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1

‘Putting Life in Years’ (PLINY) telephone friendship groups research study: pilot randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Loneliness in older people is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We undertook a parallel-group randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone befriending for the maintenance of HRQoL in older people. An internal pilot tested the feasibility of the trial and intervention. Methods Participants aged >74 years, with good cognitive function, living independently in one UK city were recruited through general practices and other sources, then randomised to: (1) 6 weeks of short one-to-one telephone calls, followed by 12 weeks of group telephone calls with up to six participants, led by a trained volunteer facilitator; or (2) a control group. The main trial required the recruitment of 248 participants in a 1-year accrual window, of whom 124 were to receive telephone befriending. The pilot specified three success criteria which had to be met in order to progress the main trial to completion: recruitment of 68 participants in 95 days; retention of 80% participants at 6 months; successful delivery of telephone befriending by local franchise of national charity. The primary clinical outcome was the Short Form (36) Health Instrument (SF-36) Mental Health (MH) dimension score collected by telephone 6 months following randomisation. Results We informed 9,579 older people about the study. Seventy consenting participants were randomised to the pilot in 95 days, with 56 (80%) providing valid primary outcome data (26 intervention, 30 control). Twenty-four participants randomly allocated to the research arm actually received telephone befriending due to poor recruitment and retention of volunteer facilitators. The trial was closed early as a result. The mean 6-month SF-36 MH scores were 78 (SD 18) and 71 (SD 21) for the intervention and control groups, respectively (mean difference, 7; 95% CI, -3 to 16). Conclusions Recruitment and retention of participants to a definitive trial with a recruitment window of 1 year is feasible. For the voluntary sector to recruit sufficient volunteers to match demand for telephone befriending created by trial recruitment would require the study to be run in more than one major population centre, and/or involve dedicated management of volunteers. Trial registration ISRCTN28645428. PMID:24758530

2014-01-01

2

Can Research Assessments Themselves Cause Bias in Behaviour Change Trials? A Systematic Review of Evidence from Solomon 4-Group Studies  

PubMed Central

Background The possible effects of research assessments on participant behaviour have attracted research interest, especially in studies with behavioural interventions and/or outcomes. Assessments may introduce bias in randomised controlled trials by altering receptivity to intervention in experimental groups and differentially impacting on the behaviour of control groups. In a Solomon 4-group design, participants are randomly allocated to one of four arms: (1) assessed experimental group; (2) unassessed experimental group (3) assessed control group; or (4) unassessed control group. This design provides a test of the internal validity of effect sizes obtained in conventional two-group trials by controlling for the effects of baseline assessment, and assessing interactions between the intervention and baseline assessment. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate evidence from Solomon 4-group studies with behavioural outcomes that baseline research assessments themselves can introduce bias into trials. Methodology/Principal Findings Electronic databases were searched, supplemented by citation searching. Studies were eligible if they reported appropriately analysed results in peer-reviewed journals and used Solomon 4-group designs in non-laboratory settings with behavioural outcome measures and sample sizes of 20 per group or greater. Ten studies from a range of applied areas were included. There was inconsistent evidence of main effects of assessment, sparse evidence of interactions with behavioural interventions, and a lack of convincing data in relation to the research question for this review. Conclusions/Significance There were too few high quality completed studies to infer conclusively that biases stemming from baseline research assessments do or do not exist. There is, therefore a need for new rigorous Solomon 4-group studies that are purposively designed to evaluate the potential for research assessments to cause bias in behaviour change trials. PMID:22039407

McCambridge, Jim; Butor-Bhavsar, Kaanan; Witton, John; Elbourne, Diana

2011-01-01

3

The Preventing Australian Football Injuries with Exercise (PAFIX) Study: a group randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Knee injuries are a major injury concern for Australian Football players and participants of many other sports worldwide. There is increasing evidence from laboratory and biomechanically focused studies about the likely benefit of targeted exercise programmes to prevent knee injuries. However, there have been few international studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of such programmes in the real-world context of community sport that have combined epidemiological, behavioural and biomechanical approaches. Objective: To implement a fully piloted and tested exercise training intervention to reduce the number of football-related knee injuries. In so doing, to evaluate the intervention’s effectiveness in the real-world context of community football and to determine if the underlying neural and biomechanical training adaptations are associated with decreased risk of injury. Setting: Adult players from community-level Australian Football clubs in two Australian states over the 2007–08 playing seasons. Methods: A group-clustered randomised controlled trial with teams of players randomly allocated to either a coach-delivered targeted exercise programme or usual behaviour (control). Epidemiological component: field-based injury surveillance and monitoring of training/game exposures. Behavioural component: evaluation of player and coach attitudes, knowledge, behaviours and compliance, both before and after the intervention is implemented. Biomechanical component: biomechanical, game mobility and neuromuscular parameters assessed to determine the fundamental effect of training on these factors and injury risk. Outcome measures: The rate and severity of injury in the intervention group compared with the control group. Changes, if any, in behavioural components. Process evaluation: coach delivery factors and likely sustainability. PMID:19494090

Finch, C; Lloyd, D; Elliott, B

2009-01-01

4

Disappointment and adherence among parents of newborns allocated to the control group: a qualitative study of a randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background When a child participates in a clinical trial, informed consent has to be given by the parents. Parental motives for participation are complex, but the hope of getting a new and better treatment for the child is important. We wondered how parents react when their child is allocated to the control group of a randomized controlled trial, and how it will affect their future engagement in the trial. Methods We included parents of newborns randomized to the control arm in the Danish Calmette study at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen. The Calmette study is a randomized clinical trial investigating the non-specific effects of early BCG-vaccine to healthy neonates. Randomization is performed immediately after birth and parents are not blinded to the allocation. We set up a semi-structured focus group with six parents from four families. Afterwards we telephone-interviewed another 19 mothers to achieve saturation. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes across the data sets. Results The parents reported good understanding of the randomization process. Their most common reaction to allocation was disappointment, though relief was also seen. A model of reactions to being allocated to the control group was developed based on the participants’ different positions along two continuities from ‘Our participation in trial is not important’ to ‘Our participation in trial is important’, and ‘Vaccine not important to us’ to ‘Vaccine important to us’. Four very disappointed families had thought of getting the vaccine elsewhere, and one had actually had their child vaccinated. All parents involved in the focus group and the telephone interviews wanted to participate in the follow-ups planned for the Calmette study. Conclusions This study identified an almost universal experience of disappointment among parents of newborns who were randomized to the control group, but also a broad expression of understanding and accepting the idea of randomization. The trial staff might use the model of reactions in understanding the parents’ disappointment and in this way support their motives for participation. A generalized version might be applicable across randomized controlled trials at large. Trial registration The Calmette study is registered in EudraCT (https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/) with trial number 2010-021979-85. PMID:24731249

2014-01-01

5

Determinants of patient recruitment in a multicenter clinical trials group: trends, seasonality and the effect of large studies. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

The authors developed a model that adequately predicted five-year enrollment trends based on patient enrollment during the first 32 quarters. The study identified key trends and determinants of enrollment in a large multicenter clinical trials group. This information can be used to assess a clinical trials group’s performance over time and plan the strategic development and incorporation of future trials in its program. The predictors and the modeling process may be adapted to other groups and settings.

6

Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Efavirenz, Nelfinavir, and Indinavir: Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group Study 398  

PubMed Central

The present population pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) study modeled the effects of covariates including drug adherence and the coadministration of protease inhibitors (PIs) on the pharmacokinetics of efavirenz (EFV) and the relationship between EFV exposure and virological failure in patients who failed initial PI treatment in Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group (AACTG) study 398. We also report on the population PKs of the PIs nelfinavir (NFV) and indinavir (IDV). AACTG study 398 patients received EFV, amprenavir, adefovir dipivoxil, and abacavir and were randomized to take, in addition, one of the following: NFV, IDV, saquinavir (SQV), or placebo. The PK databases consisted of 531 EFV concentrations (139 patients), 219 NFV concentrations (75 patients), and 66 IDV concentrations (11 patients). Time to virological failure was ascertained for all patients in the PK databases. PK data were fit with a population PK model that assumed exclusive hepatic elimination (the well-stirred model). Notable findings with respect to EFV PK and PD are as follows. (i) The hepatic clearance of EFV is unaltered by NFV, IDV, or SQV coadministration. (ii) The hepatic clearance of EFV appears to be 28% higher in white non-Hispanics than in African Americans and Hispanics (P = 0.03). (iii) Higher adherence scores (as measured with the Medication Event Monitoring System) are associated with marginally increased levels of exposure to EFV. (iv) In patients with no prior experience with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), a given percent increase in the oral clearance (CL/F) of EFV is associated with a greater percent increase in the hazard of virological failure (P < 0.0003). Among NNRTI-experienced patients, however, hazard is relatively uncorrelated with EFV CL/F. PMID:12499180

Pfister, Marc; Labbé, Line; Hammer, Scott M.; Mellors, John; Bennett, Kara K.; Rosenkranz, Susan; Sheiner, Lewis B.

2003-01-01

7

Utilizing Focus Groups with Potential Participants and Their Parents: An Approach to Inform Study Design in a Large Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background In the recent literature, there has been some evidence that exposure of children to anesthetic procedures during the first two years of life may impair cognitive function and learning in later life. We planned a clinical study to quantify this risk, a study involving testing 1,000 children for neurodevelopmental deficits. As a part of this planning, we conducted focus groups involving potential participants and their parents to elicit information regarding three issues: communications with the community and potential participants, recruitment and consent processes, and the return of neurodevelopmental testing results. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with the parents of potential participants and one focus group was conducted with an 18-19 year old group; each group consisted of 6-10 participants. The moderated discussions had questions about recruitment, consenting issues, and expectations from the study about return of both overall trial findings and individual research test results. Results The focus group data gave us an insight on potential participants’ views on recruitment, consenting, communications about the study, and expectations about return of both overall trial findings and individual research test results. The concerns expressed were largely addressable. In addition, the concern we had about some parents enrolling their children in the study solely for the sake of getting their child's cognitive function results was dispelled. Conclusions We found that the individuals participating in our focus groups were generally enthusiastic about the large clinical study and could see the value in answering the study question. The data from the focus groups were used to inform changes to the recruitment and consent process. Focus group input was also instrumental in affirming the study design regarding return of results. Our experience suggests that the approach we used may serve as a model for other investigators to help inform the various elements of clinical study design, in particular the recruitment and consenting processes and expectations of potential participants regarding the return of individual research findings. PMID:24955380

Kadimpati, Sandeep; McCormick, Jennifer B; Chiu, Yichen; Parker, Ashley B.; Iftikhar, Aliya Z.; Flick, Randall P.; Warner, David O.

2014-01-01

8

International Prostate Screening Trials Evaluation Group (IPSTEG)  

Cancer.gov

Key Programs International Prostate Screening Trials Evaluation Group (IPSTEG) Background Information The International Prostate Screening Trial Evaluation Group (IPSTEG) is a collaboration between the researchers in Europe and North America conducting

9

The MATISE study: a randomised trial of group art therapy for people with schizophrenia.  

E-print Network

with schizophrenia but there have been few attempts to examine its effects and cost effectiveness has not been examined. The MATISSE study aims to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of group Art Therapy for people with schizophrenia. Method...

Crawford, Mike J; Killaspy, Helen; Kalaitzaki, Eleftheria; Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Patterson, Sue; Soteriou, Tony; ONeill, Francis A; Clayton, Katie; Maratos, Anna; Barnes, Thomas R; Osborn, David; Johnson, Tony; King, Michael; Tyrer, Peter; Waller, Diane

2010-08-27

10

Treatment of central precocious puberty: lessons from a 15 years prospective trial. German Decapeptyl Study Group.  

PubMed

There is still controversy about the auxological outcome of GnRH agonist treatment in patients with CPP and about the favorable age and auxological characteristics at start of treatment for achieving a normal final height (FH) or for preserving height potential. We analyzed the FH data of 52 young women from a prospective multicentric trial which was started in 1985. The aim of this analysis was to determine factors that may predict a favorable FH or a good height gain. Chronological age (CA) was 5.2 +/- 2.1 yr (+/- SD) at start of puberty, 6.2 +/- 2.0 yr at start of triptorelin depot treatment, 11.1 +/- 1.1 yr at end of treatment, and 16.7 +/- 2.6 yr at FH evaluation. After 4.8 +/- 2.2 yr (1.1-9.9 yr) of treatment duration, FH was 160.6 +/- 8.0 cm (vs 154.9 +/- 9.6 cm of initial height prediction [PAH], p<0.05). A FH within TH range or in excess of mean TH was achieved by 78% or 41% of patients. FH was above the 3rd percentile of the normal German population in 29% of patients (63% had an initial PAH < 156 cm). The group of patients with start of puberty at age < or = 6 yr (Group 1) showed a significantly higher height gain (FH - initial PAH) and lower height deficit compared to TH than older patients (Group 2). Furthermore, the percentage of patients from Group 1 reaching TH range or mean TH showed a significant increase with GnRH agonist treatment whereas this was not the case in Group 2. Stepwise regression analysis showed that height SDS at end of treatment, age at menarche, bone age (BA) at start of treatment, and BA advancement at end of treatment were determinants of FH (r2=0.923). Initial BA advancement and treatment duration were the factors that explained 68% of the variability of height gain. Although BA advancement at initiation of treatment was negatively associated with FH it was a positive predictor of height gain. In addition, height gain correlated significantly with CA and BA at start of treatment (r= -0.430, p=0.004 and r=0.359, p=0.018). Growth after interruption of treatment had no significant predictive effect on FH. It is concluded that a higher percentage of patients below 6 yr of age at start of puberty do profit from GnRH agonist treatment with respect to achieving a normal FH. BA, BA advancement, and height SDS at treatment start are important factors for determining outcome. PMID:10969917

Partsch, C J; Heger, S; Sippell, W G

2000-07-01

11

Recruitment activities for a nationwide, population-based, group-randomized trial: the VA MI-Plus study  

PubMed Central

Background The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) oversees the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. The feasibility of a large-scale, nationwide, group-randomized implementation trial of VHA outpatient practices has not been reported. We describe the recruitment and enrollment of such a trial testing a clinician-directed, Internet-delivered intervention for improving the care of postmyocardial infarction patients with multiple comorbidities. Methods With a recruitment goal of 200 eligible community-based outpatient clinics, parent VHA facilities (medical centers) were recruited because they oversee their affiliated clinics and the research conducted there. Eligible facilities had at least four VHA-owned and -operated primary care clinics, an affiliated Institutional Review Board (IRB), and no ongoing, potentially overlapping, quality-improvement study. Between December 2003 and December 2005, in two consecutive phases, we used initial and then intensified recruitment strategies. Results Overall, 48 of 66 (73%) eligible facilities were recruited. Of the 219 clinics and 957 clinicians associated with the 48 facilities, 168 (78%) clinics and 401 (42%) clinicians participated. The median time from initial facility contact to clinic enrollment was 222 days, which decreased by over one-third from the first to the second recruitment phase (medians: 323 and 195 days, respectively; p < .001), when more structured recruitment with physician recruiters was implemented and a dedicated IRB manager was added to the coordinating center staff. Conclusions Large group-randomized trials benefit from having dedicated physician investigators and IRB personnel involved in recruitment. A large-scale, nationally representative, group-randomized trial of community-based clinics is feasible within the VHA or a similar national healthcare system. PMID:21906278

2011-01-01

12

Gall stone recurrence and its prevention: the British/Belgian Gall Stone Study Group's post-dissolution trial.  

PubMed Central

The British/Belgian Gall Stone Study Group (BBGSG) post-dissolution trial was a prospective, multicentre, randomised, double blind trial of: (i) low dose ursodeoxycholic acid, (ii) placebo, and (iii) a high fibre, low refined carbohydrate diet in the prevention of gall stone recurrence in patients with complete gall stone dissolution. Further aims included establishing the timing and frequency of recurrence and its association with biliary symptoms, a comparison of the sensitivity of ultrasonography v oral cholecystectography in detecting recurrent stones, and a search for risk factors predicting recurrence. Ninety three patients entered the study, and 82 were followed up for up to five years (mean (SEM) 28 (1.5) months) with six monthly ultrasonography and yearly oral cholecystectography. There were 21 recurrences (26 by oral cholecystectography or ultrasonography, or both), only two of which were symptomatic, which were detected between 12 and 42 months after trial entry. This corresponded to an actuarial recurrence rate of 33.9 (7.0%) by lifetable analysis at 42 months and subsequently. There were four recurrences in the ursodeoxycholic acid, six in the placebo, and 11 in the diet groups, corresponding to 21.9 (9.9)%, 27.4 (10.1)%, and 45.8 (12.4)% respectively at 42 months by lifetable analysis (NS). Variables including age, obesity, menopausal state, pregnancy, and oestrogen containing drugs were not shown to affect recurrence rate. Men had more frequent recurrence than women (NS). Patients who had had multiple stones experienced more recurrences than did those with single stones (NS). Recurrence did not occur in patients who took non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p < 0.02). The stone free interval between stone dissolution and trial entry proved to be important--those stone free > nine months had a recurrence rate of only 12.7 (6.0)% at 42 months compared with 55.4 (12.5)% in those stone free < nine months (p < 0.01). There was imbalance between the ursodeoxycholic acid and placebo groups for this factor, and after applying a statistical correction, the adjusted recurrence rate in the ursodeoxycholic acid group was 15% compared with 30% in both placebo and diet groups (NS). These data suggest that after medical dissolution, the risk of gall stone recurrence is not reduced by a high fibre, low refined carbohydrate diet: it may be lowered, but not abolished, by low dose ursodeoxycholic acid. PMID:8406169

Hood, K A; Gleeson, D; Ruppin, D C; Dowling, R H

1993-01-01

13

MAVIDOS Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. The MAVIDOS Study Group  

PubMed Central

MAVIDOS is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ISRCTN82927713, registered 2008 Apr 11), funded by Arthritis Research UK, MRC, Bupa Foundation and NIHR. Background Osteoporosis is a major public health problem as a result of associated fragility fractures. Skeletal strength increases from birth to a peak in early adulthood. This peak predicts osteoporosis risk in later life. Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnancy is common (31% in a recent Southampton cohort) and predicts reduced bone mass in the offspring. In this study we aim to test whether offspring of mothers supplemented with vitamin D in pregnancy have higher bone mass at birth than those whose mothers were not supplemented. Methods/Design Women have their vitamin D status assessed after ultrasound scanning in the twelfth week of pregnancy at 3 trial centres (Southampton, Sheffield, Oxford). Women with circulating 25(OH)-vitamin D levels 25-100 nmol/l are randomised in a double-blind design to either oral vitamin D supplement (1000 IU cholecalciferol/day, n = 477) or placebo at 14 weeks (n = 477). Questionnaire data include parity, sunlight exposure, dietary information, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. At 19 and 34 weeks maternal anthropometry is assessed and blood samples taken to measure 25(OH)-vitamin D, PTH and biochemistry. At delivery venous umbilical cord blood is collected, together with umbilical cord and placental tissue. The babies undergo DXA assessment of bone mass within the first 14 days after birth, with the primary outcome being whole body bone mineral content adjusted for gestational age and age. Children are then followed up with yearly assessment of health, diet, physical activity and anthropometric measures, with repeat assessment of bone mass by DXA at age 4 years. Discussion As far as we are aware, this randomised trial is one of the first ever tests of the early life origins hypothesis in human participants and has the potential to inform public health policy regarding vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy. It will also provide a valuable resource in which to study the influence of maternal vitamin D status on other childhood outcomes such as glucose tolerance, blood pressure, cardiovascular function, IQ and immunology. PMID:22314083

2012-01-01

14

Can costs be measured and predicted by modeling within a cooperative clinical trials group? Economic methodologic pilot studies of the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) studies 90-03 and 91-04  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To (1) measure radiation therapy costs for patients in randomized controlled clinical trials, (2) compare measured costs to modeling predictions, (3) examine cost distributions, and (4) assess feasibility of collecting economic data within a cooperative group.Methods: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group conducted economic pilot studies for two Phase III studies that compared fractionation patterns. Expected quantities of Current Procedural

Jean B Owen; Perry W Grigsby; Thomas M Caldwell; Andre A Konski; Darlene J Johnson; William F Demas; Benjamin Movsas; Christopher U Jones; Todd H Wasserman

2001-01-01

15

Trials of large group teaching in Malaysian private universities: a cross sectional study of teaching medicine and other disciplines  

PubMed Central

Background This is a pilot cross sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative approach towards tutors teaching large classes in private universities in the Klang Valley (comprising Kuala Lumpur, its suburbs, adjoining towns in the State of Selangor) and the State of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The general aim of this study is to determine the difficulties faced by tutors when teaching large group of students and to outline appropriate recommendations in overcoming them. Findings Thirty-two academics from six private universities from different faculties such as Medical Sciences, Business, Information Technology, and Engineering disciplines participated in this study. SPSS software was used to analyse the data. The results in general indicate that the conventional instructor-student approach has its shortcoming and requires changes. Interestingly, tutors from Medicine and IT less often faced difficulties and had positive experience in teaching large group of students. Conclusion However several suggestions were proposed to overcome these difficulties ranging from breaking into smaller classes, adopting innovative teaching, use of interactive learning methods incorporating interactive assessment and creative technology which enhanced students learning. Furthermore the study provides insights on the trials of large group teaching which are clearly identified to help tutors realise its impact on teaching. The suggestions to overcome these difficulties and to maximize student learning can serve as a guideline for tutors who face these challenges. PMID:21902839

2011-01-01

16

Interactions between comorbidity and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results of German Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Study Group trials.  

PubMed

This study investigated the impact of comorbidity in 555 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia enrolled in two trials of the German Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Study Group on first-line treatment with fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, or chlorambucil. Patients with two or more comorbidities and patients with less than two comorbidities differed in overall survival (71.7 versus 90.2 months; P<0.001) and progression-free survival (21.0 versus 31.5 months; P<0.01). After adjustment for other prognostic factors and treatment, comorbidity maintained its independent prognostic value in a multivariate Cox regression analysis. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia was the major cause of death in patients with two or more comorbidities. Disease control in patients with two or more comorbidities was better with fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide than with fludarabine treatment, but not with fludarabine compared to chlorambucil treatment. These results give insight into interactions between comorbidity and therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and suggest that durable control of the hematologic disease is most critical to improve overall outcome of patients with increased comorbidity. The registration numbers of the trials reported are NCT00276848 and NCT00262795. PMID:24584349

Goede, Valentin; Cramer, Paula; Busch, Raymonde; Bergmann, Manuela; Stauch, Martina; Hopfinger, Georg; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Döhner, Hartmut; Westermann, Anne; Wendtner, Clemens M; Eichhorst, Barbara; Hallek, Michael

2014-06-01

17

Defining Responses to Therapy and Study Outcomes in Clinical Trials of Invasive Fungal Diseases: Mycoses Study Group and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Consensus Criteria  

PubMed Central

Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) have become major causes of morbidity and mortality among highly immunocompromised patients. Authoritative consensus criteria to diagnose IFD have been useful in establishing eligibility criteria for antifungal trials. There is an important need for generation of consensus definitions of outcomes of IFD that will form a standard for evaluating treatment success and failure in clinical trials. Therefore, an expert international panel consisting of the Mycoses Study Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer was convened to propose guidelines for assessing treatment responses in clinical trials of IFDs and for defining study outcomes. Major fungal diseases that are discussed include invasive disease due to Candida species, Aspergillus species and other molds, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Coccidioides immitis. We also discuss potential pitfalls in assessing outcome, such as conflicting clinical, radiological, and/or mycological data and gaps in knowledge. PMID:18637757

Segal, Brahm H.; Herbrecht, Raoul; Stevens, David A.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Sobel, Jack; Viscoli, Claudio; Walsh, Thomas J.; Maertens, Johan; Patterson, Thomas F.; Perfect, John R.; Dupont, Bertrand; Wingard, John R.; Calandra, Thierry; Kauffman, Carol A.; Graybill, John R.; Baden, Lindsey R.; Pappas, Peter G.; Bennett, John E.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Cordonnier, Catherine; Viviani, Maria Anna; Bille, Jacques; Almyroudis, Nikolaos G.; Wheat, L. Joseph; Graninger, Wolfgang; Bow, Eric J.; Holland, Steven M.; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Dismukes, William E.; De Pauw, Ben E.

2009-01-01

18

NCIC Clinical Trials Group experience of employing patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials: an illustrative study in a palliative setting.  

PubMed

In this article we briefly review the experience of the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) Clinical Trials Group (CTG) with respect to the assessment of patient reported outcomes in clinical trials, and illustrate issues important to assessing symptom palliation in clinical trials of cancer therapy. We highlight a standard approach taken by the NCIC CTG, and illustrate how this approach may be applied to the complex problem of symptom control analysis in patients with locally advanced NSCLC. We further illustrate how variations in this analysis yield different apparent rates of palliation. Apparent rates of palliation critically depended on the outcome measures used: single symptom response across patients (5-32%, depending on the symptom of interest), symptom response in specific symptomatic patients (37-100%), symptom control (45-82%), index symptom response (60%), proportion of patients experiencing improvement in all symptoms (21%), or health-related quality of life (HRQoL) improvement (23%, global). Rates also varied substantively depending on which cohort of patients was considered relevant to each analysis (i.e., was included in the respective denominator). Substantive discordance in patients' apparent palliation was seen when HRQoL data were compared with symptom diary data. Appropriate and valid descriptions of palliative outcomes in clinical trials are complex undertakings. We conclude that several measures are required for a textured clinical description of outcome, and recommend reporting palliation according to individual symptom response rates and HRQoL response rates, in order to address each construct of palliation success. PMID:20528376

Brundage, Michael; Bezjak, Andrea; Tu, Dongsheng; Palmer, Michael; Pater, Joseph

2008-06-01

19

Equitable treatment for HIV/AIDS clinical trial participants: a focus group study of patients, clinician researchers, and administrators in western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the concerns and priorities of key stakeholders in a developing country regarding ethical obligations held by researchers and perceptions of equity or “what is fair” for study participants in an HIV/AIDS clinical drug trial. Design Qualitative study with focus groups. Setting Teaching and referral hospital and rural health centre in western Kenya. Participants Potential HIV/AIDS clinical trial participants, clinician researchers, and administrators. Results Eighty nine individuals participated in a total of 11 focus groups over a four month period. The desire for continued drug therapy, most often life long, following an HIV/AIDS clinical trial was the most common priority expressed in all focus groups. Patients with and without HIV/AIDS also thought subsidisation of drug therapies and education were critical forms of compensation for clinical trial participation. Financial incentives were considered important primarily for purchasing drug therapy as well as obtaining food. Patients noted a concern for the potential mismanagement of any money offered. Clinician researchers and administrators felt strongly that researchers have a moral obligation to participants following a trial to provide continued drug therapy, adverse event monitoring, and primary care. Finally, clinician researchers and administrators stressed the need for thorough informed consent to avoid coercion of study participants. Conclusions Kenyan patients, clinician researchers, and administrators believe that it would be unfair to stop antiretroviral therapy following an HIV/AIDS clinical trial and that researchers have a long term obligation to participants. PMID:16373525

Shaffer, D N; Yebei, V N; Ballidawa, J B; Sidle, J E; Greene, J Y; Meslin, E M; Kimaiyo, S J N; Tierney, W M

2006-01-01

20

Racial Differences in Response to Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection: An AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Study Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background.?In the United States, black individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have higher rates of virologic failure on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and of death compared to white individuals. The cause for these disparities is uncertain. We sought to examine differences in virologic outcomes among antiretroviral-naive clinical trial participants starting randomized ART and to investigate factors to explain the differences. Methods.?Individual-level data from participants initiating ART in 5 AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies were analyzed. Included studies were those conducted during 1998–2006 with a primary outcome of virologic failure. The primary outcome measure was time to virologic failure, regardless of ART changes. Results.?A total of 2495 individuals (1151 black; 1344 white) were included with a median follow-up of 129 weeks. Compared to whites, blacks had an increased hazard of virologic failure (hazard ratio [HR]; 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–1.9; P < .001), with no evidence of heterogeneity across regimens (P = .97); the association remained after adjustment for measured confounders (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2–1.6; P < .001). Increased hazard of virologic failure was associated with younger age, higher pretreatment HIV type 1 RNA level, lower pretreatment CD4 cell count, hepatitis C antibody, less education, and recent nonadherence to treatment. Sensitivity analyses with different endpoint definitions demonstrated similar results. Conclusions.?In this analysis, blacks had a 40% higher virologic failure risk than whites that was not explained by measured confounders. The observation was consistent over a range of regimens, suggesting that the difference may be driven by social factors; however, biological factors cannot be ruled out. Further research should identify the sources of racial disparities and develop strategies to reduce them. PMID:24046302

Ribaudo, Heather J.; Smith, Kimberly Y.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Flexner, Charles; Haubrich, Richard; Chen, Yun; Fischl, Margaret A.; Schackman, Bruce R.; Riddler, Sharon A.; Gulick, Roy M.

2013-01-01

21

Barriers to Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence and Plasma HIV RNA Suppression Among AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study Participants.  

PubMed

We conducted a secondary data analysis of 11 AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) studies to examine longitudinal associations between 14 self-reported antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence barriers (at 12 weeks) and plasma HIV RNA (at 24 weeks) and to discern the relative importance of these barriers in explaining virologic detectability. Studies enrolled from 1997 to 2003 and concluded between 2002 and 2012. We included 1496 (54.2% of the original sample) with complete data. The most commonly selected barriers were "away from home" (21.9%), "simply forgot" (19.6%), "change in daily routine" (19.5%), and "fell asleep/slept through dosing time" (18.9%). In bivariate analyses, "too many pills to take" (OR=0.43, p<0.001), "wanted to avoid side effects" (OR=0.54, p=0.001), "felt drug was toxic/harmful" (OR=0.44, p<0.001), "felt sick or ill" (OR=0.49, p<0.001), "felt depressed/overwhelmed" (OR=0.58, p=0.004), and "problem taking pills at specified time" (OR=0.71, p=0.04) were associated with a lower odds of an undetectable HIV RNA. "Too many pills to take," "wanted to avoid side effects," "felt drug was toxic/harmful," "felt sick/ill,", and "felt depressed/overwhelmed" had the highest relative importance in explaining virologic detectability. "Simply forgot" was not associated with HIV RNA (OR=0.99, p=0.95) and was ninth in its relative importance. Adherence interventions should prioritize barriers with highest importance in explaining virologic outcomes rather than focusing on more commonly reported barriers. PMID:25615029

Saberi, Parya; Neilands, Torsten B; Vittinghoff, Eric; Johnson, Mallory O; Chesney, Margaret; Cohn, Susan E

2015-03-01

22

Organisation and management of the first clinical trial of BNCT in Europe (EORTC protocol 11961).EORTC BNCT study group.  

PubMed

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is based on the ability of the isotope 10B to capture thermal neutrons and to disintegrate instantaneously producing high LET particles. The only neutron beam available in Europe for such a treatment is based at the European High Flux Reactor HFR at Petten (The Netherlands). The European Commission, owners of the reactor, decided that the potential benefit of the facility should be opened to all European citizens and therefore insisted on a multinational approach to perform the first clinical trial in Europe on BNCT. This precondition had to be respected as well as the national laws and regulations. Together with the Dutch authorities actions were undertaken to overcome the obvious legal problems. Furthermore, the clinical trial at Petten takes place in a nuclear research reactor, which apart from being conducted in a non-hospital environment, is per se known to be dangerous. It was therefore of the utmost importance that special attention is given to safety, beyond normal rules, and to the training of staff. In itself, the trial is an unusual Phase I study, introducing a new drug with a new irradiation modality, with really an unknown dose-effect relationship. This trial must follow optimal procedures, which underscore the quality and qualified manner of performance. PMID:10394415

Sauerwein, W; Moss, R; Rassow, J; Stecher-Rasmussen, F; Hideghéty, K; Wolbers, J G; Sack, H

1999-06-01

23

Is chemotherapy necessary for premenopausal women with lower-risk node-positive, endocrine responsive breast cancer? 10-year update of International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial 11-93  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) Trial 11-93 is the largest trial evaluating the role of the addition of chemotherapy\\u000a to ovarian function suppression\\/ablation (OFS) and tamoxifen in premenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive early breast\\u000a cancer. Methods IBCSG Trial 11-93 is a randomized trial comparing four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC: doxorubicin or epirubicin, plus\\u000a cyclophosphamide) added to OFS and

Beat Thürlimann; Karen N. Price; Richard D. Gelber; Stig B. Holmberg; Diana Crivellari; Marco Colleoni; John Collins; John F. Forbes; Monica Castiglione-Gertsch; Alan S. Coates; Aron Goldhirsch

2009-01-01

24

Phase 2 study of T138067-sodium in patients with malignant glioma: Trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group1  

PubMed Central

We studied the activity of T138067-sodium in patients with malignant gliomas. T138067-sodium is a unique new chemotherapy agent that inhibits microtubule formation by binding irreversibly and specifically to ?1, ?2, and ?4 isotypes of ?-tubulin, causing cell arrest at G2/M and inducing apoptosis. Patients with recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme were treated intravenously with 330 mg/m2 of T138067-sodium weekly. Treatment was continued until the patient experienced either unacceptable toxicity or progressive disease. Patients had to have histologically proven glioma, have bidimensionally measurable disease at least 1 cm × 1 cm, and have received no more than one prior adjuvant chemotherapy. No chemotherapy or radiotherapy for recurrent disease was permitted. Nineteen patients entered the trial. One patient was found to be ineligible. There were two patients with anaplastic astrocytoma and 16 with glioblastoma multiforme. Only two patients had received prior adjuvant chemotherapy. The first seven patients had full pharmacokinetic sampling. No dose-limiting toxicity was seen, and pharmacokinetic results were consistent with those from non-glioma patients. The most common drug-related effects were fatigue (33%), nausea (28%), neutropenia (28%), and anorexia (17%). No patients stopped the study because of toxicity. No responses were seen in the 15 eligible patients who completed at least one cycle. Three patients had stable disease with a median duration of 2.6 months. Our results suggest that given in this dose and schedule T138067-sodium does not have activity in this population of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:15831236

Kirby, Sarah; Gertler, Stan Z.; Mason, Warren; Watling, Christopher; Forsyth, Peter; Aniagolu, Jacinta; Stagg, Robert; Wright, Matthew; Powers, Jean; Eisenhauer, Elizabeth A.

2005-01-01

25

The effects and costs of the universal parent group program – all children in focus: a study protocol for a randomized wait-list controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background In recent decades, parents have been involved in programs that aim to improve parenting style and reduce child behavior problems. Research of preventive parenting programs has shown that these interventions generally have a positive influence on both parents and children. However, to our knowledge there is a gap in the scientific literature when it comes to randomized controlled trials of brief, manual-based structured programs which address general parenting among the population, and focus on promoting health. A four-session universal health promotion parent group program named All Children in Focus was developed. It aims at promoting parental competence and children’s positive development with the parent–child relationship as the target. There is currently no randomized controlled trial existing of the program. Methods/Design A prospective multicenter randomized wait-list controlled trial is being conducted. Approximately 600 parents with children ranging in age from 3–12 years have been recruited in eleven municipalities and city districts in the County of Stockholm, Sweden. Parents are randomized at baseline to an intervention group, which receives the program directly, or to a waiting-list control group, which participates in the program six months later. Changes in parenting and child health and development are assessed with measures immediately post-intervention and six months after the baseline. Observations of a minor group of parents and children are conducted to explore possible relations between parental reports and observed behaviors, as well as changes in the interaction between parent and child. Further, data collected within the evaluation will also be applied to evaluate the possible cost-effectiveness of the program. Discussion This paper describes a study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. Except for the quantitative outcome measures to evaluate the effectiveness of All Children in Focus, this protocol also describes health economic and qualitative analyses to deepen the knowledge of the program. We further discuss some issues regarding the implementation of the program in municipalities and city districts. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN70202532 PMID:23890316

2013-01-01

26

Phase II study of Triapine® in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group (NCIC IND.161)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Triapine® is a novel small molecule ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor that showed activity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC)\\u000a cell lines. Evaluating new agents with novel mechanisms remains of interest for patients with incurable RCC. This was a single-arm,\\u000a multicentre phase II trial where Triapine was given at a schedule of 96 mg\\/m2 2-h infusion daily?×?4 repeated every 2 weeks in patients with recurrent

Jennifer J. Knox; Sebastien J. Hotte; Christian Kollmannsberger; Eric Winquist; Bryn Fisher; Elizabeth A. Eisenhauer

2007-01-01

27

Radiation Therapy Oncology Group clinical trials with misonidazole  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a review of the progressive clinical trials of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, misonidazole, in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Presentation is made of all the schemas of the recently completed and currently active RTOG Phase II and Phase III studies. Detailed information is provided on the clinical toxicity of the Phase II trials, specifically regarding neurotoxicity. With limitations in drug total dose, a variety of dose schedules have proven to be tolerable, with a moderate incidence of nausea and vomiting and mild peripheral neuropathy or central neuropathy. No other organ toxicity has been seen, specifically no liver, renal or bone marrow toxicities. An additional Phase III malignant glioma trial in the Brain Tumor Study Group is described.

Wasserman, T.H. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO); Stetz, J.; Phillips, T.L.

1981-05-15

28

Comparison of usual podiatric care and early physical therapy intervention for plantar heel pain: study protocol for a parallel-group randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background A significant number of individuals suffer from plantar heel pain (PHP) and many go on to have chronic symptoms and continued disability. Persistence of symptoms adds to the economic burden of PHP and cost-effective solutions are needed. Currently, there is a wide variation in treatment, cost, and outcomes of care for PHP with limited information on the cost-effectiveness and comparisons of common treatment approaches. Two practice guidelines and recent evidence of effective physical therapy intervention are available to direct treatment but the timing and influence of physical therapy intervention in the multidisciplinary management of PHP is unclear. The purpose of this investigation is to compare the outcomes and costs associated with early physical therapy intervention (ePT) following initial presentation to podiatry versus usual podiatric care (uPOD) in individuals with PHP. Methods A parallel-group, block-randomized clinical trial will compare ePT and uPOD. Both groups will be seen initially by a podiatrist before allocation to a group that will receive physical therapy intervention consisting primarily of manual therapy, exercise, and modalities, or podiatric care consisting primarily of a stretching handout, medication, injections, and orthotics. Treatment in each group will be directed by practice guidelines and a procedural manual, yet the specific intervention for each participant will be selected by the treating provider. Between-group differences in the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure 6 months following the initial visit will be the primary outcome collected by an independent investigator. In addition, differences in the European Quality of Life – Five Dimensions, Numeric Pain Rating Scale, Global Rating of Change (GROC), health-related costs, and cost-effectiveness at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year will be compared between groups. The association between successful outcomes based on GROC score and participant expectations of recovery generally, and specific to physical therapy and podiatry treatment, will also be analyzed. Discussion This study will be the first pragmatic trial to investigate the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of ePT and uPOD in individuals with PHP. The results will serve to inform clinical practice decisions and management guidelines of multiple disciplines. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01865734 PMID:24299257

2013-01-01

29

Evaluating a community-based early childhood education and development program in Indonesia: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial with supplementary matched control group  

PubMed Central

Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a supplementary matched control group. The aim of the trial is to evaluate a community-based early education and development program launched by the Government of Indonesia. The program was developed in collaboration with the World Bank with a total budget of US$127.7 million, and targets an estimated 738,000 children aged 0 to 6 years living in approximately 6,000 poor communities. The aim of the program is to increase access to early childhood services with the secondary aim of improving school readiness. Methods/Design The study is being conducted across nine districts. The baseline survey contained 310 villages, of which 100 were originally allocated to the intervention arm, 20 originally allocated to a 9-month delay staggered start, 100 originally allocated to an 18-month delay staggered start and 90 allocated to a matched control group (no intervention). The study consists of two cohorts, one comprising children aged 12 to 23 months and the other comprising children aged 48 to 59 months at baseline. The data collection instruments include child observations and task/game-based assessments as well as a questionnaire suite, village head questionnaire, service level questionnaires, household questionnaire, and child caretaker questionnaire. The baseline survey was conducted from March to April 2009, midline was conducted from April to August 2010 and endline conducted early 2013. The resultant participation rates at both the district and village levels were 90%. At the child level, the participation rate was 99.92%. The retention rate at the child level at midline was 99.67%. Discussion This protocol paper provides a detailed record of the trial design including a discussion regarding difficulties faced with compliance to the randomization, compliance to the dispersion schedule of community block grants, and procurement delays for baseline and midline data collections. Considering the execution of the program and the resultant threats to the study, we discuss our analytical plan and intentions for endline data collection. Trials registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76061874 PMID:23953975

2013-01-01

30

Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a group-based pain self-management intervention for patients undergoing total hip replacement: feasibility study for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Total hip replacement (THR) is a common elective surgical procedure and can be effective for reducing chronic pain. However, waiting times can be considerable. A pain self-management intervention may provide patients with skills to more effectively manage their pain and its impact during their wait for surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a group-based pain self-management course for patients undergoing THR. Methods Patients listed for a THR at one orthopedic center were posted a study invitation pack. Participants were randomized to attend a pain self-management course plus standard care or standard care only. The lay-led course was delivered by Arthritis Care and consisted of two half-day sessions prior to surgery and one full-day session after surgery. Participants provided outcome and resource-use data using a diary and postal questionnaires prior to surgery and one month, three months and six months after surgery. Brief telephone interviews were conducted with non-participants to explore barriers to participation. Results Invitations were sent to 385 eligible patients and 88 patients (23%) consented to participate. Interviews with 57 non-participants revealed the most common reasons for non-participation were views about the course and transport difficulties. Of the 43 patients randomized to the intervention group, 28 attended the pre-operative pain self-management sessions and 11 attended the post-operative sessions. Participant satisfaction with the course was high, and feedback highlighted that patients enjoyed the group format. Retention of participants was acceptable (83% of recruited patients completed follow-up) and questionnaire return rates were high (72% to 93%), with the exception of the pre-operative resource-use diary (35% return rate). Resource-use completion rates allowed for an economic evaluation from the health and social care payer perspective. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of feasibility work prior to a randomized controlled trial to assess recruitment methods and rates, barriers to participation, logistics of scheduling group-based interventions, acceptability of the intervention and piloting resource use questionnaires to improve data available for economic evaluations. This information is of value to researchers and funders in the design and commissioning of future research. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52305381. PMID:24885915

2014-01-01

31

Partial liquid ventilation in adult patients with ARDS: a multicenter phase I-II trial. Adult PLV Study Group.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of partial liquid ventilation (PLV) in adult patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies have evaluated gas exchange and the safety of PLV in adult patients with severe respiratory failure whose gas exchange was partially provided by extracorporeal life support (ECLS). This is the first experience with adult patients who were not on ECLS. METHODS: Intratracheal perflubron in a total dose of 30.1 +/- 7.1 ml/kg was administered over a period of 45 +/- 9 hours to nine adult patients with mean age = 49 +/- 4 years and mean PaO2/FiO2 ratio = 128 +/- 7 as part of a prospective, multicenter, phase I-II noncontrolled trial. RESULTS: Significant decreases in mean (A-a)DO2 (baseline = 430 +/- 47, 48 hour = 229 +/- 17, p = 0.0127 by ANOVA) and FiO2 (baseline = 0.82 +/- 0.08, 48 hour = 0.54 +/- 0.06, p = 0.025), along with an increase in mean SvO2 (baseline = 75 +/- 3, 48 hour = 85 +/- 2, p = 0.018 by ANOVA) were observed. No significant changes in pulmonary compliance or hemodynamic variables were noted. Seven of the nine patients in this study survived beyond 28 days after initiation of partial liquid ventilation whereas 5 patients survived to discharge. Three adverse events [hypoxia (2) and hyperbilirubinemia (1)] were determined to be severe in nature. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that PLV may be performed safely with few related severe adverse effects. Improvement in gas exchange was observed in this series of adult patients over the 48 hours after initiation of PLV. Images Figure 1. PMID:9833808

Hirschl, R B; Conrad, S; Kaiser, R; Zwischenberger, J B; Bartlett, R H; Booth, F; Cardenas, V

1998-01-01

32

Phase II trial of R115777 (NSC #70818) in patients with advanced colorectal cancer: A Southwest Oncology Group study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Purpose: The purpose of this Phase II multi-institutional trial was to determine the efficacy and toxicity of R115777 in previously\\u000a untreated patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Patients and methods: Patients were required to have histologically confirmed colorectal cancer with distant metastatic disease that was not surgically\\u000a curable. They could not have received prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease. R115777 was

Robert P. Whitehead; Sheryl McCoy; John S. Macdonald; Saul E. Rivkin; Marcus A. Neubauer; Shaker R. Dakhil; Heinz-Josef Lenz; Michael S. Tanaka; James L. Abbruzzese

2006-01-01

33

Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a novel, group self-management course for adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain: study protocol for a multicentre, randomised controlled trial (COPERS)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a common condition that often responds poorly to treatment. Self-management courses have been advocated as a non-drug pain management technique, although evidence for their effectiveness is equivocal. We designed and piloted a self-management course based on evidence for effectiveness for specific course components and characteristics. Methods/analysis COPERS (coping with persistent pain, effectiveness research into self-management) is a pragmatic randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an intensive, group, cognitive behavioural-based, theoretically informed and manualised self-management course for chronic pain patients against a control of best usual care: a pain education booklet and a relaxation CD. The course lasts for 15?h, spread over 3?days, with a –2?h follow-up session 2?weeks later. We aim to recruit 685 participants with chronic musculoskeletal pain from primary, intermediate and secondary care services in two UK regions. The study is powered to show a standardised mean difference of 0.3 in the primary outcome, pain-related disability. Secondary outcomes include generic health-related quality of life, healthcare utilisation, pain self-efficacy, coping, depression, anxiety and social engagement. Outcomes are measured at 6 and 12?months postrandomisation. Pain self-efficacy is measured at 3?months to assess whether change mediates clinical effect. Ethics/dissemination Ethics approval was given by Cambridgeshire Ethics 11/EE/046. This trial will provide robust data on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an evidence-based, group self-management programme for chronic musculoskeletal pain. The published outcomes will help to inform future policy and practice around such self-management courses, both nationally and internationally. Trial registration ISRCTN24426731. PMID:23358564

Carnes, Dawn; Taylor, Stephanie JC; Homer, Kate; Eldridge, Sandra; Bremner, Stephen; Pincus, Tamar; Rahman, Anisur; Underwood, Martin

2013-01-01

34

Attitudes toward participation in breast cancer randomized clinical trials in the African-American community: a focus group study. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Focus groups revealed that African-American women are largely positive about breast cancer clinical research, with more than half reporting that they would be interested in participating in a hypothetical trial. Several major issues that influenced these women’s willingness, or unwillingness, to participate in trials were identified. Insights gained may help researchers develop protocols and recruitment procedures that are culturally sensitive and relevant to this population.

35

A PHASE II TRIAL OF ERLOTINIB IN RECURRENT SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE CERVIX: A GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY GROUP STUDY  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the proportion of patients with tumor response, the proportion who survived progression-free for at least six months (PFS ? 6 months) and the frequency and severity of toxicities of patients with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with erlotinib. Methods This was a multicenter, open-label single arm trial evaluating the toxicity and efficacy of oral erlotinib at an initial dose of 150 mg daily until progressive disease or adverse effects prohibited further therapy. Results Twenty-eight patients with squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled onto this trial. Twenty-five patients were evaluable. There were no objective responses with four (16%) achieving stable disease; only one patient had a PFS ? 6 months (4%). The one-sided 90% confidence interval (CI) for response was 0.0%–8.8%. The two-sided 90% CI for the proportion of patients surviving progression-free for at least 6 months is 0.2%–17.6%. Erlotinib was well tolerated with the most common drug-related adverse events being gastrointestinal toxicities, fatigue and rash. Conclusion Erlotinib is inactive as monotherapy in patients with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. PMID:19574787

Schilder, Russell J.; Sill, Michael W.; Lee, Yi-Chun; Mannel, Robert

2009-01-01

36

Increasing the Degrees of Freedom in Future Group Randomized Trials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article builds on the previous article by Blitstein et al. (2005), which showed how external estimates of intraclass correlation can be used to improve the precision for the analysis of an existing group randomized trial. The authors extend that work to sample size estimation and power analysis for future group-randomized trials. Often this…

Blitstein, Jonathan L.; Murray, David M.; Hannan, Peter J.; Shadish, William R.

2005-01-01

37

Development of Clinical Trials in a Cooperative Group Setting: The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE We examine the processes and document the calendar time required to activate Phase II and III clinical trials by an oncology group: the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG). METHODS Setup steps were documented by: 1) interviewing ECOG headquarters and statistical center staff, and committee chairs, 2) reviewing standard operating procedure manuals, and 3) inspecting study records, documents, and emails to identify additional steps. Calendar time was collected for each major process for each study in this set. RESULTS Twenty-eight Phase III studies were activated by ECOG during the 01/2000–07/2006 study period. We examined in detail a sample of 16 of those studies. More than 481 distinct processes were required for study activation: 420 working steps, 61 major decision points, 26 processing loops, and 13 stopping points. Median calendar days to activate a trial in the Phase III subset was 783 days (median, 285 to 1542 days) from executive approval and 808 days (range, 435 to 1604 days) from initial conception of the study. Data were collected for all Phase II and Phase III trials activated and completed during this time period (n=52) for which development time represented 43.9% and 54.1% of the total trial time respectively. CONCLUSION The steps required to develop and activate a clinical trial may require as much or more time than the actual completion of a trial. The data demonstrates that to improve the activation process, research should to be directed toward streamlining both internal and external groups and processes. PMID:18519773

Sandler, Alan; Cheng, Steven; Crites, Joshua; Ferranti, Lori; Wu, Amy; Gray, Robert; MacDonald, Jean; Marinucci, Donna; Comis, Robert

2009-01-01

38

Phase I Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Dose Escalation Study in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 98-03  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate in a Phase I trial the feasibility and toxicity of dose-escalated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) concurrent with chemotherapy in patients with primary supratentorial glioblastoma (GBM). Methods and Materials: A total of 209 patients were enrolled. All received 46 Gy in 2-Gy fractions to the first planning target volume (PTV{sub 1}), defined as the gross tumor volume (GTV) plus 1.8 cm. A subsequent boost was given to PTV{sub 2}, defined as GTV plus 0.3 cm. Patients were stratified into two groups (Group 1: PTV{sub 2} <75 cm{sup 3}; Group 2: PTV{sub 2} {>=}75 cm{sup 3}). Four RT dose levels were evaluated: 66, 72, 78, and 84 Gy. Carmustine 80 mg/m{sup 2} was given during RT, then every 8 weeks for 6 cycles. Pretreatment characteristics were well balanced. Results: Acute and late Grade 3/4 RT-related toxicities were no more frequent at higher RT dose or with larger tumors. There were no dose-limiting toxicities (acute Grade {>=}3 irreversible central nervous system toxicities) observed on any dose level in either group. On the basis of the absence of dose-limiting toxicities, dose was escalated to 84 Gy in both groups. Late RT necrosis was noted at 66 Gy (1 patient), 72 Gy (2 patients), 78 Gy (2 patients), and 84 Gy (3 patients) in Group 1. In Group 2, late RT necrosis was noted at 78 Gy (1 patient) and 84 Gy (2 patients). Median time to RT necrosis was 8.8 months (range, 5.1-12.5 months). Median survival in Group 1 was 11.6-19.3 months. Median survival in Group 2 was 8.2-13.9 months. Conclusions: Our study shows the feasibility of delivering higher than standard (60 Gy) RT dose with concurrent chemotherapy for primary GBM, with an acceptable risk of late central nervous system toxicity.

Tsien, Christina [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)], E-mail: ctsien@umich.edu; Moughan, Jennifer [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Gilbert, Mark R. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Purdy, James [University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Simpson, Joseph [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Kresel, John J. [Arizona Oncology Services and Barrows Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Curran, Walter J. [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Diaz, Aidnag [University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

2009-03-01

39

Effective components of feedback from Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) in youth mental health care: study protocol of a three-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Routine Outcome Monitoring refers to regular measurements of clients’ progress in clinical practice, aiming to evaluate and, if necessary, adapt treatment. Clients fill out questionnaires and clinicians receive feedback about the results. Studies concerning feedback in youth mental health care are rare. The effects of feedback, the importance of specific aspects of feedback, and the mechanisms underlying the effects of feedback are unknown. In the present study, several potentially effective components of feedback from Routine Outcome Monitoring in youth mental health care in the Netherlands are investigated. Methods/Design We will examine three different forms of feedback through a three-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial. 432 children and adolescents (aged 4 to 17 years) and their parents, who have been referred to mental health care institution Pro Persona, will be randomly assigned to one of three feedback conditions (144 participants per condition). Randomization will be stratified by age of the child or adolescent and by department. All participants fill out questionnaires at the start of treatment, one and a half months after the start of treatment, every three months during treatment, and at the end of treatment. Participants in the second and third feedback conditions fill out an additional questionnaire. In condition 1, clinicians receive basic feedback regarding clients’ symptoms and quality of life. In condition 2, the feedback of condition 1 is extended with feedback regarding possible obstacles to a good outcome and with practical suggestions. In condition 3, the feedback of condition 2 is discussed with a colleague while following a standardized format for case consultation. The primary outcome measure is symptom severity and secondary outcome measures are quality of life, satisfaction with treatment, number of sessions, length of treatment, and rates of dropout. We will also examine the role of being not on track (not responding to treatment). Discussion This study contributes to the identification of effective components of feedback and a better understanding of how feedback functions in real-world clinical practice. If the different feedback components prove to be effective, this can help to support and improve the care for youth. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR4234 PMID:24393491

2014-01-01

40

Protocol for Cilostazol Stroke Prevention Study for Antiplatelet Combination (CSPS.com): a randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial  

PubMed Central

Rationale and aims Monotherapy with antiplatelet agents is only modestly effective in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke (IS), particularly in patients with multiple risk factors such as cervicocephalic arterial stenosis, diabetes, and hypertension. While dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel reduced IS recurrence, particularly in the early stages after IS, it increased the risk of bleeding. Compared with aspirin, cilostazol prevented IS recurrence without increasing the incidence of serious bleeds. In patients with intracranial arterial stenosis, no significant increase in bleeding events was observed for DAPT with cilostazol and aspirin, compared to that for aspirin monotherapy. DAPT involving cilostazol may therefore be safer than conventional DAPT. These findings prompted us to conduct the Cilostazol Stroke Prevention Study for Antiplatelet Combination (CSPS.com; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01995370) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of DAPT involving cilostazol for secondary IS prevention, in comparison with that of antiplatelet monotherapy. Design The CSPS.com is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial. A total of 4000 high-risk patients with noncardioembolic IS will be randomized 8–180 days after onset to receive aspirin or clopidogrel monotherapy, or DAPT with cilostazol and aspirin or clopidogrel for at least one-year. Study outcomes The primary outcome is IS recurrence. Secondary outcomes are composite occurrences of any stroke, death from any cause, myocardial infarction, vascular death, and other vascular events. Discussion The CSPS.com is expected to provide evidence indicating whether secondary IS prevention in high-risk patients can be improved by using DAPT involving cilostazol. PMID:25487817

Toyoda, Kazunori; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Hoshino, Haruhiko; Kimura, Kazumi; Origasa, Hideki; Naritomi, Hiroaki; Minematsu, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Takenori

2015-01-01

41

The Impact of Trauma-Focused Group Therapy upon HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors in the NIDA Clinical Trials Network “Women and Trauma” Multi-Site Study  

PubMed Central

Women in drug treatment struggle with co-occurring problems, including trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which can heighten HIV risk. This study examines the impact of two group therapy interventions on reduction of unprotected sexual occasions (USO) among women with substance use disorders (SUD) and PTSD. Participants were 346 women recruited from and receiving treatment at six community-based drug treatment programs participating in NIDA’s Clinical Trials Network. Participants were randomized to receive 12-sessions of either seeking safety (SS), a cognitive behavioral intervention for women with PTSD and SUD, or women’s health education (WHE), an attention control psychoeducational group. Participants receiving SS who were at higher sexual risk (i.e., at least 12 USO per month) significantly reduced the number of USO over 12-month follow up compared to WHE. High risk women with co-occurring PTSD and addiction may benefit from treatment addressing coping skills and trauma to reduce HIV risk. PMID:19452271

Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Killeen, Therese; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hansen, Cheri; Jiang, Huiping; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Miele, Gloria M.; Cohen, Lisa R.; Gan, Weijin; Resko, Stella M.; DiBono, Michele; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Nunes, Edward V.

2009-01-01

42

A Phase III Trial of Ifosfamide with or without Cisplatin in Carcinosarcoma of the Uterus: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aims of this study were to substantiate the previously reported activity of ifosfamide in patients with advanced, persistent, or recurrent carcinosarcoma (mixed mesodermal sarcoma) of the uterus, and to determine whether the addition of cisplatin results in an improved response or survival. Secondarily, we sought to determine the toxicity of ifosfamide–cisplatin in this patient population.Methods. Patients were randomized

Gregory Sutton; Virginia L. Brunetto; Larry Kilgore; John T. Soper; Ramon McGehee; George Olt; Samuel S. Lentz; Joel Sorosky; Jeng-Gwang Hsiu

2000-01-01

43

The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial  

PubMed Central

Background Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS) compared to treatment as usual (TAU). It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder. PMID:23289935

2013-01-01

44

Independent but Coordinated Trials: Insights from the Practice Based Opportunities for Weight Reduction (POWER) Trials Collaborative Research Group  

PubMed Central

Background The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) funded three institutions to conduct effectiveness trials of weight loss interventions in primary care settings. Unlike traditional multi-center clinical trials, each study was established as an independent trial with a distinct protocol. Still, efforts were made to coordinate and standardize several aspects of the trials. The three trials formed a collaborative group, the “Practice Based Opportunities for Weight Reduction (POWER) Trials Collaborative Research Group.” Purpose We describe the common and distinct features of the three trials, the key characteristics of the collaborative group, and the lessons learned from this novel organizational approach. Methods The Collaborative Research Group consists of three individual studies: “Be Fit, Be Well“(Washington University in St. Louis/Harvard University), “POWER Hopkins” (Johns Hopkins), and “POWER-UP” (University of Pennsylvania). There are a total of 15 participating clinics with ~1,100 participants. The common primary outcome is change in weight at 24 months of follow-up, but each protocol has trial-specific elements including different interventions and different secondary outcomes. A Resource Coordinating Unit at Johns Hopkins provides administrative support. Results The Collaborative Research Group established common components to facilitate potential cross-site comparisons. The main advantage of this approach is to develop and evaluate several interventions, when there is insufficient evidence to test one or two approaches, as would be done in a traditional multi-center trial. Limitations The challenges of the organizational design include the complex decision making process, the extent of potential data pooling, time intensive efforts to standardize reports, and the additional responsibilities of the DSMB to monitor three distinct protocols. Conclusions The POWER Trials Collaborative Research Group is a case study of an alternative organizational model to conduct independent, yet coordinated trials. Such a model is increasingly being used in NHLBI supported trials , especially given the interest in comparative effectiveness research. Nevertheless, the ultimate utility of this model will not be fully understood until the trials are completed. PMID:20573639

Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Clark, Jeanne M.; Emmons, Karen M.; Moore, Renee H.; Bennett, Gary G; Warner, Erica T.; Sarwer, Davis B.; Jerome, Gerald J; Miller, Edgar R; Volger, Sheri; Louis, Thomas A.; Wells, Barbara; Wadden, Thomas A.; Colditz, Graham A.; Appel, Lawrence J.

2011-01-01

45

The ACTIVATE study: results from a group-randomized controlled trial comparing a traditional worksite health promotion program with an activated consumer program.  

PubMed

PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also significantly improved self-reported productivity. CONCLUSION. An effective intervention can change employee health risk status and activation both at the population level and at the individual high risk level. However, program engagement at the population level was low, indicating that additional promotional strategies, such as greater use of incentives, need to be examined. Less intensive coaching can be as effective as more intensive, albeit both interventions produced modest behavior change and retention in the consumer activation arm was most difficult. Further research is needed concerning recruitment and retention methods that will enable populations to realize the full potential of activated consumerism. PMID:22040398

Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa

2011-01-01

46

Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) studies of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): a review of four consecutive childhood AML trials conducted between 1981 and 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1981 to 2000, a total of 1823 children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) enrolled on four consecutive Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) clinical trials. POG 8101 demonstrated that the induction rate associated with the 3+7+7 combination of daunorubicin, Ara-C, and 6-thioguanine (DAT) was greater than that associated with an induction regimen used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (82 vs 61%;

Y Ravindranath; M Chang; C P Steuber; D Becton; G Dahl; C Civin; B Camitta; A Carroll; S C Raimondi; H J Weinstein

2005-01-01

47

Lessons learned from placebo groups in antidepressant trials.  

PubMed

This comprehensive review provides an overview about placebo and nocebo phenomena in antidepressant trials. Improvements in the placebo groups may partly be explained through methodological issues such as natural course of depression and regression to the mean, but also fundamentally reflect investigators' and participants' expectations. A meta-analysis by our group of 96 randomized placebo-controlled trials showed large placebo responses to antidepressant medication. Moderator analyses revealed substantially larger placebo responses in observer ratings compared with self-report. Effect sizes in observer ratings showed strong increase with publication year while this effect was not found for patients' self-ratings. This reflects the strong influence of investigators' expectations. The analysis of 'nocebo effects', e.g. adverse effects in placebo groups of antidepressant trials also confirms the impact of expectations: nocebo symptoms reflected the typical side-effect patterns expected in the drug group, with higher symptoms rates in the placebo groups of tricyclic antidepressant trials compared with placebo groups of trials testing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. While the placebo response seems to be similar for women and men, gender differences were found for nocebo rates. In the conclusion, we discuss potential implications for clinical trial designs and argue for interventions aimed at optimizing positive expectations of treatment benefit while minimizing the impact of adverse effects. PMID:21576145

Mora, Meike Shedden; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Rief, Winfried

2011-06-27

48

United States Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group  

PubMed Central

The United States Critical Illness and Injury Trials (USCIIT) Group is an inclusive, grassroots “network of networks” with the dual missions of fostering investigator-initiated hypothesis testing and developing recommendations for strategic plans at a national level. The USCIIT Group’s transformational approach enlists multidisciplinary investigative teams across institutions, critical illness and injury professional organizations, federal agencies that fund clinical and translational research, and industry partners. The USCIIT Group is endorsed by all major critical illness and injury professional organizations spanning the specialties of anesthesiology, emergency medicine, internal medicine, neurology, nursing, pediatrics, pharmacy and nutrition, surgery and trauma, and respiratory and physical therapy. Recent successes provide the opportunity to significantly increase the dialogue necessary to advance clinical and translational research on behalf of our community. More than 200 investigators are now involved across > 30 academic and community hospitals. Collectively, USCIIT Group investigators have enrolled > 10,000 patients from academic and community hospitals in studies during the last 3 years. To keep our readership “ahead of the curve,” this article provides a vision for critical illness and injury research based on (1) programmatic organization of large-scale, multicentered collaborative studies and (2) annual strategic planning at a national scale across disciplines and stakeholders. PMID:23460158

Blum, James M.; Morris, Peter E.; Martin, Greg S.; Gong, Michelle N.; Bhagwanjee, Satish; Cairns, Charles B.

2013-01-01

49

Exploring recruitment barriers and facilitators in early cancer detection trials: the use of pre-trial focus groups  

PubMed Central

Background Recruiting to randomized controlled trials is fraught with challenges; with less than one third recruiting to their original target. In preparation for a trial evaluating the effectiveness of a blood test to screen for lung cancer (the ECLS trial), we conducted a qualitative study to explore the potential barriers and facilitators that would impact recruitment. Methods Thirty two people recruited from community settings took part in four focus groups in Glasgow and Dundee (UK). Thematic analysis was used to code the data and develop themes. Results Three sub-themes were developed under the larger theme of recruitment strategies. The first of these themes, recruitment options, considered that participants largely felt that the invitation to participate letter should come from GPs, with postal reminders and face-to-face reminders during primary care contacts. The second theme dealt with understanding randomization and issues related to the control group (where bloods were taken but not tested). Some participants struggled with the concept or need for randomization, or for the need for a control group. Some reported that they would not consider taking part if allocated to the control group, but others were motivated to take part even if allocated to the control group by altruism. The final theme considered perceived barriers to participation and included practical barriers (such as flexible appointments and reimbursement of travel expenses) and psychosocial barriers (such as feeling stigmatized because of their smoking status and worries about being coerced into stopping smoking). Conclusions Focus groups provided useful information which resulted in numerous changes to proposed trial documentation and processes. This was in order to address participants information needs, improve comprehension of the trial documentation, enhance facilitators and remove barriers to participation. The modifications made in light of these findings may enhance trial recruitment and future trials may wish to consider use of pretrial focus groups. PMID:24678918

2014-01-01

50

Randomised, double blind, multicentre comparison of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in antihypertensive treatment: results of the HANE study. HANE Trial Research Group.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness and tolerability of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. DESIGN: Randomised multicentre trial over 48 weeks with double blind comparison of treatments. SETTING: 48 centres in four countries. PATIENTS: 868 patients with essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure 95-120 mm Hg) INTERVENTIONS: Initial treatment (step 1) consisted of 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (n = 215), 25 mg atenolol (n = 215), 10 mg nitrendipine (n = 218), or 5 mg enalapril (n = 220) once daily. If diastolic blood pressure was not reduced to < 90 mm Hg within four weeks, doses were increased to 25 mg, 50 mg, 20 mg, 10 mg, respectively, once daily (step 2) and after two more weeks to twice daily (step 3). The eight week titration phase was followed by an additional 40 weeks for patients who had reached the target diastolic pressure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood pressure by means of an automatic device with repeated measurements. RESULTS: After eight weeks the response rate for atenolol (63.7%) was significantly higher than for enalapril (50.0%), hydrochlorothiazide (44.7%), or nitrendipine (44.5%). After one year atenolol was still more effective (48.0%) than hydrochlorothiazide (35.4%) and nitrendipine (32.9%), but not significantly better than enalapril (42.7%). The treatment related dropout rate was higher (P < 0.001) in the nitrendipine group (n = 28). CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence of superiority for antihypertensive effectiveness or tolerability of the "new" classes of antihypertensives (calcium channel blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors). As these drugs are now widely used as treatment of first choice, our results further emphasise the need for studies confirming that they also reduce morbidity and mortality, as has been shown for diuretics and beta blockers. PMID:9251545

Philipp, T.; Anlauf, M.; Distler, A.; Holzgreve, H.; Michaelis, J.; Wellek, S.

1997-01-01

51

A community-based group-guided self-help intervention for low mood and stress: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a mental health condition which affects millions of people each year, with worldwide rates increasing. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is recommended in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for the treatment of depression. However, waiting lists can cause delays for face-to-face therapy. Also a proportion of people decline to present for help through the health service – the so-called treatment gap. Self-referral to CBT using community-based group interventions delivered by a voluntary sector organization may serve to resolve this problem. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to determine the efficacy of such a guided CBT self-help course, the ‘Living Life to the Full’ (LLTTF) classes delivered by the charity Action on Depression (AOD). The primary outcome is level of depression at 6 months assessed using the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ9) depression scale. Secondary measures include levels of anxiety and social functioning. Methods/design Participants with symptoms of low mood will be recruited from the community through newspaper adverts and also via the AOD website. Participants will receive either immediate or delayed access to guided CBT self-help classes - the eight session LLTTF course. The primary endpoint will be at 6 months at which point the delayed group will be offered the intervention. Levels of depression, anxiety and social functioning will be assessed and an economic analysis will be carried out. Discussion This RCT will test whether the LLTTF intervention is effective and/or cost-effective. If the LLTTF community-based classes are found to be cost effective, they may be helpful as both an intervention for those already seeking care in the health service, as well as those seeking help outside that setting, widening access to psychological therapy. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN86292664 PMID:24252475

2013-01-01

52

A group randomized trial of a complexity-based organizational intervention to improve risk factors for diabetes complications in primary care settings: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Most patients with type 2 diabetes have suboptimal control of their glucose, blood pressure (BP), and lipids – three risk factors for diabetes complications. Although the chronic care model (CCM) provides a roadmap for improving these outcomes, developing theoretically sound implementation strategies that will work across diverse primary care settings has been challenging. One explanation for this difficulty may be that most strategies do not account for the complex adaptive system (CAS) characteristics of the primary care setting. A CAS is comprised of individuals who can learn, interconnect, self-organize, and interact with their environment in a way that demonstrates non-linear dynamic behavior. One implementation strategy that may be used to leverage these properties is practice facilitation (PF). PF creates time for learning and reflection by members of the team in each clinic, improves their communication, and promotes an individualized approach to implement a strategy to improve patient outcomes. Specific objectives The specific objectives of this protocol are to: evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of PF to improve risk factor control in patients with type 2 diabetes across a variety of primary care settings; assess the implementation of the CCM in response to the intervention; examine the relationship between communication within the practice team and the implementation of the CCM; and determine the cost of the intervention both from the perspective of the organization conducting the PF intervention and from the perspective of the primary care practice. Intervention The study will be a group randomized trial conducted in 40 primary care clinics. Data will be collected on all clinics, with 60 patients in each clinic, using a multi-method assessment process at baseline, 12, and 24 months. The intervention, PF, will consist of a series of practice improvement team meetings led by trained facilitators over 12 months. Primary hypotheses will be tested with 12-month outcome data. Sustainability of the intervention will be tested using 24 month data. Insights gained will be included in a delayed intervention conducted in control practices and evaluated in a pre-post design. Primary and secondary outcomes To test hypotheses, the unit of randomization will be the clinic. The unit of analysis will be the repeated measure of each risk factor for each patient, nested within the clinic. The repeated measure of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c will be the primary outcome, with BP and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as secondary outcomes. To study change in risk factor level, a hierarchical or random effect model will be used to account for the nesting of repeated measurement of risk factor within patients and patients within clinics. This protocol follows the CONSORT guidelines and is registered per ICMJE guidelines: Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT00482768 PMID:18321386

Parchman, Michael L; Pugh, Jacqueline A; Culler, Steven D; Noel, Polly H; Arar, Nedal H; Romero, Raquel L; Palmer, Raymond F

2008-01-01

53

Structure, process and annual intensive care unit mortality across 69 centers: United States Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group Critical Illness Outcomes Study (USCIITG-CIOS)  

PubMed Central

Objective Hospital-level variations in structure and process may affect clinical outcomes in intensive care units (ICUs). We sought to characterize the organizational structure, processes of care, use of protocols and standardized outcomes in a large sample of U.S. ICUs. Design We surveyed 69 ICUs about organization, size, volume, staffing, processes of care, use of protocols, and annual ICU mortality. Setting ICUs participating in the United States Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group Critical Illness Outcomes Study (USCIITG-CIOS). Measurements and Main Results We characterized structure and process variables across ICUs, investigated relationships between these variables and annual ICU mortality, and adjusted for illness severity using APACHE II. Ninety-four ICU directors were invited to participate in the study and 69 ICUs (73%) were enrolled, of which 25 (36%) were medical, 24 were surgical (35%) and 20 (29%) were of mixed type, and 64 (93%) were located in teaching hospitals with a median number of 5 trainees per ICU. Average annual ICU mortality was 10.8%, average APACHE II score was 19.3, 58% were closed units and 41% had a 24-hour in-house intensivist. In multivariable linear regression adjusted for APACHE II and multiple ICU structure and process factors, annual ICU mortality was lower in surgical ICUs than in medical ICUs (5.6% lower, 95% CI 2.4%–8.8%) or mixed ICUs (4.5% lower, 95% CI 0.4%–8.7%). We also found a lower annual ICU mortality among ICUs that had a daily plan of care review (5.8% lower, 95% CI 1.6%–10.0%) and a lower bed-to-nurse ratio (1.8% lower when the ratio decreased from 2:1 to 1.5:1; 95% CI 0.25%–3.4%). In contrast, 24-hour intensivist coverage (p=0.89) and closed ICU status (p=0.16) were not associated with a lower annual ICU mortality. Conclusions In a sample of 69 ICUs, a daily plan of care review and a lower bed-to-nurse ratio were both associated with a lower annual ICU mortality. In contrast to 24-hour intensivist staffing, improvement in team communication is a low-cost, process-targeted intervention strategy that may improve clinical outcomes in ICU patients. PMID:24145833

Checkley, William; Martin, Greg S; Brown, Samuel M; Chang, Steven Y; Dabbagh, Ousama; Fremont, Richard D; Girard, Timothy D; Rice, Todd W; Howell, Michael D; Johnson, Steven B; O'Brien, James; Park, Pauline K; Pastores, Stephen M; Patil, Namrata T; Pietropaoli, Anthony P; Putman, Maryann; Rotello, Leo; Siner, Jonathan; Sajid, Sahul; Murphy, David J; Sevransky, Jonathan E

2014-01-01

54

GRIN: “GRoup versus INdividual physiotherapy following lower limb intra-muscular Botulinum Toxin-A injections for ambulant children with cerebral palsy: an assessor-masked randomised comparison trial”: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood. Spasticity is a significant contributor to the secondary impairments impacting functional performance and participation. The most common lower limb spasticity management is focal intramuscular injections of Botulinum Toxin-Type A accompanied by individually-delivered (one on one) physiotherapy rehabilitation. With increasing emphasis on improving goal-directed functional activity and participation within a family-centred framework, it is timely to explore whether physiotherapy provided in a group could achieve comparable outcomes, encouraging providers to offer flexible models of physiotherapy delivery. This study aims to compare individual to group-based physiotherapy following intramuscular Botulinum Toxin-A injections to the lower limbs for ambulant children with cerebral palsy aged four to fourteen years. Methods/Design An assessor-masked, block randomised comparison trial will be conducted with random allocation to either group-based or individual physiotherapy. A sample size of 30 (15 in each study arm) will be recruited. Both groups will receive six hours of direct therapy following Botulinum Toxin-A injections in either an individual or group format with additional home programme activities (three exercises to be performed three times a week). Study groups will be compared at baseline (T1), then at 10 weeks (T2, efficacy) and 26 weeks (T3, retention) post Botulinum Toxin-A injections. Primary outcomes will be caregiver/s perception of and satisfaction with their child’s occupational performance goals (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure) and quality of gait (Edinburgh Visual Gait Score) with a range of secondary outcomes across domains of the International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health. Discussion This paper outlines the study protocol including theoretical basis, study hypotheses and outcome measures for this assessor-masked, randomised comparison trial comparing group versus individual models of physiotherapy following intramuscular injections of Botulinum Toxin-A to the lower limbs for ambulant children with cerebral palsy. Trial registration ACTRN12611000454976 PMID:24502231

2014-01-01

55

Is adjuvant chemotherapy of benefit for postmenopausal women who receive endocrine treatment for highly endocrine-responsive, node-positive breast cancer? International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials VII and 12–93  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the efficacy of chemoendocrine treatment with that of endocrine treatment (ET) alone for postmenopausal women with\\u000a highly endocrine responsive breast cancer. In the International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) Trials VII and 12–93, postmenopausal\\u000a women with node-positive, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive or ER-negative, operable breast cancer were randomized to receive\\u000a either chemotherapy or endocrine therapy or combined chemoendocrine treatment.

Olivia Pagani; Shari Gelber; Edda Simoncini; Monica Castiglione-Gertsch; Karen N. Price; Richard D. Gelber; Stig B. Holmberg; Diana Crivellari; John Collins; Jurij Lindtner; Beat Thürlimann; Martin F. Fey; Elizabeth Murray; John F. Forbes; Alan S. Coates; Aron Goldhirsch

2009-01-01

56

"Ultrahigh" dexamethasone in acute brain injury. Results from a prospective randomized double-blind multicenter trial (GUDHIS). German Ultrahigh Dexamethasone Head Injury Study Group.  

PubMed

In a prospective randomized double-blind multicenter trial, the efficacy and safety of a 51-hour ultra-high intravenous dexamethasone dosing regimen was investigated in patients with moderate and severe head injury. 300 patients between 15 and 55 years of age were randomized to receive either placebo or dexamethasone: 500 mg intravenous infusion within 3 h after trauma initially, followed by 200 mg after 3 h, thereafter 8 times 200 mg at 6 hourly intervals, resulting in a total administered dose of 2,3 g in 51 hours. Primary end points for assessment of efficacy were: Modified Glasgow Coma Scale (grading 3-16) on Day 5, modified Glasgow Outcome Scale (grading 1-6) 10-14 months after injury, and the time interval until consciousness improved above a level of modified GCS > or = 8. Secondary endpoints were CT results and neurological and laboratory data. The two groups were well matched with respect to important prognostic variables, such as age, severity of trauma, and interval between trauma and application of the drug. 269 patients (89.7%) were available for final examination after 10-14 months. Results were surprisingly favourable in both groups: Lethality in the dexamethasone and placebo group was 14.3 and 15.4%, respectively, and 61.7 and 57.4%, respectively, achieved social and professional rehabilitation after 10-14 months (outcome scale 6). No statistical difference was seen between the dexamethasone and the placebo group in any of the primary end points of efficacy and safety (incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, infection, and thrombosis).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7810251

Gaab, M R; Trost, H A; Alcantara, A; Karimi-Nejad, A; Moskopp, D; Schultheiss, R; Bock, W J; Piek, J; Klinge, H; Scheil, F

1994-01-01

57

Genome-wide Association Study of Virologic Response with Efavirenz- or Abacavir-containing Regimens in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocols  

PubMed Central

Background Efavirenz and abacavir are components of recommended first-line regimens for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. We used genome-wide genotyping and clinical data to explore genetic associations with virologic failure among subjects randomized to efavirenz- or abacavir-containing regimens in AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) protocols. Methods Virologic response and genome-wide genotype data were available from treatment-naive subjects randomized to efavirenz-containing (n=1,596) or abacavir-containing (n=786) regimens in ACTG protocols 384, A5142, A5095, and A5202. Results Meta-analysis of association results across race/ethnic groups showed no genome-wide significant associations (p<5×10?8) with virologic response for either efavirenz or abacavir. Our sample size provided 80% power to detect a genotype relative risk of 1.8 for efavirenz, and 2.4 for abacavir. Analyses focused on CYP2B genotypes that define the lowest plasma efavirenz exposure stratum did not reveal associations, nor did analysis limited to gene sets predicted to be relevant to efavirenz and abacavir disposition. Conclusions No single polymorphism is strongly associated with virologic failure with efavirenz- or abacavir-containing regimens. Analyses to better consider context, and that minimize confounding by non-genetic factors, may reveal associations not apparent herein. PMID:25461247

Lehmann, David S.; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Daar, Eric S.; Gulick, Roy M.; Haubrich, Richard H.; Robbins, Gregory K.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Haas, David W.; McLaren, Paul J.

2015-01-01

58

Comparative Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Long-Term Use of Imidafenacin and Solifenacin in Patients with Overactive Bladder: A Prospective, Open, Randomized, Parallel-Group Trial (the LIST Study)  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Overactive bladder (OAB) is a chronic disease, but comparative trials of anticholinergics, which are commonly used for treatment of OAB, have generally been performed for up to 12 weeks only. There is no comparative study of a long-term intervention. Methods. We conducted a 52-week prospective randomized comparative study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of two anticholinergics. Results. Forty-one Japanese patients with untreated OAB were randomly assigned to imidafenacin and solifenacin groups. There was no difference in OABSS and KHQ scores between the two groups, but the severity and incidence of adverse events caused by the anticholinergics showed increased differences between the groups with time. The severity of dry mouth and the incidence of constipation were significantly lower in the imidafenacin group (P = 0.0092 and P = 0.0013, resp.). Conclusions. This study is the first long-term trial to show differences in the properties of anticholinergics that were not detected in short-term studies. Since OAB is a chronic disease, we conclude that imidafenacin is preferable to solifenacin from a perspective of safety. PMID:22046182

Zaitsu, Masayoshi; Mikami, Koji; Ishida, Noriko; Takeuchi, Takumi

2011-01-01

59

Patient Reported Outcomes of a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Bevacizumab in the Front-Line Treatment of Ovarian Cancer: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze quality of life (QOL) in a randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial concluding that the addition of concurrent and maintenance bevacizumab (Arm 3) to carboplatin and paclitaxel prolongs progression-free survival in front-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer compared to chemotherapy alone (Arm 1) or chemotherapy with bevacizumab in cycles 2–6 only (Arm 2). Patients and Methods The Trial Outcome Index of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Ovary (FACT-O TOI) was used to assess QOL before cycles 1, 4, 7, 13, and 21; and 6 months after completing study therapy. Differences in QOL scores were assessed using a linear mixed model, adjusting for baseline score, and age. The significance level was set at 0.0167 to account for multiple comparisons. Results 1693 patients were queried. Arm 2 (p<0.001) and Arm 3 (p<0.001) reported lower QOL scores than those in Arm 1. The treatment differences were observed mainly at cycle 4, when the patients receiving bevacizumab (Arm 2 and Arm 3) reported 2.72 points (98.3% CI: 0.88 ~ 4.57; effect size=0.18) and 2.96 points (98.3% CI: 1.13~4.78; effect size=0.20) lower QOL respectively, than those in Arm 1. The difference in QOL scores between Arm 1 and Arm 3 remained statistically significant up to cycle 7. The percentage of patients who reported abdominal discomfort dropped over time, without significant differences among study arms. Conclusion The small QOL difference observed during chemotherapy did not persist during maintenance bevacizumab. PMID:23219660

Monk, Bradley J.; Huang, Helen Q.; Burger, Robert A.; Mannel, Robert S.; Homesley, Howard D.; Fowler, Jeffrey; Greer, Benjamin E.; Boente, Matthew; Liang, Sharon X.; Wenzel, Lari

2014-01-01

60

Erectile dysfunction is frequent in systemic sclerosis and associated with severe disease: a study of the EULAR Scleroderma Trial and Research group  

PubMed Central

Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common in men with systemic sclerosis (SSc) but the demographics, risk factors and treatment coverage for ED are not well known. Method This study was carried out prospectively in the multinational EULAR Scleroderma Trial and Research database by amending the electronic data-entry system with the International Index of Erectile Function-5 and items related to ED risk factors and treatment. Centres participating in this EULAR Scleroderma Trial and Research substudy were asked to recruit patients consecutively. Results Of the 130 men studied, only 23 (17.7%) had a normal International Index of Erectile Function-5 score. Thirty-eight per cent of all participants had severe ED (International Index of Erectile Function-5 score ? 7). Men with ED were significantly older than subjects without ED (54.8 years vs. 43.3 years, P < 0.001) and more frequently had simultaneous non-SSc-related risk factors such as alcohol consumption. In 82% of SSc patients, the onset of ED was after the manifestation of the first non-Raynaud's symptom (median delay 4.1 years). ED was associated with severe cutaneous, muscular or renal involvement of SSc, elevated pulmonary pressures and restrictive lung disease. ED was treated in only 27.8% of men. The most common treatment was sildenafil, whose efficacy is not established in ED of SSc patients. Conclusions Severe ED is a common and early problem in men with SSc. Physicians should address modifiable risk factors actively. More research into the pathophysiology, longitudinal development, treatment and psychosocial impact of ED is needed. PMID:22348608

2012-01-01

61

Phase II Trial of Hydroxyurea, Dacarbazine (DTIC), and Etoposide (VP-16) in Mixed Mesodermal Tumors of the Uterus: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of this three-drug regimen—hydroxyurea, dacarbazine (DTIC), and etoposide (VP-16)—in patients with advanced or recurrent mixed mesodermal tumors (MMT) of the uterus who had not undergone previous chemotherapy. The study was performed as a groupwide phase II study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Study Design: Thirty-three evaluable patients received hydroxyurea

John L. Currie; John A. Blessing; Ramon McGehee; John T. Soper; Michael Berman

1996-01-01

62

Characteristics of control group participants who increased their physical activity in a cluster-randomized lifestyle intervention trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Meaningful improvement in physical activity among control group participants in lifestyle intervention trials is not an uncommon finding, and may be partly explained by participant characteristics. This study investigated which baseline demographic, health and behavioural characteristics were predictive of successful improvement in physical activity in usual care group participants recruited into a telephone-delivered physical activity and diet intervention trial,

Lauren A Waters; Marina M Reeves; Brianna S Fjeldsoe; Elizabeth G Eakin

2011-01-01

63

Control Group Design, Contamination and Drop-Out in Exercise Oncology Trials: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Purpose Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of exercise-oncology trials and explores the association with contamination and drop-out rates. Methods Randomized controlled exercise-oncology trials from two Cochrane reviews were included. Additionally, a computer-aided search using Medline (Pubmed), Embase and CINAHL was conducted after completion date of the Cochrane reviews. Eligible studies were classified according to three control group design characteristics: the exercise instruction given to controls before start of the study (exercise allowed or not); and the intervention the control group was offered during (any (e.g., education sessions or telephone contacts) or none) or after (any (e.g., cross-over or exercise instruction) or none) the intervention period. Contamination (yes or no) and excess drop-out rates (i.e., drop-out rate of the control group minus the drop-out rate exercise group) were described according to the three design characteristics of the control group and according to the combinations of these three characteristics; so we additionally made subgroups based on combinations of type and timing of instructions received. Results 40 exercise-oncology trials were included based on pre-specified eligibility criteria. The lowest contamination (7.1% of studies) and low drop-out rates (excess drop-out rate -4.7±9.2) were found in control groups offered an intervention after the intervention period. When control groups were offered an intervention both during and after the intervention period, contamination (0%) and excess drop-out rates (-10.0±12.8%) were even lower. Conclusions Control groups receiving an intervention during and after the study intervention period have lower contamination and drop-out rates. The present findings can be considered when designing future exercise-oncology trials. PMID:25815479

Steins Bisschop, Charlotte N.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Velthuis, Miranda J.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Jones, Lee W.; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H. M.; May, Anne M.

2015-01-01

64

Genome-wide association study of peripheral neuropathy with D-drug-containing regimens in AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 384.  

PubMed

Stavudine (d4T) was, until recently, one of the most widely prescribed antiretroviral drugs worldwide. While there has been a major shift away from d4T use in resource-limited countries, a large number of patients have previously received (or continue to receive) d4T, and many have developed peripheral neuropathy. The identification of genetic predictors of increased risk might suggest novel therapeutic targets for such patients. In AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 384, antiretroviral-naïve patients were randomized to d4T/didanosine (ddI)- or zidovudine/lamivudine-containing regimens. Data from d4T/ddI recipients were analyzed for genome-wide associations (approximately 1 million genetic loci) with new onset distal sensory peripheral neuropathy. Analyses involved 254 patients (49 % White, 34 % Black, 17 % Hispanic), comprising 90 peripheral neuropathy cases (32 grade 1, 35 grade 2, 23 grade 3) and 164 controls. After correcting for multiple comparisons, no polymorphism was consistently associated with neuropathy among all patients, among White, Black, and Hispanic patients analyzed separately, both in genome-wide analyses (threshold, P?

Leger, Paul D; Johnson, Daniel H; Robbins, Gregory K; Shafer, Robert W; Clifford, David B; Li, Jun; McLaren, Paul J; Haas, David W

2014-06-01

65

Self-management in early-stage dementia: a pilot randomised controlled trial of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a self-management group intervention (the SMART study)  

PubMed Central

Background The possibility of living well with a long-term condition has been identified as centrally relevant to the needs of people living with dementia. Growing numbers of people with early-stage dementia are contributing accounts that emphasise the benefits of actively engaging in managing the condition. Self-management interventions share the common objectives of educating about the condition, optimising well-being, enhancing control over the situation and enabling people to take more responsibility for managing the condition. Benefits of such an approach can include improved knowledge, self-efficacy, health status, and better performance of self-management behaviours. However, there is only preliminary evidence that people with early-stage dementia can benefit from such interventions. Methods This feasibility study involves the development of a self-management group intervention for people with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia or mixed Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia. This study is a single-site pilot randomised-controlled trial. Forty-two people with early stage dementia, each with a caregiver (family member/friend), will be randomised to either the self-management group intervention or to treatment as usual. The self-management group intervention will involve eight weekly sessions, each lasting 90 minutes, held at a memory clinic in North Wales. All participants will be re-assessed three and six months post-randomisation. This study is intended to supply an early evaluation of the self-management intervention so that a full scale trial may be powered from the best available evidence. It will assess the feasibility of the intervention, the study design and the recruitment strategies. It will estimate the parameters and confidence intervals for the research questions of interest. The primary outcome of interest is the self-efficacy score of the person with dementia at three months post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes for the person with dementia are self-efficacy at six months post-randomisation and cognitive ability, mood and well-being at three and six months post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes for caregivers are their distress and stress at three and six months post-randomisation. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention will also be examined. Discussion This study will provide preliminary information about the feasibility, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a self-management group intervention for people in the early stages of dementia. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN02023181. PMID:24606601

2014-01-01

66

Standardized peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture assay for determination of drug susceptibilities of clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates. The RV-43 Study Group, the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Virology Committee Resistance Working Group.  

PubMed Central

A standardized antiviral drug susceptibility assay for clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates has been developed for use in clinical trials. The protocol is a two-step procedure that first involves cocultivation of patient infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with seronegative phytohemagglutinin-stimulated donor PBMC to obtain an HIV-1 stock. The virus stock is titrated for viral infectivity (50% tissue culture infective dose) by use of serial fourfold virus dilutions in donor PBMC. A standardized inoculum of 1,000 50% tissue culture infective doses per 10(6) cells is used in the second step of the procedure to acutely infect seronegative donor PBMC in a 7-day microtiter plate assay with triplicate wells containing zidovudine (ZDV) concentrations ranging from 0 to 5.0 microM. The ZDV 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for reference ZDV-susceptible and ZDV-resistant HIV-1 isolates ranged from 0.002 to 0.113 microM and from 0.15 to > 5.0 microM, respectively. Use of this consensus protocol reduced interlaboratory variability for ZDV IC50 determinations with reference HIV-1 isolates. Among eight laboratories, the coefficient of variation ranged from 0.85 to 1.25 with different PBMC protocols and was reduced to 0.39 to 0.98 with the standardized assay. Among the clinical HIV-1 isolates assayed by the standardized drug susceptibility assay, the median ZDV IC50 increased gradually with more ZDV therapy. This protocol provides an efficient and reproducible means to assess the in vitro susceptibility to antiretroviral agents of virtually all clinical HIV-1 isolates. PMID:8517697

Japour, A J; Mayers, D L; Johnson, V A; Kuritzkes, D R; Beckett, L A; Arduino, J M; Lane, J; Black, R J; Reichelderfer, P S; D'Aquila, R T

1993-01-01

67

Phase II Study of Irinotecan plus S-1 Combination for Previously Untreated Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Hokkaido Lung Cancer Clinical Study Group Trial (HOT) 0601  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Platinum-free regimens can represent an alternative for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) if similar efficacy is provided with better tolerability. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of combined irinotecan and S-1 for chemotherapy-naïve advanced NSCLC. Methods: Chemotherapy consisted of 4-week cycles of intravenous irinotecan (100 mg\\/m2, days 1 and 15) and oral S-1 (80 mg\\/m2, days 1–14).

Kenji Akie; Satoshi Oizumi; Shigeaki Ogura; Naofumi Shinagawa; Eiki Kikuchi; Shinichi Fukumoto; Masao Harada; Ichiro Kinoshita; Tetsuya Kojima; Toshiyuki Harada; Yuka Fujita; Yoshinobu Ohsaki; Hirotoshi Dosaka-Akita; Hiroshi Isobe; Masaharu Nishimura

2011-01-01

68

A Phase II Study of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy to the Pelvis for Postoperative Patients With Endometrial Carcinoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 0418  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the feasibility of pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with endometrial cancer in a multi-institutional setting and to determine whether this treatment is associated with fewer short-term bowel adverse events than standard radiation therapy. Methods: Patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium treated with pelvic radiation therapy alone were eligible. Guidelines for target definition and delineation, dose prescription, and dose-volume constraints for the targets and critical normal structures were detailed in the study protocol and a web-based atlas. Results: Fifty-eight patients were accrued by 25 institutions; 43 were eligible for analysis. Forty-two patients (98%) had an acceptable IMRT plan; 1 had an unacceptable variation from the prescribed dose to the nodal planning target volume. The proportions of cases in which doses to critical normal structures exceeded protocol criteria were as follows: bladder, 67%; rectum, 76%; bowel, 17%; and femoral heads, 33%. Twelve patients (28%) developed grade {>=}2 short-term bowel adverse events. Conclusions: Pelvic IMRT for endometrial cancer is feasible across multiple institutions with use of a detailed protocol and centralized quality assurance (QA). For future trials, contouring of vaginal and nodal tissue will need continued monitoring with good QA and better definitions will be needed for organs at risk.

Jhingran, Anuja, E-mail: ajhingra@mdanderson.org [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Winter, Kathryn [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Portelance, Lorraine [University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States)] [University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Miller, Brigitte [Carolinas Medical Center North East, Concord, North Carolina (United States)] [Carolinas Medical Center North East, Concord, North Carolina (United States); Salehpour, Mohammad [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gaur, Rakesh [St. Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri (United States)] [St. Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri (United States); Souhami, Luis [McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Small, William [Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illionis (United States)] [Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illionis (United States); Berk, Lawrence [H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States)] [H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Gaffney, David [Huntsman Cancer Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States)] [Huntsman Cancer Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States)

2012-09-01

69

[Controlled, clinical trial of isoprinosine administration to HIV-infected patients. Results of a Danish/Swedish multicenter study. The Scandinavian Isoprinosine Study Group].  

PubMed

The safety and efficacy of isoprinosine in HIV-infected individuals were assessed in a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, 24-week study phase, followed by an optional 24-week open treatment phase. The results of the double-blind phase have been reported separately. Of 866 HIV-seropositive individuals randomized, 832 were eligible for efficacy analysis. On completion of the double-blind phase, 596 patients started open treatment. All patients were evaluated with regard to progression to AIDS. Within 48 weeks, 10/412 patients (2.4%) assigned isoprinosine and 27/420 (6.4%) assigned placebo progressed to AIDS (p = 0.005; odds ratio: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-6.2). Intention-to-treat analysis showed identical results. No severe adverse reactions or toxicities were observed. We conclude that HIV-infected individuals without AIDS may be safely and effectively treated with isoprinosine. PMID:7520643

Thorsen, S; Pedersen, C; Sandström, E; Petersen, C S; Norkrans, G; Gerstoft, J; Karlsson, A; Christensen, K C; Håkansson, C; Pehrson, P O

1994-05-30

70

The Impact of Trauma-Focused Group Therapy upon HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors in the NIDA Clinical Trials Network “Women and Trauma” Multi-Site Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women in drug treatment struggle with co-occurring problems, including trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which\\u000a can heighten HIV risk. This study examines the impact of two group therapy interventions on reduction of unprotected sexual\\u000a occasions (USO) among women with substance use disorders (SUD) and PTSD. Participants were 346 women recruited from and receiving\\u000a treatment at six community-based drug treatment

Denise A. Hien; Aimee N. C. Campbell; Therese Killeen; Mei-Chen Hu; Cheri Hansen; Huiping Jiang; Mary Hatch-Maillette; Gloria M. Miele; Lisa R. Cohen; Weijin Gan; Stella M. Resko; Michele DiBono; Elizabeth A. Wells; Edward V. Nunes

2010-01-01

71

A randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of mechanical traction for sub-groups of patients with low back pain: study methods and rationale  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Patients with signs of nerve root irritation represent a sub-group of those with low back pain who are at increased risk of persistent symptoms and progression to costly and invasive management strategies including surgery. A period of non-surgical management is recommended for most patients, but there is little evidence to guide non-surgical decision-making. We conducted a preliminary study examining

Julie M Fritz; Anne Thackeray; John D Childs; Gerard P Brennan

2010-01-01

72

Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) randomized trials: Study design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational studies suggest improvements with frequent hemodialysis (HD), but its true efficacy and safety remain uncertain. The Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trials Group is conducting two multicenter randomized trials of 250 subjects each, comparing conventional three times weekly HD with (1) in-center daily HD and (2) home nocturnal HD. Daily HD will be delivered for 1.5–2.75 h, 6 days\\/week, with target

R S Suri; A X Garg; G M Chertow; N W Levin; M V Rocco; T Greene; G J Beck; J J Gassman; P W Eggers; R A Star; D B Ornt; A S Kliger

2007-01-01

73

Weight and Lean Body Mass Change with Antiretroviral Initiation and Impact on Bone Mineral Density: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5224s  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the effect initiating different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens have on weight, body mass index (BMI), and lean body mass (LBM) and explore how changes in body composition are associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Methods A5224s was a substudy of A5202, a prospective trial of 1857 ART-naïve participants randomized to blinded abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r). All subjects underwent dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal CT for body composition. Analyses used 2-sample t-tests and linear regression. Results A5224s included 269 subjects: 85% male, 47% white non-Hispanic, median age 38 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/mL, and CD4 233 cells/µL. Overall, significant gains occurred in weight, BMI, and LBM at 96 weeks post randomization (all p<0.001). Assignment to ATV/r (vs EFV) resulted in significantly greater weight (mean difference 3.35 kg) and BMI gain (0.88 kg/m2; both p=0.02), but not LBM (0.67 kg; p=0.15), while ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC were not significantly different (p?0.10). In multivariable analysis, only lower baseline CD4 count and higher HIV-1 RNA were associated with greater increase in weight, BMI, or LBM. In multivariable analyses, increased LBM was associated with an increased hip BMD. Conclusions ABC/3TC vs. TDF/FTC did not differ in change in weight, BMI, or LBM; ATV/r vs. EFV resulted in greater weight and BMI gain but not LBM. A positive association between increased LBM and increased hip BMD should be further investigated through prospective interventional studies to verify the impact of increased LBM on hip BMD. PMID:24384588

Erlandson, Kristine Mace; Kitch, Douglas; Tierney, Camlin; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Tebas, Pablo; Melbourne, Kathleen; Ha, Belinda; Jahed, Nasreen C.; Mccomsey, Grace A.

2014-01-01

74

Outcome after relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adult patients included in four consecutive risk-adapted trials by the PETHEMA Study Group  

PubMed Central

Background About one half of adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are not cured of the disease and ultimately die. The objective of this study was to explore the factors influencing the outcome of adult patients with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Design and Methods We analyzed the characteristics, the outcome and the prognostic factors for survival after first relapse in a series of 263 adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (excluding those with mature B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia) prospectively enrolled in four consecutive risk-adapted PETHEMA trials. Results The median overall survival after relapse was 4.5 months (95% CI, 4–5 months) with a 5-year overall survival of 10% (95% CI, 8%–12%); 45% of patients receiving intensive second-line treatment achieved a second complete remission and 22% (95% CI, 14%–30%) of them remained disease free at 5 years. Factors predicting a good outcome after rescue therapy were age less than 30 years (2-year overall survival of 21% versus 10% for those over 30 years old; P<0.022) and a first remission lasting more than 2 years (2-year overall survival of 36% versus 17% among those with a shorter first remission; P<0.001). Patients under 30 years old whose first complete remission lasted longer than 2 years had a 5-year overall survival of 38% (95% CI, 23%–53%) and a 5-year disease-free survival of 53% (95% CI, 34%–72%). Conclusions The prognosis of adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who relapse is poor. Those aged less than 30 years with a first complete remission lasting longer than 2 years have reasonable possibilities of becoming long-term survivors while patients over this age or those who relapse early cannot be successfully rescued using the therapies currently available. PMID:20145276

Oriol, Albert; Vives, Susana; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús-María; Tormo, Mar; Heras, Inmaculada; Rivas, Concepción; Bethencourt, Concepción; Moscardó, Federico; Bueno, Javier; Grande, Carlos; del Potro, Eloy; Guardia, Ramon; Brunet, Salut; Bergua, Juan; Bernal, Teresa; Moreno, Maria-José; Calvo, Carlota; Bastida, Pilar; Feliu, Evarist; Ribera, Josep-Maria

2010-01-01

75

BICULTURAL RESYNTHESIS: TAILORING AN EFFECTIVENESS TRIAL FOR A GROUP OF URBAN AMERICAN INDIAN WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this qualitative study of a 6 week effectiveness trial was to describe among a group of urban American Indian women, the process of successful traditionalism in the form of bicultural resynthesis. Bicultural resynthesis represents a major current attempt on the part of the participants to integrate traditional and contemporary demands in a positive, culturally-consistent manner. The themes

Linda Napholz

76

Increasing the Degrees of Freedom in Future Group Randomized Trials: The "df*" Method Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This article revisits an article published in Evaluation Review in 2005 on sample size estimation and power analysis for group-randomized trials. With help from a careful reader, we learned of an important error in the spreadsheet used to perform the calculations and generate the results presented in that article. As we studied the…

Murray, David M.; Blitstein, Jonathan L.; Hannan, Peter J.; Shadish, William R.

2012-01-01

77

Improving N1 classification by grouping EEG trials with phases of pre-stimulus EEG oscillations.  

PubMed

A reactive brain-computer interface using electroencephalography (EEG) relies on the classification of evoked ERP responses. As the trial-to-trial variation is evitable in EEG signals, it is a challenge to capture the consistent classification features distribution. Clustering EEG trials with similar features and utilizing a specific classifier adjusted to each cluster can improve EEG classification. In this paper, instead of measuring the similarity of ERP features, the brain states during image stimuli presentation that evoked N1 responses were used to group EEG trials. The correlation between momentary phases of pre-stimulus EEG oscillations and N1 amplitudes was analyzed. The results demonstrated that the phases of time-frequency points about 5.3 Hz and 0.3 s before the stimulus onset have significant effect on the ERP classification accuracy. Our findings revealed that N1 components in ERP fluctuated with momentary phases of EEG. We also further studied the influence of pre-stimulus momentary phases on classification of N1 features. Results showed that linear classifiers demonstrated outstanding classification performance when training and testing trials have close momentary phases. Therefore, this gave us a new direction to improve EEG classification by grouping EEG trials with similar pre-stimulus phases and using each to train unit classifiers respectively. PMID:25852778

Han, Li; Liang, Zhang; Jiacai, Zhang; Changming, Wang; Li, Yao; Xia, Wu; Xiaojuan, Guo

2015-04-01

78

Cluster randomized trial on the effect of mother support groups on retention-in-care and PMTCT outcomes in Zimbabwe: study design, challenges, and national relevance.  

PubMed

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) elimination goals are hampered by low rates of retention and antiretroviral treatment adherence. The Eliminating Pediatric AIDS in Zimbabwe (EPAZ) project is assessing whether mother support groups (MSGs) increase rates of retention-in-care of HIV-positive mothers and their exposed infants, increase male participation, and improve other maternal and infant health outcomes. EPAZ is a cluster randomized study involving 30 rural facilities in 2 health districts in Mutare province in eastern Zimbabwe. Facilities were randomly assigned to either the standard-of-care or intervention arms. We established MSGs for HIV-positive mothers at the 15 health facilities in the intervention arm. MSGs met every 2 weeks and were led by an HIV-positive mother who was appointed as MSG coordinator (MSG-C). MSG-Cs contacted nonattending patient-members of support groups by cell phone. If members still do not attend, MSG-Cs inform a health worker who initiates further outreach actions that are standard within the health system. At least 10 HIV-positive mothers are enrolled per facility. Enrollment started in July 2014. The primary outcome measure is retention-in-care of HIV-exposed infants at 12 months of age. Secondary outcome measures are: retention-in-care of HIV-positive mothers at 12 months postpartum, male participation, and other maternal and child health indicators. The study relies on routine health system data supplemented by additional data using tools created for the study. If shown to improve PMTCT retention outcomes, facility-based MSGs have the potential to be scaled up throughout the Zimbabwe National PMTCT program and could be considered in other country programs. PMID:25310121

Foster, Geoff; Kangwende, Abigail; Magezi, Vhumani; Maphosa, Talent; Mashapa, Richard; Mukora-Mutseyekwa, Fadzai; Mushavi, Angela; Rusakaniko, Simba; Shumba, Bridget; Zambezi, Pemberai

2014-11-01

79

Phase II trial of DNA methyltransferase 1 inhibition with the antisense oligonucleotide MG98 in patients with metastatic renal carcinoma: A National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group investigational new drug study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) methylate DNA, promoting local chromatin condensation and consequent repression of gene expression.\\u000a The purpose of this two-stage phase II trial was to assess the antitumor activity of MG98, a second generation antisense oligodeoxynucleotide\\u000a inhibitor of human DNMT 1, in patients with metastatic renal carcinoma (MRC). Untreated adult patients with measurable MRC\\u000a were treated with MG98 at a

Eric Winquist; Jennifer Knox; Jean-Pierre Ayoub; Lori Wood; Nancy Wainman; Gregory K. Reid; Laura Pearce; Ajit Shah; Elizabeth Eisenhauer

2006-01-01

80

OFFICESOFFICES GROUP STUDY  

E-print Network

, PUBLIC PRINTER PUBLIC COMPUTERS & SCANNER STUDY SPACE STUDY SPACE 5 REFERENCE BRO W SERY NEWBOOKS STUDY SOUTH GROUP STUDY SPACES MEDIA ROOM MICROFICHE/ MICROFILM ATHENA COMPUTERS & ADA STATION SCANNER, COPIER SPACE 6 SOUTH EAST WEST NORTH Q335-QA76.7 ATHENA COMPUTERS A-Q335 THESES TA1-TA499 QA805-TA1 QA76.7-QA

81

OFFICESOFFICES GROUP STUDY  

E-print Network

SOUTH GROUP STUDY SPACES MEDIA ROOM MICROFICHE/ MICROFILM CURRENT JOURNALS REFERENCE COLLECTION & GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS ATHENA COMPUTERS & ADA STATION SCANNER, COPIER, PUBLIC PRINTER PUBLIC COMPUTERS & SCANNER STUDY SPACE STUDY SPACE 5 DVD/VHS BRO W SERY NEWBOOKS 6 SOUTH EAST WEST Q335-QA76.7 ATHENA

82

First steps: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of the Group Family Nurse Partnership (gFNP) program compared to routine care in improving outcomes for high-risk mothers and their children and preventing abuse  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence from the USA suggests that the home-based Family Nurse Partnership program (FNP), extending from early pregnancy until infants are 24 months, can reduce the risk of child abuse and neglect throughout childhood. FNP is now widely available in the UK. A new variant, Group Family Nurse Partnership (gFNP) offers similar content but in a group context and for a shorter time, until infants are 12 months old. Each group comprises 8 to 12 women with similar expected delivery dates and their partners. Its implementation has been established but there is no evidence of its effectiveness. Methods/Design The study comprises a multi-site randomized controlled trial designed to identify the benefits of gFNP compared to standard care. Participants (not eligible for FNP) must be either aged < 20 years at their last menstrual period (LMP) with one or more previous live births, or aged 20 to 24 at LMP with low educational qualifications and no previous live births. ‘Low educational qualifications’ is defined as not having both Maths and English Language GCSE at grade C or higher or, if they have both, no more than four in total at grade C or higher. Exclusions are: under 20 years and previously received home-based FNP and, in either age group, severe psychotic mental illness or not able to communicate in English. Consenting women are randomly allocated (minimized by site and maternal age group) when between 10 and 16 weeks pregnant to either to the 44 session gFNP program or to standard care after the collection of baseline information. Researchers are blind to group assignment. The primary outcomes at 12 months are child abuse potential based on the revised Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory and parent/infant interaction coded using the CARE Index based on a video-taped interaction. Secondary outcomes are maternal depression, parenting stress, health related quality of life, social support, and use of services. Discussion This is the first study of the effectiveness of gFNP in the UK. Results should inform decision-making about its delivery alongside universal services, potentially enabling a wider range of families to benefit from the FNP curriculum and approach to supporting parenting. Trial registration ISRCTN78814904. PMID:24011061

2013-01-01

83

Rationale and study protocol for the supporting children’s outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES) group randomized controlled trial: A physical activity and fundamental movement skills intervention for primary schools in low-income communities  

PubMed Central

Background Many Australian children are insufficiently active to accrue health benefits and physical activity (PA) levels are consistently lower among youth of low socio-economic position. PA levels decline dramatically during adolescence and evidence suggests that competency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) may serve as a protective factor against this trend. Methods/design The Supporting Children’s Outcomes Using Rewards Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention is a multi-component PA and FMS intervention for primary schools in low-income communities, which will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. The socio-ecological model provided a framework for the 12-month intervention, which includes the following components: teacher professional learning, student leadership workshops (including leadership accreditation and rewards, e.g., stickers, water bottles), PA policy review, PA equipment packs, parental engagement via newsletters, FMS homework and a parent evening, and community partnerships with local sporting organizations. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6- and 12-months. The primary outcomes are PA (accelerometers), FMS (Test of Gross Motor Development II) and cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage fitness test). Secondary outcomes include body mass index [using weight (kg)/height (m2)], perceived competence, physical self-esteem, and resilience. Individual and environmental mediators of behavior change (e.g. social support and enjoyment) will also be assessed. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time will be used to assess the impact of the intervention on PA within physical education lessons. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA behavior change will be explored. Discussion SCORES is an innovative primary school-based PA and FMS intervention designed to support students attending schools in low-income communities to be more skilled and active. The findings from the study may be used to guide teacher pre-service education, professional learning and school policy in primary schools. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12611001080910 PMID:22691451

2012-01-01

84

Results of a Quality Assurance Review of External Beam Radiation Therapy in the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (Europe) Neuroblastoma Group's High-risk Neuroblastoma Trial: A SIOPEN Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation therapy is important for local control in neuroblastoma. This study reviewed the compliance of plans with the radiation therapy guidelines of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (Europe) Neuroblastoma Group (SIOPEN) High-Risk Trial protocol. Methods and Materials: The SIOPEN trial central electronic database has sections to record diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy planning data. Individual centers may upload data remotely, but not all centers involved in the trial chose to use this system. A quality scoring system was devised based on how well the radiation therapy plan matched the protocol guidelines, to what extent deviations were justified, and whether adverse effects may result. Central review of radiation therapy planning was undertaken retrospectively in 100 patients for whom complete diagnostic and treatment sets were available. Data were reviewed and compared against protocol guidelines by an international team of radiation oncologists and radiologists. For each patient in the sample, the central review team assigned a quality assurance score. Results: It was found that in 48% of patients there was full compliance with protocol requirements. In 29%, there were deviations for justifiable reasons with no likely long-term adverse effects resulting. In 5%, deviations had occurred for justifiable reasons, but that might result in adverse effects. In 1%, there was a deviation with no discernible justification, which would not lead to long-term adverse events. In 17%, unjustified deviations were noted, with a risk of an adverse outcome resulting. Conclusions: Owing to concern over the proportion of patients in whom unjustified deviations were observed, a protocol amendment has been issued. This offers the opportunity for central review of radiation therapy plans before the start of treatment and the treating clinician a chance to modify plans.

Gaze, Mark N., E-mail: mark.gaze@uclh.nhs.uk [Department of Oncology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Boterberg, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Dieckmann, Karin; Hoermann, Marcus [General Hospital Vienna, Medical University Vienna (Austria)] [General Hospital Vienna, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Gains, Jennifer E.; Sullivan, Kevin P. [Department of Oncology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)] [Department of Oncology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Ladenstein, Ruth [Children's Cancer Research Institute, St. Anna Children's Hospital, Vienna (Austria)] [Children's Cancer Research Institute, St. Anna Children's Hospital, Vienna (Austria)

2013-01-01

85

Does Quality of Radiation Therapy Predict Outcomes of Multicenter Cooperative Group Trials? A Literature Review  

SciTech Connect

Central review of radiation therapy (RT) delivery within multicenter clinical trials was initiated in the early 1970s in the United States. Early quality assurance publications often focused on metrics related to process, logistics, and timing. Our objective was to review the available evidence supporting correlation of RT quality with clinical outcomes within cooperative group trials. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify multicenter studies that described central subjective assessment of RT protocol compliance (quality). Data abstracted included method of central review, definition of deviations, and clinical outcomes. Seventeen multicenter studies (1980-2012) were identified, plus one Patterns of Care Study. Disease sites were hematologic, head and neck, lung, breast, and pancreas. Between 0 and 97% of treatment plans received an overall grade of acceptable. In 7 trials, failure rates were significantly higher after inadequate versus adequate RT. Five of 9 and 2 of 5 trials reported significantly worse overall and progression-free survival after poor-quality RT, respectively. One reported a significant correlation, and 2 reported nonsignificant trends toward increased toxicity with noncompliant RT. Although more data are required, protocol-compliant RT may decrease failure rates and increase overall survival and likely contributes to the ability of collected data to answer the central trial question.

Fairchild, Alysa, E-mail: alysa.fairchild@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Straube, William [Advanced Technology Consortium, Imaged-Guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Laurie, Fran [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, Rhode Island (United States); Followill, David [Radiological Physics Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre, Houston, Texas (United States)

2013-10-01

86

Selegiline in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a long-term randomized placebo-controlled trial. Czech and Slovak Senile Dementia of Alzheimer Type Study Group.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of the type B monoamine oxidase inhibitor selegiline (also known as I-deprenyl) in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. DESIGN: Long-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Seven cities (1 or 2 nursing homes in each city) in the Czech and Slovak Republics. PATIENTS: A total of 173 nursing-home residents fulfilling the DSM-III criteria for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. INTERVENTIONS: Selegiline (10 mg per day) or placebo (both including 50 mg ascorbic acid) administered for 24 weeks. OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical Global Impressions scale and Nurses Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation at baseline and at weeks 6, 12 and 24; Clock Drawing Test at baseline and 24 weeks, results of which were evaluated as normal or pathologic, and quantitatively on a modified 6-point scale; Sternberg's Memory Scanning test at baseline and at weeks 6, 12 and 24; Mini Mental State Examination, and electroencephalogram at baseline and 24 weeks; Structured Adverse Effects Rating Scale; physical, laboratory, hematological and electrocardiographic examinations at baseline and weeks 12 and 24. RESULTS: A total of 143 subjects completed enough of the trial to be entered in the analysis. Subjects were analyzed by 2 subgroups depending on whether they had a normal or pathologic result of the Clock Drawing Test. Analysis of variance showed significant improvement with selegiline versus placebo among those with a normal result of the Clock Drawing Test on the Mini Mental Status Examination (total score and orientation-place subscale) and among those with a pathologic result of the Clock Drawing Test of Sternberg's Memory Scanning test (for both speed and accuracy), on the Clinical Global Impressions scale as well as in terms of the dominant frequency on electroencephalograms. CONCLUSION: Selegiline has a long-term beneficial effect in Alzheimer's disease on memory modalities that reflect the function of the prefrontal areas of the brain, which are rich in dopamine receptors. The delayed appearance of differences between selegiline and placebo supports the notion that the mechanism of action is through neuronal rescue or neuroprotection. The differential response of patients with normal and pathologic results of the Clock Drawing Test may reflect the fact that the evaluation methods' sensitivity to change depends on the severity of dementia. PMID:10354658

Filip, V; Kolibás, E

1999-01-01

87

Combined immunization of infants with oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines: results of a randomized trial in The Gambia, Oman, and Thailand. WHO Collaborative Study Group on Oral and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccines.  

PubMed Central

To assess an immunization schedule combining oral (OPV) and inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV), we conducted a clinical trial in the Gambia, Oman, and Thailand. Children were randomized to receive one of the following schedules: OPV at birth, 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age; OPV at birth followed by both OPV and IPV at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age: or placebo at birth followed by IPV at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. A total of 1685 infants were enrolled; 24-week serum specimens were available for 1291 infants (77%). Across the study sites at 24 weeks of age, the proportion of seropositive children in the combined schedule group was 95-99% for type 1, 99-100% for type 2, and 97-100% for type 3. In the Gambia and Oman, the combined schedule performed significantly better than OPV for type 1 (95-97% versus 88-90%) and type 3 (97-99% versus 72-73%). In the Gambia and Oman, seroprevalences in the IPV group were lower for type 1 (significantly lower in the Gambia); significantly lower for type 2; and significantly higher for type 3, compared with the OPV group. In Thailand, the IPV group had significantly lower proportions of children who were seropositive for each of the three types, compared with the OPV group. The responses to OPV in the Gambia, Oman, and Thailand were consistent with previous studies from these countries. IPV given at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age provided inadequate serological protection against poliovirus, especially type 1. The combined schedule provided the highest levels of serum antibody response, with mucosal immunity equivalent to that produced by OPV alone. PMID:8789924

1996-01-01

88

Go4it; study design of a randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of a multidisciplinary group intervention for obese adolescents for prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, the first adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 2 as a result of obesity have recently been diagnosed. Therefore, it is very important that programs aiming at the prevention of type 2 diabetes of obese adolescents are developed and evaluated. METHODS: Go4it is a multidisciplinary group treatment that focuses on: 1) increasing awareness of the current dietary

Geesje H Hofsteenge; Marijke JM Chinapaw; Peter JM Weijs; Maurits W van Tulder; Henriette A Delemarre-van de Waal

2008-01-01

89

Phase III Randomized Trial of Weekly Cisplatin and Irradiation Versus Cisplatin and Tirapazamine and Irradiation in Stages IB2, IIA, IIB, IIIB, and IVA Cervical Carcinoma Limited to the Pelvis: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose This prospective, randomized phase III intergroup trial of the Gynecologic Oncology Group and National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group was designed to test the effectiveness and safety of adding the hypoxic cell sensitizer tirapazamine (TPZ) to standard cisplatin (CIS) chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced cervix cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with locally advanced cervix cancer were randomly assigned to CIS chemoradiotherapy versus CIS/TPZ chemoradiotherapy. Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and tolerability. Results PFS was evaluable in 387 of 402 patients randomly assigned over 36 months, with enrollment ending in September 2009. Because of the lack of TPZ supply, the study did not reach its original target accrual goal. At median follow-up of 28.3 months, PFS and OS were similar in both arms. Three-year PFS for the TPZ/CIS/RT and CIS/RT arms were 63.0% and 64.4%, respectively (log-rank P = .7869). Three-year OS for the TPZ/CIS/RT and CIS/RT arms were 70.5% and 70.6%, respectively (log-rank P = .8333). A scheduled interim safety analysis led to a reduction in the starting dose for the TPZ/CIS arm, with resulting tolerance in both treatment arms. Conclusion TPZ/CIS chemoradiotherapy was not superior to CIS chemoradiotherapy in either PFS or OS, although definitive commentary was limited by an inadequate number of events (progression or death). TPZ/CIS chemoradiotherapy was tolerable at a modified starting dose. PMID:24395863

DiSilvestro, Paul A.; Ali, Shamshad; Craighead, Peter S.; Lucci, Joseph A.; Lee, Yi-Chun; Cohn, David E.; Spirtos, Nicola M.; Tewari, Krishnasu S.; Muller, Carolyn; Gajewski, Walter H.; Steinhoff, Margaret M.; Monk, Bradley J.

2014-01-01

90

Prescribed exercise in people with fibromyalgia: parallel group randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To evaluate cardiovascular fitness exercise in people with fibromyalgia. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Hospital rheumatology outpatients. Group based classes took place at a \\

Selwyn C M Richards; David L Scott

2002-01-01

91

Do randomized clinical trials with inadequate blinding report enhanced placebo effects for intervention groups and nocebo effects for placebo groups?  

PubMed Central

Background Studies suggest that expectations powerfully shape clinical outcomes. For subjective outcomes in adequately blinded trials, health improvements are substantial and largely explained by non-specific factors. The objective of this study was to investigate if unblinding in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is associated with enhanced placebo effects for intervention groups and nocebo effects for placebo groups. For these effects, a secondary objective was to explore potential moderating factors. Methods We included RCTs that investigated the efficacy of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors for male erectile dysfunction by comparing one PDE-5 inhibitor to placebo. In addition, to be included studies must have reported scores for change from baseline, or baseline and final International Index of Erectile Functioning-Erectile Functioning domain score (IIEF-EF), and be published in either English, French, Dutch, or German. We searched for both published and unpublished relevant trials using PUBMED, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, a clinical trials register (clinicaltrials.gov) and the Food and Drug Administration clinical reviews through March 2012. We evaluated the blinding status of trials with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool, using the domains of allocation sequence concealment, blinding of participants, healthcare providers and outcome assessors. Across these four domains, studies that scored low risk of bias were judged to be adequately blinded and studies that scored unclear or high risk of bias were judged to be inadequately blinded. Results We included 110 studies (205 journal publications and 2 unpublished sources) that involved 23,877 participants; 93 (85%), 51 (46%), 93 (85%) and 93 (85%) studies were assessed with an unclear risk of bias for allocation concealment, blinding of participant, blinding of caregiver and blinding of outcome assessor, respectively. None of the studies reported testing of blinding. None of the 205 journal publications provided sufficient details to assess allocation concealment, blinding of participants, caregivers and outcome assessors. After contacting authors for additional information, we judged five studies to be adequately (n?=?1,202) and 16 to be inadequately (n?=?3,006) blinded. The IIEF-EF score for placebo groups in adequately blinded trials versus inadequately blinded trials was 1.92 points (95% CI, 0.64 to 3.20) versus 1.56 (95% CI, 0.93 to 2.20), respectively. The IIEF-EF score for intervention groups in adequately blinded trials versus inadequately blinded trials was 9.40 (95% CI, 6.96 to 11.83) versus 8.33 (95% CI, 7.29 to 9.37), respectively. In a secondary analysis, prior experience with the drug affected the scores; in placebo groups with participants naïve to the intervention the score was 2.89 (95% CI, 2.33 to 3.45) versus -0.11 (95% CI, -2.06 to 1.84) with participants having prior experience. In the intervention groups, these scores were 7.99 (95% CI, 6.85 to 9.14) versus 8.33 (95% CI, 7.51 to 9.16), respectively. Unblinding lowered placebo scores (creating a nocebo effect) by 19% (0.33 points; 95% CI, -0.96 to 1.62). Unblinding lowered intervention scores by 11% (1.0; 95% CI, -1.35 to 3.47). The results provided no conclusive evidence for nocebo or enhanced placebo effects. Patients taking a PDE-5 inhibitor for the first time experience a larger placebo effect that accounts for 35% of the total effect. Conclusions Given the overall poor reporting of blinding in clinical trial reports and the small number of trials that could be rated as adequately or inadequately blinded, we could not draw any robust conclusions about the existence or absence of nocebo and enhanced placebo effects. A large placebo effect was found for patients taking PDE-5 inhibitors for the first time. It was not clear if previous exposure to the drug impacted trial blinding. We found clear evidence that studies assessing a subjective continuous outcome fail to report on measures taken to secure double blinding. Although we ob

2014-01-01

92

Children's Cancer Group trials in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: 1983- 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1968, the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) has treated more than 16 000 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Herein, we report improvements obtained in CCG trials during two successive series of studies (1983-1988 and 1989- 1995). Overall, 10-year EFS was 62% ? 10% for the 1983-1988 series and 72% ? 1% for the 1988-1995 series (P , 0.0001). Five-year

PS Gaynon; ME Trigg; NA Heerema; MG Sensel; HN Sather; GD Hammond; WA Bleyer

2000-01-01

93

Children's Cancer Group trials in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: 1983–1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1968, the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) has treated more than 16 000 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Herein, we report improvements obtained in CCG trials during two successive series of studies (1983–1988 and 1989–1995). Overall, 10-year EFS was 62% ± 10% for the 1983–1988 series and 72% ± 1% for the 1988–1995 series (P < 0.0001). Five-year cumulative

PS Gaynon; ME Trigg; NA Heerema; MG Sensel; HN Sather; GD Hammond; WA Bleyer

2000-01-01

94

Community-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Trials with MultiEthnic Groups: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this review was to summarize the current literature of community-based colorectal cancer screening randomized\\u000a controlled trials with multi-ethnic groups. The CDC reports 40% of adults do not receive time-appropriate colorectal cancer\\u000a screening. Although overall screening rates have improved since 2000, disparities remain. Studies examining community characteristics\\u000a may offer insight into improving screening rates and eliminating disparities. We

Jay B. MorrowFlorence; Florence J. Dallo; Manjula Julka

2010-01-01

95

Effectiveness of an Online Group Course for Depression in Adolescents and Young Adults: A Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a serious mental health problem, whose first onset is usually in adolescence. Online treatment may offer a solution for the current undertreatment of depression in youth. For adults with depressive symptoms, the effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy has been demonstrated. This study is one of the first randomized controlled trials to investigate the effectiveness online depression treatment for young people with depressive complaints and the first to focus on an online group course. Objective To evaluate and discuss the effectiveness of a guided Web-based group course called Grip op Je Dip (Master Your Mood [MYM]), designed for young people aged 16 to 25 years with depressive symptoms, in comparison with a wait-listed control group. Methods We randomly assigned 244 young people with depressive symptoms to the online MYM course or to a waiting-list control condition. The primary outcome measure was treatment outcome after 3 months on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes were anxiety (measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and mastery (Mastery Scale). We studied the maintenance of effects in the MYM group 6 months after baseline. Missing data were imputed. Results The MYM group (n = 121) showed significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms at 3 months than the control group (n = 123) (t 187 = 6.62, P < .001), with a large between-group effect size of d = 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64–1.23). The MYM group also showed greater improvement in anxiety (t 187 = 3.80, P < .001, d = 0.49, 95% CI 0.24–0.75) and mastery (t 187 = 3.36, P = .001, d = 0.44, 95% CI 0.19–0.70). At 12 weeks, 56% (68/121) of the participants in the MYM group and 20% (24/123) in the control group showed reliable and clinically significant change. This between-group difference was significant (?2 1 = 35.0, P < .001) and yielded a number needed to treat of 2.7. Improvements in the MYM group were maintained at 6 months. A limitation is the infeasibility of comparing the 6-month outcomes of the MYM and control groups, as the controls had access to MYM after 3 months. Conclusions The online group course MYM was effective in reducing depressive symptoms and anxiety and in increasing mastery in young people. These effects persisted in the MYM group at 6 months. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register: NTR1694; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=1694 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/683SBoeGV) PMID:22677437

Kramer, Jeannet; Gerrits, Rob; Cuijpers, Pim

2012-01-01

96

Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

Tokumaru, Sunao, E-mail: tokumaru@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Saga University, Saga (Japan)] [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Toita, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Radiation Oncology Department, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan)] [Radiation Oncology Department, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan)] [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Niibe, Yuzuru [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan); Kazumoto, Tomoko [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Masaaki [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Kenjo, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamauchi, Chikako [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tuskuba (Japan)] [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tuskuba (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan)] [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu [Department of Radiology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); and others

2012-10-01

97

Dosimetric verification in participating institutions in a stereotactic body radiotherapy trial for stage I non-small cell lung cancer: Japan clinical oncology group trial (JCOG0403)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multicentre phase II trial of stereotactic body radiotherapy for T1N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer was initiated in Japan as the Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial (JCOG0403). Before starting the trial, a decision was made to evaluate the treatment machine and treatment planning in participating institutions to minimize the variations of the prescription dose between the institutions. We visited the 16 participating institutions and examined the absolute dose at the centre of a simulated spherical tumour of 3.0 cm diameter in the lung using the radiation treatment planning systems in each institution. A lung phantom for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) was developed and used for the treatment planning and film dosimetry. In the JCOG radiotherapy study group, the no model-based calculation algorithm or the model-based calculation algorithm with a dose kernel unscaled for heterogeneities were selected for use in the initial SBRT trials started in 2004, and the model-based calculation algorithm with a dose kernel scaled for heterogeneities was selected for the coming trial. The findings of this study suggest that the clinical results of lung SBRT trials should be carefully evaluated in comparison with the actual dose given to patients.

Nishio, Teiji; Kunieda, Etsuo; Shirato, Hiroki; Ishikura, Satoshi; Onishi, Hiroshi; Tateoka, Kunihiko; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Narita, Yuichirou; Ikeda, Masataka; Goka, Tomonori

2006-11-01

98

ALTS Trial Design and Study Centers  

Cancer.gov

Epidemiologic, virologic and molecular studies have clearly demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the central cause of cervical cancer. The motivation for the ALTS trial was to use the information we have gained about the role of HPV to design better treatment and prevention strategies to reduce the burden of cervical cancer and its precursors.

99

Randomized phase III study of 3-weekly versus weekly docetaxel in pretreated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a Spanish Lung Cancer Group trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Docetaxel is a widely accepted second-line treatment in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a risk of myelotoxicity. This study evaluated the efficacy and toxicity profile of two docetaxel regimens in NSCLC patients who had failed first-line non-docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Patients and methods: A total of 259 patients from 33 Spanish centers were randomized to receive either docetaxel 75 mg\\/m2

C. Camps; B. Massuti; A. Jimenez; I. Maestu; R. Garcõ ´ aG omez; D. Isla; J. L. Gonzalez; D. Almenar; A. Blasco; R. Rosell; A. Carrato; N. Vinolas; N. Batista; C. Garcõ ´; A. Galan; M. Lopez; R. Blanco; M. Provencio; P. Diz; E. Felip

2006-01-01

100

Chemotherapy versus hormonal treatment in platinum- and paclitaxel-refractory ovarian cancer: a randomised trial of the German Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynaekologische Onkologie (AGO) Study Group Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The majority of patients with ovarian cancer are not cured by first-line treatment. Until now, no study could demonstrate any substantial benefit when exposing ovarian cancer patients to second-line chemotherapy. However, most treatment regimens induce toxicity, thus negatively influ- encing the quality of rather limited life spans. Here we evaluate whether a second-line chemotherapy can offer any benefit compared

W. Meier; H. J. Lück; G. Emons; V. Moebus; W. Schroeder; S. Costa; T. Bauknecht; S. Olbricht; C. Jackisch; B. Richter; U. Wagner; Universitaetsfrauenklinik Marburg; Universitaetsfrauenklinik Ulm; Zentralkrankenhaus Bremen; Universitaetsfrauenklinik Aachen; Universitaetsfrauenklinik Bonn; Universitaetsfrauenklinik Freiburg; Universitaetsfrauenklinik Münster; Universitaetsfrauenklinik Dresden

101

A randomized controlled trial of larval therapy for the debridement of leg ulcers: results of a multicenter, randomized, controlled, open, observer blind, parallel group study.  

PubMed

It has been known for centuries that the application of larvae is useful to heal certain wounds by facilitating debridement of necrotic tissue,(1) yet the efficacy of larval therapy continues to be debatable. This study compared the clinical effectiveness of a larval therapy dressing (BioFOAM) with a standard debridement technique (Purilon gel; hydrogel) in terms of time to debridement of venous (VLU) or mixed arterial/venous (MLU) leg ulcers. Data analyses were conducted on 88 subjects. Sixty-four subjects completed the full study. Of these, 31 of the 32 (96.9%) patients who completed treatment in the larvae arm debrided fully, compared with 11 of the 32 (34.4%) patients who completed the hydrogel arm. In addition, 42 (48%) ulcers fully debrided within the 21-day intervention phase, 31 (67.4%) from the larvae arm (n?=?46), and 11 (26.2%) from the hydrogel arm (n?=?42), which was statistically significant (p?=?0.001) in support of larvae. A statistically significant difference was also observed between treatment arms with regard to numbers of dressing changes during the intervention phase of the study (p?study provided good evidence to show that larval therapy, in the form of a BioFOAM dressing, debrided VLU and MLU considerably more quickly than a hydrogel, although the possibility of resloughing should be closely monitored. PMID:24299513

Mudge, Elizabeth; Price, Patricia; Walkley, Neal; Neal, Walkley; Harding, Keith G

2014-01-01

102

A phase II study of fenretinide in patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer: a trial of the Cancer Therapeutics Research Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Fenretinide is a synthetic retinoid with activity in prostate cancer and other cell lines. The aim of this study was to assess\\u000a the efficacy and tolerability of fenretinide in chemotherapy-naïve men with hormone refractory prostate cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eligibility criteria included hormone refractory prostate cancer with a rising PSA at least 6 weeks after peripheral anti-androgen\\u000a withdrawal, ECOG performance status (PS) 0–1, and

M. M. Moore; M. Stockler; R. Lim; T. S. K. Mok; M. Millward; M. J. Boyer

2010-01-01

103

Recruiting ethnic minority participants to a clinical trial: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the motives and experiences of different ethnic groups participating in a randomised double blind placebo-controlled trial of montelukast in preschool wheeze, and to assess parents’ or guardians’ understanding of trial procedures and their implications, including the collection of genetic material. Design Qualitative interviews with parents or guardians. Setting Interviews occurred in the homes of London children recruited to a national multicentre clinical trial following primary and secondary care attendance with wheeze. Participants 42 parents (20 of Bangladeshi origin, 10 white UK, 12 other ethnicities) of preschool children enrolled in a clinical trial. Results Bangladeshi families were relatively reluctant to participate in the qualitative study, despite strong engagement with the parent study. Anxiety related to wheezing was a common primary motive for trial enrolment. Parents viewed the trial as a route to improved treatment. Verbal delivery of trial information appeared more effective than study literature, especially for Bangladeshi families, with low parental literacy and high levels of trust in medical professionals potential contributors to this effect. All ethnic groups expressed a low understanding and/or retention of essential study concepts such as randomisation and genetic testing. Conclusions Bangladeshi families are particularly motivated to participate in clinical trials despite variable comprehension of study concepts. This motivation is more strongly contingent on strong researcher-subject rapport than on the quality of study literature. Trial teams seeking to recruit from South Asian populations should emphasise face-to-face verbal explanation of trial concepts and procedures and consider modified trial literature. PMID:23572193

MacNeill, Virginia; Nwokoro, Chinedu; Griffiths, Chris; Grigg, Jonathan; Seale, Clive

2013-01-01

104

A Phase 1 Trial of Imetelstat in Children with Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors: A Children’s Oncology Group Phase 1 Consortium Study (ADVL1112)  

PubMed Central

Purpose Imetelstat is a covalently-lipidated 13-mer thiophosphoramidate oligonucleotide that acts as a potent specific inhibitor of telomerase. It binds with high affinity to the template region of the RNA component of human telomerase (hTERC ) and is a competitive inhibitor of telomerase enzymatic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the recommended phase 2 dose of imetelstat in children with recurrent or refractory solid tumors. Experimental Design Imetelstat was administered intravenously over two hours on days 1 and 8, every 21 days. Dose levels of 225, 285, and 360 mg/m2 were evaluated, using the rolling-six design. Imetelstat pharmacokinetic and correlative biology studies were also performed during the first cycle. Results Twenty subjects were enrolled (median age 14 yrs; range 3–21). Seventeen were evaluable for toxicity. The most common toxicities were neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and lymphopenia, with dose-limiting myelosuppression in two of six patients at 360 mg/m2. Pharmacokinetics were dose dependent with a lower clearance at the highest dose level. Telomerase inhibition was observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at 285 and 360 mg/m2. Two confirmed partial responses osteosarcoma (n=1) and Ewing sarcoma (n=1) were observed. Conclusions The recommended phase 2 dose of imetelstat given on days 1 and 8 of 21-day cycle is 285 mg/m2. PMID:24097866

Thompson, Patrick A.; Drissi, Rachid; Muscal, Jodi A.; Panditharatna, Eshini; Fouladi, Maryam; Ingle, Ashish M.; Ahern, Charlotte H.; Reid, Joel M.; Lin, Tong; Weigel, Brenda J.; Blaney, Susan M.

2014-01-01

105

Rationale and design of the HepZero study: a prospective, multicenter, international, open, randomized, controlled clinical study with parallel groups comparing heparin-free dialysis with heparin-coated dialysis membrane (Evodial) versus standard care: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Anticoagulation for chronic dialysis patients with contraindications to heparin administration is challenging. Current guidelines state that in patients with increased bleeding risks, strategies that can induce systemic anticoagulation should be avoided. Heparin-free dialysis using intermittent saline flushes is widely adopted as the method of choice for patients at risk of bleeding, although on-line blood predilution may also be used. A new dialyzer, Evodial (Gambro, Lund, Sweden), is grafted with unfractionated heparin during the manufacturing process and may allow safe and efficient heparin-free hemodialysis sessions. In the present trial, Evodial was compared to standard care with either saline flushes or blood predilution. Methods The HepZero study is the first international (seven countries), multicenter (10 centers), randomized, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority (and if applicable subsequently, superiority) trial with two parallel groups, comprising 252 end-stage renal disease patients treated by maintenance hemodialysis for at least 3 months and requiring heparin-free dialysis treatments. Patients will be treated during a maximum of three heparin-free dialysis treatments with either saline flushes or blood predilution (control group), or Evodial. The first heparin-free dialysis treatment will be considered successful when there is: no complete occlusion of air traps or dialyzer rendering dialysis impossible; no additional saline flushes to prevent clotting; no change of dialyzer or blood lines because of clotting; and no premature termination (early rinse-back) because of clotting. The primary objectives of the study are to determine the effectiveness of the Evodial dialyzer, compared with standard care in terms of successful treatments during the first heparin-free dialysis. If the non-inferiority of Evodial is demonstrated then the superiority of Evodial over standard care will be tested. The HepZero study results may have major clinical implications for patient care. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01318486 PMID:23725299

2013-01-01

106

Effect of Education through Support ­Group on Early Symptoms of Menopause: a Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Menopause is one of the most important crises in the life of women. The control of menopause symptoms is a main challenge in providing care to this population. So, the aim of present study was to investigate the effect of education through support ­group on early symptoms of menopause. Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial 124 postmenopausal women who had a health records in Valiasr participatory health center of Eslamshahr city were participated. These women were allocated by block randomization method into support group (62 women) and control group (62 women).Women in support group was assigned into 6 groups. Three 60-minutes educational sessions were conducted in 3 sequential weekly sessions. Early menopausal symptoms were measured before and 4 weeks after the intervention by using Greene scale (score ranged from 0 to 63). Data analysis was performed by ANCOVA statistical test. Results: There were no statistical differences between two groups in demographic characteristics and the total score of the Greene scale before intervention. The mean score of the Greene scale in support group was statistically less than control group 4 weeks after intervention. The number of hot flashes in the support group was significantly lower than control group, 4 weeks after intervention.Conclusion: Education through support group was effective in reducing the early symptoms of menopause. Thus, this educational method can be used as an appropriate strategy for enhancing women’ health and their dealing with annoying symptoms of menopause. PMID:25709980

Sehhatie Shafaie, Fahimeh; Mirghafourvand, Mozhgan; Jafari, Maryam

2014-01-01

107

A Phase I Trial and Pharmacokinetic Study of Sorafenib in Children with Refractory Solid Tumors or Leukemias: A Children’s Oncology Group Phase I Consortium Report  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of sorafenib in children with refractory extracranial solid tumors and evaluate the tolerability of the solid tumor MTD in children with refractory leukemias. Experimental Design Sorafenib was administered orally every 12 hours for consecutive 28-day cycles. Pharmacokinetics (day 1 and steady-state) and pharmacodynamics were conducted during cycle 1. Results Of 65 patients enrolled, 60 were eligible. In the solid tumor cohort (n = 49), 4 of 6 patients experienced a DLT [hypertension, pain, rash/urticaria, thrombocytopenia, alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/ aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] at the starting dose (150 mg/m2/dose) which resulted in de-escalation to 105 mg/m2/dose. After eligibility criteria modification and dose re-escalation, the MTD was 200 mg/m2/ dose for solid tumors and 150 mg/m2/dose for leukemias. Sorafenib exposure was highly variable between patients but was within the ranges reported in adults. The apparent sorafenib clearance increased with patient age. Diarrhea, rash, fatigue, and increased ALT/AST were the most common sorafenib-related toxicities. Stable disease for 4 or more cycles was observed in 14 solid tumor patients, and 2 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3ITD) experienced a decrease in bone marrow blasts to less than 5%. Conclusions The recommended phase II dose of sorafenib administered every 12 hours continuously for children with solid tumors is 200 mg/m2/dose and 150 mg/m2/dose for children with leukemias. Sorafenib toxicities and distribution in children are similar to adults. The activity of sorafenib in children with AML and FLT3ITD is currently being evaluated, and a phase II study for select solid tumors is ongoing. PMID:22962440

Widemann, Brigitte C.; Kim, AeRang; Fox, Elizabeth; Baruchel, Sylvain; Adamson, Peter C.; Ingle, Ashish M.; Bender, Julia Glade; Burke, Michael; Weigel, Brenda; Stempak, Diana; Balis, Frank M.; Blaney, Susan M.

2012-01-01

108

Statistical Analysis of Group-Administered Intervention Data: Re-Analysis of Two Randomized Trials  

PubMed Central

Group-administered interventions often create statistical dependencies, which if ignored increase the rate of Type I errors. We analyzed data from two randomized trials involving group interventions to document the impact of statistical dependency on tests of intervention effects and to provide estimates of statistical dependency. Intraclass correlations ranged from .02 to .12. Adjusting for dependencies increased p-values for the tests of intervention effects. The increase in the p-values depended upon the magnitude of the statistical dependence and available degrees of freedom. Results suggest that the literature may overstate the efficacy of group interventions and imply that it will be important to study why groups create dependencies. We discuss how dependencies impact statistical power and how researchers can address this concern. PMID:18815989

Rohde, Paul D.

2009-01-01

109

Is adjuvant chemotherapy of benefit for postmenopausal women who receive endocrine treatment for highly endocrine-responsive, node-positive breast cancer? International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials VII and 12-93.  

PubMed

To compare the efficacy of chemoendocrine treatment with that of endocrine treatment (ET) alone for postmenopausal women with highly endocrine responsive breast cancer. In the International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) Trials VII and 12-93, postmenopausal women with node-positive, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive or ER-negative, operable breast cancer were randomized to receive either chemotherapy or endocrine therapy or combined chemoendocrine treatment. Results were analyzed overall in the cohort of 893 patients with endocrine-responsive disease, and according to prospectively defined categories of ER, age and nodal status. STEPP analyses assessed chemotherapy effect. The median follow-up was 13 years. Adding chemotherapy reduced the relative risk of a disease-free survival event by 19% (P = 0.02) compared with ET alone. STEPP analyses showed little effect of chemotherapy for tumors with high levels of ER expression (P = 0.07), or for the cohort with one positive node (P = 0.03). Chemotherapy significantly improves disease-free survival for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer, but the magnitude of the effect is substantially attenuated if ER levels are high. PMID:18953651

Pagani, Olivia; Gelber, Shari; Simoncini, Edda; Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica; Price, Karen N; Gelber, Richard D; Holmberg, Stig B; Crivellari, Diana; Collins, John; Lindtner, Jurij; Thürlimann, Beat; Fey, Martin F; Murray, Elizabeth; Forbes, John F; Coates, Alan S; Goldhirsch, Aron

2009-08-01

110

The role of internal pilot studies in increasing the efficiency of clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Investigators often design clinical trials without knowing precisely the values of such necessary parameters as the variances or the event rates in the control group. In order to determine reasonable values for such parameters, they may design a small pilot study external to the main trial. In this paper we propose designs, which we term internal pilot studies, that

JANET WITTES; ERICA BRITTAIN

1990-01-01

111

Pilot study evaluating broccoli sprouts in advanced pancreatic cancer (POUDER trial) - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most aggressive malignancies with marked resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. PDA-cancer stem cells (CSCs) are not targeted by current therapies and may be a reason for poor prognosis. Studies indicate that diets rich in cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower offer cancer preventative and therapeutic benefits. Recent experimental studies have confirmed these findings and demonstrated that isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, and the polyphenol, quercetin, effectively reduced tumor growth and enhanced the sensitivity of the cancer cells to current chemotherapeutics. The aim of the present study is to test the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial on the application of freeze-dried broccoli sprouts in patients with advanced PDA. Methods and study design The study is designed as a prospective randomized, double-blinded pilot trial with a treatment and a placebo-controlled arm in a single center setting. A total number of forty patients (18 years or older) in two parallel groups with advanced, surgically non-resectable PDA under palliative chemotherapy are planned for recruitment. Patients in the treatment group will receive fifteen capsules of the study substance per day (90 mg of active sulforaphane) during the chemotherapy treatment course. Patients in the placebo group will receive the same capsule size and portion distribution with inactive substances (mainly methylcellulose). The follow-up duration is one year. Feasibility of the study substance, adverse effects, and patient compliance, as well as levels of serum tumor markers (CEA, CA 19-9), quality of life, and patient overall survival rates will be assessed at defined points of time. Discussion The POUDER trial is expected to transfer promising experimental and epidemiological data into a clinical pilot study to assess the effectiveness of broccoli sprout extracts in the treatment of advanced PDA. The study objectives will provide data on the clinical feasibility and acceptability of a supportive treatment option accompanying palliative chemotherapy. Based on these results, future clinical studies to create further evidence in this field are possible. Trial registration The POUDER trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with an ID NCT01879878 and WHO with an ID U1111-1144-2013 on June 13th 2013. PMID:24894410

2014-01-01

112

Independent radiologic review of the Gynecologic Oncology Group Study 0218, a phase III trial of bevacizumab in the primary treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer?  

PubMed Central

Objectives Gynecologic Oncology Group Study 0218 (GOG-0218), a phase III, placebo-controlled trial in newly diagnosed stage III/IV ovarian cancer (OC), demonstrated a benefit in investigator (INV)-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) with bevacizumab (BEV) administered with and following carboplatin/paclitaxel (CP) for up to 15 months vs. CP alone. To determine the reliability of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) in assessing disease progression (PD) in GOG-0218, an independent review of radiologic and clinical data (IRC) was conducted. Methods Blinded reviews followed RECIST 1.0 in accordance with the study protocol; PFS was analyzed in the intent-to-treat population. Results CP + BEV?BEV achieved a significant PFS improvement in both assessments. Hazard ratios for PFS (IRC: 0.623; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.503–0.772; p<0.0001 vs. INV: 0.624; 95% CI: 0.520–0.749; p<0.0001) and the improvement in median PFS (IRC: 19.1 and 13.1 months vs. INV: 18.2 and 12 months) were similar between IRC and INV assessments. There was high concordance between IRC- and INV-determined PD status (77%) and date (73%). Subgroup analyses were consistent with the primary IRC findings. Early and late discontinuation discordance measures showed no evidence of INV bias. Conclusion IRC analysis confirmed a significant PFS improvement with CP + BEV ? BEV vs. CP alone. Concordance was not influenced by extent of residual disease after cytoreductive surgery or initial stage. The IRC size, high participation rate, and strong concordance between IRC and INV assessments suggest that RECIST can be applied objectively in OC studies. PMID:23906656

Burger, Robert. A.; Brady, Mark F.; Rhee, Joon; Sovak, Mika A.; Kong, George; Nguyen, Hoa P.; Bookman, Michael A.

2013-01-01

113

Placebo group improvement in trials of pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorders: A multivariate meta-analysis examining change over time  

PubMed Central

Objective Placebo group improvement in pharmacotherapy trials has been increasing over time across several pharmacological treatment areas. However, it is unknown to what degree increasing improvement has occurred in pharmacotherapy trials for alcohol use disorders or what factors may account for placebo group improvement. This meta-analysis of 47 alcohol pharmacotherapy trials evaluated (1) the magnitude of placebo group improvement, (2) the extent to which placebo group improvement has been increasing over time, and (3) several potential moderators that might account for variation in placebo group improvement. Method Random-effects univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted that examined the magnitude of placebo group improvement in the 47 studies and several potential moderators of improvement: (a) publication year, (b) country in which the study was conducted, (c) outcome data source/type, (d) number of placebo administrations, (e) overall severity of study participants, and (f) additional psychosocial treatment. Results Substantial placebo group improvement was found overall and improvement was larger in more recent studies. Greater improvement was found on moderately subjective outcomes, with more frequent administrations of the placebo, and in studies with greater participant severity of illness. However, even after controlling for these moderators, placebo group improvement remained significant, as did placebo group improvement over time. Conclusion Similar to previous pharmacotherapy placebo research, substantial pre- to post-test placebo group improvement has occurred in alcohol pharmacotherapy trials, an effect that has been increasing over time. However, several plausible moderator variables were not able to explain why placebo group improvement has been increasing over time. PMID:23857312

Del Re, AC; Maisel, Natalya; Blodgett, Janet; Wilbourne, Paula; Finney, John

2014-01-01

114

Cooperative group clinical trials in general thoracic surgery: report from the 2012 Robert Ginsberg Clinical Trials Meeting of the General Thoracic Surgical Club.  

PubMed

At the 25th Annual General Thoracic Surgical Club meeting in March 2012, the major cooperative groups presented updates on clinical trials at the Robert Ginsberg Clinical Trials Meeting. There were 57 members in attendance. Representatives from the Radiation Treatment Oncology Group (RTOG), American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG), Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB), Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG), National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group (NCIC), and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) presented an overview of trials currently accruing or in development. These include oncologic trials that thoracic surgeons are currently accruing patients to in North America. The purpose of this review is to centralize the information to assist surgeons enrolling patients into oncologic clinical trials in thoracic surgery. PMID:23336898

Allen, Mark S; Wigle, Dennis A

2013-02-01

115

German Acupuncture Trials (GERAC) for Chronic Low Back Pain Randomized, Multicenter, Blinded, Parallel-Group Trial With 3 Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods A patient- and observer-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted in Germany involving 340 outpatient practices, including 1162 patients aged 18 to 86 years (mean ± SD age, 50 ± 15 years) with a history of chronic low back pain for a mean of 8 years. Patients underwent ten 30-minute sessions, generally 2 sessions per week, of verum acupuncture (n =

Michael Haake; Hans-Helge Muller; Carmen Schade-Brittinger; Heinz D. Basler; Helmut Schafer; Christoph Maier; Heinz G. Endres; Hans J. Trampisch; Albrecht Molsberger

2007-01-01

116

Associative tolerance to nicotine's analgesic effects: studies on number of conditioning trials and corticosterone  

E-print Network

This study examined the number of conditioning trials necessary to produce associative nicotine tolerance and the changes in corticosterone levels during the procedures. Six independent groups of rats (N = 355) were run through tolerance...

Davis, Kristina

2004-09-30

117

Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) versus control CBM and iCBT for depression: study protocol for a parallel-group randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction The current randomised controlled trial will evaluate the efficacy of an internet-delivered positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) intervention for depression when compared with an active control condition and help establish the additive benefit of positive imagery CBM when delivered in combination with internet cognitive behavioural therapy for depression. Methods and analysis Patients meeting diagnostic criteria for a current major depressive episode will be recruited through the research arm of a not-for-profit clinical and research unit in Australia. The minimum sample size for each group (? set at 0.05, power at 0.80) was identified as 29, but at least 10% more will be recruited to hedge against expected attrition. We will measure the impact of CBM on primary measures of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory—second edition (BDI-II), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9)) and interpretive bias (ambiguous scenarios test-depression), and on a secondary measure of psychological distress (Kessler-10 (K10)) following the 1-week CBM intervention. Secondary outcome measures of psychological distress (K10), as well as disability (WHO disability assessment schedule-II), repetitive negative thinking (repetitive thinking questionnaire), and anxiety (state trait anxiety inventory-trait version) will be evaluated following completion of the 11-week combined intervention, in addition to the BDI-II and PHQ9. Intent-to-treat marginal and mixed effect models using restricted maximum likelihood estimation will be used to evaluate the primary hypotheses. Clinically significant change will be defined as high-end state functioning (a BDI-II score <14) combined with a total score reduction greater than the reliable change index score. Maintenance of gains will be assessed at 3-month follow-up. Ethics and dissemination The current trial protocol has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of St Vincent's Hospital and the University of New South Wales, Sydney. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613000139774 and Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01787513. This trial protocol is written in compliance with the Standard Protocol Items: recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines. PMID:24171941

Williams, Alishia D; Blackwell, Simon E; Holmes, Emily A; Andrews, Gavin

2013-01-01

118

Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial)  

PubMed Central

Background More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. Methods/Design The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Discussion The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally effective sexual assault resistance education program that can be adopted by universities, to assess whether aspects of the program need to be strengthened, and also to indicate how long the effects of the program last and at which point in time refresher sessions may be necessary. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01338428 PMID:23702221

2013-01-01

119

Parent Training with High-Risk Immigrant Chinese Families: A Pilot Group Randomized Trial Yielding Practice-Based Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied the efficacy and implementation outcomes of a culturally responsive parent training (PT) program. Fifty-four Chinese American parents participated in a wait-list controlled group randomized trial (32 immediate treatment, 22 delayed treatment) of a 14-week intervention designed to address the needs of high-risk immigrant families.…

Lau, Anna S.; Fung, Joey J.; Ho, Lorinda Y.; Liu, Lisa L.; Gudino, Omar G.

2011-01-01

120

The Essence Trial: Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin in Unstable Angina and Non-Q-Wave MI: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Parallel-Group, Multicenter Study Comparing Enoxaparin and Intravenous Unfractionated Heparin: Methods and Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antithrombotic therapy reduces the risk of recurrent ischemic events in patients with unstable angina. The primary aim of the ESSENCE trial is to evaluate the efficacy of enoxaparin (low molecular weight heparin) versus unfractionated heparin, plus aspirin, in patients with rest angina or non-Q-wave infarction. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 3180 patients comparing enoxaparin, 1 mg\\/kg sc

Marc Cohen; Reginald Blaber; Christine Demers; Enrique P. Gurfinkel; Anatoly Langer; Gregg Fromell; Jerome Premmereur; Alexander G. G. Turpie

1997-01-01

121

Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma in non-bleeding ICU patients -TOPIC TRIAL: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is an effective therapy to correct for a deficiency of multiple coagulation factors during bleeding. In past years, use of FFP has increased, in particular in patients on the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and has expanded to include prophylactic use in patients with a coagulopathy prior to undergoing an invasive procedure. Retrospective studies suggest that prophylactic use of FFP does not prevent bleeding, but carries the risk of transfusion-related morbidity. However, up to 50% of FFP is administered to non-bleeding ICU patients. With the aim to investigate whether prophylactic FFP transfusions to critically ill patients can be safely omitted, a multi-center randomized clinical trial is conducted in ICU patients with a coagulopathy undergoing an invasive procedure. Methods A non-inferiority, prospective, multicenter randomized open-label, blinded end point evaluation (PROBE) trial. In the intervention group, a prophylactic transfusion of FFP prior to an invasive procedure is omitted compared to transfusion of a fixed dose of 12 ml/kg in the control group. Primary outcome measure is relevant bleeding. Secondary outcome measures are minor bleeding, correction of International Normalized Ratio, onset of acute lung injury, length of ventilation days and length of Intensive Care Unit stay. Discussion The Transfusion of Fresh Frozen Plasma in non-bleeding ICU patients (TOPIC) trial is the first multi-center randomized controlled trial powered to investigate whether it is safe to withhold FFP transfusion to coagulopathic critically ill patients undergoing an invasive procedure. Trial Registration Trial registration: Dutch Trial Register NTR2262 and ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01143909 PMID:22196464

2011-01-01

122

Cancer and Leukemia Group B Pathology Committee Guidelines for Tissue Microarray Construction Representing Multicenter Prospective Clinical Trial Tissues  

PubMed Central

Practice-changing evidence requires confirmation, preferably in multi-institutional clinical trials. The collection of tissue within such trials has enabled biomarker studies and evaluation of companion diagnostic tests. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) have become a standard approach in many cooperative oncology groups. A principal goal is to maximize the number of assays with this precious tissue. However, production strategies for these arrays have not been standardized, possibly decreasing the value of the study. In this article, members of the Cancer and Leukemia Group B Pathology Committee relay our experiences as array facility directors and propose guidelines regarding the production of high-quality TMAs for cooperative group studies. We also discuss statistical issues arising from having a proportion of patients available for TMAs and the possibility that patients with TMAs fail to represent the greater study population. PMID:21519016

Rimm, David L.; Nielsen, Torsten O.; Jewell, Scott D.; Rohrer, Daniel C.; Broadwater, Gloria; Waldman, Frederic; Mitchell, Kisha A.; Singh, Baljit; Tsongalis, Gregory J.; Frankel, Wendy L.; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Lara, Jonathan F.; Hsi, Eric D.; Bleiweiss, Ira J.; Badve, Sunil S.; Chen, Beiyun; Ravdin, Peter M.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Thor, Ann; Berry, Donald A.

2011-01-01

123

Surgical trials and trial registers: a cross-sectional study of randomized controlled trials published in journals requiring trial registration in the author instructions  

PubMed Central

Background Trial registration and the reporting of trial results are essential to increase transparency in clinical research. Although both have been strongly promoted in recent years, it remains unclear whether they have been successfully implemented in surgery and surgery-related disciplines. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed whether randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in surgery journals requiring trial registration in their author instructions were indeed registered, and whether the study results of registered RCTs had been submitted to the trial register and were thus publicly available. Methods The ten highest ranked surgery journals requiring trial registration by impact factor (Journal Citation Reports, JCR, 2011) were chosen. We then searched MEDLINE (in PubMed) for RCTs published in the selected journals between 1 June 2012 and 31 December 2012. Any trials recruiting participants before 2004 were excluded because the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) first proposed trial registration in 2004. We then searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) to assess whether the identified RCTs were indeed registered and whether the results of the registered RCTs were available in the register. Results The search retrieved 588 citations. Four hundred and sixty references were excluded in the first screening. A further 25 were excluded after full-text screening. A total of 103 RCTs were finally included. Eighty-five of these RCTs (83%) could be found via the ICTRP. For 7 of 59 (12%) RCTs, which were registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, summary study data had been posted in the results database. Conclusions Although still not fully implemented, trial registration in surgery has gained momentum. In general, however, the submission of summary study data to ClinicalTrials.gov remains poor. PMID:24289719

2013-01-01

124

Quality of reporting of two-group parallel randomized controlled clinical trials of multi-herb formulae: A survey of reports indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAn increasing number of trials of multi-herb formula interventions are being published in relatively high-ranked medical journals indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE). The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of reporting of two-group parallel randomized controlled clinical trials (indexed in SCIE) of multi-herb formulae.

Yunqing Zhong; Wei Zhou; Hongli Jiang; Tao Fan; Xiang Diao; Hongmei Yang; Jie Min; Gang Wang; Juanjuan Fu; Bing Mao

125

Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6–8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions’ similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout. PMID:24089423

Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

2014-01-01

126

A randomised controlled trial of group cognitive behavioural therapy for perfectionism.  

PubMed

Perfectionism is associated with symptoms of anxiety disorders, eating disorders and mood disorders. Treatments targeting perfectionism may reduce the symptoms of these disorders (Egan, Wade, & Shafran, 2011). This study is the first randomised controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for perfectionism. Forty-two participants with elevated perfectionism and a range of anxiety, eating and mood disorders were randomised to group CBT for perfectionism or a waitlist control. The treatment group reported significantly greater pre-post reductions in perfectionism, symptoms of depression, eating disorders, social anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and rumination, as well as significantly greater pre-post increases in self-esteem and quality of life compared to the waitlist control group. The impact of treatment on most of these outcomes was mediated by pre-post change in perfectionism (Concern over Mistakes). Treatment gains were reliable and clinically significant, and were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Findings support group CBT for perfectionism being an efficacious treatment for perfectionism and related psychopathology, as well as increasing self-esteem and quality of life. PMID:25795927

Handley, Alicia K; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T; Rees, Clare S

2015-05-01

127

Order effects in multiple decisions by groups: A demonstration with mock juries and trial procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessed the effects of the order in which groups undertake different tasks in a multitask situation, using mock juries. 461 undergraduates watched a videotaped enactment of a criminal trial involving 3 joined charges and then, either individually or as members of 6-person groups, decided on the guilt or innocence of the defendant on all 3 charges in 1 of 3

James H Davis

1984-01-01

128

The development and description of the comparison group in the Look AHEAD trial  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite more lifestyle intervention trials, there is little published information on the development of the comparison group intervention. This article describes the comparison group intervention, termed Diabetes Support and Education Intervention and its development for the Action for HEAlth in Dia...

129

Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

2014-01-01

130

Prevention of abdominal wound infection (PROUD trial, DRKS00000390): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Wound infection affects a considerable portion of patients after abdominal operations, increasing health care costs and postoperative morbidity and affecting quality of life. Antibacterial coating has been suggested as an effective measure to decrease postoperative wound infections after laparotomies. The INLINE metaanalysis has recently shown the superiority of a slowly absorbable continuous suture for abdominal closure; with PDS plus® such a suture has now been made available with triclosan antibacterial coating. Methods/Design The PROUD trial is designed as a randomised, controlled, observer, surgeon and patient blinded multicenter superiority trial with two parallel groups and a primary endpoint of wound infection during 30 days after surgery. The intervention group will receive triclosan coated polydioxanone sutures, whereas the control group will receive the standard polydioxanone sutures; abdominal closure will otherwise be standardized in both groups. Statistical analysis is based on intention-to-treat population via binary logistic regression analysis, the total sample size of n = 750 is sufficient to ensure alpha = 5% and power = 80%, an interim analysis will be carried out after data of 375 patients are available. Discussion The PROUD trial will yield robust data to determine the effectiveness of antibacterial coating in one of the standard sutures for abdominal closure and potentially lead to amendment of current guidelines. The exploration of clinically objective parameters as well as quality of life holds immediate relevance for clinical management and the pragmatic trial design ensures high external validity. Trial Registration The trial protocol has been registered with the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00000390). PMID:22103965

2011-01-01

131

The National Lung Screening Trial: overview and study design.  

PubMed

The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) is a randomized multicenter study comparing low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) with chest radiography in the screening of older current and former heavy smokers for early detection of lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Five-year survival rates approach 70% with surgical resection of stage IA disease; however, more than 75% of individuals have incurable locally advanced or metastatic disease, the latter having a 5-year survival of less than 5%. It is plausible that treatment should be more effective and the likelihood of death decreased if asymptomatic lung cancer is detected through screening early enough in its preclinical phase. For these reasons, there is intense interest and intuitive appeal in lung cancer screening with low-dose CT. The use of survival as the determinant of screening effectiveness is, however, confounded by the well-described biases of lead time, length, and overdiagnosis. Despite previous attempts, no test has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, an endpoint that circumvents screening biases and provides a definitive measure of benefit when assessed in a randomized controlled trial that enables comparison of mortality rates between screened individuals and a control group that does not undergo the screening intervention of interest. The NLST is such a trial. The rationale for and design of the NLST are presented. PMID:21045183

Aberle, Denise R; Berg, Christine D; Black, William C; Church, Timothy R; Fagerstrom, Richard M; Galen, Barbara; Gareen, Ilana F; Gatsonis, Constantine; Goldin, Jonathan; Gohagan, John K; Hillman, Bruce; Jaffe, Carl; Kramer, Barnett S; Lynch, David; Marcus, Pamela M; Schnall, Mitchell; Sullivan, Daniel C; Sullivan, Dorothy; Zylak, Carl J

2011-01-01

132

The Effectiveness of a Group Triple P with Chinese Parents Who Have a Child with Developmental Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effectiveness of Group Triple P, a Level 4 variant of the Triple P multilevel system of parenting support, with Chinese parents who had a preschool aged child with a developmental disability, using randomized controlled trial design. Participants (Intervention group: 42; Waitlist Control group: 39) completed measures on…

Leung, Cynthia; Fan, Angel; Sanders, Matthew R.

2013-01-01

133

The Inclusion of Minority Groups in Clinical Trials: Problems of Under Representation and Under Reporting of Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the representation of minority groups in randomized control trials (RCTs), and the frequency with which this information is reported.Study Design: Reviewers collected data on the racial\\/ethnic composition of study samples from all RCTs published in six leading medical journals in 1999.Results: Of the 280 RCTs, most (204, 71.3%) provided no information on the race\\/ethnicity of participants. Of

Paula A. Rochon; Azad Mashari; Ariel Cohen; Anjali Misra; Dara Laxer; David L. Streiner; Jocalyn P. Clark; Julie M. Dergal; Jennifer Gold

2004-01-01

134

Disappointment and drop-out rate after being allocated to control group in a smoking cessation trial. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Some patients assigned to clinical trial control groups are disappointed at not participating in the intervention group. This disappointment is often given as the reason patients withdraw from trials. In this study, patients who said they were very disappointed also said that they had not received understandable information provided during the consent process. The authors provide suggestions for addressing patients’ needs to lower drop-out rates. It is especially important to make sure that patients understand randomization prior to enrollment.

135

Beyond randomized controlled trials: a critical comparison of trials with nonrandomized studies.  

PubMed

Observational analogs of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are well accepted in the study of disease risk factors, diagnosis, and prognosis. There is controversy about observational studies when the focus is on the intended benefit due to lack of blinding and poor control for unmeasured confounding. Well-designed randomized clinical trials are costly both in time and money. Therefore, existing databases are used increasingly and are often the only feasible source with which to examine delayed health effects. We reviewed the reasons for possible discrepancies between RCTs and observational studies. There can be different patient populations, differences in therapeutic regimen, control of confounding, follow-up, measuring outcome, and differences arising from the intention-to-treat analysis. Observational studies cannot replace trials, nor do trials make observational studies unnecessary. Both designs are susceptible to particular bias, so neither provides perfect information. PMID:17058242

Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Lash, Timothy L; Rothman, Kenneth J

2006-11-01

136

Cooperative group trials – Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) innovations in advanced prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

The major goals of the Southwest oncology genitourinary (SWOG-GU) committee in the area of advanced prostate cancer are to improve the survival and quality of life (QOL) of patients with advanced prostate cancer. SWOG trials have examined the role of combined androgen blockade, intermittent androgen deprivation, and the early application of chemotherapy in castration-naïve disease. In addition, they have contributed to advancing the current chemotherapy standard of docetaxel plus prednisone, and ongoing trials seek to improve upon that standard. Finally, surrogate endpoints have been identified and markers of treatment response or resistance with novel technology are under active investigation. This review highlights findings from recent SWOG clinical trials for advanced prostate cancer, emphasizing the clinical impact and future applications of the data. PMID:21085622

Dorff, Tanya B.; Tangen, Cathy M.; Crawford, E. David; Petrylak, Daniel P.; Higano, Celestia S.; Raghavan, Derek; Quinn, David I.; Vogelzang, Nicholas J.; Thompson, Ian M.; Hussain, Maha H.A.

2009-01-01

137

Academic detailing and adherence to guidelines for Group B streptococci prenatal screening: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) recommend universal prenatal screening for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) to identify candidates for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent early onset neonatal GBS infection. Interventions to promote physician adherence to these guidelines are imperative. This study examined the effectiveness of academic detailing (AD) of obstetricians, compared with CPG mailshot and no intervention, on the screening of pregnant women for GBS. Methods A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in the medical cooperative of Porto Alegre, Brazil. All obstetricians who assisted in a delivery covered by private health insurance managed by the cooperative in the 3 months preceding the study (n = 241) were invited to participate. The obstetricians were randomized to three groups: direct mail (DM, n = 76), AD (n = 76) and control (C, n = 89, no intervention). Those in the DM group were sent guidelines on GBS. The AD group received the guidelines and an educational visit detailing the guidelines, which was conducted by a trained physician. Data on obstetrician age, gender, time since graduation, whether patients received GBS screening during pregnancy, and obstetricians who requested screening were collected for all participant obstetricians for 3 months before and after the intervention, using database from the private health insurance information system. Results Three months post-intervention, the data showed that the proportion of pregnant women screened for GBS was higher in the AD group (25.4%) than in the DM (15.9%) and C (17.7%) groups (P = 0.023). Similar results emerged when the three groups were taken as a cluster (pregnant women and their obstetricians), but the difference was not statistically significant (Poisson regression, P = 0.108). Additionally, when vaginal deliveries were analyzed separately, the proportion screened was higher in the AD group (75%) than in the DM group (41.9%) and the C group (30.4%) (chi-square, P < 0.001). Conclusions The results suggest that AD increased the prevalence of GBS screening in pregnant women in this population. PMID:23510061

2013-01-01

138

TrialNet Information for Study Participants  

MedlinePLUS

... Join Where do I go? TrialNet Locations Can Type 1 Diabetes Be Prevented? You Can Help Answer This Question! If someone in your family has type 1 diabetes, you and other family members may be at ...

139

The Quality of Life Committee of the Clinical Trials Group of the National Cancer Institute of Canada: organization and functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quality of Life Committee of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group has successfully advocated the adoption of quality of life outcomes in Canadian clinical trials in patients with cancer. It has developed a policy promoting quality of life assessment in phase III trials and developed writing guidelines to assist clinical investigators when developing protocols for proposed

D. Osoba

1992-01-01

140

Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) randomized trials: study design.  

PubMed

Observational studies suggest improvements with frequent hemodialysis (HD), but its true efficacy and safety remain uncertain. The Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trials Group is conducting two multicenter randomized trials of 250 subjects each, comparing conventional three times weekly HD with (1) in-center daily HD and (2) home nocturnal HD. Daily HD will be delivered for 1.5-2.75 h, 6 days/week, with target eK(t)/V(n) > or = 0.9/session, whereas nocturnal HD will be delivered for > or = 6 h, 6 nights/week, with target stdK(t)/V of > or = 4.0/week. Subjects will be followed for 1 year. The composite of mortality with the 12-month change in (i) left ventricular mass index (LVMI) by magnetic resonance imaging, and (ii) SF-36 RAND Physical Health Composite (PHC) are specified as co-primary outcomes. The seven main secondary outcomes are between group comparisons of: change in LVMI, change in PHC, change in Beck Depression Inventory score, change in Trail Making Test B score, change in pre-HD serum albumin, change in pre-HD serum phosphorus, and rates of non-access hospitalization or death. Changes in blood pressure and erythropoiesis will also be assessed. Safety outcomes will focus on vascular access complications and burden of treatment. Data will be obtained on the cost of delivering frequent HD compared to conventional HD. Efforts will be made to reduce bias, including blinding assessment of subjective outcomes. Because no large-scale randomized trials of frequent HD have been previously conducted, the first year has been designated a Vanguard Phase, during which feasibility of randomization, ability to deliver the interventions, and adherence will be evaluated. PMID:17164834

Suri, R S; Garg, A X; Chertow, G M; Levin, N W; Rocco, M V; Greene, T; Beck, G J; Gassman, J J; Eggers, P W; Star, R A; Ornt, D B; Kliger, A S

2007-02-01

141

Changes in Fat Mitochondrial DNA and Function in Subjects Randomized to Abacavir-Lamivudine or Tenofovir DF–Emtricitabine With Atazanavir-Ritonavir or Efavirenz: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5224s, Substudy of A5202  

PubMed Central

Background.?The effect of nonthymidine nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) on fat mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and function is unclear. Methods.?A5202 randomized antiretroviral therapy–naive human immunodeficiency virus–infected subjects to abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) versus tenofovir DF–emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r). A5224s, substudy of A5202, enrolled 269 subjects with fat measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. A subset of subjects underwent fat biopsies at baseline and week 96 for mtDNA content (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and oxidative phosphorylation nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) dehydrogenase (complex I) and cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) activity levels (immunoassays). Intent-to-treat analyses were performed using analysis of variance and paired t tests. Results.?Fifty-six subjects (87% male; median age, 39 years) were included; their median body mass index, CD4 cell count, and fat mtDNA level were 26 kg/m2, 227 cells/?L, and 1197 copies/cell, respectively. Fat mtDNA content decreased within the ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC groups (combining EFV and ATV/r arms; median change, ?341 [interquartile range, ?848 to 190; P = .03] and ?400 [?661 to ?221; P < .001] copies/cell, respectively), but these changes did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (P = .57). Complex I and IV activity decreased significantly in the TDF/FTC group (median change, ?12.45 [interquartile range, ?24.70 to 2.90; P = .003] and ?8.25 [?13.90 to ?1.30; P < .001], optical density × 103/µg, respectively) but not the ABC/3TC group. Differences between the ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC groups were significant for complex I (P = .03). Conclusions.?ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC significantly and similarly decreased fat mtDNA content, but only TDF/FTC decreased complex I and complex IV activity levels. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00118898. PMID:23204164

McComsey, Grace A.; Daar, Eric S.; O'Riordan, MaryAnn; Collier, Ann C.; Kosmiski, Lisa; Santana, Jorge L.; Fichtenbaum, Carl J.; Fink, Heidi; Sax, Paul E.; Libutti, Daniel E.; Gerschenson, Mariana

2013-01-01

142

An effective group psychoeducational intervention for improving compliance with vaginal dilation: A randomized controlled trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators.

Jeffries, Sherryl A. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Calgary Health Region Chronic Pain Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Robinson, John W. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Program in Clinical Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)]. E-mail: johnrobi@cancerboard.ab.ca; Craighead, Peter S. [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Keats, Melanie R. [Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

2006-06-01

143

Experimental and trial-based study of Resilient Packet Ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study of the Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) media access control (MAC) technology that is optimized for IP traffic in the metropolitan-area-network (MAN) environment is described. The study involved the deployment and trials of a RPR testbed encompassing a public optical fiber infrastructure in which Cisco Systems' Dynamic Packet Transport (DPT) Ring Technology - a prestandard RPR implementation - was used. We focus on a number of important RPR protocol features that are vital to the future success of RPR as a MAN/wide-area-network (WAN) network technology. Related research on RPR/DPT has been done so far through simulation studies only. Standardization of RPR is currently being performed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.17 working group and is expected to be completed in 2003. Also, we present and discuss the experiments and tests performed to investigate the key features of RPR, along with the results obtained.

Ramnath, Vasudha; Cheng, Heng Seng; Ngoh, Lek Heng

2002-08-01

144

Panax ginseng therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a clinical trial protocol and pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Panax ginseng (Ren shen) has been used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This article aims to present a study protocol and pilot trial comparing P. ginseng with placebo for treating moderate to very severe COPD. Methods COPD was diagnosed spirometrically, with participants having a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of between 20% and 79% and FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio of less than 70%. Outcome measures included exacerbation rate, St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire, COPD Assessment Test and Short-form Health Survey (SF-36). Other outcome measures included the six-minute walk test, FEV1, FVC, relief medication use, use of COPD-specific medical resources, and adverse events. The study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. The method of this pilot trial was based on a planned full-scale trial except that participants were enrolled for ten weeks compared to 52 weeks. In the pilot trial, 14 participants (57–73 years old) with moderate to very severe COPD were recruited from a community health program at a public Chinese medicine hospital in Guangdong Province, China. After a 2-week run-in period, 10 participants were eligible for the study and were randomly assigned to either P. ginseng group (n?=?5) (200 mg twice daily for four weeks) or placebo group (n?=?5), and then followed-up for an additional 4 weeks for a total of 10 weeks. Results Nine participants completed the trial and one dropped out. The exacerbation rate could not be evaluated because there were no exacerbations. One participant in P. ginseng group reported events of sore throat, cough and fever. Trial investigators did not consider these events as COPD exacerbations or adverse events. Conclusions Participant recruitment, study design, data collection and outcome measurement have been tested in a pilot trial. A full-scale trial is warranted. PMID:25161696

2014-01-01

145

chemoprevention trials  

Cancer.gov

In agent prevention or chemoprevention trials, people take medicines, vitamins, minerals or other supplements that researchers believe may lower the risk of a certain type of cancer. Many prevention trials are designed to compare a promising new agent with a standard one, or to no agent at all. Participants are randomly assigned to the study or control group.

146

Effectiveness of a group diabetes education programme in underserved communities in South Africa: pragmatic cluster randomized control trial  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is an important contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa and prevalence rates as high as 33% have been recorded in Cape Town. Previous studies show that quality of care and health outcomes are poor. The development of an effective education programme should impact on self-care, lifestyle change and adherence to medication; and lead to better control of diabetes, fewer complications and better quality of life. Methods Trial design: Pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial Participants: Type 2 diabetic patients attending 45 public sector community health centres in Cape Town Interventions: The intervention group will receive 4 sessions of group diabetes education delivered by a health promotion officer in a guiding style. The control group will receive usual care which consists of ad hoc advice during consultations and occasional educational talks in the waiting room. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the group diabetes education programme Outcomes: Primary outcomes: diabetes self-care activities, 5% weight loss, 1% reduction in HbA1c. Secondary outcomes: self-efficacy, locus of control, mean blood pressure, mean weight loss, mean waist circumference, mean HbA1c, mean total cholesterol, quality of life Randomisation: Computer generated random numbers Blinding: Patients, health promoters and research assistants could not be blinded to the health centre’s allocation Numbers randomized: Seventeen health centres (34 in total) will be randomly assigned to either control or intervention groups. A sample size of 1360 patients in 34 clusters of 40 patients will give a power of 80% to detect the primary outcomes with 5% precision. Altogether 720 patients were recruited in the intervention arm and 850 in the control arm giving a total of 1570. Discussion The study will inform policy makers and managers of the district health system, particularly in low to middle income countries, if this programme can be implemented more widely. Trial register Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201205000380384 PMID:23265076

2012-01-01

147

What to Do when Data Are Missing in Group Randomized Controlled Trials. NCEE 2009-0049  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This NCEE Technical Methods report examines how to address the problem of missing data in the analysis of data in Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) of educational interventions, with a particular focus on the common educational situation in which groups of students such as entire classrooms or schools are randomized. Missing outcome data are a…

Puma, Michael J.; Olsen, Robert B.; Bell, Stephen H.; Price, Cristofer

2009-01-01

148

Maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) in practice: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) is a psychosocial evidence-based group intervention for people with dementia recommended by the UK NICE guidelines. In clinical trials, CST has been shown to improve cognition and quality of life, but little is known about the best way of ensuring implementation of CST in practice settings. A recent pilot study found that a third of people who attend CST training go on to run CST in practice, but staff identified a lack of support as a key reason for the lack of implementation. Methods/design There are three projects in this study: The first is a pragmatic multi-centre, randomised controlled trial (RCT) of staff training, comparing CST training and outreach support with CST training only; the second, the monitoring and outreach trial, is a phase IV trial that evaluates implementation of CST in practice by staff members who have previously had the CST manual or attended training. Centres will be randomised to receive outreach support. The primary outcome measure for both of these trials is the number of CST sessions run for people with dementia. Secondary outcomes include the number of attenders at sessions, job satisfaction, dementia knowledge and attitudes, competency, barriers to change, approach to learning and a controllability of beliefs and the level of adherence. Focus groups will assess staff members’ perceptions of running CST groups and receiving outreach support. The third study involves monitoring centres running groups in their usual practice and looking at basic outcomes of cognition and quality of life for the person with dementia. Discussion These studies assess the effects of outreach support on putting CST into practice and running groups effectively in a variety of care settings with people with dementia; evaluate the effectiveness of CST in standard clinical practice; and identify key factors promoting or impeding the successful running of groups. Trial registration Clinical trial ISRCTN28793457. PMID:22735077

2012-01-01

149

Phase III Study of Radiation Therapy With or Without Cis-Platinum in Patients With Unresectable Squamous or Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: An Intergroup Trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (E2382)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The Head and Neck Intergroup conducted a Phase III randomized trial to determine whether the addition weekly cisplatin to daily radiation therapy (RT) would improve survival in patients with unresectable squamous cell head-and-neck carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were randomized to RT (70 Gy at 1.8-2 Gy/day) or to the identical RT with weekly cisplatin dosed at 20 mg/m{sup 2}. Failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS) curves were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log rank test. Results: Between 1982 and 1987, 371 patients were accrued, and 308 patients were found eligible for analysis. Median follow-up was 62 months. The median FFS was 6.5 and 7.2 months for the RT and RT + cisplatin groups, respectively (p = 0.30). The p value for the treatment difference was p = 0.096 in multivariate modeling of FFS (compared to a p = 0.30 in univariate analysis). Expected acute toxicities were significantly increased with the addition of cisplatin except for in-field RT toxicities. Late toxicities were not significantly different except for significantly more esophageal (9% vs. 3%, p = 0.03) and laryngeal (11% vs. 4%, p = 0.05) late toxicities in the RT + cisplatin group. Conclusion: The addition of concurrent weekly cisplatin at 20 mg/m{sup 2} to daily radiation did not improve survival, although there was evidence of activity. Low-dose weekly cisplatin seems to have modest tumor radiosensitization but can increase the risk of late swallowing complications.

Quon, Harry, E-mail: quon@xrt.upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Leong, Traci [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Haselow, Robert [Metro Minnesota CCOP, St. Louis Park, MN (United States); Leipzig, Bruce [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Cooper, Jay [Maimonides Cancer Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Forastiere, Arlene [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2011-11-01

150

Attitudes of primary care physicians toward cancer-prevention trials: a focus group analysis.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: Recruitment of low-income and minority women to cancer-prevention trials requires a joint effort from specialists and primary care providers. We sought to assess primary care providers' attitudes toward participating in cancer-prevention trial recruitment. PROCEDURES: We conducted a focus group with seven Boston-based primary care providers serving low-income and minority women. Providers discussed knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding their role in recruitment to prevention trials. FINDINGS: A qualitative analysis of the focus group transcript revealed nine categories. Three categories related specifically to the primary care physician: 1) the dual role physicians play as advocates for both patient and research; 2) threats to maintaining the primary care relationship; and 3) general philosophy toward prevention. An additional six categories could be subdivided as they apply to the primary care physician, the patient, and the community: 4) trust/commitment; 5) benefits of the research; 6) access to the research; 7) knowledge and recall of the research; 8) influences of media coverage about the research; and 9) cultural sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Investigators conducting cancer-prevention trials must address the concerns of primary care physicians to optimize recruitment of subjects- especially low-income and minority women-into trials. PMID:11730121

Frayne, S. M.; Mancuso, M.; Prout, M. N.; Freund, K. M.

2001-01-01

151

Group Sequential Design for Randomized Phase III Trials under the Weibull Model.  

PubMed

Abstract In this paper, a parametric sequential test is proposed under the Weibull model. The proposed test is asymptotically normal with an independent increments structure. The sample size for fixed sample test is derived for the purpose of group sequential trial design. In addition, a multi-stage group sequential procedure is given under the Weibull model by applying the Brownian motion property of the test statistic and sequential conditional probability ratio test methodology. PMID:25322440

Wu, Jianrong; Xiong, Xiaoping

2014-10-16

152

Multicenter phase II clinical trial of nilotinib for patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant chronic myeloid leukemia from the East Japan CML study group evaluation of molecular response and the efficacy and safety of nilotinib  

PubMed Central

Background Nilotinib is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor that exhibits significant efficacy as first- or second-line treatment in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We conducted a multicenter Phase II Clinical Trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nilotinib among Japanese patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant CML-chronic phase (CP) or accelerated phase (AP). Results We analyzed 49 patients (33 imatinib-resistant and 16 imatinib-intolerant) treated with nilotinib 400 mg twice daily. The major molecular response (MMR) rate was 47.8% at 12 months among 35 patients who did not demonstrate an MMR at study entry. Somatic BCR-ABL1 mutations (Y253H, I418V, and exon 8/9 35-bp insertion [35INS]) were detected in 3 patients at 12 months or upon discontinuation of nilotinib. Although 75.5% of patients were still being treated at 12 months, nilotinib treatment was discontinued because of progressing disease in 1 patient, insufficient effect in 2, and adverse events in 9. There was no statistically significant correlation between MMR and trough concentrations of nilotinib. Similarly, no correlation was observed between trough concentrations and adverse events, except for pruritus and hypokalemia. Hyperbilirubinemia was frequently observed (all grades, 51.0%; grades 2–4, 29%; grades 3–4, 4.1%). Hyperbilirubinemia higher than grade 2 was significantly associated with the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A9 I399C/C genotype (P?=?0.0086; Odds Ratio, 21.2; 95% Confidence Interval 2.2–208.0). Conclusions Nilotinib was efficacious and well tolerated by patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant CML-CP/AP. Hyperbilirubinemia may be predicted before nilotinib treatment, and may be controlled by reducing the daily dose of nilotinib in patients with UGT1A9 polymorphisms. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov: UMIN000002201 PMID:24650752

2014-01-01

153

DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ENROLLMENT IN POST-TRIAL STUDIES: THE WOMEN’S HEALTH INITIATIVE HORMONE THERAPY TRIALS  

PubMed Central

Background After clinical trials end, continued follow-up of the assembled cohort often is desirable for additional research. Factors influencing participants’ decisions to consent to additional follow-up and how these shape post-trial cohorts have not been broadly studied. Purpose We examined how two re-enrollment campaigns and the passage of time altered features of the post-trial cohorts compared with the original Women’s Health Initiative Hormone Therapy clinical trials. Methods We examined associations that markers of socio-demography, health, lifestyle and on-trial experiences had with re-enrollment and contrasted the characteristics of successive post-trial cohorts with those of the original enrollees. Results The post-trial enrollment campaigns re-enrolled 81.1% and 82.5% of available women, respectively. Women who re-enrolled tended to have better health characteristics than those not re-enrolled. Compared to women of comparable age in the original cohort, women retained for the second post-trial follow-up less often had a history of cardiovascular disease [odds ratio OR=0.36], hypertension [OR=0.57], diabetes [OR=0.59], or measured cognitive deficit [OR=0.40]. These women more often had graduated from high school [OR=1.72] and had participated in other WHI trials [OR=1.76]. Limitations We have examined experience with creating follow-up cohorst from participants in a single study. Thus, our findings may not apply to other cohorts and protocols. Conclusions Post-trial enrollment in follow-up studies can be successful; however the characteristics of the resulting cohort may differ substantially from the originally assembled group of trial participants. Collection during the original trial of potential predictors of differential re-enrollment may facilitate re-enrollment. PMID:23480899

Espeland, Mark A.; Pettinger, Mary; Falkner, Karen L.; Shumaker, Sally A.; Limacher, Marian; Thomas, Fridtjof; Weaver, Kathryn E.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; McQuellon, Cynthia; Hunt, Julie R.; Johnson, Karen C.

2014-01-01

154

Serum folate levels after UVA exposure: a two-group parallel randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Photodegradation of certain vitamins such as riboflavins, carotinoids, tocopherol, and folate has been well-documented. Previous observations suggest that ultraviolet (UV) radiation may cause folate deficiency. This is of great importance since folate deficiency is also known to be linked with the development of neural tube defects. To investigate the influence of UVA radiation on serum folate levels in vivo, we conducted a two-group randomised controlled trial on healthy subjects. Material and methods Twenty-four healthy volunteers with skin type II were enrolled into the study. Eight volunteers of the study population were randomly assigned to the control group. UVA irradiation was administered with an air-conditioned sunbed. Blood samples were taken from all volunteers at baseline (T1), 30 min after the first UVA exposure (T2), and at the end of the study 24 h after the sixth UV exposure (T3). The volunteers had two UVA exposures weekly within three weeks (cumulative UVA dose: 96 J/cm2). Volunteers of the control group had no UVA exposures. Serum folate was analysed with an automated immunoassay system. Results At all times of blood collection the differences between serum folate levels were insignificant (P > 0.05), except of the non-exposed controls at T2 (P < 0.05). We did not observed significant differences of folate levels between UVA exposed and non-exposed volunteers (P > 0.05). Conclusions Our data suggest that both single and serial UVA exposures do not significantly influence serum folate levels of healthy subjects. Therefore, neural tube defects claimed to occur after periconceptual UVA exposure are probably not due to UVA induced folate deficiency. PMID:11737876

Gambichler, Thilo; Bader, Armin; Sauermann, Kirsten; Altmeyer, Peter; Hoffmann, Klaus

2001-01-01

155

Brain Malignancy Steering Committee clinical trials planning workshop: report from the Targeted Therapies Working Group.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain malignancy and is associated with poor prognosis despite aggressive local and systemic therapy, which is related to a paucity of viable treatment options in both the newly diagnosed and recurrent settings. Even so, the rapidly increasing number of targeted therapies being evaluated in oncology clinical trials offers hope for the future. Given the broad range of possibilities for future trials, the Brain Malignancy Steering Committee convened a clinical trials planning meeting that was held at the Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia, on September 19 and 20, 2013. This manuscript reports the deliberations leading up to the event from the Targeted Therapies Working Group and the results of the meeting. PMID:25165194

Alexander, Brian M; Galanis, Evanthia; Yung, W K Alfred; Ballman, Karla V; Boyett, James M; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Degroot, John F; Huse, Jason T; Mann, Bhupinder; Mason, Warren; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Mikkelsen, Tom; Mischel, Paul S; O'Neill, Brian P; Prados, Michael D; Sarkaria, Jann N; Tawab-Amiri, Abdul; Trippa, Lorenzo; Ye, Xiaobu; Ligon, Keith L; Berry, Donald A; Wen, Patrick Y

2015-02-01

156

Acupuncture for patients with functional dyspepsia: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Whether acupuncture is efficacious for patients with functional dyspepsia is still controversial. So we designed a randomised controlled trial to settle the problem. Methods and analysis We designed a multicentre, two-arm, sham-controlled clinical trial. 200 participants with functional dyspepsia will be randomly assigned to the true acupuncture (TA) group and sham acupuncture (SA) group in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the TA group will receive acupuncture at points selected according to syndrome differentiation. Participants in the sham acupuncture group will receive penetrations at sham points. Participants in both groups will receive 20 sessions of electroacupuncture in 4?weeks, five times continuously with a 2?day rest in a week. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients reporting the absence of dyspeptic symptoms at 16?weeks after inclusion. The secondary outcome includes a Short-Form Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire, the Chinese version of the 36-Item Short Form Survey, the Chinese version of the Nepean dyspepsia index, etc. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the institutional review boards and ethics committees of the first affiliated hospital of Chengdu University of TCM, the first affiliated hospital of Hunan University of TCM and Chongqing Medical University, respectively (from April to August 2012). The results of this trial will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. Trials registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671670. PMID:23901030

Zheng, Hui; Xu, Jing; Li, Juan; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Ling; Chang, Xiaorong; Liu, Mi; Gong, Biao; Li, Xuezhi; Liang, Fanrong

2013-01-01

157

How usual is usual care in pragmatic intervention studies in primary care? An overview of recent trials  

PubMed Central

Background Because pragmatic trials are performed to determine if an intervention can improve current practice, they often have a control group receiving ‘usual care’. The behaviour of caregivers and patients in this control group should be influenced by the actions of researchers as little as possible. Guidelines for describing the composition and management of a usual care control group are lacking. Aim To explore the variety of approaches to the usual care concept in pragmatic trials, and evaluate the influence of the study design on the behaviour of caregivers and patients in a usual care control group. Design of study Review of 73 pragmatic trials in primary care with a usual care control group published between January 2005 and December 2009 in the British Medical Journal, the British Journal of General Practice, and Family Practice. Outcome measures were: description of the factors influencing caregiver and patients in a usual care control group related to an individual randomised design versus cluster randomisation. Results In total, 38 individually randomised trials and 35 cluster randomised trials were included. In most trials, caregivers had the freedom to treat control patients according to their own insight; in two studies, treatment options were restricted. Although possible influences on the behaviour of control caregivers and control patients were more often identified in individually randomised trials, these influences were also present in cluster randomised trials. The description of instructions and information provided to the control group was often insufficient, which made evaluation of the trials difficult. Conclusion Researchers in primary care medicine should carefully consider the design of a usual care control group, especially with regard to minimising the risk of study-induced behavioural change. It is recommended that an adequate description of the information is provided to control caregivers and control patients. A proposal is made for an extension to the CONSORT statement that requires authors to specify details of the usual care control group. PMID:20594432

Smelt, Antonia FH; van der Weele, Gerda M; Blom, Jeanet W; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Assendelft, Willem JJ

2010-01-01

158

Efficacy of electroacupuncture for symptoms of menopausal transition: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that acupuncture can alleviate postmenopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes, but few studies have assessed symptoms during the menopausal transition (MT) period. Thus, the effect of acupuncture upon MT symptoms is unclear. We designed a large-scale trial aimed at evaluating the efficacy of electroacupuncture for MT symptoms compared with sham electroacupuncture and at observing the safety of electroacupuncture. Methods/design In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 360 women will be randomized to either an electroacupuncture group or a sham electroacupuncture group. During the 8-week-long treatment, a menopause rating scale, average 24-hour hot flash score, Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire score, and level of female hormones will be observed. Follow-ups at the 20th and 32nd week will be made. Discussion Though there is no completely inert placebo acupuncture and blinding is difficult in acupuncture trials, the placebo effect of EA can still be partially excluded in this study. For the placebo control, we use non-points and a tailor-made sham needle. This needle is different from a retractable needle, which is usually used for sham acupuncture. The needle in this trial is more simply constructed and more acceptable to Chinese people. We expect to evaluate the efficacy of electroacupuncture for MT symptoms and clarify its effect on these symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01849172 (Date of registration: 05/05/2013). PMID:24950841

2014-01-01

159

Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.  

PubMed

The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation. PMID:22382800

Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

2012-04-01

160

Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent\\u000a need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the\\u000a Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in\\u000a this protocol will test the effectiveness of

Carmen V Voogt; Evelien AP Poelen; Marloes Kleinjan; Lex ACJ Lemmers; Rutger CME Engels

2011-01-01

161

Study protocol for the nutritional route in oesophageal resection trial: a single-arm feasibility trial (NUTRIENT trial)  

PubMed Central

Introduction The best route of feeding for patients undergoing an oesophagectomy is unclear. Concerns exist that early oral intake would increase the incidence and severity of pneumonia and anastomotic leakage. However, in studies including patients after many other types of gastrointestinal surgery and in animal experiments, early oral intake has been shown to be beneficial and enhance recovery. Therefore, we aim to determine the feasibility of early oral intake after oesophagectomy. Methods and analysis This study is a feasibility trial in which 50 consecutive patients will start oral intake directly following oesophagectomy. Primary outcomes will be the frequency and severity of anastomotic leakage and (aspiration) pneumonia. Clinical parameters will be registered prospectively and nutritional requirements and intake will be assessed by a dietician. Surgical complications will be registered. Ethics and dissemination Approval for this study has been obtained from the Medical Ethical Committee of the Catharina Hospital Eindhoven and the study has been registered at the Dutch Trial Register, NTR4136. Results will be published and presented at international congresses. Discussion We hypothesise that the oral route of feeding is safe and feasible following oesophagectomy, as has been shown previously for other types of gastrointestinal surgery. It is expected that early oral nutrition will result in enhanced recovery. Furthermore, complications related to artificial feeding, such as jejunostomy tube feeding, are believed to be reduced. However, (aspiration) pneumonia and anastomotic leakage are potential risks that are carefully monitored. Trial registration number NTR4136. PMID:24907243

Weijs, Teus J; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Ruurda, Jelle P; Kouwenhoven, Ewout A; Rosman, Camiel; Sosef, Meindert; v Hillegersberg, Richard; Luyer, Misha D P

2014-01-01

162

Recruiting a Diverse Group of Middle School Girls into the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: School-based study recruitment efforts are both time consuming and challenging. This paper highlights the recruitment strategies employed by the national, multisite Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a study designed to measure the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce the decline of physical activity levels among…

Elder, John P.; Shuler, LaVerne; Moe, Stacey G.; Grieser, Mira; Pratt, Charlotte; Cameron, Sandra; Hingle, Melanie; Pickrel, Julie L.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Schachter, Kenneth; Greer, Susan; Bothwell, Elizabeth K. Guth

2008-01-01

163

A randomized phase III trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with UFT for completely resected pathological stage I non-small-cell lung cancer: the West Japan Study Group for Lung Cancer Surgery (WJSG)--the 4th study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the efficacy of UFT, an oral 5-fluorouracil derivative agent, as post-operative adjuvant therapy for pathologic (p-) stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), because a previous randomized study had suggested it was efficacious for early-stage NSCLC patients. Patients and methods: Patients with completely resected p-stage I, adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma were eligible. A total of 332 patients

M. Nakagawa; F. Tanaka; N. Tsubota; M. Ohta; M. Takao; H. Wada

2005-01-01

164

Preliminary Results of a Randomized Study on Therapeutic Gain by Concurrent Chemotherapy for Regionally-Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: NPC9901 Trial by the Hong Kong Nasopharyngeal Cancer Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This randomized study compared the results achieved by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) versus radiotherapy (RT) alone for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with advanced nodal disease. Patients and Methods Patients with nonkeratinizing\\/undifferentiated NPC staged T1-4N2-3M0 were randomized to CRT or RT. Both arms were treated with the same RT technique and dose fractionation. The CRT patients were given cisplatin 100 mg\\/m2 on

Anne W. M. Lee; W. H. Lau; Stewart Y. Tung; Daniel T. T. Chua; Rick Chappell; L. Xu; Lillian Siu; W. M. Sze; T. W. Leung; Jonathan S. T. Sham; Roger K. C. Ngan; Stephen C. K. Law; T. K. Yau; Joseph S. K. Au; Brian O'Sullivan; Ellie S. Y. Pang; Joseph T. Lau

165

Toward onset prevention of cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome (the TOP-COG study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

E-print Network

in cognition between the intervention and control groups after 72 weeks [45]. Two large, placebo-controlled, second- ary prevention trials are in progress: the statins/CLASP (Collaborative Low-dose Aspirin Study in Pregnancy) study (investigating simvastatin 40...

Cooper, Sally-Ann; Caslake, Muriel; Evans, Jonathan; Hassiotis, Angela; Jahoda, Andrew; McConnachie, Alex; Morrison, Jill; Ring, Howard; Starr, John; Stiles, Ciara; Sullivan, Frank

2014-06-03

166

The EHR solution to clinical trial recruitment in physician groups. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This article was written by the president and founder of the Holston Medical Group and explains his company’s success with an electronic health record (EHR). The EHR is used among 102 providers in 26 locations and has been used to enroll thousands of patients in more than 250 clinical trials. The Holston Medical Group has determined that the use of the EHR Web-based technology can significantly streamline patient recruitment, speed monitoring, and help to prevent protocol failure—all while increasing revenue stream.

167

Radiotherapy in pediatric medulloblastoma: Quality assessment of Pediatric Oncology Group Trial 9031  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the potential influence of radiotherapy quality on survival in high-risk pediatric medulloblastoma patients. Methods and Materials: Trial 9031 of the Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) aimed to study the relative benefit of cisplatin and etoposide randomization of high-risk patients with medulloblastoma to preradiotherapy vs. postradiotherapy treatment. Two-hundred and ten patients were treated according to protocol guidelines and were eligible for the present analysis. Treatment volume (whole brain, spine, posterior fossa, and primary tumor bed) and dose prescription deviations were assessed for each patient. An analysis of first site of failure was undertaken. Event-free and overall survival rates were calculated. A log-rank test was used to determine the significance of potential survival differences between patients with and without major deviations in the radiotherapy procedure. Results: Of 160 patients who were fully evaluable for all treatment quality parameters, 91 (57%) had 1 or more major deviations in their treatment schedule. Major deviations by treatment site were brain (26%), spinal (7%), posterior fossa (40%), and primary tumor bed (17%). Major treatment volume or total dose deviations did not significantly influence overall and event-free survival. Conclusions: Despite major treatment deviations in more than half of fully evaluable patients, underdosage or treatment volume misses were not associated with a worse event-free or overall survival.

Miralbell, Raymond [Quality Assurance Review Committee, Providence, RI (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Raymond.Miralbell@hcuge.ch; Fitzgerald, T.J. [Quality Assurance Review Committee, Providence, RI (United States); Laurie, Fran [Quality Assurance Review Committee, Providence, RI (United States); Kessel, Sandy [Quality Assurance Review Committee, Providence, RI (United States); Glicksman, Arvin [Quality Assurance Review Committee, Providence, RI (United States); Friedman, Henry S. [Pediatric Neuro-Oncology Division, Duke South Hospital, Durham, NC (United States); Urie, Marcia [Quality Assurance Review Committee, Providence, RI (United States); Kepner, James L. [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Zhou Tianni [Operations Center, Children's Oncology Group, Arcadia, CA (United States); Chen Zhengjia [Operations Center, Children's Oncology Group, Arcadia, CA (United States); Barnes, Pat [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Kun, Larry [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Tarbell, Nancy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

2006-04-01

168

Effectiveness of a psycho-educational group program for major depression in primary care: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Studies show the effectiveness of group psychoeducation in reducing symptoms in people with depression. However, few controlled studies that have included aspects of personal care and healthy lifestyle (diet, physical exercise, sleep) together with cognitive-behavioral techniques in psychoeducation are proven to be effective. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a psychoeducational program, which includes aspects of personal care and healthy lifestyle, in patients with mild/moderate depression symptoms in Primary Care (PC). Methods In a randomized, controlled trial, 246 participants over 20 years old with ICD-10 major depression were recruited through nurses/general practitioners at 12 urban Primary Care Centers (PCCs) in Barcelona. The intervention group (IG) (n=119) received a group psychoeducational program (12 weekly, 1.5 h sessions led by two nurses) and the control group (CG) (n=112) received usual care. Patients were assessed at baseline and at, 3, 6 and 9 months. The main outcome measures were the BDI, EQ-5D and remission based upon the BDI. Results 231 randomized patients were included, of whom 85 had mild depression and 146 moderate depression. The analyses showed significant differences between groups in relation to remission of symptoms, especially in the mild depression group with a high rate of 57% (p=0.009) at post-treatment and 65% (p=0.006) at 9 month follow up, and only showed significant differences on the BDI at post-treatment (p=0.016; effect size Cohen’s d’=.51) and at 6 and 9 month follow-up (p= 0.048; d’=.44). In the overall and moderate sample, the analyses only showed significant differences between groups on the BDI at post-treatment, p=0.02 (d’=.29) and p=0.010 (d’=.47), respectively. The psychoeducation group improved significantly on the EQ-5D at short and long-term. Conclusions This psychoeducational intervention is a short and long-term effective treatment for patients with mild depression symptoms. It results in a high remission rate, is recommended in PC and can be carried out by nurses with previous training. In moderate patients, group psychoeducation is effective in the short-term. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT00841737 PMID:23249399

2012-01-01

169

Treatment Group Measure Study Comparator pvalue  

E-print Network

to the evaluation of the treatment group dif­ ference as not statistically significant (p = 0:321). Finally, Day NE (1980), Statistical Meth­ ods in Cancer Research, IARC Scientific Publications, Lyon, v.1., 142­146. 2. DerSimonian R, Laird NM. (1986) ``Meta­ analysis in clinical trials,'' Controlled Clin­ ical

Alemayehu, Demissie

170

Effectiveness of a Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Program for Ethnic Groups in Two Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Objective As young women from certain ethnic minority groups have reported less pursuit of the thin ideal and body dissatisfaction than European American young women we tested whether a dissonance-based prevention program designed to reduce thin-ideal internalization among women with body dissatisfaction is less effective for the former relative to the later groups. We also tested whether intervention effects are larger when participants from minority groups worked with a facilitator matched versus not matched on ethnicity. Method In Study 1, 426 female undergraduates (M age = 21.6, SD = 5.6) were randomized to clinician-led Body Project groups or an educational control group. In Study 2, 189 female undergraduates were randomized to peer-led Body Project groups or a waitlist control condition. Results Although there was some variation in risk factor scores across ethnic groups, ethnic minority participants did not demonstrate consistently higher or lower risk relative to European American participants. Intervention effects did not significantly differ for participants from minority groups versus European American participants in either trial. There was no evidence that effects were significantly larger when minority participants and facilitators were matched on ethnicity. Conclusions Results suggest that the Body Project is similarly effective for African American, Asian American, European American, and Hispanic female college students, and when participants and facilitators are matched or not on minority ethnicity status, implying that this prevention program can be broadly disseminated in this population. PMID:24655465

Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Cheng, Zhen Hadassah

2014-01-01

171

Recruitment to multicentre trials—lessons from UKCTOCS: descriptive study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To describe the factors that contributed to successful recruitment of more than 200 000 women to the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening, one of the largest ever randomised controlled trials.Design Descriptive study.Setting 13 NHS trusts in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland.Participants Postmenopausal women aged 50-74; exclusion criteria included ovarian malignancy, bilateral oophorectomy, increased risk of familial ovarian

Usha Menon; Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj; Andy Ryan; Aarti Sharma; Matthew Burnell; Rachel Hallett; Sara Lewis; Alberto Lopez; Keith Godfrey; David Oram; Jonathan Herod; Karin Williamson; Mourad Seif; Ian Scott; Tim Mould; Robert Woolas; John Murdoch; Stephen Dobbs; Nazar Amso; Simon Leeson; Derek Cruickshank; Ali McGuire; Stuart Campbell; Lesley Fallowfield; Steve Skates; Mahesh Parmar; Ian Jacobs

2008-01-01

172

The Effect of Spiritual and Religious Group Psychotherapy on Suicidal Ideation in Depressed Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Suicide is a great economical, social and public health problem. It is prevalent worldwide and has a lot of negative effects on individuals, families and society. Depression is often prelude to Suicide. An important part of the treatment of the mentally ill patients is spiritual-religious psychotherapy which should be done after physical treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of spiritual and religious group psychotherapy on suicidal ideation in depressed patients. Methods: 51 depressed patients with suicidal ideation from Razi hospital (Tabriz, Iran) participated in this clinical trial. To collect Data questionnaire was used which included demographic and Beck Suicide Scale Ideation. Experimental group participated in 10 sessions of group psychotherapy. Each section lasted 1 hour. Two weeks after the last section post test was done. Statistical software SPSS ver 13 was used for data analysis. Results: Results of independent t-test revealed no difference between two groups in terms of suicidal ideation before intervention but after study there is a statistical difference. Also the results of ANCOVA test showed a significant relationship between spiritual group therapy and decrease in suicidal ideation, so that this intervention can make 57% of variance in suicidal ideation of experimental group. Conclusion: Regarding positive effect of spiritual and religious group psychotherapy on decreasing suicidal ideation of depressed patients, we suggest this intervention to be held in Psychiatric Wards and also more study on depression and other psychiatric patients with greater sample size would be helpful. PMID:25276756

Ebrahimi, Hossein; Kazemi, Abdul Hassan; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Modabber, Raheleh

2014-01-01

173

Study design considerations in a large COPD trial comparing effects of tiotropium with salmeterol on exacerbations  

PubMed Central

Currently available long-acting inhaled bronchodilators (tiotropium, salmeterol, formoterol) have demonstrated beneficial effects on exacerbations in placebo-controlled trials. However, there have been no direct comparisons of these drugs with exacerbations as the primary outcome and consequently COPD treatment guidelines do not indicate a preference for either bronchodilator. Therefore, an international, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group clinical trial has been designed to investigate the comparative efficacy of 2 long-acting bronchodilators tiotropium 18 ?g daily and salmeterol 50 ?g bid on exacerbations. The trial will include at least 6800 randomized patients with diagnosis of COPD, ? 10 pack-year history of smoking, post-bronchodilator FEV1 ? 70% predicted, and a history of exacerbations in the previous year. The primary endpoint is time to first COPD exacerbation. Secondary endpoints include number of exacerbations and time to premature discontinuation of trial medication. The trial has been designed to address several of the challenges in studying exacerbations in a controlled trial by a symptom and event-based definition of exacerbations, frequent follow-up contacts, selection of time to first event as the primary endpoint and using exposure adjusted analysis when examining number of events. Other challenges in designing exacerbation trials such as differential discontinuation and follow-up of discontinued patients are discussed. PMID:19436693

Beeh, Kai-Michael; Hederer, Bettina; Glaab, Thomas; Müller, Achim; Moelken, Maureen Rutten-van; Kesten, Steven; Vogelmeier, Claus

2009-01-01

174

Study design considerations in a large COPD trial comparing effects of tiotropium with salmeterol on exacerbations.  

PubMed

Currently available long-acting inhaled bronchodilators (tiotropium, salmeterol, formoterol) have demonstrated beneficial effects on exacerbations in placebo-controlled trials. However, there have been no direct comparisons of these drugs with exacerbations as the primary outcome and consequently COPD treatment guidelines do not indicate a preference for either bronchodilator. Therefore, an international, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group clinical trial has been designed to investigate the comparative efficacy of 2 long-acting bronchodilators tiotropium 18 microg daily and salmeterol 50 microg bid on exacerbations. The trial will include at least 6800 randomized patients with diagnosis of COPD, >or= 10 pack-year history of smoking, post-bronchodilator FEV(1) trial medication. The trial has been designed to address several of the challenges in studying exacerbations in a controlled trial by a symptom and event-based definition of exacerbations, frequent follow-up contacts, selection of time to first event as the primary endpoint and using exposure adjusted analysis when examining number of events. Other challenges in designing exacerbation trials such as differential discontinuation and follow-up of discontinued patients are discussed. PMID:19436693

Beeh, Kai-Michael; Hederer, Bettina; Glaab, Thomas; Müller, Achim; Rutten-van Moelken, Maureen; Kesten, Steven; Vogelmeier, Claus

2009-01-01

175

An Ethnographic Study of Collaborative Clinical Trial Protocol Writing John H. Gennari Ph.D.1  

E-print Network

Behavior, Group Processes, Collaborative Writing Introduction Protocol documents are essential for carryingAn Ethnographic Study of Collaborative Clinical Trial Protocol Writing John H. Gennari Ph.D.1 documents play an important role in clinical research. However, clinical protocol writing remains a complex

McDonald, David W.

176

Roswell Park-led study finds most cancer research trials do not assess participants’ tobacco use  

Cancer.gov

While tobacco use can significantly hamper cancer treatment, few cancer researchers are incorporating tobacco assessment into their clinical studies. That’s the conclusion a group of investigators led by researchers at Roswell Park Cancer Institute drew from a recent survey of cancer clinical trials.

177

Measuring the impact and costs of a universal group based parenting programme: protocol and implementation of a trial  

PubMed Central

Background Sub-optimal parenting is a common risk factor for a wide range of negative health, social and educational outcomes. Most parenting programmes have been developed in the USA in the context of delinquency prevention for targeted or indicated groups and the main theoretical underpinning for these programmes is behaviour management. The Family Links Nurturing Programme (FLNP) focuses on family relationships as well as behaviour management and is offered on a universal basis. As a result it may be better placed to improve health and educational outcomes. Developed in the UK voluntary sector, FLNP is popular with practitioners, has impressed policy makers throughout the UK, has been found to be effective in before/after and qualitative studies, but lacks a randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence base. Methods/Design A multi-centre, investigator blind, randomised controlled trial of the FLNP with a target sample of 288 south Wales families who have a child aged 2-4 yrs living in or near to Flying Start/Sure Start areas. Changes in parenting, parent child relations and parent and child wellbeing are assessed with validated measures immediately and at 6 months post intervention. Economic components include cost consequences and cost utility analyses based on parental ranking of states of quality of life. Attendance and completion rates and fidelity to the FLNP course delivery are assessed. A nested qualitative study will assess reasons for participation and non-participation and the perceived value of the programme to families. By the end of May 2010, 287 families have been recruited into the trial across four areas of south Wales. Recruitment has not met the planned timescales with barriers including professional anxiety about families entering the control arm of the trial, family concern about video and audio recording, programme facilitator concern about the recording of FLNP sessions for fidelity purposes and delays due to the new UK research governance procedures. Discussion Whilst there are strong theoretical arguments to support universal provision of parenting programmes, few universal programmes have been subjected to randomised controlled trials. In this paper we describe a RCT protocol with quantitative and qualitative outcome measures and an economic evaluation designed to provide clear evidence with regard to effectiveness and costs. We describe challenges implementing the protocol and how we are addressing these. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN13919732 PMID:20573236

2010-01-01

178

International subarachnoid aneurysm trial – ISAT Part II: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) demonstrated improved one-year clinical outcomes for patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms treated with endovascular coiling compared to surgical clipping. Patients included in ISAT were mostly good grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients with small anterior circulation aneurysms. The purported superiority of coiling is commonly extrapolated to patients not studied in the original trial or to those treated using new devices not available at the time. Conversely, many patients are treated by clipping despite ISAT, because they are thought either to be better candidates for surgery, or to offer more durable protection from aneurysm recurrences. These practices have never been formally validated. Thus, for many ruptured aneurysm patients the question of which treatment modality leads to a superior clinical outcome remains unclear. Methods/trial design ISAT II is a pragmatic, multicenter, randomized trial comparing clinical outcomes for non-ISAT patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage allocated to coiling or clipping. Inclusion criteria are broad. The primary end-point is the incidence of poor clinical outcome (defined as mRS >2) at one year, just as in ISAT. Secondary end-points include measures of treatment safety for a number of pre-specified subgroups, with efficacy end-points including the presence of a major recurrence at one year; 1,896 patients (862 each arm plus 10% losses) are required to demonstrate a significant difference between coiling and clipping, hypothesizing 23% and 30% poor clinical outcome rates, for coiling and clipping, respectively. The trial should involve at least 50 international centers, and will take approximately 12 years to complete. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat. Trial registration ISAT II is registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01668563. PMID:23714335

2013-01-01

179

Individual vs. Group-Based Incentives for Weight Loss: A Randomized, Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background There are limited data on the effectiveness of employer-sponsored financial incentives for employee weight loss. Objective To test the effectiveness of two financial incentive designs for promoting weight loss among obese employees. Design Randomized controlled trial. Allocation sequence was generated dynamically at the time of request of treatment assignment. Participants were unblinded to assignment; investigators were blinded to assignment until collection of primary outcome data. Setting Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia Participants 105 employees with a body mass index between 30 and 40 kg/m2 Interventions 24 weeks of monthly weigh-ins (control)(n=35); individual incentive, designed as $100 per person per month for meeting or exceeding target weight loss (individual arm)(n=35); group incentive, designed as $500 per month split between any participant within groups of 5 who met or exceeded their target weight loss (group arm)(n=35). Measurements Weight loss after 24 weeks (primary outcome); weight loss after 36 weeks, changes in behavioral mediators of weight loss (secondary outcomes). Results Group incentive participants lost more weight than individual arm participants (between-group difference in weight loss favoring group = mean 9.7 pounds, 95% CI 4.4 to 14.9; P < 0.001). Twelve weeks after incentives ended and adjusting for 3-group comparisons, group arm participants maintained greater weight loss than control arm participants (between-group difference in weight loss = mean 6.5 pounds, 95% CI 1.2 to 11.7; P = 0.016) but not more than individual arm participants (difference = 5.9 pounds, 95% CI, 0.8 to 11.0; P = 0.024). Limitations Single employer, short follow-up Conclusions A group-based financial incentive was more effective than an individual incentive and monthly weigh-ins at promoting weight loss among obese employees at 24 weeks. Primary Funding Source National Institute on Aging Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01208350 PMID:23546562

Kullgren, Jeffrey T.; Troxel, Andrea B.; Loewenstein, George; Asch, David A.; Norton, Laurie A.; Wesby, Lisa; Tao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Jingsan; Volpp, Kevin G.

2014-01-01

180

From Planning to Implementation: An Examination of Changes in the Research Design, Sample Size, and Precision of Group Randomized Trials Launched by the Institute of Education Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines changes in the research design, sample size, and precision between the planning phase and implementation phase of group randomized trials (GRTs) funded by the Institute of Education Sciences. Thirty-eight GRTs funded between 2002 and 2006 were examined. Three studies revealed changes in the experimental design. Ten studies

Spybrook, Jessaca; Puente, Anne Cullen; Lininger, Monica

2013-01-01

181

Steroids or pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis (STOPAH): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Alcoholic hepatitis is the most florid presentation of alcohol-related liver disease. In its severe form, defined by a Maddrey’s discriminant function (DF) ?32, the 28-day mortality rate is approximately 35%. A number of potential treatments have been subjected to clinical trials, of which two, corticosteroids and pentoxifylline, may have therapeutic benefit. The role of corticosteroids is controversial as trial results have been inconsistent, whereas the role of pentoxifylline requires confirmation as only one previous placebo-controlled trial has been published. Methods/design STOPAH is a multicentre, double-blind, factorial (2 × 2) trial in which patients are randomised to one of four groups: 1. Group A: placebo / placebo 2. Group B: placebo / prednisolone 3. Group C: pentoxifylline / placebo 4. Group D: pentoxifylline / prednisolone The trial aims to randomise 1,200 patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis, in order to provide sufficient power to determine whether either of the two interventions is effective. The primary endpoint of the study is mortality at 28 days, with secondary endpoints being mortality at 90 days and 1 year. Discussion STOPAH aims to be a definitive study to resolve controversy around the existing treatments for alcoholic hepatitis. Eligibility criteria are based on clinical parameters rather than liver biopsy, which are aligned with standard clinical practice in most hospitals. The use of a factorial design will allow two treatments to be evaluated in parallel, with efficient use of patient numbers to achieve high statistical power. Trial registration EudraCT reference number: 2009-013897-42 ISRCTN reference number: ISRCTN88782125 PMID:23958271

2013-01-01

182

Community Group Involvement in a Fund Raising Project for a University Library: Examples from "A Trial for the Books".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a unique library fund raiser at California State University (Northridge). "A Trial for the Books" was a dog agility trial held on April 26-27, 1996 as a benefit for the university's Oviatt Library. The event was hosted by West Valley DogSports, a community group. The event raised approximately $2,500 for the library's…

Finley, Mary M.

183

Feasibility of feature-based indexing, clustering, and search of clinical trials: A case study of breast cancer trials from ClinicalTrials.gov  

PubMed Central

Summary Background When standard therapies fail, clinical trials provide experimental treatment opportunities for patients with drug-resistant illnesses or terminal diseases. Clinical Trials can also provide free treatment and education for individuals who otherwise may not have access to such care. To find relevant clinical trials, patients often search online; however, they often encounter a significant barrier due to the large number of trials and in-effective indexing methods for reducing the trial search space. Objectives This study explores the feasibility of feature-based indexing, clustering, and search of clinical trials and informs designs to automate these processes. Methods We decomposed 80 randomly selected stage III breast cancer clinical trials into a vector of eligibility features, which were organized into a hierarchy. We clustered trials based on their eligibility feature similarities. In a simulated search process, manually selected features were used to generate specific eligibility questions to filter trials iteratively. Results We extracted 1,437 distinct eligibility features and achieved an inter-rater agreement of 0.73 for feature extraction for 37 frequent features occurring in more than 20 trials. Using all the 1,437 features we stratified the 80 trials into six clusters containing trials recruiting similar patients by patient-characteristic features, five clusters by disease-characteristic features, and two clusters by mixed features. Most of the features were mapped to one or more Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts, demonstrating the utility of named entity recognition prior to mapping with the UMLS for automatic feature extraction. Conclusions It is feasible to develop feature-based indexing and clustering methods for clinical trials to identify trials with similar target populations and to improve trial search efficiency. PMID:23666475

Boland, Mary Regina; Miotto, Riccardo; Gao, Junfeng; Weng, Chunhua

2013-01-01

184

Zoledronic acid prevents bone loss in premenopausal women with early breast cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy: a phase III trial of the Korean Cancer Study Group (KCSG-BR06-01)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether zoledronic acid (ZA) can prevent bone loss in premenopausal women undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for\\u000a breast cancer. In this randomized, open-label, phase III multicenter trial, premenopausal women >40 years were randomly assigned\\u000a to ZA treatment (4 mg IV, every 6 months) or observation after surgery. All patients were treated with four cycles of AC followed\\u000a by four cycles of taxane. Between March

Jeong Eun Kim; Jin-Hee Ahn; Kyung Hae Jung; Sung-Bae Kim; Hwa Jung Kim; Keun-Suk Lee; Jung-Sil Ro; Yun-Hee Park; Jin-Suk Ahn; Young-Hyk Im; Seock-Ah Im; Moon-Hee Lee; Si-Young Kim

2011-01-01

185

Subcutaneous recombinant hirudin (HBW 023) versus intravenous sodium heparin in treatment of established acute deep vein thrombosis of the legs: a multicentre prospective dose-ranging randomized trial. International Multicentre Hirudin Study Group.  

PubMed

The aim of this multicentre, prospective, randomised, dose-ranging study was to compare the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous recombinant hirudin (HBW 023) against intravenous sodium heparin in acute lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Patients were randomized to treatment with either HBW 023 or heparin for 5 +/- 1 days. HBW 023 was given according to body-weight in three dose groups. Thromboembolic disease was assessed by phlebography and ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scanning on Day 1 and Day 5 +/- 1. One hundred and fifty-five patients were enrolled, of these 121 were evaluable for efficacy analysis. Significantly fewer patients on HBW 023 developed new V/Q abnormalities during the treatment period, (p = 0.006). There was no difference between the groups in thrombus extension or regression, major bleeding complications or serious adverse events. There were significantly fewer findings of new V/Q mismatch after treatment with HBW 023, and anticoagulant control was superior in these patients. PMID:9184388

Schiele, F; Lindgaerde, F; Eriksson, H; Bassand, J P; Wallmark, A; Hansson, P O; Grollier, G; Sjo, M; Moia, M; Camez, A; Smyth, V; Walker, M

1997-05-01

186

Literature Study Groups: Literacy Learning "With Legs"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Literature study groups help promote critical thinking and improve reading skills. This article describes research-based approaches to literacy study groups and provides suggestions for implementation.

Sue Christian Parsons

187

Impact of active and passive exclusions on the results of a clinical trial in multiple myeloma. The Myeloma Group of Western Sweden.  

PubMed

During the 3 years 1984-86, 314 cases of multiple myeloma were diagnosed in the Health Care Region of Western Sweden. 180 of these cases were included in a clinical trial; 71 were notified to the trial but excluded; 49 cases were not reported to the trial; 14 were diagnosed post mortem. The crude incidence rate of myeloma was 6.3 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year, corresponding to an age-adjusted (world standard population) incidence rate of 2.9 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The excluded and the non-reported patients had a significantly shorter survival than those included in the clinical trial (median survival 22, 13 and 33 months, respectively). This was partly due to differences in age and proportion of actively treated patients between the groups, but the same tendency remained also after correction for these factors. Considering the included patients separately, the effect of tentative application of presumptive exclusion criteria corresponding to major prognostic factors was studied. Prolonged survival was seen when the upper age limit was lowered and when patients with renal failure or low performance status were excluded. The results illustrate the fact that for multiple myeloma the survival in a trial population is markedly influenced by active and passive exclusion of patient groups with unfavourable prognostic characteristics. When reporting results of clinical trials, discussion of the representativeness of the trial population for the total patient population is recommended in order to facilitate application of the trial results to medical practice and comparisons between trials. PMID:1536810

Hjorth, M; Holmberg, E; Rödjer, S; Westin, J

1992-01-01

188

Reference datasets for bioequivalence trials in a two-group parallel design.  

PubMed

In order to help companies qualify and validate the software used to evaluate bioequivalence trials with two parallel treatment groups, this work aims to define datasets with known results. This paper puts a total 11 datasets into the public domain along with proposed consensus obtained via evaluations from six different software packages (R, SAS, WinNonlin, OpenOffice Calc, Kinetica, EquivTest). Insofar as possible, datasets were evaluated with and without the assumption of equal variances for the construction of a 90% confidence interval. Not all software packages provide functionality for the assumption of unequal variances (EquivTest, Kinetica), and not all packages can handle datasets with more than 1000 subjects per group (WinNonlin). Where results could be obtained across all packages, one showed questionable results when datasets contained unequal group sizes (Kinetica). A proposal is made for the results that should be used as validation targets. PMID:25488055

Fuglsang, Anders; Schütz, Helmut; Labes, Detlew

2015-03-01

189

Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation for American Indians: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of preventable death among American Indian and Alaska Natives, AI/ANs. Two out of every five AI/AN will die from tobacco-related diseases if the current smoking rates of AI/ANs (40.8%) persist. Currently, there is no proven, effective culturally-tailored smoking cessation program designed specifically for a heterogeneous population of AI. The primary aim of this group randomized clinical trial is to test the efficacy of "All Nations Breath of Life" (ANBL) program compared to a non-tailored "Current Best Practices" smoking cessation program among AI smokers. Methods We will randomize 56 groups (8 smokers per group) to the tailored program or non-tailored program for a total sample size of 448 American Indian smokers. All participants in the proposed study will be offered pharmacotherapy, regardless of group assignment. This study is the first controlled trial to examine the efficacy of a culturally-tailored smoking cessation program for American Indians. If the intervention is successful, the potential health impact is significant because the prevalence of smoking is the highest in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01106456 PMID:21592347

2011-01-01

190

Moxibustion for the treatment of pressure ulcers: study protocol for a pilot, multicentre, randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pressure ulcers are common in the elderly and immobile. Currently, there are few proven effective treatments for pressure ulcers. This trial aims to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and safety of moxibustion for pressure ulcers. Methods/analysis This is a multicentre, two-armed, parallel-design randomised controlled trial (RCT). 30 eligible patients with pressure ulcers will be randomised in a ratio of 1:1 to the treatment group and control group. The participants in the treatment group will undergo indirect moxibustion for 30?min before application of a dressing, one session daily, five sessions weekly for 4?weeks. The patients in the control group will only receive a dressing, applied in the same way as in the treatment group. Both groups will be followed up for 3?months. The primary outcome measures will be wound surface area (WSA) and proportion of ulcers healed within trial period (PUHTP). The secondary outcomes will be the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH Tool), visual analogue scale (VAS) and adverse events. All outcomes will be evaluated at the beginning of the study, at the end of the second week, at 4?weeks after randomisation and at 1 and 3?months after treatment cessation. Ethics/dissemination This trial has undergone ethical scrutiny and been approved by the ethics review boards of First Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine and Second Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine (Permission number: HZYEYLP2014). The results of this study will provide clinical evidence for the feasibility, efficacy and safety of moxibustion for pressure ulcers. Trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC-13003959. PMID:25550296

Zhang, Qin-hong; Yue, Jin-huan; Li, Chao-ran; Sun, Zhong-ren

2014-01-01

191

Stopping or Reporting Early for Positive Results in Randomized Clinical Trials: The National Cancer Institute Cooperative Group Experience From 1990 to 2005  

PubMed Central

Randomized clinical trials are designed with stopping boundaries to guide data monitoring committees with their decision making concerning ongoing trials. In particular, when extremely positive results are seen and a boundary is crossed, the data monitoring committee may recommend releasing the results earlier to the public than at the definitive final analysis time specified in the protocol. For trials that are still accruing, this also means stopping accrual. Because the information about treatment efficacy is more limited in an early analysis than in a final analysis, questions have been raised about the appropriateness of incorporating early stopping for positive results in trial designs. In particular, there are concerns that treatment effects seen early may not be real or may be overly optimistic. To examine this issue, we collected information about treatment efficacy on National Cancer Institute Cooperative Group trials that were stopped early for positive results (information both at the time the trial was stopped/released and at times of further follow-up). Twenty-seven such trials were located. For 17 of 18 of these trials with sufficient follow-up information, the treatment effect was similar or only slightly smaller at last follow-up compared with the stopping/release time. We critically evaluate reasons why one might be concerned about early stopping for positive results. We conclude that for trials with well-designed interim monitoring plans, the ability to stop early for positive results is an important component of the trial design, allowing the public to benefit as soon as possible from the study conclusions. PMID:19237631

Korn, Edward L.; Freidlin, Boris; Mooney, Margaret

2009-01-01

192

Factors influencing clinical trial site selection in Europe: the Survey of Attitudes towards Trial sites in Europe (the SAT-EU Study)  

PubMed Central

Objectives Applications to run clinical trials in Europe fell 25% between 2007 and 2011. Costs, speed of approvals and shortcomings of European Clinical Trial Directive are commonly invoked to explain this unsatisfactory performance. However, no hard evidence is available on the actual weight of these factors or has it been previously investigated whether other criteria may also impact clinical trial site selection. Design The Survey of Attitudes towards Trial sites in Europe (SAT-EU Study) was an anonymous, cross-sectional web-based survey that systematically assessed factors impacting European clinical trial site selection. It explored 19 factors across investigator-driven, hospital-driven and environment-driven criteria, and costs. It also surveyed perceptions of the European trial environment. Setting and participants Clinical research organisations (CROs), academic clinical trial units (CTUs) and industry invited to respond. Outcome measures Primary outcome: weight assigned to each factor hypothesised to impact trial site selection and trial incidence. Secondary outcome: desirability of European countries to run clinical trials. Results Responses were obtained from 485 professionals in 34 countries: 49% from BioPharma, 40% from CTUs or CROs. Investigator-dependent, environment-dependent and hospital-dependent factors were rated highly important, costs being less important (p<0.0001). Within environment-driven criteria, pool of eligible patients, speed of approvals and presence of disease-management networks were significantly more important than costs or government financial incentives (p<0.0001). The pattern of response was consistent across respondent groupings (CTU vs CRO vs industry). Considerable variability was demonstrated in the perceived receptivity of countries to undertake clinical trials, with Germany, the UK and the Netherlands rated the best trial markets (p<0.0001). Conclusions Investigator-dependent factors and ease of approval dominate trial site selection, while costs appear less important. Fostering competitiveness of European clinical research may not require additional government spending/incentives. Rather, harmonisation of approval processes, greater visibility of centres of excellence and reduction of ‘hidden’ indirect costs, may bring significantly more clinical trials to Europe. PMID:24240138

Gehring, Marta; Taylor, Rod S; Mellody, Marie; Casteels, Brigitte; Piazzi, Angela; Gensini, Gianfranco; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

193

Surgical Complications Associated With Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: Results From a Prospective International Cooperative Group Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0010 is a prospective multicenter trial designed to evaluate the prognostic significance\\u000a of micrometastases in the sentinel lymph nodes and bone marrow aspirates of women with early-stage breast cancer. Surgical\\u000a complications associated with the sentinel lymph node biopsy surgical procedure are reported.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eligible patients included women with clinical T1\\/2N0M0 breast cancer. Surgical outcomes were

Lee Gravatt Wilke; Linda M. McCall; Katherine E. Posther; Pat W. Whitworth; Douglas S. Reintgen; A. Marilyn Leitch; Sheryl G. A. Gabram; Anthony Lucci; Charles E. Cox; Kelly K. Hunt; James E. Herndon II; Armando E. Giuliano

2006-01-01

194

Fast neutron radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer. Final report of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

Between June 1977 and April 1983 the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) sponsored a Phase III randomized trial investigating the use of fast neutron radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced (Stages C and D1) adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. Patients were randomized to receive either conventional photon radiation or fast neutron radiation used in a mixed-beam (neutron/photon) treatment schedule. A total of 91 analyzable patients were entered into the study, and the two patient groups were balanced with respect to the major prognostic variables. Actuarial curves are presented for local/regional control and "overall" survival. Ten-year results for clinically assessed local control are 70% for the mixed-beam group versus 58% for the photon group (p = 0.03) and for survival are 46% for the mixed-beam group versus 29% for the photon group (p = 0.04). This study suggests that a regional method of treatment can influence both local tumor control and survival in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. PMID:8452112

Laramore, G E; Krall, J M; Thomas, F J; Russell, K J; Maor, M H; Hendrickson, F R; Martz, K L; Griffin, T W; Davis, L W

1993-04-01

195

Group medical visits in the follow-up of women with a BRCA mutation: design of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background BRCA mutation carriers have a 40-80% life-time risk of developing breast cancer. They may opt for yearly breast cancer surveillance or for prophylactic mastectomy. Both options show increased survival rates. It is a complex choice to be made between these two options. As a result most women experience high levels of distress and high needs for information. To fulfill the needs for psychosocial support and information we have introduced group medical consultations (GMCs). A GMC provides individual medical visits conducted within a group. This 90 minute group-visit with 8-12 patients gives patients the opportunity to spend more time with their clinician and a behavioral health professional and learn from other patients experiencing similar topics. However, it should be noted that group sessions may increase fear in some patients or influence their decision making. Methods/design In this randomized controlled trial, 160 BRCA mutation carriers diagnosed maximally 2 years ago are recruited from the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. Participants are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either the GMC intervention group (onetime participation in a GMC instead of a standard individual visit) or to a usual care control group. Primary outcome measures are empowerment and psychological distress (SCL 90). Secondary outcome measures are fear of cancer, information needs before the consultation and the received information, self-examination of the breasts, patient satisfaction, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Data are collected via self-reported questionnaires 1 week before the visit, and at 1 week and at 3 months follow-up. A pilot study was conducted to test all procedures and questionnaires. Discussion The possibility for interaction with other BRCA mutation carriers within a medical visit is unique. This study will assess the effectiveness of GMCs for BRCA mutation carriers to improve empowerment and decrease distress compared to individual visits. If GMCs prove to be effective and efficient, implementation of GMCs in regular care for BRCA mutation carriers will be recommended. Trial registration The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01329068) PMID:21864353

2011-01-01

196

A brief quality-of-life measure for ALS clinical trials based on a subset of items from the sickness impact profile. The Syntex-Synergen ALS/CNTF Study Group.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated a significant relationship (P<0.0001) between maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) plus pulmonary function scores (the Tufts Quantitative Neuromuscular Exam Combination Megascore (TQNE CM)), and the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) in a cohort of 524 ALS patients. Because the 136-item SIP questionnaire can be difficult to administer in this population, we examined SIP subscales and clinically derived item sets in relation to the TQNE CM in an effort to define a briefer measure of quality of life for use in clinical trials. Two 'Mini-SIP' indices performed as well as the overall SIP in reflecting the impact of muscle weakness on ALS patients' quality of life: a combination of two SIP subscales ('SIP-33'), and a 19-item set of questions independently chosen by a panel of ALS specialists ('SIP/ALS-19'). Either index potentially could be useful in ALS clinical trials. The SIP/ALS-19 is currently being used in a National ALS data base, providing an opportunity to evaluate its utility prospectively against other QOL measures in ALS patients. PMID:9419049

McGuire, D; Garrison, L; Armon, C; Barohn, R J; Bryan, W W; Miller, R; Parry, G J; Petajan, J H; Ross, M A

1997-10-01

197

Explaining the impact of a women's group led community mobilisation intervention on maternal and newborn health outcomes: the Ekjut trial process evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few large and rigorous evaluations of participatory interventions systematically describe their context and implementation, or attempt to explain the mechanisms behind their impact. This study reports process evaluation data from the Ekjut cluster-randomised controlled trial of a participatory learning and action cycle with women's groups to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes in Jharkhand and Orissa, eastern India (2005-2008).

Suchitra Rath; Nirmala Nair; Prasanta K Tripathy; Sarah Barnett; Shibanand Rath; Rajendra Mahapatra; Rajkumar Gope; Aparna Bajpai; Rajesh Sinha; Anthony Costello; Audrey Prost

2010-01-01

198

Association between randomised trial evidence and global burden of disease: cross sectional study (Epidemiological Study of Randomized Trials—ESORT)  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether an association exists between the number of published randomised controlled trials and the global burden of disease, whether certain diseases are under-investigated relative to their burden, and whether the relation between the output of randomised trials and global burden of disease can be explained by the relative disease burden in high and low income regions. Design Cross sectional investigation. Study sample All primary reports of randomised trials published in December 2012 and indexed in PubMed by 17 November 2013. Main outcome measures Number of trials conducted and number of participants randomised for each of 239 different diseases or injuries; variation in each outcome explainable by total disability adjusted life years (a measure of the overall burden of each disease) and the ratio of disability adjusted life years in low income to high income regions (a measure of whether a disease is more likely to affect people living in high income regions) quantified using multivariable regression. Results 4190 abstracts were reviewed and 1351 primary randomised trials identified, of which 1097 could be classified using the global burden of disease taxonomy. Total disability adjusted life years was poorly associated with number of randomised trials and number of participants randomised in univariable analysis (Spearman’s r=0.35 and 0.33, respectively), although it was a significant predictor in the univariable and multivariable models (P<0.001). Diseases for which the burden was predominantly located in low income regions had sevenfold fewer trials per million disability adjusted life years than diseases predominantly located in high income regions. However, only 26% of the variation in number of trials among diseases could be explained by total disability adjusted life years and the ratio of disability adjusted life years in low income regions to high income regions. Many high income type diseases (for example, neck pain, glomerulonephritis) have proportionally fewer randomised trials compared with low income type diseases (for example, vitamin A deficiency). Conclusions Overall, a weak association existed between global burden of disease and number of published randomised trials. A global observatory for research is needed to monitor and reduce the discordance between the output of randomised trials and global burden of disease. PMID:25630558

Odutayo, Ayodele; Hsiao, Allan J; Shakir, Mubeen; Hopewell, Sally; Rahimi, Kazem; Altman, Douglas G

2015-01-01

199

Should I eXtract Every Six dental trial (SIXES): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Extraction of lower first permanent molars in children is common. There is uncertainty among clinicians as to whether a ‘compensating extraction’ (removal of the upper first permanent molar to prevent it over erupting) is necessary despite current guidelines recommending this. As a result, unnecessary dental extractions may be carried out or children may be failing to receive extractions required to achieve optimal long-term oral health. In addition, the decision to extract fewer or more teeth affects management options (local anesthetic injections alone, inhalation sedation or general anesthesia) needed to support the child with the surgical procedure(s). The SIXES (Should I eXtract Every Six) dental trial investigates clinical effectiveness and quality of life for conventional treatment (following the guideline of compensation extraction of the upper first permanent molar) compared with the alternative intervention (removal of lower first permanent molars but no extraction of the upper). Methods/Design This is a multicenter, two-arm parallel group randomized clinical trial. Allocation will be web-based randomization. Practitioners in primary and secondary care settings, reflecting the points of presentation and treatment of eligible patients, will recruit 400 children, aged 7 to 11 years requiring extraction of lower first permanent molars but who have upper first permanent molars of good prognosis. Baseline measures (prior to treatment) and outcome data (at one and five years, or when the patient reaches 14 years of age) will be assessed through study models and child/parent questionnaires. The primary outcome measure is degree of tipping of the lower second permanent molar, (favorable outcome is tipping less than 15°). The secondary outcomes are type of anesthetic/sedation used, residual spacing (between lower second premolar and second permanent molar), orthodontic treatment requirement, quality of life, and over-eruption in the intervention group. Assessors will be blinded where possible. Discussion SIXES dental trial investigates whether compensating extraction of upper first permanent molars should be carried out following loss of lower first permanent molars. Currently dentists and orthodontists face a dilemma in clinical decision-making, relying on the lowest level of evidence - expert opinion. SIXES will provide evidence to support decision-making and inform practices and may result in reduced tooth extractions. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01591265 PMID:23442547

2013-01-01

200

Sniffing around oxytocin: review and meta-analyses of trials in healthy and clinical groups with implications for pharmacotherapy  

PubMed Central

The popularity of oxytocin (OT) has grown exponentially during the past decade, and so has the number of OT trials in healthy and clinical groups. We take stock of the evidence from these studies to explore potentials and limitations of pharmacotherapeutic applications. In healthy participants, intranasally administered OT leads to better emotion recognition and more trust in conspecifics, but the effects appear to be moderated by context (perceived threat of the ‘out-group'), personality and childhood experiences. In individuals with untoward childhood experiences, positive behavioral or neurobiological effects seem lowered or absent. In 19 clinical trials, covering autism, social anxiety, postnatal depression, obsessive-compulsive problems, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder and post-traumatic stress, the effects of OT administration were tested, with doses ranging from 15?IU to more than 7000?IU. The combined effect size was d=0.32 (N=304; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18–0.47; P<0.01). However, of all disorders, only studies on autism spectrum disorder showed a significant combined effect size (d=0.57; N=68; 95% CI: 0.15–0.99; P<0.01). We hypothesize that for some of the other disorders, etiological factors rooted in negative childhood experiences may also have a role in the diminished effectiveness of treatment with OT. PMID:23695233

Bakermans-Kranenburg, M J; van IJzendoorn, M H

2013-01-01

201

HealthWorks: results of a multi-component group-randomized worksite environmental intervention trial for weight gain prevention  

PubMed Central

Background U.S. adults are at unprecedented risk of becoming overweight or obese, and most scientists believe the primary cause is an obesogenic environment. Worksites provide an opportunity to shape the environments of adults to reduce obesity risk. The goal of this group-randomized trial was to implement a four-component environmental intervention at the worksite level to positively influence weight gain among employees over a two-year period. Environmental components focused on food availability and price, physical activity promotion, scale access, and media enhancements. Methods Six worksites in a U.S. metropolitan area were recruited and randomized in pairs at the worksite level to either a two-year intervention or a no-contact control. Evaluations at baseline and two years included: 1) measured height and weight; 2) online surveys of individual dietary intake and physical activity behaviors; and 3) detailed worksite environment assessment. Results Mean participant age was 42.9 years (range 18-75), 62.6% were women, 68.5% were married or cohabiting, 88.6% were white, 2.1% Hispanic. Mean baseline BMI was 28.5 kg/m2 (range 16.9-61.2 kg/m2). A majority of intervention components were successfully implemented. However, there were no differences between sites in the key outcome of weight change over the two-year study period (p = .36). Conclusions Body mass was not significantly affected by environmental changes implemented for the trial. Results raise questions about whether environmental change at worksites is sufficient for population weight gain prevention. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00708461 PMID:22340088

2012-01-01

202

A randomised controlled study of an audiovisual patient information intervention on informed consent and recruitment to cancer clinical trials. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This study evaluated audiovisual patient information to determine its effect on refusal rates among 173 cancer patients invited to participate in randomized cancer treatment trials. It also examined the effect of AVPI on anxiety and clinical trials knowledge. The intervention group received information via AVPI and written information, and the control group received only the written information.

203

Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

2012-01-01

204

What is a Clinical Trial? Clinical trials are research studies conducted with patients who participate on a  

E-print Network

with the first ever use of chemotherapy in 1942, researchers at Yale Cancer Center are finding new ways to treatWhat is a Clinical Trial? Clinical trials are research studies conducted with patients who participate on a voluntary basis. The goals of clinical research are to study new treatments or medical

205

Group and Individual Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Using Cognitive Therapy and Exposure Plus Response Prevention: A 2Year Follow-Up of Two Randomized Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little is known about the long-term durability of group treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and contemporary cognitive treatments. The current study investigated the 2-year follow-up results for participants who completed randomized trials of group or individual treatment and received either cognitive therapy (CT) or exposure plus response prevention (ERP). Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) scores for individual ERP and

Maureen L. Whittal; Melisa Robichaud; Dana S. Thordarson; Peter D. McLean

2008-01-01

206

A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia  

PubMed Central

Purpose Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Research methods Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. Results At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59%) of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ?8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48) to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18), which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, P<0.05), while the control group’s participants did not show any significant change. Conclusion This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants. PMID:25587218

Young, Daniel KW; Kwok, Timothy CY; Ng, Petrus YN

2014-01-01

207

Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of meaning-centered group psychotherapy in cancer survivors: protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Meaning-focused coping may be at the core of adequate adjustment to life after cancer. Cancer survivors who experience their life as meaningful are better adjusted, have better quality of life and psychological functioning. Meaning-Centered Group Psychotherapy for Cancer Survivors (MCGP-CS) was designed to help patients to sustain or enhance a sense of meaning and purpose in their lives. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MCGP-CS. Methods/Design Survivors diagnosed with cancer in the last 5 years and treated with curative intent, are recruited via several hospitals in the Netherlands. After screening, 168 survivors are randomly assigned to one of the three study arms: 1. Meaning-Centered Group Psychotherapy (MCGP-CS) 2. Supportive group psychotherapy (SGP) 3. Care as usual (CAU). Baseline assessment takes place before randomisation, with follow up assessments post-intervention and at 3, 6 and 12 months follow-up. Primary outcome is meaning making (PMP, PTGI, SPWB). Secondary outcome measures address quality of life (EORTC-30), anxiety and depression (HADS), hopelessness (BHS), optimism (LOT-R), adjustment to cancer (MAC), and costs (TIC-P, EQ-5D, PRODISQ). Discussion Meaning-focused coping is key to adjustment to life after cancer, however, there is a lack of evidence based psychological interventions in this area. Many cancer survivors experience feelings of loneliness and alienation, and have a need for peer support, therefore a group method in particular, can be beneficial for sustaining or enhancing a sense of meaning. If this MCGP-CS is effective for cancer survivors, it can be implemented in the practice of psycho-oncology care. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register, NTR3571 PMID:24467861

2014-01-01

208

The Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study (MDPS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevalence has more than doubled over two decades. In Australia, diabetes is the second highest contributor to the burden of disease. Lifestyle modification programs comprising diet changes, weight loss and moderate physical activity, have been proven to reduce the incidence of T2DM in high risk individuals. As part of the Council of Australia Governments, the State of Victoria committed to develop and support the diabetes prevention program ‘Life! Taking action on diabetes’ (Life!) which has direct lineage from effective clinical and implementation trials from Finland and Australia. The Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study (MDPS) has been set up to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a specific version of the Life! program. Methods/design We intend to recruit 796 participants for this open randomized clinical trial; 398 will be allocated to the intervention arm and 398 to the usual care arm. Several methods of recruitment will be used in order to maximize the number of participants. Individuals aged 50 to 75 years will be screened with a risk tool (AUSDRISK) to detect those at high risk of developing T2DM. Those with existing diabetes will be excluded. Intervention participants will undergo anthropometric and laboratory tests, and comprehensive surveys at baseline, following the fourth group session (approximately three months after the commencement of the intervention) and 12 months after commencement of the intervention, while control participants will undergo testing at baseline and 12 months only. The intervention consists of an initial individual session followed by a series of five structured-group sessions. The first four group sessions will be carried out at two week intervals and the fifth session will occur eight months after the first group session. The intervention is based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) model and sessions will empower and enable the participants to follow the five goals of the Life! program. Discussion This study will determine whether the effect of this intervention is larger than the effect of usual care in reducing central obesity and cardiovascular risk factors and thus the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Also it will evaluate how these two options compare economically. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000507280 PMID:23369724

2013-01-01

209

The Tiotropium Safety and Performance in Respimat® Trial (TIOSPIR®), a large scale, randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial-design and rationale  

PubMed Central

Background Tiotropium bromide is an effective therapy for COPD patients. Comparing across programs tiotropium Respimat® Soft Mist™ inhaler was at least as efficacious as tiotropium HandiHaler®, however, concerns have been raised about tiotropium’s safety when given via Respimat®. Methods The TIOSPIR® trial (NCT01126437) compares the safety and efficacy of tiotropium Respimat® 5 ?g once daily (marketed) and 2.5 ?g once daily (investigational) with tiotropium HandiHaler® 18 ? once daily (marketed). The hypotheses to be tested are 1). that tiotropium Respimat® 5 ?g once daily and Respimat® 2.5 ?g once daily are non-inferior to HandiHaler® in terms of all-cause mortality, and 2). that tiotropium Respimat® 5 ?g once daily is superior to HandiHaler® in terms of time to first exacerbation. A spirometry substudy evaluates the bronchodilator efficacy. The trial is a randomized, double-blind, double dummy, event-driven, parallel group study. Participants can use any background treatment for COPD except inhaled anticholinergic agents. The study encompasses a wide range of COPD patients, e.g. patients with stable cardiac diseases including arrhythmia can be included. Clinical sites are international and include both primary care as well as specialists. Results To date, over 17,000 participants have been randomized from over 1200 sites in 50 countries with an anticipated treatment duration of 2–3 years. Conclusion TIOSPIR® will provide precise estimates of the relative safety and efficacy of the Respimat® and HandiHaler® formulations of tiotropium, assess potential dose-dependence of important outcomes and provide information on the clinical epidemiology of COPD in a large international patient cohort. PMID:23547660

2013-01-01

210

Introduction of online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer through a multicentre clinical trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 10.01): Lessons learned  

PubMed Central

Online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer is a novel radiotherapy technique that was found feasible in a pilot study at a single academic institution. In September 2010 this technique was opened as a multicenter study through the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG 10.01 bladder online adaptive radiotherapy treatment). Twelve centers across Australia and New-Zealand registered interest into the trial. A multidisciplinary team of radiation oncologists, radiation therapists and medical physicists represented the trial credentialing and technical support team. To provide timely activation and proper implementation of the adaptive technique the following key areas were addressed at each site: Staff education/training; Practical image guided radiotherapy assessment; provision of help desk and feedback. The trial credentialing process involved face-to-face training and technical problem solving via full day site visits. A dedicated “help-desk” team was developed to provide support for the clinical trial. 26% of the workload occurred at the credentialing period while the remaining 74% came post-center activation. The workload was made up of the following key areas; protocol clarification (36%), technical problems (46%) while staff training was less than 10%. Clinical trial credentialing is important to minimizing trial deviations. It should not only focus on site activation quality assurance but also provide ongoing education and technical support. PMID:23776308

Pham, Daniel; Roxby, Paul; Kron, Tomas; Rolfo, Aldo; Foroudi, Farshad

2013-01-01

211

Nicotine patch preloading for smoking cessation (the preloading trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The use of nicotine replacement therapy before quitting smoking is called nicotine preloading. Standard smoking cessation protocols suggest commencing nicotine replacement therapy only on the first day of quitting smoking (quit day) aiming to reduce withdrawal symptoms and craving. However, other, more successful smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are used prior to the quit day as well as after. Nicotine preloading could improve quit rates by reducing satisfaction from smoking prior to quitting and breaking the association between smoking and reward. A systematic literature review suggests that evidence for the effectiveness of preloading is inconclusive and further trials are needed. Methods/Design This is a study protocol for a multicenter, non-blinded, randomized controlled trial based in the United Kingdom, enrolling 1786 smokers who want to quit, funded by the National Institute for Health Research, Health Technology Assessment program, and sponsored by the University of Oxford. Participants will primarily be recruited through general practices and smoking cessation clinics, and randomized (1:1) either to use 21 mg nicotine patches, or not, for four weeks before quitting, whilst smoking as normal. All participants will be referred to receive standard smoking cessation service support. Follow-ups will take place at one week, four weeks, six months and 12 months after quit day. The primary outcome will be prolonged, biochemically verified six-month abstinence. Additional outcomes will include point prevalence abstinence and abstinence of four-week and 12-month duration, side effects, costs of treatment, and markers of potential mediators and moderators of the preloading effect. Discussion This large trial will add substantially to evidence on the effectiveness of nicotine preloading, but also on its cost effectiveness and potential mediators, which have not been investigated in detail previously. A range of recruitment strategies have been considered to try and compensate for any challenges encountered in recruiting the large sample, and the multicentre design means that knowledge can be shared between recruitment teams. The pragmatic study design means that results will give a realistic estimate of the success of the intervention if it were to be rolled out as part of standard smoking cessation service practice. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN33031001. Registered 27 April 2012. PMID:25052334

2014-01-01

212

Functional MRI-guided microsurgery of intracranial arteriovenous malformations: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Modern microsurgery has improved the results of surgical treatment of AVMs; however, the treatment of AVMs, particularly eloquently located AVMs, still carries a high risk. Functional MRI (fMRI) has been reported to be used for the preoperative evaluation of AVMs in small case series. The purpose is to identify the utility and efficacy of fMRI-guided microsurgery of AVMs in a large randomised controlled trial. Methods and analysis The study is a prospective, randomised controlled clinical trial. This study will enrol a total of 600 eligible patients. These eligible patients will be randomised to the standard microsurgery group and the fMRI-guided microsurgery group in a 1:1 ratio. Patient baseline characteristics and AVM architecture and characteristics will be described. In the fMRI-guided group, fMRI mapping of an eloquent cortex in all AVMs will be identified. Surgical complications and outcomes at pretreatment, post-treatment, at discharge and at 1-month, 3-month and 6-month follow-up intervals will be analysed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). This trial will determine whether fMRI-guided microsurgery could improve outcomes in patients with AVMs and also identify the safety and efficacy of fMRI-guided microsurgery. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol and written informed consent were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of Beijing Tiantan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University (ky2012-016-02). Study findings will be disseminated in the printed media. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01758211. PMID:25341453

Zhao, Bing; Cao, Yong; Zhao, Yuanli; Wu, Jun; Wang, Shuo

2014-01-01

213

Effectiveness of intensive group and individual interventions for smoking cessation in primary health care settings: a randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives Primary: To compare the effectiveness of intensive group and individual interventions for smoking cessation in a primary health care setting; secondary: to identify the variables associated with smoking cessation. Methods Three-pronged clinical trial with randomisation at the individual level. We performed the following: an intensive individual intervention (III), an intensive group intervention (IGI) and a minimal intervention (MI). Included in the study were smokers who were prepared to quit smoking. Excluded from the study were individuals aged less than 18 years or with severe mental conditions or terminal illnesses. The outcome measure was continued abstinence at 12 months confirmed through CO-oximetry (CO). The analysis was based on intention to treat. Results In total, 287 smokers were recruited: 81 in the III, 111 in the IGI, and 95 in the MI. Continued abstinence at 12 months confirmed through CO was 7.4% in the III, 5.4% in the IGI, and 1% in the MI. No significant differences were noted between III and MI on the one hand, and between IGI and MI on the other [RR 7.04 (0.9-7.2) and RR 5.1 (0.6-41.9), respectively]. No differences were noted between IGI and III [RR 0.7 (0.2-2.2)]. In multivariate analysis, only overall visit length showed a statistically significant association with smoking cessation. Conclusions The effectiveness of intensive smoking interventions in this study was lower than expected. No statistically significant differences were found between the results of individual and group interventions. Trial registration number ISRCTN32323770 PMID:20178617

2010-01-01

214

Emotional and Social Mind Training: A Randomised Controlled Trial of a New Group-Based Treatment for Bulimia Nervosa  

PubMed Central

Objective There is a need to improve treatment for individuals with bulimic disorders. It was hypothesised that a focus in treatment on broader emotional and social/interpersonal issues underlying eating disorders would increase treatment efficacy. This study tested a novel treatment based on the above hypothesis, an Emotional and Social Mind Training Group (ESM), against a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Group (CBT) treatment. Method 74 participants were randomised to either ESM or CBT Group treatment programmes. All participants were offered 13 group and 4 individual sessions. The primary outcome measure was the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) Global score. Assessments were carried out at baseline, end of treatment (four months) and follow-up (six months). Results There were no differences in outcome between the two treatments. No moderators of treatment outcome were identified. Adherence rates were higher for participants in the ESM group. Discussion This suggests that ESM may be a viable alternative to CBT for some individuals. Further research will be required to identify and preferentially allocate suitable individuals accordingly. Trial Registration ISRCTN61115988 PMID:23118850

Lavender, Anna; Startup, Helen; Naumann, Ulrike; Samarawickrema, Nelum; DeJong, Hannah; Kenyon, Martha; van den Eynde, Frederique; Schmidt, Ulrike

2012-01-01

215

Prognostic impact of day 15 blast clearance in risk-adapted remission induction chemotherapy for younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia: long-term results of the multicenter prospective LAM-2001 trial by the GOELAMS study group.  

PubMed

Early response to chemotherapy has a major prognostic impact in acute myeloid leukemia patients treated with a double induction strategy. Less is known about patients treated with standard-dose cytarabine and anthracycline. We designed a risk-adapted remission induction regimen in which a second course of intermediate-dose cytarabine was delivered after standard "7+3" only if patients had 5% or more bone marrow blasts 15 days after chemotherapy initiation (d15-blasts). Of 823 included patients, 795 (96.6%) were evaluable. Five hundred and forty-five patients (68.6%) had less than 5% d15-blasts. Predictive factors for high d15-blasts were white blood cell count (P<0.0001) and cytogenetic risk (P<0.0001). Patients with fewer than 5% d15-blasts had a higher complete response rate (91.7% vs. 69.2%; P<0.0001) and a lower induction death rate (1.8% vs. 6.8%; P=0.001). Five-year event-free (48.4% vs. 25%; P<0.0001), relapse-free (52.7% vs. 36.9%; P=0.0016) and overall survival (55.3% vs. 36.5%; P<0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with d15-blasts lower than 5%. Multivariate analyses identified d15-blasts and cytogenetic risk as independent prognostic factors for the three end points. Failure to achieve early blast clearance remains a poor prognostic factor even after early salvage. By contrast, early responding patients have a favorable outcome without any additional induction course. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01015196). PMID:23975179

Bertoli, Sarah; Bories, Pierre; Béné, Marie C; Daliphard, Sylvie; Lioure, Bruno; Pigneux, Arnaud; Vey, Norbert; Delaunay, Jacques; Leymarie, Vincent; Luquet, Isabelle; Blanchet, Odile; Cornillet-Lefebvre, Pascale; Hunault, Mathilde; Bouscary, Didier; Fegueux, Nathalie; Guardiola, Philippe; Dreyfus, François; Harousseau, Jean Luc; Cahn, Jean Yves; Ifrah, Norbert; Récher, Christian

2014-01-01

216

Prognostic impact of day 15 blast clearance in risk-adapted remission induction chemotherapy for younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia: long-term results of the multicenter prospective LAM-2001 trial by the GOELAMS study group  

PubMed Central

Early response to chemotherapy has a major prognostic impact in acute myeloid leukemia patients treated with a double induction strategy. Less is known about patients treated with standard-dose cytarabine and anthracycline. We designed a risk-adapted remission induction regimen in which a second course of intermediate-dose cytarabine was delivered after standard “7+3” only if patients had 5% or more bone marrow blasts 15 days after chemotherapy initiation (d15-blasts). Of 823 included patients, 795 (96.6%) were evaluable. Five hundred and forty-five patients (68.6%) had less than 5% d15-blasts. Predictive factors for high d15-blasts were white blood cell count (P<0.0001) and cytogenetic risk (P<0.0001). Patients with fewer than 5% d15-blasts had a higher complete response rate (91.7% vs. 69.2%; P<0.0001) and a lower induction death rate (1.8% vs. 6.8%; P=0.001). Five-year event-free (48.4% vs. 25%; P<0.0001), relapse-free (52.7% vs. 36.9%; P=0.0016) and overall survival (55.3% vs. 36.5%; P<0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with d15-blasts lower than 5%. Multivariate analyses identified d15-blasts and cytogenetic risk as independent prognostic factors for the three end points. Failure to achieve early blast clearance remains a poor prognostic factor even after early salvage. By contrast, early responding patients have a favorable outcome without any additional induction course. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01015196) PMID:23975179

Bertoli, Sarah; Bories, Pierre; Béné, Marie C.; Daliphard, Sylvie; Lioure, Bruno; Pigneux, Arnaud; Vey, Norbert; Delaunay, Jacques; Leymarie, Vincent; Luquet, Isabelle; Blanchet, Odile; Cornillet-Lefebvre, Pascale; Hunault, Mathilde; Bouscary, Didier; Fegueux, Nathalie; Guardiola, Philippe; Dreyfus, François; Harousseau, Jean Luc; Cahn, Jean Yves; Ifrah, Norbert; Récher, Christian

2014-01-01

217

Clinical outcome measures for trials in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: report from International Working Group meetings  

PubMed Central

In June 2010, 25 representatives from Europe and the US met in Washington, DC, USA, to discuss clinical outcome measures in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in the context of clinical trial design and analysis. The workshop was organized in response to a September 2009 European Medicines Agency meeting where a clear directive was given that an international consensus needs to be developed that provides a foundation for age-appropriate clinical outcome measures for use in clinical trials of emerging therapeutics for DMD. Data were presented from eight multicenter longitudinal datasets, representing nearly 1900 patients over a 20-year time period. This experience confirmed the feasibility of repeated evaluations performed at multiple sites and addressed several core issues in drug development for DMD, such as the ‘new’ natural history in the steroidera, reliability and sensitivity of specific outcome measures, as well as disease staging and patient selection. These data form a valuable asset for academic investigators, pharmaceutical sponsors and regulatory agencies involved in DMD therapeutics. The group remains committed working together on a number of collaborative goals to support the therapeutics development effort in this orphan disease and to make these data available to stakeholders working in the field. PMID:22639722

Bushby, Kate; Connor, Edward

2012-01-01

218

Characteristics associated with informed consent for genetic studies in the ACCORD trial  

PubMed Central

Background Prior studies found some groups have lower genetic consent rates than others. Participant consent for genetic studies enables randomized trials to examine effects of interventions compared to control in participants with different genotypes. Methods Unadjusted and multivariate associations between genetic consent rates and participant, study, and consent characteristics in 9,573 participants approached for genetics consent in the multicenter Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial, which used a layered genetics consent. Results Eighty-nine percent of eligible participants consented to genetic studies (“Any Consent”) and 64.7% consented to studies of any genes by any investigator (“Full Consent”), with similar rates in randomized groups. Controlling for multiple characteristics, African-Americans had lower consent rates than others (Any Consent Odds Ratio, OR = 0.62, p=0.0004; Full Consent OR = 0.67, p<0.0001). Those with high school or higher education had higher rates than less than high school graduation (Full Consent ORs 1.41-1.69, p-values <0.0001). Consent rates were lower when genetics consent was separate from the main trial consent on the same day (Any Consent OR 0.30; Full Consent OR 0.52, p values <0.0001) or on a subsequent day (Any Consent OR 0.70, p=0.0022; Full Consent OR 0.76, p=0.0002). Conclusion High rates of consent for genetic studies can be obtained in complex randomized trials, with lower consent rates in African-Americans, in participants with less than high-school education, and for sharing samples with other investigators. A genetics consent separated from the main trial consent was associated with lower consent rates. PMID:24355197

Simons-Morton, Denise G.; Chan, Jeffrey C.; Kimel, Angela R.; Linz, Peter E.; Stowe, Cynthia L.; Summerson, John; Ambrosius, Walter T.

2014-01-01

219

Determinants of patient participation in clinical studies requiring informed consent: Why patients enter a clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey on 26 clinical trials we have studied the reasons why some patients choose to participate in clinical trials while others decline. Interviews were held with 198 adult patients, just after they had been asked by the trial-clinician to participate. We interviewed patients who were asked to participate in a clinical trial, including those who decided not to

Frank W. S. M Verheggen; Fred Nieman; Ruud Jonkers

1998-01-01

220

Con: Randomized controlled trials (RCT) have failed in the study of dialysis methods.  

PubMed

All progress in dialysis methods was made in research presented in case reports, case-control studies and other observational studies. On the contrary, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) did not bring any valuable results. Comparison of the value of peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis (HD) in RCTs was not completed because of recruitment problems. Four RCTs in HD did not provide any useful data. The worst example was the National Cooperative Dialysis Study, which committed a Type II statistical error rejecting the time of dialysis as an important factor determining the quality of dialysis. This study also provided the basis for the establishment of the Kt/V index as a measure of dialysis adequacy. This index was accepted by the HD community, having been established in a sacrosanct RCT, led to short dialysis, and possibly higher mortality in the USA. The second trial (the HEMO study) committed a Type III statistical error asking the wrong question and did not bring any valuable results, but at least it did not lead to deterioration of dialysis outcomes in the USA. The third, the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trial Group, did not bring forth any valuable results, but at least confirmed what was already known. The fourth, the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Nocturnal Trial, committed a Type II statistical error because of tremendous recruitment problems leading to an inadequate number of subjects. Moreover, the study methodology was absolutely unreliable. PMID:23543723

Twardowski, Zbylut J; Misra, Madhukar; Singh, Ajay K

2013-04-01

221

Families Matter in Long-Term Care: Results of a Group-Randomized Trial.  

PubMed

This group-randomized trial implemented and evaluated an intervention to reduce staff burden and improve family and resident outcomes by helping families create meaningful roles for themselves in residential care/assisted living and nursing homes. Across 24 sites, families (N = 490) and staff (N = 397) provided data over six months about family involvement, family and staff well-being and attitudes, and resident quality of life. Intervention subjects participated in workshops and created service plans to identify family roles. For families, the intervention decreased burden and improved resident quality of life but also increased guilt and conflict. Staff reported less burnout and greater partnership with families, and felt families were more empathic. Consequently, there are benefits to increasing family involvement, but attention must be paid to potential barriers and negative outcomes. PMID:25243051

Zimmerman, Sheryl; Cohen, Lauren W; Reed, David; Gwyther, Lisa P; Washington, Tiffany; Cagle, John G; Sloane, Philip D; Preisser, John S

2013-01-01

222

TEACCH-based group social skills training for children with high-functioning autism: a pilot randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Although social skills training programs for people with high-functioning autism (HFA) are widely practiced, the standardization of curricula, the examination of clinical effectiveness, and the evaluation of the feasibility of future trials have yet to be done in Asian countries. To compensate for this problem, a Japanese pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH)-based group social skills training for children with HFA and their mothers was conducted. Methods Eleven children with HFA, aged 5–6 years, and their mothers were randomly assigned to the TEACCH program (n=5) or a waiting-list control group (n=6). The program involved comprehensive group intervention and featured weekly 2-hour sessions, totaling 20 sessions over six months. The adaptive behaviors and social reciprocity of the children, parenting stress, and parent–child interactions were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Beck depression inventory-II (BDI-II), and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS). Results Through this pilot trial, the intervention and evaluation of the program has been shaped. There were no dropouts from the program and the mothers’ satisfaction was high. The outcome measurements improved more in the program group than in the control group, with moderate effect sizes (SDQ, 0.71; PSI, 0.58; BDI-II, 0.40; and IRS, 0.69). This pilot trial also implied that this program is more beneficial for high IQ children and mothers with low stress than for those who are not. Conclusion We have standardized the TEACCH program, confirmed the feasibility of a future trial, and successfully estimated the positive effect size. These findings will contribute to a larger trial in the future and to forthcoming systematic reviews with meta-analyses. Trial registration UMIN000004560 PMID:24083413

2013-01-01

223

Interreality for the management and training of psychological stress: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Psychological stress occurs when an individual perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. Its association with severe health and emotional diseases, points out the necessity to find new efficient strategies to treat it. Moreover, psychological stress is a very personal problem and requires training focused on the specific needs of individuals. To overcome the above limitations, the INTERSTRESS project suggests the adoption of a new paradigm for e-health - Interreality - that integrates contextualized assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, bridging the physical and the virtual worlds. According to this premise, the aim of this study is to investigate the advantages of using advanced technologies, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), based on a protocol for reducing psychological stress. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial. It includes three groups of approximately 50 subjects each who suffer from psychological stress: (1) the experimental group, (2) the control group, (3) the waiting list group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive a treatment based on cognitive behavioral techniques combined with virtual reality, biofeedback and mobile phone, while the control group will receive traditional stress management CBT-based training, without the use of new technologies. The wait-list group will be reassessed and compared with the two other groups five weeks after the initial evaluation. After the reassessment, the wait-list patients will randomly receive one of the two other treatments. Psychometric and physiological outcomes will serve as quantitative dependent variables, while subjective reports of participants will be used as the qualitative dependent variable. Discussion What we would like to show with the present trial is that bridging virtual experiences, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation, with real experiences using advanced technologies (virtual reality, advanced sensors and smartphones) is a feasible way to address actual limitations of existing protocols for psychological stress. Trial registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01683617 PMID:23806013

2013-01-01

224

Brief intervention to reduce risky drinking in pregnancy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Risky drinking in pregnancy by UK women is likely to result in many alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Studies from the USA suggest that brief intervention has promise for alcohol risk reduction in antenatal care. However, further research is needed to establish whether this evidence from the USA is applicable to the UK.?This pilot study aims to investigate whether pregnant women can be recruited and retained in a randomized controlled trial of brief intervention aimed at reducing risky drinking in women receiving antenatal care. Methods The trial will rehearse the parallel-group, non-blinded design and procedures of a subsequent definitive trial. Over 8 months, women aged 18 years and over (target number 2,742) attending their booking appointment with a community midwife (n?=?31) in north-east England will be screened for alcohol consumption using the consumption questions of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C). Those screening positive, without a history of substance use or alcohol dependence, with no pregnancy complication, and able to give informed consent, will be invited to participate in the trial (target number 120). Midwives will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to deliver either treatment as usual (control) or structured brief advice and referral for a 20-minute motivational interviewing session with an alcohol health worker (intervention). As well as demographic and health information, baseline measures will include two 7-day time line follow-back questionnaires and the EuroQoL EQ-5D-3 L questionnaire. Measures will be repeated in telephone follow-ups in the third trimester and at 6 months post-partum, when a questionnaire on use of National Health Service and social care resources will also be completed. Information on pregnancy outcomes and stillbirths will be accessed from central health service records before the follow-ups. Primary outcomes will be rates of eligibility, recruitment, intervention delivery, and retention in the study population, to inform power calculations for a definitive trial. The health-economics component will establish how cost-effectiveness will be assessed, and examine which data on health service resource use should be collected in a main trial. Participants’ views on instruments and procedures will be sought to confirm their acceptability. Discussion The study will produce a full trial protocol with robust sample-size calculations to extend evidence on effectiveness of screening and brief intervention. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN43218782 PMID:23006975

2012-01-01

225

Changes in the Precision of a Study from Planning Phase to Implementation Phase: Evidence from the First Wave of Group Randomized Trials Launched by the Institute of Education Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to extend the work of Spybrook and Raudenbush (2009) and examine how the research designs and sample sizes changed from the planning phase to the implementation phase in the first wave of studies funded by IES. The authors examine the impact of the changes in terms of the changes in the precision of the study from the…

Spybrook, Jessaca; Lininger, Monica; Cullen, Anne

2011-01-01

226

A traditional Chinese medicine versus Western combination therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: two-stage study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The common randomized controlled trial design has distinct limitations when applied to Chinese medicine, because Chinese medicine identifies and treats 'Chinese medicine patterns' rather than diagnosed diseases. Chinese medicine patterns are a group of associated symptoms, tongue appearances and pulse characteristics. These limitations could be overcome by developing new strategies to evaluate the effect of Chinese medicine. The idea behind pattern-based efficacy evaluations may optimize clinical trial design by identifying the responsiveness-related Chinese medicine patterns. Methods/Design This is a two-stage multi-center trial of Chinese herbal medicine for the management of rheumatoid arthritis. The stage one trial is an open-label trial and aims to explore what groups of Chinese medicine information (such as symptoms) correlates with better efficacy, and the stage two trial is a randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy clinical trial that incorporates the efficacy-related information identified in the stage-one trial into the inclusion criteria. Discussion The indication of a Chinese herbal formula is a specific Chinese medicine pattern and not a single disease and stratifying a disease into several patterns with a group of symptoms is a feasible procedure in clinical trials. This study is the first to investigate whether this approach in the design of Chinese herbal medicine trials can improve responses. Trial registration ChiCTR-TRC-10000989 PMID:21639923

2011-01-01

227

Hassle Free Mealtimes Triple P: a randomised controlled trial of a brief parenting group for childhood mealtime difficulties.  

PubMed

Mealtime difficulties are common in typically developing young children. Easily accessible, wide-reaching, early intervention is needed to meet demand for assistance, and prevent the development of more serious feeding and psychosocial problems. Behavioural parent training is an efficacious intervention for childhood mealtime problems, however, existing programmes are long, intensive, and costly. The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a brief parenting discussion group for young children's mealtime difficulties. Eighty-six parents of 2- to 5-year-old children with mealtime difficulties participated in a randomised controlled trial of Hassle Free Mealtimes Triple P (HFMTP; Morawska & Sanders, 2012), a 2-h discussion group on positive parenting strategies specific to the mealtime context. Results of parent-report measures showed that after intervention, there were significant improvements with large effect sizes in children's mealtime behaviour, parents' mealtime practices and cognitions, and both mealtime and general parenting confidence, compared to a waitlist control group. Parents also reported high satisfaction with the programme and effects were maintained at 6-month follow-up. These results support the efficacy of a brief parenting discussion group for childhood mealtime difficulties. This low intensity format of intervention has the potential to meet the high demand for assistance with young children's mealtime difficulties. PMID:24362359

Morawska, Alina; Adamson, Michelle; Hinchliffe, Kaitlin; Adams, Tracey

2014-02-01

228

Design, development of water tank-type lung phantom and dosimetric verification in institutions participating in a phase I study of stereotactic body radiation therapy in patients with T2N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial (JCOG0702)  

PubMed Central

A domestic multicenter phase I study of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for T2N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer in inoperable patients or elderly patients who refused surgery was initiated as the Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial (JCOG0702) in Japan. Prior to the clinical study, the accuracy of dose calculation in radiation treatment-planning systems was surveyed in participating institutions, and differences in the irradiating dose between the institutions were investigated. We developed a water tank-type lung phantom appropriate for verification of the exposure dose in lung SBRT. Using this water tank-type lung phantom, the dose calculated in the radiation treatment-planning system and the measured dose using a free air ionization chamber and dosimetric film were compared in a visiting survey of the seven institutions participating in the clinical study. In all participating institutions, differences between the calculated and the measured dose in the irradiation plan were as follows: the accuracy of the absolute dose in the center of the simulated tumor measured using a free air ionization chamber was within 2%, the mean gamma value was ?0.47 on gamma analysis following the local dose criteria, and the pass rate was >87% for 3%/3 mm from measurement of dose distribution with dosimetric film. These findings confirmed the accuracy of delivery doses in the institutions participating in the clinical study, so that a study with integration of the institutions could be initiated. PMID:24385469

Nishio, Teiji; Shirato, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Masayori; Miyabe, Yuki; Kito, Satoshi; Narita, Yuichirou; Onimaru, Rikiya; Ishikura, Satoshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Hiraoka, Masahiro

2014-01-01

229

How to Improve the Implementation of Academic Clinical Pediatric Trials Involving Drug Therapy? A Qualitative Study of Multiple Stakeholders  

PubMed Central

Objective The need for encouraging pediatric drug research is widely recognized. However, hospital-based clinical trials of drug treatments are extremely time-consuming, and delays in trial implementation are common. The objective of this qualitative study was to collect information on the perceptions and experience of health professionals involved in hospital-based pediatric drug trials. Methods Two independent researchers conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with principal investigators (n?=?17), pharmacists (n?=?7), sponsor representatives (n?=?4), and drug regulatory agency representatives (n?=?3) who participated in institutionally sponsored clinical trials of experimental drugs in pediatric patients between 2002 and 2008. Results Dissatisfaction was reported by 67% (16/24) of principal investigators and pharmacists: all 7 pharmacists felt they were involved too late in the trial implementation process, whereas 11 (65%) principal investigators complained of an excessive regulatory burden and felt they were insufficiently involved in the basic research questions. Both groups perceived clinical trial implementation as burdensome and time-consuming. The sponsor and regulatory agency representatives reported a number of difficulties but were not dissatisfied. Conclusions The heavy burden related to regulatory requirements, and suboptimal communication across disciplines involved, seem to be the main reasons for the major delays in pediatric drug trial implementation. The pharmaceutical aspects are intrinsically tied to trial methodology and implementation and must therefore be examined, in particular by involving Clinical Research Pharmacists at early stages of study conception. PMID:23724056

Girard, Delphine; Bourdon, Olivier; Abdoul, Hendy; Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Brion, Françoise; Tibi, Annick; Alberti, Corinne

2013-01-01

230

Study protocol: A cluster randomised controlled trial of implementation intentions to reduce smoking initiation in adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background The current literature suggests that forming implementation intentions (simple ‘if-then’ plans) about how to refuse the offer of a cigarette may be an effective intervention to reduce smoking initiation in adolescents. This study is a pragmatic trial to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such an intervention in reducing smoking initiation in a sample of UK adolescents. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial with at least 36 schools randomised to receive an implementation intention intervention targeting reducing smoking initiation (intervention group) or increasing homework (control group). Interventions will be conducted at the classroom level and be repeated every six months for four years (eight interventions). Objectively assessed (carbon monoxide monitor) and self-reported smoking plus smoking related cognitions (e.g., smoking intentions, attitudes, norms and self-efficacy) will be assessed at baseline and 12, 24, 36 and 48 months post baseline. Objectively assessed smoking at 48 months post baseline will be the primary outcome variable. Health economic analyses will assess life years gained. Discussion The results of the trial will provide information on the impact of a repeated implementation intention for refusing offers of cigarettes on rates of smoking initiation in adolescents. Trial registration ISRCTN27596806 PMID:23332020

2013-01-01

231

Using "clinical trial diaries" to track patterns of participation for serial healthy volunteers in u.s. Phase I studies.  

PubMed

Phase I testing of investigational drugs relies on healthy volunteers as research participants. Many U.S. healthy volunteers enroll repeatedly in clinical trials for the financial compensation. Serial participants are incentivized to ignore restrictions on their participation, and no centralized clinical trial registry prevents dual enrollment. Little is currently known about how healthy volunteers participate in studies over time, hampering the development of policies to protect this group. We detail a methodology developed as part of a longitudinal study to track in real-time healthy volunteers' Phase I participation. Illustrating these data through three case studies, we document how healthy volunteers use strategies, such as qualifying for studies at more than one clinic and traveling significant distances, to maximize their participation. Our findings suggest that "clinical trial diaries" can generate critical information about serial research participation and point to ethical issues unique to healthy volunteers' involvement in Phase I clinical trials. PMID:25742668

Edelblute, Heather B; Fisher, Jill A

2015-02-01

232

Drug level monitoring in a double-blind multicenter trial: false-positive zidovudine measurements in AIDS clinical trials group protocol 019.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-three different laboratories using four different assay methods reported zidovudine (ZDV; azidothymidine) measurements in a double-blind trial of ZDV for asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients (AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 019). The risk of false-positive ZDV measurements was defined with coded specimens containing no ZDV in a quality control testing program. This testing identified six problem laboratories which reported ZDV levels of greater than or equal to 100 ng/ml for specimens with no ZDV; all of these laboratories used high-performance liquid chromatography. These six laboratories reported a disproportionately high fraction of positive assays for subjects randomized to the placebo group (31% for these 6 laboratories versus 4% for the other 17 laboratories; P less than 0.0001). The high number of false-positive ZDV results reported by these six laboratories suggested that many of the positive results that they reported for patient specimens were also false-positive results. This hypothesis was examined by retesting specimens from patients in the placebo group that had been reported as positive by these laboratories. Ninety percent (19 of 21) of these specimens were negative on retesting at the reference laboratory. These results confirm the hypothesis; they demonstrate the need for quality control testing to avoid the misinterpretation of multicenter trials because of incorrect laboratory data. PMID:1929258

Krogstad, D J; Eveland, M R; Lim, L L; Volberding, P A; Sadler, B M

1991-01-01

233

Current status and future perspectives of cooperative study groups for lung cancer in Japan.  

PubMed

The performance of scientifically and ethically valid prospective clinical trials is the only means by which to obtain reliable clinical evidence that can improve clinical practice and thus the outcome of patients with lung cancer. The efficacy of treatment for advanced lung cancer remains limited; many cooperative study groups for lung cancer have been established in Japan since 1990s, and they have completed several landmark investigator-initiated clinical trials. This review highlights eight active Japanese cooperative study groups for lung cancer and summarizes their achievements made through clinical trials. In addition to their benefits, the existence of multiple study groups for a single disease such as lung cancer presents several challenges including the provision of infrastructure to ensure the scientific integrity of trial results, the unnecessary duplication of effort and the wasting of limited resources, and the accrual and completion of large-scale phase III trials in the shortest possible time. Collaboration among Japanese cooperative groups has recently increased in order to overcome these challenges. Although institutional barriers to the performance of such large intergroup trials remain, further harmonization and collaboration among cooperative groups will be vital in allowing Japanese investigators to make further important contributions for the development of new lung cancer therapies. PMID:25453377

Kawano, Yuko; Okamoto, Isamu; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Ohe, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Saka, Hideo; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Takayama, Koichi; Semba, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Nakanishi, Yoichi

2014-11-01

234

A Randomized Trial of Contingency Management Delivered in the Context of Group Counseling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Contingency management (CM) is efficacious in reducing drug use. Typically, reinforcers are provided on an individual basis to patients for submitting drug-negative samples. However, most treatment is provided in a group context, and poor attendance is a substantial concern. This study evaluated whether adding CM to group-based outpatient treatment would increase attendance and drug abstinence relative to standard care.

Nancy M. Petry; Jeremiah Weinstock; Sheila M. Alessi

2011-01-01

235

Group-Based Randomized Trial of Contingencies for Health and Abstinence in HIV Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Contingency management (CM) treatments are usually applied individually for drug abstinence, but CM can also be targeted toward health behaviors and implemented in groups. This study evaluated effects of a group-based CM intervention that focused on reinforcing health behaviors. Method: HIV-positive patients with cocaine or opioid use…

Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Alessi, Sheila M.; Lewis, Marilyn W.; Dieckhaus, Kevin

2010-01-01

236

A Randomized Trial of Contingency Management Delivered in the Context of Group Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Contingency management (CM) is efficacious in reducing drug use. Typically, reinforcers are provided on an individual basis to patients for submitting drug-negative samples. However, most treatment is provided in a group context, and poor attendance is a substantial concern. This study evaluated whether adding CM to group-based…

Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Alessi, Sheila M.

2011-01-01

237

Manual and Electroacupuncture for Labour Pain: Study Design of a Longitudinal Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Results from previous studies on acupuncture for labour pain are contradictory and lack important information on methodology. However, studies indicate that acupuncture has a positive effect on women's experiences of labour pain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of two different acupuncture stimulations, manual or electrical stimulation, compared with standard care in the relief of labour pain as the primary outcome. This paper will present in-depth information on the design of the study, following the CONSORT and STRICTA recommendations. Methods. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial based on western medical theories. Nulliparous women with normal pregnancies admitted to the delivery ward after a spontaneous onset of labour were randomly allocated into one of three groups: manual acupuncture, electroacupuncture, or standard care. Sample size calculation gave 101 women in each group, including a total of 303 women. A Visual Analogue Scale was used for assessing pain every 30 minutes for five hours and thereafter every hour until birth. Questionnaires were distributed before treatment, directly after the birth, and at one day and two months postpartum. Blood samples were collected before and after the first treatment. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01197950. PMID:22577468

Vixner, Linda; Mårtensson, Lena B.; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Schytt, Erica

2012-01-01

238

Efficacy and safety of acupuncture for chronic dizziness: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Dizziness is one of the most challenging symptoms in medicine. No medication for dizziness in current use has well-established curative or prophylactic value or is suitable for long-term palliative use. Unconventional remedies, such as acupuncture, should be considered and scientifically evaluated. However, there has been relatively little evidence in randomized controlled clinical trials on acupuncture to treat chronic dizziness. The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in patients with dizziness. Methods/Design This trial is a randomized, single-blind, controlled study. A total of 80 participants will be randomly assigned to two treatment groups receiving acupuncture and sham acupuncture treatment, respectively, for 4 weeks. The primary outcome measures are the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and the Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS). Treatment will be conducted over a period of 4 weeks, at a frequency of two sessions per week. The assessment is at baseline (before treatment initiation), 4 weeks after the first acupuncture session, and 8 weeks after the first acupuncture session. Discussion The results from this study will provide clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in patients with chronic dizziness. Trial registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register: ISRCTN52695239 PMID:24330810

2013-01-01

239

Consolidation with alemtuzumab in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in first remission – experience on safety and efficacy within a randomized multicenter phase III trial of the German CLL Study Group (GCLLSG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with CLL responding to initial chemotherapy with fludarabine alone (F) or in combination with cyclophosphamide (FC) were randomized for treatment with alemtuzumab (30 mg i.v. TIW, 12 weeks) or observation. Of 21 evaluable patients, 11 were randomized to alemtuzumab before the study was stopped due to severe infections in seven of 11 patients. These infections (one life-threatening pulmonary aspergillosis

C-M Wendtner; M Ritgen; C D Schweighofer; G Fingerle-Rowson; H Campe; G Jäger; B Eichhorst; R Busch; H Diem; A Engert; S Stilgenbauer; H Döhner; M Kneba; B Emmerich; M Hallek

2004-01-01

240

Phase II Study of ET743 in Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcomas: A European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This nonrandomized multicenter phase II study was performed to evaluate the activity and safety of Ecteinascidin (ET-743) administered at a dose of 1.5 mg\\/m 2 as a 24-hour continuous infusion every 3 weeks in patients with pretreated advanced soft tissue sarcoma.

A. Le Cesne; J. Y. Blay; I. Judson; A. Van Oosterom; J. Verweij; J. Radford; P. Lorigan; S. Rodenhuis; I. Ray-Coquard; S. Bonvalot; F. Collin; J. Jimeno; E. Di Paola; M. Van Glabbeke; O. S. Nielsen

2005-01-01

241

Studying a disease with no home - lessons in trial recruitment from the PATCH II study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cellulitis is a very common condition that often recurs. The PATCH II study was designed to explore the possibility of preventing future episodes of cellulitis, with resultant cost savings for the NHS. This was the first trial to be undertaken by the UK Dermatology Clinical Trials Network. As such, it was the first to test a recruitment model that

Kim S Thomas

2010-01-01

242

Docetaxel and carboplatin as first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced gynecological tumors. A phase I\\/II trial of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie (AGO-OVAR) Ovarian Cancer Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We performed a phase I–II study in patients with ovarian and other gynecological cancers to determine the dose-limiting toxicities, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and efficacy of docetaxel\\/carboplatin.Methods. Thirty patients were treated in three cohorts with carboplatin (AUC 5) and escalating docetaxel (60, 75 and 90 mg\\/m2), administered intravenously on day 1, repeated every 3 weeks. Premedication consisted of 16

J Pfisterer; A du Bois; U Wagner; J Quaas; J. U Blohmer; D Wallwiener; F Hilpert

2004-01-01

243

Phase I trial of intravenous aviscumine (rViscumin) in patients with solid tumors: a study of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer New Drug Development Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aviscumine is an Escherichia coli-derived recombinant type II ribosome-inactivating protein with potent antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. It is the recombinant counterpart of natu- ral mistletoe lectin-I. The current study was performed to determine the safety profile, dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the intravenous (i.v.) administration of aviscu- mine in cancer patients. Translational

P. Schoffski; S. Riggert; P. Fumoleau; M. Campone; O. Bolte; S. Marreaud; D. Lacombe; B. Baron; M. Herold; H. Zwierzina; K. Wilhelm-Ogunbiyi; H. Lentzen; C. Twelves

2004-01-01

244

Rationale, study design, and analysis plan of the Alveolar Recruitment for ARDS Trial (ART): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high in-hospital mortality. Alveolar recruitment followed by ventilation at optimal titrated PEEP may reduce ventilator-induced lung injury and improve oxygenation in patients with ARDS, but the effects on mortality and other clinical outcomes remain unknown. This article reports the rationale, study design, and analysis plan of the Alveolar Recruitment for ARDS Trial (ART). Methods/Design ART is a pragmatic, multicenter, randomized (concealed), controlled trial, which aims to determine if maximum stepwise alveolar recruitment associated with PEEP titration is able to increase 28-day survival in patients with ARDS compared to conventional treatment (ARDSNet strategy). We will enroll adult patients with ARDS of less than 72 h duration. The intervention group will receive an alveolar recruitment maneuver, with stepwise increases of PEEP achieving 45 cmH2O and peak pressure of 60 cmH2O, followed by ventilation with optimal PEEP titrated according to the static compliance of the respiratory system. In the control group, mechanical ventilation will follow a conventional protocol (ARDSNet). In both groups, we will use controlled volume mode with low tidal volumes (4 to 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight) and targeting plateau pressure ?30 cmH2O. The primary outcome is 28-day survival, and the secondary outcomes are: length of ICU stay; length of hospital stay; pneumothorax requiring chest tube during first 7 days; barotrauma during first 7 days; mechanical ventilation-free days from days 1 to 28; ICU, in-hospital, and 6-month survival. ART is an event-guided trial planned to last until 520 events (deaths within 28 days) are observed. These events allow detection of a hazard ratio of 0.75, with 90% power and two-tailed type I error of 5%. All analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion If the ART strategy with maximum recruitment and PEEP titration improves 28-day survival, this will represent a notable advance to the care of ARDS patients. Conversely, if the ART strategy is similar or inferior to the current evidence-based strategy (ARDSNet), this should also change current practice as many institutions routinely employ recruitment maneuvers and set PEEP levels according to some titration method. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01374022 PMID:22929542

2012-01-01

245

Positive psychology group intervention for breast cancer patients: a randomised trial.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effects of a psychological group intervention based on positive psychology in women with breast cancer. 175 women were randomly assigned either to an experimental group, receiving the 14-session intervention (n = 87), or to a wait list group (n = 88) that did not receive any type of intervention. For treatment, a group intervention was applied, based on improving psychological strengths and enhancing positive psychology-based styles of coping. Strength-related outcomes, self-esteem, well-being, and happiness were assessed before and after the intervention. The experimental group showed higher scores on all of the study variables after the intervention. Participants reported improved self-esteem, emotional intelligence-related abilities, resilience, and optimism, as well as positive affectivity, well-being, and happiness. The results show a beneficial effect of this psychological intervention based on positive psychology on female breast cancer patients' psychological health. PMID:25153949

Victoria Cerezo, M; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; De La Torre-Luque, Alejandro

2014-08-01

246

Randomized controlled trial of transdiagnostic group treatments for primary care patients with common mental disorders  

PubMed Central

Background. The purpose was to test the effectiveness of two transdiagnostic group interventions compared to care as usual (CAU) for patients with anxiety, depressive or stress-related disorders within a primary health care context. Objectives. To compare the effects of cognitive-based-behavioural therapy (CBT) and multimodal intervention (MMI) on the quality of life and relief of psychological symptoms of patients with common mental disorders or problems attending primary health care centre. Methods. Patients (n = 278), aged 18–65 years, were referred to the study by the GPs and 245 were randomized to CAU or one of two group interventions in addition to CAU: (i) group CBT administered by psychologists and (ii) group MMI administered by assistant nurses. The primary outcome measure was the Mental Component Summary score of short form 36. Secondary outcome measures were Perceived Stress Scale and Self-Rating Scale for Affective Syndromes. The data were analysed using intention-to-treat with a linear mixed model. Results. On the primary outcome measure, the mean improvement based on mixed model analyses across post- and follow-up assessment was significantly larger for the MMI group than for the CBT (4.0; P = 0.020) and CAU (7.5; P = .001) groups. Participants receiving CBT were significantly more improved than those in the CAU group. On four of the secondary outcome measures, the MMI group was significantly more improved than the CBT and CAU groups. The course of improvement did not differ between the CBT group and the CAU group on these measures. Conclusions. Transdiagnostic group treatment can be effective for patients with common mental disorders when delivered in a primary care setting. The group format and transdiagnostic approach fit well with the requirements of primary care. PMID:24642702

Ejeby, Kersti

2014-01-01

247

Dental Budget Process: Determination Schema Industry Sponsored, Industry Supported, University to University, Co-operative Group or Foundation Supported Clinical Trials  

E-print Network

11/5/2013 Dental Budget Process: Determination Schema Industry Sponsored, Industry Supported, University to University, Co-operative Group or Foundation Supported Clinical Trials DENTAL BUDGET PROCESS OR FOUNDATION SUPPORTED CLINICAL TRIALS Following Procedure I flow chart A. PRE-TRIAL: o In order to open

Oliver, Douglas L.

248

Vitamin D supplementation in the management of knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common health issue worldwide in the aging population who are also commonly deficient in vitamin D. Our previous study suggested that higher serum 25-(OH)D levels were associated with reduced knee cartilage loss, implying that vitamin D supplementation may prevent the progression of knee OA. The aim of the VItamin D Effects on OA (VIDEO) study is to compare, over a 2- year period, the effects of vitamin D supplementation versus placebo on knee structural changes, knee pain, and lower limb muscle strength in patients with symptomatic knee OA. Methods/design Randomised, placebo-controlled, and double-blind clinical trial aiming to recruit 400 subjects (200 from Tasmania and 200 from Victoria) with both symptomatic knee OA and vitamin D deficiency (serum [25-(OH)D] level of >12.5?nmol/liter and <60?nmol/liter). Participants will be randomly allocated to vitamin D supplementation (50,000?IU compounded vitamin D3 capsule monthly) or identical inert placebo group for 2?years. The primary endpoint is loss of knee cartilage volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of OA (WOMAC) knee pain score. The secondary endpoints will be other knee structural changes, and lower limb muscle strength. Several other outcome measures including core muscle images and central blood pressure will be recorded. Linear and logistic regression will be used to compare changes between groups using univariable and multivariable modeling analyses. Both intention to treat and per protocol analyses will be utilized. Discussion The trial is designed to test if vitamin D supplementation will reduce loss of knee cartilage volume, prevent the progression of other knee structural abnormalities, reduce knee pain and strengthen lower limb muscle strength, thus modify disease progression in knee OA. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01176344; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12610000495022 PMID:22867111

2012-01-01

249

The Qure study: Q fever fatigue syndrome – response to treatment; a randomized placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Q fever is a zoonosis that is present in many countries. Q fever fatigue syndrome (QFS) is one of the most frequent sequelae after an acute Q fever infection. QFS is characterized by persistent fatigue following an acute Q fever infection, leading to substantial morbidity and a high socio-economic burden. The occurrence of QFS is well-documented, and has been described in many countries over the past decades. However, a treatment with proven efficacy is not available. Only a few uncontrolled studies have tested the efficacy of treatment with antibiotics on QFS. These studies suggest a positive effect of long-term treatment with a tetracycline on performance state; however, no randomized controlled trials have been performed. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been proven to be an effective treatment modality for chronic fatigue in other diseases, but has not yet been tested in QFS. Therefore, we designed a trial to assess the efficacy of long-term treatment with the tetracycline doxycycline and CBT in patients with QFS. Methods/design A randomized placebo-controlled trial will be conducted. One-hundred-eighty adult patients diagnosed with QFS will be recruited and randomized between one of three groups: CBT, long-term doxycycline or placebo. First, participants will be randomized between CBT and medication (ratio 1:2). A second double-blinded randomization between doxycycline and placebo (ratio 1:1) will be performed in the medication condition. Each group will be treated for six months. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline and post intervention. The primary outcome measure is fatigue severity. Secondary outcome measures are functional impairment, level of psychological distress, and Coxiella burnetii PCR and serology. Discussion The Qure study is the first randomized placebo-controlled trial, which evaluates the efficacy of long-term doxycycline and of cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with QFS. The results of this study will provide knowledge about evidence-based treatment options for adult patients with QFS. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: http://NCT01318356, and Netherlands Trial Register: NTR2797 PMID:23536997

2013-01-01

250

Limited Chemotherapy and Shrinking Field Radiotherapy for Osteolymphoma (Primary Bone Lymphoma): Results From the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 99.04 and Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group LY02 Prospective Trial;Bone; Lymphoma; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; Clinical trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To establish benchmark outcomes for combined modality treatment to be used in future prospective studies of osteolymphoma (primary bone lymphoma). Methods and Materials: In 1999, the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) invited the Australasian Leukemia and Lymphoma Group (ALLG) to collaborate on a prospective study of limited chemotherapy and radiotherapy for osteolymphoma. The treatment was designed to maintain efficacy but limit the risk of subsequent pathological fractures. Patient assessment included both functional imaging and isotope bone scanning. Treatment included three cycles of CHOP chemotherapy and radiation to a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions using a shrinking field technique. Results: The trial closed because of slow accrual after 33 patients had been entered. Accrual was noted to slow down after Rituximab became readily available in Australia. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, the five-year overall survival and local control rates are estimated at 90% and 72% respectively. Three patients had fractures at presentation that persisted after treatment, one with recurrent lymphoma. Conclusions: Relatively high rates of survival were achieved but the number of local failures suggests that the dose of radiotherapy should remain higher than it is for other types of lymphoma. Disability after treatment due to pathological fracture was not seen.

Christie, David, E-mail: david.christie@premion.com.au [Premion and Bond University, Gold Coast, Queensland (Australia); Dear, Keith [Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, New South Wales (Australia); Le, Thai [BHB, Premion, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Barton, Michael [Collaboration for Cancer Outcomes and Research (CCORE) and University of NSW, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Wirth, Andrew [Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Porter, David [Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Roos, Daniel [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Pratt, Gary [Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

2011-07-15

251

Randomized controlled pilot trial of a novel dissonance-based group treatment for eating disorders.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a pilot trial of a new dissonance-based group eating disorder treatment designed to be a cost-effective front-line transdiagnostic treatment that could be more widely disseminated than extant individual or family treatments that are more expensive and difficult to deliver. Young women with a DSM-5 eating disorder (N = 72) were randomized to an 8-week dissonance-based Counter Attitudinal Therapy group treatment or a usual care control condition, completing diagnostic interviews and questionnaires at pre, post, and 2-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that intervention participants showed greater reductions in outcomes than usual care controls in a multivariate multilevel model (?(2)[6] = 34.1, p < .001), producing large effects for thin-ideal internalization (d = .79), body dissatisfaction (d = 1.14), and blinded interview-assessed eating disorder symptoms (d = .95), and medium effects for dissonance regarding perpetuating the thin ideal (d = .65) and negative affect (d = .55). Midway through this pilot we refined engagement procedures, which was associated with increased effect sizes (e.g., the d for eating disorder symptoms increased from .51 to 2.30). This new group treatment produced large reductions in eating disorder symptoms, which is encouraging because it requires about 1/20th the therapist time necessary for extant individual and family treatments, and has the potential to provide a cost-effective and efficacious approach to reaching the majority of individuals with eating disorders who do not presently received treatment. PMID:25577189

Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Butryn, Meghan; Menke, Katharine S; Marti, C Nathan

2015-02-01

252

Phase II trial of the mTOR inhibitor, temsirolimus and evaluation of circulating tumor cells and tumor biomarkers in persistent and recurrent epithelial ovarian and primary peritoneal malignancies: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Patients with persistent/recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer/primary peritoneal cancer (EOC/PPC) have limited treatment options. AKT and PI3K pathway activation is common in EOC/PPC, resulting in constitutive activation of downstream mTOR. The GOG conducted a phase II evaluation of efficacy and safety for the mTOR inhibitor, temsirolimus in EOC/PPC and explored circulating tumor cells (CTC) and AKT/mTOR/downstream tumor markers. Methods Eligible women with measurable, persistent/recurrent EOC/PPC who had received 1–3 prior regimens were treated with 25 mg weekly IV temsirolimus until progression or intolerable toxicity. Primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) ?6-months, tumor response, and toxicity. CellSearch® system was used to examine CTC, and AKT/mTOR/downstream markers were evaluated by archival tumor immunohistochemistry. Kendall’s tau-b correlation coefficient (r) and Cox regression modeling were used to explore marker associations with baseline characteristics and outcome. Results Sixty patients were enrolled in a two-stage sequential design. Of 54 eligible and evaluable patients, 24.1% (90%CI 14.9%–38.6%) had PFS ?6 months (median 3.1 months), 9.3% (90%CI 3.7%–23.4%) experienced a partial response. Grade 3/4 adverse events included metabolic(8), gastrointestinal(8), pain(6), constitutional(5) and pulmonary(4). Suggested associations were between cyclin D1 and PFS ?6 months, PFS or survival; positive CTC pre-treatment and lack of response; and high CTC expression of M30 and PFS ?6 months/longer PFS. Conclusions Temsirolimus appears to have modest activity in persistent/recurrent EOC/PPC; however, PFS is just below that required to warrant inclusion in phase III studies in unselected patients. Cyclin D1 as a selection marker and CTC measures merit further study. PMID:21752435

Behbakht, Kian; Sill, Michael W.; Darcy, Kathleen M.; Rubin, Stephen C.; Mannel, Robert S.; Waggoner, Steven; Schilder, Russell J.; Cai, Kathy Q.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Alpaugh, R. Katherine

2012-01-01

253

Non-pharmacological, multicomponent group therapy in patients with degenerative dementia: a 12-month randomzied, controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Currently available pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments have shown only modest effects in slowing the progression of dementia. Our objective was to assess the impact of a long-term non-pharmacological group intervention on cognitive function in dementia patients and on their ability to carry out activities of daily living compared to a control group receiving the usual care. Methods A randomized, controlled, single-blind longitudinal trial was conducted with 98 patients (follow-up: n = 61) with primary degenerative dementia in five nursing homes in Bavaria, Germany. The highly standardized intervention consisted of motor stimulation, practice in activities of daily living, and cognitive stimulation (acronym MAKS). It was conducted in groups of ten patients led by two therapists for 2 hours, 6 days a week for 12 months. Control patients received treatment as usual. Cognitive function was assessed using the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog), and the ability to carry out activities of daily living using the Erlangen Test of Activities of Daily Living (E-ADL test) at baseline and after 12 months. Results Of the 553 individuals screened, 119 (21.5%) were eligible and 98 (17.7%) were ultimately included in the study. At 12 months, the results of the per protocol analysis (n = 61) showed that cognitive function and the ability to carry out activities of daily living had remained stable in the intervention group but had decreased in the control patients (ADAS-Cog: adjusted mean difference: -7.7, 95% CI -14.0 to -1.4, P = 0.018, Cohen's d = 0.45; E-ADL test: adjusted mean difference: 3.6, 95% CI 0.7 to 6.4, P = 0.015, Cohen's d = 0.50). The effect sizes for the intervention were greater in the subgroup of patients (n = 50) with mild to moderate disease (ADAS-Cog: Cohen's d = 0.67; E-ADL test: Cohen's d = 0.69). Conclusions A highly standardized, non-pharmacological, multicomponent group intervention conducted in a nursing-home setting was able to postpone a decline in cognitive function in dementia patients and in their ability to carry out activities of daily living for at least 12 months. Trial Registration http://www.isrctn.com Identifier: ISRCTN87391496 PMID:22133165

2011-01-01

254

Effect of tamoxifen and transdermal hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular risk factors in a prevention trial. Italian Chemoprevention Group.  

PubMed Central

The combination of tamoxifen and transdermal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may potentially reduce risks and side-effects of either agent, but an adverse interaction could attenuate their beneficial effects. We assessed the effects of their combination on cardiovascular risk factors within a prevention trial of tamoxifen. Baseline and 12-month measurements of total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, platelets and white blood cells were obtained in the following four groups: tamoxifen (n = 1117), placebo (n = 1112), tamoxifen and HRT (n = 68), placebo and HRT (n = 87). The analysis was further extended to women who were on HRT at randomization but discontinued it during the 12-month intervention period (n = 33 on tamoxifen and n = 35 on placebo) and to women who were not on HRT but started it during intervention (n = 36 in both arms of the study). Compared with small changes in the placebo group, tamoxifen was associated with changes in total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol of approximately -9%, -19% and +0.2% in continuous HRT users compared with -9%, -14% and -0.8% in never HRT users. Similarly, there was no interaction on platelet count. In contrast, the decrease in total and LDL-cholesterol levels induced by tamoxifen was blunted by two-thirds in women who started HRT while on tamoxifen (P = 0.051 for the interaction term). We conclude that the beneficial effects of tamoxifen on cardiovascular risk factors are unchanged in current HRT users, whereas they may be attenuated in women who start transdermal HRT while on tamoxifen. Whereas a trial of tamoxifen in women already on transdermal HRT is warranted, prescription of HRT during tamoxifen may attenuate its activity. PMID:9744493

Decensi, A.; Robertson, C.; Rotmensz, N.; Severi, G.; Maisonneuve, P.; Sacchini, V.; Boyle, P.; Costa, A.; Veronesi, U.

1998-01-01

255

Chemotherapy of Hodgkin's lymphoma with alternating cycles of COPP (cyclophosphamide, vincristin, procarbazine, prednisone) and ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine). Results of the HD1 and HD3 trials of the German Hodgkin Study Group.  

PubMed

Untreated patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma in stages I-IIIA with risk factors (large mediastinal mass, massive splenic involvement, extranodal disease) were entered into the HD1 protocol and received a combined chemo-radiotherapy [2 X (COPP + ABVD) + 40 Gy extended field irradiation (EF) vs 2 X (COPP + ABVD) + 20 Gy EF]. Patients in stages IIIB/IV (HD3 protocol) received induction chemotherapy [3 X (COPP + ABVD)] and were randomized into consolidation by radiotherapy [20 Gy involved field irradiation (IF)] vs chemotherapy [1 X (COPP + ABVD)]. Seventy-three of 89 evaluable patients (82%) treated according to the HD1 protocol achieved a complete remission. Freedom from progression and survival of patients in stages I-IIIA with risk factors treated according to HD1 were no worse than those of patients in stages I and II without risk factors who received only radiotherapy. Eighty-six of 137 patients (63%) treated according to the HD3 protocol achieved complete remission after induction chemotherapy with COPP + ABVD. This is significantly better than the 31% complete remission rate observed in a previous pilot study with COPP alone (P less than 0.01). Including salvage therapy (radiotherapy in case of persisting nodal disease; chemotherapy with 4 X CEVD in case of persisting disseminated disease), a total of 76% complete remissions in stages IIIB/IVAB were achieved. A high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (greater than 80 mm h-1) was the most significant risk factor for achieving freedom from progression. PMID:2473363

Diehl, V; Pfreundschuh, M; Löffler, M; Rühl, U; Hiller, E; Gerhartz, H; Wilmanns, W; Kirchner, H; Schoppe, W; Petsch, S

1989-01-01

256

Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of electronic cigarettes versus nicotine patch for smoking cessation  

PubMed Central

Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]) are electrically powered devices generally similar in appearance to a cigarette that deliver a propylene glycol and/or glycerol mist to the airway of users when drawing on the mouthpiece. Nicotine and other substances such as flavourings may be included in the fluid vaporised by the device. People report using e-cigarettes to help quit smoking and studies of their effects on tobacco withdrawal and craving suggest good potential as smoking cessation aids. However, to date there have been no adequately powered randomised trials investigating their cessation efficacy or safety. This paper outlines the protocol for this study. Methods/design Design: Parallel group, 3-arm, randomised controlled trial. Participants: People aged ?18?years resident in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) who want to quit smoking. Intervention: Stratified blocked randomisation to allocate participants to either Elusion™ e-cigarettes with nicotine cartridges (16?mg) or with placebo cartridges (i.e. no nicotine), or to nicotine patch (21?mg) alone. Participants randomised to the e-cigarette groups will be told to use them ad libitum for one week before and 12?weeks after quit day, while participants randomised to patches will be told to use them daily for the same period. All participants will be offered behavioural support to quit from the NZ Quitline. Primary outcome: Biochemically verified (exhaled carbon monoxide) continuous abstinence at six months after quit day. Sample size: 657 people (292 in both the nicotine e-cigarette and nicotine patch groups and 73 in the placebo e-cigarettes group) will provide 80% power at p?=?0.05 to detect an absolute difference of 10% in abstinence between the nicotine e-cigarette and nicotine patch groups, and 15% between the nicotine and placebo e-cigarette groups. Discussion This trial will inform international debate and policy on the regulation and availability of e-cigarettes. If shown to be efficacious and safe, these devices could help many smokers as an alternative smoking cessation aid to standard nicotine products. Trial registration Australian NZ Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12610000866000). PMID:23496861

2013-01-01

257

Recruiting minority cancer patients into cancer clinical trials: a pilot project involving the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and the National Medical Association. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This paper may be useful for researchers interested in enhancing their interactions with community physicians and increasing the number of minority patients referred to clinical trials. It describes a study conducted by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) in collaboration with the National Medical Association (NMA) to better understand barriers and solutions to African-American (AA) accrual and to test several recommended low-cost strategies.

258

The effect of endocrine responsiveness on high-risk breast cancer treated with dose-intensive chemotherapy: results of International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial 15-95 after prolonged follow-up  

PubMed Central

Background: The role of adjuvant dose-intensive chemotherapy and its efficacy according to baseline features has not yet been established. Patients and methods: Three hundred and forty-four patients were randomized to receive seven courses of standard-dose chemotherapy (SD-CT) or three cycles of dose-intensive epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (epirubicin 200 mg/m2 plus cyclophosphamide 4 mg/m2 with filgrastim and progenitor cell support). All patients were assigned tamoxifen at the completion of chemotherapy. The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS). This paper updates the results and explores patterns of recurrence according to predicting baseline features. Results: At 8.3-years median follow-up, patients assigned DI-EC had a significantly better DFS compared with those assigned SD-CT [8-year DFS percent 47% and 37%, respectively, hazard ratio (HR) 0.76; 95% confidence interval 0.58–1.00; P = 0.05]. Only patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease benefited from the DI-EC (HR 0.61; 95% confidence interval 0.39, 0.95; P = 0.03). Conclusions: After prolonged follow-up, DI-EC significantly improved DFS, but the effect was observed only in patients with ER-positive disease, leading to the hypothesis that efficacy of DI-EC may relate to its endocrine effects. Further studies designed to confirm the importance of endocrine responsiveness in patients treated with dose-intensive chemotherapy are encouraged. PMID:19468030

Colleoni, M.; Sun, Z.; Martinelli, G.; Basser, R. L.; Coates, A. S.; Gelber, R. D.; Green, M. D.; Peccatori, F.; Cinieri, S.; Aebi, S.; Viale, G.; Price, K. N.; Goldhirsch, A.

2009-01-01

259

Phase II trial of preoperative paclitaxel, gemcitabine, and trastuzumab combination therapy in HER2 positive stage II/III breast cancer: the Korean Cancer Study Group BR 07-01.  

PubMed

An addition of trastuzumab preoperatively to chemotherapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer improved relapse-free survival (RFS). This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative paclitaxel, gemcitabine, and trastuzumab (PGH) combination for HER2-positive breast caner. Pathologically, proven node positive stage II/III breast cancer patients with adequate organ function and no history of anti-cancer therapy were eligible. Patients received weekly trastuzumab with paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) and gemcitabine 1,200 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8, every 3 weeks for 6 cycles. Postoperatively, patients completed trastuzumab for 1 year and hormone therapy for 5 years if indicated. All patients received postoperative radiation therapy. Of 53 enrolled patients with a median tumor of 5.3 (range, 2.0 to >12) cm; 43.4%, T3/T4; 75.4%, N2/N3; and 45.3%, positive hormone receptors. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate was 58.5% in both tumor and lymph nodes. Grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia (32%), febrile neutropenia (0.6%), and transient elevation of AST/ALT (1.6%) during a total of 318 cycles. All patients maintained normal cardiac function. With a median follow-up of 40 months, 3-year RFS rate was 84% with 91.7% distant metastasis-free survival rates. Remarkable pCR rate was obtained with non-anthracycline-based PGH therapy for HER2-positive stage II/III breast cancer. Adverse events were mild with few incidences of febrile neutropenia. PMID:22094934

Im, Seock-Ah; Lee, Keun Seok; Ro, Jungsil; Lee, Eun Sook; Kwon, Youngmee; Ahn, Jin-Hee; Ahn, Jin Seok; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kang, Han Sung; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Noh, Dong-Young; Park, In-Ae; Kim, Sung-Bae; Im, Young Hyuck; Ha, Sung Whan

2012-04-01

260

Involving communities in the design of clinical trial protocols: The BAN Study in Lilongwe, Malawi  

PubMed Central

Objective To learn the attitudes and concerns of the local community on participating in research, infant feeding practices, and maternal nutrition in order to inform the design of a clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi on the safety and efficacy of antiretroviral and nutrition interventions to reduce postnatal transmission of HIV. Design Formative research methods were used, including semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, home observations, and taste trials. Data were collected, analyzed, and incorporated into the protocol within three months. Results Participants were supportive of the clinical trial, although their overall understanding of research was limited. Mothers agreed that infants’ blood could be drawn by venipuncture, yet concern was raised about the amount of blood proposed to be collected from both infants and mothers. Data demonstrated that rapid breastfeeding cessation would be difficult and malnutrition could be a risk if infants were weaned early. Mothers selected a maternal supplement suitable for use in the clinical trial. Conclusions The protocol was rapidly modified to achieve cultural acceptability while maintaining study objectives. Without the formative research, several significant areas would have been undetected and may have jeopardized the implementation of the trial. Additional research was carried out to develop a meaningful informed consent process, the amount of blood collected was reduced to acceptable levels, and the protocol was modified to reduce the risk of malnutrition. Researchers who conduct clinical trials are encouraged to incorporate formative research into their protocol design to ensure participant understanding of the research, to safeguard participants, and to increase feasibility and acceptance of the clinical research in the community. PMID:17000137

Corneli, Amy L.; Piwoz, Ellen; Bentley, Margaret E.; Moses, Agnes; Nkhoma, Jacqueline R.; Tohill, Beth Carlton; Adair, Linda; Mtimuni, Beatrice; Ahmed, Yusuf; Duerr, Ann; Kazembe, Peter; van der Horstfor, Charles

2009-01-01

261

Patient advocates' role in clinical trials: Perspectives from Cancer and Leukemia Group B investigators and advocates. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Although there is a call for increased involvement of patient advocates in the design of clinical trials and patient recruitment and awareness efforts, little is known about the role and impact of patient advocates. A cooperative group survey of advocates and investigators forms the basis for recommendations.

262

Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid (TPOP): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids after trauma might reduce subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To date, we have shown in an open trial that PTSD symptoms in critically injured patients can be reduced by taking omega-3 fatty acids, hypothesized to stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. The primary aim of the present randomized controlled trial is to examine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the secondary prevention of PTSD following accidental injury, as compared with placebo. This paper describes the rationale and protocol of this trial. Methods/design The Tachikawa Project for Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (TPOP) is a double-blinded, parallel group, randomized controlled trial to assess whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can prevent PTSD symptoms among accident-injured patients consecutively admitted to an intensive care unit. We plan to recruit accident-injured patients and follow them prospectively for 12 weeks. Enrolled patients will be randomized to either the omega-3 fatty acid supplement group (1,470 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 147 mg eicosapentaenoic acid daily) or placebo group. Primary outcome is score on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). We will need to randomize 140 injured patients to have 90% power to detect a 10-point difference in mean CAPS scores with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation compared with placebo. Secondary measures are diagnosis of PTSD and major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, physiologic response in the experiment using script-driven imagery and acoustic stimulation, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, health-related quality of life, resilience, and aggression. Analyses will be by intent to treat. The trial was initiated on December 13 2008, with 104 subjects randomized by November 30 2012. Discussion This study promises to be the first trial to provide a novel prevention strategy for PTSD among traumatized people. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00671099 PMID:23289548

2013-01-01

263

The Trial of Napoleon: A Case Study for Using Mock Trials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course entitled "The Trial of Napoleon Bonaparte" that focuses on a fictitious mock trial of Napoleon Bonaparte to answer the question: did Napoleon pervert or preserve the gain of the French Revolution? Discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the course. (CMK)

MacKay, Charles

2000-01-01

264

An exploratory cluster randomized controlled trial of group exercise on mobility and depression in care home residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of group exercise for residents in care homes.Design: Exploratory cluster randomized controlled trial.Setting: Five randomly selected care homes in South Birmingham, UK.Participants: Fifty-six care home residents (mean age 84.5, 71% female), 39 (70%) with cognitive impairments.Intervention: Two homes (n = 28) were randomized to group exercise held twice weekly for five

Nicola Brittle; Smitaa Patel; Christine Wright; Sabrina Baral; Pam Versfeld; Catherine Sackley

2009-01-01

265

Efficacy Development in New Teacher Study Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explores the experiences and learning of five new teachers with less than three years in the classroom as they engaged in a study group. This research highlights the ways that participation in a study group enhanced teacher efficacy and supported their retention. The research reveals that power and authority over…

Simon, Flora Ann

2011-01-01

266

Household obesity prevention: Take Action--a group-randomized trial. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an intervention to prevent weight gain among households (HHs) in the community. Ninety HHs were randomized to intervention or control group for 1 year. Intervention consisted of six face-to-face group sessions, placement of a television (TV) locking device on all home TVs, and home-based intervention activities. Measures were collected in person at baseline and 1 year.

267

Household Obesity Prevention: Take Action—a Group-Randomized Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an intervention to prevent weight gain among households (HHs) in the community. Ninety HHs were randomized to intervention or control group for 1 year. Intervention consisted of six face-to-face group sessions, placement of a television (TV) locking device on all home TVs, and home-based intervention activities. Measures were collected in person

Simone A. French; Anne F. Gerlach; Nathan R. Mitchell; Peter J. Hannan; Ericka M. Welsh

2011-01-01

268

Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present study was designed to verify the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms and the intensity of overvalued ideas, as well as in improving the patient’s quality of life. Methods: Forty-seven patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were randomly assigned to either 12 weekly CBGT sessions or a waiting list (control group).

Aristides Volpato Cordioli; Elizeth Heldt; Daniela Braga Bochi; Regina Margis; Marcelo Basso de Sousa; Juliano Fonseca Tonello; Gisele Gus Manfro; Flavio Kapczinski

2003-01-01

269

Randomized Clinical Trial: Moderators and Mediators of a Psycho-education Group Intervention on IBS Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Summary Background & aims Evidence supports the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral approaches in improving IBS symptoms. Duration, cost, and resistance of many patients towards a psychological therapy have limited their acceptance. We evaluated the effectiveness of a psycho-educational intervention on IBS symptoms. Methods 69 IBS patients (72% female) were randomized to an intervention or a wait-list control group. The IBS class consisted of education on a biological mind body disease model emphasizing self-efficacy and practical relaxation techniques. Results Patients in the intervention showed significant improvement on GI symptom severity, visceral sensitivity, depression, and QoL post intervention and most of these gains were maintained at 3 month follow up (Hedge’s g =?.46 to .77). Moderated mediation analyses indicated change in anxiety, visceral sensitivity, QoL and catastrophizing due to the intervention had moderate mediation effects (Hedge’s g= ?.38 to ?.60) on improvements in GI symptom severity for patients entering the trial with low to average QoL. Also, change in GI symptom severity due to the intervention had moderate mediation effects on improvements in QoL especially patients with low to average levels of QoL at baseline. Moderated mediation analyses indicated mediation was less effective for patients entering the intervention with high QoL. Conclusions A brief psycho-educational group intervention is efficacious in changing cognitions and fears about IBS symptoms, and these changes are associated with clinically meaningful improvement in IBS symptoms and QoL. The intervention seems particularly tailored to patients with low to moderate QoL baseline levels. PMID:23205588

Labus, Jennifer; Gupta, Arpana; Gill, Harkiran K.; Posserud, Iris; Mayer, Minou; Raeen, Heidi; Bolus, Roger; Simren, Magnus; Naliboff, Bruce D.; Mayer, Emeran A.

2013-01-01

270

Mindfulness training improves attentional task performance in incarcerated youth: a group randomized controlled intervention trial  

PubMed Central

We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT) on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a quasi-experimental, group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16–18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147) or an active control intervention (youth n = 117). Both arms received approximately 750 min of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3–5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. PMID:24265621

Leonard, Noelle R.; Jha, Amishi P.; Casarjian, Bethany; Goolsarran, Merissa; Garcia, Cristina; Cleland, Charles M.; Gwadz, Marya V.; Massey, Zohar

2013-01-01

271

Acupuncture Antiarrhythmic Effects on Drug Refractory Persistent Atrial Fibrillation: Study Protocol for a Randomized, Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of arrhythmia. Several trials have suggested that acupuncture may prevent AF. However, the efficacy of acupuncture for AF prevention has not been well investigated. Therefore, we designed a prospective, two-parallel-armed, participant and assessor blinded, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial to investigate acupuncture in persistent AF (ACU-AF). Methods. A total of 80 participants will be randomly assigned to active acupuncture or sham acupuncture groups in a 1?:?1 ratio. Both groups will take the same antiarrhythmic medication during the study period. Patients will receive 10 sessions of acupuncture treatment once a week for 10 weeks. The primary endpoint is AF recurrence rate. Secondary endpoints are left atrium (LA) and left atrial appendage (LAA) changes in function and volume, and inflammatory biomarker changes. Ethics. This study protocol was approved by the institutional review boards (IRBs) of Kyung Hee University Hospital (number 1335-04). This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT02110537.

Park, Jimin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Seung Min; Yoon, Kanghyun; Kim, Woo-shik; Woo, Jong Shin; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Jin-Bae; Kim, Weon

2015-01-01

272

Subgroup analyses in randomised controlled trials: cohort study on trial protocols and journal publications  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the planning of subgroup analyses in protocols of randomised controlled trials and the agreement with corresponding full journal publications. Design Cohort of protocols of randomised controlled trial and subsequent full journal publications. Setting Six research ethics committees in Switzerland, Germany, and Canada. Data sources 894 protocols of randomised controlled trial involving patients approved by participating research ethics committees between 2000 and 2003 and 515 subsequent full journal publications. Results Of 894 protocols of randomised controlled trials, 252 (28.2%) included one or more planned subgroup analyses. Of those, 17 (6.7%) provided a clear hypothesis for at least one subgroup analysis, 10 (4.0%) anticipated the direction of a subgroup effect, and 87 (34.5%) planned a statistical test for interaction. Industry sponsored trials more often planned subgroup analyses compared with investigator sponsored trials (195/551 (35.4%) v 57/343 (16.6%), P<0.001). Of 515 identified journal publications, 246 (47.8%) reported at least one subgroup analysis. In 81 (32.9%) of the 246 publications reporting subgroup analyses, authors stated that subgroup analyses were prespecified, but this was not supported by 28 (34.6%) corresponding protocols. In 86 publications, authors claimed a subgroup effect, but only 36 (41.9%) corresponding protocols reported a planned subgroup analysis. Conclusions Subgroup analyses are insufficiently described in the protocols of randomised controlled trials submitted to research ethics committees, and investigators rarely specify the anticipated direction of subgroup effects. More than one third of statements in publications of randomised controlled trials about subgroup prespecification had no documentation in the corresponding protocols. Definitive judgments regarding credibility of claimed subgroup effects are not possible without access to protocols and analysis plans of randomised controlled trials. PMID:25030633

2014-01-01

273

The Nordic Aortic Valve Intervention (NOTION) trial comparing transcatheter versus surgical valve implantation: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Degenerative aortic valve (AV) stenosis is the most prevalent heart valve disease in the western world. Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has until recently been the standard of treatment for patients with severe AV stenosis. Whether transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) can be offered with improved safety and similar effectiveness in a population including low-risk patients has yet to be examined in a randomised setting. Methods/Design This randomised clinical trial will evaluate the benefits and risks of TAVI using the transarterial CoreValve System (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) (intervention group) compared with SAVR (control group) in patients with severe degenerative AV stenosis. Randomisation ratio is 1:1, enrolling a total of 280 patients aged 70 years or older without significant coronary artery disease and with a low, moderate, or high surgical risk profile. Trial outcomes include a primary composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, or all-cause mortality within the first year after intervention (expected rates 5% for TAVI, 15% for SAVR). Exploratory safety outcomes include procedure complications, valve re-intervention, and cardiovascular death, as well as cardiac, cerebral, pulmonary, renal, and vascular complications. Exploratory efficacy outcomes include New York Heart Association functional status, quality of life, and valve prosthesis and cardiac performance. Enrolment began in December 2009, and 269 patients have been enrolled up to December 2012. Discussion The trial is designed to evaluate the performance of TAVI in comparison with SAVR. The trial results may influence the choice of treatment modality for patients with severe degenerative AV stenosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01057173 PMID:23302232

2013-01-01

274

Medicare Clinical Trial Policy Phase I and Phase II Studies  

Cancer.gov

National Cancer Institute National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials Advisory Committee (CTAC) Meeting Clinical Trials Advisory Committee (CTAC) Meeting December 8, 2008 December 8, 2008 Leslye K. Fitterman, PhD Leslye K.

275

Children, parents, and pets exercising together (CPET) randomised controlled trial: study rationale, design, and methods  

PubMed Central

Background Objectively measured physical activity is low in British children, and declines as childhood progresses. Observational studies suggest that dog-walking might be a useful approach to physical activity promotion in children and adults, but there are no published public health interventions based on dog-walking with children. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study aims to develop and evaluate a theory driven, generalisable, family-based, dog walking intervention for 9-11 year olds. Methods/design The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study is an exploratory, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial as defined in the UK MRC Framework on the development and evaluation of complex interventions in public health. The trial will follow CONSORT guidance. Approximately 40 dog-owning families will be allocated randomly in a ratio of 1.5:1 to receive a simple behavioural intervention lasting for 10 weeks or to a 'waiting list' control group. The primary outcome is change in objectively measured child physical activity using Actigraph accelerometry. Secondary outcomes in the child, included in part to shape a future more definitive randomised controlled trial, are: total time spent sedentary and patterning of sedentary behaviour (Actigraph accelerometry); body composition and bone health from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; body weight, height and BMI; and finally, health-related quality of life using the PedsQL. Secondary outcomes in parents and dogs are: changes in body weight; changes in Actigraph accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Process evaluation will consist of assessment of simultaneous child, parent, and dog accelerometry data and brief interviews with participating families. Discussion The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together trial should be the first randomised controlled study to establish and evaluate an intervention aimed at dog-based physical activity promotion in families. It should advance our understanding of whether and how to use pet dogs to promote physical activity and/or to reduce sedentary behaviour in children and adults. The trial is intended to lead to a subsequent more definitive randomised controlled trial, and the work should inform future dog-based public health interventions such as secondary prevention interventions in children or adults. Trial registration number ISRCTN85939423 PMID:22429665

2012-01-01

276

A hhase I/II trial to evaluate three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy confined to the region of the lumpectomy cavity for Stage I/II breast carcinoma: Initial report of feasibility and reproducibility of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Study 0319  

SciTech Connect

Background: This prospective study (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Study 0319) examines the use of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation. Reproducibility, as measured by technical feasibility, was the primary end point with the goal of demonstrating whether the technique is widely applicable in a multicenter setting before a Phase III trial is undertaken. Methods and Materials: This study was designed such that if fewer than 5 cases out of the first 42 patients evaluable were scored as unacceptable, the treatment would be considered reproducible. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 3.85 Gy/fraction delivered twice daily. The clinical target volume included the lumpectomy cavity plus a 10-15-mm margin bounded by 5 mm within the skin surface and the lung-chest wall interface. The planning target volume (PTV) included the clinical target volume plus a 10-mm margin. Treatment plans were judged as follows: (1) No variations (total coverage), 95% isodose surface covers 100% of the PTV and all specified critical normal tissue dose-volume histogram (DVH) limits met. (2) Minor variation (marginal coverage), 95% isodose surface covers between {>=}95% and <100% of the PTV. No portion of PTV receives <93% of prescription (isocenter) dose. All specified critical normal tissue DVH limits fall within 5% of the guidelines. (3) Major variation (miss), 95% isodose surface covers <95% of the PTV. Portion of PTV receives <93% of prescription isocenter dose. Any critical normal tissue DVH limit exceeds 5% of the specified value. Results: A total of 58 patients were enrolled on this study between 8/15/03 and 4/30/04, 5 of whom were ineligible or did not receive protocol treatment. Two additional patients were excluded, one because the on-study form was not submitted, and the other because no treatment planning material was submitted. This primary end point analysis is based on the first 42 (out of 51) evaluable patients, which were accrued from 17 different institutions (31 centers were credentialed for case enrollment, but because of rapid accrual, not all centers were able to submit cases before trial closure). These 42 patients had the following characteristics: median age was 61 years; 48% had a maximum tumor dimension of <1 cm; 86% had invasive ductal carcinoma; 64% were postmenopausal; the location of tumor was upper outer for 40% and upper central for 21%; 79% had no chemotherapy, and 64% had no hormonal therapy. There were 4 cases with major variations (all 4 related to normal tissue DVHs exceeding 5% of the specified limit). A total of 32 cases with minor variations in treatment plans were detected (16 related to normal tissue DVHs exceeding the specified limits [by {<=}5%], 6 related to suboptimal coverage of the PTV, and 10 related to both). There were 6 cases with no variations. Of the 51 total evaluable patients, 1 additional major variation was noted (PTV receiving <93% of the prescription dose). An additional 5 cases with minor variations in treatment plans were detected (3 related to normal tissue DVHs exceeding the specified limits [by {<=}5%], 1 related to suboptimal coverage of the PTV, and 1 related to both). There were 3 more cases with no variations. Conclusion: Accelerated partial breast irradiation using three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy was shown in this preliminary analysis of the first 42 evaluable patients to be technically feasible and reproducible in a multi-institutional trial using exceptionally strict dosimetric criteria.

Vicini, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)]. E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu; Winter, Kathryn M.S. [Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), Philadelphia, PA (United States); Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Wong, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Pass, Helen [Department of Surgery, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Rabinovitch, Rachel [University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States); Chafe, Susan [Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Arthur, Douglas [Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA (United States); Petersen, Ivy [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); McCormick, Beryl [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

2005-12-01

277

Doing Anger Differently: two controlled trials of percussion group psychotherapy for adolescent reactive aggression.  

PubMed

This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of 'Doing Anger Differently' (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1, but also followed up controls at 6 months. In study 1 (N = 54) the treatment resulted in lowered trait anger (Cohen's d = -1.3), aggression-reports (d = -1.0) and depression (d = -0.6), and increased self-esteem (d = 0.6), all maintained at six months. In study 2 (N = 65), aggression-reports fell to one fifth of pre-treatment levels at nine months follow-up (d = -1.2), with lowered trait anger (d = -0.4) and anger expression (d = -0.3) post-treatment. PMID:22245455

Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

2012-08-01

278

Impact of Ultrahigh Baseline PSA Levels on Biochemical and Clinical Outcomes in Two Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Prostate Clinical Trials  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess ultrahigh (UH; prostate-specific antigen [PSA]levels {>=}50 ng/ml) patient outcomes by comparison to other high-risk patient outcomes and to identify outcome predictors. Methods and Materials: Prostate cancer patients (PCP) from two Phase III Radiation Therapy Oncology Group clinical trials (studies 9202 and 9413) were divided into two groups: high-risk patients with and without UH baseline PSA levels. Predictive variables included age, Gleason score, clinical T stage, Karnofsky performance score, and treatment arm. Outcomes included overall survival (OS), distant metastasis (DM), and biochemical failure (BF). Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using either the Cox or Fine and Gray's regression model with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) and p values. Results: There were 401 patients in the UH PSA group and 1,792 patients in the non-UH PSA PCP group of a total of 2,193 high-risk PCP. PCP with UH PSA were found to have inferior OS (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02-1.39, p = 0.02), DM (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.19-1.92; p = 0.0006), and BF (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.29-1.73; p < 0.0001) compared to other high-risk PCP. In the UH cohort, PSA level was found to be a significant factor for the risk of DM (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.001-1.02) but not OS and BF. Gleason grades of 8 to 10 were found to consistently predict for poor OS, DM, and BF outcomes (with HR estimates ranging from 1.41-2.36) in both the high-risk cohort and the UH cohort multivariable analyses. Conclusions: UH PSA levels at diagnosis are related to detrimental changes in OS, DM, and BF. All three outcomes can be modeled by various combinations of all predictive variables tested.

Rodrigues, George, E-mail: george.rodrigues@lhsc.on.c [Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Bae, Kyounghwa [Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Lawton, Colleen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Donnelly, Bryan [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Grignon, David [Department of Pathology, Indiana Pathology Institute, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Hanks, Gerald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Porter, Arthur [Department of Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Lepor, Herbert [Department of Urology, NY University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Sandler, Howard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States)

2011-06-01

279

Reverse Auction Bidding - Multiple Group Study  

E-print Network

is the second multi-group study in the research. In this study, a multiple group comparison was made between different numbers of bidders, with Games One, Two and Three having three, four and ten bidders respectively. All participants were faculty and students...

Zhou, Xun

2012-10-19

280

Discontinuation and non-publication of surgical randomised controlled trials: observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the rate of early discontinuation and non-publication of randomised controlled trials involving patients undergoing surgery. Design Cross sectional observational study of registered and published trials. Setting Randomised controlled trials of interventions in patients undergoing a surgical procedure. Data sources The ClinicalTrials.gov database was searched for interventional trials registered between January 2008 and December 2009 using the keyword “surgery”. Recruitment status was extracted from the ClinicalTrials.gov database. A systematic search for studies published in peer reviewed journals was performed; if they were not found, results posted on the ClinicalTrials.gov results database were sought. Email queries were sent to trial investigators of discontinued and unpublished completed trials if no reason for the respective status was disclosed. Main outcome measures Trial discontinuation before completion and non-publication after completion. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect of funding source on publication status, with adjustment for intervention type and trial size. Results Of 818 registered trials found using the keyword “surgery”, 395 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 21% (81/395) were discontinued early, most commonly owing to poor recruitment (44%, 36/81). The remaining 314 (79%) trials proceeded to completion, with a publication rate of 66% (208/314) at a median time of 4.9 (interquartile range 4.0-6.0) years from study completion to publication search. A further 6% (20/314) of studies presented results on ClinicalTrials.gov without a corresponding peer reviewed publication. Industry funding did not affect the rate of discontinuation (adjusted odds ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 1.55) but was associated with a lower odds of publication for completed trials (0.43, 0.26 to 0.72). Investigators’ email addresses for trials with an uncertain fate were identified for 71.4% (10/14) of discontinued trials and 83% (101/122) of unpublished studies. Only 43% (6/14) and 20% (25/122) replies were received. Email responses for completed trials indicated 11 trials in press, five published studies (four in non-indexed peer reviewed journals), and nine trials remaining unpublished. Conclusions One in five surgical randomised controlled trials are discontinued early, one in three completed trials remain unpublished, and investigators of unpublished studies are frequently not contactable. This represents a waste of research resources and raises ethical concerns regarding hidden clinical data and futile participation by patients with its attendant risks. To promote future efficiency and transparency, changes are proposed to research governance frameworks to overcome these concerns. PMID:25491195

Chapman, Stephen J; Shelton, Bryony; Mahmood, Humza; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Harrison, Ewen M

2014-01-01

281

Predictors of accrual success for cooperative group trials: The Cancer and Leukemia Group B (Alliance) experience. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Gordon DH,Liu Q,Kleinman B,Karrison T,Kelly M,Fleming GF. Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology, Chicago, IL; University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. ASCO 2013 Annual Meeting. 2013 May 31. 2013 Jun 04. Chicago, IL.

282

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for anxious children and adolescents: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety disorders affect approximately 10% to 20% of young people, can be enduring if left untreated, and have been associated with psychopathology in later life. Despite this, there is a paucity of empirical research to assist clinicians in determining appropriate treatment options. We describe a protocol for a randomized controlled trial in which we will examine the effectiveness of a group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy program for children and adolescents with a primary diagnosis of anxiety disorder. For the adolescent participants we will also evaluate the elements of the intervention that act as mechanisms for change. Methods/design We will recruit 150 young people (90 children and 60 adolescents) diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and their parent or caregiver. After completion of baseline assessment, participants will be randomized to one of three conditions (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy or waitlist control). Those in the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy groups will receive 10 × 1.5 hour weekly group-therapy sessions using a manualized treatment program, in accordance with the relevant therapy, to be delivered by psychologists. Controls will receive the Cognitive Behavior Therapy program after 10 weeks waitlisted. Repeated measures will be taken immediately post-therapy and at three months after therapy cessation. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this study will be the largest trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the treatment of children and young people to date. It will provide comprehensive data on the use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for anxiety disorders and will offer evidence for mechanisms involved in the process of change. Furthermore, additional data will be obtained for the use of Cognitive Behavior Therapy in this population and this research will illustrate the comparative effectiveness of these two interventions, which are currently implemented widely in contemporary clinical practice. Anticipated difficulties for the trial are the recruitment and retention of participants, particularly adolescents. To avert these concerns and maximize recruitment, several strategies will be adopted to optimize referral rates as well as reduce participant drop-outs. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, registration number: ACTRN12611001280998 PMID:23672442

2013-01-01

283

Evaluating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Surgical site infections are the most common hospital-acquired infections among surgical patients. The administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the risk of surgical site infections . The optimal timing of this procedure is still a matter of debate. While most studies suggest that it should be given as close to the incision time as possible, others conclude that this may be too late for optimal prevention of surgical site infections. A large observational study suggests that surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis should be administered 74 to 30 minutes before surgery. The aim of this article is to report the design and protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. Methods/Design In this bi-center randomized controlled trial conducted at two tertiary referral centers in Switzerland, we plan to include 5,000 patients undergoing general, oncologic, vascular and orthopedic trauma procedures. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio into two groups: one receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (75 to 30 minutes before incision) and the other receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room (less than 30 minutes before incision). We expect a significantly lower rate of surgical site infections with surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis administered more than 30 minutes before the scheduled incision. The primary outcome is the occurrence of surgical site infections during a 30-day follow-up period (one year with an implant in place). When assuming a 5% surgical site infection risk with administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room, the planned sample size has an 80% power to detect a relative risk reduction for surgical site infections of 33% when administering surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (with a two-sided type I error of 5%). We expect the study to be completed within three years. Discussion The results of this randomized controlled trial will have an important impact on current international guidelines for infection control strategies in the hospital. Moreover, the results of this randomized controlled trial are of significant interest for patient safety and healthcare economics. Trial registration This trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov under the identifier NCT01790529. PMID:24885132

2014-01-01

284

National Lung Screening Trial: Questions and Answers  

Cancer.gov

The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) is a lung cancer screening trial sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and conducted by the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) and the Lung Screening Study group.

285

Acupuncture for menopausal vasomotor symptoms: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Hot flushes and night sweats (vasomotor symptoms) are common menopausal symptoms, often causing distress, sleep deprivation and reduced quality of life. Although hormone replacement therapy is an effective treatment, there are concerns about serious adverse events. Non-hormonal pharmacological therapies are less effective and can also cause adverse effects. Complementary therapies, including acupuncture, are commonly used for menopausal vasomotor symptoms. While the evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating vasomotor symptoms is inconclusive, acupuncture has a low risk of adverse effects, and two small studies suggest it may be more effective than non-insertive sham acupuncture. Our objective is to assess the efficacy of needle acupuncture in improving hot flush severity and frequency in menopausal women. Our current study design is informed by methods tested in a pilot study. Methods/design This is a stratified, parallel, randomised sham-controlled trial with equal allocation of participants to two trial groups. We are recruiting 360 menopausal women experiencing a minimum average of seven moderate hot flushes a day over a seven-day period and who meet diagnostic criteria for the Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnosis of Kidney Yin deficiency. Exclusion criteria include breast cancer, surgical menopause, and current hormone replacement therapy use. Eligible women are randomised to receive either true needle acupuncture or sham acupuncture with non-insertive (blunt) needles for ten treatments over eight weeks. Participants are blinded to treatment allocation. Interventions are provided by Chinese medicine acupuncturists who have received specific training on trial procedures. The primary outcome measure is hot flush score, assessed using the validated Hot Flush Diary. Secondary outcome measures include health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms, credibility of the sham treatment, expectancy and beliefs about acupuncture, and adverse events. Participants will be analysed in the groups in which they were randomised using an intention-to-treat analysis strategy. Discussion Results from this trial will significantly add to the current body of evidence on the role of acupuncture for vasomotor symptoms. If found to be effective and safe, acupuncture will be a valuable additional treatment option for women who experience menopausal vasomotor symptoms. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000393954 11/02/2009. PMID:24925094

2014-01-01

286

Effectiveness of Healthy Relationships Video-Group—A Videoconferencing Group Intervention for Women Living with HIV: Preliminary Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Abstract Introduction: Expanded access to efficacious interventions is needed for women living with human immunodeficiency virus (WLH) in the United States. Availability of “prevention with (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV)] positives” interventions in rural/remote and low HIV prevalence areas remains limited, leaving WLH in these communities few options for receiving effective behavioral interventions such as Healthy Relationships (HR). Offering such programs via videoconferencing groups (VGs) may expand access. This analysis tests the effectiveness of HR-VG (versus wait-list control) for reducing sexual risk behavior among WLH and explores intervention satisfaction. Subjects and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial unprotected vaginal/anal sex occasions over the prior 3 months reported at the 6-month follow-up were compared across randomization groups through zero-inflated Poisson regression modeling, controlling for unprotected sex at baseline. Seventy-one WLH were randomized and completed the baseline assessment (n=36 intervention and n=35 control); 59 (83% in each group) had follow-up data. Results: Among those who engaged in unprotected sex at 6-month follow-up, intervention participants had approximately seven fewer unprotected occasions than control participants (95% confidence interval 5.43–7.43). Intervention participants reported high levels of satisfaction with HR-VG; 84% reported being “very satisfied” overall. Conclusions: This study found promising evidence for effective dissemination of HIV risk reduction interventions via VGs. Important next steps will be to determine whether VGs are effective with other subpopulations of people living with HIV (i.e., men and non-English speakers) and to assess cost-effectiveness. Possibilities for using VGs to expand access to other psychosocial and behavioral interventions and reduce stigma are discussed. PMID:24237482

Buhi, Eric R.; Baldwin, Julie; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Ayesha; Lynn, Vickie; Glueckauf, Robert

2014-01-01

287

LMA Supreme for neonatal resuscitation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The most important action in the resuscitation of a newborn in the delivery room is to establish effective assisted ventilation. The face mask and endotracheal tube are the devices used to achieve this goal. Laryngeal mask airways that fit over the laryngeal inlet have been shown to be effective for ventilating newborns at birth and should be considered as an alternative to facemask ventilation or endotracheal intubation among newborns weighing >2,000 g or delivered ?34 weeks’ gestation. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of supraglottic airways in neonatal resuscitation reported the results of four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) stating that fewer infants in the group using laryngeal mask airways required endotracheal intubation (1.5%) compared to the group using face masks (12.0%). However, there were methodological concerns over all the RCTs including the fact that the majority of the operators in the trials were anesthesiologists. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that ventilating newborns needing positive pressure ventilation with a laryngeal mask airway will be more effective than ventilating with a face mask in a setting where neonatal resuscitation is performed by midwives, nurses, and pediatricians. The primary aim of this study will be to assess the effectiveness of the laryngeal mask airway over the face mask in preventing the need for endotracheal intubation. Methods/design This will be an open, prospective, randomized, single center, clinical trial. In this study, 142 newborns weighing >1,500 g or delivered ?34 weeks gestation needing positive pressure ventilation at birth will be randomized to be ventilated with a laryngeal mask airway (LMA SupremeTM, LMA Company, UK - intervention group) or with a face mask (control group). Primary outcome: Proportion of newborns needing endotracheal intubation. Secondary outcomes: Apgar score at 5 minutes, time to first breath, onset of the first cry, duration of resuscitation, death or moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy within 7 days of life. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01963936 (October 11, 2013). PMID:25027230

2014-01-01

288

A Naturalistic Study of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy Trial Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective is to study the effectiveness of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP) trial therapies. In a tertiary psychotherapy service, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) medication use, and need for further treatment were evaluated before versus 1-month post trial therapy in a sequential series of 30 clients. Trial therapies were interviews with active focus on emotions

Allan A. Abbass; Michel R. Joffres; John S. Ogrodniczuk

2008-01-01

289

Hospital Inpatient versus HOme-based rehabilitation after knee arthroplasty (The HIHO study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Formal rehabilitation programs are often assumed to be required after total knee arthroplasty to optimize patient recovery. Inpatient rehabilitation is a costly rehabilitation option after total knee arthroplasty and, in Australia, is utilized most frequently for privately insured patients. With the exception of comparisons with domiciliary services, no randomized trial has compared inpatient rehabilitation to any outpatient based program. The Hospital Inpatient versus HOme (HIHO) study primarily aims to determine whether 10 days of post-acute inpatient rehabilitation followed by a hybrid home program provides superior recovery of functional mobility on the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) compared to a hybrid home program alone following total knee arthroplasty. Secondarily, the trial aims to determine whether inpatient rehabilitation yields superior recovery in patient-reported function. Methods/Design This is a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT), with a third, non-randomized, observational group. One hundred and forty eligible, consenting participants who have undergone a primary total knee arthroplasty at a high-volume joint replacement center will be randomly allocated when cleared for discharge from acute care to either 10 days of inpatient rehabilitation followed by usual care (a 6-week hybrid home program) or to usual care. Seventy participants in each group (140 in total) will provide 80% power at a significance level of 5% to detect an increase in walking capacity from 400 m to 460 m between the Home and Inpatient groups, respectively, in the 6MWT at 6 months post-surgery, assuming a SD of 120 m and a drop-out rate of <10%. The outcome assessor will assess participants at 10, 26 and 52 weeks post-operatively, and will remain blind to group allocation for the duration of the study, as will the statistician. Participant preference for rehabilitation mode stated prior to randomization will be accounted for in the analysis together with any baseline differences in potentially confounding characteristics as required. Discussion The HIHO Trial will be the first RCT to investigate the efficacy of inpatient rehabilitation compared to any outpatient alternative following total knee arthroplasty. Trial registration U.S. National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry (http://clinicaltrials.gov) ref: NCT01583153 PMID:24341348

2013-01-01

290

Efficiency of study designs in diagnostic randomized clinical trials.  

PubMed

From the patients' management perspective, a good diagnostic test should contribute to both reflecting the true disease status and improving clinical outcomes. The diagnostic randomized clinical trial is designed to combine both diagnostic tests and therapeutic interventions. Evaluation of diagnostic tests is carried out with therapeutic outcomes as the primary endpoint rather than test accuracy. We lay out the probability framework for evaluating such trials. We compare two commonly referred designs-the two-arm design and the paired design-in a formal statistical hypothesis testing setup and identify the causal connection between the two tests. The paired design is shown to be more efficient than the two-arm design. The efficiency gains vary depending on the discordant rates of test results. We derive sample size formulas for both binary and continuous endpoints. We derive estimation of important quantities under the paired design and also conduct simulation studies to verify the theoretical results. We illustrate the method with an example of designing a randomized study on preoperative staging of bladder cancer. PMID:23071073

Lu, Bo; Gatsonis, Constantine

2013-04-30

291

Spiritual Healing in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Exploratory Single Centre, Parallel-Group, Double-Blind, Three-Arm, Randomised, Sham-Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of “energy/spiritual healing” in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Eligible patients were women with RA on stable medication. The design was a randomised, blinded, sham-controlled trial; the third group included an external unblinded control of the natural course of RA. Participants in both groups received 8 sessions with “perceived healing” over 21 weeks with 8 weeks of follow-up. Active healing (AH) treatment comprised healing with no physical contact, and sham healing (SH) included exactly the same healing with a sham healer. During intervention, participants wore hearing protectors and were blindfolded. No healing (NH) only had their outcomes assessed. Coprimary outcomes were disease activity score (DAS) for 28 joints and Doppler ultrasound. All 96 patients randomised were handled as the intention-to-treat population, using a baseline-carried forward approach to replace the missing data. Eighty-two (85%) participants completed the 29-week trial. At end point (week 29), mean difference in DAS28 between AH versus SH was statistically but not clinically significant in favour of AH (0.62 DAS28 points; 95% CI: 0.13 to 1.11; P = 0.014), while no differences between groups occurred in Doppler ultrasound. There are no clear physiological or psychological explanations for the findings in this tightly controlled study. The trial data indicates a need for independent replication. PMID:25614748

Christensen, Robin; Højgaard, Lars; Ellegaard, Karen; Zachariae, Robert; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

2014-01-01

292

Etiologic Heterogeneity in Endometrial Cancer: Evidence from a Gynecologic Oncology Group Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective Although the epidemiology of typical endometrial carcinomas (grades 1–2 endometrioid or Type I) is well established, less is known regarding higher grade endometrioid or non-endometrioid carcinomas (Type II). Within a large Gynecologic Oncology Group trial (GOG-210), which included central pathology review, we investigated the etiologic heterogeneity of endometrial cancers by comparing risk factors for different histologic categories. Methods Based on epidemiologic questionnaire data, risk factor associations, expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), were estimated comparing grade 3 endometrioid and Type II cancers (including histologic subtypes) to grades 1–2 endometrioid cancers. Results Compared with 2,244 grades 1–2 endometrioid cancers, women with Type II cancers (321 serous, 141 carcinosarcomas, 77 clear cell, 42 mixed epithelial with serous or clear cell components) were older; more often non-white, multiparous, current smokers; and less often obese. Risk factors for grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas (n=354) were generally similar to those identified for Type II cancers, although patients with grade 3 endometrioid tumors more often had histories of breast cancer without tamoxifen exposure while those with Type II tumors were more frequently treated with tamoxifen. Patients with serous cancers and carcinosarcomas more frequently had breast cancer histories with tamoxifen treatment compared to patients with other tumors. Conclusions Risk factors for aggressive endometrial cancers, including grade 3 endometrioid and non-endometrioid tumors, appear to differ from lower grade endometrioid carcinomas. Our findings support etiologic differences between Type I and II endometrial cancers as well as additional heterogeneity within Type II cancers. PMID:23485770

Brinton, Louise A.; Felix, Ashley S.; McMeekin, D. Scott; Creasman, William T.; Sherman, Mark E.; Mutch, David; Cohn, David E.; Walker, Joan L.; Moore, Richard G.; Downs, Levi S.; Soslow, Robert A.; Zaino, Richard

2014-01-01

293

Who Enrolls Onto Clinical Oncology Trials? A Radiation Patterns of Care Study Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To identify factors significantly influencing accrual to clinical protocols by analyzing radiation Patterns of Care Study (PCS) surveys of 3,047 randomly selected radiotherapy (RT) patients. Methods and Materials: Patterns of Care Study surveys from disease sites studied for the periods 1992-1994 and 1996-1999 (breast cancer, n = 1,080; prostate cancer, n = 1,149; esophageal cancer, n = 818) were analyzed. The PCS is a National Cancer Institute-funded national survey of randomly selected RT institutions in the United States. Patients with nonmetastatic disease who received RT as definitive or adjuvant therapy were randomly selected from eligible patients at each institution. To determine national estimates, individual patient records were weighted by the relative contribution of each institution and patients within each institution. Data regarding participation in clinical trials were recorded. The factors age, gender, race, type of insurance, and practice type of treating institution (academic or not) were studied by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Overall, only 2.7% of all patients were accrued to clinical protocols. Of these, 57% were enrolled on institutional review board-approved institutional trials, and 43% on National Cancer Institute collaborative group studies. On multivariate analysis, patients treated at academic facilities (p = 0.0001) and white patients (vs. African Americans, p = 0.0002) were significantly more likely to participate in clinical oncology trials. Age, gender, type of cancer, and type of insurance were not predictive. Conclusions: Practice type and race significantly influence enrollment onto clinical oncology trials. This suggests that increased communication and education regarding protocols, particularly focusing on physicians in nonacademic settings and minority patients, will be essential to enhance accrual.

Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)]. E-mail: bmovsas1@hfhs.org; Moughan, Jennifer [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Owen, Jean [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Coia, Lawrence R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Community Medical Center, Toms River, NJ (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Hanks, Gerald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wilson, J. Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

2007-07-15

294

The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel group randomized trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

To comprehend the results of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), readers must understand its design, conduct, analysis and\\u000a interpretation. That goal can only be achieved through complete transparency from authors. Despite several decades of educational\\u000a efforts, the reporting of RCTs needs improvement. Investigators and editors developed the original CONSORT (Consolidated Standards\\u000a of Reporting Trials) statement to help authors improve reporting

David Moher; Kenneth F Schulz; Douglas G Altman

2001-01-01

295

When Research Meets Reality—Lessons Learned From a Pragmatic Multisite Group-Randomized Clinical Trial on Psychosocial Interventions in the Psychiatric and Addiction Field  

PubMed Central

Research on treatments for patients with co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders is of core importance and at the same time highly challenging as it includes patients that are normally excluded from clinical studies. Such research may require methodological adaptations which in turn create new challenges. However, the challenges that arise in such studies are insufficiently discussed in the literature. The aim of this methodology paper is, firstly, to discuss the methodological adaptations that may be required in such research; secondly, to describe how such adaptations created new challenges in a group-randomized clinical trial on Integrated Treatment amongst patients with co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders. We also discuss how these challenges might be understood and highlight lessons for future research in this field. Trial registration NCT00447733. PMID:22933843

Wüsthoff, Linda E.; Waal, Helge; Gråwe, Rolf W.

2012-01-01

296

A multicentre, pragmatic, parallel group, randomised controlled trial to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of three physiotherapy-led exercise interventions for knee osteoarthritis in older adults: the BEEP trial protocol (ISRCTN: 93634563)  

PubMed Central

Background Exercise is consistently recommended for older adults with knee pain related to osteoarthritis. However, the effects from exercise are typically small and short-term, likely linked to insufficient individualisation of the exercise programme and limited attention to supporting exercise adherence over time. The BEEP randomised trial aims to improve patients’ short and long-term outcomes from exercise. It will test the overall effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two physiotherapy-led exercise interventions (Individually Tailored Exercise and Targeted Exercise Adherence) to improve the individual tailoring of, and adherence to exercise, compared with usual physiotherapy care. Methods/design Based on the learning from a pilot study (ISRCTN 23294263), the BEEP trial is a multi-centre, pragmatic, parallel group, individually randomised controlled trial, with embedded longitudinal qualitative interviews. 500 adults in primary care, aged 45 years and over with knee pain will be randomised to 1 of 3 treatment groups delivered by fully trained physiotherapists in up to 6 NHS services. These are: Usual Physiotherapy Care (control group consisting of up to 4 treatment sessions of advice and exercise), Individually Tailored Exercise (an individualised, supervised and progressed lower-limb exercise programme) or Targeted Exercise Adherence (supporting patients to adhere to exercise and to engage in general physical activity over the longer-term). The primary outcomes are pain and function as measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis index. A comprehensive range of secondary outcomes are also included. Outcomes are measured at 3, 6 (primary outcome time-point), 9, 18 and 36 months. Data on adverse events will also be collected. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews with a subsample of 30 participants (10 from each treatment group) will be undertaken at two time-points (end of treatment and 12 to 18 months later) and analysed thematically. Discussion This trial will contribute to the evidence base for management of older adults with knee pain attributable to osteoarthritis in primary care. The findings will have important implications for healthcare commissioners, general practitioners and physiotherapy service providers and it will inform future education of healthcare practitioners. It may also serve to delay or prevent some individuals from becoming surgical candidates. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN93634563. PMID:25064573

2014-01-01

297

Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. PMID:25268019

Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

2015-03-01

298

Facebook Groups as LMS: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a pilot study in using Facebook as an alternative to a learning management system (LMS). The paper reviews the current research on the use of Facebook in academia and analyzes the differences between a Facebook group and a regular LMS. The paper reports on a precedent-setting attempt to use a Facebook group as a course…

Meishar-Tal, Hagit; Kurtz, Gila; Pieterse, Efrat

2012-01-01

299

Study protocol of Prednisone in episodic Cluster Headache (PredCH): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral prednisone as an add-on therapy in the prophylactic treatment of episodic cluster headache with verapamil  

PubMed Central

Background Episodic cluster headache (ECH) is a primary headache disorder that severely impairs patient’s quality of life. First-line therapy in the initiation of a prophylactic treatment is verapamil. Due to its delayed onset of efficacy and the necessary slow titration of dosage for tolerability reasons prednisone is frequently added by clinicians to the initial prophylactic treatment of a cluster episode. This treatment strategy is thought to effectively reduce the number and intensity of cluster attacks in the beginning of a cluster episode (before verapamil is effective). This study will assess the efficacy and safety of oral prednisone as an add-on therapy to verapamil and compare it to a monotherapy with verapamil in the initial prophylactic treatment of a cluster episode. Methods and design PredCH is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel study arms. Eligible patients with episodic cluster headache will be randomized to a treatment intervention with prednisone or a placebo arm. The multi-center trial will be conducted in eight German headache clinics that specialize in the treatment of ECH. Discussion PredCH is designed to assess whether oral prednisone added to first-line agent verapamil helps reduce the number and intensity of cluster attacks in the beginning of a cluster episode as compared to monotherapy with verapamil. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004716 PMID:23889923

2013-01-01

300

The Use of Deception in Public Health Behavioral Intervention Trials: A Case Study of Three Online Alcohol Trials  

PubMed Central

Some public health behavioral intervention research studies involve deception. A methodological imperative to minimize bias can be in conflict with the ethical principle of informed consent. As a case study, we examine the specific forms of deception used in three online randomized controlled trials evaluating brief alcohol interventions. We elaborate our own decision making about the use of deception in these trials, and present our ongoing findings and uncertainties. We discuss the value of the approach of pragmatism for examining these kinds of ethical issues that can arise in research on public health interventions. PMID:24161181

McCambridge, Jim; Kypri, Kypros; Bendtsen, Preben; Porter, John

2013-01-01

301

Integrative medicine for subacute stroke rehabilitation: a study protocol for a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many patients with stroke receive integrative medicine in China, which includes the basic treatment of Western medicine and routine rehabilitation, in conjunction with acupuncture and Chinese medicine. The question of whether integrative medicine is efficacious for stroke rehabilitation is still controversial and very little research currently exists on the integrated approach for this condition. Consequently, we will conduct a multicentre, randomised, controlled, assessor-blinded clinical trial to assess the effectiveness of integrative medicine on stroke rehabilitation. Methods and analysis 360 participants recruited from three large Chinese medical hospitals in Zhejiang Province will be randomly divided into the integrative medicine rehabilitation (IMR) group and the conventional rehabilitation (CR) group in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the IMR group will receive acupuncture and Chinese herbs in addition to basic Western medicine and rehabilitation treatment. The CR group will not receive acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine. The assessment data will be collected at baseline, 4 and 8?weeks postrandomisation, and then at 12?weeks’ follow-up. The primary outcome is measured by the Modified Barthel Index. The secondary outcomes are the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Fugl-Meyer Assessment, the mini-mental state examination and Montreal Cognitive, Hamilton's Depression Scale and Self-Rating Depression Scale, and the incidence of adverse events. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from ethics committees of three hospitals. The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. The results will also be disseminated to patients by telephone, during follow-up calls inquiring on patient's post-study health status. Trial registration number Chinese Clinical Trial Register: ChiCTR-TRC-12001972, http://www.chictr.org/en/proj/show.aspx?proj=2561 PMID:25475247

Fang, Jianqiao; Chen, Lifang; Chen, Luni; Wang, Chao; Keeler, Crystal Lynn; Ma, Ruijie; Xu, Shouyu; Shen, Laihua; Bao, Yehua; Ji, Conghua

2014-01-01

302

Phase III randomised controlled trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radical surgery vs radical surgery alone for stages IB2, IIA2, and IIB cervical cancer: a Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial (JCOG 0102)  

PubMed Central

Background: A phase III trial was conducted to determine whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) before radical surgery (RS) improves overall survival. Methods: Patients with stage IB2, IIA2, or IIB squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were randomly assigned to receive either BOMP (bleomycin 7?mg days 1–5, vincristine 0.7?mg?m?2 day 5, mitomycin 7?mg?m?2 day 5, cisplatin 14?mg?m?2 days 1–5, every 3 weeks for 2 to 4 cycles) plus RS (NACT group) or RS alone (RS group). Patients with pathological high-risk factors received postoperative radiotherapy (RT). The primary end point was overall survival. Results: A total of 134 patients were randomly assigned to treatment. This study was prematurely terminated at the first planned interim analysis because overall survival in the NACT group was inferior to that in the RS group. Patients who received postoperative RT were significantly lower in the NACT group (58%) than in the RS group (80% P=0.015). The 5-year overall survival was 70.0% in the NACT group and 74.4% in the RS group (P=0.85). Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with BOMP regimen before RS did not improve overall survival, but reduced the number of patients who received postoperative RT. PMID:23640393

Katsumata, N; Yoshikawa, H; Kobayashi, H; Saito, T; Kuzuya, K; Nakanishi, T; Yasugi, T; Yaegashi, N; Yokota, H; Kodama, S; Mizunoe, T; Hiura, M; Kasamatsu, T; Shibata, T; Kamura, T

2013-01-01

303

Two randomized controlled clinical trials to study the effectiveness of prednisolone treatment in preventing and restoring clinical nerve function loss in leprosy: the TENLEP study protocols  

PubMed Central

Background Nerve damage in leprosy often causes disabilities and deformities. Prednisolone is used to treat nerve function impairment (NFI). However, optimal dose and duration of prednisolone treatment has not been established yet. Besides treating existing NFI it would be desirable to prevent NFI. Studies show that before NFI is clinically detectable, nerves often show subclinical damage. Within the ‘Treatment of Early Neuropathy in LEProsy’ (TENLEP) study two double blind randomized controlled trials (RCT) will be carried out: a trial to establish whether prednisolone treatment of 32 weeks duration is more effective than 20 weeks in restoring nerve function in leprosy patients with clinical NFI (Clinical trial) and a trial to determine whether prednisolone treatment of early sub-clinical NFI can prevent clinical NFI (Subclinical trial). Methods Two RCTs with a follow up of 18 months will be conducted in six centers in Asia. In the Clinical trial leprosy patients with recent (< 6 months) clinical NFI, as determined by Monofilament Test and Voluntary Muscle Test, are included. The primary outcomes are the proportion of patients with restored or improved nerve function. In the Subclinical trial leprosy patients with subclinical neuropathy, as determined by Nerve Conduction Studies (NCS) and/or Warm Detection Threshold (WDT), and without any clinical signs of NFI are randomly allocated to a placebo group or treatment group receiving 20 weeks prednisolone. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients developing clinical NFI. Reliability and normative studies are carried out before the start of the trial. Discussion This study is the first RCT testing a prednisolone regimen with a duration longer than 24 weeks. Also it is the first RCT assessing the effect of prednisolone in the prevention of clinical NFI in patients with established subclinical neuropathy. The TENLEP study will add to the current understanding of neuropathy due to leprosy and provide insight in the effectiveness of prednisolone on the prevention and recovery of NFI in leprosy patients. In this paper we present the research protocols for both Clinical and Subclinical trials and discuss the possible findings and implications. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register: NTR2300 Clinical Trial Registry India: CTRI/2011/09/002022 PMID:23249098

2012-01-01

304

Usefulness of C-reactive protein testing in acute cough/respiratory tract infection: an open cluster-randomized clinical trial with C-reactive protein testing in the intervention group  

PubMed Central

Background Point of care testing for C-reactive protein (CRP) has shown promise as a measure to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing in respiratory tract infections (RTI), but its use in primary care is still controversial. We aimed to evaluate the effect of CRP testing on the prescription of antibiotics, referral for radiography, and the outcome of patients in general practice with acute cough/RTI. Methods An open-cluster randomized clinical trial was conducted, with CRP testing performed in the intervention group. Antibiotic prescribing and referral for radiography were the main outcome measures. Results A total of 179 patients were included: 101 in the intervention group and 78 in the control group. The two groups were similar in clinical characteristics. In the intervention group, the antibiotic prescribing rate was 37.6%, which was significantly lower than that in the control group (58.9%) (P?=?0.006). Referral for chest X-ray was also significantly lower in the intervention group (55.4%) than in the control group (75.6%) (P?=?0.004). The recovery rate, as recorded by the GPs, was 92.9% and 93.6% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Conclusion The study showed that CRP testing in patients with acute cough/RTI may reduce antibiotic prescribing and referral for radiography, probably without compromising recovery. Trial registration The trial was registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Registration System (identification number: NCT01794819). PMID:24886066

2014-01-01

305

The effectiveness of a stratified group intervention using the STarTBack screening tool in patients with LBP - a non randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Low back pain (LBP) is costly to society and improving patient outcomes is a priority. Stratifying LBP patients into more homogenous groups is advocated to improve patient outcome. The STarT Back tool, a prognostic screening tool has demonstrated efficacy and greater cost effectiveness in physiotherapy settings. The management of LBP patients in groups is common but to date the utility of the STarT Back tool in group settings has not been explored. The aim of this study is to determine if the implementation of ‘stratified care’ when delivered in a group setting will lead to significantly better physical and psychological outcomes and greater cost effectiveness in LBP patients compared to a bestcare historical control group. Methods/Design This study is a non randomised controlled trial. Low back pain patients recruited from the Waterford Primary Care area (population = 47,000) will be stratified into low, medium or high risk of persisting symptoms using the STarT Back Tool. Low risk patients will be offered a single one off education/exercise class offering positive messages on LBP management in line with recommended guidelines. Medium risk patients will be offered a 12 week group exercise/education intervention addressing their dominant physical obstacles to recovery. A 12 week group cognitive behavioural approach will be delivered to the high risk patients, characterised by the presence of high levels of psychosocial prognostic factors. These patients will be compared with a historical control group where therapists were blinded as to the risk stratification of patients and a generic group intervention was delivered to all patients, irrespective of their initial risk stratification. The primary outcome measure will be disability (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire). Secondary outcomes will include back pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), distress (Distress and Risk Assessment Method), back beliefs (Back Beliefs Questionnaire), health status (Euroqol), global benefit (7 point likert scale), satisfaction (7 point likert scale), cost effectiveness and functional status. Outcome will be measured at baseline, 12 weeks and 6 months. Discussion This paper details the rationale, design, methods, planned analysis and operational aspects of a study examining the utility of the STarT Back Tool as a ‘stratification tool for targeted treatment’ in a group intervention. Trial registration Current controlled trials: ACTRN12613000431729. PMID:24308746

2013-01-01

306

The chronic autoimmune thyroiditis quality of life selenium trial (CATALYST): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis have impaired health-related quality of life. The thyroid gland has a high selenium concentration, and specific selenoprotein enzyme families are crucial to immune function, and catalyze thyroid hormone metabolism and redox processes in thyroid cells. Previous randomized controlled trials have found that selenium supplementation decreases thyroid-disease-specific antibody levels. We hypothesize that selenium might be beneficial in the treatment of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Methods/Design The CATALYST trial is an investigator-initiated randomized, blinded, multicentre clinical trial of selenium supplementation versus placebo in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Inclusion criteria: age ?18 years; serum thyroid peroxidase antibody level ?100 IU/ml within the previous 12 months; treatment with levothyroxine and written informed consent. Exclusion criteria: previous diagnosis of toxic nodular goitre, Graves’ hyperthyroidism, postpartum thyroiditis, Graves’ orbitopathy; previous antithyroid drug treatment, radioiodine therapy or thyroid surgery; immune-modulatory or other medication affecting thyroid function; pregnancy, planned pregnancy or breastfeeding; allergy towards any intervention or placebo component; intake of selenium supplementation >55 ?g/day; inability to read or understand Danish or lack of informed consent. The trial will include 2?×?236 participants. The experimental intervention and control groups will receive 200 ?g selenium-enriched yeast or matching placebo tablets daily for 12 months. The experimental supplement will be SelenoPrecise®. The primary outcome is thyroid-related quality of life assessed by the Thyroid Patient-Reported Outcome (ThyPRO) questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include serum thyroid peroxidase antibody concentration; serum triiodothyronine/thyroxine ratio; levothyroxine dosage; adverse reactions and serious adverse reactions and events. Discussion In this pragmatic trial, participating patients follow their usual treatment at their usual hospitals. In order to collect high-quality data on the clinical course and quality of life, and to minimize missing data, an elaborate trial management system has been designed. 12 months intervention duration was selected in consideration of the primary outcome, thyroid-related quality of life. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02013479. PMID:24716668

2014-01-01

307

Comparison between three types of stented pericardial aortic valves (Trivalve trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Aortic valve stenosis is one of the most common heart diseases in older patients. Nowadays, surgical aortic valve replacement is the ‘gold standard’ treatment for this pathology and the most implanted prostheses are biological ones. The three most implanted bovine bioprostheses are the Trifecta valve (St. Jude Medical, Minneapolis, MN, USA), the Mitroflow valve (Sorin Group, Saluggia, Italy), and the Carpentier-Edwards Magna Ease valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA). We propose a randomized trial to objectively assess the hemodynamic performances of these bioprostheses. Methods and design First, we will measure the aortic annulus diameter using CT-scan, echocardiography and by direct sizing in the operating room after native aortic valve resection. The accuracy of information, in terms of size and spatial dimensions of each bioprosthesis provided by manufacturers, will be checked. Their hemodynamic performances will be assessed postoperatively at the seventh day and the sixth month after surgery. Discussion This prospective controlled randomized trial aims to verify and compare the hemodynamic performances and the sizing of these three bioprostheses. The data obtained may help surgeons to choose the best suitable bioprosthesis according to each patient’s morphological characteristics. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01522352 PMID:24299218

2013-01-01

308

ADAPTIVE MATCHING IN RANDOMIZED TRIALS AND OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In many randomized and observational studies the allocation of treatment among a sample of n independent and identically distributed units is a function of the covariates of all sampled units. As a result, the treatment labels among the units are possibly dependent, complicating estimation and posing challenges for statistical inference. For example, cluster randomized trials frequently sample communities from some target population, construct matched pairs of communities from those included in the sample based on some metric of similarity in baseline community characteristics, and then randomly allocate a treatment and a control intervention within each matched pair. In this case, the observed data can neither be represented as the realization of n independent random variables, nor, contrary to current practice, as the realization of n/2 independent random variables (treating the matched pair as the independent sampling unit). In this paper we study estimation of the average causal effect of a treatment under experimental designs in which treatment allocation potentially depends on the pre-intervention covariates of all units included in the sample. We define efficient targeted minimum loss based estimators for this general design, present a theorem that establishes the desired asymptotic normality of these estimators and allows for asymptotically valid statistical inference, and discuss implementation of these estimators. We further investigate the relative asymptotic efficiency of this design compared with a design in which unit-specific treatment assignment depends only on the units’ covariates. Our findings have practical implications for the optimal design and analysis of pair matched cluster randomized trials, as well as for observational studies in which treatment decisions may depend on characteristics of the entire sample. PMID:25097298

van der Laan, Mark J.; Balzer, Laura B.; Petersen, Maya L.

2014-01-01

309

Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

Clinical Trials What is a clinical trial? A clinical trial is a study carried out in human volunteers to help doctors learn more about the human body and ... work. What can I gain from joining a clinical trial? You will: • Take a more active role in ...

310

The Effect of Group Reminiscence on the Cognitive Status of Elderly People Supported by Ilam Welfare Organization in 2013; A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Cognitive impairments, which are common problems among the elderly people, account for a wide range of aging disorders. Group reminiscence can be used as a profitable therapeutic method for preventing cognitive-behavioral disorders in older adults. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of group reminiscence on the cognitive status of elderly people. Methods: This study was a non-blinded randomized controlled trial. We enrolled 100 elderly people who were under the support of Ilam Welfare Organization, western Iran in 2013. Balanced block randomization method was used to randomize the participants into intervention and control groups.Elderly people in the intervention group participated in a group reminiscence program consisted of two one-hour sessions per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Data were collected using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). The questionnaire was completed four times by the participants; before, immediately after, two and three months after the intervention. Results: The mean±SD of cognitive status scores in the intervention group was 24.66±3.8 which increased to 25.02±3.67, 25.04±3.72 and 24.72±3.66 immediately after, two and three months after the intervention respectively. The results showed that the changes in the mean scores were statistically significant in the intervention group immediately after the intervention (P=0.001) and at second month (P=0.003) follow-ups. However, we found no statistically significant difference in the intervention group at the mentioned time intervals in this regards (P=1.000).  Conclusion: We concluded that continuous programs of group reminiscence could improve cognitive status of elderly population. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201405147531N7 PMID:25349866

Jahanbin, Iran; Mohammadnejad, Sara; Sharif, Farkhondeh

2014-01-01

311

Explaining the impact of a women's group led community mobilisation intervention on maternal and newborn health outcomes: the Ekjut trial process evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Few large and rigorous evaluations of participatory interventions systematically describe their context and implementation, or attempt to explain the mechanisms behind their impact. This study reports process evaluation data from the Ekjut cluster-randomised controlled trial of a participatory learning and action cycle with women's groups to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes in Jharkhand and Orissa, eastern India (2005-2008). The study demonstrated a 45% reduction in neonatal mortality in the last two years of the intervention, largely driven by improvements in safe practices for home deliveries. Methods A participatory learning and action cycle with 244 women's groups was implemented in 18 intervention clusters covering an estimated population of 114 141. We describe the context, content, and implementation of this intervention, identify potential mechanisms behind its impact, and report challenges experienced in the field. Methods included a review of intervention documents, qualitative structured discussions with group members and non-group members, meeting observations, as well as descriptive statistical analysis of data on meeting attendance, activities, and characteristics of group attendees. Results Six broad, interrelated factors influenced the intervention's impact: (1) acceptability; (2) a participatory approach to the development of knowledge, skills and 'critical consciousness'; (3) community involvement beyond the groups; (4) a focus on marginalized communities; (5) the active recruitment of newly pregnant women into groups; (6) high population coverage. We hypothesize that these factors were responsible for the increase in safe delivery and care practices that led to the reduction in neonatal mortality demonstrated in the Ekjut trial. Conclusions Participatory interventions with community groups can influence maternal and child health outcomes if key intervention characteristics are preserved and tailored to local contexts. Scaling-up such interventions requires (1) a detailed understanding of the way in which context affects the acceptability and delivery of the intervention; (2) planned but flexible replication of key content and implementation features; (3) strong support for participatory methods from implementing agencies. PMID:20969787

2010-01-01

312

Household contact investigation for tuberculosis in Vietnam: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality globally. Only 65% of patients worldwide are currently diagnosed. Contact investigation is a strategy that aims to increase case detection and reduce transmission of tuberculosis, yet there is little evidence to show its effectiveness. Methods/Design We will conduct a cluster randomized controlled trial of contact investigation within the national tuberculosis control program of Vietnam. Household contacts of patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis will be invited to attend district tuberculosis units for symptom screening, examination, and chest radiography on four occasions over a two-year period. The primary endpoint is clinically confirmed tuberculosis among contacts during the 24 months of follow-up, ascertained using capture-recapture analysis. Microbiologically proven tuberculosis and treatment completion rates among contacts diagnosed with tuberculosis will be secondary endpoints. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be estimated. The study will have 80% power to detect a 50% increase in the primary endpoint in the active intervention arm compared with the control arm. The study will include 8,829 contacts in each of the active screening and control groups, within 70 districts in 8 provinces in Vietnam, in both rural and urban settings. Discussion The effectiveness of contact investigation as a tool for improved tuberculosis case finding has not been established. This cluster randomized trial will provide valuable operational information for national tuberculosis programs in high-prevalence countries, in order to select the most cost-effective strategies to improve tuberculosis case detection. Trial registration The ACT2 study has been registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12610000600044). PMID:24138766

2013-01-01

313

Evaluation of a group based cognitive behavioural therapy programme for menstrual pain management in young women with intellectual disabilities: protocol for a mixed methods controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Menstrual pain which is severe enough to impact on daily activities is very common amongst menstruating females. Research suggests that menstrual pain which impacts on daily functioning may be even more prevalent amongst those with intellectual disabilities. Despite this, little research attention has focused on pain management programmes for those with intellectual disabilities. The aims of this pilot study were to develop and evaluate a theory-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for menstrual pain management in young women with intellectual disabilities. Methods/Design The study utilised a mixed methods controlled clinical trial to evaluate elements from a CBT programme called Feeling Better (McGuire & McManus, 2010). The Feeling Better programme is a modular, manualised intervention designed for people with an intellectual disability and their carers. The programme was delivered to 36 young women aged 12 – 30 years who have a Mild - Moderate Intellectual Disability, split between two conditions. The treatment group received the Feeling Better intervention and the control group received treatment as usual. To evaluate the effectiveness of the programme, measures were taken of key pain variables including impact, knowledge, self-efficacy and coping. Process evaluation was conducted to examine which elements of the programme were most successful in promoting change. Discussion Participants in the intervention group were expected to report the use of a greater number of coping strategies and have greater knowledge of pain management strategies following participation in the intervention and at three month follow-up, when compared to control group participants. A significant advantage of the study was the use of mixed methods and inclusion of process evaluation to determine which elements of a cognitive behavioural therapy programme work best for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN75567759 PMID:25201648

2014-01-01

314

A Randomised Trial Comparing Genotypic and Virtual Phenotypic Interpretation of HIV Drug Resistance: The CREST Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of different HIV drug resistance test reports (genotype and virtual phenotype) in patients who were changing their antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design: Randomised, open-label trial with 48-week followup. Setting: The study was conducted in a network of primary healthcare sites in Australia and New Zealand. Participants: Patients failing current ART with plasma HIV RNA > 2000 copies/mL who wished to change their current ART were eligible. Subjects were required to be > 18 years of age, previously treated with ART, have no intercurrent illnesses requiring active therapy, and to have provided written informed consent. Interventions: Eligible subjects were randomly assigned to receive a genotype (group A) or genotype plus virtual phenotype (group B) prior to selection of their new antiretroviral regimen. Outcome Measures: Patient groups were compared for patterns of ART selection and surrogate outcomes (plasma viral load and CD4 counts) on an intention-to-treat basis over a 48-week period. Results: Three hundred and twenty seven patients completing > one month of followup were included in these analyses. Resistance tests were the primary means by which ART regimens were selected (group A: 64%, group B: 62%; p = 0.32). At 48 weeks, there were no significant differences between the groups for mean change from baseline plasma HIV RNA (group A: 0.68 log copies/mL, group B: 0.58 log copies/mL; p = 0.23) and mean change from baseline CD4+ cell count (group A: 37 cells/mm3, group B: 50 cells/mm3; p = 0.28). Conclusions: In the absence of clear demonstrated benefits arising from the use of the virtual phenotype interpretation, this study suggests resistance testing using genotyping linked to a reliable interpretive algorithm is adequate for the management of HIV infection. PMID:16878178

Hales, Gillian; Birch, Chris; Crowe, Suzanne; Workman, Cassy; Hoy, Jennifer F; Law, Matthew G; Kelleher, Anthony D; Lincoln, Douglas; Emery, Sean

2006-01-01

315

Use of blood pressure lowering drugs in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of 147 randomised trials in the context of expectations from prospective epidemiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine the quantitative efficacy of different classes of blood pressure lowering drugs in preventing coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, and who should receive treatment.Design Meta-analysis.Data source Medline (1966-2007).Study selection Randomised trials of blood pressure lowering drugs recording CHD events and strokes. 108 trials studied differences in blood pressure between study drug and placebo (or control group not

M R Law; J K Morris; N J Wald

2009-01-01

316

Electro-acupuncture with different current intensities to treat functional constipation: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Functional constipation (FC) is highly prevalent in the general population of the world and has a substantial negative impact on the health-related quality of life of individuals. Many clinical trials have indicated that acupuncture is effective in the treatment of FC. However, the sample sizes of these previous studies were too small. Furthermore, there are no reports investigating the relationship between the stimulation parameter and the therapeutic effect. We therefore designed a multicenter randomized controlled trial to address these problems and hopefully provide a more conclusive answer to these questions. Methods Participants will be included if they meet all of the following conditions: (1) diagnosed with functional constipation according to the Roman III standard; (2) aged between 18 and 65 years; (3) not taking any drugs that promote gastrointestinal movements at least during the 1 week prior to randomization; (3) willing to sign an informed consent form; (4) willing to return to the study site for their study visits. The participants will be randomly assigned to three groups in a 1:1:1 ratio: high current intensity group, low current intensity group, and mosapride citrate control group. The total study period is 9 weeks for each patient, 1 week for baseline, 4 weeks for treatment, and 4 weeks for follow-up. The primary outcome in this trial is the number of defecating events per week. The secondary outcomes will include the shape and properties of the stool, intensity of defecating difficulty, Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life (PAC-QOL), MOS item Short Form health survey (SF-36), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). Discussion This study will provide significant evidence for the application of acupuncture in FC and will identify a suitable stimulation parameter for treatment. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01274793. PMID:24143917

2013-01-01

317

The Lighthouse Alarm and Locator trial - a pilot study.  

PubMed

An important factor for health is the possibility to be active and mobile. To make this possible various kinds of support are needed. Integrating geographical information systems technology and user experiences is important in the development of more user-friendly positioning devices. The Lighthouse Alarm and Locator trial aimed to test a new mobile alarm system with additional functionality such as positioning and monitoring of vital signs which can be used regardless of location (in hospital, at home). The system was tested by elderly persons from a pensioner organisation and home care personnel answered up on the alarms. After the tests qualitative interviews were performed with the two groups. The results showed that their experiences of the new mobile alarm system could be described in three main categories: to be supervised, to feel safe and to be mobile. These categories formed a theme: Positioning - an ethical dilemma. The clients' mobility was perceived to increase. The personnel did not think that positioning was ethical but the clients (elderly) did. PMID:17473400

Melander-Wikman, A; Jansson, M; Hallberg, J; Mörtberg, C; Gard, G

2007-01-01

318

Korean translation of the CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomized trials.  

PubMed

The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) 2010 Statement, updated in March 2010, includes a 25-item checklist and flow diagram. Adherence to this statement is a minimum requirement for the complete, clear, and transparent reporting of randomized trials. We translated the CONSORT 2010 Statement into Korean to promote the widespread adherence to CONSORT in South Korea and to facilitate the adoption of complete, clear, and transparent reporting. The Korean version of the CONSORT is available at http://www.e-epih.org/. PMID:25381998

Lee, Jun Suh; Ahn, Soyeon; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Jee Hyun

2014-01-01

319

Physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy (LEAP) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Many women try to stop smoking in pregnancy but fail. One difficulty is that there is insufficient evidence that medications for smoking cessation are effective and safe in pregnancy and thus many women prefer to avoid these. Physical activity (PA) interventions may assist cessation; however, trials examining these interventions have been too small to detect or exclude plausible beneficial effects. The London Exercise And Pregnant smokers (LEAP) trial is investigating whether a PA intervention is effective and cost-effective when used for smoking cessation by pregnant women, and will be the largest study of its kind to date. Methods/design The LEAP study is a pragmatic, multi-center, two-arm, randomized, controlled trial that will target pregnant women who smoke at least one cigarette a day (and at least five cigarettes a day before pregnancy), and are between 10 and 24 weeks pregnant. Eligible patients are individually randomized to either usual care (that is, behavioral support for smoking cessation) or usual care plus a intervention (entailing supervised exercise on a treadmill plus PA consultations). The primary outcome of the trial is self-reported and biochemically validated continuous abstinence from smoking between a specified quit date and the end of pregnancy. The secondary outcomes, measured at 1 and 4 weeks after the quit date, and at the end of pregnancy and 6 months after childbirth, are PA levels, depression, self-confidence, and cigarette withdrawal symptoms. Smoking status will also be self-reported at 6 months after childbirth. In addition, perinatal measures will be collected, including antenatal complications, duration of labor, mode of delivery, and birth and placental weight. Outcomes will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, and logistic regression models used to compare treatment effects on the primary outcome. Discussion This trial will assess whether a PA intervention is effective when used for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Trial registration ISRCTN48600346 PMID:23035669

2012-01-01

320

Effectiveness of occupational therapy in Parkinson’s disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational therapists may have an added value in the care of patients with Parkinson’s disease whose daily functioning is compromised, as well as for their immediate caregivers. Evidence for this added value is inconclusive due to a lack of rigorous studies. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the (cost) effectiveness of occupational therapy in improving daily functioning of patients with Parkinson’s disease. Methods/Design A multicenter, assessor-blinded, two-armed randomized controlled clinical trial will be conducted, with evaluations at three and six months. One hundred ninety-two home-dwelling patients with Parkinson’s disease and with an occupational therapy indication will be assigned to the experimental group or to the control group (2:1). Patients and their caregivers in the experimental group will receive ten weeks of home-based occupational therapy according to recent Dutch guidelines. The intervention will be delivered by occupational therapists who have been specifically trained to treat patients according to these guidelines. Participants in the control group will not receive occupational therapy during the study period. The primary outcome for the patient is self-perceived daily functioning at three months, assessed with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Secondary patient-related outcomes include: objective performance of daily activities, self-perceived satisfaction with performance in daily activities, participation, impact of fatigue, proactive coping skills, health-related quality of life, overall quality of life, health-related costs, and effectiveness at six months. All outcomes at the caregiver level will be secondary and will include self-perceived burden of care, objective burden of care, proactive coping skills, overall quality of life, and care-related costs. Effectiveness will be evaluated using a covariance analysis of the difference in outcome at three months. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective will be conducted, as well as a process evaluation. Discussion This is the first large-scale trial specifically evaluating occupational therapy in Parkinson’s disease. It is expected to generate important new information about the possible added value of occupational therapy on daily functioning of patients with Parkinson’s disease. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01336127. PMID:23374761

2013-01-01

321

Pain education to prevent chronic low back pain: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Of those patients who present to primary care with acute LBP, 40% continue to report symptoms 3?months later and develop chronic LBP. Although it is possible to identify these patients early, effective interventions to improve their outcomes are not available. This double-blind (participant/outcome assessor) randomised controlled trial will investigate the efficacy of a brief educational approach to prevent chronic LBP in ‘at-risk’ individuals. Methods/analysis Participants will be recruited from primary care practices in the Sydney metropolitan area. To be eligible for inclusion participants will be aged 18–75?years, with acute LBP (<4?weeks’ duration) preceded by at least a 1?month pain-free period and at-risk of developing chronic LBP. Potential participants with chronic spinal pain and those with suspected serious spinal pathology will be excluded. Eligible participants who agree to take part will be randomly allocated to receive 2×1?h sessions of pain biology education or 2×1?h sessions of sham education from a specially trained study physiotherapist. The study requires 101 participants per group to detect a 1-point difference in pain intensity 3?months after pain onset. Secondary outcomes include the incidence of chronic LBP, disability, pain intensity, depression, healthcare utilisation, pain attitudes and beliefs, global recovery and recurrence and are measured at 1?week post-intervention, and at 3, 6 and 12?months post LBP onset. Ethics/dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the University of New South Wales Human Ethics Committee in June 2013 (ref number HC12664). Outcomes will be disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at international conference meetings. Trial registration number https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12612001180808 PMID:24889854

Traeger, Adrian C; Moseley, G Lorimer; Hübscher, Markus; Lee, Hopin; Skinner, Ian W; Nicholas, Michael K; Henschke, Nicholas; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Blyth, Fiona M; Main, Chris J; Hush, Julia M; Pearce, Garry; McAuley, James H

2014-01-01

322

Relational Psychotherapy Mothers' Group: a randomized clinical trial for substance abusing mothers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of the Relational Psychotherapy Mothers' Group (RPMG), a supportive parenting group intervention for substance abusing women. Sixty mothers receiving RPMG were compared to 67 women receiving recovery training (RT); both treatments supplemented treatment in the methadone clinics. At the end of the 6-month treatment period, RPMG mothers showed marginally significant improvement on child maltreatment (self-reported) and cocaine abuse based on urinalyses when compared with RT mothers; notably, children of RPMG mothers reported significantly greater improvement in emotional adjustment and depression than children of RT mothers. At 6 months follow-up, however, treatment gains were no longer apparent. Overall, the findings suggest that whereas supportive parenting interventions for substance abusing women do have some preventive potential, abrupt cessation of the therapeutic program could have deleterious consequences. PMID:17241493

Luthar, Suniya S; Suchman, Nancy E; Altomare, Michelle

2007-01-01

323

Relational Psychotherapy Mothers’ Group: A randomized clinical trial for substance abusing mothers  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of the Relational Psychotherapy Mothers’ Group (RPMG), a supportive parenting group intervention for substance abusing women. Sixty mothers receiving RPMG were compared to 67 women receiving recovery training (RT); both treatments supplemented treatment in the methadone clinics. At the end of the 6-month treatment period, RPMG mothers showed marginally significant improvement on child maltreatment (self-reported) and cocaine abuse based on urinalyses when compared with RT mothers; notably, children of RPMG mothers reported significantly greater improvement in emotional adjustment and depression than children of RT mothers. At 6 months follow-up, however, treatment gains were no longer apparent. Overall, the findings suggest that whereas supportive parenting interventions for substance abusing women do have some preventive potential, abrupt cessation of the therapeutic program could have deleterious consequences. PMID:17241493

LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.; SUCHMAN, NANCY E.; ALTOMARE, MICHELLE

2007-01-01

324

Phase III double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective randomized trial of adjuvant tamoxifen vs. tamoxifen and fenretinide in postmenopausal women with positive receptors (EB193): an intergroup trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group.  

PubMed

Fenretinide and tamoxifen have additive antitumor effects preclinically. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind adjuvant trial in breast cancer patients treated for 5 years with tamoxifen, with or without fenretinide. Between October 1995 and October 1999, 426 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were randomized. Patients were monitored for efficacy and toxicity. Four hundred and nineteen patients were evaluable. The study was terminated early due to slow accrual. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in DFS, TTR or survival. More patients stopped treatment early on the fenretinide arm than on placebo (P = 0.02). Grade 3/4 toxicities, including visual problems and musculoskeletal complaints were more common in patients receiving fenretinide (P = 0.007). A Night Blindness Questionnaire was used to monitor nyctalopia, which was slightly, but not significantly, more common on fenretinide. In this underpowered study, no significant difference was observed in efficacy between treatment groups. This trial provides important toxicity information about fenretinide, a retinoid that has been used in the prevention setting, because it is the only placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized study ever performed. PMID:20878269

Rao, Ruta D; Cobleigh, Melody A; Gray, Robert; Graham, Mark L; Norton, Larry; Martino, Silvana; Budd, George Thomas; Ingle, James N; Wood, William C

2011-12-01

325

Muslim communities learning about second-hand smoke (MCLASS): study protocol for a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background In the UK, 40% of Bangladeshi and 29% of Pakistani men smoke cigarettes regularly compared to the national average of 24%. As a consequence, second-hand smoking is also widespread in their households which is a serious health hazard to non-smokers, especially children. Smoking restrictions in households can help reduce exposure to second-hand smoking. This is a pilot trial of ‘Smoke Free Homes’, an educational programme which has been adapted for use by Muslim faith leaders, in an attempt to find an innovative solution to encourage Pakistani- and Bangladeshi-origin communities to implement smoking restrictions in their homes. The primary objectives for this pilot trial are to establish the feasibility of conducting such an evaluation and provide information to inform the design of a future definitive study. Methods/Design This is a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of ‘Smoke Free Homes’, with an embedded preliminary health economic evaluation and a qualitative analysis. The trial will be carried out in around 14 Islamic religious settings. Equal randomisation will be employed to allocate each cluster to a trial arm. The intervention group will be offered the Smoke Free Homes package (Smoke Free Homes: a resource for Muslim religious teachers), trained in its use, and will subsequently implement the package in their religious settings. The remaining clusters will not be offered the package until the completion of the study and will form the control group. At each cluster, we aim to recruit around 50 households with at least one adult resident who smokes tobacco and at least one child or a non-smoking adult. Households will complete a household survey and a non-smoking individual will provide a saliva sample which will be tested for cotinine. All participant outcomes will be measured before and after the intervention period in both arms of the trial. In addition, a purposive sample of participants and religious leaders/teachers will take part in interviews and focus groups. Discussion The results of this pilot study will inform the protocol for a definitive trial. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03035510 PMID:24034853

2013-01-01

326

Single dental implant retained mandibular complete dentures – influence of the loading protocol: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Over the years, there has been a strong consensus in dentistry that at least two implants are required to retain a complete mandibular denture. It has been shown in several clinical trials that one single median implant can retain a mandibular overdenture sufficiently well for up to 5 years without implant failures, when delayed loading was used. However, other trials have reported conflicting results with in part considerable failure rates when immediate loading was applied. Therefore it is the purpose of the current randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that immediate loading of a single mandibular midline implant with an overdenture will result in a comparable clinical outcome as using the standard protocol of delayed loading. Methods/design This prospective nine-center randomized controlled clinical trial is still ongoing. The final patient will complete the trial in 2016. In total, 180 edentulous patients between 60 and 89 years with sufficient complete dentures will receive one median implant in the edentulous mandible, which will retain the existing complete denture using a ball attachment. Loading of the median implant is either immediately after implant placement (experimental group) or delayed by 3 months of submerged healing at second-stage surgery (control group). Follow-up of patients will be performed for 24 months after implant loading. The primary outcome measure is non-inferiority of implant success rate of the experimental group compared to the control group. The secondary outcome measures encompass clinical, technical and subjective variables. The study was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German research foundation, KE 477/8-1). Discussion This multi-center clinical trial will give information on the ability of a single median implant to retain a complete mandibular denture when immediately loaded. If viable, this treatment option will strongly improve everyday dental practice. Trial registration The trial has been registered at Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (German register of clinical trials) under DRKS-ID: DRKS00003730 since 23 August 2012. (http://www.germanctr.de). PMID:24884848

2014-01-01

327

A new statistical procedure for testing equivalence in two-group comparative bioavailability trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical problem of testing for equivalence in comparative bioavailability trials is restated in terms of the proper statistical hypotheses. A simple t-test procedure for these hypotheses has been devloped that is more powerful than the methods based on usual (shortest) and symmetric confidence intervals. In this note, this new procedure is explained and an example is given, including the

Walter W. Hauck; Sharon Anderson

1984-01-01

328

A group sequential, response-adaptive design for randomized clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable methodological research on response-adaptive designs for clinical trials but they have seldom been used in practice. The many reasons for this are summarized in an article by Rosenberger and Lachin, but the two main reasons generally cited are logistical difficulties and the potential for bias due to selection effects, “drift” in patient characteristics or risk factors

Theodore G. Karrison; Dezheng Huo; Rick Chappell

2003-01-01

329

Chemotherapy in advanced ovarian cancer: an overview of randomised clinical trials. Advanced Ovarian Cancer Trialists Group.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To consider the role of platinum and the relative merits of single agent and combination chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. DESIGN--Formal quantitative overview using updated individual patient data from all available randomised trials (published and unpublished). SUBJECTS--8139 patients (6408 deaths) included in 45 different trials. RESULTS--No firm conclusions could be reached. Nevertheless, the results suggest that in terms of survival immediate platinum based treatment was better than non-platinum regimens (overall relative risk 0.93; 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.05); platinum in combination was better than single agent platinum when used in the same dose (overall relative risk 0.85; 0.72 to 1.00); and cisplatin and carboplatin were equally effective (overall relative risk 1.05; 0.94 to 1.18). CONCLUSIONS--In the past, randomised clinical trials of chemotherapy in advanced ovarian cancer have been much too small to detect the degree of benefit which this overview suggests is realistic for currently available chemotherapeutic regimens. Hence a new trial comparing cisplatin, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (CAP) with carboplatin has been launched and plans to accrue 2000 patients. PMID:1834291

1991-01-01

330

Report on the EPS case study group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CERN Technical Board for Process Controls and Accelerator Electronics has addressed the issue of software engineering in order to improve the development of software. This study has been extended within the frame of the interdivisional group on Experimental Physics Control Systems of the European Physical Society. The results of this study are reported briefly in this paper.

Daneels, A.; Kellner, G.

1990-08-01

331

Clinical Study on the Prevention of Oxaliplatin-Induced Neurotoxicity with Guilongtongluofang: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective. Oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neurotoxicity continues to be a kind of frequent dose-limiting toxicity for many cancer patients. This study evaluated the preventive effects of Guilongtongluofang on peripheral neurotoxicity induced by oxaliplatin in patients with colorectal tumor. Patients and Methods. From May 2007 to May 2011, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 120 patients of colorectal cancer treated with adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy were randomly enrolled into the trial group and the control group. The trial group received Guilongtongluofang (at a dose of 200?mL once a day) from 3 days prior to chemotherapy. The control group received a placebo from 3 days prior to chemotherapy. Every 2-week cycle, neurotoxicity was evaluated using numeric rating scale for pain intensity and experienced relief. The primary endpoint was efficacy measurement which included oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity and tumor response. The differences of side effects between the two groups were also analyzed. Results. The percentage of grades 1-2 neurotoxicity was significantly lower in the trial group than that in the control group (13.3% versus 20.0%; P < 0.05) after two cycles of treatment. The difference of the percentage of neurotoxicity between the two groups was significant after six cycles (51.7% versus 70.0%; P < 0.05). Significant difference for the mean time to the development of grade 1+ neurotoxicity was found between the two groups (9.4?w in the trial group versus 6.5?w in the control group, P < 0.05). The cumulative incidence of grade 1 or more sensory neurotoxicity was significantly lower in the trial group than that in the control group (P < 0.05). No significant differences of tumor response rate were found between the two groups the trial group and the control group. No significant difference was found between the trial group and the control group (all P > 0.05). Conclusion. This study provides evidence that Guilongtongluofang is a promising drug for the prevention of oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity in patients with colorectal cancer, and it does not reduce the efficacy of oxaliplatin. PMID:24324514

Liu, Yunfang; Zhu, Guangying; Han, Li; Liu, Jie; Ma, Ting; Yu, Huiming

2013-01-01

332

Quality control in multicentric clinical trials. An experience of the EORTC Gynecological Cancer Cooperative Group. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

The authors conducted a data quality study for a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) multicenter randomized phase III treatment trial focusing on cervical cancer. Analysis of the causes of inaccuracies revealed problems in data management, but the investigators also associated some errors with lack of clarity in the protocol and case report forms (CRFs).

333

Clinical predictors of spontaneous acute urinary retention in men with LUTS and clinical BPH: a comprehensive analysis of the pooled placebo groups of several large clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To comprehensively evaluate clinical predictors of spontaneous acute urinary retention (AUR) across pooled data of placebo-treated patients from clinical trials conducted in men with lower urinary tract symptoms and clinically diagnosed benign prostatic hyperplasia.Methods. Data from the placebo-treatment groups of several prospective, randomized clinical trials conducted in the United States (n = 3040), Scandinavia, Canada, and worldwide (n =

Claus G Roehrborn; Marie-Pierre Malice; Thomas J Cook; Cynthia J Girman

2001-01-01

334

Understanding the investigators: a qualitative study investigating the barriers and enablers to the implementation of local investigator-initiated clinical trials in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Clinical trials provide ‘gold standard’ evidence for policy, but insufficient locally relevant trials are conducted in low-income and middle-income countries. Local investigator-initiated trials could generate highly relevant data for national governments, but information is lacking on how to facilitate them. We aimed to identify barriers and enablers to investigator-initiated trials in Ethiopia to inform and direct capacity strengthening initiatives. Design Exploratory, qualitative study comprising of in-depth interviews (n=7) and focus group discussions (n=3). Setting Fieldwork took place in Ethiopia during March 2011. Participants Local health researchers with previous experiences of clinical trials or stakeholders with an interest in trials were recruited through snowball sampling (n=20). Outcome measures Detailed discussion notes were analysed using thematic coding analysis and key themes were identified. Results All participants perceived investigator-initiated trials as important for generating local evidence. System and organisational barriers included: limited funding allocation, weak regulatory and administrative systems, few learning opportunities, limited human and material capacity and poor incentives for conducting research. Operational hurdles were symptomatic of these barriers. Lack of awareness, confidence and motivation to undertake trials were important individual barriers. Training, knowledge sharing and experience exchange were key enablers to trial conduct and collaboration was unanimously regarded as important for improving capacity. Conclusions Barriers to trial conduct were found at individual, operational, organisational and system levels. These findings indicate that to increase locally led trial conduct in Ethiopia, system wide changes are needed to create a more receptive and enabling research environment. Crucially, the creation of research networks between potential trial groups could provide much needed practical collaborative support through sharing of financial and project management burdens, knowledge and resources. These findings could have important implications for capacity-strengthening initiatives but further research is needed before the results can be generalised more widely. PMID:24285629

Franzen, Samuel R P; Chandler, Clare; Enquselassie, Fikre; Siribaddana, Sisira; Atashili, Julius; Angus, Brian; Lang, Trudie

2013-01-01

335

Efficacy of systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer (MRC ASTEC trial): a randomised study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is the standard surgery for stage I endometrial cancer. Systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy has been used to establish whether there is extra-uterine disease and as a therapeutic procedure; however, randomised trials need to be done to assess therapeutic efficacy. The ASTEC surgical trial investigated whether pelvic lymphadenectomy could improve survival of women with endometrial cancer. Methods From 85 centres in four countries, 1408 women with histologically proven endometrial carcinoma thought preoperatively to be confined to the corpus were randomly allocated by a minimisation method to standard surgery (hysterectomy and BSO, peritoneal washings, and palpation of para-aortic nodes; n=704) or standard surgery plus lymphadenectomy (n=704). The primary outcome measure was overall survival. To control for postsurgical treatment, women with early-stage disease at intermediate or high risk of recurrence were randomised (independent of lymph-node status) into the ASTEC radiotherapy trial. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN 16571884. Findings After a median follow-up of 37 months (IQR 24–58), 191 women (88 standard surgery group, 103 lymphadenectomy group) had died, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·16 (95% CI 0·87–1·54; p=0·31) in favour of standard surgery and an absolute difference in 5-year overall survival of 1% (95% CI ?4 to 6). 251 women died or had recurrent disease (107 standard surgery group, 144 lymphadenectomy group), with an HR of 1·35 (1·06–1·73; p=0·017) in favour of standard surgery and an absolute difference in 5-year recurrence-free survival of 6% (1–12). With adjustment for baseline characteristics and pathology details, the HR for overall survival was 1·04 (0·74–1·45; p=0·83) and for recurrence-free survival was 1·25 (0·93–1·66; p=0·14). Interpretation Our results show no evidence of benefit in terms of overall or recurrence-free survival for pelvic lymphadenectomy in women with early endometrial cancer. Pelvic lymphadenectomy cannot be recommended as routine procedure for therapeutic purposes outside of clinical trials. Funding Medical Research Council and National Cancer Research Network. PMID:19070889

2009-01-01

336

Effects of neuraxial blockade may be difficult to study using large randomized controlled trials: the PeriOperative Epidural Trial (POET) Pilot Study. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This pilot study concluded that recruiting patients into a large multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the effects of neuraxial blockade in reducing cardiorespiratory surgical complications was not feasible.

337

Manage at work: a randomized, controlled trial of a self-management group intervention to overcome workplace challenges associated with chronic physical health conditions  

PubMed Central

Background The percentage of older and chronically ill workers is increasing rapidly in the US and in many other countries, but few interventions are available to help employees overcome the workplace challenges of chronic pain and other physical health conditions. While most workers are eligible for job accommodation and disability compensation benefits, other workplace strategies might improve individual-level coping and problem solving to prevent work disability. In this study, we hypothesize that an employer-sponsored group intervention program employing self-management principles may improve worker engagement and reduce functional limitation associated with chronic disorders. Methods In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), workers participating in an employer-sponsored self-management group intervention will be compared with a no-treatment (wait list) control condition. Volunteer employees (n?=?300) will be recruited from five participating employers and randomly assigned to intervention or control. Participants in the intervention arm will attend facilitated group workshop sessions at work (10 hours total) to explore methods for improving comfort, adjusting work habits, communicating needs effectively, applying systematic problem solving, and dealing with negative thoughts and emotions about work. Work engagement and work limitation are the principal outcomes. Secondary outcomes include fatigue, job satisfaction, self-efficacy, turnover intention, sickness absence, and health care utilization. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. A process evaluation will be performed alongside the randomized trial. Discussion This study will be most relevant for organizations and occupational settings where some degree of job flexibility, leeway, and decision-making autonomy can be afforded to affected workers. The study design will provide initial assessment of a novel workplace approach and to understand factors affecting its feasibility and effectiveness. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01978392 (Issued November 6, 2013) PMID:24885844

2014-01-01

338

Congestive heart failure adherence redesign trial: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective Heart failure (HF) continues to be a leading cause of hospital admissions, particularly in underserved patients. We hypothesised that providing individualised self-management support to patients and feedback on use of evidence-based HF therapies (EBT) to physicians could lead to improvements in care and decrease hospitalisations. To assess the feasibility of conducting a larger trial testing the efficacy of this dual-level intervention, we conducted the Congestive Heart failure Adherence Redesign Trial Pilot (CHART-P), a proof-of-concept, quasi-experimental, feasibility pilot study. Setting A large tertiary care medical centre in Chicago. Participants Low-income patients (study. Interventions Physicians received HF guidelines and periodic individualised feedback on their adherence to EBT. Patients received HF education, support and self-management training for diet and medication adherence by a trained nurse through 11 interactive sessions over a 4-month period. Evaluations were conducted pre-enrolment and 1?month postintervention completion. Outcome measures Feasibility was assessed by the ability to deliver intervention to patients and physicians. Exploratory outcomes included changes in medication and sodium intake for patients and adherence to EBT for physicians. Results Eighty-seven per cent and 82% of patients received >80% of interventions at 1?month and by study completion, respectively. Median sodium intake declined (3.5 vs 2.0?g; p<0.01). There was no statistically significant change in medication adherence based on electronic pill cap monitoring or the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS); however, there was a trend towards improved adherence based on MMAS. All physicians received timely intervention. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrated that the protocol was feasible. It provided important insights about the need for intervention and the difficulties in treating patients with a variety of psychosocial problems that undercut their effective care. PMID:25475245

Mangla, Ashvarya; Doukky, Rami; Powell, Lynda H; Avery, Elizabeth; Richardson, DeJuran; Calvin, James E

2014-01-01

339

A randomized physiotherapy trial in patients with fecal incontinence: design of the PhysioFIT-study  

PubMed Central

Background Fecal incontinence (FI) is defined as the recurrent involuntary excretion of feces in inappropriate places or at inappropriate times. It is a major and highly embarrassing health care problem which affects about 2 to 24% of the adult population. The prevalence increases with age in both men and women. Physiotherapy interventions are often considered a first-line approach due to its safe and non-invasive nature when dietary and pharmaceutical treatment fails or in addition to this treatment regime. Two physiotherapy interventions, rectal balloon training (RBT) and pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) are widely used in the management of FI. However, their effectiveness remains uncertain since well-designed trials on the effectiveness of RBT and PFMT versus PFMT alone in FI have never been published. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled clinical trial will be conducted. One hundred and six patients are randomized to receive either PFMT combined with RBT or PFMT alone. Physicians in the University Hospital Maastricht include eligible participants. Inclusion criteria are (1) adults (aged ? 18 years), (2) with fecal incontinence complaints due to different etiologies persisting for at least six months, (3) having a Vaizey incontinence score of at least 12, (4) and failure of conservative treatment (including dietary adaptations and pharmacological agents). Baseline measurements consist of the Vaizey incontinence score, medical history, physical examination, medication use, anorectal manometry, rectal capacity measurement, anorectal sensation, anal endosonography, defecography, symptom diary, Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life scale (FIQL) and the PREFAB-score. Follow-up measurements are scheduled at three, six and 12 months after inclusion. Skilled and registered physiotherapists experienced in women's health perform physiotherapy treatment. Twelve sessions are administered during three months according to a standardized protocol. Discussion This section discusses the decision to publish a trial protocol, the actions taken to minimize bias and confounding in the design, explains the choice for two treatment groups, discusses the secondary goals of this study and indicates the impact of this trial on clinical practice. Trial registration The Netherlands Trial Register ISRCTN78640169. PMID:18096041

Bols, Esther MJ; Berghmans, Bary CM; Hendriks, Erik JM; de Bie, Rob A; Melenhorst, Jarno; van Gemert, Wim G; Baeten, Cor GMI

2007-01-01

340

Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new medical approaches work in people. Each study answers ... prevent, screen for, diagnose, or treat a disease. Clinical trials may also compare a new treatment to a ...

341

Therapeutic research in low-income countries: studying trial communities.  

PubMed

Social scientists undertaking studies of transnational medical research in developing countries focus on 'trial communities': networks of funders, institutions, researchers, clinical staff, fieldworkers and study participants. They relate these to the political economy that brings powerful research resources to poor settings. Whereas bioethicists tend to consider universal ethical requirements, social scientists examine how ethics are practiced in given situations in the light of the concerns and interests held by different parties involved in medical research. In conditions of poverty, high morbidity and weak public health services, research subjects are heavily induced by the prospect of high quality medical care and other benefits that researchers seem to offer. Studies of medical research undertaken by well-established internationally funded institutions in Africa show that parents are keen to have their children 'join' projects at these organisations. They assess benefits and risks less in terms of specific research projects and more in terms of their overall trust in the care these institutions are known to have provided previously for others in the community. Bioethics should widen its scope beyond concern with protecting individual subjects from the risks of specific research projects. It should recognise that clinical and research functions are indistinguishable for many participants, who want information on results of clinical investigations and sustained support for improving the health of their children. PMID:24748638

Whyte, Susan Reynolds

2014-11-01

342

Influence of reported study design characteristics on intervention effect estimates from randomized, controlled trials.  

PubMed

Published evidence suggests that aspects of trial design lead to biased intervention effect estimates, but findings from different studies are inconsistent. This study combined data from 7 meta-epidemiologic studies and removed overlaps to derive a final data set of 234 unique meta-analyses containing 1973 trials. Outcome measures were classified as "mortality," "other objective," "or subjective," and Bayesian hierarchical models were used to estimate associations of trial characteristics with average bias and between-trial heterogeneity. Intervention effect estimates seemed to be exaggerated in trials with inadequate or unclear (vs. adequate) random-sequence generation (ratio of odds ratios, 0.89 [95% credible interval {CrI}, 0.82 to 0.96]) and with inadequate or unclear (vs. adequate) allocation concealment (ratio of odds ratios, 0.93 [CrI, 0.87 to 0.99]). Lack of or unclear double-blinding (vs. double-blinding) was associated with an average of 13% exaggeration of intervention effects (ratio of odds ratios, 0.87 [CrI, 0.79 to 0.96]), and between-trial heterogeneity was increased for such studies (SD increase in heterogeneity, 0.14 [CrI, 0.02 to 0.30]). For each characteristic, average bias and increases in between-trial heterogeneity were driven primarily by trials with subjective outcomes, with little evidence of bias in trials with objective and mortality outcomes. This study is limited by incomplete trial reporting, and findings may be confounded by other study design characteristics. Bias associated with study design characteristics may lead to exaggeration of intervention effect estimates and increases in between-trial heterogeneity in trials reporting subjectively assessed outcomes. PMID:22945832

Savovi?, Jelena; Jones, Hayley E; Altman, Douglas G; Harris, Ross J; Jüni, Peter; Pildal, Julie; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Balk, Ethan M; Gluud, Christian; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Ioannidis, John P A; Schulz, Kenneth F; Beynon, Rebecca; Welton, Nicky J; Wood, Lesley; Moher, David; Deeks, Jonathan J; Sterne, Jonathan A C

2012-09-18

343

A comparison of two treatments for childhood apraxia of speech: methods and treatment protocol for a parallel group randomised control trial  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood Apraxia of Speech is an impairment of speech motor planning that manifests as difficulty producing the sounds (articulation) and melody (prosody) of speech. These difficulties may persist through life and are detrimental to academic, social, and vocational development. A number of published single subject and case series studies of speech treatments are available. There are currently no randomised control trials or other well designed group trials available to guide clinical practice. Methods/Design A parallel group, fixed size randomised control trial will be conducted in Sydney, Australia to determine the efficacy of two treatments for Childhood Apraxia of Speech: 1) Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment and the 2) Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme – Third edition. Eligible children will be English speaking, aged 4–12?years with a diagnosis of suspected CAS, normal or adjusted hearing and vision, and no comprehension difficulties or other developmental diagnoses. At least 20 children will be randomised to receive one of the two treatments in parallel. Treatments will be delivered by trained and supervised speech pathology clinicians using operationalised manuals. Treatment will be administered in 1-hour sessions, 4 times per week for 3?weeks. The primary outcomes are speech sound and prosodic accuracy on a customised 292 item probe and the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology inconsistency subtest administered prior to treatment and 1?week, 1?month and 4?months post-treatment. All post assessments will be completed by blinded assessors. Our hypotheses are: 1) treatment effects at 1?week post will be similar for both treatments, 2) maintenance of treatment effects at 1 and 4?months post will be greater for Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment than Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme treatment, and 3) generalisation of treatment effects to untrained related speech behaviours will be greater for Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment than Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme treatment. This protocol was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee, University of Sydney (#12924). Discussion This will be the first randomised control trial to test treatment for CAS. It will be valuable for clinical decision-making and providing evidence-based services for children with CAS. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12612000744853 PMID:22863021

2012-01-01

344

Gamified physical activation of young men – a Multidisciplinary Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial (MOPO study)  

PubMed Central

Background Inactive and unhealthy lifestyles are common among adolescent men. The planned intervention examines the effectiveness of an interactive, gamified activation method, based on tailored health information, peer networks and participation, on physical activity, health and wellbeing in young men. We hypothesize that following the intervention the physical activation group will have an improved physical activity, as well as self-determined and measured health compared with the controls. Methods/design Conscription-aged men (18 years) attending compulsory annual call-ups for military service in the city of Oulu in Finland (n?=?1500) will be randomized to a 6-months intervention (n?=?640) or a control group (n?=?640) during the fall 2013. A questionnaire on health, health behaviour, diet and wellbeing is administered in the beginning and end of the intervention. In addition, anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference), body composition, grip strength, heart rate variability and aerobic fitness will be measured. The activation group utilizes an online gamified activation method in combination with communal youth services, objective physical activity measurement, social networking, tailored health information and exercise programs according to baseline activity level and the readiness of changes of each individual. Daily physical activity of the participants is monitored in both the activation and control groups. The activation service rewards improvements in physical activity or reductions in sedentary behaviour. The performance and completion of the military service of the participants will also be followed. Discussion The study will provide new information of physical activity, health and health behaviour of young men. Furthermore, a novel model including methods for increasing physical activity among young people is developed and its effects tested through an intervention. This unique gamified service for activating young men can provide a translational model for community use. It can also be utilized as such or tailored to other selected populations or age groups. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01376986 PMID:23311678

2013-01-01

345

Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control. PMID:18955314

Choi, Ae-Na; Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook

2010-06-01

346

Eradication strategy for persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in individuals with cystic fibrosis—the PMEP trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) respiratory infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) has increased dramatically over the last decade, and is now affecting approximately 25% of patients. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that persistent infection with MRSA results in an increased rate of decline in FEV1 and shortened survival. Currently, there are no conclusive studies demonstrating an effective and safe treatment protocol for persistent MRSA respiratory infection in CF. Methods/Design The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a 28-day course of vancomycin for inhalation in combination with oral antibiotics in eliminating MRSA from the respiratory tract of individuals with CF and persistent MRSA infection. This is a two-center, randomized, double-blind, comparator-controlled, parallel-group study with 1:1 assignment to either vancomycin for inhalation (250 mg twice a day) or taste-matched placebo for 28 days in individuals with cystic fibrosis. In addition, both groups will receive oral rifampin, a second oral antibiotic – trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) or doxycycline, protocol determined – mupirocin intranasal cream, and chlorhexidine body washes. Forty patients with persistent respiratory tract MRSA infection will be enrolled: 20 will be randomized to vancomycin for inhalation and 20 to a taste-matched placebo. The primary outcome will be the presence of MRSA in sputum respiratory tract cultures 1 month after the conclusion of treatment. Secondary outcomes include the efficacy of the intervention on: FEV1% predicted, patient reported outcomes, pulmonary exacerbations, and MRSA colony-forming units found in respiratory tract sample culture. Discussion Results of this study will provide guidance to clinicians regarding the safety and effectiveness of a targeted eradication strategy for persistent MRSA infection in CF. Trial registration This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01594827, received 05/07/2012) and is funded by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (Grants: PMEP10K1 and PMEP11K1). PMID:24925006

2014-01-01

347

Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In ‘the peripheral’ model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In ‘the add-on’ model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally ‘the integral’ model played out in two ways. In ‘integral-in-theory’ studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In ‘integral-in-practice’ studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research. Conclusions Health researchers combining qualitative research and trials viewed this practice as strengthening evaluative research. Teams viewing the qualitative research as essential to the trial, and resourcing it in practice, may have a better chance of delivering its added value to the trial. PMID:24913438

2014-01-01

348

Pilot study assessing HIV vaccine trial readiness among female sex workers, injection and non-injection drug users, and men who have sex with men in Spain.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess HIV risk and willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials in three high risk populations in Spain. Eight hundred and forty-four participants, comprising female sex workers, injection and non-injection drug users (IDUs and NIDUs, respectively), and men who have sex with men were tested for HIV and surveyed for risk and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. HIV seroprevalence was 3.8% (95% CI: 2-11). HIV infection was associated with transgender identification, IDU in the past year, and sex with an IDU or other drug-using partner. The majority (82%) expressed their willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials. Substantial sexual and parenteral risk in all groups and concomitant willingness to participate in vaccine trials was found, particularly among women and IDUs. Additional longitudinal cohort studies in Spain are needed to plan future vaccine efficacy trials. PMID:19037720

Etcheverry, María Florencia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Fuchs, Jonathan D; Meroño, Mercé; Sierra, Ernesto; Del Romero, Jorge; Evans, Jennifer L; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Jacques, Constanza; Rojas, Daniela; Segú, Marta; Gatell, José María; Joseph, Joan

2010-06-01

349

Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) - CTN 0037: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background There is a need for novel approaches to the treatment of stimulant abuse and dependence. Clinical data examining the use of exercise as a treatment for the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, and other substances suggest that exercise may be a beneficial treatment for stimulant abuse, with direct effects on decreased use and craving. In addition, exercise has the potential to improve other health domains that may be adversely affected by stimulant use or its treatment, such as sleep disturbance, cognitive function, mood, weight gain, quality of life, and anhedonia, since it has been shown to improve many of these domains in a number of other clinical disorders. Furthermore, neurobiological evidence provides plausible mechanisms by which exercise could positively affect treatment outcomes. The current manuscript presents the rationale, design considerations, and study design of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN) CTN-0037 Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) study. Methods/Design STRIDE is a multisite randomized clinical trial that compares exercise to health education as potential treatments for stimulant abuse or dependence. This study will evaluate individuals diagnosed with stimulant abuse or dependence who are receiving treatment in a residential setting. Three hundred and thirty eligible and interested participants who provide informed consent will be randomized to one of two treatment arms: Vigorous Intensity High Dose Exercise Augmentation (DEI) or Health Education Intervention Augmentation (HEI). Both groups will receive TAU (i.e., usual care). The treatment arms are structured such that the quantity of visits is similar to allow for equivalent contact between groups. In both arms, participants will begin with supervised sessions 3 times per week during the 12-week acute phase of the study. Supervised sessions will be conducted as one-on-one (i.e., individual) sessions, although other participants may be exercising at the same time. Following the 12-week acute phase, participants will begin a 6-month continuation phase during which time they will attend one weekly supervised DEI or HEI session. Clinical Trials Registry ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01141608 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01141608?term=Stimulant+Reduction+Intervention+using+Dosed+Exercise&rank=1 PMID:21929768

2011-01-01

350