinics and 200 patients. Annually by phone these coordinators perform certification of each technician's visual function testing. Clinic monitoring is performed by monthly phone calls. Conference calls involving each clinic's personnel, the regional coordinator, and Data Coordinating Center personnel are held one or two times per year. Patient phone contact at four-month intervals between annual patient exams is done to evaluate visual and general health status, to review study information, and to coordinate and encourage annual protocol exams at the respective centers. This system has helped achieve a visit completion rate of over 90% for active study patients. Patient phone contact by the regional coordinators has been well received. Telephone certification of visual function technicians by the regional coordinators appears to be as effective as on-site certification. Clinic performance appears to be continuing at the same high level as during the period of annual site visits. Although site visits are valuable for clinical trials, if routine site visits are not feasible the methods we have implemented for remote monitoring may be useful. PMID:8932973

Anderson, M M; Boly, L D; Beck, R W

1996-10-01

4

Utilizing Focus Groups with Potential Participants and Their Parents: An Approach to Inform Study Design in a Large Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background In the recent literature, there has been some evidence that exposure of children to anesthetic procedures during the first two years of life may impair cognitive function and learning in later life. We planned a clinical study to quantify this risk, a study involving testing 1,000 children for neurodevelopmental deficits. As a part of this planning, we conducted focus groups involving potential participants and their parents to elicit information regarding three issues: communications with the community and potential participants, recruitment and consent processes, and the return of neurodevelopmental testing results. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with the parents of potential participants and one focus group was conducted with an 18-19 year old group; each group consisted of 6-10 participants. The moderated discussions had questions about recruitment, consenting issues, and expectations from the study about return of both overall trial findings and individual research test results. Results The focus group data gave us an insight on potential participants’ views on recruitment, consenting, communications about the study, and expectations about return of both overall trial findings and individual research test results. The concerns expressed were largely addressable. In addition, the concern we had about some parents enrolling their children in the study solely for the sake of getting their child's cognitive function results was dispelled. Conclusions We found that the individuals participating in our focus groups were generally enthusiastic about the large clinical study and could see the value in answering the study question. The data from the focus groups were used to inform changes to the recruitment and consent process. Focus group input was also instrumental in affirming the study design regarding return of results. Our experience suggests that the approach we used may serve as a model for other investigators to help inform the various elements of clinical study design, in particular the recruitment and consenting processes and expectations of potential participants regarding the return of individual research findings. PMID:24955380

Kadimpati, Sandeep; McCormick, Jennifer B; Chiu, Yichen; Parker, Ashley B.; Iftikhar, Aliya Z.; Flick, Randall P.; Warner, David O.

2014-01-01

5

International Prostate Screening Trials Evaluation Group (IPSTEG)  

Cancer.gov

Key Programs International Prostate Screening Trials Evaluation Group (IPSTEG) Background Information The International Prostate Screening Trial Evaluation Group (IPSTEG) is a collaboration between the researchers in Europe and North America conducting

6

Dialysis patients treated with Epoetin alfa show improved anemia symptoms: A new analysis of the Canadian Erythropoietin Study Group trial.  

PubMed

The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) claims in the current Epoetin alfa label are based on the reanalyses of the exercise and physical function data from the Canadian Erythropoietin Study Group trial. The reanalysis was done to comply with the Food and Drug Administration's requirement of using statistical methods that are currently standard in evaluating clinical trial data. Presented here are HRQOL results associated with anemia. The Canadian Erythropoietin Study Group trial was a multicenter, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the effects of Epoetin alfa on HRQOL in anemic hemodialysis patients. A total of 118 patients who were 18-75 years old, on hemodialysis for >3 months, who had a hemoglobin <9.0 g/dL, and did not have coronary artery disease or diabetes mellitus, were randomized to either receive placebo (n=40), or receive intravenous Epoetin alfa to achieve a target hemoglobin of 9.5-11.0 g/dL (n=40) or a target of 11.5-13.0 g/dL (n=38). Patients were followed for 6 months. The two Epoetin alfa-treatment groups were combined for all analyses performed. This post hoc analysis was conducted using an intent-to-treat repeated measures mixed model analysis of variance using Bonferroni's multiplicity correction. The Epoetin alfa-treated group showed a statistically significant improvement in the Kidney Disease Questionnaire symptom of fatigue in comparison with placebo. Additionally, the change in hemoglobin at 2 months was correlated with change in fatigue, energy, shortness of breath, and weakness, but had minimal effect on depression. These analyses confirm previously reported results, which indicate that treating hemodialysis patients with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent improves HRQOL. PMID:20345390

Keown, Paul A; Churchill, David N; Poulin-Costello, Melanie; Lei, Lei; Gantotti, Sandeep; Agodoa, Irene; Gitlin, Matthew; Gandra, Shravanthi R; Mayne, Tracy J

2010-04-01

7

Gall stone recurrence and its prevention: the British/Belgian Gall Stone Study Group's post-dissolution trial.  

PubMed Central

The British/Belgian Gall Stone Study Group (BBGSG) post-dissolution trial was a prospective, multicentre, randomised, double blind trial of: (i) low dose ursodeoxycholic acid, (ii) placebo, and (iii) a high fibre, low refined carbohydrate diet in the prevention of gall stone recurrence in patients with complete gall stone dissolution. Further aims included establishing the timing and frequency of recurrence and its association with biliary symptoms, a comparison of the sensitivity of ultrasonography v oral cholecystectography in detecting recurrent stones, and a search for risk factors predicting recurrence. Ninety three patients entered the study, and 82 were followed up for up to five years (mean (SEM) 28 (1.5) months) with six monthly ultrasonography and yearly oral cholecystectography. There were 21 recurrences (26 by oral cholecystectography or ultrasonography, or both), only two of which were symptomatic, which were detected between 12 and 42 months after trial entry. This corresponded to an actuarial recurrence rate of 33.9 (7.0%) by lifetable analysis at 42 months and subsequently. There were four recurrences in the ursodeoxycholic acid, six in the placebo, and 11 in the diet groups, corresponding to 21.9 (9.9)%, 27.4 (10.1)%, and 45.8 (12.4)% respectively at 42 months by lifetable analysis (NS). Variables including age, obesity, menopausal state, pregnancy, and oestrogen containing drugs were not shown to affect recurrence rate. Men had more frequent recurrence than women (NS). Patients who had had multiple stones experienced more recurrences than did those with single stones (NS). Recurrence did not occur in patients who took non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p < 0.02). The stone free interval between stone dissolution and trial entry proved to be important--those stone free > nine months had a recurrence rate of only 12.7 (6.0)% at 42 months compared with 55.4 (12.5)% in those stone free < nine months (p < 0.01). There was imbalance between the ursodeoxycholic acid and placebo groups for this factor, and after applying a statistical correction, the adjusted recurrence rate in the ursodeoxycholic acid group was 15% compared with 30% in both placebo and diet groups (NS). These data suggest that after medical dissolution, the risk of gall stone recurrence is not reduced by a high fibre, low refined carbohydrate diet: it may be lowered, but not abolished, by low dose ursodeoxycholic acid. PMID:8406169

Hood, K A; Gleeson, D; Ruppin, D C; Dowling, R H

1993-01-01

8

Impact of SERM adherence on treatment effect: International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials 13-93 and 14-93  

PubMed Central

The degree of adherence to oral anti-cancer agents may influence treatment efficacy. Tamoxifen and toremifene usage data from two International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) studies were used to evaluate the impact of treatment adherence on the efficacy of these two selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Between 1993 and 1999 IBCSG Trial 13-93 randomized premenopausal women with node-positive disease to tamoxifen or no endocrine therapy and IBCSG Trial 14-93 compared tamoxifen and toremifene in postmenopausal women with node-positive disease. 690 women with estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) enrolled in these two trials were alive and disease-free 4 years after the start of SERM. The median follow up for this analysis was 9.0 years. Using a Kaplan-Meier landmark analysis at 4 years, the 609 women completing at least 4 years of SERM had improved 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) (71%) compared with the 81 women taking less than 4 years (64%), but these differences did not reach statistical significance [DFS hazard ratio (<4yr/4+yr) = 1.31, 95% CI (0.86, 1.98), p-value = 0.20]. Women who completed less than 4 years of SERM treatment (12%) appeared not to have achieved the full benefit from their therapy. These results suggest that more effort should be made to educate women regarding the benefits of a full course of treatment. This is especially important in light of the results of the recently reported ATLAS and aTTom trials which suggest a benefit of 10 years of tamoxifen. PMID:24197662

Pagani, Olivia; Gelber, Shari; Colleoni, Marco; Price, Karen N.; Simoncini, Edda

2014-01-01

9

Improving Conifer Timber Quality Steering Group Kershope Progeny Trial and  

E-print Network

20/07/2006 Improving Conifer Timber Quality Steering Group 1 Kershope Progeny Trial and Including;20/07/2006 Improving Conifer Timber Quality Steering Group 2 Research On Timber Properties of Improved Sitka Spruce · Kershope Progeny Trial Conversion Study #12;20/07/2006 Improving Conifer Timber Quality Steering Group 3

10

AIDS Clinical Trials Group Network  

MedlinePLUS

... Data Clinical Trials Resources Committees Executive Executive Committee Leadership Steering Committee Scientific Agenda Steering Committee Data Management Committee Performance Evaluation Committee Underrepresented Populations Committee Scientific ...

11

Racial Differences in Response to Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection: An AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Study Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background.?In the United States, black individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have higher rates of virologic failure on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and of death compared to white individuals. The cause for these disparities is uncertain. We sought to examine differences in virologic outcomes among antiretroviral-naive clinical trial participants starting randomized ART and to investigate factors to explain the differences. Methods.?Individual-level data from participants initiating ART in 5 AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies were analyzed. Included studies were those conducted during 1998–2006 with a primary outcome of virologic failure. The primary outcome measure was time to virologic failure, regardless of ART changes. Results.?A total of 2495 individuals (1151 black; 1344 white) were included with a median follow-up of 129 weeks. Compared to whites, blacks had an increased hazard of virologic failure (hazard ratio [HR]; 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–1.9; P < .001), with no evidence of heterogeneity across regimens (P = .97); the association remained after adjustment for measured confounders (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2–1.6; P < .001). Increased hazard of virologic failure was associated with younger age, higher pretreatment HIV type 1 RNA level, lower pretreatment CD4 cell count, hepatitis C antibody, less education, and recent nonadherence to treatment. Sensitivity analyses with different endpoint definitions demonstrated similar results. Conclusions.?In this analysis, blacks had a 40% higher virologic failure risk than whites that was not explained by measured confounders. The observation was consistent over a range of regimens, suggesting that the difference may be driven by social factors; however, biological factors cannot be ruled out. Further research should identify the sources of racial disparities and develop strategies to reduce them. PMID:24046302

Ribaudo, Heather J.; Smith, Kimberly Y.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Flexner, Charles; Haubrich, Richard; Chen, Yun; Fischl, Margaret A.; Schackman, Bruce R.; Riddler, Sharon A.; Gulick, Roy M.

2013-01-01

12

Expanded phase II trial of paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer: A Southwest Oncology Group study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer patients. The design was motivated by a report from FDA and NCI staff proposing assessment of pre- and post-treatment symptoms as a means of evaluating treatment effectiveness [1]. Methods. Patients with symptomatic and\\/or measurable metastatic breast cancer with prior treatment received paclitaxel 210 mg\\/m2 as

Charles E. Geyer; Stephanie J. Green; Carol M. Moinpour; Janet O'Sullivan; Donna K. Goodwin; Vikki A. Canfield; Frederick J. Meyers; C. Kent Osborne; Silvana Martino

1998-01-01

13

Participants' experiences of care during a randomized controlled trial comparing a lay-facilitated angina management programme with usual care: a qualitative study using focus groups  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper is a report of a qualitative study conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing a lay-facilitated angina management programme with usual care. Its aim was to explore participants' beliefs, experiences, and attitudes to the care they had received during the trial, particularly those who had received the angina management intervention. Background Angina affects over 50 million people worldwide. Over half of these people have symptoms that restrict their daily life and would benefit from knowing how to manage their condition. Design A nested qualitative study within a randomized controlled trial of lay-facilitated angina management. Method We conducted four participant focus groups during 2008; three were with people randomized to the intervention and one with those randomized to control. We recruited a total of 14 participants to the focus groups, 10 intervention, and 4 control. Findings Although recruitment to the focus groups was relatively low by comparison to conventional standards, each generated lively discussions and a rich data set. Data analysis demonstrated both similarities and differences between control and intervention groups. Similarities included low levels of prior knowledge about angina, whereas differences included a perception among intervention participants that lifestyle changes were more easily facilitated with the help and support of a lay-worker. Conclusion Lay facilitation with the Angina Plan is perceived by the participants to be beneficial in supporting self-management. However, clinical expertise is still required to meet the more complex information and care needs of people with stable angina. PMID:22738415

Nelson, Pauline; Cox, Helen; Furze, Gill; Lewin, Robert JP; Morton, Veronica; Norris, Heather; Patel, Nicky; Elton, Peter; Carty, Richard

2013-01-01

14

A Canadian Critical Care Trials Group project in collaboration with the international forum for acute care trialists - Collaborative H1N1 Adjuvant Treatment pilot trial (CHAT): study protocol and design of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Swine origin influenza A/H1N1 infection (H1N1) emerged in early 2009 and rapidly spread to humans. For most infected individuals, symptoms were mild and self-limited; however, a small number developed a more severe clinical syndrome characterized by profound respiratory failure with hospital mortality ranging from 10 to 30%. While supportive care and neuraminidase inhibitors are the main treatment for influenza, data from observational and interventional studies suggest that the course of influenza can be favorably influenced by agents not classically considered as influenza treatments. Multiple observational studies have suggested that HMGCoA reductase inhibitors (statins) can exert a class effect in attenuating inflammation. The Collaborative H1N1 Adjuvant Treatment (CHAT) Pilot Trial sought to investigate the feasibility of conducting a trial during a global pandemic in critically ill patients with H1N1 with the goal of informing the design of a larger trial powered to determine impact of statins on important outcomes. Methods/Design A multi-national, pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) of once daily enteral rosuvastatin versus matched placebo administered for 14 days for the treatment of critically ill patients with suspected, probable or confirmed H1N1 infection. We propose to randomize 80 critically ill adults with a moderate to high index of suspicion for H1N1 infection who require mechanical ventilation and have received antiviral therapy for ? 72 hours. Site investigators, research coordinators and clinical pharmacists will be blinded to treatment assignment. Only research pharmacy staff will be aware of treatment assignment. We propose several approaches to informed consent including a priori consent from the substitute decision maker (SDM), waived and deferred consent. The primary outcome of the CHAT trial is the proportion of eligible patients enrolled in the study. Secondary outcomes will evaluate adherence to medication administration regimens, the proportion of primary and secondary endpoints collected, the number of patients receiving open-label statins, consent withdrawals and the effect of approved consent models on recruitment rates. Discussion Several aspects of study design including the need to include central randomization, preserve allocation concealment, ensure study blinding compare to a matched placebo and the use novel consent models pose challenges to investigators conducting pandemic research. Moreover, study implementation requires that trial design be pragmatic and initiated in a short time period amidst uncertainty regarding the scope and duration of the pandemic. Trial Registration Number ISRCTN45190901 PMID:21388549

2011-01-01

15

Regression to the mean and alcohol consumption: A cohort study exploring implications for the interpretation of change in control groups in brief intervention trials?  

PubMed Central

Background Reductions in drinking among individuals randomised to control groups in brief alcohol intervention trials are common and suggest that asking study participants about their drinking may itself cause them to reduce their consumption. We sought to test the hypothesis that the statistical artefact regression to the mean (RTM) explains part of the reduction in such studies. Methods 967 participants in a cohort study of alcohol consumption in New Zealand provided data at baseline and again six months later. We use graphical methods and apply thresholds of 8, 12, 16 and 20 in AUDIT scores to explore RTM. Results There was a negative association between baseline AUDIT scores and change in AUDIT scores from baseline to six months, which in the absence of bias and confounding, is RTM. Students with lower baseline scores tended to have higher follow-up scores and conversely, those with higher baseline scores tended to have lower follow-up scores. When a threshold score of 8 was used to select a subgroup, the observed mean change was approximately half of that observed without a threshold. The application of higher thresholds produced greater apparent reductions in alcohol consumption. Conclusions Part of the reduction seen in the control groups of brief alcohol intervention trials is likely to be due to RTM and the amount of change is likely to be greater as the threshold for entry to the trial increases. Quantification of RTM warrants further study and should assist understanding assessment and other research participation effects. PMID:24342421

McCambridge, Jim; Kypri, Kypros; McElduff, Patrick

2014-01-01

16

Improved Neuropsychological and Neurological Functioning Across Three Antiretroviral Regimens in Diverse Resource-Limited Settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5199, the International Neurological Study  

PubMed Central

Background.?AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5199 compared the neurological and neuropsychological (NP) effects of 3 antiretroviral regimens in participants infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in resource-limited settings. Methods.?Participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and Zimbabwe were randomized to 3 antiretroviral treatment arms: A (lamivudine-zidovudine plus efavirenz, n = 289), B (atazanavir, emtricitabine, and didanosine-EC, n = 293), and C (emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil fumarate plus efavirenz, n = 278) as part of the ACTG PEARLS study (A5175). Standardized neurological and neuropsychological (NP) screening examinations (grooved pegboard, timed gait, semantic verbal fluency, and finger tapping) were administered every 24 weeks from February 2006 to May 2010. Associations with neurological and neuropsychological function were estimated from linear and logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations. Results.?The median weeks on study was 168 (Q1 = 96, Q3 = 192) for the 860 participants. NP test scores improved (P < .05) with the exception of semantic verbal fluency. No differences in neurological and neuropsychological functioning between treatment regimens were detected (P > .10). Significant country effects were noted on all NP tests and neurological outcomes (P < .01). Conclusions.?The study detected no significant differences in neuropsychological and neurological outcomes between randomized ART regimens. Significant improvement occurred in neurocognitive and neurological functioning over time after initiation of ARTs. The etiology of these improvements is likely multifactorial, reflecting reduced central nervous system HIV infection, better general health, and practice effects. This study suggests that treatment with either of the World Health Organization –recommended first-line antiretroviral regimens in resource-limited settings will improve neuropsychological functioning and reduce neurological dysfunction. Clinical trials registration. ?NCT00096824. PMID:22661489

Robertson, K.; Jiang, H.; Kumwenda, J.; Supparatpinyo, K.; Evans, S.; Campbell, T. B.; Price, R.; Tripathy, S.; Kumarasamy, N.; La Rosa, A.; Santos, B.; Silva, M. T.; Montano, S.; Kanyama, C.; Faesen, S.; Murphy, R.; Hall, C.; Marra, C. M.; Marcus, C.; Berzins, B.; Allen, R.; Housseinipour, M.; Amod, F.; Sanne, I.; Hakim, J.; Walawander, A.; Nair, A.

2012-01-01

17

The effects and costs of the universal parent group program – all children in focus: a study protocol for a randomized wait-list controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background In recent decades, parents have been involved in programs that aim to improve parenting style and reduce child behavior problems. Research of preventive parenting programs has shown that these interventions generally have a positive influence on both parents and children. However, to our knowledge there is a gap in the scientific literature when it comes to randomized controlled trials of brief, manual-based structured programs which address general parenting among the population, and focus on promoting health. A four-session universal health promotion parent group program named All Children in Focus was developed. It aims at promoting parental competence and children’s positive development with the parent–child relationship as the target. There is currently no randomized controlled trial existing of the program. Methods/Design A prospective multicenter randomized wait-list controlled trial is being conducted. Approximately 600 parents with children ranging in age from 3–12 years have been recruited in eleven municipalities and city districts in the County of Stockholm, Sweden. Parents are randomized at baseline to an intervention group, which receives the program directly, or to a waiting-list control group, which participates in the program six months later. Changes in parenting and child health and development are assessed with measures immediately post-intervention and six months after the baseline. Observations of a minor group of parents and children are conducted to explore possible relations between parental reports and observed behaviors, as well as changes in the interaction between parent and child. Further, data collected within the evaluation will also be applied to evaluate the possible cost-effectiveness of the program. Discussion This paper describes a study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. Except for the quantitative outcome measures to evaluate the effectiveness of All Children in Focus, this protocol also describes health economic and qualitative analyses to deepen the knowledge of the program. We further discuss some issues regarding the implementation of the program in municipalities and city districts. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN70202532 PMID:23890316

2013-01-01

18

A group-randomized tobacco trial among 30 Pacific Northwest colleges: Results from the Campus Health Action on Tobacco study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We conducted a group-randomized trial to increase smoking cessation and decrease smoking onset and prevalence in 30 colleges and universities in the Pacific Northwest. Methods: Random samples of students, oversampling for freshmen, were drawn from the participating colleges; students completed a questionnaire that included seven major areas of tobacco policies and behavior. Following this baseline, the colleges were randomized to intervention or control. Three interventionists developed Campus Advisory Boards in the 15 intervention colleges and facilitated intervention activities. The freshmen cohort was resurveyed 1 and 2 years after the baseline. Two-years postrandomization, new cross-sectional samples were drawn, and students were surveyed. Results: At follow-up, we found no significant overall differences between intervention and control schools when examining smoking cessation, prevalence, or onset. There was a significant decrease in prevalence in private independent colleges, a significant increase in cessation among rural schools, and a decrease in smoking onset in urban schools. Discussion: Intervention in this college population had mixed results. More work is needed to determine how best to reach this population of smokers. PMID:20447935

McLerran, Dale; Livaudais, Jennifer C.; Coronado, Gloria D.

2010-01-01

19

Evaluating a community-based early childhood education and development program in Indonesia: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial with supplementary matched control group  

PubMed Central

Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a supplementary matched control group. The aim of the trial is to evaluate a community-based early education and development program launched by the Government of Indonesia. The program was developed in collaboration with the World Bank with a total budget of US$127.7 million, and targets an estimated 738,000 children aged 0 to 6 years living in approximately 6,000 poor communities. The aim of the program is to increase access to early childhood services with the secondary aim of improving school readiness. Methods/Design The study is being conducted across nine districts. The baseline survey contained 310 villages, of which 100 were originally allocated to the intervention arm, 20 originally allocated to a 9-month delay staggered start, 100 originally allocated to an 18-month delay staggered start and 90 allocated to a matched control group (no intervention). The study consists of two cohorts, one comprising children aged 12 to 23 months and the other comprising children aged 48 to 59 months at baseline. The data collection instruments include child observations and task/game-based assessments as well as a questionnaire suite, village head questionnaire, service level questionnaires, household questionnaire, and child caretaker questionnaire. The baseline survey was conducted from March to April 2009, midline was conducted from April to August 2010 and endline conducted early 2013. The resultant participation rates at both the district and village levels were 90%. At the child level, the participation rate was 99.92%. The retention rate at the child level at midline was 99.67%. Discussion This protocol paper provides a detailed record of the trial design including a discussion regarding difficulties faced with compliance to the randomization, compliance to the dispersion schedule of community block grants, and procurement delays for baseline and midline data collections. Considering the execution of the program and the resultant threats to the study, we discuss our analytical plan and intentions for endline data collection. Trials registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76061874 PMID:23953975

2013-01-01

20

The Irish DAFNE Study Protocol: A cluster randomised trial of group versus individual follow-up after structured education for Type 1 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Structured education programmes for individuals with Type 1 diabetes have become a recognised means of delivering the knowledge and skills necessary for optimal self-management of the condition. The Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) programme has been shown to improve biomedical (HbA1c and rates of severe hypoglycaemia) and psychosocial outcomes for up to 12 months following course delivery. The optimal way to support DAFNE graduates and maintain the benefits of the programme has not been established. We aimed to compare 2 different methods of follow-up of DAFNE graduates in a pragmatic clinical trial delivered in busy diabetes clinics on the island of Ireland. Methods Six participating centres were cluster randomised to deliver either group follow-up or a return to traditional one-to-one clinic visits. In the intervention arm group follow-up was delivered at 6 and 12 months post DAFNE training according to a curriculum developed for the study. In the control arm patients were seen individually in diabetes clinics as part of routine care. Study outcomes included HbA1c levels, self-reported rates of severe hypoglycaemia, body weight and measures of diabetes wellbeing and quality of life. These were measured at 6, 12 and 18 months after recruitment. Generalisability (external validity) was maximised by recruiting study participants from existing DAFNE waiting lists in each centre, by using broad inclusion criteria (including HbA1c values less than 13 percent with no lower limit) and by using existing clinic staff to deliver the training and follow-up. Internal validity and treatment fidelity were maximised by quality assuring the training of all DAFNE educators, by external peer review of the group follow-up sessions and by striving for full attendance at follow-up visits. Assays of HbA1c were undertaken in a central laboratory. Discussion This pragmatic clinical trial evaluating group follow-up after a structured education programme has been designed to have broad generalisability. The results should inform how best to manage the well educated patient with Type 1 diabetes in the real world of clinical practice Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN79759174 PMID:19775465

Dinneen, Seán F; O' Hara, Mary Clare; Byrne, Molly; Newell, John; Daly, Lisa; O' Shea, Donal; Smith, Diarmuid

2009-01-01

21

A randomised phase III trial comparing gemcitabine with surgery-only in patients with resected pancreatic cancer: Japanese Study Group of Adjuvant Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: This multicentre randomised phase III trial was designed to determine whether adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine improves the outcomes of patients with resected pancreatic cancer. Methods: Eligibility criteria included macroscopically curative resection of invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas and no earlier radiation or chemotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned at a 1?:?1 ratio to either the gemcitabine group or the surgery-only group. Patients assigned to the gemcitabine group received gemcitabine at a dose of 1000?mg?m?2 over 30?min on days 1, 8 and 15, every 4 weeks for 3 cycles. Results: Between April 2002 and March 2005, 119 patients were enrolled in this study. Among them, 118 were eligible and analysable (58 in the gemcitabine group and 60 in the surgery-only group). Both groups were well balanced in terms of baseline characteristics. Although heamatological toxicity was frequently observed in the gemcitabine group, most toxicities were transient, and grade 3 or 4 non-heamatological toxicity was rare. Patients in the gemcitabine group showed significantly longer disease-free survival (DFS) than those in the surgery-only group (median DFS, 11.4versus 5.0 months; hazard ratio=0.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40–0.89); P=0.01), although overall survival did not differ significantly between the gemcitabine and surgery-only groups (median overall survival, 22.3 versus 18.4 months; hazard ratio=0.77 (95% CI: 0.51–1.14); P=0.19). Conclusion: The current results suggest that adjuvant gemcitabine contributes to prolonged DFS in patients undergoing macroscopically curative resection of pancreatic cancer. PMID:19690548

Ueno, H; Kosuge, T; Matsuyama, Y; Yamamoto, J; Nakao, A; Egawa, S; Doi, R; Monden, M; Hatori, T; Tanaka, M; Shimada, M; Kanemitsu, K

2009-01-01

22

Cooperative study group for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (COALL): long-term results of trials 82,85,89,92 and 97.  

PubMed

In this study, the long-term outcome of 1818 patients treated in five consecutive clinical trials (the cooperative study group for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (COALL) 82, 85, 89, 92 and 97) from 24 cooperating centres in Germany is reported. The probability of event-free survival (pEFS) improved significantly from the first two trials conducted in the 1980s (COALL 82 and COALL 85) to the three trials conducted in the 1990s (COALL 89, 92 and 97) (P=0.001). Through all COALL studies, age > or =10 years and initial white blood cell count (WBC) > or =50 x 10(9)/l and pro-B immunophenotype were of significant prognostic relevance. A refinement of risk assessment has been achieved by in vitro drug sensitivity testing in COALL 92 and 97. In patients with very sensitive leukaemic cells, therapy could be reduced without loss of efficacy. In COALL 97, a further improvement in risk stratification was gained by the molecular assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) under treatment, which proved to have a superior prognostic effect when compared with in vitro drug sensitivity testing. Importantly, the gradual reduction in central nervous system (CNS) irradiation led to a decreased incidence of brain tumours as a second malignancy. In general, the prevention of treatment-related late effects will be one of the major issues in future studies. It remains to be shown whether prolonged infusions of anthracyclines, which have been implemented into the COALL studies after equal efficacy compared with short-time infusions was confirmed, will be associated with fewer cardiac late effects. Another way to prevent late effects may be a more refined risk assessment allowing for a reduction in cumulative treatment burden. A great challenge in the future will be to improve the overall treatment results, which very likely can only be achieved by the identification of molecularly defined subgroups to which novel, rational therapeutic strategies can be applied. PMID:20016530

Escherich, G; Horstmann, M A; Zimmermann, M; Janka-Schaub, G E

2010-02-01

23

Practical aspects of decision making in clinical trials: the coronary drug project as a case study. The Coronary Drug Project Research Group.  

PubMed

Arriving at a decision for early termination of a treatment group or of an entire clinical trial, due to either beneficial or adverse results, is a complex process. It may involve, among other things, the necessity to (1) determine whether the observed treatment differences are likely to represent real effects and are not due to chance; (2) weigh the importance of many different response variables, some possible trending in favor of the treatment and some against it; (3) adjust for differences in distributions of baseline characteristics among the treatment groups; (4) discern possible biases (due to the study not being double-blind) in the medical management of patients or in the diagnosis of events; and (5) evaluate treatment effects in subgroups of the study participants. Experiences in the Coronary Drug Project are described in making decisions for early termination of treatment groups. Special methods applied in conjunction with reaching these decisions included: (1) analyses designed to detect possible biases in diagnosing a major endpoint--nonfatal myocardial infarction, e.g.--biases that may have arisen because of unblinding by side effects of the estrogen treatment group; (2) a simulation study to assess the statistical significance of mortality differences between the dextrothyroxine and placebo participants in certain subgroups identified a posteriori; and (3) the development, on the basis of the accumulated data, or new hypotheses relating to treatment differences in specific subgroups and the testing of these hypotheses a few months later on the basis of new events occurring during that interval. PMID:7261627

1981-05-01

24

Immunopotentiation with levamisole in resectable bronchogenic carcinoma: a double-blind controlled trial; Study Group for Bronchogenic Carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

A long-term multicentre double-blind study was designed to test the immunotropic effects of levamisole in patients undergoing operation for primary bronchial carcinoma. They received levamisole 50 mg three times a day by mouth or placebo for three days every fortnight, starting three days before surgery. Unless there was clinical evidence of recurrence, cytostatic drugs, corticosteroids, and radiotherapy were prohibited. In the 111 patients who have been followed up for one year the incidence of side effects was similar in both groups. Recurrences occurred in 10 out of 51 patients (seven deaths) receiving levamisole and in 20 out of 60 (12 deaths) receiving placebo. Further analysis showed that there were fewer recurrences on levamisole in patients with squamous cell carcinomas and medium and large primary tumours and fewer suspected and proved recurrences and deaths from metastases on levamisole in patients with extended tumours. Distant recurrences tended to be less common with levamisole, whereas the disease-free interval in relapsing patients was almost identical in the two groups. These interim results show that levamisole seems to exert its beneficial effect by preventing immunosuppression due to surgery. PMID:1098727

1975-01-01

25

Effectiveness of group acceptance and commitment therapy for fibromyalgia: a 6-month randomized controlled trial (EFFIGACT study).  

PubMed

In the last decade, there has been burgeoning interest in the effectiveness of third-generation psychological therapies for managing fibromyalgia (FM) symptoms. The present study examined the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on functional status as well as the role of pain acceptance as a mediator of treatment outcomes in FM patients. A total of 156 patients with FM were enrolled at primary health care centers in Zaragoza, Spain. The patients were randomly assigned to a group-based form of ACT (GACT), recommended pharmacological treatment (RPT; pregabalin + duloxetine), or wait list (WL). The primary end point was functional status (measured with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, FIQ). Secondary end points included pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, pain, anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life. The differences between groups were calculated by linear mixed-effects (intention-to-treat approach) and mediational models through path analyses. Overall, GACT was statistically superior to both RPT and WL immediately after treatment, and improvements were maintained at 6months with medium effect sizes in most cases. Immediately after treatment, the number needed to treat for 20% improvement compared to RPT was 2 (95% confidence interval 1.2-2.0), for 50% improvement 46, and for achieving a status of no worse than mild impaired function (FIQ total score <39) also 46. Unexpectedly, 4 of the 5 tested path analyses did not show a mediation effect. Changes in pain acceptance only mediated the relationship between study condition and health-related quality of life. These findings are discussed in relation to previous psychological research on FM treatment. PMID:24378880

Luciano, Juan V; Guallar, José A; Aguado, Jaume; López-Del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Olivan, Bárbara; Magallón, Rosa; Alda, Marta; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Gili, Margalida; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

2014-04-01

26

Attitudes toward participation in breast cancer randomized clinical trials in the African-American community: a focus group study. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Focus groups revealed that African-American women are largely positive about breast cancer clinical research, with more than half reporting that they would be interested in participating in a hypothetical trial. Several major issues that influenced these women’s willingness, or unwillingness, to participate in trials were identified. Insights gained may help researchers develop protocols and recruitment procedures that are culturally sensitive and relevant to this population.

27

Randomized, double-blind trial of carboplatin and paclitaxel with either daily oral cediranib or placebo in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: NCIC clinical trials group BR24 study.  

PubMed

PURPOSE This phase II/III double-blind study assessed efficacy and safety of cediranib with standard chemotherapy as initial therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS Paclitaxel (200 mg/m(2)) and carboplatin (area under the serum concentration-time curve 6) were given every 3 weeks, with daily oral cediranib or placebo at 30 mg (first 45 patients received 45 mg). Progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary outcome of the phase II interim analysis; phase III would proceed if the hazard ratio (HR) for PFS < or = 0.77 and toxicity were acceptable. Results A total of 296 patients were enrolled, 251 to the 30-mg cohort. The phase II interim analysis demonstrated a significantly higher response rate (RR) for cediranib than for placebo, HR of 0.77 for PFS, no excess hemoptysis, and a similar number of deaths in each arm. The study was halted to review imbalances in assigned causes of death. In the primary phase II analysis (30-mg cohort), the adjusted HR for PFS was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.56 to 1.08) with a higher RR for cediranib than for placebo (38% v 16%; P < .0001). Cediranib patients had more hypertension, hypothyroidism, hand-foot syndrome, and GI toxicity. Hypoalbuminemia, age > or = 65 years, and female sex predicted increased toxicity. Survival update (N = 296) 10 months after study unblinding favored cediranib over placebo (median of 10.5 months v 10.1 months; HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.06; P = .11). Causes of death in the cediranib 30-mg cohort were NSCLC (81%), protocol toxicity +/- NSCLC (13%), and other (6%); for the placebo group, they were 98%, 0%, and 2%, respectively. CONCLUSION The addition of cediranib to carboplatin/paclitaxel results in improved response and PFS, but does not appear tolerable at a 30-mg dose. Consequently, the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group and the Australasian Lung Cancer Trials Group initiated a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of cediranib 20 mg with carboplatin and paclitaxel in advanced NSCLC. PMID:19917841

Goss, Glenwood D; Arnold, Andrew; Shepherd, Frances A; Dediu, Mircea; Ciuleanu, Tudor-Eliade; Fenton, David; Zukin, Mauro; Walde, David; Laberge, Francis; Vincent, Mark D; Ellis, Peter M; Laurie, Scott A; Ding, Keyue; Frymire, Eliot; Gauthier, Isabelle; Leighl, Natasha B; Ho, Cheryl; Noble, Jonathan; Lee, Christopher W; Seymour, Lesley

2010-01-01

28

A Phase II Trial of Brivanib in Recurrent or Persistent Endometrial Cancer: An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Brivanib, an oral, multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) was investigated as a single agent in a phase II trial to assess the activity and tolerability in recurrent or persistent endometrial cancer (EMC). Patients and Methods Eligible patients had persistent or recurrent EMC after receiving one to two prior cytotoxic regimens, measurable disease, and performance status of ?2. Treatment consisted of brivanib 800 mg orally every day until disease progression or prohibitive toxicity. Primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) at six months and objective tumor response. Expression of multiple angiogenic proteins and FGFR2 mutation status was assessed. Results Forty-five patients were enrolled. Forty-three patients were eligible and evaluable. Median age was 64 years. Twenty-four patients (55.8%) received prior radiation. Median number of cycles was two (range 1–24). No GI perforations but one rectal fistula were seen. Nine patients had grade 3 hypertension, with one experiencing grade 4 confusion. Eight patients (18.6%; 90% CI 9.6–31.7%) had responses (one CR and seven PRs), and 13 patients (30.2%; 90% CI 18.9–43.9%) were PFS at six months. Median PFS and overall survival (OS) were 3.3 and 10.7 months, respectively. When modeled jointly, VEGF and Angiopoietin-2 expression may diametrically predict PFS. Estrogen receptor-? (ER) expression was positively correlated with OS. Conclusion Brivanib is reasonably well tolerated and worthy of further investigation based on PFS at six months in recurrent or persistent EMC. PMID:25019571

Powell, Matthew A.; Sill, Michael W.; Goodfellow, Paul J.; Benbrook, Doris M.; Lankes, Heather A.; Leslie, Kimberly K.; Jeske, Yvette; Mannel, Robert S.; Spillman, Monique A; Lee, Paula S.; Hoffman, James S.; McMeekin, D. Scott; Pollock, Pamela M.

2014-01-01

29

Development of Clinical Trials in a Cooperative Group Setting: The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE We examine the processes and document the calendar time required to activate Phase II and III clinical trials by an oncology group: the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG). METHODS Setup steps were documented by: 1) interviewing ECOG headquarters and statistical center staff, and committee chairs, 2) reviewing standard operating procedure manuals, and 3) inspecting study records, documents, and emails to identify additional steps. Calendar time was collected for each major process for each study in this set. RESULTS Twenty-eight Phase III studies were activated by ECOG during the 01/2000–07/2006 study period. We examined in detail a sample of 16 of those studies. More than 481 distinct processes were required for study activation: 420 working steps, 61 major decision points, 26 processing loops, and 13 stopping points. Median calendar days to activate a trial in the Phase III subset was 783 days (median, 285 to 1542 days) from executive approval and 808 days (range, 435 to 1604 days) from initial conception of the study. Data were collected for all Phase II and Phase III trials activated and completed during this time period (n=52) for which development time represented 43.9% and 54.1% of the total trial time respectively. CONCLUSION The steps required to develop and activate a clinical trial may require as much or more time than the actual completion of a trial. The data demonstrates that to improve the activation process, research should to be directed toward streamlining both internal and external groups and processes. PMID:18519773

Sandler, Alan; Cheng, Steven; Crites, Joshua; Ferranti, Lori; Wu, Amy; Gray, Robert; MacDonald, Jean; Marinucci, Donna; Comis, Robert

2009-01-01

30

Web-Based, Cross-Group Registration for Clinical Trials Piloted for NCI's Cooperative Group Members Cancer Trial Support Unit Could Expand to Other Physicians in 2001  

Cancer.gov

Oncologists who belong to the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cooperative Groups can now register online for selected phase III studies in a pilot project intended to streamline and simplify many of the tasks associated with clinical trials.

31

Phase I Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Dose Escalation Study in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 98-03  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate in a Phase I trial the feasibility and toxicity of dose-escalated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) concurrent with chemotherapy in patients with primary supratentorial glioblastoma (GBM). Methods and Materials: A total of 209 patients were enrolled. All received 46 Gy in 2-Gy fractions to the first planning target volume (PTV{sub 1}), defined as the gross tumor volume (GTV) plus 1.8 cm. A subsequent boost was given to PTV{sub 2}, defined as GTV plus 0.3 cm. Patients were stratified into two groups (Group 1: PTV{sub 2} <75 cm{sup 3}; Group 2: PTV{sub 2} {>=}75 cm{sup 3}). Four RT dose levels were evaluated: 66, 72, 78, and 84 Gy. Carmustine 80 mg/m{sup 2} was given during RT, then every 8 weeks for 6 cycles. Pretreatment characteristics were well balanced. Results: Acute and late Grade 3/4 RT-related toxicities were no more frequent at higher RT dose or with larger tumors. There were no dose-limiting toxicities (acute Grade {>=}3 irreversible central nervous system toxicities) observed on any dose level in either group. On the basis of the absence of dose-limiting toxicities, dose was escalated to 84 Gy in both groups. Late RT necrosis was noted at 66 Gy (1 patient), 72 Gy (2 patients), 78 Gy (2 patients), and 84 Gy (3 patients) in Group 1. In Group 2, late RT necrosis was noted at 78 Gy (1 patient) and 84 Gy (2 patients). Median time to RT necrosis was 8.8 months (range, 5.1-12.5 months). Median survival in Group 1 was 11.6-19.3 months. Median survival in Group 2 was 8.2-13.9 months. Conclusions: Our study shows the feasibility of delivering higher than standard (60 Gy) RT dose with concurrent chemotherapy for primary GBM, with an acceptable risk of late central nervous system toxicity.

Tsien, Christina [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)], E-mail: ctsien@umich.edu; Moughan, Jennifer [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Gilbert, Mark R. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Purdy, James [University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Simpson, Joseph [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Kresel, John J. [Arizona Oncology Services and Barrows Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Curran, Walter J. [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Diaz, Aidnag [University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

2009-03-01

32

A Phase III Trial of Ifosfamide with or without Cisplatin in Carcinosarcoma of the Uterus: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aims of this study were to substantiate the previously reported activity of ifosfamide in patients with advanced, persistent, or recurrent carcinosarcoma (mixed mesodermal sarcoma) of the uterus, and to determine whether the addition of cisplatin results in an improved response or survival. Secondarily, we sought to determine the toxicity of ifosfamide–cisplatin in this patient population.Methods. Patients were randomized

Gregory Sutton; Virginia L. Brunetto; Larry Kilgore; John T. Soper; Ramon McGehee; George Olt; Samuel S. Lentz; Joel Sorosky; Jeng-Gwang Hsiu

2000-01-01

33

The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial  

PubMed Central

Background Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS) compared to treatment as usual (TAU). It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder. PMID:23289935

2013-01-01

34

The ACTIVATE study: results from a group-randomized controlled trial comparing a traditional worksite health promotion program with an activated consumer program.  

PubMed

PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also significantly improved self-reported productivity. CONCLUSION. An effective intervention can change employee health risk status and activation both at the population level and at the individual high risk level. However, program engagement at the population level was low, indicating that additional promotional strategies, such as greater use of incentives, need to be examined. Less intensive coaching can be as effective as more intensive, albeit both interventions produced modest behavior change and retention in the consumer activation arm was most difficult. Further research is needed concerning recruitment and retention methods that will enable populations to realize the full potential of activated consumerism. PMID:22040398

Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa

2011-01-01

35

Evaluating the Effect of Early Versus Late ARV Regimen Change if Failure on an Initial Regimen: Results From the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5095  

PubMed Central

The current goal of initial antiretroviral (ARV) therapy is suppression of plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 RNA levels to below 200 copies per milliliter. A proportion of HIV-infected patients who initiate antiretroviral therapy in clinical practice or antiretroviral clinical trials either fail to suppress HIV-1 RNA or have HIV-1 RNA levels rebound on therapy. Frequently, these patients have sustained CD4 cell counts responses and limited or no clinical symptoms and, therefore, have potentially limited indications for altering therapy which they may be tolerating well despite increased viral replication. On the other hand, increased viral replication on therapy leads to selection of resistance mutations to the antiretroviral agents comprising their therapy and potentially cross-resistance to other agents in the same class decreasing the likelihood of response to subsequent antiretroviral therapy. The optimal time to switch antiretroviral therapy to ensure sustained virologic suppression and prevent clinical events in patients who have rebound in their HIV-1 RNA, yet are stable, is not known. Randomized clinical trials to compare early versus delayed switching have been difficult to design and more difficult to enroll. In some clinical trials, such as the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Study A5095, patients randomized to initial antiretroviral treatment combinations, who fail to suppress HIV-1 RNA or have a rebound of HIV-1 RNA on therapy are allowed to switch from the initial ARV regimen to a new regimen, based on clinician and patient decisions. We delineate a statistical framework to estimate the effect of early versus late regimen change using data from ACTG A5095 in the context of two-stage designs. In causal inference, a large class of doubly robust estimators are derived through semiparametric theory with applications to missing data problems. This class of estimators is motivated through geometric arguments and relies on large samples for good performance. By now, several authors have noted that a doubly robust estimator may be suboptimal when the outcome model is misspecified even if it is semiparametric efficient when the outcome regression model is correctly specified. Through auxiliary variables, two-stage designs, and within the contextual backdrop of our scientific problem and clinical study, we propose improved doubly robust, locally efficient estimators of a population mean and average causal effect for early versus delayed switching to second-line ARV treatment regimens. Our analysis of the ACTG A5095 data further demonstrates how methods that use auxiliary variables can improve over methods that ignore them. Using the methods developed here, we conclude that patients who switch within 8 weeks of virologic failure have better clinical outcomes, on average, than patients who delay switching to a new second-line ARV regimen after failing on the initial regimen. Ordinary statistical methods fail to find such differences. This article has online supplementary material. PMID:23329858

Li, Li; Eron, Joseph J.; Ribaudo, Heather; Gulick, Roy M.; Johnson, Brent A.

2012-01-01

36

A randomised phase III trial comparing gemcitabine with surgery-only in patients with resected pancreatic cancer: Japanese Study Group of Adjuvant Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:This multicentre randomised phase III trial was designed to determine whether adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine improves the outcomes of patients with resected pancreatic cancer.Methods:Eligibility criteria included macroscopically curative resection of invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas and no earlier radiation or chemotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned at a 1 : 1 ratio to either the gemcitabine group or the surgery-only

H Ueno; T Kosuge; Y Matsuyama; J Yamamoto; A Nakao; S Egawa; R Doi; M Monden; T Hatori; M Tanaka; M Shimada; K Kanemitsu

2009-01-01

37

Group CBT for psychosis: A longitudinal, controlled trial with inpatients.  

PubMed

Individual cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is a recommended treatment in the acute phase and beyond. However, less is known about the effectiveness of group CBTp in acute care. This mixed methods study explored the implementation and effectiveness of brief group CBTp with inpatients. This prospective trial compared inpatients who received either a four week group CBTp program or treatment as usual (TAU). Participants (n = 113 at baseline) completed self-report measures of distress, confidence and symptoms of psychosis at baseline, post-intervention and one month follow up. CBTp group participants also completed a brief open-ended satisfaction questionnaire. Using complete case analysis participants who received CBTp showed significantly reduced distress at follow up compared to TAU and significantly increased confidence across the study and follow up period. However, these effects were not demonstrated using a more conservative intention-to-treat analysis. Qualitative analysis of the satisfaction data revealed positive feedback with a number of specific themes. The study suggests that brief group CBTp with inpatients may improve confidence and reduce distress in the longer term. Participants report that the groups are acceptable and helpful. However, given the methodological limitations involved in this 'real world' study more robust evidence is needed. PMID:25577190

Owen, Mary; Sellwood, William; Kan, Stephen; Murray, John; Sarsam, May

2015-02-01

38

TrialNet Information for Study Participants  

MedlinePLUS

Information for Study Participants TrialNet Studies What is a Clinical Trial? What is Type 1 Diabetes? Links How do I Join ... can I get screened? Learn More About TrialNet Studies See open and future studies available through TrialNet > ...

39

Efficacy and indications of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment for dissolving gallstones. A multicenter double-blind trial. Tokyo Cooperative Gallstone Study Group.  

PubMed

The cholelitholytic action of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was investigated by a double-blind clinical trial. The trial started with 151 subjects all confirmed by radiographic examination as having radiolucent gallstones in a functioning gallbladder. The subjects were divided into three groups receiving 600 mg/day of UDCA, 150 mg/day of UDCA, and placebo (lactose) per day, respectively. Seventy-nine cases were classed as dropouts or were excluded due to incomplete follow-up or inadequate patient selection, and the data on the remaining 72 cases were analyzed. After 6--12 mo of treatment, dissolution of decrease in size or number of stones occurred in 10 of the 29 cases in the 600 mg/day group (34.5%), 4 of 23 cases in the 150 mg/day group (17.4%), and 1 of 20 cases in the control group (5.0%). For those cases with noncalcified, less than 15 mm in diameter, and floating stones, efficacy increased to 83.3% in the 600 mg/day group. Lithogenic index of bile defined by Thomas and Hofmann became unsaturated after treatment in the 600 mg/day group. Neither diarrhea nor hepatic toxicity was noted. The results indicate that UDCA is a safe and effective litholytic agent. PMID:6985882

1980-03-01

40

CLINICAL TRIALS OFFICE The principal charge of this focus group was to identify the key elements of a Clinical Trials  

E-print Network

CLINICAL TRIALS OFFICE The principal charge of this focus group was to identify the key elements of a Clinical Trials Office at the LSUHSC-NO Campus. We propose that the mission of the Clinical Trials Office. The Clinical Trials Office will function as a single point-of-contact for all aspects of clinical trials

41

Group Lidcombe Program Treatment for Early Stuttering: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study adds to the Lidcombe Program evidence base by comparing individual and group treatment of preschoolers who stutter. Method: A randomized controlled trial of 54 preschoolers was designed to establish whether group delivery outcomes were not inferior to the individual model. The group arm used a rolling group model, in which a…

Arnott, Simone; Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan

2014-01-01

42

Genome-wide association study of plasma efavirenz pharmacokinetics in AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocols implicates several CYP2B6 variants  

PubMed Central

Objectives Prior candidate gene studies have associated CYP2B6 516G?T [rs3745274] and 983T?C [rs28399499] with increased plasma efavirenz exposure. We sought to identify novel variants associated with efavirenz pharmacokinetics. Materials and methods Antiretroviral therapy-naive AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies A5202, A5095, and ACTG 384 included plasma sampling for efavirenz pharmacokinetics. Log-transformed trough efavirenz concentrations (Cmin) were previously estimated by population pharmacokinetic modeling. Stored DNA was genotyped with Illumina HumanHap 650Y or 1MDuo platforms, complemented by additional targeted genotyping of CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 with MassARRAY iPLEX Gold. Associations were identified by linear regression, which included principal component vectors to adjust for genetic ancestry. Results Among 856 individuals, CYP2B6 516G?T was associated with efavirenz estimated Cmin (P = 8.5 × 10?41). After adjusting for CYP2B6 516G?T, CYP2B6 983T?C was associated (P = 9.9 × 10?11). After adjusting for both CYP2B6 516G?T and 983T?C, a CYP2B6 variant (rs4803419) in intron 3 was associated (P = 4.4 × 10?15). After adjusting for all the three variants, non-CYP2B6 polymorphisms were associated at P-value less than 5× 10?8. In a separate cohort of 240 individuals, only the three CYP2B6 polymorphisms replicated. These three polymorphisms explained 34% of interindividual variability in efavirenz estimated Cmin. The extensive metabolizer phenotype was best defined by the absence of all three polymorphisms. Conclusion Three CYP2B6 polymorphisms were independently associated with efavirenz estimated Cmin at genome-wide significance, and explained one-third of interindividual variability. These data will inform continued efforts to translate pharmacogenomic knowledge into optimal efavirenz utilization. PMID:23080225

Holzinger, Emily R.; Grady, Benjamin; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Acosta, Edward P.; Morse, Gene D.; Gulick, Roy M.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Clifford, David B.; Daar, Eric S.; McLaren, Paul; Haas, David W.

2013-01-01

43

Randomised, double blind, multicentre comparison of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in antihypertensive treatment: results of the HANE study. HANE Trial Research Group.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness and tolerability of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. DESIGN: Randomised multicentre trial over 48 weeks with double blind comparison of treatments. SETTING: 48 centres in four countries. PATIENTS: 868 patients with essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure 95-120 mm Hg) INTERVENTIONS: Initial treatment (step 1) consisted of 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (n = 215), 25 mg atenolol (n = 215), 10 mg nitrendipine (n = 218), or 5 mg enalapril (n = 220) once daily. If diastolic blood pressure was not reduced to < 90 mm Hg within four weeks, doses were increased to 25 mg, 50 mg, 20 mg, 10 mg, respectively, once daily (step 2) and after two more weeks to twice daily (step 3). The eight week titration phase was followed by an additional 40 weeks for patients who had reached the target diastolic pressure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood pressure by means of an automatic device with repeated measurements. RESULTS: After eight weeks the response rate for atenolol (63.7%) was significantly higher than for enalapril (50.0%), hydrochlorothiazide (44.7%), or nitrendipine (44.5%). After one year atenolol was still more effective (48.0%) than hydrochlorothiazide (35.4%) and nitrendipine (32.9%), but not significantly better than enalapril (42.7%). The treatment related dropout rate was higher (P < 0.001) in the nitrendipine group (n = 28). CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence of superiority for antihypertensive effectiveness or tolerability of the "new" classes of antihypertensives (calcium channel blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors). As these drugs are now widely used as treatment of first choice, our results further emphasise the need for studies confirming that they also reduce morbidity and mortality, as has been shown for diuretics and beta blockers. PMID:9251545

Philipp, T.; Anlauf, M.; Distler, A.; Holzgreve, H.; Michaelis, J.; Wellek, S.

1997-01-01

44

Study protocol for a group randomized controlled trial of a classroom-based intervention aimed at preventing early risk factors for drug abuse: integrating effectiveness and implementation research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While a number of preventive interventions delivered within schools have shown both short-term and long-term impact in epidemiologically based randomized field trials, programs are not often sustained with high-quality implementation over time. This study was designed to support two purposes. The first purpose was to test the effectiveness of a universal classroom-based intervention, the Whole Day First Grade Program

Jeanne Poduska; Sheppard Kellam; C. Hendricks Brown; Carla Ford; Amy Windham; Natalie Keegan; Wei Wang

2009-01-01

45

A community-based group-guided self-help intervention for low mood and stress: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a mental health condition which affects millions of people each year, with worldwide rates increasing. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is recommended in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for the treatment of depression. However, waiting lists can cause delays for face-to-face therapy. Also a proportion of people decline to present for help through the health service – the so-called treatment gap. Self-referral to CBT using community-based group interventions delivered by a voluntary sector organization may serve to resolve this problem. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to determine the efficacy of such a guided CBT self-help course, the ‘Living Life to the Full’ (LLTTF) classes delivered by the charity Action on Depression (AOD). The primary outcome is level of depression at 6 months assessed using the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ9) depression scale. Secondary measures include levels of anxiety and social functioning. Methods/design Participants with symptoms of low mood will be recruited from the community through newspaper adverts and also via the AOD website. Participants will receive either immediate or delayed access to guided CBT self-help classes - the eight session LLTTF course. The primary endpoint will be at 6 months at which point the delayed group will be offered the intervention. Levels of depression, anxiety and social functioning will be assessed and an economic analysis will be carried out. Discussion This RCT will test whether the LLTTF intervention is effective and/or cost-effective. If the LLTTF community-based classes are found to be cost effective, they may be helpful as both an intervention for those already seeking care in the health service, as well as those seeking help outside that setting, widening access to psychological therapy. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN86292664 PMID:24252475

2013-01-01

46

Discordant Associations between SLCO1B1 521T?C and Plasma Levels of Ritonavir-boosted Protease Inhibitors in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5146  

PubMed Central

Objective Among HIV-positive patients prescribed ritonavir-boosted lopinavir, SLCO1B1 521T?C (rs4149056) is associated with increased plasma lopinavir exposure. Protease inhibitors are also substrates for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and ABCB1, which are induced by NR1I2. We characterized relationships between ABCB1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, NR1I2 and SLCO1B1 polymorphisms and trough protease inhibitor concentrations among AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5146 participants. Methods At study entry, subjects with virologic failure on protease inhibitor-containing regimens initiated new ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor regimens. We studied associations between week 2 protease inhibitor plasma trough concentrations and 143 polymorphisms in these genes, including 4 targeted polymorphisms. Results Among 275 subjects with both drug concentrations and genetic data, allelic frequencies of SLCO1B1 521T?C were 15%, 1%, and 8% in whites, blacks, and Hispanics, respectively. Further analyses were limited to 268 white, black, or Hispanic subjects who initiated ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (n=98), fosamprenavir (n=69), or saquinavir (n=99). Of targeted polymorphisms, SLCO1B1 521T?C tended to be associated with higher lopinavir concentrations, with a 1.38-fold increase in the mean per C allele (95% CI 0.97, 1.96; n=98; p=0.07). With fosamprenavir, SLCO1B1 521T?C was associated with lower amprenavir concentrations, with a 35% decrease in the mean per C allele (geometric mean ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.44, 0.94; n=69; adjusted p=0.02). There was no significant association with saquinavir concentrations, and none of the remaining 139 exploratory polymorphisms were statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. Conclusions With ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors, a SLCO1B1 polymorphism that predicts higher lopinavir trough concentrations appears to predict lower amprenavir trough concentrations. The mechanism underlying this discordant association is uncertain. PMID:23503447

Zhang, Xinyan; Tierney, Camlin; Albrecht, Mary; Demeter, Lisa M.; Morse, Gene; DiFrancesco, Robin; Dykes, Carrie; Jiang, Hongyu; Haas, David W.

2013-01-01

47

GRIN: “GRoup versus INdividual physiotherapy following lower limb intra-muscular Botulinum Toxin-A injections for ambulant children with cerebral palsy: an assessor-masked randomised comparison trial”: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood. Spasticity is a significant contributor to the secondary impairments impacting functional performance and participation. The most common lower limb spasticity management is focal intramuscular injections of Botulinum Toxin-Type A accompanied by individually-delivered (one on one) physiotherapy rehabilitation. With increasing emphasis on improving goal-directed functional activity and participation within a family-centred framework, it is timely to explore whether physiotherapy provided in a group could achieve comparable outcomes, encouraging providers to offer flexible models of physiotherapy delivery. This study aims to compare individual to group-based physiotherapy following intramuscular Botulinum Toxin-A injections to the lower limbs for ambulant children with cerebral palsy aged four to fourteen years. Methods/Design An assessor-masked, block randomised comparison trial will be conducted with random allocation to either group-based or individual physiotherapy. A sample size of 30 (15 in each study arm) will be recruited. Both groups will receive six hours of direct therapy following Botulinum Toxin-A injections in either an individual or group format with additional home programme activities (three exercises to be performed three times a week). Study groups will be compared at baseline (T1), then at 10 weeks (T2, efficacy) and 26 weeks (T3, retention) post Botulinum Toxin-A injections. Primary outcomes will be caregiver/s perception of and satisfaction with their child’s occupational performance goals (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure) and quality of gait (Edinburgh Visual Gait Score) with a range of secondary outcomes across domains of the International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health. Discussion This paper outlines the study protocol including theoretical basis, study hypotheses and outcome measures for this assessor-masked, randomised comparison trial comparing group versus individual models of physiotherapy following intramuscular injections of Botulinum Toxin-A to the lower limbs for ambulant children with cerebral palsy. Trial registration ACTRN12611000454976 PMID:24502231

2014-01-01

48

Quality of life assessment in Southwest Oncology Group trials.  

PubMed

The Southwest Oncology Group Quality of Life Questionnaire is based on six policy recommendations adopted by the Group: 1. Always measure physical functioning, emotional functioning, symptoms, and global quality of life separately. 2. Include measures of social functioning and additional protocol-specific measures if resources permit. 3. Use patient-based questionnaires. 4. Use categorical rather than visual analogue scales. 5. Select brief questionnaires (not interviews). 6. Select quality of life measures with published psychometric properties. Three additional policy recommendations deal with procedures and issues associated with the assessment of quality of life in a Southwest Oncology Group prostate cancer trial. Communication among investigators and groups can improve access to newly developed QOL measures and assure consistent quality control procedures across cooperative group trials. PMID:2143413

Moinpour, C M; Hayden, K A; Thompson, I M; Feigl, P; Metch, B

1990-05-01

49

A phase III randomized trial of postoperative pelvic irradiation in stage IB cervical carcinoma with poor prognostic features: Follow-up of a gynecologic oncology group study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate, in a phase III randomized trial, whether postoperative external-beam irradiation to the standard pelvic field improves the recurrence-free interval and overall survival (OS) in women with Stage IB cervical cancers with negative lymph nodes and certain poor prognostic features treated by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had Stage IB cervical cancer with negative lymph nodes but with 2 or more of the following features: more than one third (deep) stromal invasion, capillary lymphatic space involvement, and tumor diameter of 4 cm or more. The study group included 277 patients: 137 randomized to pelvic irradiation (RT) and 140 randomized to observation (OBS). The planned pelvic dose was from 46 Gy in 23 fractions to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Results: Of the 67 recurrences, 24 were in the RT arm and 43 were in the OBS arm. The RT arm showed a statistically significant (46%) reduction in risk of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.54, 90% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.81, p = 0.007) and a statistically significant reduction in risk of progression or death (HR = 0.58, 90% CI = 0.40 to 0.85, p = 0.009). With RT, 8.8% of patients (3 of 34) with adenosquamous or adenocarcinoma tumors recurred vs. 44.0% (11 of 25) in OBS. Fewer recurrences were seen with RT in patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histologies relative to others (HR for RT by histology interaction = 0.23, 90% CI = 0.07 to 0.74, p = 0.019). After an extensive follow-up period, 67 deaths have occurred: 27 RT patients and 40 OBS patients. The improvement in overall survival (HR = 0.70, 90% CI = 0.45 to 1.05, p = 0.074) with RT did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Pelvic radiotherapy after radical surgery significantly reduces the risk of recurrence and prolongs progression-free survival in women with Stage IB cervical cancer. RT appears to be particularly beneficial for patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histologies. Circumstances that may have influenced the overall survival differences are considered.

Rotman, Marvin [Department of Radiation Oncology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)]. E-mail: mrotman@downstate.edu; Sedlis, Alexander [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Piedmonte, Marion R. [Gynecologic Oncology Group Statistical and Data Center, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Bundy, Brian [Gynecologic Oncology Group Statistical and Data Center, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Lentz, Samuel S. [Section on Gynecologic Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Muderspach, Laila I. [Women's and Children's Hospital, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zaino, Richard J. [Department of Pathology, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center of Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA (United States)

2006-05-01

50

Teachable Trials in the Social Studies Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the heart of the Western intellectual tradition, particularly the value it places on the critical analysis of civic life, or social studies, lies the story of a trial. If the story of a trial lies at the root of social studies, then it comes as no surprise that many teachers find that trials can serve as excellent teaching tools, especially for…

Weiner, Mark S.

2010-01-01

51

Comparative Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Long-Term Use of Imidafenacin and Solifenacin in Patients with Overactive Bladder: A Prospective, Open, Randomized, Parallel-Group Trial (the LIST Study)  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Overactive bladder (OAB) is a chronic disease, but comparative trials of anticholinergics, which are commonly used for treatment of OAB, have generally been performed for up to 12 weeks only. There is no comparative study of a long-term intervention. Methods. We conducted a 52-week prospective randomized comparative study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of two anticholinergics. Results. Forty-one Japanese patients with untreated OAB were randomly assigned to imidafenacin and solifenacin groups. There was no difference in OABSS and KHQ scores between the two groups, but the severity and incidence of adverse events caused by the anticholinergics showed increased differences between the groups with time. The severity of dry mouth and the incidence of constipation were significantly lower in the imidafenacin group (P = 0.0092 and P = 0.0013, resp.). Conclusions. This study is the first long-term trial to show differences in the properties of anticholinergics that were not detected in short-term studies. Since OAB is a chronic disease, we conclude that imidafenacin is preferable to solifenacin from a perspective of safety. PMID:22046182

Zaitsu, Masayoshi; Mikami, Koji; Ishida, Noriko; Takeuchi, Takumi

2011-01-01

52

Maximizing statistical power in group-randomized vaccine trials.  

PubMed

Statistical power in group-randomized vaccine trials is complex: group randomization may increase power by capturing more transmission effects but may decrease power as more individuals are affected by a common source of variance. The former effect dominates when most infections arise from within the group and the latter when most arise outside. This process is complicated further when individuals possess partial natural immunity. Vaccine trials typically compare infection frequency (as measured by agent or antibody detection) in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated groups. To assess the relative contributions to statistical power by direct agent detection vs. serological detection of recent infection, we constructed stochastic compartmental models using differential equations describing all possible discrete states of the group. We contrasted models where natural immunity was absent, altered only the susceptible state, or altered both the susceptible and infected states. We observed the effects of endemic infection levels, the fraction of infection arising from outside the group, infectiousness vs. susceptibility vaccine effects and waning rates. There was significant enhancement of statistical power when serological testing separated infected and susceptible classes into subsets by natural immunity status. PMID:16274496

Riggs, T; Koopman, J S

2005-12-01

53

Self-management in early-stage dementia: a pilot randomised controlled trial of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a self-management group intervention (the SMART study)  

PubMed Central

Background The possibility of living well with a long-term condition has been identified as centrally relevant to the needs of people living with dementia. Growing numbers of people with early-stage dementia are contributing accounts that emphasise the benefits of actively engaging in managing the condition. Self-management interventions share the common objectives of educating about the condition, optimising well-being, enhancing control over the situation and enabling people to take more responsibility for managing the condition. Benefits of such an approach can include improved knowledge, self-efficacy, health status, and better performance of self-management behaviours. However, there is only preliminary evidence that people with early-stage dementia can benefit from such interventions. Methods This feasibility study involves the development of a self-management group intervention for people with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia or mixed Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia. This study is a single-site pilot randomised-controlled trial. Forty-two people with early stage dementia, each with a caregiver (family member/friend), will be randomised to either the self-management group intervention or to treatment as usual. The self-management group intervention will involve eight weekly sessions, each lasting 90 minutes, held at a memory clinic in North Wales. All participants will be re-assessed three and six months post-randomisation. This study is intended to supply an early evaluation of the self-management intervention so that a full scale trial may be powered from the best available evidence. It will assess the feasibility of the intervention, the study design and the recruitment strategies. It will estimate the parameters and confidence intervals for the research questions of interest. The primary outcome of interest is the self-efficacy score of the person with dementia at three months post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes for the person with dementia are self-efficacy at six months post-randomisation and cognitive ability, mood and well-being at three and six months post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes for caregivers are their distress and stress at three and six months post-randomisation. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention will also be examined. Discussion This study will provide preliminary information about the feasibility, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a self-management group intervention for people in the early stages of dementia. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN02023181. PMID:24606601

2014-01-01

54

A Phase II Study of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy to the Pelvis for Postoperative Patients With Endometrial Carcinoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 0418  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the feasibility of pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with endometrial cancer in a multi-institutional setting and to determine whether this treatment is associated with fewer short-term bowel adverse events than standard radiation therapy. Methods: Patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium treated with pelvic radiation therapy alone were eligible. Guidelines for target definition and delineation, dose prescription, and dose-volume constraints for the targets and critical normal structures were detailed in the study protocol and a web-based atlas. Results: Fifty-eight patients were accrued by 25 institutions; 43 were eligible for analysis. Forty-two patients (98%) had an acceptable IMRT plan; 1 had an unacceptable variation from the prescribed dose to the nodal planning target volume. The proportions of cases in which doses to critical normal structures exceeded protocol criteria were as follows: bladder, 67%; rectum, 76%; bowel, 17%; and femoral heads, 33%. Twelve patients (28%) developed grade {>=}2 short-term bowel adverse events. Conclusions: Pelvic IMRT for endometrial cancer is feasible across multiple institutions with use of a detailed protocol and centralized quality assurance (QA). For future trials, contouring of vaginal and nodal tissue will need continued monitoring with good QA and better definitions will be needed for organs at risk.

Jhingran, Anuja, E-mail: ajhingra@mdanderson.org [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Winter, Kathryn [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Portelance, Lorraine [University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States)] [University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Miller, Brigitte [Carolinas Medical Center North East, Concord, North Carolina (United States)] [Carolinas Medical Center North East, Concord, North Carolina (United States); Salehpour, Mohammad [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gaur, Rakesh [St. Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri (United States)] [St. Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri (United States); Souhami, Luis [McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Small, William [Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illionis (United States)] [Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illionis (United States); Berk, Lawrence [H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States)] [H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Gaffney, David [Huntsman Cancer Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States)] [Huntsman Cancer Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States)

2012-09-01

55

A three-group study, internet-based, face-to-face based and standard- management after acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD) – choosing the most efficient and cost-effective treatment: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The management of Whiplash Associated Disorders is one of the most complicated challenges with high expenses for the health care system and society. There are still no general guidelines or scientific documentation to unequivocally support any single treatment for acute care following whiplash injury. The main purpose of this study is to try a new behavioural medicine intervention strategy at acute phase aimed to reduce the number of patients who have persistent problems after the whiplash injury. The goal is also to identify which of three different interventions that is most cost-effective for patients with Whiplash Associated Disorders. In this study we are controlling for two factors. First, the effect of behavioural medicine approach is compared with standard care. Second, the manner in which the behavioural medicine treatment is administered, Internet or face-to-face, is evaluated in it's effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design The study is a randomized, prospective, experimental three-group study with analyses of cost-effectiveness up to two-years follow-up. Internet – based programme and face-to-face group treatment programme are compared to standard-treatment only. Patient follow-ups take place three, six, twelve and 24 months, that is, short-term as well as long-term effects are evaluated. Patients will be enrolled via the emergency ward during the first week after the accident. Discussion This new self-help management will concentrate to those psychosocial factors that are shown to be predictive in long-term problems in Whiplash Associated Disorders, i.e. the importance of self-efficacy, fear of movement, and the significance of catastrophizing as a coping strategy for restoring and sustaining activities of daily life. Within the framework of this project, we will develop, broaden and evaluate current physical therapy treatment methods for acute Whiplash Associated Disorders. The project will contribute to the creation of a cost-effective behavioural medicine approach to management of acute Whiplash Associated Disorders. The results of this study will answer an important question; on what extent and how should these patients be treated at acute stage and how much does the best management cost. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN61531337 PMID:19624833

Söderlund, Anne; Bring, Annika; Åsenlöf, Pernilla

2009-01-01

56

Weight and Lean Body Mass Change with Antiretroviral Initiation and Impact on Bone Mineral Density: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5224s  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the effect initiating different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens have on weight, body mass index (BMI), and lean body mass (LBM) and explore how changes in body composition are associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Methods A5224s was a substudy of A5202, a prospective trial of 1857 ART-naïve participants randomized to blinded abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r). All subjects underwent dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal CT for body composition. Analyses used 2-sample t-tests and linear regression. Results A5224s included 269 subjects: 85% male, 47% white non-Hispanic, median age 38 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/mL, and CD4 233 cells/µL. Overall, significant gains occurred in weight, BMI, and LBM at 96 weeks post randomization (all p<0.001). Assignment to ATV/r (vs EFV) resulted in significantly greater weight (mean difference 3.35 kg) and BMI gain (0.88 kg/m2; both p=0.02), but not LBM (0.67 kg; p=0.15), while ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC were not significantly different (p?0.10). In multivariable analysis, only lower baseline CD4 count and higher HIV-1 RNA were associated with greater increase in weight, BMI, or LBM. In multivariable analyses, increased LBM was associated with an increased hip BMD. Conclusions ABC/3TC vs. TDF/FTC did not differ in change in weight, BMI, or LBM; ATV/r vs. EFV resulted in greater weight and BMI gain but not LBM. A positive association between increased LBM and increased hip BMD should be further investigated through prospective interventional studies to verify the impact of increased LBM on hip BMD. PMID:24384588

Erlandson, Kristine Mace; Kitch, Douglas; Tierney, Camlin; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Tebas, Pablo; Melbourne, Kathleen; Ha, Belinda; Jahed, Nasreen C.; Mccomsey, Grace A.

2014-01-01

57

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for mantle cell lymphoma--final report from the prospective trials of the East German Study Group Haematology/Oncology (OSHO).  

PubMed

This study was conducted in order to evaluate allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) as consolidation for patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Patients with MCL were included into two prospective trials OSHO #060 (refractory/relapsed) and #074 (de novo). Induction was rituximab and chemotherapy. Responding patients proceeded to alloSCT. Minimal residual disease was monitored by quantitative RT-PCR detecting either t(11;14) or clonospecific CDR-III regions. In case of circulating lymphoma cells, immunomodulation (cyclosporine A withdrawal, rituximab, donor lymphocyte infusion) was initiated. Thirty-three of 39 patients underwent alloSCT after myeloablative (n?=?7) or toxicity-reduced (n?=?26) conditioning. Leukocytes engrafted at day +16 (median, range 0-101) and platelets at day +14 (0-142). Acute graft-versus-host disease stages I-II occurred in 42 % and stages III-IV in 15 %. Five patients have relapsed after SCT. The overall mortality after SCT was 24 % (n?=?8). Median follow-up after SCT was 2.8 years (range 0.0-10.9). Five-year progression-free survival was 67 %, and overall survival 73 % after SCT. The results were comparable for primary MCL and refractory/relapsed disease as well as for related vs. unrelated SCT. Younger patients had a significantly better outcome than the elderly. AlloSCT is a feasible and promising consolidation therapy for relapsed and refractory disease and an attractive option for young patients with de novo MCL of high risk. PMID:24782119

Krüger, William H; Hirt, Carsten; Basara, Nadezda; Sayer, Herbert G; Behre, Gerhard; Fischer, Thomas; Grobe, Norbert; Maschmeyer, Georg; Niederwieser, Dietger; Dölken, Gottfried

2014-09-01

58

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study evaluated the effectiveness of adjunctive cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) to prevent recurrence of episodes in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Methods: A randomized controlled single-blind trial was conducted with 50 patients with bipolar disorder types I and II followed up for at least 12 months in an outpatient service and whose disease was in remission. An

B. C. Gomes; L. N. Abreu; E. Brietzke; S. C. Caetano; A. Kleinman; F. G. Nery; B. Lafer

2011-01-01

59

Standard versus prosocial online support groups for distressed breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet can increase access to psychosocial care for breast cancer survivors through online support groups. This study will test a novel prosocial online group that emphasizes both opportunities for getting and giving help. Based on the helper therapy principle, it is hypothesized that the addition of structured helping opportunities and coaching on how to help others online will increase the psychological benefits of a standard online group. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled trial with pretest and posttest. Non-metastatic breast cancer survivors with elevated psychological distress will be randomized to either a standard facilitated online group or to a prosocial facilitated online group, which combines online exchanges of support with structured helping opportunities (blogging, breast cancer outreach) and coaching on how best to give support to others. Validated and reliable measures will be administered to women approximately one month before and after the interventions. Self-esteem, positive affect, and sense of belonging will be tested as potential mediators of the primary outcomes of depressive/anxious symptoms and sense of purpose in life. Discussion This study will test an innovative approach to maximizing the psychological benefits of cancer online support groups. The theory-based prosocial online support group intervention model is sustainable, because it can be implemented by private non-profit or other organizations, such as cancer centers, which mostly offer face-to-face support groups with limited patient reach. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01396174 PMID:21867502

2011-01-01

60

The ANU WellBeing study: a protocol for a quasi-factorial randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of an Internet support group and an automated Internet intervention for depression  

PubMed Central

Background Recent projections suggest that by the year 2030 depression will be the primary cause of disease burden among developed countries. Delivery of accessible consumer-focused evidenced-based services may be an important element in reducing this burden. Many consumers report a preference for self-help modes of delivery. The Internet offers a promising modality for delivering such services and there is now evidence that automated professionally developed self-help psychological interventions can be effective. By contrast, despite their popularity, there is little evidence as to the effectiveness of Internet support groups which provide peer-to-peer mutual support. Methods/Design Members of the community with elevated psychological distress were randomised to receive one of the following: (1) Internet Support Group (ISG) intervention, (2) a multi-module automated psychoeducational and skills Internet Training Program (ITP), (3) a combination of the ISG and ITP, or (4) an Internet Attention Control website (IAC) comprising health and wellbeing information and question and answer modules. Each intervention was 12 weeks long. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-intervention, 6 and 12 months to examine depressive symptoms, social support, self-esteem, quality of life, depression literacy, stigma and help-seeking for depression. Participants were recruited through a screening postal survey sent to 70,000 Australians aged 18 to 65 years randomly selected from four rural and four metropolitan regions in Australia. Discussion To our knowledge this study is the first randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of a depression ISG. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN65657330. PMID:20211025

2010-01-01

61

Cluster randomized trial on the effect of mother support groups on retention-in-care and PMTCT outcomes in Zimbabwe: study design, challenges, and national relevance.  

PubMed

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) elimination goals are hampered by low rates of retention and antiretroviral treatment adherence. The Eliminating Pediatric AIDS in Zimbabwe (EPAZ) project is assessing whether mother support groups (MSGs) increase rates of retention-in-care of HIV-positive mothers and their exposed infants, increase male participation, and improve other maternal and infant health outcomes. EPAZ is a cluster randomized study involving 30 rural facilities in 2 health districts in Mutare province in eastern Zimbabwe. Facilities were randomly assigned to either the standard-of-care or intervention arms. We established MSGs for HIV-positive mothers at the 15 health facilities in the intervention arm. MSGs met every 2 weeks and were led by an HIV-positive mother who was appointed as MSG coordinator (MSG-C). MSG-Cs contacted nonattending patient-members of support groups by cell phone. If members still do not attend, MSG-Cs inform a health worker who initiates further outreach actions that are standard within the health system. At least 10 HIV-positive mothers are enrolled per facility. Enrollment started in July 2014. The primary outcome measure is retention-in-care of HIV-exposed infants at 12 months of age. Secondary outcome measures are: retention-in-care of HIV-positive mothers at 12 months postpartum, male participation, and other maternal and child health indicators. The study relies on routine health system data supplemented by additional data using tools created for the study. If shown to improve PMTCT retention outcomes, facility-based MSGs have the potential to be scaled up throughout the Zimbabwe National PMTCT program and could be considered in other country programs. PMID:25310121

Foster, Geoff; Kangwende, Abigail; Magezi, Vhumani; Maphosa, Talent; Mashapa, Richard; Mukora-Mutseyekwa, Fadzai; Mushavi, Angela; Rusakaniko, Simba; Shumba, Bridget; Zambezi, Pemberai

2014-11-01

62

Marketing and clinical trials: a case study  

E-print Network

commitment recently, however, it has been recognised that good man- agement and effective marketing are also essential to ena- ble sufficient numbers of participating centres and patients to be recruited so that the study has enough sta- tistical power [1... J, Lomas G: Effect of intravenous corticosteroids on death within 14 days in 10008 adults with clinically significant head injury (MRC CRASH trial): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2004, 364(9442):1321-1328. 13. Layder D: Sociological...

Francis, David; Roberts, Ian; Elbourne, Diana; Shakur, Haleema K; Knight, Rosemary C; Garcia, Jo; Snowdon, Claire; Entwistle, Vikki A; McDonald, Alison M; Grant, Adrian M; Campbell, Marion K

2007-11-20

63

Does Quality of Radiation Therapy Predict Outcomes of Multicenter Cooperative Group Trials? A Literature Review  

SciTech Connect

Central review of radiation therapy (RT) delivery within multicenter clinical trials was initiated in the early 1970s in the United States. Early quality assurance publications often focused on metrics related to process, logistics, and timing. Our objective was to review the available evidence supporting correlation of RT quality with clinical outcomes within cooperative group trials. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify multicenter studies that described central subjective assessment of RT protocol compliance (quality). Data abstracted included method of central review, definition of deviations, and clinical outcomes. Seventeen multicenter studies (1980-2012) were identified, plus one Patterns of Care Study. Disease sites were hematologic, head and neck, lung, breast, and pancreas. Between 0 and 97% of treatment plans received an overall grade of acceptable. In 7 trials, failure rates were significantly higher after inadequate versus adequate RT. Five of 9 and 2 of 5 trials reported significantly worse overall and progression-free survival after poor-quality RT, respectively. One reported a significant correlation, and 2 reported nonsignificant trends toward increased toxicity with noncompliant RT. Although more data are required, protocol-compliant RT may decrease failure rates and increase overall survival and likely contributes to the ability of collected data to answer the central trial question.

Fairchild, Alysa, E-mail: alysa.fairchild@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Straube, William [Advanced Technology Consortium, Imaged-Guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Laurie, Fran [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, Rhode Island (United States); Followill, David [Radiological Physics Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre, Houston, Texas (United States)

2013-10-01

64

A randomized controlled trial comparing laparoscopic surgery with open surgery in palliative resection of primary tumor in incurable Stage IV colorectal cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG 1107 (ENCORE trial).  

PubMed

A randomized controlled trial was started in Japan to evaluate the non-inferiority of overall survival of laparoscopic surgery to open surgery for palliative resection of primary tumor in incurable Stage IV colorectal cancer. Symptomatic, Stage IV colorectal cancer patients with non-curable metastasis are pre-operatively randomized to either open or laparoscopic colorectal resection. Surgeons in 56 specialized institutions will recruit 450 patients. The primary endpoint is overall survival. Secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, the proportion of conversion from laparoscopic surgery to open surgery, the proportion of patients who fulfill the criteria of starting chemotherapy by 6 weeks after operation, intraoperative and post-operative complications, adverse events during chemotherapy and serious adverse events. PMID:25156683

Inomata, Masafumi; Akagi, Tomonori; Katayama, Hiroshi; Kimura, Aya; Mizusawa, Junki; Etoh, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Shigeki; Ito, Masaaki; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Saida, Yoshihisa; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Kitano, Seigo

2014-11-01

65

Glossary -ClinicalTrials.gov Home Search Study Topics Glossary  

E-print Network

of drugs. Onset may be sudden or develop over time (See Side Effects). ADVOCACY AND SUPPORT GROUPS in clinical trials. ADVERSE REACTION: (Adverse Event.) An unwanted effect caused by the administration is a research study to answer specific questions about vaccines or new therapies or new ways of using known

Quirk, Gregory J.

66

Information-based sample size re-estimation in group sequential design for longitudinal trials.  

PubMed

Group sequential design has become more popular in clinical trials because it allows for trials to stop early for futility or efficacy to save time and resources. However, this approach is less well-known for longitudinal analysis. We have observed repeated cases of studies with longitudinal data where there is an interest in early stopping for a lack of treatment effect or in adapting sample size to correct for inappropriate variance assumptions. We propose an information-based group sequential design as a method to deal with both of these issues. Updating the sample size at each interim analysis makes it possible to maintain the target power while controlling the type I error rate. We will illustrate our strategy with examples and simulations and compare the results with those obtained using fixed design and group sequential design without sample size re-estimation. PMID:24797715

Zhou, Jing; Adewale, Adeniyi; Shentu, Yue; Liu, Jiajun; Anderson, Keaven

2014-09-28

67

Combined immunization of infants with oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines: results of a randomized trial in The Gambia, Oman, and Thailand. WHO Collaborative Study Group on Oral and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccines.  

PubMed Central

To assess an immunization schedule combining oral (OPV) and inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV), we conducted a clinical trial in the Gambia, Oman, and Thailand. Children were randomized to receive one of the following schedules: OPV at birth, 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age; OPV at birth followed by both OPV and IPV at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age: or placebo at birth followed by IPV at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. A total of 1685 infants were enrolled; 24-week serum specimens were available for 1291 infants (77%). Across the study sites at 24 weeks of age, the proportion of seropositive children in the combined schedule group was 95-99% for type 1, 99-100% for type 2, and 97-100% for type 3. In the Gambia and Oman, the combined schedule performed significantly better than OPV for type 1 (95-97% versus 88-90%) and type 3 (97-99% versus 72-73%). In the Gambia and Oman, seroprevalences in the IPV group were lower for type 1 (significantly lower in the Gambia); significantly lower for type 2; and significantly higher for type 3, compared with the OPV group. In Thailand, the IPV group had significantly lower proportions of children who were seropositive for each of the three types, compared with the OPV group. The responses to OPV in the Gambia, Oman, and Thailand were consistent with previous studies from these countries. IPV given at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age provided inadequate serological protection against poliovirus, especially type 1. The combined schedule provided the highest levels of serum antibody response, with mucosal immunity equivalent to that produced by OPV alone. PMID:8789924

1996-01-01

68

Phase II Study of Bevacizumab in Combination with Sorafenib in Recurrent Glioblastoma (N0776): A North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial1  

PubMed Central

Purpose We hypothesized that vertical blockade of VEGF signaling by combining bevacizumab with sorafenib in recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) patients would result in a synergistic therapeutic effect. We also investigated whether VEGF, VEGFR2, and HIF-1? single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), circulating biomarkers of angiogenesis and Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging markers, such as apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), correlated with treatment efficacy and/or toxicity. Patients/Methods Patients received bevacizumab (5 mg/kg every 2 weeks) with sorafenib (200 mg bid, weekly, days 1-5) (Group A), but due to toxicity the starting sorafenib dose was subsequently modified to 200 mg qd (Group B). Results 54 patients were enrolled: 19 patients in Group A and 35 in Group B. Objective response rate was 18.5% with median duration of 6.7 mo (range 0.5-24.1 mo). Six-month progression free survival (PFS6) was 20.4% (11/54), and median OS was 5.6 months (95% CI 4.7 – 8.2); outcome was similar between the two dose groups. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in the VEGF and VEGFR2 promoter regions which were associated with PFS6 (p<0.022). Among molecular markers of angiogenesis, a higher log2 baseline level of stromal cell derived factor-1 was associated with PFS6 success (p=0.04). The circulating endothelial cell log2-fold decreased during treatment with subsequent increase at disease progression (p=0.022). Imaging analysis demonstrated a trend associating ADC-L with poor outcome. Conclusions The bevacizumab/sorafenib combination did not improve outcome of recurrent GBM patients versus historic bevacizumab treated controls. Biologic markers of response and resistance to bevacizumab in gliomas were identified which merit prospective validation. PMID:23833308

Galanis, Evanthia; Anderson, S. Keith; Lafky, Jackie M.; Uhm, Joon H.; Giannini, Caterina; Kumar, Shaji K.; Kimlinger, Teresa K.; Northfelt, Donald W.; Flynn, Patrick J.; Jaeckle, Kurt A.; Kaufmann, Timothy J.; Buckner, Jan C.

2013-01-01

69

Dose selection trial of metronomic oral vinorelbine monotherapy in patients with metastatic cancer: a hellenic cooperative oncology group clinical translational study  

PubMed Central

Background Metronomic chemotherapy is considered an anti-angiogenic therapy that involves chronic administration of low-dose chemotherapy at regular short intervals. We investigated the optimal metronomic dose of oral vinorelbine when given as monotherapy in patients with metastatic cancer. Methods Patients with recurrent metastatic breast (BC), prostate (PC) or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and adequate organ functions were randomly assigned to 30, 40 or 50 mg vinorelbine, taken orally three times a week. Treatment continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, withdrawal of consent or maximum 24 months. Primary endpoint was time-to-treatment failure (TTF) and secondary were progression-free survival (PFS), toxicity, changes in blood concentrations of angiogenesis-associated biomarkers and pharmacokinetics. Results Seventy-three patients were enrolled. Four-month TTF rate did not differ between the three arms: 25.9% (11.1%-46.2% 95% Confidence Interval), 33.3% (15.6%-55.3%) and 18.2% (5.2%-40.3%) for the 30 mg, 40 mg and 50 mg arms (p-value?=?0.56). Objective response was seen in 2 patients with NSCLC (treated at 30 and 50 mg respectively), one with BC (at 40 m g) and one with PC (at 50 mg) and lasted from 4 to 100 weeks, with maximum response duration achieved at 50 mg. Adverse events were mild and negligible and did not differ between the three arms. Blood levels of vinorelbine reached steady state from the second week of treatment and mean values for the 30, 40 and 50 mg were respectively 1.8 ng/ml (SD 1.10), 2.2 ng/ml (SD 1.87) and 2.6 ng/ml (SD 0.69). Low pre-treatment blood concentrations of FGF2 and IL8 predicted favorable response to therapy (p values 0.02 and 0.006, respectively), while high levels of TEK gene transcript predicted treatment resistance. Conclusions Considering the antitumor activity and response duration, the negligible toxicity of the highest dose investigated and the lack of drug accumulation over time, we suggest that 50 mg given three times a week is the optimal dose for metronomic oral vinorelbine. Further investigation of metronomic oral vinorelbine (MOVIN) at this dose is warranted in combination with conventional chemotherapy regimens and targeted therapies. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00278070 PMID:23718900

2013-01-01

70

Community mobilisation with women's groups facilitated by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) to improve maternal and newborn health in underserved areas of Jharkhand and Orissa: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Around a quarter of the world's neonatal and maternal deaths occur in India. Morbidity and mortality are highest in rural areas and among the poorest wealth quintiles. Few interventions to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes with government-mandated community health workers have been rigorously evaluated at scale in this setting. The study aims to assess the impact of a community mobilisation intervention with women's groups facilitated by ASHAs to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes among rural tribal communities of Jharkhand and Orissa. Methods/design The study is a cluster-randomised controlled trial and will be implemented in five districts, three in Jharkhand and two in Orissa. The unit of randomisation is a rural cluster of approximately 5000 population. We identified villages within rural, tribal areas of five districts, approached them for participation in the study and enrolled them into 30 clusters, with approximately 10 ASHAs per cluster. Within each district, 6 clusters were randomly allocated to receive the community intervention or to the control group, resulting in 15 intervention and 15 control clusters. Randomisation was carried out in the presence of local stakeholders who selected the cluster numbers and allocated them to intervention or control using a pre-generated random number sequence. The intervention is a participatory learning and action cycle where ASHAs support community women's groups through a four-phase process in which they identify and prioritise local maternal and newborn health problems, implement strategies to address these and evaluate the result. The cycle is designed to fit with the ASHAs' mandate to mobilise communities for health and to complement their other tasks, including increasing institutional delivery rates and providing home visits to mothers and newborns. The trial's primary endpoint is neonatal mortality during 24 months of intervention. Additional endpoints include home care practices and health care-seeking in the antenatal, delivery and postnatal period. The impact of the intervention will be measured through a prospective surveillance system implemented by the project team, through which mothers will be interviewed around six weeks after delivery. Cost data and qualitative data are collected for cost-effectiveness and process evaluations. Study registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN31567106 PMID:21787392

2011-01-01

71

The EC randomised controlled trial of prophylactic ethamsylate for very preterm neonates: early mortality and morbidity. The EC Ethamsylate Trial Group.  

PubMed Central

Immature infants are at increased risk of death and disability, often related to haemorrhagic and ischaemic brain damage. Two controlled trials have suggested that a policy of prophylactic ethamsylate may reduce this damage. The aim of the trial reported here was to assess the effects of such a policy in respect of death, disability, and the use of health service resources up to 2 years of age. Short term findings are reported here. Three hundred and thirty four immature (< or = 32 weeks' gestation) infants were recruited into the trial within four hours of birth from four centres in France and six in Greece. Almost all 165 infants allocated to the ethamsylate group received the drug, compared with one of the 169 infants in the control group. By about 3 months of age the trial groups were similar in terms of death (20% in the two groups), any diagnosis of periventricular or intraventricular haemorrhage (35% in the ethamsylate v 37% in the control group), or major cerebral abnormality assessed by ultrasound (13% v 12%). The trial provides little evidence to support the use of ethamsylate for routine prophylaxis. The confidence intervals are wide, however, and so these results alone cannot rule out a clinically useful benefit or a harmful effect. A follow up study of the surviving children at the age of 2 years is in progress. PMID:8198414

1994-01-01

72

Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

Tokumaru, Sunao, E-mail: tokumaru@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Saga University, Saga (Japan)] [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Toita, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Radiation Oncology Department, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan)] [Radiation Oncology Department, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan)] [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Niibe, Yuzuru [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan); Kazumoto, Tomoko [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Masaaki [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Kenjo, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamauchi, Chikako [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tuskuba (Japan)] [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tuskuba (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan)] [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu [Department of Radiology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); and others

2012-10-01

73

Usual and Unusual Care: Existing Practice Control Groups In Randomized Controlled Trials of Behavioral Interventions  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the use of existing practice control groups in randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions, and the role of extrinsic healthcare services in the design and conduct of behavioral trials. Method Selective qualitative review. Results Extrinsic healthcare services, also known as nonstudy care, have important but under-recognized effects on the design and conduct of behavioral trials. Usual care, treatment as usual, standard of care, and other existing practice control groups pose a variety of methodological and ethical challenges, but they play a vital role in behavioral intervention research. Conclusion This review highlights the need for a scientific consensus statement on control groups in behavioral trials. PMID:21536837

Freedland, Kenneth E.; Mohr, David C.; Davidson, Karina W.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

2011-01-01

74

A phase III trial of surgery with or without adjunctive external pelvic radiation therapy in intermediate risk endometrial adenocarcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Despite their low risk for recurrence, many women with endometrial adenocarcinoma receive postoperative radiation therapy (RT). This study was developed to determine if adjunctive external beam irradiation lowers the risk of recurrence and death in women with endometrial cancer International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages IB, IC, and II (occult disease).Methods. Four hundred forty-eight consenting patients with

Henry M Keys; James A Roberts; Virginia L Brunetto; Richard J Zaino; Nick M Spirtos; Jeffrey D Bloss; Andrew Pearlman; Mitchell A Maiman; Jeffrey G Bell

2004-01-01

75

Central nervous system-directed therapy in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and studies of neurobehavioral outcome: children’s cancer group trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term survival rates in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have improved due, in part, to the introduction and\\u000a subsequent refinements in central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy. Studies of cognitive, motor, and behavioral functioning,\\u000a which characterize the patterns and severity of CNS sequelae, are being used increasingly as measurable treatment endpoints.\\u000a This paper summarizes the advances in CNS-directed therapy derived from

Thomas A. Kaleita

2002-01-01

76

ALTS Trial Design and Study Centers  

Cancer.gov

Epidemiologic, virologic and molecular studies have clearly demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the central cause of cervical cancer. The motivation for the ALTS trial was to use the information we have gained about the role of HPV to design better treatment and prevention strategies to reduce the burden of cervical cancer and its precursors.

77

Anemia during adjuvant non-taxane chemotherapy for early breast cancer: Incidence and risk factors from two trials of the International Breast Cancer Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal of the work  Anemia is a common side effect of chemotherapy. Limited information exists about its incidence and risk factors. The objective\\u000a of this study was to evaluate the incidence of anemia and risk factors for anemia occurrence in patients with early breast\\u000a cancer who received adjuvant chemotherapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We evaluated risk factors for anemia in pre- and post\\/perimenopausal

Lorenzo Gianni; Bernard F. Cole; Ilaria Panzini; Raymond Snyder; Stig B. Holmberg; Michael Byrne; Diana Crivellari; Marco Colleoni; Stefan Aebi; Edda Simoncini; Olivia Pagani; Monica Castiglione-Gertsch; Karen N. Price; Aron Goldhirsch; Alan S. Coates; Alberto Ravaioli

2008-01-01

78

A Phase II trial of epothilone B analogue BMS-247550 (NSC #710428) ixabepilone, in patients with advanced pancreas cancer: A Southwest Oncology Group study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Purpose: The purpose of this Phase II multi-institutional study was to define the efficacy and toxicity of ixabepilone in patients\\u000a with advance pancreatic adenocarcinoma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods: Patients were required to have pancreatic adenocarcinoma and metastatic or recurrent disease that was not amenable to curative\\u000a resection. Performance status was 0-1, and patients could not have had prior chemotherapy, or

Robert P. Whitehead; Sheryl McCoy; Saul E. Rivkin; Howard M. Gross; Marcel E. Conrad; Gary C. Doolittle; Robert A. Wolff; J. Wendall Goodwin; Shaker R. Dakhil; James L. Abbruzzese

2006-01-01

79

A Phase 1 Trial of Imetelstat in Children with Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors: A Children’s Oncology Group Phase 1 Consortium Study (ADVL1112)  

PubMed Central

Purpose Imetelstat is a covalently-lipidated 13-mer thiophosphoramidate oligonucleotide that acts as a potent specific inhibitor of telomerase. It binds with high affinity to the template region of the RNA component of human telomerase (hTERC ) and is a competitive inhibitor of telomerase enzymatic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the recommended phase 2 dose of imetelstat in children with recurrent or refractory solid tumors. Experimental Design Imetelstat was administered intravenously over two hours on days 1 and 8, every 21 days. Dose levels of 225, 285, and 360 mg/m2 were evaluated, using the rolling-six design. Imetelstat pharmacokinetic and correlative biology studies were also performed during the first cycle. Results Twenty subjects were enrolled (median age 14 yrs; range 3–21). Seventeen were evaluable for toxicity. The most common toxicities were neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and lymphopenia, with dose-limiting myelosuppression in two of six patients at 360 mg/m2. Pharmacokinetics were dose dependent with a lower clearance at the highest dose level. Telomerase inhibition was observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at 285 and 360 mg/m2. Two confirmed partial responses osteosarcoma (n=1) and Ewing sarcoma (n=1) were observed. Conclusions The recommended phase 2 dose of imetelstat given on days 1 and 8 of 21-day cycle is 285 mg/m2. PMID:24097866

Thompson, Patrick A.; Drissi, Rachid; Muscal, Jodi A.; Panditharatna, Eshini; Fouladi, Maryam; Ingle, Ashish M.; Ahern, Charlotte H.; Reid, Joel M.; Lin, Tong; Weigel, Brenda J.; Blaney, Susan M.

2014-01-01

80

Exploring mediators of accelerometer assessed physical activity in young adolescents in the HEalth In Adolescents study – a group randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background There is a shortage of information about the factors that mediate physical activity intervention effects which involve youth. The purpose of this study was to examine whether personal, social and physical-environmental factors mediated the intervention effect on physical activity and whether gender and weight status moderated mediated effects in the Health In Adolescents Study – a school-based intervention to promote healthy weight development among young adolescents. Methods Participating schools were randomized to Control (n?=?25) and Intervention (n?=?12). The intervention components to enhance physical activity targeted change through theoretically informed mediators embedded in a social-ecological framework. Accelerometer assessed physical activity (mean count per minute) and self-efficacy, enjoyment, perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends and perceived environmental opportunities were measured by questionnaires at baseline and post-intervention after 20?months among 700 11–13?year-old adolescents (Intervention?=?485; Control?=?215). The product-of-coefficient test was used to examine mediation. Results No mediating effect of any of the hypothesized mediators was identified and gender and weight status did not moderate any mediated effects with the exception of weight status that moderated the mediated effect of enjoyment. Few intervention effects were seen on the mediators, except for a positive change in social support from teachers among girls and the normal weight, and a negative effect on enjoyment and self-efficacy among the overweight. However, change in enjoyment, self-efficacy, perceived social support from friends and environmental opportunities were associated with change in mean count per minute with some variation across the investigated subgroups, and thus show evidence of being potential mediators of physical activity change in adolescents. Conclusions While no mediation effects were observed, change in both personal and social-environmental factors predicted change in physical activity behavior. Hence, a social- ecological approach targeting a wide range of determinants to promote change in physical activity holds promise. Overweight and normal weight adolescents may not respond in the same way to school-based physical activity interventions. Therefore, strategies to better reach the overweight seem needed. Future studies should continue to identify mediating and moderation mechanisms in physical activity change in adolescents. PMID:22995043

2012-01-01

81

A multi-institutional comparative trial of radiation therapy alone and in combination with 5-fluorouracil for locally unresectable pancreatic carcinoma. The Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group.  

PubMed

One hundred six patients with histologically confirmed pancreatic carcinoma were randomized to one of three radiation treatment programs: 1) radiation therapy alone to 6000 rads; 2) 6000 rads plus 6-FU; or, 3) 4000 rads plus 5-FU. Patient survival was the primary study parameter. Both 4000 rads plus 5-FU (p less than .02) and 6000 rads plus 5-FU (p less than .01) were associated with a significantly longer patient survival than 6000 rads alone. Respective median survivals were 36 weeks, 40 weeks, and 20 weeks. The survival difference between 4000 rads plus 5-FU and 6000 rads plus 5-FU was not statistically significant at the time point selected. PMID:426553

1979-02-01

82

Rationale and design of the HepZero study: a prospective, multicenter, international, open, randomized, controlled clinical study with parallel groups comparing heparin-free dialysis with heparin-coated dialysis membrane (Evodial) versus standard care: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Anticoagulation for chronic dialysis patients with contraindications to heparin administration is challenging. Current guidelines state that in patients with increased bleeding risks, strategies that can induce systemic anticoagulation should be avoided. Heparin-free dialysis using intermittent saline flushes is widely adopted as the method of choice for patients at risk of bleeding, although on-line blood predilution may also be used. A new dialyzer, Evodial (Gambro, Lund, Sweden), is grafted with unfractionated heparin during the manufacturing process and may allow safe and efficient heparin-free hemodialysis sessions. In the present trial, Evodial was compared to standard care with either saline flushes or blood predilution. Methods The HepZero study is the first international (seven countries), multicenter (10 centers), randomized, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority (and if applicable subsequently, superiority) trial with two parallel groups, comprising 252 end-stage renal disease patients treated by maintenance hemodialysis for at least 3 months and requiring heparin-free dialysis treatments. Patients will be treated during a maximum of three heparin-free dialysis treatments with either saline flushes or blood predilution (control group), or Evodial. The first heparin-free dialysis treatment will be considered successful when there is: no complete occlusion of air traps or dialyzer rendering dialysis impossible; no additional saline flushes to prevent clotting; no change of dialyzer or blood lines because of clotting; and no premature termination (early rinse-back) because of clotting. The primary objectives of the study are to determine the effectiveness of the Evodial dialyzer, compared with standard care in terms of successful treatments during the first heparin-free dialysis. If the non-inferiority of Evodial is demonstrated then the superiority of Evodial over standard care will be tested. The HepZero study results may have major clinical implications for patient care. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01318486 PMID:23725299

2013-01-01

83

Phase II trial with ISIS 5132 in patients with small-cell (SCLC) and non-small cell (NSCLC) lung cancer. A European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Early Clinical Studies Group report.  

PubMed

Two multicentre phase II trials were designed to determine if tumour responses can be achieved in progressive small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with ISIS 5132, an inhibitor of C-raf kinase mRNA expression (CGP 69846A; ISIS Pharmaceuticals Inc, Carlsbad, CA), and to further characterise the safety of the compound. Between August 1998 and November 1999, 26 patients (18 NSCLC, 8 SCLC) were entered. Out of these, 23 were eligible, 22 (18 NSCLC, 4 SCLC) were treated with ISIS 5132 (2 mg/kg/day, 21 days continuous intravenous (i.v.) infusion every 4 weeks) and were evaluable for toxicity and 18 (15 NSCLC, 3 SCLC) were evaluable for efficacy. For the whole group haematological toxicity did not exceed grade 2. One patient experienced a grade 4 increased prothrombin time. Non-haematological toxicity was mild to moderate, with the observation of asthenia and nausea and vomiting. Progressive disease (PD) was diagnosed in 10 patients (8 NSCLC and 2 SCLC). 8 more patients (7 NSCLC, 1 SCLC) were considered as treatment failures. In conclusion, this study using ISIS 5132 with this dose and schedule of administration excludes a 20% response rate with 95% confidence intervals for NSCLC and cannot draw any conclusions for SCLC patients as only a few were involved in the study. PMID:11677106

Coudert, B; Anthoney, A; Fiedler, W; Droz, J P; Dieras, V; Borner, M; Smyth, J F; Morant, R; de Vries, M J; Roelvink, M; Fumoleau, P

2001-11-01

84

Non-randomized confirmatory trial of modified radical hysterectomy for patients with tumor diameter 2 cm or less FIGO Stage IB1 uterine cervical cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study (JCOG1101).  

PubMed

A non-randomized confirmatory trial was started in Japan to evaluate the efficacy of modified radical hysterectomy in patients with tumor diameter 2 cm or less FIGO Stage IB1 uterine cervical cancer, for which the current standard is radical hysterectomy. This study began in January 2013 and a total of 240 patients will be accrued from 37 institutions within 3 years. The primary endpoint is 5-year survival. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, relapse-free survival, local relapse-free survival, percent completion of modified radical hysterectomy, percent local relapse, percent pathological parametrial involvement, days until self-urination and residual urine disappearance, blood loss, operation time, percent post-operative radiation therapy, adverse events and severe adverse events. This trial was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN 000009726 (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/). PMID:25368103

Kunieda, Futoshi; Kasamatsu, Takahiro; Arimoto, Takahide; Onda, Takashi; Toita, Takafumi; Shibata, Taro; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Kamura, Toshiharu

2015-01-01

85

Costs of quality-of-life research in Southwest Oncology Group trials.  

PubMed

Quality-of-life (QOL) research in Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) trials has achieved increasing support over the past 5 years. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the cost of performing QOL research in SWOG trials. During the month of January 1995, we tracked staff time expended for QOL tasks at the SWOG's Operations Office and Statistical Center. Of interest was a description of average costs per patient enrolled in existing SWOG trials (both open and closed), including protocol development, ongoing data monitoring, and QOL data analysis. The findings emphasize the personnel-intensive nature of this research and highlight the role of "start-up" costs, especially in terms of programmer time. It is estimated that average monthly direct costs associated with implementing a QOL study and monitoring and analyzing QOL data over the life cycles of current and closed SWOG QOL protocols are $7304; a $443 per QOL patient total cost figure is also presented. Costs associated with initiating QOL research in cooperative groups are substantial (4-5-year start-up investment) but are expected to decline after systems for monitoring, retrieving, and analyzing QOL data are in place. Funding issues are addressed. PMID:8750461

Moinpour, C M

1996-01-01

86

Pitfalls in quality-of-life assessment: lessons from a Southwest Oncology Group breast cancer clinical trial.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in evaluating the impact of cancer treatment and medical intervention on patient quality of life (QOL). This article reports the findings of a substudy that incorporated the Functional Living Index--Cancer in an ongoing adjuvant breast cancer clinical trial sponsored by the Southwest Oncology Group. The companion study had to be terminated prior to the end of the two-armed, randomized trial because of poor reporting rates over time. Problems with missing data items also occurred. Poor reporting rates in this trial motivated several recommendations for conducting QOL assessment in the cooperative group setting: (a) build support for QOL assessment among the group's leadership, (b) involve physicians and oncology nurses in the study design, (c) identify a QOL liaison at each participating institution, and (d) aggressively monitor the quality and timeliness of data submission. PMID:8265446

Hayden, K A; Moinpour, C M; Metch, B; Feigl, P; O'Bryan, R M; Green, S; Osborne, C K

1993-10-01

87

Comparison of group counseling with individual counseling in the comprehension of informed consent: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on different methods to supplement the traditional informed consent process have generated conflicting results. This study was designed to evaluate whether participants who received group counseling prior to administration of informed consent understood the key components of the study and the consent better than those who received individual counseling, based on the hypothesis that group counseling would foster discussion among potential participants and enhance their understanding of the informed consent. Methods Parents of children participating in a trial of nutritional supplementation were randomized to receive either group counseling or individual counseling prior to administration of the informed consent. To assess the participant's comprehension, a structured questionnaire was administered approximately 48-72 hours afterwards by interviewers who were blinded to the allocation group of the respondents. Results A total of 128 parents were recruited and follow up was established with 118 (90.2%) for the study. All respondents were aware of their child's participation in a research study and the details of sample collection. However, their understanding of study purpose, randomization and withdrawal was poor. There was no difference in comprehension of key elements of the informed consent between the intervention and control arm. Conclusions The results suggest that the group counseling might not influence the overall comprehension of the informed consent process. Further research is required to devise better ways of improving participants' understanding of randomization in clinical trials. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registry - India (CTRI): CTRI/2009/091/000612 PMID:20470423

2010-01-01

88

Pilot study evaluating broccoli sprouts in advanced pancreatic cancer (POUDER trial) - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most aggressive malignancies with marked resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. PDA-cancer stem cells (CSCs) are not targeted by current therapies and may be a reason for poor prognosis. Studies indicate that diets rich in cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower offer cancer preventative and therapeutic benefits. Recent experimental studies have confirmed these findings and demonstrated that isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, and the polyphenol, quercetin, effectively reduced tumor growth and enhanced the sensitivity of the cancer cells to current chemotherapeutics. The aim of the present study is to test the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial on the application of freeze-dried broccoli sprouts in patients with advanced PDA. Methods and study design The study is designed as a prospective randomized, double-blinded pilot trial with a treatment and a placebo-controlled arm in a single center setting. A total number of forty patients (18 years or older) in two parallel groups with advanced, surgically non-resectable PDA under palliative chemotherapy are planned for recruitment. Patients in the treatment group will receive fifteen capsules of the study substance per day (90 mg of active sulforaphane) during the chemotherapy treatment course. Patients in the placebo group will receive the same capsule size and portion distribution with inactive substances (mainly methylcellulose). The follow-up duration is one year. Feasibility of the study substance, adverse effects, and patient compliance, as well as levels of serum tumor markers (CEA, CA 19-9), quality of life, and patient overall survival rates will be assessed at defined points of time. Discussion The POUDER trial is expected to transfer promising experimental and epidemiological data into a clinical pilot study to assess the effectiveness of broccoli sprout extracts in the treatment of advanced PDA. The study objectives will provide data on the clinical feasibility and acceptability of a supportive treatment option accompanying palliative chemotherapy. Based on these results, future clinical studies to create further evidence in this field are possible. Trial registration The POUDER trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with an ID NCT01879878 and WHO with an ID U1111-1144-2013 on June 13th 2013. PMID:24894410

2014-01-01

89

Hepatitis C treatment among racial and ethnic groups in the IDEAL trial.  

PubMed

Previous studies of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment have demonstrated variations in response among racial and ethnic groups including poorer efficacy rates among African American and Hispanic patients. The individualized dosing efficacy vs flat dosing to assess optimaL pegylated interferon therapy (IDEAL) trial enrolled 3070 patients from 118 United States centres to compare treatment with peginterferon (PEG-IFN) alfa-2a and ribavirin (RBV) and two doses of PEG-IFN alfa-2b and RBV. This analysis examines treatment response among the major racial and ethnic groups in the trial. Overall, sustained virologic response (SVR) rates were 44% for white, 22% for African American, 38% for Hispanic and 59% for Asian American patients. For patients with undetectable HCV RNA at treatment week 4, the positive predictive value of SVR was 86% for white, 92% for African American, 83% for Hispanic and 89% for Asian American patients. The positive predictive values of SVR in those with undetectable HCV RNA at treatment week 12 ranged from 72% to 81%. Multivariate regression analysis using baseline characteristics demonstrated that treatment regimen was not a predictor of SVR. Despite wide-ranging SVR rates among the different racial and ethnic groups, white and Hispanic patients had similar SVR rates. In all groups, treatment response was largely determined by antiviral activity in the first 12 weeks of treatment. Therefore, decisions regarding HCV treatment should consider the predictive value of the early on-treatment response, not just baseline characteristics, such as race and ethnicity. PMID:21108699

Muir, A J; Hu, K-Q; Gordon, S C; Koury, K; Boparai, N; Noviello, S; Albrecht, J K; Sulkowski, M S; McCone, J

2011-04-01

90

Placebo group improvement in trials of pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorders: A multivariate meta-analysis examining change over time  

PubMed Central

Objective Placebo group improvement in pharmacotherapy trials has been increasing over time across several pharmacological treatment areas. However, it is unknown to what degree increasing improvement has occurred in pharmacotherapy trials for alcohol use disorders or what factors may account for placebo group improvement. This meta-analysis of 47 alcohol pharmacotherapy trials evaluated (1) the magnitude of placebo group improvement, (2) the extent to which placebo group improvement has been increasing over time, and (3) several potential moderators that might account for variation in placebo group improvement. Method Random-effects univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted that examined the magnitude of placebo group improvement in the 47 studies and several potential moderators of improvement: (a) publication year, (b) country in which the study was conducted, (c) outcome data source/type, (d) number of placebo administrations, (e) overall severity of study participants, and (f) additional psychosocial treatment. Results Substantial placebo group improvement was found overall and improvement was larger in more recent studies. Greater improvement was found on moderately subjective outcomes, with more frequent administrations of the placebo, and in studies with greater participant severity of illness. However, even after controlling for these moderators, placebo group improvement remained significant, as did placebo group improvement over time. Conclusion Similar to previous pharmacotherapy placebo research, substantial pre- to post-test placebo group improvement has occurred in alcohol pharmacotherapy trials, an effect that has been increasing over time. However, several plausible moderator variables were not able to explain why placebo group improvement has been increasing over time. PMID:23857312

Del Re, AC; Maisel, Natalya; Blodgett, Janet; Wilbourne, Paula; Finney, John

2014-01-01

91

German Acupuncture Trials (GERAC) for Chronic Low Back Pain Randomized, Multicenter, Blinded, Parallel-Group Trial With 3 Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods A patient- and observer-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted in Germany involving 340 outpatient practices, including 1162 patients aged 18 to 86 years (mean ± SD age, 50 ± 15 years) with a history of chronic low back pain for a mean of 8 years. Patients underwent ten 30-minute sessions, generally 2 sessions per week, of verum acupuncture (n =

Michael Haake; Hans-Helge Muller; Carmen Schade-Brittinger; Heinz D. Basler; Helmut Schafer; Christoph Maier; Heinz G. Endres; Hans J. Trampisch; Albrecht Molsberger

2007-01-01

92

Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) versus control CBM and iCBT for depression: study protocol for a parallel-group randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction The current randomised controlled trial will evaluate the efficacy of an internet-delivered positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) intervention for depression when compared with an active control condition and help establish the additive benefit of positive imagery CBM when delivered in combination with internet cognitive behavioural therapy for depression. Methods and analysis Patients meeting diagnostic criteria for a current major depressive episode will be recruited through the research arm of a not-for-profit clinical and research unit in Australia. The minimum sample size for each group (? set at 0.05, power at 0.80) was identified as 29, but at least 10% more will be recruited to hedge against expected attrition. We will measure the impact of CBM on primary measures of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory—second edition (BDI-II), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9)) and interpretive bias (ambiguous scenarios test-depression), and on a secondary measure of psychological distress (Kessler-10 (K10)) following the 1-week CBM intervention. Secondary outcome measures of psychological distress (K10), as well as disability (WHO disability assessment schedule-II), repetitive negative thinking (repetitive thinking questionnaire), and anxiety (state trait anxiety inventory-trait version) will be evaluated following completion of the 11-week combined intervention, in addition to the BDI-II and PHQ9. Intent-to-treat marginal and mixed effect models using restricted maximum likelihood estimation will be used to evaluate the primary hypotheses. Clinically significant change will be defined as high-end state functioning (a BDI-II score <14) combined with a total score reduction greater than the reliable change index score. Maintenance of gains will be assessed at 3-month follow-up. Ethics and dissemination The current trial protocol has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of St Vincent's Hospital and the University of New South Wales, Sydney. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613000139774 and Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01787513. This trial protocol is written in compliance with the Standard Protocol Items: recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines. PMID:24171941

Williams, Alishia D; Blackwell, Simon E; Holmes, Emily A; Andrews, Gavin

2013-01-01

93

Development of Grid Frameworks for Clinical Trials and Epidemiological Studies  

E-print Network

Development of Grid Frameworks for Clinical Trials and Epidemiological Studies Richard SINNOTT. E-Health initiatives such as electronic clinical trials and epidemiological studies require access to be overcome, however the clinical trials domain places special demands on security and data which hitherto

Glasgow, University of

94

Phase 1 trial of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in combination with enocitabine and daunorubicin for elderly patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia: Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group (JALSG)-GML208 study.  

PubMed

We conducted a phase 1 study of a combination of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) plus conventional chemotherapy in elderly patients (? 65 years old) with relapsed or refractory CD33-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients received a standard dose of enocitabine (200 mg/m² × 8 days) and daunorubicin (30 mg/m² × days 1-3) plus an escalating dose of GO (1.5-5 mg/m² on day 4). The dose escalation of GO was done according to a standard 3 + 3 design following a modified Fibonacci sequence. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed in three patients (median age, 71) at level 1 (1.5 mg/m²) or in three patients (median age, 73) at level 2 (3 mg/m²). Neither veno-occlusive diseases nor sinusoidal obstructive syndromes were noted at either level. However, as GO was withdrawn from the US market in June 2010, based on a randomized study in newly diagnosed AML, we decided not to proceed to the level 3 (5 mg/m²) in order to avoid possibly more severe adverse effects, and also because all six patients experienced grade 4 myelosuppression, with complete remission in three. This study showed that 3 mg/m² of GO in combination with enocitabine and daunorubicin may be a recommendable dose for a phase 2 study in Japanese elderly patients with CD33-positive AML. The study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry ( http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ ) as UMIN000002603. PMID:22956429

Ito, Yoshikazu; Wakita, Atsushi; Takada, Satoru; Mihara, Masahiro; Gotoh, Moritaka; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Ohtake, Shigeki; Miyawaki, Shuichi; Ohnishi, Kazunori; Naoe, Tomoki

2012-10-01

95

Respiratory Toxicology Group: Inhalation Studies  

MedlinePLUS

... the font size, or print this page. Respiratory Toxicology Group Inhalation Studies Dan Morgan, Ph.D., D. ... NC 27709 Delivery Instructions Research Summary The Respiratory Toxicology Group conducts studies of chemicals for which inhalation ...

96

Compliance with Therapeutic Guidelines in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Prospective Gastrointestinal Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Background This report analyzes the adherence to radiation therapy protocol guidelines in contemporary Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) gastrointestinal trials. We aim to provide insight into current standards and compliance of radiation therapy field design and administration. Methods From 1994 to 2006, the Gastrointestinal Cancer Committee of the RTOG initiated and completed 15 phase I-III clinical trials utilizing radiation therapy in the multimodality treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. In each protocol, details for planning and executing radiation therapy were outlined and each protocol contained scoring criteria for these components of radiation therapy, characterized according to per-protocol, variation acceptable and deviation unacceptable. Review of treatment planning and implementation was performed in all studies following therapy completion. Results Radiation therapy planning and implementation was reviewed in 2,309 of 2,312 (99.9%) patients. The mean rate of compliance over all for the 15 protocols was 65% (total of the 2,309 analyzed patients). The mean variation acceptable rate was 21% whereas the mean deviation unacceptable rate was 5%. The mean “other” rate (no RT given or incomplete RT due to death, progression or refusal) was 8%. Two of the 15 trials (13%) had deviation unacceptable rates > 10%. In four studies incorporating pre-treatment review of radiation therapy planning and treatment, compliance with protocol therapy was enhanced. Conclusion The fidelity of radiation planning and execution detailed in protocol to actual therapy is heterogeneous, with a mean per-protocol rate of 65%. As clinical trials evolve, available technology should permit efficient pre-treatment review processes, thus facilitating compliance to protocol therapy. These analyses should also permit prospective analysis of outcome measures by compliance to therapy. PMID:23084596

Willett, Christopher G.; Moughan, Jennifer; O'Meara, Elizabeth; Galvin, James M.; Crane, Christopher H.; Winter, Kathryn; Manfredi, Denise; Rich, Tyvin A.; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Lustig, Robert; Machtay, Mitchell; Curran, Walter J

2014-01-01

97

Randomized phase II/III trial of post-operative chemoradiotherapy comparing 3-weekly cisplatin with weekly cisplatin in high-risk patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study (JCOG1008).  

PubMed

A randomized Phase II/III study was launched in Japan to evaluate the non-inferiority of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m(2)) compared with concurrent chemoradiotherapy with 3-weekly cisplatin (100 mg/m(2)) for post-operative high-risk patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. This study began in October 2012, and a total of 260 patients will be accrued from 18 institutions within 5 years. The primary endpoint of the Phase II part is proportion of treatment completion and that of the Phase III part is overall survival. The secondary endpoints are relapse-free survival, local relapse-free survival, nutrition-support-free survival, non-hospitalized treatment period during permissible treatment period and adverse events. This trial was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN 000009125 [http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/]. PMID:24842866

Kunieda, Futoshi; Kiyota, Naomi; Tahara, Makoto; Kodaira, Takeshi; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Ishikura, Satoshi; Mizusawa, Junki; Nakamura, Kenichi; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Fujii, Masato

2014-08-01

98

Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial)  

PubMed Central

Background More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. Methods/Design The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Discussion The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally effective sexual assault resistance education program that can be adopted by universities, to assess whether aspects of the program need to be strengthened, and also to indicate how long the effects of the program last and at which point in time refresher sessions may be necessary. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01338428 PMID:23702221

2013-01-01

99

Safety and acceptability of vaginal disinfection with benzalkonium chloride in HIV infected pregnant women in west Africa: ANRS 049b phase II randomized, double blinded placebo controlled trial. DITRAME Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To study the tolerance and acceptability in Africa of a perinatal intervention to prevent vertical HIV transmission using benzalkonium chloride disinfection. DESIGN: A randomized, double blinded phase II trial. SETTING: Prenatal care units in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) and Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). PATIENTS: Women accepting testing and counselling who were seropositive for HIV-1 and under 37 weeks of pregnancy were

P. Msellati; N. Meda; V. Leroy; R. Likikouet; P. Van de Perre; M. Cartoux; D. Bonard; A. Ouangre; P. Combe; L. Gautier-Charpentier; F. Sylla-Koko; R. Lassalle; M. Dosso; C. Welffens-Ekra; F. Dabis; L. Mandelbrot

1999-01-01

100

Parent Training with High-Risk Immigrant Chinese Families: A Pilot Group Randomized Trial Yielding Practice-Based Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied the efficacy and implementation outcomes of a culturally responsive parent training (PT) program. Fifty-four Chinese American parents participated in a wait-list controlled group randomized trial (32 immediate treatment, 22 delayed treatment) of a 14-week intervention designed to address the needs of high-risk immigrant families.…

Lau, Anna S.; Fung, Joey J.; Ho, Lorinda Y.; Liu, Lisa L.; Gudino, Omar G.

2011-01-01

101

Cancer and Leukemia Group B Pathology Committee Guidelines for Tissue Microarray Construction Representing Multicenter Prospective Clinical Trial Tissues  

PubMed Central

Practice-changing evidence requires confirmation, preferably in multi-institutional clinical trials. The collection of tissue within such trials has enabled biomarker studies and evaluation of companion diagnostic tests. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) have become a standard approach in many cooperative oncology groups. A principal goal is to maximize the number of assays with this precious tissue. However, production strategies for these arrays have not been standardized, possibly decreasing the value of the study. In this article, members of the Cancer and Leukemia Group B Pathology Committee relay our experiences as array facility directors and propose guidelines regarding the production of high-quality TMAs for cooperative group studies. We also discuss statistical issues arising from having a proportion of patients available for TMAs and the possibility that patients with TMAs fail to represent the greater study population. PMID:21519016

Rimm, David L.; Nielsen, Torsten O.; Jewell, Scott D.; Rohrer, Daniel C.; Broadwater, Gloria; Waldman, Frederic; Mitchell, Kisha A.; Singh, Baljit; Tsongalis, Gregory J.; Frankel, Wendy L.; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Lara, Jonathan F.; Hsi, Eric D.; Bleiweiss, Ira J.; Badve, Sunil S.; Chen, Beiyun; Ravdin, Peter M.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Thor, Ann; Berry, Donald A.

2011-01-01

102

A waitlist-controlled trial of group cognitive behavioural therapy for depression and anxiety in Parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) treatment for depression and anxiety in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods A waitlist-controlled trial design was used. Eighteen adults with PD and a comorbid DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety were randomised to either Intervention (8-week group CBT treatment) or Waitlist (8-week clinical monitoring preceding treatment). The Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) was the primary outcome. Assessments were completed at Time 1 (pretreatment), Time 2 (posttreatment/post-waitlist) and 1-month and 6-month follow-ups. Results At Time 2, participants who received CBT reported greater reductions in depression (Mchange = -2.45) than Waitlist participants (Mchange = .29) and this effect was large, d = 1.12, p = .011. Large secondary effects on anxiety were also observed for CBT participants, d = .89, p = .025. All treatment gains were maintained and continued to improve during the follow-up period. At 6-month follow-up, significant and large effects were observed for both depression (d = 2.07) and anxiety (d = 2.26). Conclusions Group CBT appears to be an efficacious treatment approach for depression and anxiety in PD however further controlled trials with larger numbers of participants are required. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (Trial ID: ACTRN12610000455066) PMID:24467781

2014-01-01

103

Stimulant Abuser Groups to Engage in 12-Step (STAGE-12): A Multisite Trial in the NIDA Clinical Trials Network  

PubMed Central

Aims The study evaluated the effectiveness of an 8-week combined group plus individual 12-step facilitative intervention on stimulant drug use and 12-step meeting attendance and service. Design Multisite randomized controlled trial, with assessments at baseline, mid-treatment, end of treatment, and 3- and 6-month post-randomization follow-ups (FU). Setting Intensive outpatient substance treatment programs. Participants Individuals with stimulant use disorders (n = 471) randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU into which the STAGE-12 intervention was integrated. Measurements Urinalysis and self-reports of substance use and 12-step attendance and activities. Intervention Group sessions focused on increasing acceptance of 12-step principles; individual sessions incorporated an intensive referral procedure connecting participants to 12-step volunteers. Findings Compared to TAU, STAGE-12 participants had significantly greater odds of self-reported stimulant abstinence during the active 8-week treatment phase; however, among those who had not achieved abstinence during this period, STAGE-12 participants had more days of use. STAGE-12 participants had lower ASI Drug Composite scores at and a significant reduction from baseline to the 3-month FU, attended 12-step meetings on a greater number of days during the early phase of active treatment, engaged in more other types of 12-step activities throughout the active treatment phase and the entire FU period, and had more days of self-reported service at meetings from mid-treatment through the 6-month FU. Conclusions The present findings are mixed with respect to the impact of integrating the STAGE-12 intervention into intensive outpatient drug treatment compared to TAU on stimulant drug use. However, the results more clearly indicate that individuals in STAGE-12 had higher rates of 12-step meeting attendance and were engaged in more related activities throughout both the active treatment phase and the entire 6-month follow-up period than did those in TAU. PMID:22657748

Donovan, Dennis M.; Daley, Dennis C.; Brigham, Gregory S.; Hodgkins, Candace C.; Perl, Harold I.; Garrett, Sharon; Doyle, Suzanne; Floyd, Anthony S.; Knox, Patricia C.; Botero, Christopher; Kelly, Thomas; Killeen, Therese; Hayes, Carole; Baumhofer, Nicole Kau’i; Seamans, Cindy; Zammarelli, Lucy

2012-01-01

104

Group therapy for adolescents with repeated self harm: randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of group therapy for self harm in young people.Design Two arm, single (assessor) blinded parallel randomised allocation trial of a group therapy intervention in addition to routine care, compared with routine care alone. Randomisation was by minimisation controlling for baseline frequency of self harm, presence of conduct disorder, depressive disorder, and severity of

J M Green; A J Wood; M J Kerfoot; G Trainor; C Roberts; J Rothwell; A Woodham; E Ayodeji; B Barrett; S Byford; R Harrington

2011-01-01

105

Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

2014-01-01

106

Prevention of abdominal wound infection (PROUD trial, DRKS00000390): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Wound infection affects a considerable portion of patients after abdominal operations, increasing health care costs and postoperative morbidity and affecting quality of life. Antibacterial coating has been suggested as an effective measure to decrease postoperative wound infections after laparotomies. The INLINE metaanalysis has recently shown the superiority of a slowly absorbable continuous suture for abdominal closure; with PDS plus® such a suture has now been made available with triclosan antibacterial coating. Methods/Design The PROUD trial is designed as a randomised, controlled, observer, surgeon and patient blinded multicenter superiority trial with two parallel groups and a primary endpoint of wound infection during 30 days after surgery. The intervention group will receive triclosan coated polydioxanone sutures, whereas the control group will receive the standard polydioxanone sutures; abdominal closure will otherwise be standardized in both groups. Statistical analysis is based on intention-to-treat population via binary logistic regression analysis, the total sample size of n = 750 is sufficient to ensure alpha = 5% and power = 80%, an interim analysis will be carried out after data of 375 patients are available. Discussion The PROUD trial will yield robust data to determine the effectiveness of antibacterial coating in one of the standard sutures for abdominal closure and potentially lead to amendment of current guidelines. The exploration of clinically objective parameters as well as quality of life holds immediate relevance for clinical management and the pragmatic trial design ensures high external validity. Trial Registration The trial protocol has been registered with the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00000390). PMID:22103965

2011-01-01

107

The Effectiveness of a Group Triple P with Chinese Parents Who Have a Child with Developmental Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effectiveness of Group Triple P, a Level 4 variant of the Triple P multilevel system of parenting support, with Chinese parents who had a preschool aged child with a developmental disability, using randomized controlled trial design. Participants (Intervention group: 42; Waitlist Control group: 39) completed measures on…

Leung, Cynthia; Fan, Angel; Sanders, Matthew R.

2013-01-01

108

Behavioral risk assessment in HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) clinical trials: a qualitative study exploring HVTN staff perspectives.  

PubMed

In HIV vaccine trials, the collection and analysis of participant behavior data associated with risk of acquiring HIV-infection is important for a number of reasons. Although the rationale for behavioral risk assessment in HIV vaccine clinical trials is clear, consistent collection of behavioral data over time and across protocols has been challenging for the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN). Integrating biomedical and behavioral research within the same preventive vaccine clinical trial has proven difficult. The HVTN conducted an internal landscape analysis to: (1) evaluate the challenges of behavioral risk assessment in HIV vaccine trials and observational studies; (2) explore the impact of the Step Study on behavioral risk assessment measures; and (3) identify strategies to overcome existing challenges and improve the quality of data resulting from behavioral risk analysis. These analyses of behavioral risk within the HVTN revealed several challenges and recommendations for improved behavioral risk data collection in future protocols. The recommendations for improvement include: (1) establishment of protocol-specific behavioral risk working groups that include social and behavioral experts; (2) provision of behavioral rationale and objectives to the development team; (3) creation of a template for geographic- and population-specific assessment of low and high risk behaviors; and (4) pilot testing of behavioral risk assessments. Results also underscored the need for routinely conducted analyses of behavioral data. PMID:23859840

Andrasik, Michele Peake; Karuna, Shelly T; Nebergall, Michelle; Koblin, Beryl A; Kublin, Jim G

2013-09-13

109

The face of equipoise - delivering a structured education programme within a randomized controlled trial: qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In trials of behavioural interventions, the individuals who deliver the intervention are in a position of key influence on the success of the trial. Their fidelity to the intervention is crucial. Yet little is understood about the experiences of this group of trial personnel. This study aimed to investigate the views and experiences of educators who delivered a structured education intervention to people with type 2 diabetes, which incorporated training in self-monitoring of either blood glucose (SMBG) or urine glucose (SMUG) as part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods Educators’ views were explored through focus groups before and after training (N?=?18) and approximately 1 year into the trial (N?=?14), and semi-structured telephone interviews at approximately 2 years (N?=?7). Analysis was based on the constant comparative method. Results Educators held preferences regarding the intervention variants; thus, they were not in individual equipoise. Training raised awareness of preferences and their potential to impact on delivery. Educators were confident in their unbiased delivery, but acknowledged the challenges involved. Concealing their preferences was helped by a sense of professionalism, the patient-centred nature of the intervention, and concessions in the trial protocol (enabling participants to swap monitoring methods if needed). Commitment to unbiased delivery was explained through a desire for evidence-based knowledge in the contentious area of SMBG. Conclusions The findings provide insight into a previously unexplored group of trial personnel - intervention deliverers in trials of behavioural interventions - which will be useful to those designing and running similar trials. Rather than individual equipoise, it is intervention deliverers’ awareness of personal preferences and their potential impact on the trial outcome that facilitates unbiased delivery. Further, awareness of community equipoise, the need for evidence, and relevance to the individual enhance commitment to the RCT. Trial registration ISRCTN95696668 PMID:24405854

2014-01-01

110

and methodology in cardiovascular and diabetes trials: the CANNeCTIN Biostatistics and Methodological Innovation Working Group  

E-print Network

The Biostatistics and Methodological Innovation Working (BMIW) Group is one of several working groups within the CANadian Network and Centre for Trials INternationally (CANNeCTIN). This programme received funding from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Canada Foundation for Innovation beginning in 2008, to enhance the infrastructure and build capacity for large Canadian-led clinical trials in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). The overall aims of the BMIW Group’s programme within CANNeCTIN, are to advance biostatistical and methodological research, and to build biostatistical capacity in CVD and DM. Our program of research and training includes: monthly videoconferences on topical biostatistical and methodological issues in CVD/DM clinical studies; providing presentations on methods issues at the annual CANNeCTIN meetings; collaborating with clinician investigators on their studies; training young statisticians in biostatistics and methods in CVD/DM trials and organizing annual symposiums on topical methodological issues. We are focused on the development of new biostatistical methods and the recruitment and training of highly qualified personnel- who will become leaders in the design and analysis of CVD/DM trials. The ultimate goal is to enhance global health by contributing to efforts to reduce the burden of CVD and DM. Background Jointly funded beginning in 2008 by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) and the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI), the CANadian Network and Centre for Trials INternationally (CANNeCTIN) was among five successful applications under the CIHR-CFI strategic initiative to support clinical research programs, teams and network infra-structure that focused on highimpact, clinically relevant problems [1]. CIHR is the

Lehana Thabane; George Wells; Richard Cook; Robert Platt; Janice Pogue; Eleanor Pullenayegum; David Matthews; Tara Mccready; Philip J Devereaux; John A Cairns; Salim Yusuf

111

Summary of ceftaroline fosamil clinical trial studies and clinical safety.  

PubMed

In October 2010, the new cephalosporin, ceftaroline fosamil, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for therapy of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). The active metabolite, ceftaroline, demonstrates in vitro activity against typical bacterial pathogens most often associated with CABP or ABSSSIs, including resistant Gram-positive pathogens such as multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The efficacy and safety of ceftaroline fosamil was assessed in 2 large phase 3 programs of randomized, double-blind, clinical trials for CABP and ABSSSIs. For both indications, therapy with ceftaroline fosamil was observed to be noninferior to the comparator agents (ceftriaxone for CABP and vancomycin plus aztreonam for ABSSSIs) at both a standard test of cure assessment time (8-15 days after discontinuation of study drug) and an early assessment time point (day 3 or 4 of study). In the integrated analysis of the trials for CABP (FOCUS 1 and 2), clinical cure rates for the ceftaroline group were numerically higher than those for the ceftriaxone group (for the clinically evaluable population 84.3% vs 77.7%; difference: 6.6%; 95% confidence interval, 1.6%-11.8%). Among patients with CABP caused by S. pneumoniae, clinical cure rates were markedly higher in the ceftaroline treatment group than in the ceftriaxone treatment group (59 of 69 [85.5%] vs 48 of 70 [68.6%], respectively). For the ABSSSI studies (CANVAS 1 and 2), microbiologically evaluable (ME) success rates were similar between the treatment groups. Notably, the clinical cure rates in ME patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus ABSSSIs were 142 of 152 (93.4%) and 115 of 122 (94.3%), for ceftaroline and vancomycin plus aztreonam, respectively, and did not differ from those achieved in infections due to methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (93.0%-94.5%). Ceftaroline fosamil was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to the comparator agents used in these phase 3 trials. PMID:22903949

File, Thomas M; Wilcox, Mark H; Stein, Gary E

2012-09-01

112

The RAZOR (randomized open vs robotic cystectomy) trial: study design and trial update.  

PubMed

The purpose of the RAZOR (randomized open vs robotic cystectomy) study is to compare open radical cystectomy (ORC) vs robot-assisted RC (RARC), pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) and urinary diversion for oncological outcomes, complications and health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures with a primary endpoint of 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). RAZOR is a multi-institutional, randomized, non-inferior, phase III trial that will enrol at least 320 patients with T1-T4, N0-N1, M0 bladder cancer with ?160 patients in both the RARC and ORC arms at 15 participating institutions. Data will be collected prospectively at each institution for cancer outcomes, complications of surgery and HRQL measures, and then submitted to trial data management services Cancer Research and Biostatistics (CRAB) for final analyses. To date, 306 patients have been randomized and accrual to the RAZOR trial is expected to conclude in 2014. In this study, we report the RAZOR trial experimental design, objectives, data safety, and monitoring, and accrual update. The RAZOR trial is a landmark study in urological oncology, randomizing T1-T4, N0-N1, M0 patients with bladder cancer to ORC vs RARC, PLND and urinary diversion. RAZOR is a multi-institutional, non-inferiority trial evaluating cancer outcomes, surgical complications and HRQL measures of ORC vs RARC with a primary endpoint of 2-year PFS. Full data from the RAZOR trial are not expected until 2016-2017. PMID:25626182

Smith, Norm D; Castle, Erik P; Gonzalgo, Mark L; Svatek, Robert S; Weizer, Alon Z; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Pruthi, Raj S; Woods, Michael E; Tollefson, Matthew K; Konety, Badrinath R; Shabsigh, Ahmad; Krupski, Tracey; Barocas, Daniel A; Dash, Atreya; Quek, Marcus L; Kibel, Adam S; Parekh, Dipen J

2015-02-01

113

Identification of Accrual Barriers onto Breast Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials: A Case - Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing a woman’s decision to participate in a breast cancer prevention clinical trial. Nine health care organizations in Massachusetts cooperated in the present project. Methods We performed a case-control study to compare responses between the study group (STAR trial eligible, but not enrolled) and the control group (STAR trial participants) on 12 factors previously identified as barriers to accrual for clinical trials. Eight hypotheses were tested using multiple logistic regression to estimate the strength of the association for each factor on the dependent variable (study participation). Results The study samples were similar to the general population of eligible breast cancer prevention clinical trial subjects in the counties where the participating organizations were located, the state of Massachusetts, and to nationally published STAR-trial data. Results of a mailed questionnaire showed that when adjusting for subject demographics, and in the presence of other questions, four factors (1) clinician expertise and qualifications (p =.012, OR: 4.903; 95% CI: 1.41 to 17.04); (2) personal desire to participate (p =.033, OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.10 to 9.06); (3) perceived value of the trial (p =.020, OR: 2.92; 95% CI, 1.18 to 7.21); and, (4) level of trial inconvenience (p =.002, OR: 0.10; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.44), significantly influenced a woman’s decision to enroll onto a breast cancer prevention clinical trial more than other eligible subjects. Conclusions We conclude that addressing these issues in the relationship between patients and clinicians should improve accrual onto breast cancer prevention clinical trials. PMID:20564133

Houlihan, Robert H.; Kennedy, Michael H.; Kulesher, Robert R.; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Altieri, Dario C.

2011-01-01

114

Clinical trials transparency and the Trial and Experimental Studies Transparency (TEST) act.  

PubMed

Clinical trial research is the cornerstone for successful advancement of medicine that provides hope for millions of people in the future. Full transparency in clinical trials may allow independent investigators to evaluate study designs, perform additional analysis of data, and potentially eliminate duplicate studies. Current regulatory system and publishers rely on investigators and pharmaceutical industries for complete and accurate reporting of results from completed clinical trials. Legislation seems to be the only way to enforce mandatory disclosure of results. The Trial and Experimental Studies Transparency (TEST) Act of 2012 was introduced to the legislators in the United States to promote greater transparency in research industry. Public safety and advancement of science are the driving forces for the proposed policy change. The TEST Act may benefit the society and researchers; however, there are major concerns with participants' privacy and intellectual property protection. PMID:24440100

Logvinov, Ilana

2014-03-01

115

An effective group psychoeducational intervention for improving compliance with vaginal dilation: A randomized controlled trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators.

Jeffries, Sherryl A. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Calgary Health Region Chronic Pain Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Robinson, John W. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Program in Clinical Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)]. E-mail: johnrobi@cancerboard.ab.ca; Craighead, Peter S. [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Keats, Melanie R. [Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

2006-06-01

116

Experimental and trial-based study of Resilient Packet Ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study of the Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) media access control (MAC) technology that is optimized for IP traffic in the metropolitan-area-network (MAN) environment is described. The study involved the deployment and trials of a RPR testbed encompassing a public optical fiber infrastructure in which Cisco Systems' Dynamic Packet Transport (DPT) Ring Technology - a prestandard RPR implementation - was used. We focus on a number of important RPR protocol features that are vital to the future success of RPR as a MAN/wide-area-network (WAN) network technology. Related research on RPR/DPT has been done so far through simulation studies only. Standardization of RPR is currently being performed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.17 working group and is expected to be completed in 2003. Also, we present and discuss the experiments and tests performed to investigate the key features of RPR, along with the results obtained.

Ramnath, Vasudha; Cheng, Heng Seng; Ngoh, Lek Heng

2002-08-01

117

Panax ginseng therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a clinical trial protocol and pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Panax ginseng (Ren shen) has been used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This article aims to present a study protocol and pilot trial comparing P. ginseng with placebo for treating moderate to very severe COPD. Methods COPD was diagnosed spirometrically, with participants having a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of between 20% and 79% and FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio of less than 70%. Outcome measures included exacerbation rate, St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire, COPD Assessment Test and Short-form Health Survey (SF-36). Other outcome measures included the six-minute walk test, FEV1, FVC, relief medication use, use of COPD-specific medical resources, and adverse events. The study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. The method of this pilot trial was based on a planned full-scale trial except that participants were enrolled for ten weeks compared to 52 weeks. In the pilot trial, 14 participants (57–73 years old) with moderate to very severe COPD were recruited from a community health program at a public Chinese medicine hospital in Guangdong Province, China. After a 2-week run-in period, 10 participants were eligible for the study and were randomly assigned to either P. ginseng group (n?=?5) (200 mg twice daily for four weeks) or placebo group (n?=?5), and then followed-up for an additional 4 weeks for a total of 10 weeks. Results Nine participants completed the trial and one dropped out. The exacerbation rate could not be evaluated because there were no exacerbations. One participant in P. ginseng group reported events of sore throat, cough and fever. Trial investigators did not consider these events as COPD exacerbations or adverse events. Conclusions Participant recruitment, study design, data collection and outcome measurement have been tested in a pilot trial. A full-scale trial is warranted. PMID:25161696

2014-01-01

118

Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive–Behavioral Group Therapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome in a Medical Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard medical treatments have not been effective for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Though individualized cognitive–behavior therapy is an empirically supported treatment option, cognitive–behavioral group therapy (CBGT) has yet to be established as an effective alternative in a randomized controlled trial. This study compared the efficacy of a 10-session CBGT with a home-based symptom monitoring with weekly telephone contact (SMTC)

Gregg A. Tkachuk; Lesley A. Graff; Garry L. Martin; Charles N. Bernstein

2003-01-01

119

Altering School Climate through School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a Group-Randomized Effectiveness Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a universal, school-wide prevention strategy that is currently implemented\\u000a in over 7,500 schools to reduce disruptive behavior problems. The present study examines the impact of PBIS on staff reports\\u000a of school organizational health using data from a group-randomized controlled effectiveness trial of PBIS conducted in 37\\u000a elementary schools. Longitudinal multilevel analyses on data

Catherine P. Bradshaw; Christine W. Koth; Leslie A. Thornton; Philip J. Leaf

2009-01-01

120

Trial of a “credit card” asthma self-management plan in a high-risk group of patients with asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The “credit card” asthma self-management plan provides the adult asthmatic patient with simple guidelines for the self-management of asthma, which are based on the self-assessment of peak expiratory flow rate recordings and symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The study was a trial of the clinical efficacy of the credit card plan in a high-risk group of asthmatic patients. METHODS: In this “before-and-after”

Wendyl D’Souza; Carl Burgess; Mark Ayson; Julian Crane; Neil Pearce; Richard Beasley

1996-01-01

121

"Right from the Start": Randomized Trial Comparing an Attachment Group Intervention to Supportive Home Visiting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Infant attachment security is a protective factor for future mental health, and may be promoted by individual interventions. Given service demands, it is important to determine if a group-based intervention for parents could be used to enhance infant attachment security. Methods: In a randomized trial involving 76 mothers, an 8-session…

Niccols, Alison

2008-01-01

122

What to Do when Data Are Missing in Group Randomized Controlled Trials. NCEE 2009-0049  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This NCEE Technical Methods report examines how to address the problem of missing data in the analysis of data in Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) of educational interventions, with a particular focus on the common educational situation in which groups of students such as entire classrooms or schools are randomized. Missing outcome data are a…

Puma, Michael J.; Olsen, Robert B.; Bell, Stephen H.; Price, Cristofer

2009-01-01

123

chemoprevention trials  

Cancer.gov

In agent prevention or chemoprevention trials, people take medicines, vitamins, minerals or other supplements that researchers believe may lower the risk of a certain type of cancer. Many prevention trials are designed to compare a promising new agent with a standard one, or to no agent at all. Participants are randomly assigned to the study or control group.

124

Phase III Study of Radiation Therapy With or Without Cis-Platinum in Patients With Unresectable Squamous or Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: An Intergroup Trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (E2382)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The Head and Neck Intergroup conducted a Phase III randomized trial to determine whether the addition weekly cisplatin to daily radiation therapy (RT) would improve survival in patients with unresectable squamous cell head-and-neck carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were randomized to RT (70 Gy at 1.8-2 Gy/day) or to the identical RT with weekly cisplatin dosed at 20 mg/m{sup 2}. Failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS) curves were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log rank test. Results: Between 1982 and 1987, 371 patients were accrued, and 308 patients were found eligible for analysis. Median follow-up was 62 months. The median FFS was 6.5 and 7.2 months for the RT and RT + cisplatin groups, respectively (p = 0.30). The p value for the treatment difference was p = 0.096 in multivariate modeling of FFS (compared to a p = 0.30 in univariate analysis). Expected acute toxicities were significantly increased with the addition of cisplatin except for in-field RT toxicities. Late toxicities were not significantly different except for significantly more esophageal (9% vs. 3%, p = 0.03) and laryngeal (11% vs. 4%, p = 0.05) late toxicities in the RT + cisplatin group. Conclusion: The addition of concurrent weekly cisplatin at 20 mg/m{sup 2} to daily radiation did not improve survival, although there was evidence of activity. Low-dose weekly cisplatin seems to have modest tumor radiosensitization but can increase the risk of late swallowing complications.

Quon, Harry, E-mail: quon@xrt.upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Leong, Traci [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Haselow, Robert [Metro Minnesota CCOP, St. Louis Park, MN (United States); Leipzig, Bruce [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Cooper, Jay [Maimonides Cancer Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Forastiere, Arlene [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2011-11-01

125

Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Sometimes, no standard treatment yet exists. In drug studies of such cases, one group might receive a new drug and the control group, none. But no one is placed in a control group without ... better than the others in a study, the trial is stopped and the participants in ...

126

Acupuncture for low back pain due to spondylolisthesis: study protocol for a randomized controlled pilot trial  

PubMed Central

Background Spondylolisthesis is the major cause of refractory low back pain. There are many studies of the surgical treatment of spondylolisthesis, but few of conservative treatments. There is also no optimal conservative treatment protocol, however, low back pain caused by low-grade spondylolisthesis is controlled with non-surgical pain management. Acupuncture has become a useful method for treating low back pain, but there has not been any study of its efficacy in relation to spondylolisthesis. This study was designed to establish the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial and the safety of acupuncture for low back pain due to low-grade spondylolisthesis. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled pilot clinical trial of five weeks duration. Fourteen patients will be recruited and randomly allocated to two groups: an acupuncture plus interlaminar epidural steroid injection group (experimental group), and an interlaminar epidural steroid injection group (control group). All patients will be administered an interlaminar epidural steroid injection once a week for three weeks (three injections in total), but only the experimental group will receive additional treatment with three acupuncture sessions a week for three weeks (nine acupuncture sessions in total). The primary outcome will be measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS). Our primary end point is three-week VAS. The secondary outcome will be measured using the PainVision system, the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the Oswestry Disability Index. Assessments will be made at baseline and at one, three and five weeks thereafter (that is, the five-week assessment will be made two weeks after treatment cessation). Discussion This randomized controlled pilot trial will inform the design of a further full-scale trial. The outcomes will provide some resources for incorporating acupuncture into existing pain management methods such as interlaminar epidural steroid injection in low-grade spondylolisthesis. Trial registration This trial is registered with the US National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials registry: NCT01909284. PMID:24693959

2014-01-01

127

Group Sequential Design for Randomized Phase III Trials under the Weibull Model.  

PubMed

Abstract In this paper, a parametric sequential test is proposed under the Weibull model. The proposed test is asymptotically normal with an independent increments structure. The sample size for fixed sample test is derived for the purpose of group sequential trial design. In addition, a multi-stage group sequential procedure is given under the Weibull model by applying the Brownian motion property of the test statistic and sequential conditional probability ratio test methodology. PMID:25322440

Wu, Jianrong; Xiong, Xiaoping

2014-10-16

128

Rates of inclusion of teenagers and young adults in England into National Cancer Research Network clinical trials: Report from the National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Teenage and Young Adult Clinical Studies Development Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor inclusion rates into clinical trials for teenagers and young adults (TYA; aged 13–24 years) have been assumed but not systematically investigated in England. We analysed accrual rates (AR) from 1 April 2005 up to 31 March 2007 to National Cancer Research Network (NCRN) Phase III trials for the commonest tumour types occurring in TYA and children: leukaemia, lymphoma, brain

L Fern; S Davies; T Eden; R Feltbower; R Grant; M Hawkins; I Lewis; E Loucaides; C Rowntree; S Stenning; J Whelan

2008-01-01

129

Pain and Emotional Well-Being Outcomes in Southwest Oncology Group–Directed Intergroup Trial S0205: A Phase III Study Comparing Gemcitabine Plus Cetuximab Versus Gemcitabine As First-Line Therapy in Patients With Advanced Pancreas Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose S0205 was a randomized clinical trial that compared the therapeutic impact of gemcitabine versus gemcitabine plus cetuximab. Study results for patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes are reported. Patients and Methods Patients completed the Brief Pain Inventory and a measure of emotional well-being (each measured on a 0 to 10 scale) at baseline and at weeks 5, 9, 13, and 17 postrandom assignment. Worst pain status was classified as palliated (worst pain scores < 5 maintained for 2 consecutive cycles) or not palliated (remaining patients) and tested with a ?2 test. Change in emotional well-being and worst pain (exploratory analysis) were assessed over 17 weeks using generalized estimating equations with inverse probability of censoring weights. Results Seven hundred twenty of 766 enrolled patients contributed baseline HRQL data. The two treatment arms did not differ statistically in the percentage of patients with successful worst pain palliation. Longitudinal analyses showed significantly improved emotional well-being for patients on both arms by weeks 13 and 17 (P < .01 and P < .001). An exploratory longitudinal analysis of worst pain showed significant decreases at all time points for both arms (P < .01 and P < .001). Significant treatment arm differences for either worst pain or emotional well-being were not observed at any of the assessment times. Conclusion We observed palliated pain and improved well-being for patients on this trial. However, these improvements were similar in both treatment arms, suggesting that the addition of cetuximab did not contribute to improvement in these HRQL outcomes. PMID:20606094

Moinpour, Carol M.; Vaught, Nancy L.; Goldman, Bryan; Redman, Mary W.; Philip, Philip A.; Millwood, Barbara; Lippman, Scott M.; Seay, Thomas E.; Flynn, Patrick J.; O'Reilly, Eileen M.; Rowland, Kendrith M.; Wong, Ralph P.; Benedetti, Jacqueline; Blanke, Charles D.

2010-01-01

130

Multicenter phase II clinical trial of nilotinib for patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant chronic myeloid leukemia from the East Japan CML study group evaluation of molecular response and the efficacy and safety of nilotinib  

PubMed Central

Background Nilotinib is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor that exhibits significant efficacy as first- or second-line treatment in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We conducted a multicenter Phase II Clinical Trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nilotinib among Japanese patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant CML-chronic phase (CP) or accelerated phase (AP). Results We analyzed 49 patients (33 imatinib-resistant and 16 imatinib-intolerant) treated with nilotinib 400 mg twice daily. The major molecular response (MMR) rate was 47.8% at 12 months among 35 patients who did not demonstrate an MMR at study entry. Somatic BCR-ABL1 mutations (Y253H, I418V, and exon 8/9 35-bp insertion [35INS]) were detected in 3 patients at 12 months or upon discontinuation of nilotinib. Although 75.5% of patients were still being treated at 12 months, nilotinib treatment was discontinued because of progressing disease in 1 patient, insufficient effect in 2, and adverse events in 9. There was no statistically significant correlation between MMR and trough concentrations of nilotinib. Similarly, no correlation was observed between trough concentrations and adverse events, except for pruritus and hypokalemia. Hyperbilirubinemia was frequently observed (all grades, 51.0%; grades 2–4, 29%; grades 3–4, 4.1%). Hyperbilirubinemia higher than grade 2 was significantly associated with the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A9 I399C/C genotype (P?=?0.0086; Odds Ratio, 21.2; 95% Confidence Interval 2.2–208.0). Conclusions Nilotinib was efficacious and well tolerated by patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant CML-CP/AP. Hyperbilirubinemia may be predicted before nilotinib treatment, and may be controlled by reducing the daily dose of nilotinib in patients with UGT1A9 polymorphisms. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov: UMIN000002201 PMID:24650752

2014-01-01

131

A phase III trial evaluating the combination of cisplatin, etoposide, and radiation therapy with or without tamoxifen in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study (9235).  

PubMed

Based on both clinical and laboratory data that suggested that tamoxifen (TAM) enhanced the effectiveness of cisplatin (DDP)-based chemotherapy regimens, the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) designed and initiated a prospective, randomized phase III trial to test the efficacy of the addition of high-dose TAM to a standard chemoradiation regimen of DDP and etoposide (VP-16) in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). Between August 6, 1993, and January 15, 1999, 319 patients with LSSCLC were accrued to CALGB 9235. Patients were randomized to receive chemotherapy with or without high-dose TAM. Treatment on the non-TAM containing arm (arm 1) included DDP (80 mg/m2 intravenously day 1 only) and VP-16 (80 mg/m2 intravenously days 1-3) given every 3 weeks for a total of 5 cycles. Patients treated on arm 2 received the identical chemotherapy regimen as described here with the addition of high-dose TAM (80 mg orally twice per day), which was given for 5 days each cycle starting 1 day before the DDP. Thoracic radiation (XRT) given at 200 cGy 5 days per week to a total dose of 50 Gy began on day 1 of cycle 4 of chemotherapy and overlapped with cycle 5. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was offered to all patients who achieved a complete response or near-complete response. A total of 307 patients are evaluable for response. After the completion of the chemoradiation portion of the treatment, the overall response rate (ORR) was 88% for 154 patients treated without tamoxifen and 84% for 153 patients treated with tamoxifen with complete response (CR) rates of 49% and 50%, respectively. The median failure-free survivals of 12.3 months and 10.5 months and the overall survivals of 20.6 months and 18.4 months, respectively, were not statistically significant between the 2 arms. Toxicity was similar with and without tamoxifen. This phase III trial failed to demonstrate a positive effect on either the response or survival for the addition of TAM to standard etoposide-cisplatin-radiation management for patients with LS-SCLC. However, these data continue to support a positive effect of chemoradiation in the treatment of patients with LS-SCLC. PMID:15685040

McClay, Edward F; Bogart, Jeff; Herndon, James E; Watson, Dee; Evans, Lisa; Seagren, Steven L; Green, Mark R

2005-02-01

132

The impact of sharing results of a randomized breast cancer clinical trial with study participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background There has been growing interest in providing clinical trial participants with study results yet only limited information\\u000a exists regarding the process and impact of sharing results. We sought to evaluate patient perceptions of how results had been\\u000a shared from a large randomized cooperative group trial, and the impact of learning results. Patients and methods A subset of women who

Ann H. Partridge; A. C. Wolff; P. K. Marcom; P. A. Kaufman; L. Zhang; R. Gelman; C. Moore; D. Lake; G. F. Fleming; H. S. Rugo; J. Atkins; E. Sampson; D. Collyar; E. P. Winer

2009-01-01

133

Cost effectiveness of group follow-up after structured education for type 1 diabetes: a cluster randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background This study examines the cost effectiveness of group follow-up after participation in the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) structured education programme for type 1 diabetes. Methods Economic evaluation conducted alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 437 adults with type 1 diabetes in Ireland. Group follow-up involved two group education ‘booster’ sessions post-DAFNE. Individual follow-up involved two standard one-to-one hospital clinic visits. Incremental costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and cost effectiveness were estimated at 18 months. Uncertainty was explored using sensitivity analysis and by estimating cost effectiveness acceptability curves. Results Group follow-up was associated with a mean reduction in QALYs gained of 0.04 per patient (P value, 0.052; 95% CI, ?0.08 to 0.01, intra-class correlation (ICC), 0.033) and a mean reduction in total healthcare costs of €772 (P value, 0.020; 95% CI, ?1,415 to ?128: ICC, 0.016) per patient. At alternative threshold values of €5,000, €15,000, €25,000, €35,000, and €45,000, the probability of group follow-up being cost effective was estimated to be 1.000, 0.762, 0.204, 0.078, and 0.033 respectively. Conclusions The results do not support implementation of group follow-up as the sole means of follow-up post-DAFNE. Given the reported cost savings, future studies should explore the cost effectiveness of alternative models of group care for diabetes. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN79759174 (assigned: 9 February 2007). PMID:24927851

2014-01-01

134

Wastewater reuse studies and trials in Canberra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reuse of sewage effluent has the potential to both minimize the disposal of water to the environment and reduce the demand on fresh water supplies. In Canberra the Australian national capital city, trials are being undertaken to demonstrate the practicalities of reuse. The first referred to as “water mining” consists of a small treatment plant constructed within the urban environment

John Neal

1996-01-01

135

A group-sequential design for clinical trials with treatment selection.  

PubMed

A group-sequential design for clinical trials that involve treatment selection was proposed by Stallard and Todd (Statist. Med. 2003; 22:689-703). In this design, the best among a number of experimental treatments is selected on the basis of data observed at the first of a series of interim analyses. This experimental treatment then continues together with the control treatment to be assessed in one or more further analyses. The method was extended by Kelly et al. (J. Biopharm. Statist. 2005; 15:641-658) to allow more than one experimental treatment to continue beyond the first interim analysis. This design controls the familywise type I error rate under the global null hypothesis, that is in the weak sense, but may not strongly control the error rate, particularly if the treatments selected are not the best-performing ones. In some cases, for example when additional safety data are available, the restriction that the best-performing treatments continue may be unreasonable. This paper describes an extension of the approach of Stallard and Todd that enables construction of a group-sequential design for comparison of several experimental treatments with a control treatment. The new method controls the type I error rate in the strong sense if the number of treatments included at each stage is specified in advance, and is indicated by simulation studies to be conservative when the number of treatments is chosen based on the observed data in a practically relevant way. PMID:18792085

Stallard, Nigel; Friede, Tim

2008-12-20

136

Group hypnosis vs. relaxation for smoking cessation in adults: a cluster-randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the popularity of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation, the efficacy of this method is unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a single-session of group hypnotherapy for smoking cessation compared to relaxation in Swiss adult smokers. Methods This was a cluster-randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial. A single session of hypnosis or relaxation for smoking cessation was delivered to groups of smokers (median size =?11). Participants were 223 smokers consuming???5 cigarettes per day, willing to quit and not using cessation aids (47.1% females, M =?37.5 years [SD =?11.8], 86.1% Swiss). Nicotine withdrawal, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and adverse reactions were assessed at a 2-week follow-up. The main outcome, self-reported 30-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence, was assessed at a 6-month follow up. Abstinence was validated through salivary analysis. Secondary outcomes included number of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and nicotine withdrawal. Results At the 6-month follow up, 14.7% in the hypnosis group and 17.8% in the relaxation group were abstinent. The intervention had no effect on smoking status (p =?.73) or on the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p =?.56). Smoking abstinence self-efficacy did not differ between the interventions (p =?.14) at the 2-week follow-up, but non-smokers in the hypnosis group experienced reduced withdrawal (p =?.02). Both interventions produced few adverse reactions (p =?.81). Conclusions A single session of group hypnotherapy does not appear to be more effective for smoking cessation than a group relaxation session. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72839675. PMID:24365274

2013-01-01

137

Acupuncture for patients with functional dyspepsia: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Whether acupuncture is efficacious for patients with functional dyspepsia is still controversial. So we designed a randomised controlled trial to settle the problem. Methods and analysis We designed a multicentre, two-arm, sham-controlled clinical trial. 200 participants with functional dyspepsia will be randomly assigned to the true acupuncture (TA) group and sham acupuncture (SA) group in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the TA group will receive acupuncture at points selected according to syndrome differentiation. Participants in the sham acupuncture group will receive penetrations at sham points. Participants in both groups will receive 20 sessions of electroacupuncture in 4?weeks, five times continuously with a 2?day rest in a week. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients reporting the absence of dyspeptic symptoms at 16?weeks after inclusion. The secondary outcome includes a Short-Form Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire, the Chinese version of the 36-Item Short Form Survey, the Chinese version of the Nepean dyspepsia index, etc. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the institutional review boards and ethics committees of the first affiliated hospital of Chengdu University of TCM, the first affiliated hospital of Hunan University of TCM and Chongqing Medical University, respectively (from April to August 2012). The results of this trial will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. Trials registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671670. PMID:23901030

Zheng, Hui; Xu, Jing; Li, Juan; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Ling; Chang, Xiaorong; Liu, Mi; Gong, Biao; Li, Xuezhi; Liang, Fanrong

2013-01-01

138

The WIZARD Trial as a Case Study of Flexible Clinical Trial Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a randomized, controlled, confirmatory efficacy clinical trial is influenced by multiple competing factors, including ethical, scientific, economic, and regulatory interests. Design elements, including choice of end points, study duration, and interim monitoring plans, need to be adapted to specific circumstances. The Weekly Intervention With Zithromax for Atherosclerosis and Its Related Disorders (WIZARD) study design was initially intended

Thomas D. Cook; Rebecca J. Benner; Marian R. Fisher

2006-01-01

139

Recruiting a Diverse Group of Middle School Girls into the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: School-based study recruitment efforts are both time consuming and challenging. This paper highlights the recruitment strategies employed by the national, multisite Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a study designed to measure the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce the decline of physical activity levels among…

Elder, John P.; Shuler, LaVerne; Moe, Stacey G.; Grieser, Mira; Pratt, Charlotte; Cameron, Sandra; Hingle, Melanie; Pickrel, Julie L.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Schachter, Kenneth; Greer, Susan; Bothwell, Elizabeth K. Guth

2008-01-01

140

Study protocol for the nutritional route in oesophageal resection trial: a single-arm feasibility trial (NUTRIENT trial)  

PubMed Central

Introduction The best route of feeding for patients undergoing an oesophagectomy is unclear. Concerns exist that early oral intake would increase the incidence and severity of pneumonia and anastomotic leakage. However, in studies including patients after many other types of gastrointestinal surgery and in animal experiments, early oral intake has been shown to be beneficial and enhance recovery. Therefore, we aim to determine the feasibility of early oral intake after oesophagectomy. Methods and analysis This study is a feasibility trial in which 50 consecutive patients will start oral intake directly following oesophagectomy. Primary outcomes will be the frequency and severity of anastomotic leakage and (aspiration) pneumonia. Clinical parameters will be registered prospectively and nutritional requirements and intake will be assessed by a dietician. Surgical complications will be registered. Ethics and dissemination Approval for this study has been obtained from the Medical Ethical Committee of the Catharina Hospital Eindhoven and the study has been registered at the Dutch Trial Register, NTR4136. Results will be published and presented at international congresses. Discussion We hypothesise that the oral route of feeding is safe and feasible following oesophagectomy, as has been shown previously for other types of gastrointestinal surgery. It is expected that early oral nutrition will result in enhanced recovery. Furthermore, complications related to artificial feeding, such as jejunostomy tube feeding, are believed to be reduced. However, (aspiration) pneumonia and anastomotic leakage are potential risks that are carefully monitored. Trial registration number NTR4136. PMID:24907243

Weijs, Teus J; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Ruurda, Jelle P; Kouwenhoven, Ewout A; Rosman, Camiel; Sosef, Meindert; v Hillegersberg, Richard; Luyer, Misha D P

2014-01-01

141

A three-group study, internet-based, face-to-face based and standard- management after acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD) – choosing the most efficient and cost-effective treatment: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The management of Whiplash Associated Disorders is one of the most complicated challenges with high expenses for the health care system and society. There are still no general guidelines or scientific documentation to unequivocally support any single treatment for acute care following whiplash injury. The main purpose of this study is to try a new behavioural medicine intervention strategy

Anne Söderlund; Annika Bring; Pernilla Åsenlöf

2009-01-01

142

Functional outcomes of low back pain: comparison of four treatment groups in a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

The revised Oswestry Low Back Pain Questionnaire (ROLBPQ) and Roland-Morris Activity Scale (RMAS) were compared in a randomized controlled trial of chiropractic manipulation, stroking massage, corset and transcutaneous muscular stimulation (TMS). This trial employed specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, including nonspecific low back pain for a duration of 3 wk to 6 months and ages between 18 and 55. We had the opportunity to ask 85 patients to answer the questionnaires. Sixty-three patients, who completed the initial and final evaluations, were used for data analysis. Both ROLBPQ and RMAS showed good internal consistency with alpha coefficients ranging from .77 to .93. Both instruments showed a significant difference between the chiropractic manipulation and massage groups (p less than .05). RMAS was able to further show significant differences between the chiropractic manipulation and TMS groups, and between the corset and massage groups, but the ROLBPQ failed to do so. RMAS also showed that chiropractic manipulation had a better but nonsignificant result than corset, possibly due to insufficient sample size and/or duration of treatment. We conclude that both instruments are reliable for measuring low back pain disability, and chiropractic manipulation has a superior short-term benefit when compared to stroking massage and TMS in subacute low back pain patients. In addition, it appears that RMAS is preferable in a clinical trial situation for subacute low back pain because it is more sensitive than ROLBPQ to detect changes. PMID:1531488

Hsieh, C Y; Phillips, R B; Adams, A H; Pope, M H

1992-01-01

143

Preliminary Results of a Randomized Study on Therapeutic Gain by Concurrent Chemotherapy for Regionally-Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: NPC9901 Trial by the Hong Kong Nasopharyngeal Cancer Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This randomized study compared the results achieved by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) versus radiotherapy (RT) alone for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with advanced nodal disease. Patients and Methods Patients with nonkeratinizing\\/undifferentiated NPC staged T1-4N2-3M0 were randomized to CRT or RT. Both arms were treated with the same RT technique and dose fractionation. The CRT patients were given cisplatin 100 mg\\/m2 on

Anne W. M. Lee; W. H. Lau; Stewart Y. Tung; Daniel T. T. Chua; Rick Chappell; L. Xu; Lillian Siu; W. M. Sze; T. W. Leung; Jonathan S. T. Sham; Roger K. C. Ngan; Stephen C. K. Law; T. K. Yau; Joseph S. K. Au; Brian O'Sullivan; Ellie S. Y. Pang; Joseph T. Lau

144

A trial of family therapy v. a relatives group for schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenic patients living in high contact with relatives having high expressed emotion (EE) were recruited for a trial of social interventions. The patients were maintained on neuroleptic medication, while their families were randomly assigned to education plus family therapy or education plus a relatives group. Eleven out of 12 families accepted family therapy in the home, whereas only six out of 11 families were compliant with the relatives group. Non-compliance was associated with a poorer outcome for the patients in terms of the relapse rate. The relapse rate over nine months in the family therapy stream was 8%, while that in compliant families in the relatives group stream was 17%. Patients' social functioning showed small, non-significant, gains. The data from the current trial were compared with data from a previous trial. The lowering of the relapse rate in schizophrenia appears to be mediated by reductions in relatives' EE and/or face-to-face contact, and is not explained by better compliance with medication. Reduction in EE and/or contact was associated with a minuscule relapse rate (5%). Very little change occurred in families who were non-compliant with the relatives group. On the basis of these findings, we recommend that the most cost-effective procedure is to establish relatives groups in conjunction with family education and one or more initial family therapy sessions in the home. It is particularly important to offer home visits to families who are unable to or refuse to attend the relatives groups. PMID:2673479

Leff, J; Berkowitz, R; Shavit, N; Strachan, A; Glass, I; Vaughn, C

1989-01-01

145

The EHR solution to clinical trial recruitment in physician groups. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This article was written by the president and founder of the Holston Medical Group and explains his company’s success with an electronic health record (EHR). The EHR is used among 102 providers in 26 locations and has been used to enroll thousands of patients in more than 250 clinical trials. The Holston Medical Group has determined that the use of the EHR Web-based technology can significantly streamline patient recruitment, speed monitoring, and help to prevent protocol failure—all while increasing revenue stream.

146

Effectiveness of a psycho-educational group program for major depression in primary care: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Studies show the effectiveness of group psychoeducation in reducing symptoms in people with depression. However, few controlled studies that have included aspects of personal care and healthy lifestyle (diet, physical exercise, sleep) together with cognitive-behavioral techniques in psychoeducation are proven to be effective. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a psychoeducational program, which includes aspects of personal care and healthy lifestyle, in patients with mild/moderate depression symptoms in Primary Care (PC). Methods In a randomized, controlled trial, 246 participants over 20 years old with ICD-10 major depression were recruited through nurses/general practitioners at 12 urban Primary Care Centers (PCCs) in Barcelona. The intervention group (IG) (n=119) received a group psychoeducational program (12 weekly, 1.5 h sessions led by two nurses) and the control group (CG) (n=112) received usual care. Patients were assessed at baseline and at, 3, 6 and 9 months. The main outcome measures were the BDI, EQ-5D and remission based upon the BDI. Results 231 randomized patients were included, of whom 85 had mild depression and 146 moderate depression. The analyses showed significant differences between groups in relation to remission of symptoms, especially in the mild depression group with a high rate of 57% (p=0.009) at post-treatment and 65% (p=0.006) at 9 month follow up, and only showed significant differences on the BDI at post-treatment (p=0.016; effect size Cohen’s d’=.51) and at 6 and 9 month follow-up (p= 0.048; d’=.44). In the overall and moderate sample, the analyses only showed significant differences between groups on the BDI at post-treatment, p=0.02 (d’=.29) and p=0.010 (d’=.47), respectively. The psychoeducation group improved significantly on the EQ-5D at short and long-term. Conclusions This psychoeducational intervention is a short and long-term effective treatment for patients with mild depression symptoms. It results in a high remission rate, is recommended in PC and can be carried out by nurses with previous training. In moderate patients, group psychoeducation is effective in the short-term. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT00841737 PMID:23249399

2012-01-01

147

On Sufism, Sufi Group Study and Group Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sufism is an ancient tradition of experiential human development. Sufi human development specialists utilize the group setting as a major study format. Comparison with group counseling might broaden perspectives on the possibilities and pitfalls of group process, and pinpoint several important issues relevant to group leadership. (Author)

Einhorn, Jay

1979-01-01

148

A Phase II Study of Ifosfamide, Methotrexate, Etoposide, and Prednisolone for Previously Untreated Stage I/II Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type: A Multicenter Trial of the Korean Cancer Study Group  

PubMed Central

Background. Combination chemotherapy consisting of ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, and prednisolone (IMEP) was active as first-line and second-line treatment for extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NTCL). Methods. Forty-four patients with chemo-naïve stage I/II NTCL were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, phase II study and received six cycles of IMEP (ifosfamide 1.5 g/m2 on days 1–3; methotrextate 30 mg/m2 on days 3 and 10; etoposide 100 mg/m2 on days 1–3; and prednisolone 60 mg/m2 per day on days 1–5) followed by involved field radiotherapy (IFRT). Results. Overall response rates were 73% (complete remission [CR] in 11 of 41 evaluable patients [27%]) after IMEP chemotherapy and 78% (CR 18 of 27 evaluable patients [67%]) after IMEP followed by IFRT. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were documented in 33 patients (75%) and 7 patients (16%), respectively. Only 8 patients (18%) experienced febrile neutropenia. Three-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 66% and 56%, respectively. High Ki-67 (?70%) and Ann Arbor stage II independently reduced PFS (p = .004) and OS (p = .001), respectively. Conclusion. Due to the high rate of progression during IMEP chemotherapy, IFRT needs to be introduced earlier. Moreover, active chemotherapy including an l-asparaginase-based regimen should be use to reduce systemic treatment failure in stage I/II NTCL. PMID:25280488

Kim, Tae Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Chung, Jooseop; Song, Hong-Suk; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Byung Soo; Lee, Jong-Seok; Kim, Hawk; Yang, Sung Hyun; Yuh, Young Jin; Bae, Sung Hwa; Hyun, Myung Soo; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Chul Woo

2014-01-01

149

Roswell Park-led study finds most cancer research trials do not assess participants’ tobacco use  

Cancer.gov

While tobacco use can significantly hamper cancer treatment, few cancer researchers are incorporating tobacco assessment into their clinical studies. That’s the conclusion a group of investigators led by researchers at Roswell Park Cancer Institute drew from a recent survey of cancer clinical trials.

150

The Effectiveness of an Online Support Group for Members of the Community with Depression: A Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Internet support groups (ISGs) are popular, particularly among people with depression, but there is little high quality evidence concerning their effectiveness. Aim The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an ISG for reducing depressive symptoms among community members when used alone and in combination with an automated Internet-based psychotherapy training program. Method Volunteers with elevated psychological distress were identified using a community-based screening postal survey. Participants were randomised to one of four 12-week conditions: depression Internet Support Group (ISG), automated depression Internet Training Program (ITP), combination of the two (ITP+ISG), or a control website with delayed access to e-couch at 6 months. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-intervention, 6 and 12 months. Results There was no change in depressive symptoms relative to control after 3 months of exposure to the ISG. However, both the ISG alone and the combined ISG+ITP group showed significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms at 6 and 12 months follow-up than the control group. The ITP program was effective relative to control at post-intervention but not at 6 months. Conclusions ISGs for depression are promising and warrant further empirical investigation. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN65657330 PMID:23285271

Griffiths, Kathleen M.; Mackinnon, Andrew J.; Crisp, Dimity A.; Christensen, Helen; Bennett, Kylie; Farrer, Louise

2012-01-01

151

From Planning to Implementation: An Examination of Changes in the Research Design, Sample Size, and Precision of Group Randomized Trials Launched by the Institute of Education Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines changes in the research design, sample size, and precision between the planning phase and implementation phase of group randomized trials (GRTs) funded by the Institute of Education Sciences. Thirty-eight GRTs funded between 2002 and 2006 were examined. Three studies revealed changes in the experimental design. Ten studies

Spybrook, Jessaca; Puente, Anne Cullen; Lininger, Monica

2013-01-01

152

A group sequential adaptive treatment assignment design for proof of concept and dose selection in headache trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trial objective was to test whether a new mechanism of action would effectively treat migraine headaches and to select a dose range for further investigation. The motivation for a group sequential, adaptive, placebo-controlled trial design was (1) limited information about where across the range of seven doses to focus attention, (2) a need to limit sample size for a

David B. Hall; Ulrich Meier; Hans-Cristoph Diener

2005-01-01

153

Feasibility of feature-based indexing, clustering, and search of clinical trials: A case study of breast cancer trials from ClinicalTrials.gov  

PubMed Central

Summary Background When standard therapies fail, clinical trials provide experimental treatment opportunities for patients with drug-resistant illnesses or terminal diseases. Clinical Trials can also provide free treatment and education for individuals who otherwise may not have access to such care. To find relevant clinical trials, patients often search online; however, they often encounter a significant barrier due to the large number of trials and in-effective indexing methods for reducing the trial search space. Objectives This study explores the feasibility of feature-based indexing, clustering, and search of clinical trials and informs designs to automate these processes. Methods We decomposed 80 randomly selected stage III breast cancer clinical trials into a vector of eligibility features, which were organized into a hierarchy. We clustered trials based on their eligibility feature similarities. In a simulated search process, manually selected features were used to generate specific eligibility questions to filter trials iteratively. Results We extracted 1,437 distinct eligibility features and achieved an inter-rater agreement of 0.73 for feature extraction for 37 frequent features occurring in more than 20 trials. Using all the 1,437 features we stratified the 80 trials into six clusters containing trials recruiting similar patients by patient-characteristic features, five clusters by disease-characteristic features, and two clusters by mixed features. Most of the features were mapped to one or more Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts, demonstrating the utility of named entity recognition prior to mapping with the UMLS for automatic feature extraction. Conclusions It is feasible to develop feature-based indexing and clustering methods for clinical trials to identify trials with similar target populations and to improve trial search efficiency. PMID:23666475

Boland, Mary Regina; Miotto, Riccardo; Gao, Junfeng; Weng, Chunhua

2013-01-01

154

Treatment of relapsed CD20 Hodgkin lymphoma with the monoclonal antibody rituximab is effective and well tolerated: results of a phase 2 trial of the German Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

This phase 2 trial was performed to evalu- ate the safety and efficacy of the chimeric monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody ritux- imab in patients with relapsed lympho- cyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma or other CD20 subtypes of Hodgkin dis- ease (HD). Eligibility criteria required ex- pression of the CD20 antigen on more than 30% of malignant cells. Fourteen patients were treated with 4

Ute Rehwald; Holger Schulz; Marcel Reiser; Markus Sieber; Jan Oliver Staak; Franck Morschhauser; Christoph Driessen; Thomas Rudiger

155

Electroacupuncture for pressure ulcer: a study protocol for a randomized controlled pilot trial  

PubMed Central

Background Pressure ulcers are one of the most common health complaints, which often take months or years to heal, and affect patients’ morbidity and quality of life. Medical options for pressure ulcers are limited. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been employed to relieve the symptoms for patients with pressure ulcers, but there is limited clinical evidence for its effectiveness. Methods/Design This study consists of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two parallel arms: a control group and an EA group. Both groups will receive standard wound care (including changing position, using mattresses and cushions, and a good diet) of five sessions per week for a total of 40 sessions during the 8-week treatment period. In addition, the EA group will receive the EA intervention. The following outcome measurements will be used in examination of participants: wound surface area (WSA), visual analogue scale (VAS), and the proportion of ulcers healed within trial period (PUHTP). All the outcomes will be evaluated at the start of the study, at the end of the fourth week, at 8 weeks after randomization, and 1 month after treatment cessation. Discussion The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of EA for the treatment of patients with pressure ulcers. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register: ChiCTR-TRC-11001693 PMID:24393344

2014-01-01

156

Group interpersonal psychotherapy for postnatal depression: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We conducted a pilot study to assess the potential effectiveness of group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-G) as a treatment\\u000a for postnatal depression (PND). The study was also established to test a treatment manual for IPT-G, assess the acceptability\\u000a of this format for participants and test a recruitment strategy for a randomised controlled trial. 18 mothers diagnosed with\\u000a PND participated in 2

R. Reay; Y. Fisher; M. Robertson; E. Adams; C. Owen

2006-01-01

157

Acupuncture for acute stroke: study protocol for a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Acupuncture has been widely used as a treatment for stroke in China for more than 3,000 years. However, previous research has not yet shown that acupuncture is effective as a stroke treatment. We report a protocol for a multicenter, randomized, controlled, and outcome assessor-blind trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture on acute ischemic stroke. Methods/Design In a prospective trial involving three hospitals in the Zhejiang Province (China) 250 patients with a recent (less than 1 week previous) episode of ischemic stroke will be included. Patients will be randomized into two groups: an acupuncture group given scalp acupuncture and electroacupuncture, and a control group given no acupuncture. Eighteen treatment sessions will be performed over a three-week period. The primary outcome will be measured by changes in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at the one, three, and four-week follow-up. Secondary outcome measures will be: 1) the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale for motor function; 2) the mini-mental state examination and Montreal cognitive assessment for cognitive function; 3) the video-fluoroscopic swallowing study for swallowing ability; and 4) the incidence of adverse events. Discussion This trial is expected to clarify whether or not acupuncture is effective for acute stroke. It will also show if acupuncture can improve motor, cognitive, or swallowing function. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12001971. PMID:24908241

2014-01-01

158

Impact of active and passive exclusions on the results of a clinical trial in multiple myeloma. The Myeloma Group of Western Sweden.  

PubMed

During the 3 years 1984-86, 314 cases of multiple myeloma were diagnosed in the Health Care Region of Western Sweden. 180 of these cases were included in a clinical trial; 71 were notified to the trial but excluded; 49 cases were not reported to the trial; 14 were diagnosed post mortem. The crude incidence rate of myeloma was 6.3 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year, corresponding to an age-adjusted (world standard population) incidence rate of 2.9 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The excluded and the non-reported patients had a significantly shorter survival than those included in the clinical trial (median survival 22, 13 and 33 months, respectively). This was partly due to differences in age and proportion of actively treated patients between the groups, but the same tendency remained also after correction for these factors. Considering the included patients separately, the effect of tentative application of presumptive exclusion criteria corresponding to major prognostic factors was studied. Prolonged survival was seen when the upper age limit was lowered and when patients with renal failure or low performance status were excluded. The results illustrate the fact that for multiple myeloma the survival in a trial population is markedly influenced by active and passive exclusion of patient groups with unfavourable prognostic characteristics. When reporting results of clinical trials, discussion of the representativeness of the trial population for the total patient population is recommended in order to facilitate application of the trial results to medical practice and comparisons between trials. PMID:1536810

Hjorth, M; Holmberg, E; Rödjer, S; Westin, J

1992-01-01

159

THE COOPERATIVE INTERNATIONAL NEUROMUSCULAR RESEARCH GROUP DUCHENNE NATURAL HISTORY STUDY: GLUCOCORTICOID TREATMENT PRESERVES CLINICALLY MEANINGFUL FUNCTIONAL MILESTONES AND REDUCES RATE OF DISEASE PROGRESSION AS MEASURED BY MANUAL MUSCLE TESTING AND OTHER COMMONLY USED CLINICAL TRIAL OUTCOME MEASURES  

PubMed Central

Introduction Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has altered disease progression, necessitating contemporary natural history studies. Methods The Cooperative Neuromuscular Research Group (CINRG) DMD Natural History Study (DMD-NHS) enrolled 340 DMD males, ages 2–28 years. A comprehensive battery of measures was obtained. Results A novel composite functional “milestone” scale scale showed clinically meaningful mobility and upper limb abilities were significantly preserved in GC-treated adolescents/young adults. Manual muscle test (MMT)-based calculations of global strength showed that those patients <10 years of age treated with steroids declined by 0.4±0.39 MMT unit/year, compared with ?0.4±0.39 MMT unit/year in historical steroid-naive subjects. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were relatively preserved in steroid-treated adolescents. The linearity and magnitude of decline in measures were affected by maturational changes and functional status. Conclusions In DMD, long-term use of GCs showed reduced strength loss and preserved functional capabilities and PFTs compared with previous natural history studies performed prior to the widespread use of GC therapy. PMID:23649481

HENRICSON, ERIK K.; ABRESCH, R. TED; CNAAN, AVITAL; HU, FENGMING; DUONG, TINA; ARRIETA, ADRIENNE; HAN, JAY; ESCOLAR, DIANA M.; FLORENCE, JULAINE M.; CLEMENS, PAULA R.; HOFFMAN, ERIC P.; McDONALD, CRAIG M.

2014-01-01

160

Phase II Selection Design Trial of Concurrent Chemotherapy and Cetuximab Versus Chemotherapy Followed by Cetuximab in Advanced-Stage Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Southwest Oncology Group Study S0342  

PubMed Central

Purpose Randomized clinical trials failed to show a survival benefit for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors plus concurrent chemotherapy in patients with metastatic non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with preclinical data suggesting potential negative interactions. In contrast, pilot trials of the EGFR-targeted antibody, cetuximab, plus chemotherapy suggested enhanced antitumor activity. This randomized phase II trial was designed to select a cetuximab plus chemotherapy regimen for phase III evaluation. Patients and Methods Treatment-naive patients with advanced-stage NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive paclitaxel (225 mg/m2) and carboplatin (area under the curve, 6) every 3 weeks plus concurrent cetuximab (400 mg/m2 loading dose followed by 250 mg/m2 weekly) for four cycles followed by maintenance cetuximab or sequential paclitaxel-carboplatin for four cycles followed by cetuximab. Results Of 242 patients enrolled, 224 were eligible and assessable for response (106 and 118 patients in the concurrent and sequential arms, respectively). With a median follow-up time of 32 months, the median overall survival was 10.9 months (95% CI, 9.2 to 13.0 months) for patients receiving concurrent therapy and 10.7 months (95% CI, 8.5 to 12.8 months) for patients receiving sequential therapy (P = .57); 1-year survival rates were 45% (95% CI, 36% to 54%) and 44% (95% CI, 35% to 53%), respectively. Response rates and progression-free survival times were similar in both arms, as was grade 3 rash, whereas sensory neuropathy was higher in the concurrent arm (15% v 5% in the sequential arm; P = .036). Conclusion Although both regimens met the efficacy criterion for continued evaluation, the concurrent regimen of paclitaxel/carboplatin plus cetuximab was chosen. PMID:20921467

Herbst, Roy S.; Kelly, Karen; Chansky, Kari; Mack, Philip C.; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Atkins, James N.; Dakhil, Shaker R.; Albain, Kathy S.; Kim, Edward S.; Redman, Mary; Crowley, John J.; Gandara, David R.

2010-01-01

161

Factors influencing clinical trial site selection in Europe: the Survey of Attitudes towards Trial sites in Europe (the SAT-EU Study)  

PubMed Central

Objectives Applications to run clinical trials in Europe fell 25% between 2007 and 2011. Costs, speed of approvals and shortcomings of European Clinical Trial Directive are commonly invoked to explain this unsatisfactory performance. However, no hard evidence is available on the actual weight of these factors or has it been previously investigated whether other criteria may also impact clinical trial site selection. Design The Survey of Attitudes towards Trial sites in Europe (SAT-EU Study) was an anonymous, cross-sectional web-based survey that systematically assessed factors impacting European clinical trial site selection. It explored 19 factors across investigator-driven, hospital-driven and environment-driven criteria, and costs. It also surveyed perceptions of the European trial environment. Setting and participants Clinical research organisations (CROs), academic clinical trial units (CTUs) and industry invited to respond. Outcome measures Primary outcome: weight assigned to each factor hypothesised to impact trial site selection and trial incidence. Secondary outcome: desirability of European countries to run clinical trials. Results Responses were obtained from 485 professionals in 34 countries: 49% from BioPharma, 40% from CTUs or CROs. Investigator-dependent, environment-dependent and hospital-dependent factors were rated highly important, costs being less important (p<0.0001). Within environment-driven criteria, pool of eligible patients, speed of approvals and presence of disease-management networks were significantly more important than costs or government financial incentives (p<0.0001). The pattern of response was consistent across respondent groupings (CTU vs CRO vs industry). Considerable variability was demonstrated in the perceived receptivity of countries to undertake clinical trials, with Germany, the UK and the Netherlands rated the best trial markets (p<0.0001). Conclusions Investigator-dependent factors and ease of approval dominate trial site selection, while costs appear less important. Fostering competitiveness of European clinical research may not require additional government spending/incentives. Rather, harmonisation of approval processes, greater visibility of centres of excellence and reduction of ‘hidden’ indirect costs, may bring significantly more clinical trials to Europe. PMID:24240138

Gehring, Marta; Taylor, Rod S; Mellody, Marie; Casteels, Brigitte; Piazzi, Angela; Gensini, Gianfranco; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

162

Moxibustion for the treatment of pressure ulcers: study protocol for a pilot, multicentre, randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pressure ulcers are common in the elderly and immobile. Currently, there are few proven effective treatments for pressure ulcers. This trial aims to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and safety of moxibustion for pressure ulcers. Methods/analysis This is a multicentre, two-armed, parallel-design randomised controlled trial (RCT). 30 eligible patients with pressure ulcers will be randomised in a ratio of 1:1 to the treatment group and control group. The participants in the treatment group will undergo indirect moxibustion for 30?min before application of a dressing, one session daily, five sessions weekly for 4?weeks. The patients in the control group will only receive a dressing, applied in the same way as in the treatment group. Both groups will be followed up for 3?months. The primary outcome measures will be wound surface area (WSA) and proportion of ulcers healed within trial period (PUHTP). The secondary outcomes will be the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH Tool), visual analogue scale (VAS) and adverse events. All outcomes will be evaluated at the beginning of the study, at the end of the second week, at 4?weeks after randomisation and at 1 and 3?months after treatment cessation. Ethics/dissemination This trial has undergone ethical scrutiny and been approved by the ethics review boards of First Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine and Second Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine (Permission number: HZYEYLP2014). The results of this study will provide clinical evidence for the feasibility, efficacy and safety of moxibustion for pressure ulcers. Trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC-13003959. PMID:25550296

Zhang, Qin-hong; Yue, Jin-huan; Li, Chao-ran; Sun, Zhong-ren

2014-01-01

163

Prevalence of primary outcome changes in clinical trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background: An important principle in the good conduct of clinical trials is that a summary of the trial protocol, with a pre-defined primary outcome, should be freely available before the study commences. The clinical trials registry ClinicalTrials.gov provides one method of doing this, and once the trial is registered, any changes made to the primary outcome are documented. The objectives of this study were: to assess the proportion of registered trials on ClinicalTrials.gov that had the primary outcome changed; to assess when the primary outcome was changed in relation to the listed study start and end dates and to assess whether the primary outcome change had any relation to the study sponsor. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of all interventional clinical trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov as of 25 October 2012 was performed. The main outcome was any change made to the initially listed primary outcome and the time of the change in relation to the trial start and end date. Findings: Our analysis showed that 28229 of 89204 (31.7%) registered studies had their primary outcome changed.  Industry funding was associated with all primary outcome changes, odds ratio (OR)= 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.31-1.41, p<0.001; with primary outcome changes after study start date OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.32-1.42, p<0.001; with primary outcome changes after primary completion date OR=1.84, 95% CI=1.75-1.94, p<0.001 and with primary outcome changes after study completion date OR=1.82, 95% CI=1.73-1.91, p<0.001.  Conclusions A significant proportion of interventional trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov have their primary outcomes altered after the listed study start and completion dates. These changes are associated with funding source. PMID:25075294

Ramagopalan, Sreeram; Skingsley, Andrew P.; Handunnetthi, Lahiru; Klingel, Michelle; Magnus, Daniel; Pakpoor, Julia; Goldacre, Ben

2014-01-01

164

Phase II Study of Thalidomide Plus Dexamethasone Induction Followed by Tandem Melphalan-Based Autotransplantation and Thalidomide-Plus-Prednisone Maintenance for Untreated Multiple Myeloma: A Southwest Oncology Group Trial (S0204)  

PubMed Central

Purpose Thalidomide-dexamethasone (THAL-DEX) is standard induction therapy for multiple myeloma (MM). Tandem melphalan-based transplantations have yielded superior results to single transplantations. Phase II trial S0204 was designed to improve survival results reported for the predecessor, phase III trial S9321 by 50%. Patients and Methods Newly diagnosed patients with MM were eligible for S0204 with THAL-DEX induction, tandem melphalan-based tandem transplantation, and THAL-prednisone maintenance. Results Of 143 eligible patients, 142 started induction, 73% completed first transplantation, 58% completed second transplantation, and 56% started maintenance. The quantity of stem cells required for two transplantations was reached in 88% of 111 patients undergoing collection, 74% of whom completed both transplantations. Partial response, very good partial remission, and complete response were documented after 12 months of maintenance therapy in 87%, 72%, and 22% of patients, respectively. During a median follow-up time of 37 months, 4-year estimates of event-free and overall survival were 50% and 64%, respectively. Survival outcomes were superior for International Staging System (ISS) stage 1 disease, when lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were normal and a second transplantation was applied in a timely fashion. Conclusion Both overall survival (P = .0002) and event-free survival (P < .0001) were significantly improved with S0204 compared with S9321 when 121 and 363 patients, respectively, were matched on ISS stage and LDH. PMID:19546405

Hussein, Mohamad A.; Bolejack, Vanessa; Zonder, Jeffrey A.; Durie, Brian G.M.; Jakubowiak, Andrzej J.; Crowley, John J.; Barlogie, Bart

2009-01-01

165

Multiplex genomic profiling of non–small cell lung cancers from the LETS phase III trial of first-line S-1/carboplatin versus paclitaxel/carboplatin: results of a West Japan Oncology Group study  

PubMed Central

Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens were collected from advanced NSCLC patients enrolled in LETS phase III trial comparing first-line S-1/carboplatin with paclitaxel/carboplatin and subjected to multiplex genotyping for 214 somatic hotspot mutations in 26 genes (LungCarta Panel) and 20 major variants of ALK, RET, and ROS1 fusion genes (LungFusion Panel) with the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. MET amplification was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. A somatic mutation in at least one gene was identified in 48% of non–squamous cell carcinoma and 45% of squamous cell carcinoma specimens, with EGFR (17%), TP53 (11%), STK11 (9.8%), MET (7.6%), and KRAS (6.2%). Mutations in EGFR or KRAS were associated with a longer or shorter median overall survival, respectively. The LungFusion Panel identified ALK fusions in six cases (2.5%), ROS1 fusions in five cases (2.1%), and a RET fusion in one case (0.4%), with these three types of rearrangement being mutually exclusive. Nine (3.9%) of 229 patients were found to be positive for de novo MET amplification. This first multiplex genotyping of NSCLC associated with a phase III trial shows that MassARRAY-based genetic testing for somatic mutations and fusion genes performs well with nucleic acid derived from FFPE specimens of NSCLC tissue. PMID:24810493

Okamoto, Isamu; Sakai, Kazuko; Morita, Satoshi; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Kaneda, Hiroyasu; Takeda, Koji; Hirashima, Tomonori; Kogure, Yoshihito; Kimura, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Atagi, Shinji; Seto, Takashi; Sawa, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Masashi; Satouchi, Miyako; Okuno, Motoyasu; Nagase, Seisuke; Takayama, Koichi; Tomii, Keisuke; Maeda, Tadashi; Oizumi, Satoshi; Fujii, Shinji; Akashi, Yusaku; Nishino, Kazumi; Ebi, Noriyuki; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Nishio, Kazuto

2014-01-01

166

Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Empirical Study of Trials Registered in ClinicalTrials.gov  

PubMed Central

Background The $1.1 billion investment in comparative effectiveness research will reshape the evidence-base supporting decisions about treatment effectiveness, safety, and cost. Defining the current prevalence and characteristics of comparative effectiveness (CE) research will enable future assessments of the impact of this program. Methods We conducted an observational study of clinical trials addressing priority research topics defined by the Institute of Medicine and conducted in the US between 2007 and 2010. Trials were identified in ClinicalTrials.gov. Main outcome measures were the prevalence of comparative effectiveness research, nature of comparators selected, funding sources, and impact of these factors on results. Results 231 (22.3%; 95% CI 19.8%–24.9%) studies were CE studies and 804 (77.7%; 95% CI, 75.1%–80.2%) were non-CE studies, with 379 (36.6%; 95% CI, 33.7%–39.6%) employing a placebo control and 425 (41.1%; 95% CI, 38.1%–44.1%) no control. The most common treatments examined in CE studies were drug interventions (37.2%), behavioral interventions (28.6%), and procedures (15.6%). Study findings were favorable for the experimental treatment in 34.8% of CE studies and greater than twice as many (78.6%) non-CE studies (P<0.001). CE studies were more likely to receive government funding (P?=?0.003) and less likely to receive industry funding (P?=?0.01), with 71.8% of CE studies primarily funded by a noncommercial source. The types of interventions studied differed based on funding source, with 95.4% of industry trials studying a drug or device. In addition, industry-funded CE studies were associated with the fewest pediatric subjects (P<0.001), the largest anticipated sample size (P<0.001), and the shortest study duration (P<0.001). Conclusions In this sample of studies examining high priority areas for CE research, less than a quarter are CE studies and the majority is supported by government and nonprofits. The low prevalence of CE research exists across CE studies with a broad array of interventions and characteristics. PMID:22253698

Bourgeois, Florence T.; Murthy, Srinivas; Mandl, Kenneth D.

2012-01-01

167

Cost-effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: Results from a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly prevalent and associated with a substantial societal economic burden, primarily due to high costs of productivity loss. Cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) is an effective treatment for SAD and the most established in clinical practice. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has demonstrated efficacy in several trials in recent years. No study has however investigated

Erik Hedman; Erik Andersson; Brjánn Ljótsson; Gerhard Andersson; Christian Rück; Nils Lindefors

2011-01-01

168

Dental Budget Process: Determination Schema Industry Sponsored, Industry Supported, University to University, Co-operative Group or Foundation Supported Clinical Trials  

E-print Network

, University to University, Co-operative Group or Foundation Supported Clinical Trials DENTAL BUDGET PROCESS OR FOUNDATION SUPPORTED CLINICAL TRIALS Following Procedure I flow chart A. PRE-TRIAL: o In order to open an industry sponsored, industry supported, university to university or foundation clinical trial

Oliver, Douglas L.

169

Randomized trials versus observational studies in adolescent pregnancy prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to compare the results of randomized trials and observational studies of interventions to prevent adolescent pregnancy. We identified published and unpublished reports through computerized searches of CATLINE, CINAHL, CONFERENCE PAPERS INDEX, DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS ONLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, NTIS, POPLINE, PsycINFO, and SOCIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS; manual searches of eight relevant journals; reference lists from primary articles;

Gordon H. Guyatt; Alba DiCenso; Vern Farewell; Andrew Willan; Lauren Griffith

2000-01-01

170

Association between randomised trial evidence and global burden of disease: cross sectional study (Epidemiological Study of Randomized Trials—ESORT)  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether an association exists between the number of published randomised controlled trials and the global burden of disease, whether certain diseases are under-investigated relative to their burden, and whether the relation between the output of randomised trials and global burden of disease can be explained by the relative disease burden in high and low income regions. Design Cross sectional investigation. Study sample All primary reports of randomised trials published in December 2012 and indexed in PubMed by 17 November 2013. Main outcome measures Number of trials conducted and number of participants randomised for each of 239 different diseases or injuries; variation in each outcome explainable by total disability adjusted life years (a measure of the overall burden of each disease) and the ratio of disability adjusted life years in low income to high income regions (a measure of whether a disease is more likely to affect people living in high income regions) quantified using multivariable regression. Results 4190 abstracts were reviewed and 1351 primary randomised trials identified, of which 1097 could be classified using the global burden of disease taxonomy. Total disability adjusted life years was poorly associated with number of randomised trials and number of participants randomised in univariable analysis (Spearman’s r=0.35 and 0.33, respectively), although it was a significant predictor in the univariable and multivariable models (P<0.001). Diseases for which the burden was predominantly located in low income regions had sevenfold fewer trials per million disability adjusted life years than diseases predominantly located in high income regions. However, only 26% of the variation in number of trials among diseases could be explained by total disability adjusted life years and the ratio of disability adjusted life years in low income regions to high income regions. Many high income type diseases (for example, neck pain, glomerulonephritis) have proportionally fewer randomised trials compared with low income type diseases (for example, vitamin A deficiency). Conclusions Overall, a weak association existed between global burden of disease and number of published randomised trials. A global observatory for research is needed to monitor and reduce the discordance between the output of randomised trials and global burden of disease. PMID:25630558

Odutayo, Ayodele; Hsiao, Allan J; Shakir, Mubeen; Hopewell, Sally; Rahimi, Kazem; Altman, Douglas G

2015-01-01

171

Should I eXtract Every Six dental trial (SIXES): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Extraction of lower first permanent molars in children is common. There is uncertainty among clinicians as to whether a ‘compensating extraction’ (removal of the upper first permanent molar to prevent it over erupting) is necessary despite current guidelines recommending this. As a result, unnecessary dental extractions may be carried out or children may be failing to receive extractions required to achieve optimal long-term oral health. In addition, the decision to extract fewer or more teeth affects management options (local anesthetic injections alone, inhalation sedation or general anesthesia) needed to support the child with the surgical procedure(s). The SIXES (Should I eXtract Every Six) dental trial investigates clinical effectiveness and quality of life for conventional treatment (following the guideline of compensation extraction of the upper first permanent molar) compared with the alternative intervention (removal of lower first permanent molars but no extraction of the upper). Methods/Design This is a multicenter, two-arm parallel group randomized clinical trial. Allocation will be web-based randomization. Practitioners in primary and secondary care settings, reflecting the points of presentation and treatment of eligible patients, will recruit 400 children, aged 7 to 11 years requiring extraction of lower first permanent molars but who have upper first permanent molars of good prognosis. Baseline measures (prior to treatment) and outcome data (at one and five years, or when the patient reaches 14 years of age) will be assessed through study models and child/parent questionnaires. The primary outcome measure is degree of tipping of the lower second permanent molar, (favorable outcome is tipping less than 15°). The secondary outcomes are type of anesthetic/sedation used, residual spacing (between lower second premolar and second permanent molar), orthodontic treatment requirement, quality of life, and over-eruption in the intervention group. Assessors will be blinded where possible. Discussion SIXES dental trial investigates whether compensating extraction of upper first permanent molars should be carried out following loss of lower first permanent molars. Currently dentists and orthodontists face a dilemma in clinical decision-making, relying on the lowest level of evidence - expert opinion. SIXES will provide evidence to support decision-making and inform practices and may result in reduced tooth extractions. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01591265 PMID:23442547

2013-01-01

172

Fluoxetine for Autistic Behaviors (FAB trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial in children and adolescents with autism  

PubMed Central

Background Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed off-label for children with autism. To date, clinical trials examining the use of SSRIs in autism have been limited by small sample sizes and inconclusive results. The efficacy and safety of SSRIs for moderating autistic behaviors is yet to be adequately examined to provide evidence to support current clinical practice. The aim of the Fluoxetine for Autistic Behaviors (FAB) study is to determine the efficacy and safety of low dose fluoxetine compared with placebo, for reducing the frequency and severity of repetitive stereotypic behaviors in children and adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The relationship between the effectiveness of fluoxetine treatment and serotonin transporter genotype will also be explored. Methods/Design The FAB study is a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial, funded by the Australian Government’s National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) grant. Participants will be aged between 7.5 and 17 years with a confirmed diagnosis of ASD. Eligible participants will be randomized to either placebo or fluoxetine for a 16-week period. Medication will be titrated over the first four weeks. Reponses to medication will be monitored fortnightly using the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI). The primary outcome measure is the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Modified for Pervasive Developmental Disorders (CYBOCS-PDD), administered at baseline and 16 weeks. Secondary outcome measures include the Aberrant Behaviour Scale (ABC), the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale Parent Report (SCAS-P), and the Repetitive Behaviors Scale (RBS-R), measured at baseline and 16 weeks. Participants will be invited to undergo genetic testing for SLC6A4 allele variants using a cheek swab. Continuous outcomes, including the primary outcome will be compared between the active and placebo groups using unadjusted linear regression. Binary outcomes will be compared using unadjusted logistic regression. Discussion The FAB study is a large clinical trial to specifically investigate the efficacy of low dose fluoxetine for restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors in ASD. The outcomes of this study will contribute to evidence-based interventions used in clinical practice to assist children with ASD. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000173392; registered on 9 April, 2008. PMID:24934401

2014-01-01

173

Sniffing around oxytocin: review and meta-analyses of trials in healthy and clinical groups with implications for pharmacotherapy  

PubMed Central

The popularity of oxytocin (OT) has grown exponentially during the past decade, and so has the number of OT trials in healthy and clinical groups. We take stock of the evidence from these studies to explore potentials and limitations of pharmacotherapeutic applications. In healthy participants, intranasally administered OT leads to better emotion recognition and more trust in conspecifics, but the effects appear to be moderated by context (perceived threat of the ‘out-group'), personality and childhood experiences. In individuals with untoward childhood experiences, positive behavioral or neurobiological effects seem lowered or absent. In 19 clinical trials, covering autism, social anxiety, postnatal depression, obsessive-compulsive problems, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder and post-traumatic stress, the effects of OT administration were tested, with doses ranging from 15?IU to more than 7000?IU. The combined effect size was d=0.32 (N=304; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18–0.47; P<0.01). However, of all disorders, only studies on autism spectrum disorder showed a significant combined effect size (d=0.57; N=68; 95% CI: 0.15–0.99; P<0.01). We hypothesize that for some of the other disorders, etiological factors rooted in negative childhood experiences may also have a role in the diminished effectiveness of treatment with OT. PMID:23695233

Bakermans-Kranenburg, M J; van IJzendoorn, M H

2013-01-01

174

Surgical trial in traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (STITCH(Trauma)): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Intracranial hemorrhage occurs in over 60% of severe head injuries in one of three types: extradural (EDH); subdural (SDH); and intraparenchymal (TICH). Prompt surgical removal of significant SDH and EDH is established and widely accepted. However, TICH is more common and is found in more than 40% of severe head injuries. It is associated with a worse outcome but the role for surgical removal remains undefined. Surgical practice in the treatment of TICHs differs widely around the world. The aim of early surgery in TICH removal is to prevent secondary brain injury. There have been trials of surgery for spontaneous ICH (including the STICH II trial), but none so far of surgery for TICH. Methods/Design The UK National Institutes of Health Research has funded STITCH(Trauma) to determine whether a policy of early surgery in patients with TICH improves outcome compared to a policy of initial conservative treatment. It will include a health economics component and carry out a subgroup analysis of patients undergoing invasive monitoring. This is an international multicenter pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Patients are eligible if: they are within 48 h of injury; they have evidence of TICH on CT scan with a confluent volume of attenuation significantly raised above that of the background white and grey matter that has a total volume >10 mL; and their treating neurosurgeon is in equipoise. Patients will be ineligible if they have: a significant surface hematoma (EDH or SDH) requiring surgery; a hemorrhage/contusion located in the cerebellum; three or more separate hematomas fulfilling inclusion criteria; or severe pre-existing physical or mental disability or severe co-morbidity which would lead to poor outcome even if the patient made a full recovery from the head injury. Patients will be randomized via an independent service. Patients randomized to surgery receive surgery within 12 h. Both groups will be monitored according to standard neurosurgical practice. All patients have a CT scan at 5 days (+/?2 days) to assess changes in hematoma size. Follow-up is by postal questionnaire at 6 and 12 months. The recruitment target is 840 patients. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN19321911 PMID:23072576

2012-01-01

175

Baseline rest electrocardiographic abnormalities, antihypertensive treatment, and mortality in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall results of the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) showed a nonsignificant 7% lower coronary artery disease (CAD) mortality rate in the special-intervention (SI) as compared to the usual-care (UC) group. The initial results also suggested that the SI program was more effective than UC in the community in reducing the CAD mortality rate in nonhypertensive persons than

Judith K. Ockene

1985-01-01

176

HealthWorks: results of a multi-component group-randomized worksite environmental intervention trial for weight gain prevention  

PubMed Central

Background U.S. adults are at unprecedented risk of becoming overweight or obese, and most scientists believe the primary cause is an obesogenic environment. Worksites provide an opportunity to shape the environments of adults to reduce obesity risk. The goal of this group-randomized trial was to implement a four-component environmental intervention at the worksite level to positively influence weight gain among employees over a two-year period. Environmental components focused on food availability and price, physical activity promotion, scale access, and media enhancements. Methods Six worksites in a U.S. metropolitan area were recruited and randomized in pairs at the worksite level to either a two-year intervention or a no-contact control. Evaluations at baseline and two years included: 1) measured height and weight; 2) online surveys of individual dietary intake and physical activity behaviors; and 3) detailed worksite environment assessment. Results Mean participant age was 42.9 years (range 18-75), 62.6% were women, 68.5% were married or cohabiting, 88.6% were white, 2.1% Hispanic. Mean baseline BMI was 28.5 kg/m2 (range 16.9-61.2 kg/m2). A majority of intervention components were successfully implemented. However, there were no differences between sites in the key outcome of weight change over the two-year study period (p = .36). Conclusions Body mass was not significantly affected by environmental changes implemented for the trial. Results raise questions about whether environmental change at worksites is sufficient for population weight gain prevention. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00708461 PMID:22340088

2012-01-01

177

A randomised controlled study of an audiovisual patient information intervention on informed consent and recruitment to cancer clinical trials. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This study evaluated audiovisual patient information to determine its effect on refusal rates among 173 cancer patients invited to participate in randomized cancer treatment trials. It also examined the effect of AVPI on anxiety and clinical trials knowledge. The intervention group received information via AVPI and written information, and the control group received only the written information.

178

Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

2012-01-01

179

A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia  

PubMed Central

Purpose Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Research methods Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. Results At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59%) of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ?8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48) to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18), which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, P<0.05), while the control group’s participants did not show any significant change. Conclusion This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants. PMID:25587218

Young, Daniel KW; Kwok, Timothy CY; Ng, Petrus YN

2014-01-01

180

Supporting UK-wide e-clinical trials and studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

As clinical trials and epidemiological studies beco me increasingly large, covering wider (national) geogr aphical areas and involving ever broader populations, the need to provide an information management infrastructure that can supp ort such endeavours is essential. A wealth of clinical data now exists at varying levels of care (primary care, secondary car e, etc.). Simple, secure access to such

Anthony Stell; Richard O. Sinnott; Oluwafemi Ajayi

2008-01-01

181

Comparing the feasibility, acceptability, clinical-, and cost-effectiveness of mental health e-screening to paper-based screening on the detection of depression, anxiety, and psychosocial risk in pregnant women: a study protocol of a randomized, parallel-group, superiority trial  

PubMed Central

Background Stress, depression, and anxiety affect 15% to 25% of pregnant women. However, substantial barriers to psychosocial assessment exist, resulting in less than 20% of prenatal care providers assessing and treating mental health problems. Moreover, pregnant women are often reluctant to disclose their mental health concerns to a healthcare provider. Identifying screening and assessment tools and procedures that are acceptable to both women and service providers, cost-effective, and clinically useful is needed. Methods/Design The primary objective of this randomized, parallel-group, superiority trial is to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a computer tablet-based prenatal psychosocial assessment (e-screening) compared to paper-based screening. Secondary objectives are to compare the two modes of screening on: (1) the level of detection of prenatal depression and anxiety symptoms and psychosocial risk; (2) the level of disclosure of symptoms; (3) the factors associated with feasibility, acceptability, and disclosure; (4) the psychometric properties of the e-version of the assessment tools; and (5) cost-effectiveness. A sample of 542 women will be recruited from large, primary care maternity clinics and a high-risk antenatal unit in an urban Canadian city. Pregnant women are eligible to participate if they: (1) receive care at one of the recruitment sites; (2) are able to speak/read English; (3) are willing to be randomized to e-screening; and (4) are willing to participate in a follow-up diagnostic interview within 1 week of recruitment. Allocation is by computer-generated randomization. Women in the intervention group will complete an online psychosocial assessment on a computer tablet, while those in the control group will complete the same assessment in paper-based form. All women will complete baseline questionnaires at the time of recruitment and will participate in a diagnostic interview within 1 week of recruitment. Research assistants conducting diagnostic interviews and physicians will be blinded. A qualitative descriptive study involving healthcare providers from the recruitment sites and women will provide data on feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. We hypothesize that mental health e-screening in primary care maternity settings and high-risk antenatal units will be as or more feasible, acceptable, and capable of detecting depression, anxiety, and psychosocial risk compared to paper-based screening. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01899534. PMID:24383441

2014-01-01

182

Clinical trial participants’ experiences of completing questionnaires: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8?years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. Setting The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. Participants The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8)?years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. Outcomes We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Results Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Conclusions Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in ‘missing’ or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an intervention is a subjective experience, it seems important to create a method by which participants can convey their personal experiences. These could be nested qualitative studies. Trial registration number ISRCTN77108101807. PMID:24662446

Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M

2014-01-01

183

Treatment of relapsed CD20+ Hodgkin lymphoma with the monoclonal antibody rituximab is effective and well tolerated: results of a phase 2 trial of the German Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group.  

PubMed

This phase 2 trial was performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the chimeric monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab in patients with relapsed lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma or other CD20(+) subtypes of Hodgkin disease (HD). Eligibility criteria required expression of the CD20 antigen on more than 30% of malignant cells. Fourteen patients were treated with 4 weekly intravenous infusions of rituximab (375 mg/m(2)). All patients had at least one prior chemotherapy (median, 2). The median time from first diagnosis was 9 years. Adverse events, such as rhinitis, fever, chills, and nausea, were usually transient and of mild to moderate grade, allowing outpatient treatment in most cases. All patients completed treatment and were eligible for a response. The overall response in 14 assessable patients was 86%, with 8 complete remissions and 4 partial remissions, and 2 patients with progressive disease. At a median follow-up of 12 months, 9 of 12 responders were in remission. The median duration of response has not been reached yet (20+ months). We conclude that rituximab is both safe and effective in a subgroup of CD20(+) patients with HD. PMID:12509381

Rehwald, Ute; Schulz, Holger; Reiser, Marcel; Sieber, Markus; Staak, Jan Oliver; Morschhauser, Franck; Driessen, Christoph; Rudiger, Thomas; Muller-Hermelink, Konrad; Diehl, Volker; Engert, Andreas

2003-01-15

184

Moving the Self-Esteem of People with Epilepsy by Supportive Group: A Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction: People with epilepsy (PWE) face physical and mental illness, and social stigma, which affect their self-esteem and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a support group on the self-esteem of PWE. Methods: A Quasi-experimental study was performed on 120 PWE in the Epilepsy Clinic at Srinagarind Hospital.  The experimental group (N=60) attended the support group before receiving regular health care services. The control group (N=60) received only regular healthcare services. Data was collected by using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale scoring before and after the experiment. The score was analyzed by using a paired t-test and an independent t-test. Results: The study showed that before the experiment, the self–esteem score of the control group was significantly higher than the experimental group. After the experiment, the scores of the control group and the experimental group showed a significant statistical difference. The score in the control group was significantly lower than the experimental group, while the score in the experimental group was significantly higher than before the experiment. Conclusion: The support group improves the self-esteem of PWE. Medical personnel should set up a support group for PWE to enhance their self-esteem. PMID:25276742

Sawangchareon, Kritaya; Pranboon, Sineenard; Tiamkao, Somsak; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

2013-01-01

185

Alcohol email assessment and feedback study dismantling effectiveness for university students (AMADEUS-1): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol causes huge problems for population health and for society, which require interventions with individuals as well as populations to prevent and reduce harms. Brief interventions can be effective and increasingly take advantage of the internet to reach high-risk groups such as students. The research literature on the effectiveness of online interventions is developing rapidly and is confronted by methodological challenges common to other areas of e-health including attrition and assessment reactivity and in the design of control conditions. Methods/design The study aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief online intervention, employing a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design that takes account of baseline assessment reactivity, and other possible effects of the research process. Outcomes will be evaluated after 3?months both among student populations as a whole including for a randomized no contact control group and among those who are risky drinkers randomized to brief assessment and feedback (routine practice) or to brief assessment only. A three-arm parallel groups trial will also allow exploration of the magnitude of the feedback and assessment component effects. The trial will be undertaken simultaneously in 2 universities randomizing approximately 15,300 students who will all be blinded to trial participation. All participants will be offered routine practice intervention at the end of the study. Discussion This trial informs the development of routine service delivery in Swedish universities and more broadly contributes a new approach to the study of the effectiveness of online interventions in student populations, with relevance to behaviors other than alcohol consumption. The use of blinding and deception in this study raise ethical issues that warrant further attention. Trial registration ISRCTN28328154 PMID:22540638

2012-01-01

186

The recruitment of patients to trials in head and neck cancer: a qualitative study of the EaStER trial of treatments for early laryngeal cancer.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate the factors contributing to poor recruitment to the EaStER trial "Early Stage glottic cancer: Endoscopic excision or Radiotherapy" feasibility study. We performed a prospective qualitative assessment of the EaStER trial at three centres to investigate barriers to recruitment and implement changes. Methods used included semi-structured interviews, focus groups and audio-recordings of recruitment encounters. First, surgeons and recruiters did not all accept the primary outcome as the rationale for the trial. Surgeons did not always adhere to the trial eligibility criteria leading to variations between centres in the numbers of "eligible" patients. Second, as both treatments were considered equally successful, recruiters and patients focused on the pragmatics of the different trial arms, favouring surgery over radiotherapy. The lack of equipoise was reflected in the way recruiters presented trial information. Third, patient views, beliefs and preferences were not fully elicited or addressed by recruiters. Fourth, in some centres, logistical issues made trial participation difficult. This qualitative research identified several major issues that explained recruitment difficulties. While there was insufficient time to address these in the EaStER trial, several factors would need to be addressed to launch further RCTs in head and neck cancer. These include the need for clear ongoing agreement among recruiting clinicians regarding details in the study protocol; an understanding of the logistical issues hindering recruitment at individual centres; and training recruiters to enable them to explain the need for randomisation and the rationale for the RCT to patients. PMID:23334205

Hamilton, D W; de Salis, I; Donovan, J L; Birchall, M

2013-08-01

187

Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

2005-01-01

188

The Utility of the Monocular Trial: Data from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether adjusting the intraocular pressure (IOP) change of the trial eye for the IOP change of the fellow eye (i.e., the monocular trial) is a better assessment of medication response than testing each eye independently. Design Analysis of data from a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Participants Two hundred and six participants with ocular hypertension randomized to the observation group and later started on a topical prostaglandin analogue (PGA). Methods Participants were instructed to instill a topical PGA in one eye once daily and returned in 4–6 weeks to determine medication response. IOP response of the trial eye was determined by the IOP change between baseline and 1 month in the trial eye alone (unadjusted method) and by adjusting for the IOP change in the fellow eye between the same visits (adjusted method). We defined our “gold standard” for medication response as the IOP change in the trial eye using up to 3 pre- and 3 post-treatment visits on the same medication. Pearson correlation was used to compare the unadjusted and adjusted methods to the gold standard. In addition, symmetry of IOP response between trial and fellow eyes to the same medication was determined by correlating the IOP change of the trial eye using up to 3 pre-and 3 post-treatment visits to the IOP change of the fellow eye between the same visits. Main Outcome Measures Correlations of IOP change of the trial eye using the gold standard to the IOP change of the trial eye using the unadjusted and adjusted methods. Results The correlations of IOP change using the gold standard to the IOP change using the unadjusted and adjusted methods were r=0.40 and r=0.41, respectively. The correlation of IOP change of both eyes between the same pre-and post-treatment visits was r=0.81. Conclusions The monocular trial (i.e., adjusted method) appears equivalent to testing each eye independently (i.e., unadjusted method) however neither method is adequate to determine medication response to topical PGAs. Both eyes have a similar IOP response to the same PGA. Further studies to understand IOP fluctuation are necessary to improve current methods of assessing medication response. PMID:20619460

Bhorade, Anjali M.; Wilson, Bradley S.; Gordon, Mae O.; Palmberg, Paul; Weinreb, Robert N.; Miller, Eydie; Chang, Robert T.; Kass, Michael A.

2010-01-01

189

A clinical trial gone awry: the Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study  

PubMed Central

The randomized controlled trial is the “gold standard” for evaluating the benefits and harms of interventions. The Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study was designed to compare the effects of dark chocolate, milk chocolate and normal chocolate consumption on happiness. Although the intention-to-treat analysis showed that participants who received either dark or milk chocolate were happier than those who received no additional chocolate, the actual-consumption analysis showed that there were no differences between any of the groups. The reason for this result is that many participants switched groups mid-study because of their personal chocolate preferences. Although the CHUMP study was pleasurable, it demonstrated the difficulties associated with performing a truly blinded clinical trial. PMID:18056618

Chan, Kevin

2007-01-01

190

Functional MRI-guided microsurgery of intracranial arteriovenous malformations: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Modern microsurgery has improved the results of surgical treatment of AVMs; however, the treatment of AVMs, particularly eloquently located AVMs, still carries a high risk. Functional MRI (fMRI) has been reported to be used for the preoperative evaluation of AVMs in small case series. The purpose is to identify the utility and efficacy of fMRI-guided microsurgery of AVMs in a large randomised controlled trial. Methods and analysis The study is a prospective, randomised controlled clinical trial. This study will enrol a total of 600 eligible patients. These eligible patients will be randomised to the standard microsurgery group and the fMRI-guided microsurgery group in a 1:1 ratio. Patient baseline characteristics and AVM architecture and characteristics will be described. In the fMRI-guided group, fMRI mapping of an eloquent cortex in all AVMs will be identified. Surgical complications and outcomes at pretreatment, post-treatment, at discharge and at 1-month, 3-month and 6-month follow-up intervals will be analysed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). This trial will determine whether fMRI-guided microsurgery could improve outcomes in patients with AVMs and also identify the safety and efficacy of fMRI-guided microsurgery. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol and written informed consent were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of Beijing Tiantan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University (ky2012-016-02). Study findings will be disseminated in the printed media. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01758211. PMID:25341453

Zhao, Bing; Cao, Yong; Zhao, Yuanli; Wu, Jun; Wang, Shuo

2014-01-01

191

Effectiveness of intensive group and individual interventions for smoking cessation in primary health care settings: a randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Primary: To compare the effectiveness of intensive group and individual interventions for smoking cessation in a primary health care setting; secondary: to identify the variables associated with smoking cessation. METHODS: Three-pronged clinical trial with randomisation at the individual level. We performed the following: an intensive individual intervention (III), an intensive group intervention (IGI) and a minimal intervention (MI). Included

Maria Ramos; Joana Ripoll; Teresa Estrades; Isabel Socias; Antonia Fe; Rosa Duro; Maria José González; Margarita Servera

2010-01-01

192

Prognostic value of cetuximab-related skin toxicity in metastatic colorectal cancer patients and its correlation with parameters of the epidermal growth factor receptor signal transduction pathway: results from a randomized trial of the GERMAN AIO CRC Study Group.  

PubMed

Skin toxicity is a frequent adverse event of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting agents. Occurrence of cetuximab-induced skin toxicity (Cet-ST) correlates with better treatment response and longer survival times. Molecular markers predicting Cet-ST are still missing. This investigation analyzed the value of Cet-ST for treatment efficacy in a randomized trial comparing cetuximab plus capecitabine/irinotecan to cetuximab plus capecitabine/oxaliplatin as first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Patient characteristics and molecular parameters (KRAS mutation, EGFR-FISH, EGFR-IHC and EGFR intron-1 polymorphism) of the tumour were correlated with response and Cet-ST. Cet-ST grade 0-1 was observed in 31%, grade 2-3 in 69% of patients. Outcome favoured patients with grade 2-3 Cet-ST with regard to overall response rate (62 vs. 41%), PFS (7.8 vs. 5.2 months) and overall survival (OS) (30.3 vs. 18.0 months). First-cycle rash was observed in 66% of patients and corresponded with longer survival (30.7 vs. 20.2 months, p = 0.007). Patients without Cet-ST had a poor outcome (PFS, 1.9 months; OS, 11 months). The correlation of Cet-ST with survival was specifically evident in patients with KRAS codon-12-mutated tumours assumed to be cetuximab resistant. In multivariate analysis of patient characteristics, male gender and younger age were significantly correlated with Cet-ST. Among molecular parameters, no significant correlation with Cet-ST was found. Cet-ST is an early predictor of treatment efficacy in cetuximab-treated patients. This effect of Cet-ST is independent of the KRAS mutation status, suggesting that Cet-ST rather relates to constitutional factors of the patient than alterations of the EGFR pathway in the tumour. PMID:22644776

Stintzing, Sebastian; Kapaun, Christine; Laubender, Rüdiger Paul; Jung, Andreas; Neumann, Jens; Modest, Dominik Paul; Giessen, Clemens; Moosmann, Nicolas; Wollenberg, Andreas; Kirchner, Thomas; Heinemann, Volker

2013-01-01

193

A trial for the use of qigong in the treatment of pre and mild essential hypertension: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the prevalence of hypertension tends to increase with age. Current treatments for hypertension have side effects and poor adherence. Qigong has been studied as an alternative therapy for hypertension; however, the types of qigong used in those studies were diverse, and there have not been many well-designed randomized controlled trials. Our objectives are the following: 1) To evaluate the effects of qigong on blood pressure, health status and hormone levels for pre- or mild hypertension. 2) To test the methodological appropriateness of this clinical trial and calculate a sample size for future randomized trials. Methods Forty subjects with pre- or mild hypertension will be randomized to either the qigong exercise group or the non-treated group. Participants in the qigong group will conduct qigong exercises 5 times per week for 8 weeks, and participants in the non-treated group will maintain their current lifestyle, including diet and exercise. The use of antihypertensive medication is not permitted. The primary endpoint is a change in patient blood pressure. Secondary endpoints are patient health status (as measured by the SF-36 and the MYMOP2 questionnaires) and changes in hormone levels, including norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol. Discussion This study will be the first randomized trial to investigate the effectiveness of qigong exercises for the treatment of pre- and mild hypertension. The results of this study will help to establish the optimal approach for the care of adults with pre- or mild hypertension. Trial registration Clinical Research Information Service KCT0000140 PMID:22098700

2011-01-01

194

Clinical outcome measures for trials in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: report from International Working Group meetings  

PubMed Central

In June 2010, 25 representatives from Europe and the US met in Washington, DC, USA, to discuss clinical outcome measures in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in the context of clinical trial design and analysis. The workshop was organized in response to a September 2009 European Medicines Agency meeting where a clear directive was given that an international consensus needs to be developed that provides a foundation for age-appropriate clinical outcome measures for use in clinical trials of emerging therapeutics for DMD. Data were presented from eight multicenter longitudinal datasets, representing nearly 1900 patients over a 20-year time period. This experience confirmed the feasibility of repeated evaluations performed at multiple sites and addressed several core issues in drug development for DMD, such as the ‘new’ natural history in the steroidera, reliability and sensitivity of specific outcome measures, as well as disease staging and patient selection. These data form a valuable asset for academic investigators, pharmaceutical sponsors and regulatory agencies involved in DMD therapeutics. The group remains committed working together on a number of collaborative goals to support the therapeutics development effort in this orphan disease and to make these data available to stakeholders working in the field. PMID:22639722

Bushby, Kate; Connor, Edward

2012-01-01

195

Effects of acupuncture treatment on depression insomnia: a study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background More than 70% of patients with depression who see their doctors experience insomnia. Insomnia treatment is a very important link for depression treatment. Furthermore, antidepression treatment is also important for depression insomnia. In acupuncture, LU-7 (Lie Que) and KID-6 (Zhao Hai), which are two of the eight confluence points in meridian theory, are used as main points. An embedded needle technique is used, alternately, at two groups of points to consolidate the treatment effect. These two groups of points are BL-15 (Xin Shu) with BL-23 (Shen Shu) and BL-19 (Dan Shu) with N-HN-54 (An Mian). The effectiveness of these optimized acupuncture formulas is well proven in the practice by our senior acupuncturists in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of TCM. This study has been designed to examine whether this set of optimized clinical formulas is able to increase the clinical efficacy of depression insomnia treatment. Methods/design In this randomized controlled multicenter trial, all the eligible participants are diagnosed with depression insomnia. All participants are randomly assigned to one of two groups in a ratio of 1:1 and receive either conventional acupuncture treatment or optimized acupuncture treatment. Patients are evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI)and the Hamilton rating scale(HAMD) for depression. The use of antidepression and hypnotics drugs is also considered. Results are obtained at the start of treatment, 1 and 2 months after treatment has begun, and at the end of treatment. The entire duration of the study will be approximately 36 months. Discussion A high quality of trial methodologies is utilized in the study, and the results may provide better evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment for depression insomnia. The optimized acupuncture formula has potential benefits in increasing the efficacy of treating depression insomnia. Trial registration The trial was registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Register (ChiCR-TRC-00000481) on 12 August 2009. PMID:23286297

2013-01-01

196

Determinants of patient participation in clinical studies requiring informed consent: Why patients enter a clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey on 26 clinical trials we have studied the reasons why some patients choose to participate in clinical trials while others decline. Interviews were held with 198 adult patients, just after they had been asked by the trial-clinician to participate. We interviewed patients who were asked to participate in a clinical trial, including those who decided not to

Frank W. S. M Verheggen; Fred Nieman; Ruud Jonkers

1998-01-01

197

Characteristics associated with informed consent for genetic studies in the ACCORD trial  

PubMed Central

Background Prior studies found some groups have lower genetic consent rates than others. Participant consent for genetic studies enables randomized trials to examine effects of interventions compared to control in participants with different genotypes. Methods Unadjusted and multivariate associations between genetic consent rates and participant, study, and consent characteristics in 9,573 participants approached for genetics consent in the multicenter Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial, which used a layered genetics consent. Results Eighty-nine percent of eligible participants consented to genetic studies (“Any Consent”) and 64.7% consented to studies of any genes by any investigator (“Full Consent”), with similar rates in randomized groups. Controlling for multiple characteristics, African-Americans had lower consent rates than others (Any Consent Odds Ratio, OR = 0.62, p=0.0004; Full Consent OR = 0.67, p<0.0001). Those with high school or higher education had higher rates than less than high school graduation (Full Consent ORs 1.41-1.69, p-values <0.0001). Consent rates were lower when genetics consent was separate from the main trial consent on the same day (Any Consent OR 0.30; Full Consent OR 0.52, p values <0.0001) or on a subsequent day (Any Consent OR 0.70, p=0.0022; Full Consent OR 0.76, p=0.0002). Conclusion High rates of consent for genetic studies can be obtained in complex randomized trials, with lower consent rates in African-Americans, in participants with less than high-school education, and for sharing samples with other investigators. A genetics consent separated from the main trial consent was associated with lower consent rates. PMID:24355197

Simons-Morton, Denise G.; Chan, Jeffrey C.; Kimel, Angela R.; Linz, Peter E.; Stowe, Cynthia L.; Summerson, John; Ambrosius, Walter T.

2014-01-01

198

Exercise Training in Pregnancy for obese women (ETIP): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Both maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are increasing in prevalence and associated with a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child. Observational studies regarding physical activity in pregnancy have found reduced weight gain in active mothers, as well as reduced risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is however a lack of high quality, randomized controlled trials on the effects of regular exercise training in pregnancy, especially those with a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) at or above 30 kg/m2. Methods We are conducting a randomised, controlled trial in Norway with two parallel arms; one intervention group and one control group. We will enroll 150 previously sedentary, pregnant women with a pre-pregnancy BMI at or above 30 kg/m2. The intervention group will meet for organized exercise training three times per week, starting in gestation week 14 (range 12-16). The control group will get standard antenatal care. The main outcome measure will be weight gain from baseline to delivery. Among the secondary outcome measures are changes in exercise capacity, endothelial function, physical activity level, body composition, serum markers of cardiovascular risk, incontinence, lumbopelvic pain and cardiac function from baseline to gestation week 37 (range 36-38). Offspring outcome measures include anthropometric variables at birth, Apgar score, as well as serum markers of inflammation and metabolism in cord blood. Discussion The results of this trial will provide knowledge about effects of regular exercise training in previously sedentary, obese pregnant women. If the program proves effective in reducing gestational weight gain and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such programs should be considered as part of routine pregnancy care for obese women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01243554 PMID:21682869

2011-01-01

199

A Combined Group and Individual 12Step Facilitative Intervention Targeting Stimulant Abuse in the NIDA Clinical Trials Network: STAGE12  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a unique collaboration between researchers, addiction community treatment providers (CTPs) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) in developing and implementing a multi-site clinical trial of a behavioral intervention for outpatients with stimulant use disorders. We describe the mission of the Clinical Trial Network (CTN) of NIDA which provided the infrastructure for this study, the process

Dennis C. Daley; Stuart Baker; Dennis M. Donovan; Candace G. Hodgkins; Harold Perl

2011-01-01

200

Time-Limited Group Psychotherapy for Moderately Alcohol Dependent Patients: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent reviews of treatment of alcohol dependence, psychodynamic group psychotherapy has been evaluated as being comparatively less effective than other methods. Some North American studies have, however, demonstrated differential treatment effects for subgroups of alcohol dependent patients. The focus of the present study was on the evaluation, in a different cultural setting, of psychodynamically oriented time-limited group psychotherapy for

Christer Sandahl; Kristina Herlitz; Göran Ahlin; Sten Rönnberg

1998-01-01

201

Group critical incident stress debriefing with emergency services personnel: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Although single-session individual debriefing is contraindicated, the efficacy of group psychological debriefing remains unresolved. We conducted the first randomized controlled trial of critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) with emergency workers (67 volunteer fire-fighters) following shared exposure to an occupational potentially traumatic event (PTE). The goals of group CISD are to prevent post-traumatic stress and promote return to normal functioning following a PTE. To assess both goals we measured four outcomes, before and after the intervention: post-traumatic stress, psychological distress, quality of life, and alcohol use. Fire brigades were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: (1) CISD, (2) Screening (i.e., no-treatment), or (3) stress management Education. Controlling for pre-intervention scores, CISD was associated with significantly less alcohol use post-intervention relative to Screening, and significantly greater post-intervention quality of life relative to Education. There were no significant effects on post-traumatic stress or psychological distress. Overall, CISD may benefit broader functioning following exposure to work-related PTEs. Future research should focus on individual, group, and organizational factors and processes that can promote recovery from operational stressors. Ultimately, an occupational health (rather than victim-based) approach will provide the best framework for understanding and combating potential threats to the health and well-being of workers at high risk for PTE exposure. PMID:23799773

Tuckey, Michelle R; Scott, Jill E

2014-01-01

202

Effect of Gross Motor Group Exercise on Functional Status in Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to understand the effects of task-oriented gross motor group exercise based on motor development on chronic stroke patients’ joint, bone, muscle, and motor functions and activities of daily living. [Subjects] Twenty-eight stroke patients hospitalized at P municipal nursing facility for the severely handicapped were randomly assigned to the gross motor group exercise group (experimental group, n=14) or the control group (n=14). [Methods] The two groups performed morning exercise led by a trainer for 30 minutes a day, 5 times a week for 6 weeks in total. The experimental group performed a gross motor group exercise in addition to this exercise for 50 minutes a day, 3 times a week for 6 weeks in total. Before the experiment, all subjects were measured with the Modified Barthel Index (MBI) and for their neuromuscular skeletal and motor-related functions according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. [Results] Significant improvements were found in the experimental group’s neuromusculoskeletal and motor-related functions and MBI test, except for the stability of joint functions. The control group showed no significant difference from the initial evaluation. [Conclusion] The gross motor group exercise based on motor development is recommended for chronic stroke patients with severe handicaps. PMID:25140077

Kim, Kwanghyun; Lee, Byungjoon; Lee, Wanhee

2014-01-01

203

Design, development of water tank-type lung phantom and dosimetric verification in institutions participating in a phase I study of stereotactic body radiation therapy in patients with T2N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial (JCOG0702)  

PubMed Central

A domestic multicenter phase I study of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for T2N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer in inoperable patients or elderly patients who refused surgery was initiated as the Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial (JCOG0702) in Japan. Prior to the clinical study, the accuracy of dose calculation in radiation treatment-planning systems was surveyed in participating institutions, and differences in the irradiating dose between the institutions were investigated. We developed a water tank-type lung phantom appropriate for verification of the exposure dose in lung SBRT. Using this water tank-type lung phantom, the dose calculated in the radiation treatment-planning system and the measured dose using a free air ionization chamber and dosimetric film were compared in a visiting survey of the seven institutions participating in the clinical study. In all participating institutions, differences between the calculated and the measured dose in the irradiation plan were as follows: the accuracy of the absolute dose in the center of the simulated tumor measured using a free air ionization chamber was within 2%, the mean gamma value was ?0.47 on gamma analysis following the local dose criteria, and the pass rate was >87% for 3%/3 mm from measurement of dose distribution with dosimetric film. These findings confirmed the accuracy of delivery doses in the institutions participating in the clinical study, so that a study with integration of the institutions could be initiated. PMID:24385469

Nishio, Teiji; Shirato, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Masayori; Miyabe, Yuki; Kito, Satoshi; Narita, Yuichirou; Onimaru, Rikiya; Ishikura, Satoshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Hiraoka, Masahiro

2014-01-01

204

Using Probabilistic Methods Optimize Data Entry Accrual Patients Clinical Trials  

E-print Network

Using Probabilistic Methods Optimize Data Entry Accrual Patients Clinical Trials Bhavesh Goswami, University South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 Abstract clinical trial study conducted a group patients to evaluate a treatment procedure. Usually, clinicians manually select patients clinical trial; the choice

Fink, Eugene

205

The Study of Ethnic Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine ethnic studies programs in higher education are described and the essay, "The Future of Ethnic Studies," by Thad Radzialowski, is presented. Radzialowski believes that ethnic studies can help students explore the meaning of pluralism and provide them with insights into the nature of community in America. It is suggested that ethnic studies

Brown, Peggy, Ed.; And Others

1981-01-01

206

A Randomized Trial of Contingency Management Delivered in the Context of Group Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Contingency management (CM) is efficacious in reducing drug use. Typically, reinforcers are provided on an individual basis to patients for submitting drug-negative samples. However, most treatment is provided in a group context, and poor attendance is a substantial concern. This study evaluated whether adding CM to group-based…

Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Alessi, Sheila M.

2011-01-01

207

Rehabilitation of executive dysfunction: A controlled trial of an attention and problem solving treatment group  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effectiveness of a group-based attention and problem solving (APS) treatment approach to executive impairments in patients with frontal lobe lesions was investigated. Thirty participants with lesions in the frontal lobes, 16 with left frontal (LF) and 14 with right frontal (RF) lesions, were allocated into three groups, each with 10 participants. The APS treatment was initially

Eliane C. Miotto; Jonathan J Evans; Mara C. Souza de Lucia; Milberto Scaff

2009-01-01

208

A phase III trial of intramuscular recombinant interferon beta as treatment for exacerbating-remitting multiple sclerosis: design and conduct of study and baseline characteristics of patients. Multiple Sclerosis Collaborative Research Group (MSCRG).  

PubMed

The design and conduct of a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter, phase III study of recombinant interferon beta-1a (IFN-beta-1a) as treatment for exacerbating-remitting MS are described, as are baseline characteristics of the study population. The purpose of the study was to determine if 6.0 x 10(6) IU (30 micrograms) of IFN-beta-1a, administered by weekly intramuscular (i.m.) injections, was effective in delaying the onset of sustained disability. The primary outcome measure was time to onset of treatment failure, defined as a worsening on the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of greater than or equal to 1.0 point compared with baseline, persisting for at least 6 months. An intent-to-treat design was used. The primary outcome measure was analyzed using the Mantel-Cox log-rank statistic and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Secondary outcomes included quantitative measures of upper and lower extremity function, neuropsychological test performance, functional and quality of life assessments and several measures derived from annual brain MRI studies. Entry criteria included prestudy exacerbation rates of at least 0.67 per year and EDSS scores of 1.0-3.5. A total of 301 MS patients were randomly assigned to receive weekly i.m. injections of IFN-beta-1a or placebo. The average age of the study population at entry was 37 years; 92% were Caucasian and 73% were women. The mean prestudy disease duration was 6.5 years, mean prestudy exacerbation rate was 1.2 per year and the mean EDSS score was 2.3. The randomization yielded well-balanced treatment arms. Various aspects of the study are discussed, including: (1) the decision to focus study design on sustained disability; (2) the rationale for the treatment regimen; (3) measures taken to assure the reliability of the primary outcome measure; and (4) a description of the secondary outcome measures. PMID:9345462

Jacobs, L D; Cookfair, D L; Rudick, R A; Herndon, R M; Richert, J R; Salazar, A M; Fischer, J S; Goodkin, D E; Granger, C V; Simon, J H

1995-06-01

209

Efficacy and safety of acupuncture for chronic dizziness: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Dizziness is one of the most challenging symptoms in medicine. No medication for dizziness in current use has well-established curative or prophylactic value or is suitable for long-term palliative use. Unconventional remedies, such as acupuncture, should be considered and scientifically evaluated. However, there has been relatively little evidence in randomized controlled clinical trials on acupuncture to treat chronic dizziness. The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in patients with dizziness. Methods/Design This trial is a randomized, single-blind, controlled study. A total of 80 participants will be randomly assigned to two treatment groups receiving acupuncture and sham acupuncture treatment, respectively, for 4 weeks. The primary outcome measures are the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and the Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS). Treatment will be conducted over a period of 4 weeks, at a frequency of two sessions per week. The assessment is at baseline (before treatment initiation), 4 weeks after the first acupuncture session, and 8 weeks after the first acupuncture session. Discussion The results from this study will provide clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in patients with chronic dizziness. Trial registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register: ISRCTN52695239 PMID:24330810

2013-01-01

210

A Randomized Trial of Pelvic Radiation Therapy versus No Further Therapy in Selected Patients with Stage IB Carcinoma of the Cervix after Radical Hysterectomy and Pelvic Lymphadenectomy: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and risk of adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy aimed at reducing recurrence in women with Stage IB cervical cancer treated by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy.Methods.Two hundred seventy-seven eligible patients were entered with at least two of the following risk factors: >1\\/3 stromal invasion, capillary lymphatic space involvement, and large clinical tumor

Alexander Sedlis; Brian N. Bundy; Marvin Z. Rotman; Samuel S. Lentz; Laila I. Muderspach; Richard J. Zaino

1999-01-01

211

A phase 1-2 clinical trial of gene therapy for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme by tumor transduction with the herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene followed by ganciclovir. GLI328 European-Canadian Study Group.  

PubMed

This study has investigated the effects of herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene (HSV-tk) transfer followed by ganciclovir treatment as adjuvant gene therapy to surgical resection in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The study was open and single-arm, and aimed at assessing the feasibility and safety of the technique and indications of antitumor activity. In 48 patients a suspension of retroviral vector-producing cells (VPCs) was administered by intracerebral injection immediately after tumor resection. Intravenous ganciclovir was infused daily 14 to 27 days after surgery. Patients were monitored for adverse events and for life by regular biosafety assaying. Tumor changes were monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Reflux during injection was a frequent occurrence but serious adverse events during the treatment period (days 1-27) were few and of a nature not unexpected in this population. One patient experienced transient neurological disorders associated with postganciclovir MRI enhancement. There was no evidence of replication-competent retrovirus in peripheral blood leukocytes or in tissue samples of reresection or autopsy. Vector DNA was shown in the leukocytes of some patients but not in autopsy gonadal samples. The median survival time was 8.6 months, and the 12-month survival rate was 13 of 48 (27%). On MRI studies, tumor recurrence was absent in seven patients for at least 6 months and for at least 12 months in two patients, one of whom remains recurrence free at more than 24 months. Treatment-characteristic images of injection tracks and intracavity hemoglobin were apparent. In conclusion, the gene therapy is feasible and appears to be satisfactorily safe as an adjuvant to the surgical resection of recurrent GBM, but any benefit appears to be marginal. Investigation of the precise effectiveness of this gene therapy requires prospective, controlled studies. PMID:10515452

Shand, N; Weber, F; Mariani, L; Bernstein, M; Gianella-Borradori, A; Long, Z; Sorensen, A G; Barbier, N

1999-09-20

212

Efficacy of two educational interventions about inhalation techniques in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). TECEPOC: study protocol for a partially randomized controlled trial (preference trial)  

PubMed Central

Background Drugs for inhalation are the cornerstone of therapy in obstructive lung disease. We have observed that up to 75?% of patients do not perform a correct inhalation technique. The inability of patients to correctly use their inhaler device may be a direct consequence of insufficient or poor inhaler technique instruction. The objective of this study is to test the efficacy of two educational interventions to improve the inhalation techniques in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Methods This study uses both a multicenter patients´ preference trial and a comprehensive cohort design with 495 COPD-diagnosed patients selected by a non-probabilistic method of sampling from seven Primary Care Centers. The participants will be divided into two groups and five arms. The two groups are: 1) the patients´ preference group with two arms and 2) the randomized group with three arms. In the preference group, the two arms correspond to the two educational interventions (Intervention A and Intervention B) designed for this study. In the randomized group the three arms comprise: intervention A, intervention B and a control arm. Intervention A is written information (a leaflet describing the correct inhalation techniques). Intervention B is written information about inhalation techniques?plus?training by an instructor. Every patient in each group will be visited six times during the year of the study at health care center. Discussion Our hypothesis is that the application of two educational interventions in patients with COPD who are treated with inhaled therapy will increase the number of patients who perform a correct inhalation technique by at least 25?%. We will evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions on patient inhalation technique improvement, considering that it will be adequate and feasible within the context of clinical practice. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRTCTN15106246 PMID:22613015

2012-01-01

213

A Pediatric Phase 1 Trial Of Vorinostat And Temozolomide In Relapsed Or Refractory Primary Brain Or Spinal Cord Tumors: A Children’s Oncology Group Phase 1 Consortium Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose We conducted a pediatric phase I study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), and pharmacokinetic properties of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, when given in combination with temozolomide in children with refractory or recurrent CNS malignancies. Patients and Methods Vorinostat, followed by temozolomide approximately one hour later, was orally administered, once daily, for 5 consecutive days every 28 days at 3 dose levels using the rolling 6 design. Studies of histone accumulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were performed on day 1 at 0, 6, and 24 h after vorinostat dosing. Vorinostat pharmacokinetics (PK) and serum MGMT promoter status were also assessed Results Nineteen eligible patients were enrolled and eighteen patients were evaluable for toxicity. There were no DLTs observed at dose level 1 or 2. DLTs occurred in 4 patients at dose level 3: thrombocytopenia (4), neutropenia (3), and leucopenia (1). Non-dose limiting grade 3 or 4 toxicities related to protocol therapy were also hematologic and included neutropenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and leucopenia. Three patients exhibited stable disease and one patient had a partial response. There was no clear relationship between vorinostat dosage and drug exposure over the dose range studied. Accumulation of acetylated H3 histone in PBMC was observed after administration of vorinostat. Conclusion Five-day cycles of vorinostat in combination with temozolomide are well tolerated in children with recurrent CNS malignancies with myelosuppression as the DLT. The recommended phase II combination doses are vorinostat, 300 mg/m2/day and temozolomide,150 mg/m2/day. PMID:23554030

Hummel, Trent R.; Wagner, Lars; Ahern, Charlotte; Fouladi, Maryam; Reid, Joel M.; McGovern, Renee M.; Ames, Matthew M.; Gilbertson, Richard J.; Horton, Terzah; Ingle, Ashish M.; Weigel, Brenda; Blaney, Susan M.

2014-01-01

214

Rationale, study design, and analysis plan of the Alveolar Recruitment for ARDS Trial (ART): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high in-hospital mortality. Alveolar recruitment followed by ventilation at optimal titrated PEEP may reduce ventilator-induced lung injury and improve oxygenation in patients with ARDS, but the effects on mortality and other clinical outcomes remain unknown. This article reports the rationale, study design, and analysis plan of the Alveolar Recruitment for ARDS Trial (ART). Methods/Design ART is a pragmatic, multicenter, randomized (concealed), controlled trial, which aims to determine if maximum stepwise alveolar recruitment associated with PEEP titration is able to increase 28-day survival in patients with ARDS compared to conventional treatment (ARDSNet strategy). We will enroll adult patients with ARDS of less than 72 h duration. The intervention group will receive an alveolar recruitment maneuver, with stepwise increases of PEEP achieving 45 cmH2O and peak pressure of 60 cmH2O, followed by ventilation with optimal PEEP titrated according to the static compliance of the respiratory system. In the control group, mechanical ventilation will follow a conventional protocol (ARDSNet). In both groups, we will use controlled volume mode with low tidal volumes (4 to 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight) and targeting plateau pressure ?30 cmH2O. The primary outcome is 28-day survival, and the secondary outcomes are: length of ICU stay; length of hospital stay; pneumothorax requiring chest tube during first 7 days; barotrauma during first 7 days; mechanical ventilation-free days from days 1 to 28; ICU, in-hospital, and 6-month survival. ART is an event-guided trial planned to last until 520 events (deaths within 28 days) are observed. These events allow detection of a hazard ratio of 0.75, with 90% power and two-tailed type I error of 5%. All analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion If the ART strategy with maximum recruitment and PEEP titration improves 28-day survival, this will represent a notable advance to the care of ARDS patients. Conversely, if the ART strategy is similar or inferior to the current evidence-based strategy (ARDSNet), this should also change current practice as many institutions routinely employ recruitment maneuvers and set PEEP levels according to some titration method. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01374022 PMID:22929542

2012-01-01

215

Vitamin D supplementation in the management of knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common health issue worldwide in the aging population who are also commonly deficient in vitamin D. Our previous study suggested that higher serum 25-(OH)D levels were associated with reduced knee cartilage loss, implying that vitamin D supplementation may prevent the progression of knee OA. The aim of the VItamin D Effects on OA (VIDEO) study is to compare, over a 2- year period, the effects of vitamin D supplementation versus placebo on knee structural changes, knee pain, and lower limb muscle strength in patients with symptomatic knee OA. Methods/design Randomised, placebo-controlled, and double-blind clinical trial aiming to recruit 400 subjects (200 from Tasmania and 200 from Victoria) with both symptomatic knee OA and vitamin D deficiency (serum [25-(OH)D] level of >12.5?nmol/liter and <60?nmol/liter). Participants will be randomly allocated to vitamin D supplementation (50,000?IU compounded vitamin D3 capsule monthly) or identical inert placebo group for 2?years. The primary endpoint is loss of knee cartilage volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of OA (WOMAC) knee pain score. The secondary endpoints will be other knee structural changes, and lower limb muscle strength. Several other outcome measures including core muscle images and central blood pressure will be recorded. Linear and logistic regression will be used to compare changes between groups using univariable and multivariable modeling analyses. Both intention to treat and per protocol analyses will be utilized. Discussion The trial is designed to test if vitamin D supplementation will reduce loss of knee cartilage volume, prevent the progression of other knee structural abnormalities, reduce knee pain and strengthen lower limb muscle strength, thus modify disease progression in knee OA. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01176344; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12610000495022 PMID:22867111

2012-01-01

216

The Qure study: Q fever fatigue syndrome – response to treatment; a randomized placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Q fever is a zoonosis that is present in many countries. Q fever fatigue syndrome (QFS) is one of the most frequent sequelae after an acute Q fever infection. QFS is characterized by persistent fatigue following an acute Q fever infection, leading to substantial morbidity and a high socio-economic burden. The occurrence of QFS is well-documented, and has been described in many countries over the past decades. However, a treatment with proven efficacy is not available. Only a few uncontrolled studies have tested the efficacy of treatment with antibiotics on QFS. These studies suggest a positive effect of long-term treatment with a tetracycline on performance state; however, no randomized controlled trials have been performed. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been proven to be an effective treatment modality for chronic fatigue in other diseases, but has not yet been tested in QFS. Therefore, we designed a trial to assess the efficacy of long-term treatment with the tetracycline doxycycline and CBT in patients with QFS. Methods/design A randomized placebo-controlled trial will be conducted. One-hundred-eighty adult patients diagnosed with QFS will be recruited and randomized between one of three groups: CBT, long-term doxycycline or placebo. First, participants will be randomized between CBT and medication (ratio 1:2). A second double-blinded randomization between doxycycline and placebo (ratio 1:1) will be performed in the medication condition. Each group will be treated for six months. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline and post intervention. The primary outcome measure is fatigue severity. Secondary outcome measures are functional impairment, level of psychological distress, and Coxiella burnetii PCR and serology. Discussion The Qure study is the first randomized placebo-controlled trial, which evaluates the efficacy of long-term doxycycline and of cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with QFS. The results of this study will provide knowledge about evidence-based treatment options for adult patients with QFS. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: http://NCT01318356, and Netherlands Trial Register: NTR2797 PMID:23536997

2013-01-01

217

Phase II Trial of Sorafenib in Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer Previously Exposed to Anthracyclines or Taxanes: North Central Cancer Treatment Group and Mayo Clinic Trial N0336  

PubMed Central

Purpose We conducted a cooperative group phase II study to assess antitumor activity and toxicity of sorafenib in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) who had received prior treatment for their disease. Patient and Methods Patients were eligible if they had measurable disease and had previously received an anthracycline and/or a taxane in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, or metastatic setting. The primary end point of the study was tumor response per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). The study was designed in two stages. Sorafenib was administered as 400 mg twice daily on days 1 through 28 of each 4-week cycle. Results Twenty-three patients were enrolled with a median age of 54 years (range, 37 to 70 years). Twenty-two (96%) had prior anthracycline treatment and 16 (70%) had prior taxane treatment. Patients received sorafenib for a median of two cycles (range, one to 15 cycles) with a median follow-up of 2.4 years (range, 2.2 to 2.6 years). There were no grade 4 toxicities and few grade 3 toxicities. Among the 20 patients eligible for efficacy analysis, no patients experienced a partial response or complete response per RECIST criteria. Thus, the trial stopped at the end of the first stage per study design. Two patients (10%; 90% CI, 1.8% to 28.3%) achieved stable disease lasting longer than 6 months. Conclusion Sorafenib as a single agent, although well tolerated, did not exhibit activity when measured by tumor shrinkage in patients with MBC who had received prior treatment. Further research should focus on combinations with standard therapy and end points more sensitive to effects of targeted agents, such as disease stabilization. PMID:19047293

Moreno-Aspitia, Alvaro; Morton, Roscoe F.; Hillman, David W.; Lingle, Wilma L.; Rowland, Kendrith M.; Wiesenfeld, Martin; Flynn, Patrick J.; Fitch, Tom R.; Perez, Edith A.

2009-01-01

218

Motivational interviewing versus cognitive behavioral group therapy in the treatment of problem and pathological gambling: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling is a widespread problem with major implications for society and the individual. There are effective treatments, but little is known about the relative effectiveness of different treatments. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioral group therapy, and a no-treatment control (wait-list) in the treatment of pathological gambling. This was done in a randomized controlled trial at an outpatient dependency clinic at Karolinska Institute (Stockholm, Sweden). A total of 150 primarily self-recruited patients with current gambling problems or pathological gambling according to an NORC DSM-IV screen for gambling problems were randomized to four individual sessions of motivational interviewing (MI), eight sessions of cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT), or a no-treatment wait-list control. Gambling-related measures derived from timeline follow-back as well as general levels of anxiety and depression were administered at baseline, termination, and 6 and 12 months posttermination. Treatment showed superiority in some areas over the no-treatment control in the short term, including the primary outcome measure. No differences were found between MI and CBGT at any point in time. Instead, both MI and CBGT produced significant within-group decreases on most outcome measures up to the 12-month follow-up. Both forms of intervention are promising treatments, but there is room for improvement in terms of both outcome and compliance. PMID:19967577

Carlbring, Per; Jonsson, Jakob; Josephson, Henrik; Forsberg, Lars

2010-01-01

219

Supportive-Expressive and Coping Group Teletherapies for HIV-Infected Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

This clinical trial tested whether telephone-administered supportive-expressive group therapy or coping effectiveness training reduce depressive symptoms in HIV-infected older adults. Participants from 24 states (N = 361) completed the Geriatric Depression Scale at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 4- and 8-month follow-up and were randomized to one of three study arms: (1) 12 weekly sessions of telephone-administered, supportive-expressive group therapy (tele-SEGT; n = 122); (2) 12 weekly sessions of telephone-administered, coping effectiveness training (tele-CET; n = 118); or (3) a standard of care (SOC) control group (n = 121). Tele-SEGT participants reported fewer depressive symptoms than SOC controls at post-intervention (MSEGT = 11.9, MSOC = 14.3) and 4- (MSEGT = 12.5, MSOC = 14.4) and 8-month follow-up (MSEGT = 12.7, MSOC = 14.5) and fewer depressive symptoms than tele-CET participants at post-intervention (MSEGT = 12.4, MCET = 13.6) and 8-month follow-up (MSEGT = 12.7, MCET = 14.1). Tele-CET participants reported no statistically significant differences from SOC controls in GDS values at any assessment period. Tele-SEGT constitutes an efficacious treatment to reduce depressive symptoms in HIV-infected older adults. PMID:23474642

Heckman, Timothy G.; Heckman, Bernadette D.; Anderson, Timothy; Lovejoy, Travis I.; Mohr, David; Sutton, Mark; Bianco, Joseph A.; Gau, Jen-Tzer

2013-01-01

220

Supportive-expressive and coping group teletherapies for HIV-infected older adults: a randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

This clinical trial tested whether telephone-administered supportive-expressive group therapy or coping effectiveness training reduce depressive symptoms in HIV-infected older adults. Participants from 24 states (N = 361) completed the Geriatric Depression Scale at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 4- and 8-month follow-up and were randomized to one of three study arms: (1) 12 weekly sessions of telephone-administered, supportive-expressive group therapy (tele-SEGT; n = 122); (2) 12 weekly sessions of telephone-administered, coping effectiveness training (tele-CET; n = 118); or (3) a standard of care (SOC) control group (n = 121). Tele-SEGT participants reported fewer depressive symptoms than SOC controls at post-intervention (MSEGT = 11.9, MSOC = 14.3) and 4- (MSEGT = 12.5, MSOC = 14.4) and 8-month follow-up (MSEGT = 12.7, MSOC = 14.5) and fewer depressive symptoms than tele-CET participants at post-intervention (MSEGT = 12.4, MCET = 13.6) and 8-month follow-up (MSEGT = 12.7, MCET = 14.1). Tele-CET participants reported no statistically significant differences from SOC controls in GDS values at any assessment period. Tele-SEGT constitutes an efficacious treatment to reduce depressive symptoms in HIV-infected older adults. PMID:23474642

Heckman, Timothy G; Heckman, Bernadette D; Anderson, Timothy; Lovejoy, Travis I; Mohr, David; Sutton, Mark; Bianco, Joseph A; Gau, Jen-Tzer

2013-11-01

221

Limited Chemotherapy and Shrinking Field Radiotherapy for Osteolymphoma (Primary Bone Lymphoma): Results From the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 99.04 and Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group LY02 Prospective Trial;Bone; Lymphoma; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; Clinical trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To establish benchmark outcomes for combined modality treatment to be used in future prospective studies of osteolymphoma (primary bone lymphoma). Methods and Materials: In 1999, the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) invited the Australasian Leukemia and Lymphoma Group (ALLG) to collaborate on a prospective study of limited chemotherapy and radiotherapy for osteolymphoma. The treatment was designed to maintain efficacy but limit the risk of subsequent pathological fractures. Patient assessment included both functional imaging and isotope bone scanning. Treatment included three cycles of CHOP chemotherapy and radiation to a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions using a shrinking field technique. Results: The trial closed because of slow accrual after 33 patients had been entered. Accrual was noted to slow down after Rituximab became readily available in Australia. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, the five-year overall survival and local control rates are estimated at 90% and 72% respectively. Three patients had fractures at presentation that persisted after treatment, one with recurrent lymphoma. Conclusions: Relatively high rates of survival were achieved but the number of local failures suggests that the dose of radiotherapy should remain higher than it is for other types of lymphoma. Disability after treatment due to pathological fracture was not seen.

Christie, David, E-mail: david.christie@premion.com.au [Premion and Bond University, Gold Coast, Queensland (Australia); Dear, Keith [Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, New South Wales (Australia); Le, Thai [BHB, Premion, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Barton, Michael [Collaboration for Cancer Outcomes and Research (CCORE) and University of NSW, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Wirth, Andrew [Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Porter, David [Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Roos, Daniel [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Pratt, Gary [Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

2011-07-15

222

Randomized controlled pilot trial of a novel dissonance-based group treatment for eating disorders.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a pilot trial of a new dissonance-based group eating disorder treatment designed to be a cost-effective front-line transdiagnostic treatment that could be more widely disseminated than extant individual or family treatments that are more expensive and difficult to deliver. Young women with a DSM-5 eating disorder (N = 72) were randomized to an 8-week dissonance-based Counter Attitudinal Therapy group treatment or a usual care control condition, completing diagnostic interviews and questionnaires at pre, post, and 2-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that intervention participants showed greater reductions in outcomes than usual care controls in a multivariate multilevel model (?(2)[6] = 34.1, p < .001), producing large effects for thin-ideal internalization (d = .79), body dissatisfaction (d = 1.14), and blinded interview-assessed eating disorder symptoms (d = .95), and medium effects for dissonance regarding perpetuating the thin ideal (d = .65) and negative affect (d = .55). Midway through this pilot we refined engagement procedures, which was associated with increased effect sizes (e.g., the d for eating disorder symptoms increased from .51 to 2.30). This new group treatment produced large reductions in eating disorder symptoms, which is encouraging because it requires about 1/20th the therapist time necessary for extant individual and family treatments, and has the potential to provide a cost-effective and efficacious approach to reaching the majority of individuals with eating disorders who do not presently received treatment. PMID:25577189

Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Butryn, Meghan; Menke, Katharine S; Marti, C Nathan

2015-02-01

223

Recruiting minority cancer patients into cancer clinical trials: a pilot project involving the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and the National Medical Association. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This paper may be useful for researchers interested in enhancing their interactions with community physicians and increasing the number of minority patients referred to clinical trials. It describes a study conducted by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) in collaboration with the National Medical Association (NMA) to better understand barriers and solutions to African-American (AA) accrual and to test several recommended low-cost strategies.

224

Stanford University Glossary of Clinical Trials Terms  

E-print Network

Stanford University HRPP Glossary of Clinical Trials Terms {From http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/info A clinical trial is "Blind" if participants are unaware of whether they are in the experimental or control arm of the study; also called masked. CONTROLLED TRIALS In clinical trials, one group is given

Puglisi, Joseph

225

Patient advocates' role in clinical trials: Perspectives from Cancer and Leukemia Group B investigators and advocates. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Although there is a call for increased involvement of patient advocates in the design of clinical trials and patient recruitment and awareness efforts, little is known about the role and impact of patient advocates. A cooperative group survey of advocates and investigators forms the basis for recommendations.

226

Impact of safety monitoring on error probabilities of binary efficacy outcome analyses in large phase III group sequential trials  

PubMed Central

In phase III clinical trials, some adverse events may not be rare or unexpected and can be considered as a primary measure for safety, particularly in trials of life-threatening conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury. In some clinical areas, efficacy endpoints may be highly correlated with safety endpoints, yet the interim efficacy analyses under group sequential designs usually do not consider safety measures formally in the analyses. Furthermore, safety is often statistically monitored more frequently than efficacy measures. Since early termination of a trial in this situation can be triggered by either efficacy or safety, the impact of safety monitoring on the error probabilities of efficacy analyses may be non-trivial if the original design does not take the multiplicity effect into account. We estimate the actual error probabilities for a bivariate binary efficacy-safety response in large confirmatory group sequential trials. The estimated probabilities are verified by Monte Carlo simulation. Our findings suggest that type I error for efficacy analyses decreases as efficacy-safety correlation or between-group difference in the safety event rate increases. In addition, while power for efficacy is robust to misspecification of the efficacy-safety correlation, it decreases dramatically as between-group difference in the safety event rate increases. PMID:22589042

Weng, Yanqiu; Zhao, Wenle; Palesch, Yuko

2015-01-01

227

Participation of African Americans in a smoking cessation trial: a quantitative and qualitative study.  

PubMed Central

African Americans (AAs) have been considered a hard to reach research population. In a clinical trial of bupropion for smoking cessation, failure to return for randomization was concerning during the initial phase of recruitment. There were three study goals: to review the research on clinical trial participation barriers, to use quantitative analyses to identify differences between randomized (n = 66) and non-randomized (n = 54) participants, and to use focus groups and interviews (2 groups and 2 interviews, 17 participants) to elicit participation barriers and suggestions for participation enhancement. Randomized participants were older (44.1 vs. 37.6; p = 0.0019), predominately female (81.8% vs. 63.0%; p = 0.0201), more likely to have some college (33.3% vs. 16.7%; p = 0.0380), and less likely to be employed full time (32.4% vs. 53.7%; p = 0.0347). Randomized participants reported higher motivation to quit smoking (8.3 vs. 7.3; p = 0.0083) and higher confidence to quit (8.2 vs. 7.3; p = 0.0357). A logistic regression model specified age, gender, and motivation to quit, as predictors of randomization. Focus groups identified transportation, lack of readiness to quit, inadequate reminders, and employment conflicts as barriers to participation. Knowledge of differences between those who return for enrollment and those who do not may be used to increase AA enrollment in clinical trials. PMID:12126287

Woods, Malaika N.; Harris, Kari Jo; Mayo, Matthew S.; Catley, Delwyn; Scheibmeir, Monica; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2002-01-01

228

The Trial of Napoleon: A Case Study for Using Mock Trials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course entitled "The Trial of Napoleon Bonaparte" that focuses on a fictitious mock trial of Napoleon Bonaparte to answer the question: did Napoleon pervert or preserve the gain of the French Revolution? Discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the course. (CMK)

MacKay, Charles

2000-01-01

229

Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid (TPOP): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids after trauma might reduce subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To date, we have shown in an open trial that PTSD symptoms in critically injured patients can be reduced by taking omega-3 fatty acids, hypothesized to stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. The primary aim of the present randomized controlled trial is to examine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the secondary prevention of PTSD following accidental injury, as compared with placebo. This paper describes the rationale and protocol of this trial. Methods/design The Tachikawa Project for Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (TPOP) is a double-blinded, parallel group, randomized controlled trial to assess whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can prevent PTSD symptoms among accident-injured patients consecutively admitted to an intensive care unit. We plan to recruit accident-injured patients and follow them prospectively for 12 weeks. Enrolled patients will be randomized to either the omega-3 fatty acid supplement group (1,470 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 147 mg eicosapentaenoic acid daily) or placebo group. Primary outcome is score on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). We will need to randomize 140 injured patients to have 90% power to detect a 10-point difference in mean CAPS scores with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation compared with placebo. Secondary measures are diagnosis of PTSD and major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, physiologic response in the experiment using script-driven imagery and acoustic stimulation, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, health-related quality of life, resilience, and aggression. Analyses will be by intent to treat. The trial was initiated on December 13 2008, with 104 subjects randomized by November 30 2012. Discussion This study promises to be the first trial to provide a novel prevention strategy for PTSD among traumatized people. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00671099 PMID:23289548

2013-01-01

230

Moxibustion for treating knee osteoarthritis: study protocol of a multicentre randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The treatment of knee osteoarthritis, which is a major cause of disability among the elderly, is typically selected from multidisciplinary options, including complementary and alternative medicine. Moxibustion has been used in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis in Korea to reduce pain and improve physical activity. However, there is no sufficient evidence of its effectiveness, and it cannot therefore be widely recommended for treating knee osteoarthritis. We designed a randomised controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness, and qualitative characteristics of moxibustion treatment of knee osteoarthritis compared to usual care. Methods/designs This is a protocol for a multicentre, pragmatic, randomised, assessor-blinded, controlled, parallel-group study. A total of 212 participants will be assigned to the moxibustion group (n?=?106) and the usual care group (n?=?106) at 4 clinical research centres. The participants assigned to the moxibustion group will receive moxibustion treatment of the affected knee(s) at 6 standard acupuncture points (ST36, ST35, ST34, SP9, Ex-LE04, and SP10) 3 times per week for 4 weeks (a total of 12 sessions). Participants in the usual care group will not receive moxibustion treatment during the study period. Follow-up will be performed on the 5th and 13th weeks after random allocation. Both groups will be allowed to use any type of treatment, including surgery, conventional medication, physical treatment, acupuncture, herbal medicine, over-the-counter drugs, and other active treatments. Educational material that explains knee osteoarthritis, the current management options, and self-exercise will be provided to each group. The global scale of the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (K-WOMAC) will be the primary outcome measurement used in this study. Other subscales (pain, stiffness, and function) of the K-WOMAC, the Short-Form 36v2 Health Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Physical Function test, Patient Global Assessment, and the Pain Numerical Rating Scale will be used as outcome variables to evaluate the effectiveness of moxibustion. Safety will be assessed at every visit. In addition, an economic evaluation and a qualitative study will be conducted as a mixed-methods approach. Discussion This trial may contribute to developing evidence for the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion for treating knee osteoarthritis. Trial registration Trial registration number: KCT0000130 PMID:23497032

2013-01-01

231

Group interpersonal psychotherapy for postnatal depression: a pilot study.  

PubMed

We conducted a pilot study to assess the potential effectiveness of group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-G) as a treatment for postnatal depression (PND). The study was also established to test a treatment manual for IPT-G, assess the acceptability of this format for participants and test a recruitment strategy for a randomised controlled trial. 18 mothers diagnosed with PND participated in 2 individual session and 8 sessions of group IPT. A two-hour psychoeducational session was also held for the partners of the participants. Measures of depressive symptomatology and social adjustment were administered by an independent clinician at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 3 months post treatment. Patient satisfaction with the treatment was also evaluated. Severity scores on the BDI, EPDS and the HDRS decreased from pre- to post-treatment. This was maintained at three months follow up. No overall improvement in the Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report was noted, although there was improvement in their relationship with their significant other. The results confirm previous work that IPT-G may improve symptom severity for women suffering from postnatal depression. Limitations included the use of antidepressant therapy by 67% of subjects and the lack of a control group. There is a need for further randomised controlled trials of IPT-G with larger sample sizes to establish its effectiveness as treatment for PND. PMID:16222425

Reay, R; Fisher, Y; Robertson, M; Adams, E; Owen, C; Kumar, R

2006-01-01

232

Ultra-early tranexamic acid after subarachnoid hemorrhage (ULTRA): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background A frequent complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is recurrent bleeding from the aneurysm. The risk is highest within the first 6 hours after the initial hemorrhage. Securing the aneurysm within this timeframe is difficult owing to logistical delays. The rate of recurrent bleeding can also be reduced by ultra-early administration of antifibrinolytics, which probably improves functional outcome. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ultra-early and short-term administration of the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid (TXA), as add-on to standard SAH management, leads to better functional outcome. Methods/Design This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label trial with blinded endpoint (PROBE) assessment. Adult patients with the diagnosis of non-traumatic SAH, as proven by computed tomography (CT) within 24 hours after the onset of headache, will be randomly assigned to the treatment group or the control group. Patients in the treatment group will receive standard treatment with the addition of a bolus of TXA (1 g intravenously) immediately after randomization, followed by continuous infusion of 1 g per 8 hours until the start of aneurysm treatment, or a maximum of 24 hours after the start of medication. Patients in the control group will receive standard treatment without TXA. The primary outcome measure is favorable functional outcome, defined as a score of 0 to 3 on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), at 6 months after SAH. Primary outcome will be determined by a trial nurse blinded for treatment allocation. We aim to include 950 patients in 3 years. Discussion The strengths of this study are: 1. the ultra-early and short-term administration of TXA, resulting in a lower dose as compared to previous studies, which should reduce the risk for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), an important risk factor in the long-term treatment with antifibrinolytics; 2. the power calculation is based on functional outcome and calculated with use of recent study results of our own population, supported by data from prominent studies; and 3. the participation of several specialized SAH centers, and their referring hospitals, in the Netherlands with comparative treatment protocols. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register (Dutch Trial Registry) number NTR3272 PMID:23680226

2013-01-01

233

Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present study was designed to verify the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms and the intensity of overvalued ideas, as well as in improving the patient’s quality of life. Methods: Forty-seven patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were randomly assigned to either 12 weekly CBGT sessions or a waiting list (control group).

Aristides Volpato Cordioli; Elizeth Heldt; Daniela Braga Bochi; Regina Margis; Marcelo Basso de Sousa; Juliano Fonseca Tonello; Gisele Gus Manfro; Flavio Kapczinski

2003-01-01

234

Household obesity prevention: Take Action--a group-randomized trial. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an intervention to prevent weight gain among households (HHs) in the community. Ninety HHs were randomized to intervention or control group for 1 year. Intervention consisted of six face-to-face group sessions, placement of a television (TV) locking device on all home TVs, and home-based intervention activities. Measures were collected in person at baseline and 1 year.

235

Randomized Clinical Trial: Moderators and Mediators of a Psycho-education Group Intervention on IBS Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Summary Background & aims Evidence supports the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral approaches in improving IBS symptoms. Duration, cost, and resistance of many patients towards a psychological therapy have limited their acceptance. We evaluated the effectiveness of a psycho-educational intervention on IBS symptoms. Methods 69 IBS patients (72% female) were randomized to an intervention or a wait-list control group. The IBS class consisted of education on a biological mind body disease model emphasizing self-efficacy and practical relaxation techniques. Results Patients in the intervention showed significant improvement on GI symptom severity, visceral sensitivity, depression, and QoL post intervention and most of these gains were maintained at 3 month follow up (Hedge’s g =?.46 to .77). Moderated mediation analyses indicated change in anxiety, visceral sensitivity, QoL and catastrophizing due to the intervention had moderate mediation effects (Hedge’s g= ?.38 to ?.60) on improvements in GI symptom severity for patients entering the trial with low to average QoL. Also, change in GI symptom severity due to the intervention had moderate mediation effects on improvements in QoL especially patients with low to average levels of QoL at baseline. Moderated mediation analyses indicated mediation was less effective for patients entering the intervention with high QoL. Conclusions A brief psycho-educational group intervention is efficacious in changing cognitions and fears about IBS symptoms, and these changes are associated with clinically meaningful improvement in IBS symptoms and QoL. The intervention seems particularly tailored to patients with low to moderate QoL baseline levels. PMID:23205588

Labus, Jennifer; Gupta, Arpana; Gill, Harkiran K.; Posserud, Iris; Mayer, Minou; Raeen, Heidi; Bolus, Roger; Simren, Magnus; Naliboff, Bruce D.; Mayer, Emeran A.

2013-01-01

236

Mindfulness training improves attentional task performance in incarcerated youth: a group randomized controlled intervention trial  

PubMed Central

We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT) on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a quasi-experimental, group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16–18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147) or an active control intervention (youth n = 117). Both arms received approximately 750 min of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3–5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. PMID:24265621

Leonard, Noelle R.; Jha, Amishi P.; Casarjian, Bethany; Goolsarran, Merissa; Garcia, Cristina; Cleland, Charles M.; Gwadz, Marya V.; Massey, Zohar

2013-01-01

237

Impact of preoperative patient education on prevention of postoperative complications after major visceral surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (PEDUCAT trial)  

PubMed Central

Background In line with the growing number of surgical procedures being performed worldwide, postoperative complications are also increasing proportionately. Prevention of these postoperative complications is a high medical priority. Preoperative education of patients, including provision of preparatory information about the correct behavior after surgery, could improve the postoperative outcome, but the evidence for this is inconclusive. The aim of the PEDUCAT trial is to evaluate the feasibility and the impact of preoperative patient education on postoperative morbidity, mortality and quality of life in patients scheduled for elective major visceral surgery. Methods/design PEDUCAT is designed as a cluster-randomized controlled pilot study. The experimental group will visit a standardized preoperative seminar to learn how best to behave after surgery in addition to being given a standard information brochure, whereas the control group will only receive the information brochure. Outcome measures such as postoperative morbidity, postoperative pain, postoperative anxiety and depression, patient satisfaction, quality of life, length of hospital stay and postoperative mortality will be evaluated. Statistical analysis will be based on the intention-to-treat population. Analysis of covariance will be applied for the intervention group comparison, adjusting for age, center and quality of life before surgery. This is a pilot study to show the feasibility of the concept. Nevertheless, the planned sample size of n = 204 is large enough to show an effect with power of 90% and a significance level of 5%. Trial registration German Clinical Trial Register number: DRKS00004226. PMID:23978275

2013-01-01

238

Acupuncture at local and distant points for tinnitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of an objective physical source. Up to now, there is no generally accepted view how these phantom sounds come about, and also no efficient treatment. Patients are turning to complementary or alternative medical therapies, such as acupuncture. Based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, acupoints located on both the adjacent and distal area of the disease can be needled to treat disease. Furthermore, the way of combining acupoints is for strengthening the curative effect. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture at local points in combination with distal points in subjective tinnitus patients. Method This trial is a randomized, single-blind, controlled study. A total of 112 participants will be randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups receiving acupuncture treatment for 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure is subjective tinnitus loudness and annoyance perception, which is graded using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The assessment is at baseline (before treatment initiation), 4 weeks after the first acupuncture session, and 8 weeks after the first acupuncture session. Discussion Completion of this trial will help to identify whether acupuncture at local acupoints in combination with distal acupoints may be more effective than needling points separately. Trial registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register: ISRCTN29230777 PMID:23176350

2012-01-01

239

Results for NRPB dosimetry services in the 2000 EURADOS trial performance test. National Radiolgical Protection Board. European Radiation Dosimetry Group.  

PubMed

During 2000 a trial performance test for individual monitoring services in Europe was organised by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS), covering whole-body beta/photon, whole-body neutron and extremity beta/photon dosimetry for both monoenergetic and simulated workplace fields. The UK National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), which supplies routine dosemeters to some 50,000 wearers in the UK and overseas, participated in this trial performance test. This paper presents the results obtained for the NRPB whole-body TLD, neutron (PADC) and extremity dosimetry services and comments on their performance in comparison with the overall results. PMID:12382744

Gilvin, P J; Dunderdale, J; Perkins, D K

2002-01-01

240

Classic yin and yang tonic formula for osteopenia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoporosis is a growing worldwide problem, with the greatest burden resulting from fractures. Nevertheless, the majority of fractures in adults occur in those with "osteopenia" (bone mineral density (BMD) only moderately lower than young normal individuals). Since long-term drug therapy is an expensive option with uncertain consequences and side effects, natural herbal therapy offers an attractive alternative. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect on BMD and safety of the Classic Yin and Yang Tonic Formula for treatment of osteopenia and to investigate the mechanism by which this efficacy is achieved. Methods/design We propose a multicenter double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Classic Yin and Yang Tonic Formula for the treatment of osteopenia. Participants aged 55 to 75 with low bone mineral density (T-score between -1 and -2.5) and kidney deficiency in TCM will be included and randomly allocated into two groups: treatment group and control group. Participants in the treatment group will be treated with Classic Yin and Yang Tonic Granule, while the controlled group will receive placebo. Primary outcome measure will be BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes will include pain intensity measured with visual analogue scales, quality of life, serum markers of bone metabolism, indices of Neuro-endocrino-immune network and safety. Discussion If the Classic Yin and Yang Tonic Formula can increase bone mass without adverse effects, it may be a novel strategy for the treatment of osteoporosis. Furthermore, the mechanism of the Chinese medical formula for osteoporosis will be partially elucidated. Trial registration This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01271647. PMID:21806837

2011-01-01

241

The Diflunisal Trial: study accrual and drug tolerance.  

PubMed

Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is a protein folding disorder that induces neuropathy and cardiomyopathy, leading to death within 7-15 years after onset of clinical disease. In vitro, small ligands binding the thyroid hormone docking site stabilize tetrameric transthyretin, inhibiting amyloid fibril formation. We undertook a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to determine whether diflunisal, a well-known non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) alters neurologic disease progression in FAP. We enrolled 130 subjects with wide age and FAP mutation representation. To date, few recognized complications of NSAIDs have occurred in the study cohort. Data collection will be completed by November 2012. PMID:22551208

Berk, John L; Suhr, Ole B; Sekijima, Yoshiki; Yamashita, Taro; Heneghan, Michael; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Ando, Yukio; Ikeda, Shu-ichi; Gorevic, Peter; Merlini, Giampaolo; Kelly, Jeffrey W; Skinner, Martha; Bisbee, Alice B; Dyck, Peter J; Obici, Laura

2012-06-01

242

Subgroup analyses in randomised controlled trials: cohort study on trial protocols and journal publications  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the planning of subgroup analyses in protocols of randomised controlled trials and the agreement with corresponding full journal publications. Design Cohort of protocols of randomised controlled trial and subsequent full journal publications. Setting Six research ethics committees in Switzerland, Germany, and Canada. Data sources 894 protocols of randomised controlled trial involving patients approved by participating research ethics committees between 2000 and 2003 and 515 subsequent full journal publications. Results Of 894 protocols of randomised controlled trials, 252 (28.2%) included one or more planned subgroup analyses. Of those, 17 (6.7%) provided a clear hypothesis for at least one subgroup analysis, 10 (4.0%) anticipated the direction of a subgroup effect, and 87 (34.5%) planned a statistical test for interaction. Industry sponsored trials more often planned subgroup analyses compared with investigator sponsored trials (195/551 (35.4%) v 57/343 (16.6%), P<0.001). Of 515 identified journal publications, 246 (47.8%) reported at least one subgroup analysis. In 81 (32.9%) of the 246 publications reporting subgroup analyses, authors stated that subgroup analyses were prespecified, but this was not supported by 28 (34.6%) corresponding protocols. In 86 publications, authors claimed a subgroup effect, but only 36 (41.9%) corresponding protocols reported a planned subgroup analysis. Conclusions Subgroup analyses are insufficiently described in the protocols of randomised controlled trials submitted to research ethics committees, and investigators rarely specify the anticipated direction of subgroup effects. More than one third of statements in publications of randomised controlled trials about subgroup prespecification had no documentation in the corresponding protocols. Definitive judgments regarding credibility of claimed subgroup effects are not possible without access to protocols and analysis plans of randomised controlled trials. PMID:25030633

2014-01-01

243

A hhase I/II trial to evaluate three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy confined to the region of the lumpectomy cavity for Stage I/II breast carcinoma: Initial report of feasibility and reproducibility of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Study 0319  

SciTech Connect

Background: This prospective study (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Study 0319) examines the use of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation. Reproducibility, as measured by technical feasibility, was the primary end point with the goal of demonstrating whether the technique is widely applicable in a multicenter setting before a Phase III trial is undertaken. Methods and Materials: This study was designed such that if fewer than 5 cases out of the first 42 patients evaluable were scored as unacceptable, the treatment would be considered reproducible. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 3.85 Gy/fraction delivered twice daily. The clinical target volume included the lumpectomy cavity plus a 10-15-mm margin bounded by 5 mm within the skin surface and the lung-chest wall interface. The planning target volume (PTV) included the clinical target volume plus a 10-mm margin. Treatment plans were judged as follows: (1) No variations (total coverage), 95% isodose surface covers 100% of the PTV and all specified critical normal tissue dose-volume histogram (DVH) limits met. (2) Minor variation (marginal coverage), 95% isodose surface covers between {>=}95% and <100% of the PTV. No portion of PTV receives <93% of prescription (isocenter) dose. All specified critical normal tissue DVH limits fall within 5% of the guidelines. (3) Major variation (miss), 95% isodose surface covers <95% of the PTV. Portion of PTV receives <93% of prescription isocenter dose. Any critical normal tissue DVH limit exceeds 5% of the specified value. Results: A total of 58 patients were enrolled on this study between 8/15/03 and 4/30/04, 5 of whom were ineligible or did not receive protocol treatment. Two additional patients were excluded, one because the on-study form was not submitted, and the other because no treatment planning material was submitted. This primary end point analysis is based on the first 42 (out of 51) evaluable patients, which were accrued from 17 different institutions (31 centers were credentialed for case enrollment, but because of rapid accrual, not all centers were able to submit cases before trial closure). These 42 patients had the following characteristics: median age was 61 years; 48% had a maximum tumor dimension of <1 cm; 86% had invasive ductal carcinoma; 64% were postmenopausal; the location of tumor was upper outer for 40% and upper central for 21%; 79% had no chemotherapy, and 64% had no hormonal therapy. There were 4 cases with major variations (all 4 related to normal tissue DVHs exceeding 5% of the specified limit). A total of 32 cases with minor variations in treatment plans were detected (16 related to normal tissue DVHs exceeding the specified limits [by {<=}5%], 6 related to suboptimal coverage of the PTV, and 10 related to both). There were 6 cases with no variations. Of the 51 total evaluable patients, 1 additional major variation was noted (PTV receiving <93% of the prescription dose). An additional 5 cases with minor variations in treatment plans were detected (3 related to normal tissue DVHs exceeding the specified limits [by {<=}5%], 1 related to suboptimal coverage of the PTV, and 1 related to both). There were 3 more cases with no variations. Conclusion: Accelerated partial breast irradiation using three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy was shown in this preliminary analysis of the first 42 evaluable patients to be technically feasible and reproducible in a multi-institutional trial using exceptionally strict dosimetric criteria.

Vicini, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)]. E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu; Winter, Kathryn M.S. [Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), Philadelphia, PA (United States); Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Wong, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Pass, Helen [Department of Surgery, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Rabinovitch, Rachel [University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States); Chafe, Susan [Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Arthur, Douglas [Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA (United States); Petersen, Ivy [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); McCormick, Beryl [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

2005-12-01

244

Medicare Clinical Trial Policy Phase I and Phase II Studies  

Cancer.gov

National Cancer Institute National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials Advisory Committee (CTAC) Meeting Clinical Trials Advisory Committee (CTAC) Meeting December 8, 2008 December 8, 2008 Leslye K. Fitterman, PhD Leslye K.

245

Predictors of accrual success for cooperative group trials: The Cancer and Leukemia Group B (Alliance) experience. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Gordon DH,Liu Q,Kleinman B,Karrison T,Kelly M,Fleming GF. Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology, Chicago, IL; University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. ASCO 2013 Annual Meeting. 2013 May 31. 2013 Jun 04. Chicago, IL.

246

Acupuncture for functional dyspepsia: study protocol for a two-center, randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common health problem currently without any optimal treatments. Acupuncture has been traditionally sought as a treatment for FD. The aim of this study is to investigate whether acupuncture treatment helps improve symptoms of FD. Methods/design A two-center, randomized, waitlist-controlled trial will be carried out to evaluate whether acupuncture treatment improves FD symptoms. Seventy six participants aged 18 to 75 years with FD as diagnosed by Rome III criteria will be recruited from August 2013 to January 2014 at two Korean Medicine hospitals. They will be randomly allocated either into eight sessions of partially individualized acupuncture treatment over 4 weeks or a waitlist group. The acupuncture group will then be followed-up for 3 weeks with six telephone visits and a final visit will be paid at 8 weeks. The waitlist group will receive the identical acupuncture treatment after a 4-week waiting period. The primary outcome is the proportion of responders with adequate symptom relief and the secondary outcomes include Nepean dyspepsia index, EQ-5D, FD-related quality of life, Beck’s depression inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory questionnaire, and level of ghrelin hormone. The protocol was approved by the participating centers’ Institutional Review Boards. Discussion Results of this trial will help clarify not only whether the acupuncture treatment is beneficial for symptom improvement in FD patients but also to elucidate the related mechanisms of how acupuncture might work. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01921504. PMID:24655542

2014-01-01

247

Impact of Ultrahigh Baseline PSA Levels on Biochemical and Clinical Outcomes in Two Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Prostate Clinical Trials  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess ultrahigh (UH; prostate-specific antigen [PSA]levels {>=}50 ng/ml) patient outcomes by comparison to other high-risk patient outcomes and to identify outcome predictors. Methods and Materials: Prostate cancer patients (PCP) from two Phase III Radiation Therapy Oncology Group clinical trials (studies 9202 and 9413) were divided into two groups: high-risk patients with and without UH baseline PSA levels. Predictive variables included age, Gleason score, clinical T stage, Karnofsky performance score, and treatment arm. Outcomes included overall survival (OS), distant metastasis (DM), and biochemical failure (BF). Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using either the Cox or Fine and Gray's regression model with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) and p values. Results: There were 401 patients in the UH PSA group and 1,792 patients in the non-UH PSA PCP group of a total of 2,193 high-risk PCP. PCP with UH PSA were found to have inferior OS (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02-1.39, p = 0.02), DM (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.19-1.92; p = 0.0006), and BF (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.29-1.73; p < 0.0001) compared to other high-risk PCP. In the UH cohort, PSA level was found to be a significant factor for the risk of DM (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.001-1.02) but not OS and BF. Gleason grades of 8 to 10 were found to consistently predict for poor OS, DM, and BF outcomes (with HR estimates ranging from 1.41-2.36) in both the high-risk cohort and the UH cohort multivariable analyses. Conclusions: UH PSA levels at diagnosis are related to detrimental changes in OS, DM, and BF. All three outcomes can be modeled by various combinations of all predictive variables tested.

Rodrigues, George, E-mail: george.rodrigues@lhsc.on.c [Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Bae, Kyounghwa [Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Lawton, Colleen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Donnelly, Bryan [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Grignon, David [Department of Pathology, Indiana Pathology Institute, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Hanks, Gerald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Porter, Arthur [Department of Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Lepor, Herbert [Department of Urology, NY University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Sandler, Howard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States)

2011-06-01

248

Discontinuation and non-publication of surgical randomised controlled trials: observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the rate of early discontinuation and non-publication of randomised controlled trials involving patients undergoing surgery. Design Cross sectional observational study of registered and published trials. Setting Randomised controlled trials of interventions in patients undergoing a surgical procedure. Data sources The ClinicalTrials.gov database was searched for interventional trials registered between January 2008 and December 2009 using the keyword “surgery”. Recruitment status was extracted from the ClinicalTrials.gov database. A systematic search for studies published in peer reviewed journals was performed; if they were not found, results posted on the ClinicalTrials.gov results database were sought. Email queries were sent to trial investigators of discontinued and unpublished completed trials if no reason for the respective status was disclosed. Main outcome measures Trial discontinuation before completion and non-publication after completion. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect of funding source on publication status, with adjustment for intervention type and trial size. Results Of 818 registered trials found using the keyword “surgery”, 395 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 21% (81/395) were discontinued early, most commonly owing to poor recruitment (44%, 36/81). The remaining 314 (79%) trials proceeded to completion, with a publication rate of 66% (208/314) at a median time of 4.9 (interquartile range 4.0-6.0) years from study completion to publication search. A further 6% (20/314) of studies presented results on ClinicalTrials.gov without a corresponding peer reviewed publication. Industry funding did not affect the rate of discontinuation (adjusted odds ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 1.55) but was associated with a lower odds of publication for completed trials (0.43, 0.26 to 0.72). Investigators’ email addresses for trials with an uncertain fate were identified for 71.4% (10/14) of discontinued trials and 83% (101/122) of unpublished studies. Only 43% (6/14) and 20% (25/122) replies were received. Email responses for completed trials indicated 11 trials in press, five published studies (four in non-indexed peer reviewed journals), and nine trials remaining unpublished. Conclusions One in five surgical randomised controlled trials are discontinued early, one in three completed trials remain unpublished, and investigators of unpublished studies are frequently not contactable. This represents a waste of research resources and raises ethical concerns regarding hidden clinical data and futile participation by patients with its attendant risks. To promote future efficiency and transparency, changes are proposed to research governance frameworks to overcome these concerns. PMID:25491195

Chapman, Stephen J; Shelton, Bryony; Mahmood, Humza; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Harrison, Ewen M

2014-01-01

249

Parent Training With High-Risk Immigrant Chinese Families: A Pilot Group Randomized Trial Yielding Practice-Based Evidence  

PubMed Central

We studied the efficacy and implementation outcomes of a culturally responsive parent training (PT) program. Fifty-four Chinese American parents participated in a wait-list controlled group randomized trial (32 immediate treatment, 22 delayed treatment) of a 14-week intervention designed to address the needs of high-risk immigrant families. Parents were eligible for intervention if they were Chinese-speaking immigrants referred from schools, community clinics, or child protective services with concerns about parenting or child behavior problems. Retention and engagement were high with 83% of families attending 10 or more sessions. Results revealed that the treatment was efficacious in reducing negative discipline, increasing positive parenting, and decreasing child externalizing and internalizing problems. Treatment effects were larger among families with higher levels of baseline behavior problems and lower levels of parenting stress. Further augmentation of PT to address immigrant parent stress may be warranted. Qualitative impressions from group leaders suggested that slower pacing and increased rehearsal of skills may improve efficacy for immigrant parents unfamiliar with skills introduced in PT. PMID:21658524

Lau, Anna S.; Fung, Joey J.; Ho, Lori Y.; Liu, Lisa L.; Gudiño, Omar G.

2013-01-01

250

Usual Care as the Control Group in Clinical Trials of Nonpharmacologic Interventions  

PubMed Central

We discuss the pros and cons of including usual care as a control arm in clinical trials of nonpharmacologic interventions. Usual care is a term used to describe the full spectrum of patient care practices in which clinicians have the opportunity (which is not necessarily seized) to individualize care. The decision to use usual care as the control arm should be based on the nature of the research question and the uniformity of usual-care practices. The use of a usual-care arm in a two-arm trial should be considered for trials of investigational drugs or devices, for trials that propose to test interventions that lie well outside usual-care practices, or for trials where the research question per se is to compare a strategy against usual care. Examples of the latter include pragmatic effectiveness trials of clinical pathways or protocolized-care versus usual-care practices. Randomized intervention trials can be safely conducted and monitored using two treatments that lie within the range of usual-care practices if both approaches are considered prudent and good care for the target population. PMID:17878473

Thompson, B. Taylor; Schoenfeld, David

2007-01-01

251

Recruiting a Diverse Group of Middle School Girls Into the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND School-based study recruitment efforts are both time consuming and challenging. This paper highlights the recruitment strategies employed by the national, multisite Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a study designed to measure the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce the decline of physical activity levels among middle school—aged girls. TAAG provided a unique opportunity to recruit large cohorts of randomly sampled girls within 36 diverse middle schools across the United States. METHODS Key elements of the formative planning, coordination, and design of TAAG’s recruitment efforts included flexibility, tailoring, and the use of incentives. Various barriers, including a natural disaster, political tension, and district regulations, were encountered throughout the recruitment process, but coordinated strategies and frequent communication between the 6 TAAG sites were helpful in tailoring the recruitment process at the 36 intervention and control schools. RESULTS Progressively refined recruitment strategies and specific attention to the target audience of middle school girls resulted in overall study recruitment rates of 80%, 85%, and 89%, for the baseline, posttest, and follow-up period, respectively. DISCUSSION The steady increase in recruitment rates over time is attributed to an emphasis on successful strategies and a willingness to modify less successful methods. Open and consistent communication, an increasingly coordinated recruitment strategy, interactive recruitment presentations, and participant incentives resulted in an effective recruitment campaign. PMID:18808471

Elder, John P.; Shuler, LaVerne; Moe, Stacey G.; Grieser, Mira; Pratt, Charlotte; Cameron, Sandra; Hingle, Melanie; Pickrel, Julie L.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Schachter, Kenneth; Greer, Susan; Bothwell, Elizabeth K. Guth

2009-01-01

252

Hand-suture versus stapling for closure of loop ileostomy: HASTA-Trial: a study rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer is the second most common tumor in developed countries, with a lifetime prevalence of 5%. About one third of these tumors are located in the rectum. Surgery in terms of low anterior resection with mesorectal excision is the central element in the treatment of rectal cancer being the only option for definite cure. Creating a protective diverting stoma prevents complications like anastomotic failure and meanwhile is the standard procedure. Bowel obstruction is one of the main and the clinically and economically most relevant complication following closure of loop ileostomy. The best surgical technique for closure of loop ileostomy has not been defined yet. Methods/Design A study protocol was developed on the basis of the only randomized controlled mono-center trial to solve clinical equipoise concerning the optimal surgical technique for closure of loop ileostomy after low anterior resection due to rectal cancer. The HASTA trial is a multi-center pragmatic randomized controlled surgical trial with two parallel groups to compare hand-suture versus stapling for closure of loop ileostomy. It will include 334 randomized patients undergoing closure of loop ileostomy after low anterior resection with protective ileostomy due to rectal cancer in approximately 20 centers consisting of German hospitals of all level of health care. The primary endpoint is the rate of bowel obstruction within 30 days after ileostomy closure. In addition, a set of surgical and general variables including quality of life will be analyzed with a follow-up of 12 months. An investigators meeting with a practical session will help to minimize performance bias and enforce protocol adherence. Centers are monitored centrally as well as on-site before and during recruitment phase to assure inclusion, treatment and follow up according to the protocol. Discussion Aim of the HASTA trial is to evaluate the efficacy of hand-suture versus stapling for closure of loop ileostomy in patients with rectal cancer. Trial registration German Clinical Trial Register Number: DRKS00000040 PMID:21303515

2011-01-01

253

Evaluating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Surgical site infections are the most common hospital-acquired infections among surgical patients. The administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the risk of surgical site infections . The optimal timing of this procedure is still a matter of debate. While most studies suggest that it should be given as close to the incision time as possible, others conclude that this may be too late for optimal prevention of surgical site infections. A large observational study suggests that surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis should be administered 74 to 30 minutes before surgery. The aim of this article is to report the design and protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. Methods/Design In this bi-center randomized controlled trial conducted at two tertiary referral centers in Switzerland, we plan to include 5,000 patients undergoing general, oncologic, vascular and orthopedic trauma procedures. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio into two groups: one receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (75 to 30 minutes before incision) and the other receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room (less than 30 minutes before incision). We expect a significantly lower rate of surgical site infections with surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis administered more than 30 minutes before the scheduled incision. The primary outcome is the occurrence of surgical site infections during a 30-day follow-up period (one year with an implant in place). When assuming a 5% surgical site infection risk with administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room, the planned sample size has an 80% power to detect a relative risk reduction for surgical site infections of 33% when administering surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (with a two-sided type I error of 5%). We expect the study to be completed within three years. Discussion The results of this randomized controlled trial will have an important impact on current international guidelines for infection control strategies in the hospital. Moreover, the results of this randomized controlled trial are of significant interest for patient safety and healthcare economics. Trial registration This trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov under the identifier NCT01790529. PMID:24885132

2014-01-01

254

Acupuncture for menopausal vasomotor symptoms: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Hot flushes and night sweats (vasomotor symptoms) are common menopausal symptoms, often causing distress, sleep deprivation and reduced quality of life. Although hormone replacement therapy is an effective treatment, there are concerns about serious adverse events. Non-hormonal pharmacological therapies are less effective and can also cause adverse effects. Complementary therapies, including acupuncture, are commonly used for menopausal vasomotor symptoms. While the evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating vasomotor symptoms is inconclusive, acupuncture has a low risk of adverse effects, and two small studies suggest it may be more effective than non-insertive sham acupuncture. Our objective is to assess the efficacy of needle acupuncture in improving hot flush severity and frequency in menopausal women. Our current study design is informed by methods tested in a pilot study. Methods/design This is a stratified, parallel, randomised sham-controlled trial with equal allocation of participants to two trial groups. We are recruiting 360 menopausal women experiencing a minimum average of seven moderate hot flushes a day over a seven-day period and who meet diagnostic criteria for the Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnosis of Kidney Yin deficiency. Exclusion criteria include breast cancer, surgical menopause, and current hormone replacement therapy use. Eligible women are randomised to receive either true needle acupuncture or sham acupuncture with non-insertive (blunt) needles for ten treatments over eight weeks. Participants are blinded to treatment allocation. Interventions are provided by Chinese medicine acupuncturists who have received specific training on trial procedures. The primary outcome measure is hot flush score, assessed using the validated Hot Flush Diary. Secondary outcome measures include health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms, credibility of the sham treatment, expectancy and beliefs about acupuncture, and adverse events. Participants will be analysed in the groups in which they were randomised using an intention-to-treat analysis strategy. Discussion Results from this trial will significantly add to the current body of evidence on the role of acupuncture for vasomotor symptoms. If found to be effective and safe, acupuncture will be a valuable additional treatment option for women who experience menopausal vasomotor symptoms. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000393954 11/02/2009. PMID:24925094

2014-01-01

255

The prognostic and predictive value of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor family members in breast cancer: a study in primary tumors of high-risk early breast cancer patients participating in a randomized Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction The main prognostic variables in early breast cancer are tumor size, histological grade, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor (ER/PgR) status, number of positive nodes and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. The present study evaluated the prognostic and/or predictive value of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family members in high-risk early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemo-hormonotherapy. Methods RNA was isolated from 308 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tumor samples from breast cancer patients enrolled in the HE10/97 trial, evaluating adjuvant dose-dense sequential chemotherapy with epirubicin followed by cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil (CMF) with or without paclitaxel (E-T-CMF versus E-CMF). A fully automated method based on magnetic beads was applied for RNA extraction, followed by one-step quantitative RT-PCR for mRNA analysis of VEGF-A, -B, -C and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 1, 2, 3. Results With a median follow-up of 8 years, 109 patients (35%) developed a relapse and 80 patients (26%) died. In high VEGF-C and VEGFR1 mRNA expressing tumors, ER/PgR-negative tumors (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.001 and P = 0.021, respectively) and HER2-positive tumors (P <0.001 and P = 0.028, respectively) were more frequent than in low VEGF-C and VEGFR1 expressing tumors, respectively. From the VEGF family members evaluated, high VEGFR1 mRNA expression (above the 75th percentile) emerged as a significant negative prognostic factor for overall survival (OS; hazard ratio (HR) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01 to 2.55, Wald's P = 0.047) and disease-free survival (DFS; HR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.13 to 2.48, P = 0.010), when adjusting for treatment group. High VEGF-C mRNA expression was predictive for benefit from adjuvant treatment with paclitaxel (E-T-CMF arm) for OS (test for interaction, Wald's P = 0.038), while in multivariate analysis the interaction of VEGF-C with taxane treatment was significant for both OS (Wald's P = 0.019) and DFS (P = 0.041) and continuous VEGF-B mRNA expression values for OS (P = 0.019). Conclusions The present study reports, for the first time, that VEGF-C mRNA overexpression, as assessed by qRT-PCR, has a strong predictive value in high-risk early breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant paclitaxel-containing treatment. Further studies are warranted to validate the prognostic and/or predictive value of VEGF-B, VEGF-C and VEGFR1 in patients treated with adjuvant therapies and to reveal which members of the VEGF family could possibly be useful markers in identifying patients who will benefit most from anti-VEGF strategies. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12611000506998 PMID:23146280

2012-01-01

256

Hospital Inpatient versus HOme-based rehabilitation after knee arthroplasty (The HIHO study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Formal rehabilitation programs are often assumed to be required after total knee arthroplasty to optimize patient recovery. Inpatient rehabilitation is a costly rehabilitation option after total knee arthroplasty and, in Australia, is utilized most frequently for privately insured patients. With the exception of comparisons with domiciliary services, no randomized trial has compared inpatient rehabilitation to any outpatient based program. The Hospital Inpatient versus HOme (HIHO) study primarily aims to determine whether 10 days of post-acute inpatient rehabilitation followed by a hybrid home program provides superior recovery of functional mobility on the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) compared to a hybrid home program alone following total knee arthroplasty. Secondarily, the trial aims to determine whether inpatient rehabilitation yields superior recovery in patient-reported function. Methods/Design This is a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT), with a third, non-randomized, observational group. One hundred and forty eligible, consenting participants who have undergone a primary total knee arthroplasty at a high-volume joint replacement center will be randomly allocated when cleared for discharge from acute care to either 10 days of inpatient rehabilitation followed by usual care (a 6-week hybrid home program) or to usual care. Seventy participants in each group (140 in total) will provide 80% power at a significance level of 5% to detect an increase in walking capacity from 400 m to 460 m between the Home and Inpatient groups, respectively, in the 6MWT at 6 months post-surgery, assuming a SD of 120 m and a drop-out rate of <10%. The outcome assessor will assess participants at 10, 26 and 52 weeks post-operatively, and will remain blind to group allocation for the duration of the study, as will the statistician. Participant preference for rehabilitation mode stated prior to randomization will be accounted for in the analysis together with any baseline differences in potentially confounding characteristics as required. Discussion The HIHO Trial will be the first RCT to investigate the efficacy of inpatient rehabilitation compared to any outpatient alternative following total knee arthroplasty. Trial registration U.S. National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry (http://clinicaltrials.gov) ref: NCT01583153 PMID:24341348

2013-01-01

257

Can Group Interventions Facilitate Forgiveness of an Ex-Spouse?: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effectiveness of 2 versions of an 8-session forgiveness group intervention for divorced individuals. Participants (randomized, n = 192; analyzed, n = 149) were randomly assigned to a secular forgiveness condition, a religious forgiveness condition, or a no-intervention comparison condition. Measures of forgiveness and…

Rye, Mark S.; Pargament, Kenneth I.; Pan, Wei; Yingling, David W.; Shogren, Karrie A.; Ito, Masako

2005-01-01

258

Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: An Open Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy (MAGT) for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is based largely on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes et al., 1999), with enhanced mindfulness mostly from Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; Segal et al., 2002). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and initial…

Kocovski, Nancy L.; Fleming, Jan E.; Rector, Neil A.

2009-01-01

259

An Open Trial Investigation of a Transdiagnostic Group Treatment for Children with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…

Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

2012-01-01

260

Spiritual Healing in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Exploratory Single Centre, Parallel-Group, Double-Blind, Three-Arm, Randomised, Sham-Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of “energy/spiritual healing” in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Eligible patients were women with RA on stable medication. The design was a randomised, blinded, sham-controlled trial; the third group included an external unblinded control of the natural course of RA. Participants in both groups received 8 sessions with “perceived healing” over 21 weeks with 8 weeks of follow-up. Active healing (AH) treatment comprised healing with no physical contact, and sham healing (SH) included exactly the same healing with a sham healer. During intervention, participants wore hearing protectors and were blindfolded. No healing (NH) only had their outcomes assessed. Coprimary outcomes were disease activity score (DAS) for 28 joints and Doppler ultrasound. All 96 patients randomised were handled as the intention-to-treat population, using a baseline-carried forward approach to replace the missing data. Eighty-two (85%) participants completed the 29-week trial. At end point (week 29), mean difference in DAS28 between AH versus SH was statistically but not clinically significant in favour of AH (0.62 DAS28 points; 95% CI: 0.13 to 1.11; P = 0.014), while no differences between groups occurred in Doppler ultrasound. There are no clear physiological or psychological explanations for the findings in this tightly controlled study. The trial data indicates a need for independent replication. PMID:25614748

Christensen, Robin; Højgaard, Lars; Ellegaard, Karen; Zachariae, Robert; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

2014-01-01

261

Assessment of osteopontin in early breast cancer: correlative study in a randomised clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Osteopontin (OPN) is a malignancy-associated glycoprotein that contributes functionally to tumor aggressiveness. In metastatic breast cancer, we previously demonstrated that elevated OPN in primary tumor and blood was associated with poor prognosis. Methods We measured OPN in plasma by ELISA, and in tumors by immunohistochemistry, in 624 (94%) and 462 (69%), respectively, of 667 postmenopausal women with hormone responsive early breast cancer treated by surgery followed by adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen +/? octreotide in a randomized trial (NCIC CTG MA.14; National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group Mammary.14). Results Plasma OPN was measured in 2,540 samples; 688 at baseline and 1,852 collected during follow-up. Mean baseline plasma OPN was 46 ng/ml (range 22.6 to 290) which did not differ from normal levels. Mean percentage OPN tumor cell positivity was 33.9 (95% CI: 30.2 to 37.9). There was no correlation between plasma and tumor OPN values. In multivariate analysis, neither was associated with event-free survival (EFS), relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), bone RFS or non-bone RFS. An exploratory analysis in patients with recurrence showed higher mean OPN plasma levels 60.7 ng/ml (23.9 to 543) in the recurrence period compared with baseline levels. Conclusions The hypothesis that OPN tumor expression would have independent prognostic value in early breast cancer was not supported by multivariate analysis of this study population. Plasma OPN levels in women with hormone responsive early breast cancer in the MA.14 trial were not elevated and there was no evidence for prognostic value of plasma OPN in this defined group of patients. However, our finding of elevated mean OPN plasma level around the time of recurrence warrants further study. Trial registration NCT00002864, http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00002864 PMID:24451146

2014-01-01

262

Colchicine for Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: A Cochrane Hepatobiliary Group Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Colchicine is used for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis due to its immunomodulatory and antifibrotic potential. The results from randomized clinical trials have, however, been inconsistent. We conducted a systematical review to evaluate the effect of colchicine for primary biliary cirrhosis.METHODS:We identified randomized clinical trials comparing colchicine with placebo\\/no intervention. We analyzed effects by fixed and random effects model. We

Yan Gong; Christian Gluud

2005-01-01

263

BOLD Correlates of Trial-by-Trial Reaction Time Variability in Gray and White Matter: A Multi-Study fMRI Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundReaction time (RT) is one of the most widely used measures of performance in experimental psychology, yet relatively few fMRI studies have included trial-by-trial differences in RT as a predictor variable in their analyses. Using a multi-study approach, we investigated whether there are brain regions that show a general relationship between trial-by-trial RT variability and activation across a range of

Tal Yarkoni; Deanna M. Barch; Jeremy R. Gray; Thomas E. Conturo; Todd S. Braver; Bernhard Baune

2009-01-01

264

BOLD correlates of trial-by-trial reaction time variability in gray and white matter: a multi-study fMRI analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Reaction time (RT) is one of the most widely used measures of performance in experimental psychology, yet relatively few fMRI studies have included trial-by-trial differences in RT as a predictor variable in their analyses. Using a multi- study approach, we investigated whether there are brain regions that show a general relationship between trial-by-trial RT variability and activation across a

Tal Yarkoni; Deanna M. Barch; Jeremy R. Gray; Thomas E. Conturo; Todd S. Braver

2009-01-01

265

Centre Selection for Clinical Trials and the Generalisability of Results: A Mixed Methods Study  

PubMed Central

Background The rationale for centre selection in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is often unclear but may have important implications for the generalisability of trial results. The aims of this study were to evaluate the factors which currently influence centre selection in RCTs and consider how generalisability considerations inform current and optimal practice. Methods and Findings Mixed methods approach consisting of a systematic review and meta-summary of centre selection criteria reported in RCT protocols funded by the UK National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) initiated between January 2005-January 2012; and an online survey on the topic of current and optimal centre selection, distributed to professionals in the 48 UK Clinical Trials Units and 10 NIHR Research Design Services. The survey design was informed by the systematic review and by two focus groups conducted with trialists at the Birmingham Centre for Clinical Trials. 129 trial protocols were included in the systematic review, with a total target sample size in excess of 317,000 participants. The meta-summary identified 53 unique centre selection criteria. 78 protocols (60%) provided at least one criterion for centre selection, but only 31 (24%) protocols explicitly acknowledged generalisability. This is consistent with the survey findings (n?=?70), where less than a third of participants reported generalisability as a key driver of centre selection in current practice. This contrasts with trialists’ views on optimal practice, where generalisability in terms of clinical practice, population characteristics and economic results were prime considerations for 60% (n?=?42), 57% (n?=?40) and 46% (n?=?32) of respondents, respectively. Conclusions Centres are rarely enrolled in RCTs with an explicit view to external validity, although trialists acknowledge that incorporating generalisability in centre selection should ideally be more prominent. There is a need to operationalize ‘generalisability’ and incorporate it at the design stage of RCTs so that results are readily transferable to ‘real world’ practice. PMID:23451055

Gheorghe, Adrian; Roberts, Tracy E.; Ives, Jonathan C.; Fletcher, Benjamin R.; Calvert, Melanie

2013-01-01

266

Who Enrolls Onto Clinical Oncology Trials? A Radiation Patterns of Care Study Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To identify factors significantly influencing accrual to clinical protocols by analyzing radiation Patterns of Care Study (PCS) surveys of 3,047 randomly selected radiotherapy (RT) patients. Methods and Materials: Patterns of Care Study surveys from disease sites studied for the periods 1992-1994 and 1996-1999 (breast cancer, n = 1,080; prostate cancer, n = 1,149; esophageal cancer, n = 818) were analyzed. The PCS is a National Cancer Institute-funded national survey of randomly selected RT institutions in the United States. Patients with nonmetastatic disease who received RT as definitive or adjuvant therapy were randomly selected from eligible patients at each institution. To determine national estimates, individual patient records were weighted by the relative contribution of each institution and patients within each institution. Data regarding participation in clinical trials were recorded. The factors age, gender, race, type of insurance, and practice type of treating institution (academic or not) were studied by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Overall, only 2.7% of all patients were accrued to clinical protocols. Of these, 57% were enrolled on institutional review board-approved institutional trials, and 43% on National Cancer Institute collaborative group studies. On multivariate analysis, patients treated at academic facilities (p = 0.0001) and white patients (vs. African Americans, p = 0.0002) were significantly more likely to participate in clinical oncology trials. Age, gender, type of cancer, and type of insurance were not predictive. Conclusions: Practice type and race significantly influence enrollment onto clinical oncology trials. This suggests that increased communication and education regarding protocols, particularly focusing on physicians in nonacademic settings and minority patients, will be essential to enhance accrual.

Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)]. E-mail: bmovsas1@hfhs.org; Moughan, Jennifer [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Owen, Jean [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Coia, Lawrence R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Community Medical Center, Toms River, NJ (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Hanks, Gerald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wilson, J. Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

2007-07-15

267

A multicentre, pragmatic, parallel group, randomised controlled trial to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of three physiotherapy-led exercise interventions for knee osteoarthritis in older adults: the BEEP trial protocol (ISRCTN: 93634563)  

PubMed Central

Background Exercise is consistently recommended for older adults with knee pain related to osteoarthritis. However, the effects from exercise are typically small and short-term, likely linked to insufficient individualisation of the exercise programme and limited attention to supporting exercise adherence over time. The BEEP randomised trial aims to improve patients’ short and long-term outcomes from exercise. It will test the overall effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two physiotherapy-led exercise interventions (Individually Tailored Exercise and Targeted Exercise Adherence) to improve the individual tailoring of, and adherence to exercise, compared with usual physiotherapy care. Methods/design Based on the learning from a pilot study (ISRCTN 23294263), the BEEP trial is a multi-centre, pragmatic, parallel group, individually randomised controlled trial, with embedded longitudinal qualitative interviews. 500 adults in primary care, aged 45 years and over with knee pain will be randomised to 1 of 3 treatment groups delivered by fully trained physiotherapists in up to 6 NHS services. These are: Usual Physiotherapy Care (control group consisting of up to 4 treatment sessions of advice and exercise), Individually Tailored Exercise (an individualised, supervised and progressed lower-limb exercise programme) or Targeted Exercise Adherence (supporting patients to adhere to exercise and to engage in general physical activity over the longer-term). The primary outcomes are pain and function as measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis index. A comprehensive range of secondary outcomes are also included. Outcomes are measured at 3, 6 (primary outcome time-point), 9, 18 and 36 months. Data on adverse events will also be collected. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews with a subsample of 30 participants (10 from each treatment group) will be undertaken at two time-points (end of treatment and 12 to 18 months later) and analysed thematically. Discussion This trial will contribute to the evidence base for management of older adults with knee pain attributable to osteoarthritis in primary care. The findings will have important implications for healthcare commissioners, general practitioners and physiotherapy service providers and it will inform future education of healthcare practitioners. It may also serve to delay or prevent some individuals from becoming surgical candidates. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN93634563. PMID:25064573

2014-01-01

268

Study protocol of Prednisone in episodic Cluster Headache (PredCH): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral prednisone as an add-on therapy in the prophylactic treatment of episodic cluster headache with verapamil  

PubMed Central

Background Episodic cluster headache (ECH) is a primary headache disorder that severely impairs patient’s quality of life. First-line therapy in the initiation of a prophylactic treatment is verapamil. Due to its delayed onset of efficacy and the necessary slow titration of dosage for tolerability reasons prednisone is frequently added by clinicians to the initial prophylactic treatment of a cluster episode. This treatment strategy is thought to effectively reduce the number and intensity of cluster attacks in the beginning of a cluster episode (before verapamil is effective). This study will assess the efficacy and safety of oral prednisone as an add-on therapy to verapamil and compare it to a monotherapy with verapamil in the initial prophylactic treatment of a cluster episode. Methods and design PredCH is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel study arms. Eligible patients with episodic cluster headache will be randomized to a treatment intervention with prednisone or a placebo arm. The multi-center trial will be conducted in eight German headache clinics that specialize in the treatment of ECH. Discussion PredCH is designed to assess whether oral prednisone added to first-line agent verapamil helps reduce the number and intensity of cluster attacks in the beginning of a cluster episode as compared to monotherapy with verapamil. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004716 PMID:23889923

2013-01-01

269

Facebook Groups as LMS: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a pilot study in using Facebook as an alternative to a learning management system (LMS). The paper reviews the current research on the use of Facebook in academia and analyzes the differences between a Facebook group and a regular LMS. The paper reports on a precedent-setting attempt to use a Facebook group as a course…

Meishar-Tal, Hagit; Kurtz, Gila; Pieterse, Efrat

2012-01-01

270

The Use of Deception in Public Health Behavioral Intervention Trials: A Case Study of Three Online Alcohol Trials  

PubMed Central

Some public health behavioral intervention research studies involve deception. A methodological imperative to minimize bias can be in conflict with the ethical principle of informed consent. As a case study, we examine the specific forms of deception used in three online randomized controlled trials evaluating brief alcohol interventions. We elaborate our own decision making about the use of deception in these trials, and present our ongoing findings and uncertainties. We discuss the value of the approach of pragmatism for examining these kinds of ethical issues that can arise in research on public health interventions. PMID:24161181

McCambridge, Jim; Kypri, Kypros; Bendtsen, Preben; Porter, John

2013-01-01

271

The use of deception in public health behavioral intervention trials: a case study of three online alcohol trials.  

PubMed

Some public health behavioral intervention research studies involve deception. A methodological imperative to minimize bias can be in conflict with the ethical principle of informed consent. As a case study, we examine the specific forms of deception used in three online randomized controlled trials evaluating brief alcohol interventions. We elaborate our own decision making about the use of deception in these trials, and present our ongoing findings and uncertainties. We discuss the value of the approach of pragmatism for examining these kinds of ethical issues that can arise in research on public health interventions. PMID:24161181

McCambridge, Jim; Kypri, Kypros; Bendtsen, Preben; Porter, John

2013-01-01

272

The SHED-IT community trial study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of weight loss programs for overweight and obese men  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a major cause of preventable death in Australia with prevalence increasing at an alarming rate. Of particular concern is that approximately 68% of men are overweight/obese, yet are notoriously difficult to engage in weight loss programs, despite being more susceptible than women to adverse weight-related outcomes. There is a need to develop and evaluate obesity treatment programs that target and appeal to men. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of two relatively low intensity weight loss programs developed specifically for men. Methods and Design The study design is an assessor blinded, parallel-group randomised controlled trial that recruited 159 overweight and obese men in Newcastle, Australia. Inclusion criteria included: BMI 25-40 (kg/m2); no participation in other weight loss programs during the study; pass a health-screening questionnaire and pre-exercise risk assessment; available for assessment sessions; access to a computer with e-mail and Internet facilities; and own a mobile phone. Men were recruited to the SHED-IT (Self-Help, Exercise and Diet using Internet Technology) study via the media and emails sent to male dominated workplaces. Men were stratified by BMI category (overweight, obese class I, obese class II) and randomised to one of three groups: (1) SHED-IT Resources - provision of materials (DVD, handbooks, pedometer, tape measure) with embedded behaviour change strategies to support weight loss; (2) SHED-IT Online - same materials as SHED-IT Resources plus access to and instruction on how to use the study website; (3) Wait-list Control. The intervention programs are three months long with outcome measures taken by assessors blinded to group allocation at baseline, and 3- and 6-months post baseline. Outcome measures include: weight (primary outcome), % body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, objectively measured physical activity, self-reported dietary intake, sedentary behaviour, physical activity and dietary cognitions, sleepiness, quality of life, and perceived sexual health. Generalised linear mixed models will be used to assess all outcomes for the impact of group (Resources, Online, and Control), time (treated as categorical with levels baseline, 3-months and 6-months) and the group-by-time interaction. These three terms will form the base model. 'Intention-to-treat' analysis will include all randomised participants. Discussion Our study will compare evidence-based and theoretically driven, low cost and easily disseminated strategies specifically targeting weight loss in men. The SHED-IT community trial will provide evidence to inform development and dissemination of sustainable strategies to reduce obesity in men. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12610000699066) PMID:21078200

2010-01-01

273

Integrative medicine for subacute stroke rehabilitation: a study protocol for a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many patients with stroke receive integrative medicine in China, which includes the basic treatment of Western medicine and routine rehabilitation, in conjunction with acupuncture and Chinese medicine. The question of whether integrative medicine is efficacious for stroke rehabilitation is still controversial and very little research currently exists on the integrated approach for this condition. Consequently, we will conduct a multicentre, randomised, controlled, assessor-blinded clinical trial to assess the effectiveness of integrative medicine on stroke rehabilitation. Methods and analysis 360 participants recruited from three large Chinese medical hospitals in Zhejiang Province will be randomly divided into the integrative medicine rehabilitation (IMR) group and the conventional rehabilitation (CR) group in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the IMR group will receive acupuncture and Chinese herbs in addition to basic Western medicine and rehabilitation treatment. The CR group will not receive acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine. The assessment data will be collected at baseline, 4 and 8?weeks postrandomisation, and then at 12?weeks’ follow-up. The primary outcome is measured by the Modified Barthel Index. The secondary outcomes are the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Fugl-Meyer Assessment, the mini-mental state examination and Montreal Cognitive, Hamilton's Depression Scale and Self-Rating Depression Scale, and the incidence of adverse events. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from ethics committees of three hospitals. The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. The results will also be disseminated to patients by telephone, during follow-up calls inquiring on patient's post-study health status. Trial registration number Chinese Clinical Trial Register: ChiCTR-TRC-12001972, http://www.chictr.org/en/proj/show.aspx?proj=2561 PMID:25475247

Fang, Jianqiao; Chen, Lifang; Chen, Luni; Wang, Chao; Keeler, Crystal Lynn; Ma, Ruijie; Xu, Shouyu; Shen, Laihua; Bao, Yehua; Ji, Conghua

2014-01-01

274

Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

Clinical Trials What is a clinical trial? A clinical trial is a study carried out in human volunteers to help doctors learn more about the human body and ... work. What can I gain from joining a clinical trial? You will: • Take a more active role in ...

275

ADAPTIVE MATCHING IN RANDOMIZED TRIALS AND OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In many randomized and observational studies the allocation of treatment among a sample of n independent and identically distributed units is a function of the covariates of all sampled units. As a result, the treatment labels among the units are possibly dependent, complicating estimation and posing challenges for statistical inference. For example, cluster randomized trials frequently sample communities from some target population, construct matched pairs of communities from those included in the sample based on some metric of similarity in baseline community characteristics, and then randomly allocate a treatment and a control intervention within each matched pair. In this case, the observed data can neither be represented as the realization of n independent random variables, nor, contrary to current practice, as the realization of n/2 independent random variables (treating the matched pair as the independent sampling unit). In this paper we study estimation of the average causal effect of a treatment under experimental designs in which treatment allocation potentially depends on the pre-intervention covariates of all units included in the sample. We define efficient targeted minimum loss based estimators for this general design, present a theorem that establishes the desired asymptotic normality of these estimators and allows for asymptotically valid statistical inference, and discuss implementation of these estimators. We further investigate the relative asymptotic efficiency of this design compared with a design in which unit-specific treatment assignment depends only on the units’ covariates. Our findings have practical implications for the optimal design and analysis of pair matched cluster randomized trials, as well as for observational studies in which treatment decisions may depend on characteristics of the entire sample. PMID:25097298

van der Laan, Mark J.; Balzer, Laura B.; Petersen, Maya L.

2014-01-01

276

Comparison between three types of stented pericardial aortic valves (Trivalve trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Aortic valve stenosis is one of the most common heart diseases in older patients. Nowadays, surgical aortic valve replacement is the ‘gold standard’ treatment for this pathology and the most implanted prostheses are biological ones. The three most implanted bovine bioprostheses are the Trifecta valve (St. Jude Medical, Minneapolis, MN, USA), the Mitroflow valve (Sorin Group, Saluggia, Italy), and the Carpentier-Edwards Magna Ease valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA). We propose a randomized trial to objectively assess the hemodynamic performances of these bioprostheses. Methods and design First, we will measure the aortic annulus diameter using CT-scan, echocardiography and by direct sizing in the operating room after native aortic valve resection. The accuracy of information, in terms of size and spatial dimensions of each bioprosthesis provided by manufacturers, will be checked. Their hemodynamic performances will be assessed postoperatively at the seventh day and the sixth month after surgery. Discussion This prospective controlled randomized trial aims to verify and compare the hemodynamic performances and the sizing of these three bioprostheses. The data obtained may help surgeons to choose the best suitable bioprosthesis according to each patient’s morphological characteristics. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01522352 PMID:24299218

2013-01-01

277

Behavioural group therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder in Norway. An open community-based trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of ERP-based 12 weeks group therapy for OCD patients in a community-based, general Norwegian outpatient clinic. The sample consisted of 54 patients diagnosed with OCD. The Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) were administered before treatment, after treatment and

Åshild Tellefsen Håland; Patrick A. Vogel; Birgit Lie; Gunvor Launes; Are Hugo Pripp; Joseph A. Himle

2010-01-01

278

Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: An Open Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy (MAGT) for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is based largely on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes et al., 1999), with enhanced mindfulness mostly from Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; Segal et al., 2002). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and initial effectiveness of MAGT for the treatment of SAD. Forty-two SAD patients

Nancy L. Kocovski; Jan E. Fleming; Neil A. Rector

2009-01-01

279

Validation of methods for oropharyngeal cancer HPV status determination in US cooperative group trials.  

PubMed

Tumor human papillomavirus (HPV) status is a prognostic factor for oropharyngeal cancer, but classification methods are not standardized. Here we validate the HPV classification methods used in US cooperative group trials. Tumor DNA and RNA purified from 240 paraffin-embedded oropharyngeal cancers diagnosed from 2000 to 2009 were scored as evaluable if positive for DNA and mRNA controls by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eighteen high-risk (HR) HPV types were detected in tumors by consensus PCR, followed by HR-HPV E6/7 oncogene expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. The sensitivity (S), specificity (SP), and positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of p16 expression detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and HPV16 detected by in situ hybridization (ISH) were evaluated in comparison with HR-HPV E6/7 oncogene expression. Interrater agreement among 3 pathologists was evaluated by ? statistics. Of 235 evaluable tumors, 158 (67%; 95% confidence interval, 61.2-73.3) were positive for HR-HPV E6/7 oncogene expression [HPV type 16 (92%), 18 (3%), 33 (3%), 35 (1%), or 58 (1%)]. p16 IHC had high sensitivity (S 96.8%, SP 83.8%, PPV 92.7%, and NPV 92.5%), whereas HPV16 ISH had high specificity (S 88.0%, SP 94.7%, PPV 97.2%, and NPV 78.9%) for HR-HPV oncogene expression. Interrater agreement was excellent for p16 (?=0.95 to 0.98) and HPV16 ISH (?=0.83 to 0.91). Receiver operating curve analysis determined the cross-product of p16 intensity score and percentage of tumor staining to optimally discriminate HR-HPV E6/7-positive and HR-HPV E6/7-negative tumors. p16 IHC and HPV16 ISH assays show excellent performance, with high sensitivity and specificity, respectively. A new validated H-score for p16 IHC assessment is proposed. Appropriate assay choice depends on clinical implications of a false-positive or false-negative test. PMID:22743284

Jordan, Richard C; Lingen, Mark W; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; He, Xin; Pickard, Robert; Koluder, Michael; Jiang, Bo; Wakely, Paul; Xiao, Weihong; Gillison, Maura L

2012-07-01

280

Use of blood pressure lowering drugs in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of 147 randomised trials in the context of expectations from prospective epidemiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine the quantitative efficacy of different classes of blood pressure lowering drugs in preventing coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, and who should receive treatment.Design Meta-analysis.Data source Medline (1966-2007).Study selection Randomised trials of blood pressure lowering drugs recording CHD events and strokes. 108 trials studied differences in blood pressure between study drug and placebo (or control group not

M R Law; J K Morris; N J Wald

2009-01-01

281

Electro-acupuncture with different current intensities to treat functional constipation: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Functional constipation (FC) is highly prevalent in the general population of the world and has a substantial negative impact on the health-related quality of life of individuals. Many clinical trials have indicated that acupuncture is effective in the treatment of FC. However, the sample sizes of these previous studies were too small. Furthermore, there are no reports investigating the relationship between the stimulation parameter and the therapeutic effect. We therefore designed a multicenter randomized controlled trial to address these problems and hopefully provide a more conclusive answer to these questions. Methods Participants will be included if they meet all of the following conditions: (1) diagnosed with functional constipation according to the Roman III standard; (2) aged between 18 and 65 years; (3) not taking any drugs that promote gastrointestinal movements at least during the 1 week prior to randomization; (3) willing to sign an informed consent form; (4) willing to return to the study site for their study visits. The participants will be randomly assigned to three groups in a 1:1:1 ratio: high current intensity group, low current intensity group, and mosapride citrate control group. The total study period is 9 weeks for each patient, 1 week for baseline, 4 weeks for treatment, and 4 weeks for follow-up. The primary outcome in this trial is the number of defecating events per week. The secondary outcomes will include the shape and properties of the stool, intensity of defecating difficulty, Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life (PAC-QOL), MOS item Short Form health survey (SF-36), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). Discussion This study will provide significant evidence for the application of acupuncture in FC and will identify a suitable stimulation parameter for treatment. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01274793. PMID:24143917

2013-01-01

282

Evaluation of wet-cupping therapy for persistent non-specific low back pain: a randomised, waiting-list controlled, open-label, parallel-group pilot trial  

PubMed Central

Background Persistent non-specific low back pain (PNSLBP) is one of the most frequently experienced types of back pain around the world. Wet-cupping is a common intervention for various pain conditions, especially in Korea. In this context, we conducted a pilot study to determine the effectiveness and safety of wet-cupping treatment for PNSLBP. Methods We recruited 32 participants (21 in the wet-cupping group and 11 in the waiting-list group) who had been having PNSLBP for at least 3 months. The participants were recruited at the clinical research centre of the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Korea. Eligible participants were randomly allocated to wet-cupping and waiting-list groups. Following the practice of traditional Korean medicine, the treatment group was provided with wet-cupping treatment at two acupuncture points among the BL23, BL24 and BL25 6 times within 2 weeks. Usual care, including providing brochures for exercise, general advice for PNSLBP and acetaminophen, was allowed in both groups. Separate assessors participated in the outcome assessment. We used the 0 to100 numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain, the McGill Pain Questionnaire for pain intensity (PPI) and the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODQ), and we assessed acetaminophen use and safety issues. Results The results showed that the NRS score for pain decreased (-16.0 [95% CI: -24.4 to -7.7] in the wet-cupping group and -9.1 [-18.1 to -0.1] in the waiting-list group), but there was no statistical difference between the groups (p = 0.52). However, the PPI scores showed significant differences between the two groups (-1.2 [-1.6 to -0.8] for the wet-cupping group and -0.2 [-0.8 to 0.4] for the waiting-list group, p < 0.01). In addition, less acetaminophen was used in the wet-cupping group during 4 weeks (p = 0.09). The ODQ score did not show significant differences between the two groups (-5.60 [-8.90 to -2.30] in the wet-cupping group and -1.8 [-5.8 to 2.2] in the waiting-list group, p = 0.14). There was no report of adverse events due to wet-cupping. Conclusion This pilot study may provide preliminary data on the effectiveness and safety of wet-cupping treatments for PNSLBP. Future full-scale randomised controlled trials will be needed to provide firm evidence of the effectiveness of this intervention. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: (Identifier: NCT00925951) Date of trial registration: June 19th, 2009 The date when the first patient was randomised: July 15th, 2009 The date when the study was completed: November 27th, 2009 PMID:21663617

2011-01-01

283

Efficacy and Safety of Lobeglitazone Monotherapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus over 24-Weeks: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Placebo Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to assess the glucose-lowering and lipid-modifying effects, and safety profile of lobeglitazone, a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- ? agonist, compared to placebo as a monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods In this 24-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo controlled study, 173 patients were randomly assigned (a 2?1 ratio) to lobeglitazone 0.5 mg (n?=?115) or matching placebo (n?=?58) orally once daily. The primary endpoint was the change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline to the end of treatment. The secondary endpoints included various glycemic parameters, lipid parameters and safety profile (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01001611). Results At 24 weeks, a significant reduction in HbA1c was observed with lobeglitazone versus placebo (?0.44% vs 0.16%, mean difference ?0.6%, p<0.0001). The goal of HbA1c <7% was achieved significantly more in the lobeglitazone group compared to the placebo group (44% vs 12%, p<0.0001). Markers of insulin resistance were also improved in the lobeglitazone group. In addition, lobeglitazone treatment significantly improved triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, small dense low density lipoprotein cholesterol, free fatty acid, and apolipoprotein-B/CIII compared to placebo (p<0.01, respectively). More weight gain was observed in the lobeglitazone group than the placebo group (0.89 kg vs – 0.63 kg, mean difference 1.52 kg, p<0.0001). The safety profile was comparable between the two groups and lobeglitazone was well tolerated. Conclusions Lobeglitazone 0.5 mg showed a favorable balance in the efficacy and safety profile. The results support a potential role of lobeglitazone in treating type 2 diabetes. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01001611 PMID:24736628

Kim, Sin Gon; Kim, Doo Man; Woo, Jeong-Taek; Jang, Hak Chul; Chung, Choon Hee; Ko, Kyung Soo; Park, Jeong Hyun; Park, Yong Soo; Kim, Sang Jin; Choi, Dong Seop

2014-01-01

284

Quality control in multicentric clinical trials. An experience of the EORTC Gynecological Cancer Cooperative Group. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

The authors conducted a data quality study for a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) multicenter randomized phase III treatment trial focusing on cervical cancer. Analysis of the causes of inaccuracies revealed problems in data management, but the investigators also associated some errors with lack of clarity in the protocol and case report forms (CRFs).

285

Single dental implant retained mandibular complete dentures – influence of the loading protocol: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Over the years, there has been a strong consensus in dentistry that at least two implants are required to retain a complete mandibular denture. It has been shown in several clinical trials that one single median implant can retain a mandibular overdenture sufficiently well for up to 5 years without implant failures, when delayed loading was used. However, other trials have reported conflicting results with in part considerable failure rates when immediate loading was applied. Therefore it is the purpose of the current randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that immediate loading of a single mandibular midline implant with an overdenture will result in a comparable clinical outcome as using the standard protocol of delayed loading. Methods/design This prospective nine-center randomized controlled clinical trial is still ongoing. The final patient will complete the trial in 2016. In total, 180 edentulous patients between 60 and 89 years with sufficient complete dentures will receive one median implant in the edentulous mandible, which will retain the existing complete denture using a ball attachment. Loading of the median implant is either immediately after implant placement (experimental group) or delayed by 3 months of submerged healing at second-stage surgery (control group). Follow-up of patients will be performed for 24 months after implant loading. The primary outcome measure is non-inferiority of implant success rate of the experimental group compared to the control group. The secondary outcome measures encompass clinical, technical and subjective variables. The study was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German research foundation, KE 477/8-1). Discussion This multi-center clinical trial will give information on the ability of a single median implant to retain a complete mandibular denture when immediately loaded. If viable, this treatment option will strongly improve everyday dental practice. Trial registration The trial has been registered at Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (German register of clinical trials) under DRKS-ID: DRKS00003730 since 23 August 2012. (http://www.germanctr.de). PMID:24884848

2014-01-01

286

Phase II trial of bortezomib plus doxorubicin in hepatocellular carcinoma (E6202): a trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group  

PubMed Central

Summary Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of bortezomib in combination with doxorubicin in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, and to correlate pharmaco-dynamic markers of proteasome inhibition with response and survival. Experimental Design This phase II, open-label, multi-center study examined the efficacy of bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2 IV on d1, 4, 8, 11) and doxorubicin (15 mg/m2 IV on d1, 8) in 21-day cycles. The primary endpoint was objective response rate. Results Best responses in 38 treated patients were 1 partial response (2.6 %), 10 (26.3 %) stable disease, and 17 (44.7 %) progressive disease; 10 patients were unevaluable. Median PFS was 2.2 months. Median OS was 6.1 months. The most common grade 3 to 4 toxicities were hypertension, glucose intolerance, ascites, ALT elevation, hyperglycemia and thrombosis/ embolism. Worse PFS was seen in patients with elevated IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1? and EMSA for NF-?B at the start of treatment. Worse OS was seen in patients with elevated IL-8 and VEGF at the start of treatment. Patients had improved OS if a change in the natural log of serum MIP-1?/CCL3 was seen after treatment. RANTES/CCL5 levels decreased significantly with treatment. Conclusions The combination of doxorubicin and bortezomib was well-tolerated in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, but the primary endpoint was not met. Exploratory analyses of markers of proteasome inhibition suggest a possible prognostic and predictive role and should be explored further in tumor types for which bortezomib is efficacious. PMID:24890858

Feng, Yang; Benson, Al Bowen; Su, Yingjun; Horton, Linda; Short, Sarah P.; Kauh, John Sae Wook; Staley, Charles; Mulcahy, Mary; Powell, Mark; Amiri, Katayoun I.; Richmond, Ann; Berlin, Jordan

2014-01-01

287

Rationale, Timeline, Study Design, and Protocol Overview of the Therapeutic Hypothermia After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Trials  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the rationale, timeline, study design, and protocol overview of the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest trials. Design Multicenter randomized controlled trials. Setting Pediatric intensive care and cardiac ICUs in the United States and Canada. Patients Children from 48 hours to 18 years old, who have return of circulation after cardiac arrest, who meet trial eligibility criteria, and whose guardians provide written consent. Interventions Therapeutic hypothermia or therapeutic normothermia. Measurements and Main Results From concept inception in 2002 until trial initiation in 2009, 7 years were required to plan and operationalize the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest trials. Two National Institute of Child Health and Human Development clinical trial planning grants (R21 and R34) supported feasibility assessment and protocol development. Two clinical research networks, Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network and Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network, provided infrastructure resources. Two National Heart Lung Blood Institute U01 awards provided funding to conduct separate trials of in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A pilot vanguard phase that included half the clinical sites began on March 9, 2009, and this was followed by full trial funding through 2015. Conclusions Over a decade will have been required to plan, design, operationalize, and conduct the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest trials. Details described in this report, such as participation of clinical research networks and clinical trial planning grants utilization, may be of utility for individuals who are planning investigator-initiated, federally supported clinical trials. PMID:23842585

Moler, Frank W.; Silverstein, Faye S.; Meert, Kathleen L.; Clark, Amy E.; Holubkov, Richard; Browning, Brittan; Slomine, Beth S.; Christensen, James R.; Dean, Michael

2014-01-01

288

Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new medical approaches work in people. Each study answers ... prevent, screen for, diagnose, or treat a disease. Clinical trials may also compare a new treatment to a ...

289

Effects of neuraxial blockade may be difficult to study using large randomized controlled trials: the PeriOperative Epidural Trial (POET) Pilot Study. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This pilot study concluded that recruiting patients into a large multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the effects of neuraxial blockade in reducing cardiorespiratory surgical complications was not feasible.

290

Manage at work: a randomized, controlled trial of a self-management group intervention to overcome workplace challenges associated with chronic physical health conditions  

PubMed Central

Background The percentage of older and chronically ill workers is increasing rapidly in the US and in many other countries, but few interventions are available to help employees overcome the workplace challenges of chronic pain and other physical health conditions. While most workers are eligible for job accommodation and disability compensation benefits, other workplace strategies might improve individual-level coping and problem solving to prevent work disability. In this study, we hypothesize that an employer-sponsored group intervention program employing self-management principles may improve worker engagement and reduce functional limitation associated with chronic disorders. Methods In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), workers participating in an employer-sponsored self-management group intervention will be compared with a no-treatment (wait list) control condition. Volunteer employees (n?=?300) will be recruited from five participating employers and randomly assigned to intervention or control. Participants in the intervention arm will attend facilitated group workshop sessions at work (10 hours total) to explore methods for improving comfort, adjusting work habits, communicating needs effectively, applying systematic problem solving, and dealing with negative thoughts and emotions about work. Work engagement and work limitation are the principal outcomes. Secondary outcomes include fatigue, job satisfaction, self-efficacy, turnover intention, sickness absence, and health care utilization. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. A process evaluation will be performed alongside the randomized trial. Discussion This study will be most relevant for organizations and occupational settings where some degree of job flexibility, leeway, and decision-making autonomy can be afforded to affected workers. The study design will provide initial assessment of a novel workplace approach and to understand factors affecting its feasibility and effectiveness. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01978392 (Issued November 6, 2013) PMID:24885844

2014-01-01

291

Genetic test feedback with weight control advice: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic testing for risk of weight gain is already available over the internet despite uncertain benefits and concerns about adverse emotional or behavioral effects. Few studies have assessed the effect of adding genetic test feedback to weight control advice, even though one of the proposed applications of genetic testing is to stimulate preventive action. This study will investigate the motivational effect of adding genetic test feedback to simple weight control advice in a situation where weight gain is relatively common. Methods/design First-year university students (n = 800) will be randomized to receive either 1) their personal genetic test result for a gene (FTO) related to weight gain susceptibility in addition to a leaflet with simple weight control advice (‘Feedback + Advice’ group, FA), or 2) only the leaflet containing simple weight control advice (‘Advice Only’ group, AO). Motivation to avoid weight gain and active use of weight control strategies will be assessed one month after receipt of the leaflet with or without genetic test feedback. Weight and body fat will be measured at baseline and eight months follow-up. We will also assess short-term psychological reactions to the genetic test result. In addition, we will explore interactions between feedback condition and gene test status. Discussion We hope to provide a first indication of the clinical utility of weight-related genetic test feedback in the prevention context. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN91178663 PMID:23216922

2012-01-01

292

Mindfulness group therapy in primary care patients with depression, anxiety and stress and adjustment disorders: randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Background Individual-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is in short supply and expensive. Aims The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to compare mindfulness-based group therapy with treatment as usual (primarily individual-based CBT) in primary care patients with depressive, anxiety or stress and adjustment disorders. Method This 8-week RCT (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01476371) was conducted during spring 2012 at 16 general practices in Southern Sweden. Eligible patients (aged 20-64 years) scored ?10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, ?7 on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale or 13-34 on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (self-rated version). The power calculations were based on non-inferiority. In total, 215 patients were randomised. Ordinal mixed models were used for the analysis. Results For all scales and in both groups, the scores decreased significantly. There were no significant differences between the mindfulness and control groups. Conclusions Mindfulness-based group therapy was non-inferior to treatment as usual for patients with depressive, anxiety or stress and adjustment disorders. PMID:25431430

Sundquist, Jan; Lilja, Åsa; Palmér, Karolina; Memon, Ashfaque A; Wang, Xiao; Johansson, Leena Maria; Sundquist, Kristina

2015-02-01

293

Therapeutic research in low-income countries: studying trial communities.  

PubMed

Social scientists undertaking studies of transnational medical research in developing countries focus on 'trial communities': networks of funders, institutions, researchers, clinical staff, fieldworkers and study participants. They relate these to the political economy that brings powerful research resources to poor settings. Whereas bioethicists tend to consider universal ethical requirements, social scientists examine how ethics are practiced in given situations in the light of the concerns and interests held by different parties involved in medical research. In conditions of poverty, high morbidity and weak public health services, research subjects are heavily induced by the prospect of high quality medical care and other benefits that researchers seem to offer. Studies of medical research undertaken by well-established internationally funded institutions in Africa show that parents are keen to have their children 'join' projects at these organisations. They assess benefits and risks less in terms of specific research projects and more in terms of their overall trust in the care these institutions are known to have provided previously for others in the community. Bioethics should widen its scope beyond concern with protecting individual subjects from the risks of specific research projects. It should recognise that clinical and research functions are indistinguishable for many participants, who want information on results of clinical investigations and sustained support for improving the health of their children. PMID:24748638

Whyte, Susan Reynolds

2014-11-01

294

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in chronic epicondylitis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Tendinopathy is a difficult problem to manage and can result in significant patient morbidity. Currently, the clinical use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in painful tendons is widespread but its efficacy remains controversial. Methods/Design This study is a single-center, randomized double-blind controlled trial. Eighty patients will be allocated to have ultrasound (US)-guided needling combined with a leukocyte-depleted (that is, pure) PRP or lidocaine each alternate week for a total of two interventions. Outcome data will be collected before intervention, and at 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months after intervention. Main outcome measure: Changes in pain and activity levels, as assessed by Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH-E, Spanish version) score, at 6 months. We will compare the percentage of patients in each group that achieve a successful treatment defined as a reduction of at least 25% in the DASH-E score. Secondary outcome measures include changes in DASH-E at 3 and 12 months, changes in pain as assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS) at the 6-week, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, changes in sonographic features and neovascularity, and percentage of patients in each group with adverse reactions at 3, 6, and 12 months. Discussion The results of this study will provide insights into the effect of pure PRP in tendon and may contribute to identifying the best protocol for PRP application in tendinopathies. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01945528. PMID:24289799

2013-01-01

295

A comparison of two treatments for childhood apraxia of speech: methods and treatment protocol for a parallel group randomised control trial  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood Apraxia of Speech is an impairment of speech motor planning that manifests as difficulty producing the sounds (articulation) and melody (prosody) of speech. These difficulties may persist through life and are detrimental to academic, social, and vocational development. A number of published single subject and case series studies of speech treatments are available. There are currently no randomised control trials or other well designed group trials available to guide clinical practice. Methods/Design A parallel group, fixed size randomised control trial will be conducted in Sydney, Australia to determine the efficacy of two treatments for Childhood Apraxia of Speech: 1) Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment and the 2) Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme – Third edition. Eligible children will be English speaking, aged 4–12?years with a diagnosis of suspected CAS, normal or adjusted hearing and vision, and no comprehension difficulties or other developmental diagnoses. At least 20 children will be randomised to receive one of the two treatments in parallel. Treatments will be delivered by trained and supervised speech pathology clinicians using operationalised manuals. Treatment will be administered in 1-hour sessions, 4 times per week for 3?weeks. The primary outcomes are speech sound and prosodic accuracy on a customised 292 item probe and the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology inconsistency subtest administered prior to treatment and 1?week, 1?month and 4?months post-treatment. All post assessments will be completed by blinded assessors. Our hypotheses are: 1) treatment effects at 1?week post will be similar for both treatments, 2) maintenance of treatment effects at 1 and 4?months post will be greater for Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment than Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme treatment, and 3) generalisation of treatment effects to untrained related speech behaviours will be greater for Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment than Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme treatment. This protocol was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee, University of Sydney (#12924). Discussion This will be the first randomised control trial to test treatment for CAS. It will be valuable for clinical decision-making and providing evidence-based services for children with CAS. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12612000744853 PMID:22863021

2012-01-01

296

Eradication strategy for persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in individuals with cystic fibrosis—the PMEP trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) respiratory infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) has increased dramatically over the last decade, and is now affecting approximately 25% of patients. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that persistent infection with MRSA results in an increased rate of decline in FEV1 and shortened survival. Currently, there are no conclusive studies demonstrating an effective and safe treatment protocol for persistent MRSA respiratory infection in CF. Methods/Design The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a 28-day course of vancomycin for inhalation in combination with oral antibiotics in eliminating MRSA from the respiratory tract of individuals with CF and persistent MRSA infection. This is a two-center, randomized, double-blind, comparator-controlled, parallel-group study with 1:1 assignment to either vancomycin for inhalation (250 mg twice a day) or taste-matched placebo for 28 days in individuals with cystic fibrosis. In addition, both groups will receive oral rifampin, a second oral antibiotic – trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) or doxycycline, protocol determined – mupirocin intranasal cream, and chlorhexidine body washes. Forty patients with persistent respiratory tract MRSA infection will be enrolled: 20 will be randomized to vancomycin for inhalation and 20 to a taste-matched placebo. The primary outcome will be the presence of MRSA in sputum respiratory tract cultures 1 month after the conclusion of treatment. Secondary outcomes include the efficacy of the intervention on: FEV1% predicted, patient reported outcomes, pulmonary exacerbations, and MRSA colony-forming units found in respiratory tract sample culture. Discussion Results of this study will provide guidance to clinicians regarding the safety and effectiveness of a targeted eradication strategy for persistent MRSA infection in CF. Trial registration This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01594827, received 05/07/2012) and is funded by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (Grants: PMEP10K1 and PMEP11K1). PMID:24925006

2014-01-01

297

Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In ‘the peripheral’ model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In ‘the add-on’ model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally ‘the integral’ model played out in two ways. In ‘integral-in-theory’ studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In ‘integral-in-practice’ studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research. Conclusions Health researchers combining qualitative research and trials viewed this practice as strengthening evaluative research. Teams viewing the qualitative research as essential to the trial, and resourcing it in practice, may have a better chance of delivering its added value to the trial. PMID:24913438

2014-01-01

298

Does telecare prolong community living in dementia? A study protocol for a pragmatic, randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Assistive technology and telecare (ATT) are relatively new ways of delivering care and support to people with social care needs. It is claimed that ATT reduces the need for community care, prevents unnecessary hospital admission, and delays or prevents admission into residential or nursing care. The current economic situation in England has renewed interest in ATT instead of community care packages. However, at present, the evidence base to support claims about the impact and effectiveness of ATT is limited, despite its potential to mitigate the high financial cost of caring for people with dementia and the social and psychological cost to unpaid carers. Method/design ATTILA (Assistive Technology and Telecare to maintain Independent Living At Home for People with Dementia) is a pragmatic, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial over 104 weeks that compares outcomes for people with dementia who receive ATT and those who receive equivalent community services but not ATT. The study hypothesis is that fewer people in the ATT group will go into institutional care over the 4-year period for which the study is funded. The study aims to recruit 500 participants, living in community settings, with dementia or significant cognitive impairment, who have recently been referred to social services. Primary outcome measures are time in days from randomisation to institutionalisation and cost effectiveness. Secondary outcomes are caregiver burden, health-related quality of life in carers, number and severity of serious adverse events, and data on acceptability, applicability and reliability of ATT intervention packages. Assessments will be undertaken in weeks 0 (baseline), 12, 24, 52 and 104 or until institutionalisation or withdrawal of the participant from the trial. Discussion In a time of financial austerity, CASSRs in England are increasingly turning to ATT in the belief that it will deliver good outcomes for less money. There is an absence of robust evidence for the cost-effectiveness and benefit of using assistive technology and telecare. The ATTILA trial meets a pressing need for robust, generalisable evidence to either justify continuing investment or reappraise the appropriate scale of ATT use. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN86537017 PMID:24152600

2013-01-01

299

Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) - CTN 0037: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background There is a need for novel approaches to the treatment of stimulant abuse and dependence. Clinical data examining the use of exercise as a treatment for the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, and other substances suggest that exercise may be a beneficial treatment for stimulant abuse, with direct effects on decreased use and craving. In addition, exercise has the potential to improve other health domains that may be adversely affected by stimulant use or its treatment, such as sleep disturbance, cognitive function, mood, weight gain, quality of life, and anhedonia, since it has been shown to improve many of these domains in a number of other clinical disorders. Furthermore, neurobiological evidence provides plausible mechanisms by which exercise could positively affect treatment outcomes. The current manuscript presents the rationale, design considerations, and study design of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN) CTN-0037 Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) study. Methods/Design STRIDE is a multisite randomized clinical trial that compares exercise to health education as potential treatments for stimulant abuse or dependence. This study will evaluate individuals diagnosed with stimulant abuse or dependence who are receiving treatment in a residential setting. Three hundred and thirty eligible and interested participants who provide informed consent will be randomized to one of two treatment arms: Vigorous Intensity High Dose Exercise Augmentation (DEI) or Health Education Intervention Augmentation (HEI). Both groups will receive TAU (i.e., usual care). The treatment arms are structured such that the quantity of visits is similar to allow for equivalent contact between groups. In both arms, participants will begin with supervised sessions 3 times per week during the 12-week acute phase of the study. Supervised sessions will be conducted as one-on-one (i.e., individual) sessions, although other participants may be exercising at the same time. Following the 12-week acute phase, participants will begin a 6-month continuation phase during which time they will attend one weekly supervised DEI or HEI session. Clinical Trials Registry ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01141608 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01141608?term=Stimulant+Reduction+Intervention+using+Dosed+Exercise&rank=1 PMID:21929768

2011-01-01

300

Intravenous transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells preconditioned with early phase stroke serum: current evidence and study protocol for a randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background Recovery after a major stroke is usually limited, but cell therapy for patients with fixed neurologic deficits is emerging. Several recent clinical trials have investigated mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy for patients with ischemic stroke. We previously reported the results of a controlled trial on the application of autologous MSCs in patients with ischemic stroke with a long-term follow-up of up to 5 years (the 'STem cell Application Researches and Trials In NeuroloGy’ (STARTING) study). The results from this pilot trial are challenging, but also raise important issues. In addition, there have been recent efforts to improve the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy for stroke. Methods and design The clinical and preclinical background and the STARTING-2 study protocol are provided. The trial is a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE) clinical trial. Both acute and chronic stroke patients will be selected based on clinical and radiological features and followed for 3 months after MSC treatment. The subjects will be randomized into one of two groups: (A) a MSC group (n = 40) or (B) a control group (n = 20). Autologous MSCs will be intravenously administered after ex vivo culture expansion with autologous ischemic serum obtained as early as possible, to enhance the therapeutic efficacy (ischemic preconditioning). Objective outcome measurements will be performed using multimodal MRI and detailed functional assessments by blinded observers. Discussion This trial is the first to evaluate the efficacy of MSCs in patients with ischemic stroke. The results may provide better evidence for the effectiveness of MSC therapy in patients with ischemic stroke. Trial registration This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01716481. PMID:24083670

2013-01-01

301

Effect of a grade 6 HIV risk reduction intervention four years later among students who were and were not enrolled in the study trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the long-term impact of HIV-prevention interventions delivered to youth before sexual initiation and the effects of interventions delivered in non-study settings. Methods A five-group comparison of HIV knowledge, and condom-use skills, self-efficacy, intentions and practice among 1997 grade 10 youth attending one of the eight government high schools in Nassau, The Bahamas. Group 1 received an HIV-prevention intervention, Focus on youth in the Caribbean (FOYC), in Grade 6 as part of a randomized trial; Group 2 received FOYC as part of the regular school curriculum but outside of the trial; Group 3 received the control condition as part of the trial; Group 4 received the control condition as part of the school curriculum but outside of the trial; and, Group 5 (Naïve Controls) were not enrolled in a school receiving FOYC or the control and did not participate in the trial. Results FOYC youth compared to control youth and Naive Controls had higher HIV knowledge, condom-use skills and self-efficacy four years later. By subgroups, Group 1 demonstrated higher HIV/AIDS knowledge than all groups except Group 2, higher condom skills than all groups, and higher condom self-efficacy than Naïve Controls. Youth in Group 2 demonstrated higher HIV knowledge than youth in Groups 3 to 5. Behavioral effects were not found. Conclusions FOYC delivered to grade 6 students continued to have protective effects four years later. Positive effects are present among youth who received FOYC as part of the school curriculum but were not enrolled in the trial. PMID:22325129

Stanton, Bonita; Chen, Xinguang; Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Harris, Carole; Brathwaite, Nanika; Gomez, Perry; Li, Xiaoming; Marshall, Sharon

2011-01-01

302

Cancer patients' fears related to clinical trial participation: A qualitative study. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This study determined that both the initial fear resulting from a cancer diagnosis and fears related to various aspects of clinical trials were barriers to clinical trial participation. However, a physician’s recommendation to participate was often the deciding factor for whether or not a patient participated in a clinical trial. This indicates that physicians must acknowledge patient fear in order to facilitate decision-making.

303

Communication about Children's Clinical Trials as Observed and Experienced: Qualitative Study of Parents and Practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecruiting children to clinical trials is perceived to be challenging. To identify ways to optimise recruitment and its conduct, we compared how parents and practitioners described their experiences of recruitment to clinical trials.Methods and FindingsThis qualitative study ran alongside four children's clinical trials in 11 UK research sites. It compared analyses of semi-structured interviews with analyses of audio-recordings of practitioner-family

Valerie Shilling; Paula R. Williamson; Helen Hickey; Emma Sowden; Michael W. Beresford; Rosalind L. Smyth; Bridget Young

2011-01-01

304

Inconsistent reporting of surrogate outcomes in randomised clinical trials: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess if authors of randomised clinical trials convey the fact that they have used surrogate outcomes and discussed their validity.Design Cohort study.Setting Six major general medical journals.Participants Randomised clinical trials published in 2005 and 2006 that used a surrogate as a primary outcome.Results Of 626 published randomised clinical trials, 109 (17%) used a surrogate as a primary outcome.

Jeppe Lerche la Cour; Jesper Brok; Peter C Gøtzsche

2010-01-01

305

Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerns of the National Security Agency (NSA) that information contained in some articles about cryptography in learned and professional journals and in monographs might be inimical to the national security are addressed. The Public Cryptography Study Group, with one dissenting opinion, recommends that a voluntary system of prior review of…

American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

306

Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

2014-01-01

307

A cluster randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Intermediate Care Clinics for Diabetes (ICCD): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background World-wide healthcare systems are faced with an epidemic of type 2 diabetes. In the United Kingdom, clinical care is primarily provided by general practitioners (GPs) rather than hospital specialists. Intermediate care clinics for diabetes (ICCD) potentially provide a model for supporting GPs in their care of people with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and in their management of cardiovascular risk factors. This study aims to (1) compare patients with type 2 diabetes registered with practices that have access to an ICCD service with those that have access only to usual hospital care; (2) assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention; and (3) explore the views and experiences of patients, health professionals and other stakeholders. Methods/Design This two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial (with integral economic evaluation and qualitative study) is set in general practices in three UK Primary Care Trusts. Practices are randomized to one of two groups with patients referred to either an ICCD (intervention) or to hospital care (control). Intervention group: GP practices in the intervention arm have the opportunity to refer patients to an ICCD - a multidisciplinary team led by a specialist nurse and a diabetologist. Patients are reviewed and managed in the ICCD for a short period with a goal of improving diabetes and cardiovascular risk factor control and are then referred back to practice. or Control group: Standard GP care, with referral to secondary care as required, but no access to ICCD. Participants are adults aged 18 years or older who have type 2 diabetes that is difficult for their GPs to control. The primary outcome is the proportion of participants reaching three risk factor targets: HbA1c (?7.0%); blood pressure (<140/80); and cholesterol (<4 mmol/l), at the end of the 18-month intervention period. The main secondary outcomes are the proportion of participants reaching individual risk factor targets and the overall 10-year risks for coronary heart disease(CHD) and stroke assessed by the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine. Other secondary outcomes include body mass index and waist circumference, use of medication, reported smoking, emotional adjustment, patient satisfaction and views on continuity, costs and health related quality of life. We aimed to randomize 50 practices and recruit 2,555 patients. Discussion Forty-nine practices have been randomized, 1,997 patients have been recruited to the trial, and 20 patients have been recruited to the qualitative study. Results will be available late 2012. Trial registration [ClinicalTrials.gov: Identifier NCT00945204] PMID:22971356

2012-01-01

308

Exercise rehabilitation on home-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease - a randomized, controlled trial. Study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Besides cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD) leads to physical disability, need for help and permanent institutional care. The trials investigating effects of exercise rehabilitation on physical functioning of home-dwelling older dementia patients are still scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of intensive exercise rehabilitation lasting for one year on mobility and physical functioning of home-dwelling patients with AD. Methods During years 2008-2010, patients with AD (n = 210) living with their spousal caregiver in community are recruited using central AD registers in Finland, and they are offered exercise rehabilitation lasting for one year. The patients are randomized into three arms: 1) tailored home-based exercise twice weekly 2) group-based exercise twice weekly in rehabilitation center 3) control group with usual care and information of exercise and nutrition. Main outcome measures will be Guralnik's mobility and balance tests and FIM-test to assess physical functioning. Secondary measures will be cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms according to the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, caregivers' burden, depression and health-related quality of life (RAND-36). Data concerning admissions to institutional care and the use and costs of health and social services will be collected during a two year follow-up. Discussion To our knowledge this is the first large scale trial exploring whether home-dwelling patients with AD will benefit from intense and long-lasting exercise rehabilitation in respect to their mobility and physical functioning. It will also provide data on cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Trial registration ACTRN12608000037303 PMID:20925948

2010-01-01

309

A Phase II Trial of Complete Resection for Stage IV Melanoma: Results of Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) Clinical Trial S9430  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Patients with stage IV melanoma who undergo complete resection have a favorable outcome compared to patients with disseminated stage IV disease, based on retrospective experience at individual centers. SWOG performed a prospective trial in patients with metastatic melanoma enrolled prior to complete resection of metastatic disease providing prospective outcomes in the cooperative group setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with stage IV melanoma judged amenable to complete resection by their surgeon, based on physical examination and radiologic imaging, underwent surgery within 28 days of enrollment. All eligible patients were followed with scans (CT or PET) every 6 months until relapse and death. RESULTS 77 patients were enrolled from 18 different centers. Of those, 5 patients were ineligible; 2 had stage III disease alone and 3 had no melanoma in their surgical specimen. In addition, 8 eligible patients had incompletely resected tumor. Therefore, the primary analysis included 64 completely resected patients. Twenty (31%) patients had visceral disease. With median follow-up of 5 years, the median relapse-free survival (RFS) was 5 months (95% CI 3–7 months) while median overall survival (OS) was 21 months (95% CI 16–34 months). OS at 3 and 4 years were 36% and 31%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS In a prospective, multi-center setting, appropriately selected patients with stage IV melanoma can achieve prolonged OS after complete surgical resection. While median RFS was only five months, patients can still frequently undergo subsequent surgery for isolated recurrences. This patient population is appropriate for aggressive surgical therapy and for trials evaluating adjuvant therapy. PMID:21455999

Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Moon, James; Tuthill, Ralph J.; Warneke, James A.; Vetto, John T.; Redman, Bruce G.; Liu, P.Y.; Unger, Joseph M.; Flaherty, Lawrence E.; Sondak, Vernon K.

2010-01-01

310

Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes in the losartan intervention for endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background The most suitable antihypertensive drug to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with hypertension and diabetes is unclear. In prespecified analyses, we compared the effects of losartan and atenolol on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Methods As part of the LIFE study, in a double-masked, randomised, parallel-group trial, we assigned a group of 1195

Lars H Lindholm; Hans Ibsen; B. Dahof

2002-01-01

311

Bright Start: Description and main outcomes from a group-randomized obesity prevention trial in American Indian children  

PubMed Central

The aim of the Bright Start study was to develop and test the effectiveness of a school environment intervention, supplemented with family involvement, to reduce excessive weight gain by increasing physical activity and healthy eating practices among kindergarten and first grade American Indian children. Bright Start was a group-randomized, school-based trial involving 454 children attending 14 schools on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. Children were followed from the beginning of their kindergarten year through the end of first grade. Main outcome variables were mean BMI, mean percent body fat, and prevalence of overweight/obese children. The goals of the intervention were to: increase physical activity at school to at least 60 min/day; modify school meals and snacks; and involve families in making behavioral and environmental changes at home. At baseline, 32% of boys and 25% of girls were overweight/obese. While the intervention was not associated with statistically significant change in mean levels of BMI, BMI-Z, skinfolds or percentage body fat, the intervention was associated with a statistically significant net decrease of 10% in the prevalence of overweight. Intervention children experienced a 13.4% incidence of overweight, while the control children experienced a corresponding incidence of 24.8%; a difference of ?11.4% (p=0.033). The intervention significantly reduced parent reported mean child intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages, whole milk and chocolate milk. Changes in duration of school physical activity were not significant. Because obesity is the most daunting health challenge facing American Indian children today, more intervention research is needed to identify effective approaches. PMID:22513491

Story, Mary; Hannan, Peter J; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Arcan, Chrisa; Himes, John H.

2012-01-01

312

Targeting children of substance-using parents with the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE: A randomised controlled trial - design, evaluation, recruitment issues  

PubMed Central

Background Children of substance-abusing parents are at risk for developing psychosocial development problems. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated programme for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. The study described in this protocol is designed to test the effectiveness of the group programme TRAMPOLINE for children aged 8-12 years with at least one substance-abusing or -dependent caregiver. The intervention is specifically geared to issues and needs of children from substance-affected families. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the manualised nine-session group programme TRAMPOLINE is tested among N = 218 children from substance-affected families in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Outpatient counselling facilities across the nation from different settings (rural/urban, Northern/Southern/Eastern/Western regions of the country) will deliver the interventions, as they hold the primary access to the target group in Germany. The control condition is a group programme with the same duration that is not addiction-specific. We expect that participants in the intervention condition will show a significant improvement in the use of adaptive coping strategies (in general and within the family) compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. Data is collected shortly before and after as well as six months after the intervention. Discussion In Germany, the study presented here is the first to develop and evaluate a programme for children of substance-abusing parents. Limitations and strengths are discussed with a special focus on recruitment challenges as they appear to be the most potent threat to feasibility in the difficult-to-access target group at hand (Trial registration: ISRCTN81470784). PMID:22439919

2012-01-01

313

A randomized clinical trial of total parenteral nutrition in malnourished surgical patients: the rationale and impact of previous clinical trials and pilot study on protocol design13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rationale for a large-scale clinical trial of preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is described in the context of previous clinical trials that have attempted to demonstrate reduction of operative morbidity with preoperative TPN. Defects in study design or execution potentially compromising the validity of these studies are analyzed. Results of a single-institution pilot study performed during the planning phase

Gordon P Buzby; Osler L Peterson; Carey P Page; George F Reinhardt; James L Mullen

314

The optimized acupuncture treatment for neck pain caused by cervical spondylosis: a study protocol of a multicentre randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Neck pain is one of the chief symptoms of cervical spondylosis (CS). Acupuncture is a well-accepted and widely used complementary therapy for the management of neck pain caused by CS. In this paper, we present a randomized controlled trial protocol evaluating the use of acupuncture for CS neck pain, comparing the effects of the optimized acupuncture therapy in real practice compared with sham and shallow acupuncture. Methods/Design This trial uses a multicentre, parallel-group, randomized, sham acupuncture and shallow acupuncture, controlled single-blind design. Nine hospitals are involved as trial centres. 945 patients who meet inclusion criteria are randomly assigned to receive optimized acupuncture therapy, sham acupuncture or shallow acupuncture by a computerized central randomization system. The interventions past for 4 weeks with eight to ten treatments in total. The group allocations and interventions are concealed to patients and statisticians. The Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) is used as the primary outcome measure, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and The Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) are applied as secondary outcome measures. The evaluation is performed at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at the end of the first month and the third month during follow-up. The statistical analyses will include baseline data comparison and repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) for primary and secondary outcomes of group and time differences. Adverse events (AEs) will be reported if they occur. Discussion This trial is a multicentre randomized control trial (RCT) on the efficacy of acupuncture for CS neck pain and has a large sample size and central randomization in China. It will strictly follow the CONSORT statement and STRICTA extension guideline to report high-quality study results. By setting the control groups as sham and shallow acupuncture, this study attempts to reveal the effects of real acupuncture versus placebo or non-classic acupuncture treatment and evaluate whether classic Chinese medical acupuncture is effective on CS neck pain. This study will provide evidence for the effects of acupuncture on CS neck pain. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-00000184. PMID:22776567

2012-01-01

315

Acupuncture for dry eye syndrome after refractive surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Dry eye syndrome is a frequent complication of refractive surgery. Acupuncture has been widely used to alleviate the associated symptoms. However, the use of acupuncture for patients who suffer from dry eye syndrome following refractive surgery has certain drawbacks. This pilot study aims to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture treatment in treating the signs and symptoms of dry eye syndrome after refractive surgery. Methods/design Forty participants will be randomly assigned to the acupuncture plus usual care group or the usual care control group. The acupuncture plus usual care group will undergo treatments on seventeen acupuncture points, three times per week for four weeks. The control group will receive only usual care during the same period. The primary outcomes will be scores on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and the results of examinations at 1, 3, 5, and 13 weeks. The secondary outcomes will be Tear Film Break-up Time (TBUT), as well as scores on the Schirmer-I test, visual analog scale (VAS), and quality of life (QOL) questionnaire for the self-assessment of ocular discomfort. Digital photographs will be taken to document the pattern of fluorescein staining observed on the corneal surface. The results of the Schirmer-I test, TBUT, and fluorescein-stained corneal surface digital photographs will be assessed at the screening and at week 13. VAS scores will be assessed at the screening, as well as at 1, 3, 5, and 13 weeks. QOL will be evaluated at 1, 3, 5, and 13 weeks. Discussion This trial will provide primary data with which to investigate the clinical effectiveness and safety of acupuncture treatment for dry eye syndrome after refractive surgery. Trial registration Current Controlled (Identifier: KCT0000727) PMID:24156469

2013-01-01

316

FALL 2009 GROUP STUDY ART 496H Art History Group Study: Collections Research  

E-print Network

FALL 2009 GROUP STUDY ART 496H Art History Group Study: Collections Research TR 2:00-3:15 UCA 240 3 credits (upper division art history) Museum, gallery and private collections are maintained through further experience in art history research, museology, or the connoisseurship of collecting. Enrollment

317

Discrepancies between registration and publication of randomised controlled trials: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives To determine the consistency between information contained in the registration and publication of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Design An observational study of RCTs published between May 2011 and May 2012 in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) comparing registry data with publication data. Participants and Settings Data extracted from published RCTs in BMJ and JAMA. Main outcome measures Timing of trial registration in relation to completion of trial data collection and publication. Registered versus published primary and secondary outcomes, sample size. Results We identified 40 RCTs in BMJ and 36 in JAMA. All 36 JAMA trials and 39 (98%) BMJ trials were registered. All registered trials were registered prior to publication. Thirty-two (82%) BMJ trials recorded the date of data completion; of these, in two trials the date of trial registration postdated the registered date of data completion. There were discrepancies between primary outcomes declared in the trial registry information and in the published paper in 18 (47%) BMJ papers and seven (19%) JAMA papers. The original sample size stated in the trial registration was achieved in 24 (60%) BMJ papers and 21 (58%) JAMA papers. Conclusions Compulsory registration of RCTs is meaningless if the content of registry information is not complete or if discrepancies between registration and publication are not reported. This study demonstrates that discrepancies in primary and secondary outcomes and sample size between trial registration and publication remain commonplace, giving further strength to the World Health Organisation’s argument for mandatory completion of a minimum number of compulsory fields. PMID:25057391

Stevenson, Graham; Thornton, James G

2014-01-01

318

Selenium supplementation for patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism (the GRASS trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Graves’ hyperthyroidism is an autoimmune disease causing hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. The concentration of selenium is high in the thyroid gland and two important groups of enzymes within the thyroid are selenoproteins, that is, they depend on selenium. Selenium may have beneficial effects on autoimmune hypothyroidism and on Graves' orbitopathy, but the effects of selenium on Graves' hyperthyroidism is unknown. We hypothesize that adjuvant selenium may be beneficial in the treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism. The objective is to investigate if selenium supplementation plus standard treatment with anti-thyroid drugs versus standard treatment with anti-thyroid drugs will lead to a decrease in anti-thyroid drug treatment failure (that is, failure to remain euthyroid, without further treatment, one year after cessation of anti-thyroid drug treatment), faster and longer lasting remission (that is, anti-thyroid drug treatment success), and improved quality of life in patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Methods and design The trial is an investigator-initiated, randomised, blinded, multicentre clinical trial. Inclusion criteria are: age 18 years or older; diagnosis of active Graves' hyperthyroidism within the last two months; and informed consent. Exclusion criteria are major co-morbidity; previous radioactive iodine treatment; ongoing anti-thyroid drug treatment for more than two months; treatment with immunomodulatory drugs; known allergy towards the components in the selenium and placebo pills; pregnancy or breast-feeding; and intake of selenium supplementation above 70 ?g per day. We plan to include 492 participants, randomised (1:1) to two tablets of 100 ?g selenium once daily for the 24 to 30 months intervention period versus two identical placebo tablets once daily. The primary outcome is the proportion of participants with anti-thyroid drug treatment failure (see above) at the end of the intervention period (24 to 30 months). Secondary outcomes are: thyroid-specific quality of life during the first year after randomisation; level of thyroid stimulating hormone-receptor antibodies at 18 months after randomisation and at the end of the intervention period (24 to 30 months); hyperthyroid symptoms during the first year after randomisation; eye symptoms during the first year after randomisation, and at the end of the intervention period (24 to 30 months); adverse reactions during the intervention period; and serious adverse events during the intervention period. Discussion It was of great importance to the initiators of this trial, that the results would be directly applicable to daily clinical practice. Therefore, it was designed as a pragmatic trial: the patients follow their usual treatment at their usual hospitals. In order to still collect high quality data on the clinical course and quality of life, an elaborate trial management system was designed to keep track of patient input, need for trial personnel input and action, and to collect data from medical chart systems. Meticulous follow-up on missing responses to the QoL measurements has been incorporated into the system, to minimise missing quality of life data. Monitoring of adverse reactions and events is achieved by thorough instruction of the participants, surveillance of patient-reported outcomes, and integration with national databases regarding hospitalizations. A very long intervention period was necessary, since patients are not considered in remission until one year after stopping anti-thyroid drugs. Usually, patients are treated for 12 to 18 months with anti-thyroid drugs, yielding a total intervention period of 24 to 30 months. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01611896. PMID:23782950

2013-01-01

319

Effectiveness of spirometry as a motivational tool for smoking cessation: a clinical trial, the ESPIMOAT study  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking is the main preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in our region, it being the main causative agent of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There still is no consensus on the use of spirometry as a strategy for smoking cessation, given that there is insufficient scientific evidence from high quality studies to recommend the use of this technique. Methods/Design This is to be a randomized, multicentre, open-label clinical trial. A total of 444 smokers over 40 years of age will be recruited by 39 general practitioners from 22 health centers. Primary objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of spirometry together with information regarding the test for smoking cessation after 1 year in smokers over 40 years of age with a more than 10 pack-year history and no previous diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Groups of 45 patients who smoke will be randomly selected from the lists of the participating doctors. The names will be sent to the corresponding doctors who will contact candidate patients and assess whether they meet the selection criteria. Patients who meet these criteria will be randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. For patients in both groups, a nurse will conduct an interview and perform a spirometry test to measure forced vital capacity. Then, all patients will be referred for an appointment with their doctor for brief anti-smoking intervention, patients from the intervention group additionally being informed about the result of the spirometry test. After 1 year, smoking status will be assessed and, in those who report that they have quit smoking, abstinence will be confirmed by co-oximetry. Data will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis using the chi-squared test for outcomes and binary logistic regression if it is considered to be necessary to adjust for confounding variables. Discussion Performing a spirometry test and providing information on pulmonary function may increase awareness of the effect of smoking among smokers who are asymptomatic or have few symptoms and make them decide to quit. Specifically, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease it might increase levels of motivation to quit smoking in early stages of the disease. If this strategy were to be effective, it could be included in the health promotion activities offered in primary care. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01821885 PMID:24308728

2013-01-01

320

Initial experience with a group presentation of study results to research participants  

PubMed Central

Background Despite ethical imperatives, informing research participants about the results of the studies in which they take part is not often performed. This is due, in part, to the costs and burdens of communicating with each participant after publication of the results. Methods Following the closeout and publication of a randomized clinical trial of saw palmetto for treatment of symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, patients were invited back to the research center to participate in a group presentation of the study results. Results Approximately 10% of participants attended one of two presentation sessions. Reaction to the experience of the group presentation was very positive among the attendees. Conclusion A group presentation to research participants is an efficient method of communicating study results to those who desire to be informed and was highly valued by those who attended. Prospectively planning for such presentations and greater scheduling flexibility may result in higher attendance rates. Trial Registration Number Clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00037154 PMID:18355417

Avins, Andrew L; Bent, Stephen; Padula, Amy; Staccone, Suzanne; Badua, Evelyn; Goldberg, Harley

2008-01-01

321

Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy augmentation in major depression treatment (ECAM study): study protocol for a randomised clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Major depression is a serious mental disorder that causes substantial distress and impairment in individuals and places an enormous burden on society. Although antidepressant treatment is the most common therapy provided in routine practice, there is little evidence to guide second-line therapy for patients who have failed to respond to antidepressants. The aim of this paper is to describe the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial that measures the clinical effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as an augmentation strategy to treat patients with non-psychotic major depression identified as suboptimal responders to usual depression care. Methods and analysis The current study is a 16-week assessor-blinded randomised, parallel-groups superiority trial with 12-month follow-up at an outpatient clinic as part of usual depression care. Patients aged 20–65?years with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) Major Depressive Disorder who have experienced at least one failed trial of antidepressants as part of usual depression care, will be randomly assigned to receive CBT plus treatment as usual, or treatment as usual alone. The primary outcome is the change in clinician-rated 17-item GRID-Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (GRID-HAMD) score at 16?weeks, and secondary outcomes include severity and change in scores of subjective depression symptoms, proportion of responders and remitters, safety and quality of life. The primary population will be the intention-to-treat patients. Ethics and dissemination All protocols and the informed consent form comply with the Ethics Guideline for Clinical Research (Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare). Ethics review committees at the Keio University School of Medicine and the Sakuragaoka Memorial Hospital approved the study protocol. The results of the study will be disseminated at several research conferences and as published articles in peer-reviewed journals. The study will be implemented and reported in line with the CONSORT statement. Trial registration number UMIN Clinical Trials Registry: UMIN000001218. PMID:25335963

Nakagawa, Atsuo; Sado, Mitsuhiro; Mitsuda, Dai; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Abe, Takayuki; Sato, Yuji; Iwashita, Satoru; Mimura, Masaru; Ono, Yutaka

2014-01-01

322

Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for resectable esophageal cancer: an in-depth study of randomized controlled trials and literature review  

PubMed Central

Surgery following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) is a common multidisciplinary treatment for resectable esophageal cancer (EC). After analyzing 12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we discuss the key issues of surgery in the management of resectable EC. Along with chemoradiotherapy, NCRT is recommended for patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC), and most chemotherapy regimens are based on cisplatin, fluorouracil (FU), or both (CF). However, taxane-based schedules or additional studies, together with newer chemotherapies, are warranted. In nine clinical trials, post-operative complications were similar without significant differences between two treatment groups. In-hospital mortality was significantly different in only 1 out of 10 trials. Half of the randomized trials that compare NCRT with surgery in EC demonstrate an increase in overall survival or disease-free survival. NCRT offers a great opportunity for margin negative resection, decreased disease stage, and improved loco-regional control. However, NCRT does not affect the quality of life when combined with esophagectomy. Future trials should focus on the identification of optimum regimens and selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from specific treatment options. PMID:25364580

Duan, Xiao-Feng; Tang, Peng; Yu, Zhen-Tao

2014-01-01

323

A trial of a job-specific workers' health surveillance program for construction workers: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS) to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the WHS for construction workers and stimulate relevant job-specific preventive actions by the occupational physician, we have developed a job-specific WHS. The job-specific WHS consists of modules assessing both physical and psychological requirements. The selected measurement instruments chosen, are based on their appropriateness to measure the workers' capacity and health requirements. They include a questionnaire and biometrical tests, and physical performance tests that measure physical functional capabilities. Furthermore, our job-specific WHS provides occupational physicians with a protocol to increase the worker-behavioural effectiveness of their counselling and to stimulate job-specific preventive actions. The objective of this paper is to describe and clarify our study to evaluate the behavioural effects of this job-specific WHS on workers and occupational physicians. Methods/Design The ongoing study of bricklayers and supervisors is a nonrandomised trial to compare the outcome of an intervention (job-specific WHS) group (n = 206) with that of a control (WHS) group (n = 206). The study includes a three-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of participants who have undertaken one or more of the preventive actions advised by their occupational physician in the three months after attending the WHS. A process evaluation will be carried out to determine context, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, and satisfaction. The present study is in accordance with the TREND Statement. Discussion This study will allow an evaluation of the behaviour of both the workers and occupational physician regarding the preventive actions undertaken by them within the scope of a job-specific WHS. Trial registration NTR3012 PMID:21958019

2011-01-01

324

Incomplete Reconstitution of T Cell Subsets on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 384  

PubMed Central

Background Initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) results in higher total CD4 cell counts, a surrogate for immune reconstitution. Whether the baseline CD4 cell count affects reconstitution of immune cell subsets has not been well characterized. Methods Using data from 978 patients (621 with comprehensive immunological assessments) from the AIDS [Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome] Clinical Trials Group protocol 384, a randomized trial of initial ART, we compared reconstitution of CD4+, CD4+ naive and memory, CD4+ activation, CD8+, CD8+ activation, B, and natural killer cells among patients in different baseline CD4+ strata. Reference ranges for T cell populations in control patients negative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were calculated using data from AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol A5113. Results Patients in the lower baseline CD4+ strata did not achieve total CD4+ cell counts similar to those of patients in the higher strata during 144 weeks of ART, although CD4+ cell count increases were similar. Ratios of CD4+ naive-memory cell counts and CD4+:CD8+ cell counts remained significantly reduced in patients with lower baseline CD4+ cell counts (?350 cells/mm3). These immune imbalances were most notable for those initiating ART with a baseline CD4+ cell count ?200 cells/mm3, even after adjustment for baseline plasma HIV RNA levels. Conclusions After nearly 3 years of ART, T cell subsets in patients with baseline CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/mm3 achieved or approached the reference range those of control individuals without HIV infection. In contrast, patients who began ART with ?350 CD4+ cells/mm3 generally did not regain normal CD4+ naive-memory cell ratios. These results support current guidelines to start ART at a threshold of 350 cells/mm3 and suggest that there may be immunological benefits associated with initiating therapy at even higher CD4+ cell counts. PMID:19123865

Robbins, Gregory K.; Spritzler, John G.; Chan, Ellen S.; Asmuth, David M.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Rodriguez, Benigno A.; Skowron, Gail; Skolnik, Paul R.; Shafer, Robert W.; Pollard, Richard B.

2009-01-01

325

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of depression: a study protocol for a double blinded randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depressive disorders are the most common form of mental disorders in community and health care settings. Unfortunately, the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is far from satisfactory. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a relatively new and promising physical treatment for depressive disorders. One particularly appealing element of VNS is the long-term benefit in mood regulation. However, because this intervention involves surgery, perioperative risks, and potentially significant side effects, this treatment has been limited to those patients with treatment-resistant depression who have failed medication trials and exhausted established somatic treatments for major depression, due to intolerance or lack of response. This double-blinded randomized clinical trial aims to overcome these limitations by introducing a novel method of stimulating superficial branches of the vagus nerve on the ear to treat MDD. The rationale is that direct stimulation of the afferent nerve fibers on the ear area with afferent vagus nerve distribution should produce a similar effect as classic VNS in reducing depressive symptoms without the burden of surgical intervention. Design One hundred twenty cases (60 males) of volunteer patients with mild and moderate depression will be randomly divided into transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation group (tVNS) and sham tVNS group. The treatment period lasts 4 months and all clinical and physiological measurements are acquired at the beginning and the end of the treatment period. Discussion This study has the potential to significantly extend the application of VNS treatment for MDD and other disorders (including epilepsy, bipolar disorder, and morbid obesity), resulting in direct benefit to the patients suffering from these highly prevalent disorders. In addition, the results of this double-blinded clinical trial will shed new light on our understanding of acupuncture point specificity, and development of methodologies in clinical trials of acupuncture treatment. Trials registration Clinical Trials. ChiCTR-TRC-11001201 http://www.chictr.org/cn/ PMID:23241431

2012-01-01

326

Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy as an Early Intervention for Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized controlled design was used with a 1-yr follow-up. The purpose was to compare the effects of two early interventions, a cognitive-behavioral group intervention and a self-help information package, in patients with insomnia. In sum, 165 individuals seeking care for insomnia of 3–12 months duration were randomized to either a group receiving a CBT intervention or a group receiving

Markus Jansson; Steven J. Linton

2005-01-01

327

A written self-help intervention for depressed adults comparing behavioural activation combined with physical activity promotion with a self-help intervention based upon behavioural activation alone: study protocol for a parallel group pilot randomised controlled trial (BAcPAc)  

PubMed Central

Background Challenges remain to find ways to support patients with depression who have low levels of physical activity (PA) to overcome perceived barriers and enhance the perceived value of PA for preventing future relapse. There is an evidence-base for behavioural activation (BA) for depression, which focuses on supporting patients to restore activities that have been avoided, but practitioners have no specific training in promoting PA. We aimed to design and evaluate an integrated BA and PA (BAcPAc) practitioner-led, written, self-help intervention to enhance both physical and mental health. Methods/design This study is informed by the Medical Research Council Complex Intervention Framework and describes a protocol for a pilot phase II randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the feasibility and acceptability of the trial methods to inform a definitive phase III RCT. Following development of the augmented written self-help intervention (BAcPAc) incorporating behavioural activation with physical activity promotion, depressed adults are randomised to receive up to 12 sessions over a maximum of 4 months of either BAcPAc or behavioural activation alone within a written self-help format, which represents treatment as usual. The study is located within two ‘Improving Access to Psychological Therapies’ services in South West England, with both written self-help interventions supported by mental health paraprofessionals. Measures assessed at 4, 9, and 12 month follow-up include the following: CIS-R, PHQ-9, accelerometer recorded (4 months only) and self-reported PA, body mass index, blood pressure, Insomnia Severity Index, quality of life, and health and social care service use. Process evaluation will include analysis of recorded support sessions and patient and practitioner interviews. At the time of writing the study has recruited 60 patients. Discussion The feasibility outcomes will inform a definitive RCT to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the augmented BAcPAc written self-help intervention to reduce depression and depressive relapse, and bring about improvements across a range of physical health outcomes. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN74390532, 26.03.2013. PMID:24886116

2014-01-01

328

Don't Exclude Cancer Survivors from Lung Cancer Trials, Study Urges  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Don't Exclude Cancer Survivors From Lung Cancer Trials, Study Urges Finding runs counter to ... 13, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cancer Clinical Trials Lung Cancer FRIDAY, Feb. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Cancer ...

329

TrialDB: A web-based Clinical Study Data Management System.  

PubMed

Clinical Study Data Management Systems (CSDMSs) are a class of software that support centralized management of data generated during the conduct of clinical studies. Commercial CSDMSs include Oracle Clinical, ClinTrial and MetaTrial. Such systems, which are typically deployed at an institutional or organizational level, must accommodate diverse types of data from different clinical domains that is generated by different groups of clinical investigators. Large-scale CSDMSs typically employ a high-end database engine that is usually accessed over an intranet or the Internet using Web-based technologies. CSDMSs in institution-wide use for a variety of clinical domains are best served by entity-attribute-value (EAV) modeling for the clinical data: all the commercial CSDMSs that we are aware of use EAV design. However, de novo development of EAV databases for data management is a challenging task. A large body of generic metadata-driven code must be developed before a basic EAV application can be written. Clearly, the availability of pre-existing software with the requisite functionality would be very valuable. We will discuss the benefits of such software being in open-source form. PMID:14728299

Brandt, C A; Deshpande, A M; Lu, C; Ananth, G; Sun, K; Gadagkar, R; Morse, R; Rodriguez, C; Miller, P L; Nadkarni, P M

2003-01-01

330

A Comparative Study of Family Bereavement Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined five bereavement support groups, three of which focused on widows, family survivors of suicide, and family survivors of death of family member by cancer. Members of three groups tended to report strong satisfaction with group experience. Reasons for joining group and most valuable aspects of group experience varied as function of group

Hopmeyer, Estelle; Werk, Annette

1994-01-01

331

Screen-time Weight-loss Intervention Targeting Children at Home (SWITCH): A randomized controlled trial study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately one third of New Zealand children and young people are overweight or obese. A similar proportion (33%) do not meet recommendations for physical activity, and 70% do not meet recommendations for screen time. Increased time being sedentary is positively associated with being overweight. There are few family-based interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behavior in children. The aim of this trial is to determine the effects of a 24 week home-based, family oriented intervention to reduce sedentary screen time on children's body composition, sedentary behavior, physical activity, and diet. Methods/Design The study design is a pragmatic two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Two hundred and seventy overweight children aged 9-12 years and primary caregivers are being recruited. Participants are randomized to intervention (family-based screen time intervention) or control (no change). At the end of the study, the control group is offered the intervention content. Data collection is undertaken at baseline and 24 weeks. The primary trial outcome is child body mass index (BMI) and standardized body mass index (zBMI). Secondary outcomes are change from baseline to 24 weeks in child percentage body fat; waist circumference; self-reported average daily time spent in physical and sedentary activities; dietary intake; and enjoyment of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Secondary outcomes for the primary caregiver include change in BMI and self-reported physical activity. Discussion This study provides an excellent example of a theory-based, pragmatic, community-based trial targeting sedentary behavior in overweight children. The study has been specifically designed to allow for estimation of the consistency of effects on body composition for M?ori (indigenous), Pacific and non-M?ori/non-Pacific ethnic groups. If effective, this intervention is imminently scalable and could be integrated within existing weight management programs. Trial Registration ACTRN12611000164998 PMID:21718543

2011-01-01

332

Pain Management in Cancer Patients Using a Mobile App: Study Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the availability of effective medications and clinical guidelines for pain management, pain control is suboptimal in a sizeable proportion of patients with cancer pain. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend a comprehensive and multimodal approach for management of cancer pain. We developed a mobile phone application, ePAL, based on clinical guidelines to empower patients for cancer pain management by prompting regular pain assessments and coaching for self-management. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a multidimensional mobile phone-based pain management application, ePAL, on controlling cancer pain and improving quality of life in patients with cancer pain being treated at an academic palliative care clinic. Methods The study will be implemented as a 2-arm randomized controlled trial with 110 adult patients with CP who own a mobile phone over a follow-up period of two months. Participants will be randomized to either the intervention group receiving ePAL and usual care or to a control group receiving only usual care. The brief pain inventory will be used to assess our primary outcome which is pain intensity. We will also evaluate the effect of the intervention on secondary outcomes which include the effect of the intervention on hospital utilization for pain crisis, quality of life, adherence to analgesic medications, barriers to pain control, anxiety and patient engagement. Instruments that will be used in evaluating secondary outcomes include the Brief Pain Inventory, Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, Barriers Questionnaire-II, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–General, Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale, and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue. The intention-to-treat approach will be used to evaluate outcomes. Our primary outcome, pain intensity, measured longitudinally over eight weeks, will be assessed by mixed model repeated analysis. Effect sizes will be calculated as mean group differences with standard deviations. Results The study is still in progress. We hope to have results by the end of 2015. Conclusions The multidimensional approach to pain management implemented on a mobile phone application could lead to significant improvements in patient outcomes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02069743; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02069743 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Qb65XGGA). PMID:25500281

Kamdar, Mihir; Flanagan, Clare; Searl, Meghan; Traeger, Lara; Kvedar, Joseph; Jethwani, Kamal

2014-01-01

333

A Randomized trial of an Asthma Internet Self-management Intervention (RAISIN): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The financial costs associated with asthma care continue to increase while care remains suboptimal. Promoting optimal self-management, including the use of asthma action plans, along with regular health professional review has been shown to be an effective strategy and is recommended in asthma guidelines internationally. Despite evidence of benefit, guided self-management remains underused, however the potential for online resources to promote self-management behaviors is gaining increasing recognition. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a pilot evaluation of a website ‘Living well with asthma’ which has been developed with the aim of promoting self-management behaviors shown to improve outcomes. Methods/Design The study is a parallel randomized controlled trial, where adults with asthma are randomly assigned to either access to the website for 12 weeks, or usual asthma care for 12 weeks (followed by access to the website if desired). Individuals are included if they are over 16-years-old, have a diagnosis of asthma with an Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score of greater than, or equal to 1, and have access to the internet. Primary outcomes for this evaluation include recruitment and retention rates, changes at 12 weeks from baseline for both ACQ and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) scores, and quantitative data describing website usage (number of times logged on, length of time logged on, number of times individual pages looked at, and for how long). Secondary outcomes include clinical outcomes (medication use, health services use, lung function) and patient reported outcomes (including adherence, patient activation measures, and health status). Discussion Piloting of complex interventions is considered best practice and will maximise the potential of any future large-scale randomized controlled trial to successfully recruit and be able to report on necessary outcomes. Here we will provide results across a range of outcomes which will provide estimates of efficacy to inform the design of a future full-scale randomized controlled trial of the ‘Living well with asthma’ website. Trial registration This trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN78556552 on 18/06/13. PMID:24884722

2014-01-01

334

Physical fitness training in Subacute Stroke (PHYS-STROKE) - study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Given the rising number of strokes worldwide, and the large number of individuals left with disabilities after stroke, novel strategies to reduce disability, increase functions in the motor and the cognitive domains, and improve quality of life are of major importance. Physical activity is a promising intervention to address these challenges but, as yet, there is no study demonstrating definite outcomes. Our objective is to assess whether additional treatment in the form of physical fitness-based training for patients early after stroke will provide benefits in terms of functional outcomes, in particular gait speed and the Barthel Index (co-primary outcome measures) reflecting activities of daily living (ADL). We will gather secondary functional outcomes as well as mechanistic parameters in an exploratory approach. Methods/Design Our phase III randomised controlled trial will recruit 215 adults with moderate to severe limitations of walking and ADL 5 to 45 days after stroke onset. Participants will be stratified for the prognostic variables of “centre”, “age”, and “stroke severity”, and randomly assigned to one of two groups. The interventional group receives physical fitness training delivered as supported or unsupported treadmill training (cardiovascular active aerobic training; five times per week, over 4 weeks; each session 50 minutes; total of 20 additional physical fitness training sessions) in addition to standard rehabilitation treatment. The control intervention consists of relaxation sessions (non-cardiovascular active; five times per week week, over 4 weeks; each session 50 minutes) in addition to standard rehabilitation treatment. Co-primary efficacy endpoints will be gait speed (in m/s, 10 m walk) and the Barthel Index (100 points total) at 3 months post-stroke, compared to baseline measurements. Secondary outcomes include standard measures of quality of life, sleep and mood, cognition, arm function, maximal oxygen uptake, and cardiovascular risk factors including blood pressure, pulse, waist-to-hip ratio, markers of inflammation, immunity and the insulin-glucose pathway, lipid profile, and others. Discussion The goal of this endpoint-blinded, phase III randomised controlled trial is to provide evidence to guide post-stroke physical fitness-based rehabilitation programmes, and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this intervention. Trial registration Registered in ClinicalTrials.gov with the Identifier NCT01953549. PMID:24491065

2014-01-01

335

Results of an intervention study to improve communication about randomised clinical trials of cancer therapy. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

The authors conducted an intervention study to improve communication during consultation about randomized trials. Questionnaires were used to collect information about patients’ information needs and their attitudes toward clinical trials. The Preferences for Information Questionnaire was helpful to doctors in understanding their patients’ interest in receiving specific details about clinical trials. The Patient Attitudes to Trials Questionnaire accurately predicted which patients would consent to enroll in the trials they were offered.

336

Effects of iron supplementation on dominant bacterial groups in the gut, faecal SCFA and gut inflammation: a randomised, placebo-controlled intervention trial in South African children.  

PubMed

Fe supplementation is a common strategy to correct Fe-deficiency anaemia in children; however, it may modify the gut microbiota and increase the risk for enteropathogenic infection. In the present study, we studied the impact of Fe supplementation on the abundance of dominant bacterial groups in the gut, faecal SCFA concentration and gut inflammation in children living in rural South Africa. In a randomised, placebo-controlled intervention trial of 38 weeks, 6- to 11-year-old children with Fe deficiency received orally either tablets containing 50 mg Fe as FeSO? (n 22) for 4 d/week or identical placebo (n 27). In addition, Fe-sufficient children (n 24) were included as a non-treated reference group. Faecal samples were analysed at baseline and at 2, 12 and 38 weeks to determine the effects of Fe supplementation on ten bacterial groups in the gut (quantitative PCR), faecal SCFA concentration (HPLC) and gut inflammation (faecal calprotectin concentration). At baseline, concentrations of bacterial groups in the gut, faecal SCFA and faecal calprotectin did not differ between Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient children. Fe supplementation significantly improved Fe status in Fe-deficient children and did not significantly increase faecal calprotectin concentration. Moreover, no significant effect of Fe treatment or time × treatment interaction on the concentrations of bacterial groups in the gut or faecal SCFA was observed compared with the placebo treatment. Also, there were no significant differences observed in the concentrations of any of the bacterial target groups or faecal SCFA at 2, 12 or 38 weeks between the three groups of children when correcting for baseline values. The present study suggests that in African children with a low enteropathogen burden, Fe status and dietary Fe supplementation did not significantly affect the dominant bacterial groups in the gut, faecal SCFA concentration or gut inflammation. PMID:24916165

Dostal, Alexandra; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Riesen, Nathalie; Chassard, Christophe; Smuts, Cornelius M; Zimmermann, Michael B; Lacroix, Christophe

2014-08-28

337

Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome paper include the lack of standardisation of hypnotic interventions in smoking cessation, the debriefing of the participants, the effects of group dynamics and the reasons for dropouts. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN72839675. PMID:22475087

2012-01-01

338

Medial open transversus abdominis plane (MOTAP) catheters for analgesia following open liver resection: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The current standard for pain control following liver surgery is intravenous, patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) or epidural analgesia. We have developed a modification of a regional technique called medial open transversus abdominis plane (MOTAP) catheter analgesia. The MOTAP technique involves surgically placed catheters through the open surgical site into a plane between the internal oblique muscle and the transverse abdominis muscle superiorly. The objective of this trial is to assess the efficacy of this technique. Methods/design This protocol describes a multicentre, prospective, blinded, randomized controlled trial. One hundred and twenty patients scheduled for open liver resection through a subcostal incision will be enrolled. All patients will have two MOTAP catheters placed at the conclusion of surgery. Patients will be randomized to one of two parallel groups: experimental (local anaesthetic through MOTAP catheters) or placebo (normal saline through MOTAP catheters). Both groups will also receive IV PCA. The primary endpoint is mean cumulative postoperative opioid consumption over the first 2 postoperative days (48 hours). Secondary outcomes include pain intensity, patient functional outcomes, and the incidence of complications. Discussion This trial has been approved by the ethics boards at participating centres and is currently enrolling patients. Data collection will be completed by the end of 2014 with analysis mid-2015 and publication by the end of 2015. Trial registration The study is registered with http://clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT01960049; 23 September 2013) PMID:24950773

2014-01-01

339

Whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain: study protocol for a single-blind randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Low back pain affects approximately 80% of people at some stage in their lives. Exercise therapy is the most widely used nonsurgical intervention for low back pain in practice guidelines. Whole body vibration exercise is becoming increasingly popular for relieving musculoskeletal pain and improving health-related quality of life. However, the efficacy of whole body vibration exercise for low back pain is not without dispute. This study aims to estimate the effect of whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain. Methods/Design We will conduct a prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 120 patients with chronic low back pain. Patients will be randomly assigned into an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group will participate in whole body vibration exercise twice a week for 3 months. The control group will receive general exercise twice a week for 3 months. Primary outcome measures will be the visual analog scale for pain, the Oswestry Disability Index and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures will include muscle strength and endurance of spine, trunk proprioception, transversus abdominis activation capacity, and quality of life. We will conduct intention-to-treat analysis if any participants withdraw from the trial. Discussion Important features of this study include the randomization procedures, single-blind, large sample size, and a standardized protocol for whole body vibration in chronic low back pain. This study aims to determine whether whole body vibration exercise produces more beneficial effects than general exercise for chronic low back pain. Therefore, our results will be useful for patients with chronic low back pain as well as for medical staff and health-care decision makers. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003708. PMID:24693945

2014-01-01

340

Influence of Control Group on Effect Size in Trials of Acupuncture for Chronic Pain: A Secondary Analysis of an Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background In a recent individual patient data meta-analysis, acupuncture was found to be superior to both sham and non-sham controls in patients with chronic pain. In this paper we identify variations in types of sham and non-sham controls used and analyze their impact on the effect size of acupuncture. Methods Based on literature searches of acupuncture trials involving patients with headache and migraine, osteoarthritis, and back, neck and shoulder pain, 29 trials met inclusion criteria, 20 involving sham controls (n?=?5,230) and 18 non-sham controls (n?=?14,597). For sham controls, we analysed non-needle sham, penetrating sham needles and non-penetrating sham needles. For non-sham controls, we analysed non-specified routine care and protocol-guided care. Using meta-regression we explored impact of choice of control on effect of acupuncture. Findings Acupuncture was significantly superior to all categories of control group. For trials that used penetrating needles for sham control, acupuncture had smaller effect sizes than for trials with non-penetrating sham or sham control without needles. The difference in effect size was ?0.45 (95% C.I. ?0.78, ?0.12; p?=?0.007), or ?0.19 (95% C.I. ?0.39, 0.01; p?=?0.058) after exclusion of outlying studies showing very large effects of acupuncture. In trials with non-sham controls, larger effect sizes associated with acupuncture vs. non-specified routine care than vs. protocol-guided care. Although the difference in effect size was large (0.26), it was not significant with a wide confidence interval (95% C.I. ?0.05, 0.57, p?=?0.1). Conclusion Acupuncture is significantly superior to control irrespective of the subtype of control. While the choice of control should be driven by the study question, our findings can help inform study design in acupuncture, particularly with respect to sample size. Penetrating needles appear to have important physiologic activity. We recommend that this type of sham be avoided. PMID:24705624

MacPherson, Hugh; Vertosick, Emily; Lewith, George; Linde, Klaus; Sherman, Karen J.; Witt, Claudia M.; Vickers, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

341

Reporting practices of pharmacodynamic studies involving invasive research procedures in cancer trials  

PubMed Central

Background: Tumour biopsy for pharmacodynamic (PD) study is increasingly common in early-phase cancer trials. As they are non-diagnostic, the ethical justification for such procedures rests on their knowledge value. On the premise that knowledge value is related to reporting practices and outcome diversity, we assessed in a sample of recent invasive PD studies within cancer trials. Methods: We assessed reporting practices and outcomes for PD studies in a convenience sample of cancer trials published from 2000 to 2010 that employed invasive, non-diagnostic tissue procurement. Extracted data were used to measure outcome reporting in individual trials. Using a reporting scale we developed for exploratory purposes, we tested whether reporting varied with study characteristics, such as funding source or drug novelty. Results: Reporting varied widely within and across studies. Some practices were sporadically reported, including results of all planned tests (78% trials reporting), use of blinded histopathological assessment (43% trials reporting), biopsy dimensions (38% trials reporting), and description of patient flow through PD analysis (62%). Pharmacodynamic analysis as a primary end point and mandatory biopsy had statistically significant positive relationships with overall quality of reporting. A preponderance of positive results (61% of the studies described positive PD results) suggests possible publication bias. Conclusion: Our results highlight the need for PD-reporting guidelines, and suggest several avenues for improving the risk/benefit for studies involving invasive, non-diagnostic tissue procurement. PMID:23887602

Freeman, G A; Kimmelman, J; Dancey, J; Monzon, J G

2013-01-01

342

Use acupuncture to treat functional constipation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Whether acupuncture is effective for patients with functional constipation is still unclear. Therefore, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial of using acupuncture to treat functional constipation. Design A randomized, controlled, four-arm design, large-scale trial is currently undergoing in China. Seven hundred participants are randomly assigned to three acupuncture treatment groups and Mosapride Citrate control group in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Participants in acupuncture groups receive 16 sessions of acupuncture treatment, and are followed up for a period of 9?weeks after randomization. The acupuncture groups are: (1) Back-Shu and Front-Mu acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu points group); (2) He-Sea and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (He points group); (3) Combining used Back-Shu, Front-Mu, He-Sea, and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu-He points group). The control group is Mosapride Citrate group. The primary outcome is frequency of defecation per week at the fourth week after randomization. The secondary outcomes include Bristol stool scale, the extent of difficulty during defecating, MOS 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). The first two of second outcomes are measured 1?week before randomization and 2, 4, and 8?weeks after randomization. Other second outcomes are measured 1?week before randomization and 2 and 4?weeks after randomization, but SF-36 is measured at randomization and 4?weeks after randomization. Discussion The result of this trial (which will be available in 2012) will confirm whether acupuncture is effective to treat functional constipation and whether traditional acupuncture theories play an important role in it. Trials registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT01411501 PMID:22759406

2012-01-01

343

Perineal Assessment and Repair Longitudinal Study (PEARLS): a matched-pair cluster randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background Perineal trauma during childbirth affects millions of women worldwide every year. The aim of the Perineal Assessment and Repair Longitudinal Study (PEARLS) was to improve maternal clinical outcomes following childbirth through an enhanced cascaded multiprofessional training program to support implementation of evidence-based perineal management. Methods This was a pragmatic matched-pair cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) that enrolled women (n = 3681) sustaining a second-degree perineal tear in one of 22 UK maternity units (clusters), organized in 11 matched pairs. Units in each matched pair were randomized to receive the training intervention either early (group A) or late (group B). Outcomes within each cluster were assessed prior to any training intervention (phase 1), and then after the training intervention was given to group A (phase 2) and group B (phase 3). Focusing on phase 2, the primary outcome was the percentage of women who had pain on sitting or walking at 10 to 12 days post-natal. Secondary outcomes included use of pain relief at 10 to 12 days post-natal, need for suture removal, uptake and duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and perineal wound infection. Practice-based measures included implementation of evidence into practice to promote effective clinical management of perineal trauma. Cluster-level paired t-tests were used to compare groups A and B. Results There was no significant difference between the clusters in phase 2 of the study in the average percentage of women reporting perineal pain on sitting and walking at 10 to 12 days (mean difference 0.7%; 95% CI ?10.1% to 11.4%; P = 0.89). The intervention significantly improved overall use of evidence-based practice in the clinical management of perineal trauma. Following the training intervention, group A clusters had a significant reduction in mean percentages of women reporting perineal wound infections and of women needing sutures removed. Conclusion PEARLS is the first RCT to assess the effects of a ‘training package on implementation of evidence-based perineal trauma management. The intervention did not significantly improve the primary outcome but did significantly improve evidence-based practice and some of the relevant secondary clinical outcomes for women. Trial registrations ISRCTN28960026 NIHR UKCRN portfolio no: 4785. PMID:24059602

2013-01-01

344

A review and re-interpretation of a group-sequential approach to sample size re-estimation in two-stage trials  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we review the adaptive design methodology of Li et al. (Biostatistics 3:277–287) for two-stage trials with mid-trial sample size adjustment. We argue that it is closer in principle to a group sequential design, in spite of its obvious adaptive element. Several extensions are proposed that aim to make it even more attractive and transparent alternative to a standard (fixed sample size) trial for funding bodies to consider. These enable a cap to be put on the maximum sample size and for the trial data to be analysed using standard methods at its conclusion. The regulatory view of trials incorporating unblinded sample size re-estimation is also discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Pharmaceutical Statistics published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24692348

Bowden, J; Mander, A

2014-01-01

345

A matter of life and death? The Heart Protection Study and protection of clinical trial participants. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

The study discusses whether and how interim data and analyses should be made available to physician-investigators, the trial participants, and the public. The issues are related to optimizing the protection of study subjects in clinical trials.

346

Case management for frequent users of the emergency department: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background We devised a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of an intervention based on case management care for frequent emergency department users. The aim of the intervention is to reduce such patients’ emergency department use, to improve their quality of life, and to reduce costs consequent on frequent use. The intervention consists of a combination of comprehensive case management care and standard emergency care. It uses a clinical case management model that is patient-identified, patient-directed, and developed to provide high intensity services. It provides a continuum of hospital- and community-based patient services, which include clinical assessment, outreach referral, and coordination and communication with other service providers. Methods/Design We aim to recruit, during the first year of the study, 250 patients who visit the emergency department of the University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland. Eligible patients will have visited the emergency department 5 or more times during the previous 12 months. Randomisation of the participants to the intervention or control groups will be computer generated and concealed. The statistician and each patient will be blinded to the patient’s allocation. Participants in the intervention group (N?=?125), additionally to standard emergency care, will receive case management from a team, 1 (ambulatory care) to 3 (hospitalization) times during their stay and after 1, 3, and 5 months, at their residence, in the hospital or in the ambulatory care setting. In between the consultations provided, the patients will have the opportunity to contact, at any moment, the case management team. Participants in the control group (N?=?125) will receive standard emergency care only. Data will be collected at baseline and 2, 5.5, 9, and 12 months later, including: number of emergency department visits, quality of life (EuroQOL and WHOQOL), health services use, and relevant costs. Data on feelings of discrimination and patient’s satisfaction will also be collected at the baseline and 12 months later. Discussion Our study will help to clarify knowledge gaps regarding the positive outcomes (emergency department visits, quality of life, efficiency, and cost-utility) of an intervention based on case management care. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01934322. PMID:24938769

2014-01-01

347

Methyl group tunnelling studies in calixarenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inelastic neutron scattering has been used to study the tunnelling of methyl groups belonging to several guest molecules (toluene, p-xylene, ?-picoline) incarcerated in a host calixarene matrix. In all the cases investigated, the low temperature neutron spectra show a number of bands which may be interpreted as being due to transitions between tunnel-split librational states of the guest methyl groups. The main line occurs near 0.63meV, very close to the CH 3 quantum free rotor limit. In the toluence complex, the quantum regime persists at least up to 60 K. Effects of coupling between rotational and vibrational modes are discussed. Very subtle structural changes not revealed by diffraction measurements are suggested by the neutron spectroscopy results.

Caciuffo, R.; Amoretti, G.; Carlile, C. J.; Fillaux, F.; Francescangeli, O.; Prager, M.; Ugozzoli, F.

1994-10-01

348

WELLFOCUS PPT – modified positive psychotherapy to improve well-being in psychosis: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The promotion of well-being is an important goal of recovery oriented mental health services. No structured, evidence-based intervention exists that aims to increase the well-being in people with severe mental illness such as psychosis. Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is a promising intervention for this goal. Standard PPT was adapted for use with people with psychosis in the UK following the Medical Research Council framework for developing and testing complex interventions, resulting in the WELLFOCUS Model describing the intended impact of WELLFOCUS PPT. This study aims to test the WELLFOCUS Model, by piloting the intervention, trial processes, and evaluation strategy. Methods/Design This study is a non-blinded pragmatic pilot RCT comparing WELLFOCUS PPT provided as an 11-session group therapy in addition to treatment as usual to treatment as usual alone. Inclusion criteria are adults (aged 18–65 years) with a main diagnosis of psychosis who use mental health services. A target sample of 80 service users with psychosis are recruited from mental health services across the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust. Participants are randomised in blocks to the intervention and control group. WELLFOCUS PPT is provided to groups by specifically trained and supervised local therapists and members of the research team. Assessments are conducted before randomisation and after the group intervention. The primary outcome measure is well-being assessed by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Secondary outcomes include good feelings, symptom relief, connectedness, hope, self-worth, empowerment, and meaning. Process evaluation using data collected during the group intervention, post-intervention individual interviews and focus groups with participants, and interviews with trial therapists will complement quantitative outcome data. Discussion This study will provide data on the feasibility of the intervention and identify necessary adaptations. It will allow optimisation of trial processes and inform the evaluation strategy, including sample size calculation, for a future definitive RCT. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN04199273 – WELLFOCUS study: an intervention to improve well-being in people with psychosis, Date registered: 27 March 2013, first participant randomised on 26 April 2013. PMID:24888479

2014-01-01

349

A randomized clinical trial of a coping improvement group intervention for HIV-infected older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research tested if a 12-session coping improvement group intervention (n = 104) reduced depressive symptoms in HIV-infected\\u000a older adults compared to an interpersonal support group intervention (n = 105) and an individual therapy upon request (ITUR)\\u000a control condition (n = 86). Participants were 295 HIV-infected men and women 50-plus years of age living in New York City,\\u000a Cincinnati, OH, and Columbus, OH. Using A-CASI assessment

Timothy G. HeckmanKathleen; Kathleen J. Sikkema; Nathan Hansen; Arlene Kochman; Victor Heh; Sharon Neufeld

2011-01-01

350

A cluster randomised trial of a school-based intervention to prevent decline in adolescent physical activity levels: study protocol for the ‘Physical Activity 4 Everyone’ trial  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescence is an established period of physical activity decline. Multi-component school-based interventions have the potential to slow the decline in adolescents’ physical activity; however, few interventions have been conducted in schools located in low-income or disadvantaged communities. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention in reducing the decline in physical activity among students attending secondary schools located in disadvantaged communities. Methods/Design The cluster randomised trial will be conducted with 10 secondary schools located in selected regions of New South Wales, Australia. The schools will be selected from areas that have a level of socio-economic status that is below the state average. Five schools will be allocated to receive an intervention based on the Health Promoting Schools framework, and will be supported by a pa