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Sample records for triassic time scale

  1. Time-scale calibration by U-Pb geochronology: Examples from the Triassic Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundil, R.

    2009-05-01

    U-Pb zircon geochronology, pioneered by Tom Krogh, is a cornerstone for the calibration of the time scale. Before Krogh's innovations, U-Pb geochronology was essentially limited by laboratory blank Pb (typically hundreds of nanograms) inherent in the then existing zircon dissolution and purification methods. The introduction of high pressure HF dissolution combined with miniature ion exchange columns (1) reduced the blank by orders of magnitude and allowed mass-spectrometric analyses of minute amounts of material (picograms of Pb and U). Krogh also recognized the need for minimizing the effects of Pb loss, and the introduction of the air-abrasion technique was the method of choice for two decades (2), until the development of the combined annealing and chemical abrasion technique resulted in essentially closed system zircons (3). These are the prerequisite for obtaining precise (permil-level) and accurate radio-isotopic ages of individual zircons contained in primary volcanic ash deposits, which are primary targets for the calibration of the time scale if they occur within fossil bearing sediments. A prime example is the calibration of the Triassic time scale which improved significantly using these techniques. The ages for the base and the top of the Triassic are constrained by U-Pb ages to 252.3 (4) and 201.5 Ma (5), respectively. These dates also constrain the ages of major extinction events at the Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic boundaries, and are statistically indistinguishable from ages obtained for the Siberian Traps and volcanic products from the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, respectively, suggesting a causal link. Ages for these continental volcanics, however, are mostly from the K-Ar (40Ar/39Ar) system which requires accounting and correcting for a systematic bias of ca 1 % between U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar isotopic ages (the 40Ar/39Ar ages being younger) (6). Robust U-Pb age constraints also exist for the Induan- Olenekian boundary (251.2 Ma, (7)) and the Early-Middle Triassic (Olenekian-Anisian) boundary (247.2 Ma, (8, 9)), resulting in a surprisingly short duration of the Early Triassic which has implications for the timing of biotic recovery and major changes in ocean chemistry during this time. Furthermore, the Anisian-Ladinian boundary is constrained to 242.0 Ma by new U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages. Radio-isotopic ages for the Late Triassic are scarce and the only reliable and biostratigraphically controlled age is from an upper Carnian tuff dated to 230.9 Ma (10), yielding a duration of more than 35 Ma for the Late Triassic. The resulting time-scale is at odds with the most recent compilation (11) but arguably more accurate because it is entirely based on U-Pb analyses applied to closed-system zircons with uncertainties at the permil level or better. 1. T. E. Krogh, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 37, 485 (1973); 2. T. E. Krogh, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 46, 637 (1982); 3. J. M. Mattinson, Chemical Geology 220, 47 (2005); 4. R. Mundil, K. R. Ludwig, I. Metcalfe, P. R. Renne, Science 305, 1760 (2004); 5. U. Schaltegger, J. Guex, A. Bartolini, B. Schoene, M. Ovtcharova, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 267, 266 (2008); 6. R. Mundil, P. R. Renne, K. K. Min, K. R. Ludwig, in Eos Trans. AGU, Fall Meet. Suppl. (2006), vol. 87(52), pp. V21A-0543; 7. T. Galfetti et al., Earth and Planetary Science Letters 258, 593 (2007). 8. M. Ovtcharova et al., Earth and Planetary Science Letters 243, 463 (2006). 9. J. Ramezani et al., Earth and Planetary Science Letters 256, 244 (2007). 10. S. Furin et al., Geology 34, 1009 (2006); 11. J. G. Ogg, in A Geologic Time Scale 2004 F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg, A. G. Smith, Eds. (University Press, Cambridge, 2004) pp. 271-306.

  2. Magnetostratigraphic dating of the proposed Rhaetian GSSP at Steinbergkogel (Upper Triassic, Austria): Implications for the Late Triassic time scale

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    by cyclostratigraphic control on the marine Pizzo Mondello (Italy) section, where a combination of long period The Late Triassic period is characterized by increasingenvironmental stress that eventually culminated and Rhaetian stages. The GSSP defining the base of the Hettangian (base Jurassic) was formally accepted by ICS

  3. High-precision U-Pb zircon geochronological constraints on the End-Triassic Mass Extinction, the late Triassic Astronomical Time Scale and geochemical evolution of CAMP magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, T. J.; Olsen, P. E.; Bowring, S. A.; McLean, N. M.; Kent, D. V.; Puffer, J. H.; McHone, G.; Rasbury, T.

    2012-12-01

    Mass extinction events that punctuate Earth's history have had a large influence on the evolution, diversity and composition of our planet's biosphere. The approximate temporal coincidence between the five major extinction events over the last 542 million years and the eruption of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) has led to the speculation that climate and environmental perturbations generated by the emplacement of a large volume of magma in a short period of time triggered each global biologic crisis. Establishing a causal link between extinction and the onset and tempo of LIP eruption has proved difficult because of the geographic separation between LIP volcanic deposits and stratigraphic sequences preserving evidence of the extinction. In most cases, the uncertainties on available radioisotopic dates used to correlate between geographically separated study areas often exceed the duration of both the extinction interval and LIP volcanism by an order of magnitude. The "end-Triassic extinction" (ETE) is one of the "big five" and is characterized by the disappearance of several terrestrial and marine species and dominance of Dinosaurs for the next 134 million years. Speculation on the cause has centered on massive climate perturbations thought to accompany the eruption of flood basalts related to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), the most aerially extensive and volumetrically one of the largest LIPs on Earth. Despite an approximate temporal coincidence between extinction and volcanism, there lacks evidence placing the eruption of CAMP prior to or at the initiation of the extinction. Estimates of the timing and/or duration of CAMP volcanism provided by astrochronology and Ar-Ar geochronology differ by an order of magnitude, precluding high-precision tests of the relationship between LIP volcanism and the mass extinction, the causes of which are dependent upon the rate of magma eruption. Here we present high precision zircon U-Pb ID-TIMS geochronologic data for eight CAMP flows and sills from the eastern U.S. and Morocco. These data are used first to independently test the astronomically calibrated time scale and sediment accumulation rates within the Triassic-Jurassic rift basins along the eastern North America. The U-Pb, paleontological, magnetostratigraphic and astronomical data are combined to constrain the onset and duration of the CAMP and clarify the temporal relationship between the CAMP and the ETE. The dataset together allows more precise estimates of eruptive volume per unit time, a requirement for rigorous evaluation of climate-driven models for the extinction.

  4. Calibration of the Permo-Triassic Magnetostratigraphic Time Scale: Constraints from the Dewey Lake Formation, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.; Knight, K. B.; Renne, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    Magnetostratigraphy is potentially a powerful tool for deciphering the high resolution chronostratigraphy of events across the Permo-Triassic boundary, but few well-dated polarity reversals exist to serve as calibration. Red beds of the Dewey Lake Formation (DLF) of West Texas span three reversed polarity intervals (Steiner, 2001) in a section of the DLF at Caprock Canyons State Park, where two tuffs occur. Sanidine separated from these tuffs was analyzed by 40Ar/39Ar methods. Single crystal laser fusion 40Ar/39Ar analyses of 40 grains from the upper tuff yield a weighted mean age of 249.9 ± 2.4 Ma (2? errors here and throughout). The clustering of single crystal data provides some assurance against xenocrystic contamination. Two age spectra from multigrain sanidine separates from the lower tuff yielded integrated ages of 248.9 ± 2.8 Ma and 249.7 ± 2.8 Ma and consistent plateau ages of 249.2 ± 2.4 Ma and 249.6 ± 2.4 Ma. Two age spectra from multigrain upper tuff sanidines lack strict plateaus but with overall flat age spectra, with integrated ages of 249.7 ± 2.8 Ma and 250.3 ± 2.8 Ma and plateau-like segments (>70% of 39Ar released) with ages of 249.9 ± 2.6 Ma and 249.9 ± 2.6 Ma, respectively. These results, compared with 40Ar/39Ar data (using the same FCs = 28.02 Ma standard calibration) from the GSSP section at Meishan, China, suggest that the Permo-Triassic boundary (249.8 Ma; recalculated from Renne et al., 1995) definitely occurs within the lower Dewey Lake Formation. The two tuffs, which bracket a normal to reverse geomagnetic polarity transition polarity (Steiner, 2001), have indistinguishable ages. The age of this Permo-Triassic polarity transition is thus best represented by the weighed average of their ages, ca. 249.7 Ma (based on accepted calibrations of the 40Ar/39Ar system). Further such constraints will facilitate high-resolution comparison of terrestrial and marine records across this critical time interval.

  5. High resolution U?Pb dating of Middle Triassic volcaniclastics: Time-scale calibration and verification of tuning parameters for carbonate sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundil, Roland; Brack, Peter; Meier, Martin; Rieber, Hans; Oberli, Felix

    1996-06-01

    We report high-resolution single-zircon U?Pb age data for Middle Triassic volcaniclastic intercalations in biostratigraphically calibrated pelagic successions of the Southern Alps. The results require a redefinition of the chronometric scale for the Middle Triassic. Moreover, they do not support current models relating cyclic sedimentation in platform carbonates of the Dolomites to orbital tuning. Tight concordant age clusters were obtained for five volcaniclastic layers in three ammonoid biozones of late Anisian to early Ladinian age. Two layers in the (Nevadites) Secedensis Zone yielded identical mean 206Pb /238U ages of 241.2 + 0.8/-0.8 Ma and 241.2 + 0.8/-0.6 Ma (errors given at the 95% confidence level). A layer in the Gredleri Zone is dated at 238.8 + 0.5/-0.2 Ma, and two horizons in the Archelaus Zone yield similar ages of 237.9 + 1.0/-0.7 Ma and 238.0 + 0.4/-0.7 Ma. These results are significantly older than the age values of 233-235 Ma assigned to the Anisian/Ladinian boundary by several current time scales [1-4]. Moreover, our estimate of 240.7-241.3 Ma (depending on biostratigraphic collocation) for the Anisian/Ladinian boundary casts doubts on the reliability of age values of 245-250 Ma proposed by most time scales for the Permian/Triassic boundary. The occurrence of pelagic fossils in basinal sediments as well as in age-equivalent shallow marine Middle Triassic platform carbonates in the Dolomites allows the sedimentary sequences of both environments to be correlated. The 800 m thick Latemar platform (western Dolomites) is characterized by cyclic stacking patterns, which have been interpreted as results of Milankovitch-type high-frequency/low-amplitude sea-level fluctuations. The 12 m.y. interval of platform growth postulated from the assignment of orbital periodicities to the platform carbonate cycles [5,6] is in conflict with a maximum time span of 4.7 m.y. allowed by the present zircon data.

  6. Patterns of Reef Ecosystem Recovery Indicate That Adverse Early Triassic Ocean Conditions Extended into Middle Triassic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, B. M.; Yu, M.; Lehrmann, D. J.; Jost, A. B.; Lau, K. V.; Li, X.; Schaal, E. K.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    The pattern of reef ecosystem recovery from the end-Permian extinction is poorly constrained due to the limited stratigraphic, spatial, and geographic range of reef buildups in Early Triassic and Anisian (early Middle Triassic) strata. In this study, we combined field studies and petrographic analysis to examine the pattern of reef evolution in latest Permian to Late Triassic carbonate platforms in the Nanpanjiang Basin of South China, an area of extensive shallow-water carbonate deposition in the tropical eastern Tethys. We find that early Mesozoic reef recovery in the eastern Tethys was a five-step process: (1) in the immediate aftermath of extinction, calcimicrobial biostromes (P/T boundary microbialites) developed in shallow-water platform settings; (2) in late Induan time, biohermal stromatolites developed in platform interior settings; (3) in latest Spathian time, large-scale Tubiphytes, microbial, and cement reefs lacking skeletal metazoans initiated on the margins and steep upper slopes of carbonate platforms, signaling the return of reefs to platform-margin settings; (4) in the Aegean or Bithynian (early Anisian), diminutive (mm-scale) calcareous sponges and calcareous algae appeared in the Tubiphytes reef, marking the reappearance of skeletal metazoans and calcareous algae to reefs in the eastern Tethys; and (5) in the late Anisian, the appearance of scleractinian corals coincided with increased abundance, size, and diversity of metazoan and algal reef builders. Early Mesozoic reefs of the eastern Tethys were dominated by microbes, Tubiphytes, and early-marine cements until the late Anisian, several million years into the Middle Triassic. The appearance of small metazoan buildups in Early Triassic strata in other parts of the world indicates that potential reef-building organisms were present much earlier. The limited stratigraphic range of those buildups, however, reinforces the interpretation that episodic environmental disturbances such as euxinia, high temperatures, and acidification impacted biotic recovery during Early Triassic time. Our findings of protracted early Mesozoic reef recovery suggest that the causal links between environmental disturbance and biotic recovery extended into Middle Triassic time.

  7. Status Report on the 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb Dating of Tuffs in the Dewey Lake Formation of West Texas Towards Constraining the Permo-Triassic Magnetostratigraphic Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.; Renne, P. R.; Mundil, R.

    2007-12-01

    A detailed magnetic polarity time scale for the Permo-Triassic Boundary interval, critical for correlating events in marine and terrestrial paleoenvironments, is not yet well-established. Recently, late Permian magnetostratigraphic studies have been reported for non-marine sections in Europe and South Africa (Szurlies et al., 2003; Nawrocki, 2004; Ward et al., 2005). However, these sections are devoid of index fossil suitable for correlation with marine successions and also lack age constraints from radioisotopic dating methods. In other words, it is dubious to correlate these magnetostratigraphic data with the GSSP Permo-Triassic boundary and mass extinction. The Dewey Lake red beds formation of West Texas, believed to be the youngest Permian formation in North America, has yielded high-quality paleomagnetic data (Molina-Garza et al., 1989; Steiner, 2001) and contains several silicic tuffs potentially enabling high-resolution calibration of the magnetic polarity time scale in this critical age range. The tuffs have yet to be placed into a regional stratigraphic or magnetostratigraphic framework, and it is unclear exactly how many distinct eruptive units are represented by the 7 distinct samples collected to date from widely separated (>160 km) localities. 40Ar/39Ar (sanidine and biotite) and U/Pb (zircon) studies reveal that all 7 sampled tuffs were probably erupted within several hundred ka of the Permo-Triassic boundary as dated at the Meishan GSSP section (Renne et al., 1995; Mundil et al., 2004) but results thus far are inadequate to convincingly resolve age differences between the various samples. U/Pb dating of some samples is severely challenged by Pb-loss from the zircons despite application of the Mattinson (2005) annealing/chemical abrasion technique. 40Ar/39Ar data have been obtained from as many as four different irradiations in order to reduce neutron fluence related error. We observe the familiar ~1% bias between U/Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages. Biotite microprobe data, zircon U/Th TIMS data, and the absence of sanidine from some samples serve to help correlate or distinguish some samples despite irresolvable age differences; existing data suggest that 4 distinct tuffs are present in the Dewey Lake Formation. Resolving their ages convincingly will require further work, but it is clear from our results combined with previous magnetostratigraphic data that magnetic polarity reversals were relatively frequent in the latest Permian. Thus the uniqueness of correlations elsewhere with the Permo-Triassic boundary based on magnetostratigraphy alone are not well-founded.

  8. Testing the fossil record: Sampling proxies and scaling in the British TriassicJurassic

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    Testing the fossil record: Sampling proxies and scaling in the British Triassic­Jurassic Alexander March 2014 Available online 30 March 2014 Keywords: Palaeodiversity Fossil record Sampling Proxy Triassic Jurassic The quality of the fossil record varies immensely across taxa, geographic regions

  9. High precision time calibration of the Permo-Triassic boundary mass extinction by U-Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baresel, Björn; Bucher, Hugo; Brosse, Morgane; Schaltegger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    U-Pb dating using Chemical Abrasion, Isotope Dilution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) is the analytical method of choice for geochronologists, who are seeking highest temporal resolution and a high degree of accuracy for single grains of zircon. The use of double-isotope tracer solutions, cross-calibrated and assessed in different EARTHTIME labs, coinciding with the reassessment of the uranium decay constants and further improvements in ion counting technology led to unprecedented precision better than 0.1% for single grain, and 0.05% for population ages, respectively. These analytical innovations now allow calibrating magmatic and biological timescales at resolution adequate for both groups of processes. To construct a revised and high resolution calibrated time scale for the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) we use (i) high-precision U-Pb zircon age determinations of a unique succession of volcanic ash beds interbedded with shallow to deep water fossiliferous sediments in the Nanpanjiang Basin (South China) combined with (ii) accurate quantitative biochronology based on ammonoids and conodonts and (iii) carbon isotope excursions across the PTB. Using these alignments allows (i) positioning the PTB in different depositional environments and (ii) solving age/stratigraphic contradictions generated by the index, water depth-controlled conodont Hindeodus parvus, whose diachronous first occurrences are arbitrarily used for placing the base of the Triassic. This new age framework provides the basis for a combined calibration of chemostratigraphic records with high-resolution biochronozones of the Late Permian and Early Triassic. Besides the general improvement of the radio-isotopic calibration of the PTB at the ±100 ka level, this will also lead to a better understanding of cause and effect relations involved in this mass extinction.

  10. Occupational Cohort Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores how highly correlated time variables (occupational cohort time scales) contribute to confounding and ambiguity of interpretation. Methods: Occupational cohort time scales were identified and organized through simple equations of three time scales (relational triads) and the connections between these triads (time scale web). The behavior of the time scales was examined when constraints were imposed on variable ranges and interrelationships. Results: Constraints on a time scale in a triad create high correlations between the other two time scales. These correlations combine with the connections between relational triads to produce association paths. High correlation between time scales leads to ambiguity of interpretation. Conclusions: Understanding the properties of occupational cohort time scales, their relational triads, and the time scale web is helpful in understanding the origins of otherwise obscure confounding bias and ambiguity of interpretation. PMID:25647318

  11. Timing is everything: ecological vs. evolutionary pacing of Triassic-Jurassic carbon cycle disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteside, J. H.; Olsen, P. E.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2007-12-01

    Eruption of Earth's largest flood basalt, the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) has been proposed as the trigger for a major carbon cycle disruption at the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction interval at ~201 Ma. Inferred from negative excursions in the carbon isotopic composition (?13C) of carbonate and organic matter, this perturbation has been linked to massive dissociation of isotopically light, methane-rich gas hydrates caused by volcanogenic CO2-induced global warming. However, both the sequence and duration of the CAMP eruptions relative to the carbon cycle perturbation remain circumstantial and indirect, because the data have been from stratigraphic sections far from the flood basalts and without accumulation rate constraints. Here we use a record of atmospheric (?13C) from specific molecules (nC25 - nC32 n-alkanes) diagnostic of terrestrial plant leaf waxes from astronomically-paced cyclical lacustrine strata in which CAMP flood basalts are interbedded to directly examine the relationship between the (?13C) excursions and their durations. We show that the flood basalts postdate the abrupt start of a ~400 ky negative excursion coincident with the initiation of the mass extinction event, but predate a protracted 1.5 m.y. negative excursion. Based on a modified BLAG carbon cycle model, the timing and long durations of our (?13C) excursions are incompatible with CAMP-triggered gas hydrate release. Instead, we suggest that the (?13C) pattern is more consistent with a catastrophically-triggered functional reorganization of the biosphere, part of which involved the ascent of dinosaurs to ecological dominance, playing out over evolutionary time.

  12. Position of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and timing of the end-Triassic extinctions on land: Data from the Moenave Formation on the southern Colorado Plateau, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, S.G.; Tanner, L.H.; Donohoo-Hurley, L.; Geissman, J.W.; Kozur, H.W.; Heckert, A.B.; Weems, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Strata of the Moenave Formation on and adjacent to the southern Colorado Plateau in Utah-Arizona, U.S.A., represent one of the best known and most stratigraphically continuous, complete and fossiliferous terrestrial sections across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. We present a synthesis of new biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic data collected from across the Moenave Formation outcrop belt, which extends from the St. George area in southwestern Utah to the Tuba City area in northern Arizona. These data include palynomorphs, conchostracans and vertebrate fossils (including footprints) and a composite polarity record based on four overlapping magnetostratigraphic sections. Placement of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary in strata of the Moenave Formation has long been imprecise and debatable, but these new data (especially the conchostracans) allow us to place the Triassic-Jurassic boundary relatively precisely in the middle part of the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation, stratigraphically well above the highest occurrence of crurotarsan body fossils or footprints. Correlation to marine sections based on this placement indicates that major terrestrial vertebrate extinctions preceded marine extinctions across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and therefore were likely unrelated to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) volcanism. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Timing of the Permian-Triassic biotic crisis: implications from new zircon U/Pb age data (and their limitations)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundil, Roland; Metcalfe, Ian; Ludwig, Kenneth R.; Renne, Paul R.; Oberli, Felix; Nicoll, Robert S.

    2001-04-01

    The most profound biotic crisis in the Earth's history, causing the near extinction of both terrestrial and marine life, occurred at the end of the Permian period about 253 Myr ago and marks the Paleozoic-Mesozoic era boundary. The cause of this event is still a matter of vigorous debate, with both brief and catastrophic as well as gradual mechanisms having been proposed. Similar to a recent landmark study, this study uses the U-Pb method on zircons from the uppermost Permian/lowermost Triassic ash fall deposits at Meishan (Zhejiang Province, SE China) in order to examine time and rate constraints for these events. The results of both this study and previous work show that for these ash layers, the effects of Pb loss are combined with varying amounts and sources of inheritance, resulting in an age scatter which prohibits the extraction of a statistically robust age in many cases. Though the effects of Pb loss on the zircons analyzed in this study were reduced by leaching the grains in hydrofluoric acid (as opposed to commonly applied air abrasion) prior to analysis, the presence within a single ash layer of multiple generations of older xenocrysts (in many cases only slightly older than the depositional age) has made quantitative interpretation even more difficult. When these combined phenomena bias individual zircon ages by less than a percent, they are extremely difficult to deconvolute, and, if multi-grain analyses are used, can become impossible to recognize (because of the resulting age averaging). Monte Carlo simulations using actual measurements of individual zircon crystals show that age excursions due to Pb loss and xenocrystic contamination for the Meishan bentonites are easily homogenized to the point of undetectability when replicate analyses of multi-grain zircon samples are compared. Thus this study uses only high-precision analyses of single crystals, whether from our work or that of previous studies. Three main conclusions have emerged. First, our data require a significant increase in the age of the Permian-Triassic boundary by more than 2 myr compared to the previous study, which shifts the age to a value older than 253 Ma. Second, neither our data nor those from previous work can confirm or negate the possibility of a very abrupt biotic crisis. Third, even large suites of very high-quality, single-zircon U-Pb analyses for these tuffs cannot, in most cases, yield objective, reliable, and robust dates with accuracies at the sub-myr level - though the temptation to perform arbitrary selection of subsets of the analyses for that purpose is almost irresistible. The last conclusion is not an indictment of zircon U/Pb dating in general (other rocks and other zircon populations can - and do - behave very differently), and further technical advances will likely improve our ability to prepare grains or sub-grains of adequately enhanced quality for analysis. Consequently, the results of the present study strongly suggest that for problems requiring time-scale accuracy, inferences from zircon U-Pb dating must be based on sufficiently large suites of single-crystal or crystal domain, high-precision analyses (<1% error) that are realistically interpreted.

  14. Large-scale diabase intrusion in the Durham Triassic Basin of North Carolina: geophysics and geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Bolich, R.E.; Bevis, M.G.; Won, I.J.; Fodor, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    Gravity and magnetic data obtained from the Durham Triassic Basin of North Carolina reveal pronounced positive gravity and magnetic anomalies of 10 milligals and 300 gammas, respectively, along the western border of the basin. In the vicinity of these anomalies, diabase outcrops, some with chilled margins and others with flow features, occur sporadically, but have a combined area of about 100 sq. km. Two-dimensional modeling of the gravity data indicates that the diabase body accounts for the gravity anomaly as a semi-continuous subsurface intrusion. The intrusive body is greater than 250 m thick near the western border of the basin, but thins to about 100 m near the center of the basin. Geochemical data for samples recovered from 4 air-drill sites at one diabase outcrop in Butner, North Carolina yield high MgO concentrations, and low FeO, K2O, and TiO2. The geophysical and geochemical data are consistent with an uncontaminated basaltic magma ascending along a major fissure or fissures and into the basin. In the basin, the diabase encountered unlithified sediments, resulting in both intrusive and extrusive forms. Although similar chemical compositions for Mesozoic North American dikes have been reported, this is the first indication of an intrusive body of such a large extent and primitive chemical composition.

  15. Relation of Middle and Late Triassic strata of N-C Nevada to contemporaneous strata of southern Nevada and Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Elison, M.W.

    1993-04-01

    Middle and Late Triassic shelf strata in north-central Nevada comprising dominantly carbonate rocks of the Star Peak Group and overlying siliciclastic and carbonate rocks are overlain tectonically by predominantly siliciclastic basinal strata. Late Triassic slope strata are preserved in the East and Humboldt Ranges. At present, these Triassic rocks are separated from contemporaneous deposits of Utah by roughly 300 km over which time-equivalent ( ) strata are limited to a small, isolated outcrop near Currie, NV. Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonics and widespread absence of Triassic rocks immediately to the east complicate the relation between the north-central Nevada section and Triassic rocks of southern Nevada and Utah. The gap in Triassic rocks may have resulted from erosion of intervening strata or from tectonic separation of originally contiguous stratal sequences. Some depositional facies of the shelf uniformly cover the preserved outcrop area and do not constrain the scale of the depositional system. Where facies variations are present, they suggest sediment sources to the east and north and deeper water to the west. Facies patterns, however, were influenced by local tectonics and changes in sediment source and supply. Late Triassic strata of N-C Nevada probably are the shallow-marine equivalents of fluvial and lacustrine rocks to the east. Local tectonics and changes in sediment influx require caution regarding interpretation of the original proximity of preserved stratal sequences.

  16. The Triassic-Jurassic boundary in eastern North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, P. E.; Comet, B.

    1988-01-01

    Rift basins of the Atlantic passive margin in eastern North America are filled with thousands of meters of continental rocks termed the Newark Supergroup which provide an unprecedented opportunity to examine the fine scale structure of the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction in continental environments. Time control, vital to the understanding of the mechanisms behind mass extinctions, is provided by lake-level cycles apparently controlled by orbitally induced climate change allowing resolution at the less than 21,000 year level. Correlation with other provinces is provided by a developing high resolution magnetostratigraphy and palynologically-based biostratigraphy. A large number of at least local vertebrate and palynomorph extinctions are concentrated around the boundary with survivors constituting the earliest Jurassic assemblages, apparently without the introduction of new taxa. The palynofloral transition is marked by the dramatic elimination of a relatively high diversity Triassic pollen assemblage with the survivors making up a Jurassic assemblage of very low diversity overwhelmingly dominated by Corollina. Based principally on palynological correlations, the hypothesis that these continental taxonomic transitions were synchronous with the massive Triassic-Jurassic marine extinctions is strongly corroborated. An extremely rapid, perhaps catastrophic, taxonomic turnover at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, synchronous in continental and marine realms is hypothesized and discussed.

  17. Permian-Triassic Osteichthyes (bony fishes): diversity dynamics and body size evolution.

    PubMed

    Romano, Carlo; Koot, Martha B; Kogan, Ilja; Brayard, Arnaud; Minikh, Alla V; Brinkmann, Winand; Bucher, Hugo; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2014-11-27

    The Permian and Triassic were key time intervals in the history of life on Earth. Both periods are marked by a series of biotic crises including the most catastrophic of such events, the end-Permian mass extinction, which eventually led to a major turnover from typical Palaeozoic faunas and floras to those that are emblematic for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Here we review patterns in Permian-Triassic bony fishes, a group whose evolutionary dynamics are understudied. Based on data from primary literature, we analyse changes in their taxonomic diversity and body size (as a proxy for trophic position) and explore their response to Permian-Triassic events. Diversity and body size are investigated separately for different groups of Osteichthyes (Dipnoi, Actinistia, 'Palaeopterygii', 'Subholostei', Holostei, Teleosteomorpha), within the marine and freshwater realms and on a global scale (total diversity) as well as across palaeolatitudinal belts. Diversity is also measured for different palaeogeographical provinces. Our results suggest a general trend from low osteichthyan diversity in the Permian to higher levels in the Triassic. Diversity dynamics in the Permian are marked by a decline in freshwater taxa during the Cisuralian. An extinction event during the end-Guadalupian crisis is not evident from our data, but 'palaeopterygians' experienced a significant body size increase across the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary and these fishes upheld their position as large, top predators from the Late Permian to the Late Triassic. Elevated turnover rates are documented at the Permian-Triassic boundary, and two distinct diversification events are noted in the wake of this biotic crisis, a first one during the Early Triassic (dipnoans, actinistians, 'palaeopterygians', 'subholosteans') and a second one during the Middle Triassic ('subholosteans', neopterygians). The origination of new, small taxa predominantly among these groups during the Middle Triassic event caused a significant reduction in osteichthyan body size. Neopterygii, the clade that encompasses the vast majority of extant fishes, underwent another diversification phase in the Late Triassic. The Triassic radiation of Osteichthyes, predominantly of Actinopterygii, which only occurred after severe extinctions among Chondrichthyes during the Middle-Late Permian, resulted in a profound change within global fish communities, from chondrichthyan-rich faunas of the Permo-Carboniferous to typical Mesozoic and Cenozoic associations dominated by actinopterygians. This turnover was not sudden but followed a stepwise pattern, with leaps during extinction events. PMID:25431138

  18. Research paper Pedogenic hematitic concretions from the Triassic New Haven Arkose, Connecticut

    E-print Network

    Glotch, Timothy D.

    Research paper Pedogenic hematitic concretions from the Triassic New Haven Arkose, Connecticut Keywords: Sedimentary concretions Diagenetic processes Geochemistry Mars The Triassic New Haven Arkose locally contains mm-scaled pedogenic hematitic concretions, within red arkosic sandy mudstones

  19. Three-dimensional accommodation analysis of the Triassic in the Paris Basin: a new approach in unravelling the basin evolution with time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goggin, Valerie; Jacquin, Thierry; Gaulier, Jean Michel

    1997-12-01

    The mechanisms governing the development of the Paris Basin throughout the Triassic are regarded as being the result of superimposed and successive processes. In this study, the Triassic succession of the Paris Basin was re-interpreted in a sequence stratigraphic context, using essentially wireline log data. From this, a series of isopach maps, lithofacies maps and palaeobathymetric maps was produced for each sequence. Three-dimensional accommodation analysis was then carried out sequence by sequence, over the entire basin to produce a precise, detailed accommodation history for the entire Triassic succession. Previous studies have proposed that the Triassic was deposited during a rift period in a transtensional stress regime, with the formation of a trough superposed onto three fault systems derived from the Variscan structural framework. In this study, Scythian to Ladinian sediments (Buntsandstein and Muschelkalk) record the stress regime that prevailed over much of NW Europe. The basin architecture at this time is in continuity with the neighbouring Germanic Basin. Our three-dimensional accommodation modelling shows that the stress regime changed during the Carnian and the late Norian (Keuper). The Carnian events are marked by (1) the creation of a large depocentre infilled with halite, and (2) a northwest migration of this depocentre during the mid-late Carnian along with deposition of the Grès-à-Roseaux, an extensive fluvial deposit. This documents renewed strike-slip movement along the Bray fault. The Norian events involved major tectonic uplift on the basin margins, producting fan delta progradation into the basin. Rotation of the previous depocentre axis occurs on the downthrown side of the Bray fault. This may be viewed as a consequence of sinistral strike-slip displacement along the Bray fault, forming a local transpressive stress regime. The following Liassic cycle commenced with the Rhaetic sequences and illustrates a complete change in the stress regime. This corresponds with the new stress regime which prevailed over northwest Europe during the Liassic cycle. Accommodation curves from the basin complement this interpretation recognising two major accommodation phases which are separated by a significant unconformity. Both phases record periods of accelerating accommodation followed by a more uniform phase of decelerating accommodation. The accelerating phases correspond to periods of rapid accommodation space creation and result in thick evaporite deposits. They correspond to 'rift pulses' which occurred in the remote North Atlantic and Tethyan domain. Each accommodation phase is proposed to correspond to lithospheric stretching pulses followed by a relaxation period. This study illustrates the importance of sequence stratigraphy coupled with three-dimensional accommodation analysis in refining important stages in the basin evolution with time.

  20. Time scales in LISA

    E-print Network

    S. Pireaux

    2007-03-23

    The LISA mission is a space interferometer aiming at the detection of gravitational waves in the [$10^{-4}$,$10^{-1}$] Hz frequency band. In order to reach the gravitational wave detection level, a Time Delay Interferometry (TDI) method must be applied to get rid of (most of) the laser frequency noise and optical bench noise. This TDI analysis is carried out in terms of the coordinate time corresponding to the Barycentric Coordinate Reference System (BCRS), TCB, whereas the data at each of the three LISA stations is recorded in terms of each station proper time. We provide here the required proper time versus BCRS time transformation. We show that the difference in rate of station proper time versus TCB is of the order of $5 10^{-8}$. The difference between station proper times and TCB exhibits an oscillatory trend with a maximum amplitude of about $10^{-3}$ s.

  1. Time scale independent signal transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltin, L.

    1980-05-01

    The paper presents a method which permits the conversion of time scale variations occurring during signal transmission into time shifts proportionally related to these variations. It is demonstrated that the method can be used to reject the adverse effects of the time scale variations (such as wow and flutter in magnetic tape recordings) and/or to determine the scale change exactly (such as would be required in Doppler signal processing). Finally, it is noted that since the system performance degrades with rising frequency of the time scale distortions, an upper bound for this frequency is derived.

  2. Geologic time scale bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2012-01-01

    This bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the 2nd USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.

  3. Early Triassic geologic history of northeastern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, R.K.; Paull, R.A.

    1986-08-01

    Conodont biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic studies of Lower Triassic rocks in northeastern Elko County, Nevada, and adjacent parts of Idaho and Utah provide new information about regional geologic history. A sequential summary of Early Triassic events in this area follows: (1) rapid transgression of the Griesbachian sea to limiting barriers on the south (Oquirrh-Uinta axis) and west (Humboldt highland.). (2) Although the initial Triassic transgression may have persisted farther south and west than present-day evidence indicates, a period of progradation during the Dienerian limited marine sedimentation to northeastern-most Nevada and adjacent states. (3) In Smithian time, a widespread transgression spilled south and west over the earliest Triassic basin margin. (4) The southward flood is characterized by locally spectacular basal conglomerates followed by shallow marine deposits of the Thaynes Formation. (5) The transgression to the west was facilitated by tectonic removal of the restrictive barrier during the Smithian. This resulted in a slope-basin environment that accumulated a thick sequence of shale and calcareous siltstone with interbeds of turbidite conglomerates, olistostromes, and exotic blocks derived from Permian formations in northern Nevada or adjacent Idaho. (6) During a regional progradation in early Spathian time, marine conditions persisted in northeastern Nevada. (7) A final depositional episode is documented by the progressive westward spread of carbonate rocks of the Thaynes Formation. (8) Withdrawal of Triassic seas from northeast Nevada occurred post-latest Early Triassic, since a carbonate sequence of more than 300 m overlies the youngest dated interval.

  4. Timing and Extent of Magmatism Associated With the Permo-Triassic Siberian Large Igneous Province: The Biggest Gets Bigger.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichow, M. K.; Saunders, A. D.; Pringle, M. S.; Puchkov, V. N.; Safonova, I. Y.; Fedoseev, G. S.; Buslov, M. M.

    2006-12-01

    The generation of large igneous provinces, and whether or not they are responsible for mass extinctions, are hotly debated. The Siberian Traps represent the remnants of the largest Phanerozoic continental flood basalt province, with an estimated original size of 4 x 106 km2 and an original combined volume of at least 2 x 106 km3 (Milanovskiy, 1976). The province may also be responsible for the Permo-Triassic mass extinction at 251 Ma. Despite recent intensive research on the province, the extent and duration of extrusive and related magmatism are still controversial. Although several areas surrounding the Siberian craton have been attributed to the Siberian Traps volcanic activity, the full extent remains conjectural as precise age determinations and chemical correlations between units are missing. Basaltic, gabbroic and rhyolitic rocks occur throughout the West Siberian Basin beneath a thick succession of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments. Thicknesses of the lava sequences vary but exceed 2 km in places. Areas with basalt and dolerite rocks supposedly related to the Siberian Traps are also reported further to the north of the Siberian craton, on the Taimyr Peninsula, along the eastern border of the Urals (Chelyabinsk) and in the polar Urals (Vorkuta), and to the south within the Kuznetsk Basin (Kuzbass) and Semeitau (Kazakhstan) areas. We have obtained widespread early Triassic sample material from across Siberia, and present an assessment of published and new geochemical and isotopic age data. Basalts from the West Siberian Basin, and the Chelyabinsk, Kuzbass, Vorkuta regions have chemical characteristics typical of evolved, crustally- contaminated continental flood basalts (e.g., low Mg#, negative Nb anomaly) showing affinities with the Nadezhdinsky suite of the main traps from the Noril'sk area. The Nadezhdinsky suite is known to immediately precede the supposedly main pulse of volcanism that extruded over large areas of the craton. The data indicate that the basalts and associated rhyolites are likely to be a part of the greater Siberian LIP, although it is not yet possible, with the currently available data, to define the duration of activity. We review of the challenges of explaining the generation of the Siberian Large Igneous Province.

  5. The history of the Arabian platform evolution in the Late Permian and Triassic

    SciTech Connect

    Bebeshev, I.I.

    1995-03-01

    On the basis of comprehensive investigations of the Upper Permian and Triassic sequences of the Arabian platform, three stages were recognized, corresponding to distinct time intervals. The first stage corresponds to the Latest Permian-Early Triassic, the second - to the Early-Middle Triassic, the third - to the Late Triassic. Special maps were plotted for the second and third stages, reflecting major paleogeographic and paleotectonic events. An effort was made to test the oil potential of the sequences.

  6. Triassic-Jurassic marine anoxia in response to massive carbon release from CAMP?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, M.; Bjerrum, C. J.; Canfield, D. E.; Frei, R.

    2012-04-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction [~201.3 Ma], marked by marine and terrestrial ecosystem collapse and global marine biodiversity loss, coincides with the onset of extensive volcanic activity and emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). Massive and rapid greenhouse gas release from surface basalts, subsurface organic rich strata and ocean-floor clathrate-hydrates had a profound impact on the global exogenic carbon cycle and it dramatically increased atmospheric pCO2 values. Although Permian-Triassic [~252 Ma] and early Toarcian [~183 Ma] volcanic carbon release is thought to have initiated global ocean anoxic events, ocean redox changes at the end-Triassic mass extinction are poorly constrained. Marine anoxia is only suggested by organic-rich, finely laminated sediment deposition in marginal marine basins. We studied the biostratigraphically well-constrained Triassic-Jurassic marine sedimentary record from St. Audrie's Bay (UK), which is astronomically calibrated to the continental geomagnetic polarity time-scale (GPTS) of the continental Newark basin. This marine geological archive is marked by precession paced black-shale deposition, similar to Neogene Mediterranean sapropels. We studied redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo, U, V, Cu, Ni), iron-speciation (FeHR/FeT, FePY/FeHR) and ?34S-pyrite through the end-Triassic mass extinction and subsequent 3 million years of the lower Jurassic. We observe direct stratigraphic correlation between CAMP flood basalt emplacement, strong atmospheric pCO2 increase and development of marine anoxia. This now allows evaluation of mechanistic relations between massive greenhouse gas emissions initiated by CAMP volcanism, subsequent environmental change and upper Triassic and lower Jurassic biotic response.

  7. Time Scales in Particulate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Duan

    2013-06-01

    While there are many interests of studying interactions of individual particles, macroscopic collective behavior of particles are our main interest in many practical applications. In this talk, I will give a brief overview of the multiscale methods connecting the physics at individual particles to macroscopic quantities and averaged equations. The emphasis will be on dense dissipative particulate systems, such as powders. Unlike conservative particle systems, such as molecular systems, in a dissipative particle system the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium is not very useful unless in very special cases, because the only true thermodynamically equilibrium state in these systems is the state in which nothing moves. Other than idealized simple systems, mesoscale structures are common and important in many practical systems, especially in dissipative systems. Spatial correlations of these mesoscale structures, such as force chains in dense granular system, particle clusters and streamers in fluidized beds have received some recent attentions, partly because they can be visualized. This talk will emphasize the effects of time correlations related to the mesoscale structures. To consider time correlations and history information of the system, I will introduce the mathematical foundation of the Liouville equation, its applicability and limitations. I will derive the generalized Liouville equations for particulate systems with and without interstitial fluids, and then use them to study averaged transport equations and related closures. Interactions among the time scale of particle interactions, the time scale of the mesocale structures, and the time scale of the physical problem as represented by strain rate will be discussed. The effect of these interactions on the closure relations will be illustrated. I will also discuss possible numerical methods of solving the averaged equations, and multiscale numerical algorithms bridging the particle level calculations to continuum level calculations. This work was sponsored by Stockpile Safety and Surety Program, the Joint DOD/DOE Munitions Technology Development Program, and National Nuclear Security Administrations Science Campaign 2.

  8. Characteristic time scale of auroral electrojet data

    SciTech Connect

    Takalo, J.; Timonen, J.

    1994-04-01

    The authors study the different time scales which have been observed in the auroral electrojet (AE) data. Structure function data shows the AE time series experiences a scaling change with a time scale of approximately 2 hours. Autocorrelation measurements also reveal a characteristic time of close to two hours. The authors argue here for a relationship between these two times, and for a relationship between these two times and the time scale of breaks in the power spectrum of the AE data.

  9. The Sail-Backed Reptile Ctenosauriscus from the Latest Early Triassic of Germany and the Timing and Biogeography of the Early Archosaur Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Richard J.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Reich, Mike; Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Schoch, Rainer R.; Hornung, Jahn J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Archosaurs (birds, crocodilians and their extinct relatives including dinosaurs) dominated Mesozoic continental ecosystems from the Late Triassic onwards, and still form a major component of modern ecosystems (>10,000 species). The earliest diverse archosaur faunal assemblages are known from the Middle Triassic (c. 244 Ma), implying that the archosaur radiation began in the Early Triassic (252.3–247.2 Ma). Understanding of this radiation is currently limited by the poor early fossil record of the group in terms of skeletal remains. Methodology/Principal Findings We redescribe the anatomy and stratigraphic position of the type specimen of Ctenosauriscus koeneni (Huene), a sail-backed reptile from the Early Triassic (late Olenekian) Solling Formation of northern Germany that potentially represents the oldest known archosaur. We critically discuss previous biomechanical work on the ‘sail’ of Ctenosauriscus, which is formed by a series of elongated neural spines. In addition, we describe Ctenosauriscus-like postcranial material from the earliest Middle Triassic (early Anisian) Röt Formation of Waldhaus, southwestern Germany. Finally, we review the spatial and temporal distribution of the earliest archosaur fossils and their implications for understanding the dynamics of the archosaur radiation. Conclusions/Significance Comprehensive numerical phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that both Ctenosauriscus and the Waldhaus taxon are members of a monophyletic grouping of poposauroid archosaurs, Ctenosauriscidae, characterised by greatly elongated neural spines in the posterior cervical to anterior caudal vertebrae. The earliest archosaurs, including Ctenosauriscus, appear in the body fossil record just prior to the Olenekian/Anisian boundary (c. 248 Ma), less than 5 million years after the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. These earliest archosaur assemblages are dominated by ctenosauriscids, which were broadly distributed across northern Pangea and which appear to have been the first global radiation of archosaurs. PMID:22022431

  10. Improving the Geologic Time Scale (Jean Baptiste Lamarck Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradstein, Felix M.

    2010-05-01

    The Geologic Time Scale (GTS) provides the framework for the physical, chemical and biological processes on Earth. The time scale is the tool "par excellence" of the geological trade, and insight in its construction, strength, and limitations enhances its function and its utility. Earth scientists should understand how time scales are constructed and its myriad of physical and abstract data are calibrated, rather than merely using ages plucked from a convenient chart or card. Calibration to linear time of the succession of events recorded in the rocks on Earth has three components: (1) the standard stratigraphic divisions and their correlation in the global rock record, (2) the means of measuring linear time or elapsed durations from the rock record, and (3) the methods of effectively joining the two scales, the stratigraphic one and the linear one. Under the auspices of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), the international stratigraphic divisions and their correlative events are now largely standardized, especially using the GSSP (Global Stratigraphic Section and Point) concept. The means of measuring linear time or elapsed durations from the rock record are objectives in the EARTH TIME and GTS NEXT projects, that also are educating a new generation of GTS dedicated scientists. The U/Pb, Ar/Ar and orbital tuning methods are intercalibrated, and external error analysis improved. Existing Ar/Ar ages become almost 0.5% older, and U/Pb ages stratigraphically more realistic. The new Os/Re method has potential for directly dating more GSSP's and its correlative events. Such may reduce scaling uncertainty between the sedimentary levels of an age date and that of a stage boundary. Since 1981, six successive Phanerozoic GTS have been published, each new one achieving higher resolution and more users. The next GTS is scheduled for 2011/2012, with over 50 specialists taking part. New chapters include an expanded planetary time scale, sequence stratigraphy, Osmium, Carbon and Oxygen stratigraphy, the Cryogenian period, history of the plants, hominid prehistory, and last but not least the Anthropocene. The Cambrian Period is radically improved with 10 standard stages and detailed trilobite biochronology. Ordovician now has a stable international stages and graptolites scale. The integration of a refined 100 and 400 ka sedimentary cycles scale and a truly high-resolution U/Pb ages scale for the Mississippian is a major step towards the global Carboniferous GTS. The Devonian GTS leaves to be desired with lack of firm definitions for its upper boundary, and the long Emsian stage; it also lacks age dates. Its stages scaling is disputed. The Rhaetian and Norian stages in the Triassic and the Berriasian stage in the Cretaceous urgently require lower boundary definitions, and also boundary age dates. The single ~400 ka eccentricity component is very stable and can extend orbital tuning from the Cenozoic well into the Mesozoic portion of the GTS. Jurassic and Cretaceous now have long orbitally tuned segments. A completely astronomical-tuned Geological Time Scale (AGTS) for the Cenozoic is within reach showing unprecedented accuracy, precision and resolution. Burdigalian in the Miocene, and Lutetian, Bartonian and Priabonian stages in the Eocene still require formal definition. The K/T boundary will become about 0.5 ± 0.1 Ma older. After 25 years of research and authorship in the GTS it behoves me to especially thank my colleagues James Ogg, Frits Agterberg, John McArthur and Roger Cooper for longstanding collaboration. As a final note I urge construction of more regional time scales(like developed ‘down under') calibrated to the standard global GTS, to scale regional rock units.

  11. Lucas, S.G. and Spielmann, J.A., eds., 2007, The Global Triassic. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 41. TRIASSIC-JURASSIC BOUNDARYON THE SOUTHERN MARGIN OFTETHYS

    E-print Network

    McRoberts, Christopher A.

    this period (Late Triassic-Early Jurassic). Numerous tectonic processes were active during the time History and Science Bulletin 41. TRIASSIC-JURASSIC BOUNDARYON THE SOUTHERN MARGIN OFTETHYS: IMPLICATIONS the Triassic­Jurassic boundary in the southern Tethyan margin have been studied in Egypt, Sudan, Jordan

  12. How severe is the modern biotic crisis?—A comparison of global change and biotic crisis between Permian-Triassic transition and modern times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hongfu; He, Weihong; Xie, Shucheng

    2011-03-01

    A comparison of the modern condition with the Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB) times was made to estimate how severe the modern biotic crisis is. About the global changes, the two periods are correlative in carbon dioxide concentration and carbon isotope negative excursion, UV strengthening, temperature increase, ocean acidification, and weathering enhancement. The following tendencies of biotic crises are also correlative: acceleration of extinction rates accompanied by parabolic curve of extinction with a turning interval representing the critical crisis; decline of the three main ecosystems: reefs, tropical rain forests and marine phytoplankton. It is also interesting to note that certain leading organism in both periods undergo accelerated evolution during the crisis. The comparison shows that the modern crisis is about at the turning point from decline to decimation. The extinction curve is now parabolic, and the extinction rate has been accelerated, but the decimation is not yet in real. This is also justified by the modern situation of the three main ecosystems. Modern biotic decline may worsen into decimation and mass extinction but may also get better and recover to ordinary evolution. Since human activities are the main cause of the deterioration of environments and organisms, mankind should be responsible and able to strive for the recovery of the crisis. For the future of mankind, Homo sapiens may become extinct, i.e., disappear without leaving descendants, or evolve into a new and more advanced species, i.e., disappear but leave descendants. For a better future, mankind should be conscious of the facing danger and act as a whole to save biodiversity and harmonize with the environments.

  13. Astronomical control on climate and vegetation history at the Triassic-Jurassic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, Micha; Bonis, Nina R.; Deenen, Martijn H. L.; Abels, Hemmo A.; Krijgsman, Wout; Kurschner, Wolfram M.

    2010-05-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction (~201.5 Ma), marked by major terrestrial ecosystem changes and a 50% loss in marine biodiversity, closely coincides with the onset of intensified volcanic activity in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), the largest igneous province on earth. The end-Triassic environmental crisis is followed by successive recovery in the early Jurassic Hettangian stage. However, accurate timing of events is poorly constrained. Here we present combined chemical and biological proxy records and field observations, covering the uppermost Triassic and lower Jurassic marine successions of St. Audrie's Bay and East Quantoxhead (UK). A floating astronomical time-scale of ~2.5 Myr has been constructed based on the recognition of ~100-kyr eccentricity cycles. Individual black shale occurrences are interpreted to reflect precession-controlled changes in monsoon intensity. Gaseous CO2 release by the increased volcanic activity strongly enhanced greenhouse warming and likely caused a shift from a diverse gymnosperm vegetation to a monotonous Cheirolepidiaceous conifer vegetation. Vegetation distribution at the Triassic-Jurassic transition was likely influenced by the strong temperature and humidity gradient from the oceans to the interior of Pangea. Vegetation cover was mostly situated in coastal regions, with the inlands being more arid. Strong eccentricity-scale paced increases in pollen concentrations suggest the inland expansion of Cheirolepidiaceous vegetation cover, which is likely caused by intensified monsoon activity. Our palynological data further shows precession-scale paced peaks in spore abundance during the mass extinction interval, suggesting astronomical forcing of the hydrological cycle under extreme climatic conditions.

  14. Modeling orbital changes on tectonic time scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    Geologic time series indicate significant 100 ka and 400 ka pre-Pleistocene climate fluctuations, prior to the time of such fluctuations in Pleistocene ice sheets. The origin of these fluctuations must therefore depend on phenomena other than the ice sheets. In a previous set of experiments, we tested the sensitivity of an energy balance model to orbital insolation forcing, specifically focusing on the filtering effect of the Earth's geography. We found that in equatorial areas, the twice-yearly passage of the sun across the equator interacts with the precession index to generate 100 ka and 400 ka power in our modeled time series. The effect is proportional to the magnitude of land in equatorial regions. We suggest that such changes may reflect monsoonal variations in the real climate system, and the subsequent wind and weathering changes may transfer some of this signal to the marine record. A comparison with observed fluctuations of Triassic lake levels is quite favorable. A number of problems remain to be studied or clarified: (1) the EBM experiments need to be followed up by a limited number of GCM experiments; (2) the sensitivity to secular changes in orbital forcing needs to be examined; (3) the possible modifying role of sedimentary processes on geologic time series warrants considerably more study; (4) the effect of tectonic changes on Earth's rotation rate needs to be studied; and (5) astronomers need to make explicit which of their predictions are robust and geologists and astronomers have to agree on which of the predictions are most testable in the geologic record.

  15. A novel proxy links CAMP volcanism with end-Triassic mass extinction and early Jurassic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, M.; Bjerrum, C. J.; Frei, R.

    2011-12-01

    Global mass extinction events are marked by a major loss of terrestrial and marine biodiversity and the global collapse of ecosystems during times of extensive volcanic activity and the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Large-scale greenhouse gas release, initiated by volcanism, had a profound impact on global geochemical cycles (e.g. initiating strong perturbations in ?13C records). Hence, these events may be regarded as natural deep-time analogues for studying mechanistic feedbacks between rapid and large/scale greenhouse gas emissions, environmental change and biotic crises. Such studies require high resolution stratigraphic correlation between volcanic activity, disruption of global geochemical cycles and biotic crises, which at present is poorly constrained. Here we present a novel proxy that records explosive continental volcanic activity in distant marine shale sediments. The proxy builds on the relative abundance of the trace elements Lu, Hf, Y and Nb (monitored as the (Lu/ Hf)/(Y/ Nb)-ratio). We test the method on a marine sedimentary record comprising Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) volcanism and the associated end-Triassic global mass extinction, at ~201.38 Ma. We show that the onset of sharp well-defined peaks in the (Lu/ Hf)/(Y/ Nb)-ratio coincides with the end-Triassic biotic crisis. Subsequent subordinate peaks closely correspond to periods of early Jurassic biotic radiation and evolution. Large-scale volcanic activity therefore not only initiated the end-Triassic mass extinction, it possibly also actively punctuated and regulated the pace of early Jurassic evolution. Further, the proxy also records the timing of Siberian Traps volcanism relative to the end-Permian mass extinction, the largest extinction in Earth's history. Hence, this proxy for the first time allows causality studies between increased volcanic activity, disruption of global geochemical cycles and global biodiversity loss, in unprecedented stratigraphic resolution. End-Triassic changes in biodiversity and extinction and evolution of species is most severe in the marine realm. Reactive iron and trace element data (e.g. Mo, U) suggest strong changes in water column redox-conditions and anoxia and euxinia coinciding with CAMP volcanic activity. This suggests that the end-Triassic mass extinction in the marine realm maybe mostly related to marine anoxia, initiated by volcanism driven greenhouse gas release, in at least marginal marine basins.

  16. Microbialites and geochemistry of the Early Triassic enigma?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bour, Ivan; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Thomazo, Christophe; Brayard, Arnaud; Olivier, Nicolas; Escarguel, Gilles; Bylund, Kevin G.; Jenks, Jim; Stephen, Daniel A.

    2013-04-01

    The Permian-Triassic mass extinction, 252 Myr ago, is the most devastating global-scale event ever recorded. Ecological and environmental changes during this interval are commonly assumed to be associated with numerous perturbations (i.e. productivity changes, acidification, redox changes, eustatism) that still remain elusive. The present study focus on the relationships between the redox conditions within the water column, the successive sedimentary deposits and marine community turnovers. Our study is based on new Early Triassic sections from the western USA Basin that preserve diversified reefs and bioaccumulations that contain microbialites and various benthic and pelagic organisms (e.g. serpulids, bivalves, ostracods, gastropods, cephalopods). Such a sedimentary prisitine record provides interesting new prospects to decipher the relationships between lithology, microbial structures and the geochemistry of the water column. Three outcrops were studied: the Mineral Mountains, the Confusion Range and the Pahvant Range, that record a general transgressive trend from proximal to distal deposits during the Smithian substage. Continental to open marine conditions are deduced from sedimentological studies and are related to variations of the microbialite meso- and micro-structures over a short time scale. Hydrodynamics and bathymetry are shown to be the major parameters that influence the morphology and distribution of these microbialites. Additionally to the study of the different microbialites structures and associated depositional environments, the chemiotratigraphic record of both carbon isotopes and major elements indicate a complex and a wide range of variations at short time scale. Carbon isotopes vary from -5 to 2 ‰PDB and FeHR/FeT ratio, after iron speciation, indicate a broad range of variation between 0.1 and 1.5. On the one hand, these analyses suggest potential transient oxygen depletion within the water column. On the other hand, fluctuations of these geochemical proxies seem to be influenced by lithology. We thus suggest that biogeochemical cycles of carbon and iron in the studied sections were influenced by the paleo-bathymetry and the distal to proximal polarity between the three locations. A second order control on the water column geochemistry is also probably the consequence of the microbially-induced carbonate precipitation. This study suggests that the Early Triassic paleoenvironments with the western USA basin were highly variable in terms of sedimentology and geochemistry, but also suggest a low oxygen concentration within the water column during the Smithian substage.

  17. Advances in the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale--Developments and Integration with the Geologic Time Scale and Future Directions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    We celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Vine-Matthews/Morley-Larochelle hypothesis (Vine and Matthews, Nature, 1963, v. 199, #4897, p. 947-949), which integrated marine magnetic anomaly data with a rapidly evolving terrestrial-based geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS). The five decades of research since 1963 have witnessed the expansion and refinement of the GPTS, to the point where ages of magnetochron boundaries, in particular in the Cenozoic, can be estimated with uncertainties better than 0.1%. This has come about by integrating high precision geochronology, cyclostratigraphy at different time scales, and magnetic polarity data of increased quality, allowing extension of the GPTS back into the Paleozoic. The definition of a high resolution GPTS across time intervals of major events in Earth history has been of particular interest, as a specific magnetochron boundary correlated across several localities represents a singular global datum. A prime example is the end Permian, when some 80 percent of genus-level extinctions and a range of 75 to 96 percent species- level extinctions took place in the marine environment, depending upon clade. Much our understanding of the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) is based on relatively slowly deposited marine sequences in Europe and Asia, yet a growing body of observations from continental sequences demonstrates a similar extinction event and new polarity data from some of these sequences are critical to refining the GPTS across the PTB and testing synchronicity of marine and terrestrial events. The data show that the end-Permian ecological crisis and the conodont calibrated biostratigraphic PTB both followed a key polarity reversal between a short interval (subchron) of reverse polarity to a considerably longer (chron) of normal polarity. Central European Basin strata (continental Permian and epicontinental Triassic) yield high-quality magnetic polarity stratigraphic records (Szurlies et al., 2003; Szurlies, 2007; and Szurlies, 2013, in press). In combination with cyclostratigraphic records, the normal polarity chron, with both the end-Permian crisis and the biostratigraphic PTB, is estimated to be ~0.7 Ma in duration, with the ecological crisis some 0.2 Ma after the reversal. The author and colleagues are currently refining the magnetic polarity stratigraphy across the PTB contained in strata of the Ochoan/Induan Dewey Lake Formation exposed in west Texas (USA) and in strata of the Beaufort Group of the central Karoo Basin (South Africa). The hematitic siltstones and mudstones of the Dewey Lake Formation yield magnetizations of high quality and are not remagnetized, thus providing an unambiguous polarity record, including what we infer as the R-N transition immediately before the PTB. A continuous core (~150 m) through the entire Dewey Lake Formation from southeast New Mexico will be available for polarity study in early September, 2013. In the Karoo Basin, a nearly continuously exposed 225 +/- m thick section (over 100 distinct sites) near Lootsberg Pass is dominated by non-hematitic siltstone but fine grained sandstone and carbonate concretions in mudstone intervals have been also sampled. At present, it remains unclear whether the Beaufort Group strata in this part of the central Karoo Basin retain a primary magnetization, as the likelihood of remagnetization by ca. 184 +/- Ma mafic sills of the Karoo Large Igneous Province remains a concern.

  18. Review of time scales. [Universal Time-Ephemeris Time-International Atomic Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinot, B.

    1974-01-01

    The basic time scales are presented: International Atomic Time, Universal Time, and Universal Time (Coordinated). These scales must be maintained in order to satisfy specific requirements. It is shown how they are obtained and made available at a very high level of precision.

  19. Equilibration time scales of physically relevant observables

    E-print Network

    Luis Pedro García-Pintos; Noah Linden; Artur S. L. Malabarba; Anthony J. Short; Andreas Winter

    2015-09-18

    We address the problem of understanding from first principles the conditions under which a closed quantum system equilibrates rapidly with respect to a concrete observable. Previously known general upper bounds on the time scales of equilibration were extremely long, with times scaling linearly with the dimension of the Hilbert space. Moreover, these bounds proved to be tight, since particular constructions of observables scaling in this way were found. In this paper we provide a new upper bound on the equilibration time scales which shows, in fact, equilibration is much faster under some physically reasonable conditions. In particular, we apply this result to give bounds on the time scales of equilibration for a system interacting with a thermal bath which do not scale with the size of the bath.

  20. Kalman plus weights: a time scale algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    KPW is a time scale algorithm that combines Kalman filtering with the basic time scale equation (BTSE). A single Kalman filter that estimates all clocks simultaneously is used to generate the BTSE frequency estimates, while the BTSE weights are inversely proportional to the white FM variances of the clocks. Results from simulated clock ensembles are compared to previous simulation results from other algorithms.

  1. Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the triassic

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Hardenbol, J.; Vail, P.R.

    1987-03-06

    Advances in sequence stratigraphy and the development of depositional models have helped explain the origin of genetically related sedimentary packages during sea level cycles. These concepts have provided the basis for the recognition of sea level events in subsurface data and in outcrops of marine sediments around the world. Knowledge of these events has led to a new generation of Mesozoic and Cenozoic global cycle charts that chronicle the history of sea level fluctuations during the past 250 million years in greater detail than was possible from seismic-stratigraphic data alone. An effort has been made to develop a realistic and accurate time scale and widely applicable chronostratigraphy and to integrate depositional sequences documented in public domain outcrop sections from various basins with this chronostratigraphic framework. A description of this approach and an account of the results, illustrated by sea level cycle charts of the Cenozoic, Cretaceous, Jurassic, and Triassic intervals, are presented.

  2. Time-dependent corona models - Scaling laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korevaar, P.; Martens, P. C. H.

    1989-01-01

    Scaling laws are derived for the one-dimensional time-dependent Euler equations that describe the evolution of a spherically symmetric stellar atmosphere. With these scaling laws the results of the time-dependent calculations by Korevaar (1989) obtained for one star are applicable over the whole Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and even to elliptic galaxies. The scaling is exact for stars with the same M/R-ratio and a good approximation for stars with a different M/R-ratio. The global relaxation oscillation found by Korevaar (1989) is scaled to main sequence stars, a solar coronal hole, cool giants and elliptic galaxies.

  3. Biochronology of Triassic bivalves CHRISTOPHER A. MCROBERTS

    E-print Network

    McRoberts, Christopher A.

    Biochronology of Triassic bivalves CHRISTOPHER A. MCROBERTS Department of Geology, State University to develop a composite biochronological scheme for the Triassic based on the bivalves Claraia, Peribositria, Enteropleura, Daonella, Halobia, Eomonotis and Monotis. These bivalves exhibit temporal durations nearly equal

  4. Mouse Activity across Time Scales: Fractal Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Lima, G. Z. dos Santos; Lobão-Soares, B.; do Nascimento, G. C.; França, Arthur S. C.; Muratori, L.; Ribeiro, S.; Corso, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we devise a classification of mouse activity patterns based on accelerometer data using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We use two characteristic mouse behavioural states as benchmarks in this study: waking in free activity and slow-wave sleep (SWS). In both situations we find roughly the same pattern: for short time intervals we observe high correlation in activity - a typical 1/f complex pattern - while for large time intervals there is anti-correlation. High correlation of short intervals ( to : waking state and to : SWS) is related to highly coordinated muscle activity. In the waking state we associate high correlation both to muscle activity and to mouse stereotyped movements (grooming, waking, etc.). On the other side, the observed anti-correlation over large time scales ( to : waking state and to : SWS) during SWS appears related to a feedback autonomic response. The transition from correlated regime at short scales to an anti-correlated regime at large scales during SWS is given by the respiratory cycle interval, while during the waking state this transition occurs at the time scale corresponding to the duration of the stereotyped mouse movements. Furthermore, we find that the waking state is characterized by longer time scales than SWS and by a softer transition from correlation to anti-correlation. Moreover, this soft transition in the waking state encompass a behavioural time scale window that gives rise to a multifractal pattern. We believe that the observed multifractality in mouse activity is formed by the integration of several stereotyped movements each one with a characteristic time correlation. Finally, we compare scaling properties of body acceleration fluctuation time series during sleep and wake periods for healthy mice. Interestingly, differences between sleep and wake in the scaling exponents are comparable to previous works regarding human heartbeat. Complementarily, the nature of these sleep-wake dynamics could lead to a better understanding of neuroautonomic regulation mechanisms. PMID:25275515

  5. The Variational Calculus on Time Scales

    E-print Network

    Torres, Delfim F M

    2011-01-01

    The discrete, the quantum, and the continuous calculus of variations, have been recently unified and extended by using the theory of time scales. Such unification and extension is, however, not unique, and two approaches are followed in the literature: one dealing with minimization of delta integrals; the other dealing with minimization of nabla integrals. Here we review a more general approach to the calculus of variations on time scales that allows to obtain both delta and nabla results as particular cases.

  6. Metabolic imaging in multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2014-03-15

    We report here a novel combination of time-resolved imaging methods for probing mitochondrial metabolism in multiple time scales at the level of single cells. By exploiting a mitochondrial membrane potential reporter fluorescence we demonstrate the single cell metabolic dynamics in time scales ranging from microseconds to seconds to minutes in response to glucose metabolism and mitochondrial perturbations in real time. Our results show that in comparison with normal human mammary epithelial cells, the breast cancer cells display significant alterations in metabolic responses at all measured time scales by single cell kinetics, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and by scaling analysis of time-series data obtained from mitochondrial fluorescence fluctuations. Furthermore scaling analysis of time-series data in living cells with distinct mitochondrial dysfunction also revealed significant metabolic differences thereby suggesting the broader applicability (e.g. in mitochondrial myopathies and other metabolic disorders) of the proposed strategies beyond the scope of cancer metabolism. We discuss the scope of these findings in the context of developing portable, real-time metabolic measurement systems that can find applications in preclinical and clinical diagnostics. PMID:24013043

  7. Metabolic Imaging in Multiple Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    We report here a novel combination of time-resolved imaging methods for probing mitochondrial metabolism multiple time scales at the level of single cells. By exploiting a mitochondrial membrane potential reporter fluorescence we demonstrate the single cell metabolic dynamics in time scales ranging from milliseconds to seconds to minutes in response to glucose metabolism and mitochondrial perturbations in real time. Our results show that in comparison with normal human mammary epithelial cells, the breast cancer cells display significant alterations in metabolic responses at all measured time scales by single cell kinetics, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and by scaling analysis of time-series data obtained from mitochondrial fluorescence fluctuations. Furthermore scaling analysis of time-series data in living cells with distinct mitochondrial dysfunction also revealed significant metabolic differences thereby suggesting the broader applicability (e.g. in mitochondrial myopathies and other metabolic disorders) of the proposed strategies beyond the scope of cancer metabolism. We discuss the scope of these findings in the context of developing portable, real-time metabolic measurement systems that can find applications in preclinical and clinical diagnostics. PMID:24013043

  8. The time at the subplanckian scale

    E-print Network

    Christian Pierre

    2007-01-22

    With the theory of special relativity, time has been linked with space into a four-dimensional space-time from which a basic question must be asked: can space be really transformed into time and vice-versa? The response is affirmative if time has the same structural topological structure as space at the subplanckian quantum level in such a way that a discrete structural quantum time constitutes the time part of the space-time internal vacuum of every elementary particle. It has thus been shown that a quantum time, quantized algebraically according to a lattice of time quanta, really exists and is emergent in the sense that time quanta can be transformed into space quanta and vice-versa. Furthermore,this quantum time, only relevant at the subplanckian scale, is proved to be in one-to-one correspondence with the absolute and relative clock times.

  9. Observing Reality on Different Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyushin, Alexey

    2005-10-01

    In the first part of the paper, I examine cases of acceleration of perception and cognition and provide my explanation of the mechanism of the effect. The explanation rests on the conception of neuronal temporal frames, or windows of simultaneity. Frames have different standard durations and yield to stretching and compressing. I suggest it to be the cause of the effect, as well as the ground for differences in perceptive time scales of living beings. In the second part, I apply the conception of temporal frames to model observation in the extended time scales that reach far beyond the temporal perceptive niche of individual living beings. Duration of a frame is taken as the basic parameter setting a particular time scale. By substituting a different frame duration, we set a hypothetical time scale and emulate observing reality in a wider or a narrower angle of embracing events in time. I discuss the status of observer in its relation to objective reality, and examine how reality does change its appearance when observed in different time scales.

  10. Time scale synchronization of chaotic oscillators

    E-print Network

    Alexander Hramov; Alexey Koronovskii

    2006-02-25

    This paper presents the result of the investigation of chaotic oscillator synchronization. A new approach for detecting of synchronized behaviour of chaotic oscillators has been proposed. This approach is based on the analysis of different time scales in the time series generated by the coupled chaotic oscillators. This approach has been applied for the coupled Rossler and Lorenz systems.

  11. Assessing the record and causes of Late Triassic extinctions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, L.H.; Lucas, S.G.; Chapman, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated biotic turnover during the Late Triassic has led to the perception of an end-Triassic mass extinction event, now regarded as one of the "big five" extinctions. Close examination of the fossil record reveals that many groups thought to be affected severely by this event, such as ammonoids, bivalves and conodonts, instead were in decline throughout the Late Triassic, and that other groups were relatively unaffected or subject to only regional effects. Explanations for the biotic turnover have included both gradualistic and catastrophic mechanisms. Regression during the Rhaetian, with consequent habitat loss, is compatible with the disappearance of some marine faunal groups, but may be regional, not global in scale, and cannot explain apparent synchronous decline in the terrestrial realm. Gradual, widespread aridification of the Pangaean supercontinent could explain a decline in terrestrial diversity during the Late Triassic. Although evidence for an impact precisely at the boundary is lacking, the presence of impact structures with Late Triassic ages suggests the possibility of bolide impact-induced environmental degradation prior to the end-Triassic. Widespread eruptions of flood basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) were synchronous with or slightly postdate the system boundary; emissions of CO2 and SO2 during these eruptions were substantial, but the contradictory evidence for the environmental effects of outgassing of these lavas remains to be resolved. A substantial excursion in the marine carbon-isotope record of both carbonate and organic matter suggests a significant disturbance of the global carbon cycle at the system boundary. Release of methane hydrates from seafloor sediments is a possible cause for this isotope excursion, although the triggering mechanism and climatic effects of such a release remain uncertain. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reccurent Early Triassic marine anoxia, impacts of volcanics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasby, Stephen; Beauchamp, Benoit; Sanei, Hamed

    2014-05-01

    NW Pangea records a complex history of recurrent development of anoxia through the Permo-Triassic Biotic Crises. The Early Triassic record from the Smithian strato-type in the Sverdrup Basin, as well as for the more open ocean setting of Svalbard, have organic carbon isotope records that closely correspond to major fluctuations in the inorganic carbon records from the Tethys, demonstrating truly global perturbations of the carbon cycle occurred during this time. Geochemical proxies for anoxia are strongly correlated with carbon isotopes, whereby negative shifts in ?13Corg are associated with shifts to more anoxic to euxinic conditions, and positive shifts are related to return to more oxic conditions. Rather than a delayed or prolonged recovery, the Early Triassic is characterized better by a series of aborted biotic recoveries related to shifts back to ocean anoxia, potentially driven by recurrent volcanism.

  13. Long term stability of atomic time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Gérard; Arias, Elisa Felicitas

    2012-08-01

    International Atomic Time TAI gets its stability from some 400 atomic clocks worldwide that generate the free atomic scale EA L and its accuracy from a small number of primary frequency standards (PFS) which frequency measurements are used to steer the EAL frequency. Because TAI is computed in "real - time" (every month) and has operational constraints, it is not optimal and the BIPM computes in deferred time another time scale TT(BIPM), which is based on a weighted average of the evaluations of TAI frequency by the PFS. We show that a point has been reached where the stability of atomic time scales, the accuracy of primary frequency standards, and the capabilities of frequency transfer are approximately at a similar level, in the low 10 - 16 in relative frequency. The goal is now to reach and surpass 1x10 - 16 and the three fields are in various stages of advancement towards this aim. We review the stability and accuracy recently achieved by frequency standards, focusing on primary frequency standards on one hand, and on new secondary realizations e.g. based on optical transitions on the other hand. We study how these performances can translate to the performance of atomic time scales, and the possible implications of the availability of new high - accuracy frequency standards operating on a regular basis. Finally we show how time transfer is trying to keep up with the progresses of frequency standards. Time transfer is presently the limiting factor at short averaging time (e.g. 1 - 2 weeks) but it should not be limiting the long term stability of atomic time scales, which is the main need of many applications in astronomy.

  14. A reappraisal of the Middle Triassic chirotheriid Chirotherium ibericus Navás, 1906 (Iberian Range NE Spain), with comments on the Triassic tetrapod track biochronology of the Iberian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Castanera, Diego; Gasca, José Manuel; Canudo, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Triassic vertebrate tracks are known from the beginning of the 19th century and have a worldwide distribution. Several Triassic track ichnoassemblages and ichnotaxa have a restricted stratigraphic range and are useful in biochronology and biostratigraphy. The record of Triassic tracks in the Iberian Peninsula has gone almost unnoticed although more than 25 localities have been described since 1897. In one of these localities, the naturalist Longinos Navás described the ichnotaxon Chirotherium ibericus in 1906.The vertebrate tracks are in two sandy slabs from the Anisian (Middle Triassic) of the Moncayo massif (Zaragoza, Spain). In a recent revision, new, previously undescribed vertebrate tracks have been identified. The tracks considered to be C. ibericus as well as other tracks with the same morphology from both slabs have been classified as Chirotherium barthii. The rest of the tracks have been assigned to Chirotheriidae indet., Rhynchosauroides isp. and undetermined material. This new identification of C. barthii at the Navás site adds new data to the Iberian record of this ichnotaxon, which is characterized by the small size of the tracks when compared with the main occurrences of this ichnotaxon elsewhere. As at the Navás tracksite, the Anisian C. barthii-Rhynchosauroides ichnoassemblage has been found in other coeval localities in Iberia and worldwide. This ichnoassemblage belongs to the upper Olenekian-lower Anisian interval according to previous biochronological proposals. Analysis of the Triassic Iberian record of tetrapod tracks is uneven in terms of abundance over time. From the earliest Triassic to the latest Lower Triassic the record is very scarce, with Rhynchosauroides being the only known ichnotaxon. Rhynchosauroides covers a wide temporal range and gives poor information for biochronology. The record from the uppermost Lower Triassic to the Middle Triassic is abundant. The highest ichnodiversity has been reported for the Anisian with an assemblage composed of Dicynodontipus, Procolophonichnium, Rhynchosauroides, Rotodactylus, Chirotherium, Isochirotherium, Coelurosaurichnus and Paratrisauropus. The Iberian track record from the Anisian is coherent with the global biochronology proposed for Triassic tetrapod tracks. Nevertheless, the scarcity of track occurrences during the late Olenekian and Ladinian prevents analysis of the corresponding biochrons. Finally, although the Iberian record for the Upper Triassic is not abundant, the presence of Eubrontes, Anchisauripus and probably Brachychirotherium is coherent with the global track biochronology as well. Thus, the Triassic track record in the Iberian Peninsula matches the expected record for this age on the basis of a global biochronological approach, supporting the idea that vertebrate Triassic tracks are a useful tool in biochronology. PMID:26137425

  15. A reappraisal of the Middle Triassic chirotheriid Chirotherium ibericus Navás, 1906 (Iberian Range NE Spain), with comments on the Triassic tetrapod track biochronology of the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Martínez, Ignacio; Castanera, Diego; Gasca, José Manuel; Canudo, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Triassic vertebrate tracks are known from the beginning of the 19th century and have a worldwide distribution. Several Triassic track ichnoassemblages and ichnotaxa have a restricted stratigraphic range and are useful in biochronology and biostratigraphy. The record of Triassic tracks in the Iberian Peninsula has gone almost unnoticed although more than 25 localities have been described since 1897. In one of these localities, the naturalist Longinos Navás described the ichnotaxon Chirotherium ibericus in 1906.The vertebrate tracks are in two sandy slabs from the Anisian (Middle Triassic) of the Moncayo massif (Zaragoza, Spain). In a recent revision, new, previously undescribed vertebrate tracks have been identified. The tracks considered to be C. ibericus as well as other tracks with the same morphology from both slabs have been classified as Chirotherium barthii. The rest of the tracks have been assigned to Chirotheriidae indet., Rhynchosauroides isp. and undetermined material. This new identification of C. barthii at the Navás site adds new data to the Iberian record of this ichnotaxon, which is characterized by the small size of the tracks when compared with the main occurrences of this ichnotaxon elsewhere. As at the Navás tracksite, the Anisian C. barthii-Rhynchosauroides ichnoassemblage has been found in other coeval localities in Iberia and worldwide. This ichnoassemblage belongs to the upper Olenekian-lower Anisian interval according to previous biochronological proposals. Analysis of the Triassic Iberian record of tetrapod tracks is uneven in terms of abundance over time. From the earliest Triassic to the latest Lower Triassic the record is very scarce, with Rhynchosauroides being the only known ichnotaxon. Rhynchosauroides covers a wide temporal range and gives poor information for biochronology. The record from the uppermost Lower Triassic to the Middle Triassic is abundant. The highest ichnodiversity has been reported for the Anisian with an assemblage composed of Dicynodontipus, Procolophonichnium, Rhynchosauroides, Rotodactylus, Chirotherium, Isochirotherium, Coelurosaurichnus and Paratrisauropus. The Iberian track record from the Anisian is coherent with the global biochronology proposed for Triassic tetrapod tracks. Nevertheless, the scarcity of track occurrences during the late Olenekian and Ladinian prevents analysis of the corresponding biochrons. Finally, although the Iberian record for the Upper Triassic is not abundant, the presence of Eubrontes, Anchisauripus and probably Brachychirotherium is coherent with the global track biochronology as well. Thus, the Triassic track record in the Iberian Peninsula matches the expected record for this age on the basis of a global biochronological approach, supporting the idea that vertebrate Triassic tracks are a useful tool in biochronology. PMID:26137425

  16. Time scales of turbulent relative dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitane, Rehab; Homann, Holger; Bec, Jérémie

    2012-10-01

    Tracers in a turbulent flow separate according to the celebrated t3/2 Richardson-Obukhov law, which is usually explained by a scale-dependent effective diffusivity. Here, supported by state-of-the-art numerics, we revisit this argument. The Lagrangian correlation time of velocity differences increases too quickly for validating this approach, but acceleration differences decorrelate on dissipative time scales. Phenomenological arguments are used to relate the behavior of separations to that of a “local energy dissipation,” defined as the average ratio between the cube of the longitudinal velocity difference and the distance between the two tracers. This quantity is shown to stabilize on short time scales and this results in an asymptotic diffusion ?t1/2 of velocity differences. The time of convergence to this regime is shown to be that of deviations from Batchelor's initial ballistic regime, given by a scale-dependent energy dissipation time rather than the usual turnover time. It is finally demonstrated that the fluid flow intermittency should not affect this long-time behavior of the relative motion.

  17. Brownian motion at short time scales

    E-print Network

    Tongcang Li; Mark G. Raizen

    2012-11-07

    Brownian motion has played important roles in many different fields of science since its origin was first explained by Albert Einstein in 1905. Einstein's theory of Brownian motion, however, is only applicable at long time scales. At short time scales, Brownian motion of a suspended particle is not completely random, due to the inertia of the particle and the surrounding fluid. Moreover, the thermal force exerted on a particle suspended in a liquid is not a white noise, but is colored. Recent experimental developments in optical trapping and detection have made this new regime of Brownian motion accessible. This review summarizes related theories and recent experiments on Brownian motion at short time scales, with a focus on the measurement of the instantaneous velocity of a Brownian particle in a gas and the observation of the transition from ballistic to diffusive Brownian motion in a liquid.

  18. The end-triassic mass extinction event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallam, A.

    1988-01-01

    The end-Triassic is the least studied of the five major episodes of mass extinction recognized in the Phanerozoic, and the Triassic-Jurassic boundary is not precisely defined in most parts of the world, with a paucity of good marine sections and an insufficiency of biostratigraphically valuable fossils. Despite these limitations it is clear that there was a significant episode of mass extinction, affecting many groups, in the Late Norian and the existing facts are consistent with it having taken place at the very end of the period. The best record globally comes from marine strata. There was an almost complete turnover of ammonites across the T-J boundary, with perhaps no more than one genus surviving. About half the bivalve genera and most of the species went extinct, as did many archaeogastropods. Many Paleozoic-dominant brachiopods also disappeared, as did the last of the conodonts. There was a major collapse and disappearance of the Alpine calcareous sponge. Among terrestrial biota, a significant extinction event involving tetrapods was recognized. With regard to possible environmental events that may be postulated to account for the extinctions, there is no evidence of any significant global change of climate at this time. The existence of the large Manicouagan crater in Quebec, dated as about late or end-Triassic, has led to the suggestion that an impact event might be implicated, but so far despite intensive search no unequivocal iridium anomaly or shocked quartz was discovered. On the other hand there is strong evidence for significant marine regression in many parts of the world. It is proposed therefore that the likeliest cause of the marine extinctions is severe reduction in habitat area caused either by regression of epicontinental seas, subsequent widespread anoxia during the succeeding transgression, or a combination of the two.

  19. Triassic deposits of the Chukotka Arctic continental margin (sedimentary implications and detrital zircon data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchkova, Marianna; Sokolov, Sergey; Verzhbitsky, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Triassic clastic deposits of Chukotka are represented by rhythmic intercalation of sandstones, siltstones and mudstones. During the Triassic, sedimentation was represented by continental slope progradation. Detrital zircons from Triassic sedimentary rocks were collected for constrain its paleogeographic links to source terranes. Zircons populations from three Chukotka's samples are very similar, and youngest zircon ages show peaks at 236-255 Ma (Miller et al., 2006). Lower Triassic sandstones from the Chaun subterrane do not contain the young population 235-265 Ma that is characteristic of the Upper Triassic rocks from the Anyui subterrane and Wrangel Island. The young zircon population is missing also from the coeval Sadlerochit Group (Alaska) and Blind Fiord Formation of the Sverdrup basin (Miller et al., 2006; Omma et al., 2011). Our data of Triassic sandstones of Wrangel island demonstrate detrital zircons ages dominated by Middle Triassic (227-245 Ma), Carboniferous (309-332 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic (1808-2500 Ma) ages. The new data on Chukotka show that populations of detrital zircons from Chukotka, the Sverdrup basin, and Alaska, the Sadlerochit Mountains included, demonstrate greater similarity than it was previously thought. Consequently, it may be assumed that they originate from a single source situated in the north. The data on zircon age of gabbro-dolerite magmatism in eastern Chukotka (252 Ma. Ledneva et al., 2011) and K-Ar ages obtained for sills and small intrusive bodies (Geodynamics…, 2006) in Lower Triassic deposits allow the local provenance. The presence of products of synchronous magmatism and shallow-water facies in the Lower Triassic sequences confirm this assumption. At the same time, coeval zircons appear only in the Upper Triassic strata. It is conceivable that the young zircon population originates from intrusive, not volcanic rocks, which were subjected to erosion only in the Late Triassic. In our opinion, the assumption of the local source with synchronous magmatism is consistent with the evolution of the petrological-mineralogical and geochemical compositions in the Triassic sandstones of Chukotka. Similar zircon peaks in Triassic rocks of northern Wrangel Island, Sverdrup basin, and Alaska indicate the same provenances for the Triassic periods. It is possible that all obtained data may indirectly support existence of the hypothetical "Hyperborean Platform" or Crockerland-Arctida microcontinent Work was supported by RBRR projects 11-05-00787, 11-05-00074, Scientific school # NSh-5177.2012.5, kontrakts 01/14/20/11; and we are extremely grateful to the TGS company for execution of a joint research project "Geological history of Wrangel Island".

  20. The hippocampus, time, and memory across scales.

    PubMed

    Howard, Marc W; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-11-01

    A wealth of experimental studies with animals have offered insights about how neural networks within the hippocampus support the temporal organization of memories. These studies have revealed the existence of "time cells" that encode moments in time, much as the well-known "place cells" map locations in space. Another line of work inspired by human behavioral studies suggests that episodic memories are mediated by a state of temporal context that changes gradually over long time scales, up to at least a few thousand seconds. In this view, the "mental time travel" hypothesized to support the experience of episodic memory corresponds to a "jump back in time" in which a previous state of temporal context is recovered. We suggest that these 2 sets of findings could be different facets of a representation of temporal history that maintains a record at the last few thousand seconds of experience. The ability to represent long time scales comes at the cost of discarding precise information about when a stimulus was experienced--this uncertainty becomes greater for events further in the past. We review recent computational work that describes a mechanism that could construct such a scale-invariant representation. Taken as a whole, this suggests the hippocampus plays its role in multiple aspects of cognition by representing events embedded in a general spatiotemporal context. The representation of internal time can be useful across nonhippocampal memory systems. PMID:23915126

  1. Triassic origin and early radiation of multicellular volvocine algae

    E-print Network

    Triassic origin and early radiation of multicellular volvocine algae Matthew D. Herron1 , Jeremiah-studied ETIs is the origin of multicellularity in the green alga Volvox, a model system for the evolution occurred dozens of times independently, for example in the red algae, brown algae, land plants, animals

  2. Mesozoic cyclostratigraphy, the 405-kyr orbital eccentricity metronome, and the Astronomical Time Scale (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnov, L.; Ogg, J. G.

    2009-12-01

    Mesozoic cyclostratigraphy from around the world is being assessed to construct a continuous Astronomical Time Scale (ATS) based on Earth’s cyclic orbital parameters. The recognition of a prevalent sedimentary cycling with a ~400-kyr period associated with forcing by the stable 405-kyr orbital eccentricity variation is an important development. Numerous formations spanning 10 to 20 myr (and longer) intervals in the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic clearly express this dominant cycle and provide a robust basis for 405-kyr-scale calibration of the ATS. This 405-kyr metronome will enable extension of the well-defined Cenozoic ATS for scaling of the past quarter-billion years of Earth history. This astronomical calibration has a resolution comparable to the 1% to 0.1% precision for radioisotope dating of Mesozoic ash beds, with the added benefit of providing continuous stratigraphic coverage between dated beds. Extended portions of the Mesozoic ATS have already provided new insights into long-standing geologic problems of seafloor spreading, tectonics, eustasy, and paleoclimate change. Ongoing work is focused on closing gaps in coverage and on collecting duplicate cyclostratigraphic records for the entire Mesozoic Era.

  3. A comment on the use of flushing time, residence time, and age as transport time scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monsen, N.E.; Cloern, J.E.; Lucas, L.V.; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2002-01-01

    Applications of transport time scales are pervasive in biological, hydrologic, and geochemical studies yet these times scales are not consistently defined and applied with rigor in the literature. We compare three transport time scales (flushing time, age, and residence time) commonly used to measure the retention of water or scalar quantities transported with water. We identify the underlying assumptions associated with each time scale, describe procedures for computing these time scales in idealized cases, and identify pitfalls when real-world systems deviate from these idealizations. We then apply the time scale definitions to a shallow 378 ha tidal lake to illustrate how deviations between real water bodies and the idealized examples can result from: (1) non-steady flow; (2) spatial variability in bathymetry, circulation, and transport time scales; and (3) tides that introduce complexities not accounted for in the idealized cases. These examples illustrate that no single transport time scale is valid for all time periods, locations, and constituents, and no one time scale describes all transport processes. We encourage aquatic scientists to rigorously define the transport time scale when it is applied, identify the underlying assumptions in the application of that concept, and ask if those assumptions are valid in the application of that approach for computing transport time scales in real systems.

  4. Accuracy metrics for judging time scale algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, R. J.; Boulanger, J.-S.; Jacques, C.

    1994-01-01

    Time scales have been constructed in different ways to meet the many demands placed upon them for time accuracy, frequency accuracy, long-term stability, and robustness. Usually, no single time scale is optimum for all purposes. In the context of the impending availability of high-accuracy intermittently-operated cesium fountains, we reconsider the question of evaluating the accuracy of time scales which use an algorithm to span interruptions of the primary standard. We consider a broad class of calibration algorithms that can be evaluated and compared quantitatively for their accuracy in the presence of frequency drift and a full noise model (a mixture of white PM, flicker PM, white FM, flicker FM, and random walk FM noise). We present the analytic techniques for computing the standard uncertainty for the full noise model and this class of calibration algorithms. The simplest algorithm is evaluated to find the average-frequency uncertainty arising from the noise of the cesium fountain's local oscillator and from the noise of a hydrogen maser transfer-standard. This algorithm and known noise sources are shown to permit interlaboratory frequency transfer with a standard uncertainty of less than 10(exp -15) for periods of 30-100 days.

  5. A NEW SHRIMP (DECAPODA, DENDROBRANCHIATA, PENAEOIDEA) FROM THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF YUNNAN, SOUTHWEST CHINA

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    of the marine ecosystem between Eastern and Western Tethys. INTRODUCTION THE TRIASSIC Period was a pivotal time (Birshtein, 1958). However, soon after the end- Permian extinction, decapods underwent a radiation resulting

  6. Early Warning Systems at Different Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, C.

    2014-12-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) reduce the negative aspects of natural hazard impacts on vulnerable communities. Despite its frequent use as a term there is no real 'one size fits all' approach to EWS and the system may comprise of different elements depending on the time scale of the hazard, the quality of the information available to make decisions, as well as the population needs and habits. In most developing countries, the primary hydro-meteorological hazards are droughts and floods. These two hazards demand very different approaches: droughts occur over long time scales and are generally a consequence of a gradual process of reduced rainfall across a rainy season; Floods may be caused on seasonal timescales as well due to an overactive rainy season, but the most extreme consequences and loss of life are often suffered at short timescales and relate to flash flooding caused by severe thunderstorms, monsoon extremes and tropical cyclones. This presentation will address the issues around implementing successful EWS and how these can be targeted to different time scales of hazards. Case studies illustrating the benefits of early information use and action will be shown along with open questions for debate on how the science community might better engage and help develop solutions to hazard warning.

  7. CO2 and the end-Triassic mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Beerling, David

    2002-01-24

    The end of the Triassic period was marked by one of the largest and most enigmatic mass-extinction events in Earth's history and, with few reliable marine geochemical records, terrestrial sediments offer an important means of deciphering environmental changes at this time. Tanner et al. describe an isotopic study of Mesozoic fossil soils which suggests that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (pCO2) across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary was relatively constant (within 250 p.p.m.v.), but this is inconsistent with high-resolution evidence from the stomatal characters of fossil leaves. Here I show that the temporal resolution of the fossil-soil samples may have been inadequate for detecting a transient rise in pCO2. I also show that the fossil-soil data are consistent with a large increase in pCO2 across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary when variations in the stable carbon isotope (denoted as delta13C) in terrestrial plant leaves are taken into account. These factors suggest that the linkage between pCO2, global warming and the end-Triassic mass extinction remains intact. PMID:11807542

  8. Early Triassic stromatolites as post-mass extinction disaster forms

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, J.K.; Bottjer, D.J. )

    1992-10-01

    Aftermaths of mass extinctions have been thought to be characterized by relaxation of ecological constraints accompanied by increased prominence of opportunistic generalists. Such taxa, termed 'disaster forms,' have been shown to increase dramatically in range and abundance after several mass extinction events. The Cambrian-Ordovician stromatolite decline in normal-marine level-bottom environments has been explained as a direct or indirect consequence of increases in ecological constraints, such as greater levels of predation and/or bioturbation of microbial communities, caused by early Paleozoic benthic invertebrate evolution and diversification. Thus, one would predict that in post-Ordovician strata, stromatolites might appear in normal-marine level-bottom environments as disaster forms in the aftermaths of mass extinction particularly devastating to the benthic biota, such as during Early Triassic time. Mounded stromatolites are present in two beds (up to 1.5 m thick) of the Lower Triassic (Spathian) Virgin Limestone Member (Moenkopi Formation) in the southwestern Spring Mountains of Nevada. Stromatolites from level-bottom normal-marine subtidal environments have also been described from other Lower Triassic strata in North America, Europe, and Asia. These stromatolites, unusual in level-bottom normal-marine settings, may have developed locally during the long aftermath (4-5 m.y.) of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction because of partial relaxation of the ecological constraints that typically restricted them from unstressed subtidal, normal-marine, level-bottom environments.

  9. A new chronology for the end-Triassic mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deenen, M. H. L.; Ruhl, M.; Bonis, N. R.; Krijgsman, W.; Kuerschner, W. M.; Reitsma, M.; van Bergen, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    The transition from the Triassic to Jurassic Period, initiating the 'Age of the dinosaurs', approximately 200 Ma, is marked by a profound mass extinction with more than 50% genus loss in both marine and continental realms. This event closely coincides with a period of extensive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) associated with the initial break-up of Pangaea but a causal relationship is still debated. The Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary is recently proposed in the marine record at the first occurrence datum of Jurassic ammonites, post-dating the extinction interval that concurs with two distinct perturbations in the carbon isotope record. The continental record shows a major palynological turnover together with a prominent change in tetrapod taxa, but a direct link to the marine events is still equivocal. Here we develop an accurate chronostratigraphic framework for the T-J boundary interval and establish detailed trans-Atlantic and marine-continental correlations by integrating astrochronology, paleomagnetism, basalt geochemistry and geobiology. We show that the oldest CAMP basalts are diachronous by 20 kyr across the Atlantic Ocean, and that these two volcanic pulses coincide with the end-Triassic extinction interval in the marine realm. Our results support the hypotheses of Phanerozoic mass extinctions resulting from emplacement of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) and provide crucial time constraints for numerical modelling of Triassic-Jurassic climate change and global carbon-cycle perturbations.

  10. Ecosystem remodelling among vertebrates at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Russia.

    PubMed

    Benton, M J; Tverdokhlebov, V P; Surkov, M V

    2004-11-01

    The mass extinction at the Permian-Triassic boundary, 251 million years (Myr) ago, is accepted as the most profound loss of life on record. Global data compilations indicate a loss of 50% of families or more, both in the sea and on land, and these figures scale to a loss of 80-96% of species, based on rarefaction analyses. This level of loss is confirmed by local and regional-scale studies of marine sections, but the terrestrial record has been harder to analyse in such close detail. Here we document the nature of the event in Russia in a comprehensive survey of 675 specimens of amphibians and reptiles from 289 localities spanning 13 successive geological time zones in the South Urals basin. These changes in diversity and turnover cannot be explained simply by sampling effects. There was a profound loss of genera and families, and simplification of ecosystems, with the loss of small fish-eaters and insect-eaters, medium and large herbivores and large carnivores. Faunal dynamics also changed, from high rates of turnover through the Late Permian period to greater stability at low diversity through the Early Triassic period. Even after 15 Myr of ecosystem rebuilding, some guilds were apparently still absent-small fish-eaters, small insect-eaters, large herbivores and top carnivores. PMID:15525988

  11. A Major Unconformity Between Permian and Triassic Strata at Cape Kekurnoi, Alaska Peninsula: Old and New Observations on Stratigraphy and Hydrocarbon Potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Sralla, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    A major angular unconformity separates carbonates and shales of the Upper Triassic Kamishak Formation from an underlying unnamed sequence of Permian agglomerate, volcaniclastic rocks (sandstone), and limestone near Puale Bay on the Alaska Peninsula. For the first time, we photographically document the angular unconformity in outcrop, as clearly exposed in a seacliff ~1.3 mi (2.1 km) west of Cape Kekurnoi in the Karluk C?4 and C?5 1:63,360-scale quadrangles. This unconformity is also documented by examination of core chips, ditch cuttings, and (or) open-hole electrical logs in two deep oil-and-gas-exploration wells (Humble Oil & Refining Co.?s Bear Creek No. 1 and Standard Oil Co. of California?s Grammer No. 1) drilled along the Alaska Peninsula southwest of Puale Bay. A third well (Richfield Oil Corp.?s Wide Bay Unit No. 1), south of and structurally on trend with the other two wells, probed deeply into the Paleozoic basement, but Triassic strata are absent, owing to either a major unconformity or a large fault. Here we briefly review current and newly acquired data on Permian and Triassic rocks of the Puale Bay-Becharof Lake-Wide Bay area on the basis of an examination of surface and subsurface materials. The resulting reinterpretation of the Permian and Triassic stratigraphy has important economic ramifications for oil and gas exploration on the Alaska Peninsula and in the Cook Inlet basin. We also present a history of petroleum exploration targeting Upper Triassic reservoirs in the region.

  12. [Insects at the borderline between the Permian and the early triassic (Urzhum - Olenek age) and the problem of Permian-Triassic biodiversity crisis].

    PubMed

    Rasnitsyn, A P; Aristov, D S; Rasnitsyn, D A

    2013-01-01

    Distribution of 115 insect families is considered in 15 local assemblages of European Russia, Siberia, Australia and South Africa. The assemblage ages embrace the Urzhum stage of the Middle Permian, the Late Permian, and the transitional Permian-Triassic interval. The assemblages are ordered statistically using two criteria. Ordination after the appearance of a fauna, that is, relation of the number of younger vs. older families, is found to be generally consistent with the stratigraphic data. The method of minimizing the gaps (ghost ranges) in distribution of the families is useful in interpreting the results. Urzhum time is characterized by the balance of emergence and extinction of families (counted as their first and latest appearances, respectively). In Severodvinsk and particularly in Vyatka time, the number of first appearances was decreasing resulted in prevailing extinction. In the transitional Permian-Triassic interval, the emergence of new families accelerated. Initially, the appearance of assemblages was typically Paleozoic (with older families prevailed). It changed gradually, so as by the end of Vyatka time it turned to be quite post-Paleozoic. Diversity was the highest in Severodvinsk time, and it halved at Vyatka time and at the transition interval. However, if we consider transitional families (those not found on a particular interval, but known before and after), the extinction rate reduces to one-third. And when normalized after the material volume, the diversity drop decreases up to a quarter. There was no mass extinction found at the end of the Permian, and the less so at the Permian-Triassic boundary and during the Lower Triassic. Structure of the Permian-Triassic diversity crisis is similar to that of the Cretaceous crisis in many respects. Since the Middle Triassic and up to now, the biodiversity kept increasing quickly and continuously. This implies that the Permian-Triassic crisis resulted in profound modification of the biosphere structure, so as its capacity increased manifold. PMID:23659113

  13. Truncation of scales by time relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, William; Neda, Monika

    2007-01-01

    We study a time relaxation regularization of flow problems proposed and tested extensively by Stolz and Adams. The aim of the relaxation term is to drive the unresolved fluctuations in a computational simulation to zero exponentially fast by an appropriate and often problem dependent choice of its coefficient; this relaxation term is thus intermediate between a tunable numerical stabilization and a continuum modeling term. Our aim herein is to understand how this term, by itself, acts to truncate solution scales and to use this understanding to give insight into parameter selection.

  14. Stratigraphic boundary problems: Permian and Triassic of West Pakistan. Edited by Bernhard Kummel and Curt Teichert

    E-print Network

    1970-01-01

    species from the Salt Range were de- scribed by de Verneuil (in Verchere, 1866). Another important paper of this period was one published by Theobald PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY BEDS (1854), who introduced the term "Pro- ductus limestone" and indicated... stratigraphic hiatus of considerable magnitude which was terminated by transgression of the sea in Scythian time. The Waagen-Noetling period of the Salt Range Permian-Triassic con- troversy was followed by a long period of inactivity in either new field obser...

  15. Cratering time scales for the Galilean satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Wolfe, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to estimate the present cratering rate for each Galilean satellite within the correct order of magnitude and to extend the cratering rates back into the geologic past on the basis of evidence from the earth-moon system. For collisions with long and short period comets, the magnitudes and size distributions of the comet nuclei, the distribution of their perihelion distances, and the completeness of discovery are addressed. The diameters and masses of cometary nuclei are assessed, as are crater diameters and cratering rates. The dynamical relations between long period and short period comets are discussed, and the population of Jupiter-crossing asteroids is assessed. Estimated present cratering rates on the Galilean satellites are compared and variations of cratering rate with time are considered. Finally, the consistency of derived cratering time scales with the cratering record of the icy Galilean satellites is discussed.

  16. Time scales in nuclear giant resonances

    E-print Network

    WD Heiss; RG Nazmitdinov; FD Smit

    2009-12-18

    We propose a general approach to characterise fluctuations of measured cross sections of nuclear giant resonances. Simulated cross sections are obtained from a particular, yet representative self-energy which contains all information about fragmentations. Using a wavelet analysis, we demonstrate the extraction of time scales of cascading decays into configurations of different complexity of the resonance. We argue that the spreading widths of collective excitations in nuclei are determined by the number of fragmentations as seen in the power spectrum. An analytic treatment of the wavelet analysis using a Fourier expansion of the cross section confirms this principle. A simple rule for the relative life times of states associated with hierarchies of different complexity is given.

  17. Parametric instabilities in picosecond time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Baldis, H.A.; Rozmus, W.; Labaune, C.; Mounaix, Ph.; Pesme, D.; Baton, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.

    1993-03-01

    The coupling of intense laser light with plasmas is a rich field of plasma physics, with many applications. Among these are inertial confinement fusion (ICF), x-ray lasers, particle acceleration, and x-ray sources. Parametric instabilities have been studied for many years because of their importance to ICF; with laser pulses with duration of approximately a nanosecond, and laser intensities in the range 10{sup 14}--10{sup 15}W/cm{sup 2} these instabilities are of crucial concern because of a number of detrimental effects. Although the laser pulse duration of interest for these studies are relatively long, it has been evident in the past years that to reach an understanding of these instabilities requires their characterization and analysis in picosecond time scales. At the laser intensities of interest, the growth rate for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is of the order of picoseconds, and of an order of magnitude shorter for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). In this paper the authors discuss SBS and SRS in the context of their evolution in picosecond time scales. They describe the fundamental concepts associated with their growth and saturation, and recent work on the nonlinear treatment required for the modeling of these instabilities at high laser intensities.

  18. Deep-sea record of impact apparently unrelated to mass extinction in the Late Triassic

    PubMed Central

    Onoue, Tetsuji; Sato, Honami; Nakamura, Tomoki; Noguchi, Takaaki; Hidaka, Yoshihiro; Shirai, Naoki; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Osawa, Takahito; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Toh, Yosuke; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Harada, Hideo; Orchard, Michael J.; Nedachi, Munetomo

    2012-01-01

    The 34-million-year (My) interval of the Late Triassic is marked by the formation of several large impact structures on Earth. Late Triassic impact events have been considered a factor in biotic extinction events in the Late Triassic (e.g., end-Triassic extinction event), but this scenario remains controversial because of a lack of stratigraphic records of ejecta deposits. Here, we report evidence for an impact event (platinum group elements anomaly with nickel-rich magnetite and microspherules) from the middle Norian (Upper Triassic) deep-sea sediment in Japan. This includes anomalously high abundances of iridium, up to 41.5 parts per billion (ppb), in the ejecta deposit, which suggests that the iridium-enriched ejecta layers of the Late Triassic may be found on a global scale. The ejecta deposit is constrained by microfossils that suggest correlation with the 215.5-Mya, 100-km-wide Manicouagan impact crater in Canada. Our analysis of radiolarians shows no evidence of a mass extinction event across the impact event horizon, and no contemporaneous faunal turnover is seen in other marine planktons. However, such an event has been reported among marine faunas and terrestrial tetrapods and floras in North America. We, therefore, suggest that the Manicouagan impact triggered the extinction of terrestrial and marine organisms near the impact site but not within the pelagic marine realm. PMID:23129649

  19. Carbon-cycle disturbances and environmental change preceding the end-Triassic mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, M.; Ullmann, C. V.; Mette, W.; Korte, C.

    2012-04-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction [~201.3 Ma], marked by marine and terrestrial ecosystem collapse and global marine biodiversity loss, coincides with the onset of extensive volcanic activity and emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). Massive and rapid greenhouse gas release from basalts, subsurface organic rich strata and ocean-floor clathrates, had a profound impact on the global exogenic carbon cycle and caused dramatically increased atmospheric pCO2 values. A recent study however suggests global carbon cycle disturbance already (possibly ~100 kyr) before the end-Triassic mass extinction. 13C depleted atmospheric carbon injection at this event may have resulted from Late Triassic dike and sill intrusions possibly releasing thermogenic methane from subsurface organic-rich sediments. We now studied an extended, up to 1 million year long, Late Triassic marine sedimentary record from the western Tethian Eiberg basin (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria). Sediments were deposited in the deepest part of the Eiberg basin (very close to the base Jurassic Global Stratotype Section and Point at Kuhjoch). High-resolution ?13CTOC, ?13CCARB-Bulk and ?13CCARB-Brachiopods from this record show distinct 1-2‰ ?13C negative excursions throughout the latest Triassic. This suggests disturbance of the global exogenic carbon cycle already long before the end-Triassic mass extinction. Regular alternations between (laminated) black-shales and carbonate deposition also indicate periodic changes in the palaeo-environment. Variations in the ?18OCARB record, coinciding with ?13C negative excursions, suggest climatic warming. But, distinct negative shifts may also indicate increased fresh-water input along the upper-Triassic western Tethys continental margin. Volcanic activity and palaeo-environmental change occurring already before the end-Triassic mass extinction, may have progressively weakened marine ecosystems, ultimately leading to large-scale marine biodiversity loss.

  20. Permian-Triassic plutonism and tectonics, Death Valley region, California and Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, J.K.; Asmerom, Y. ); Lux, D.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Significant contractional structures that deform Permian rocks but predate an Early Triassic overlap sequence are recognized within the Cordilleran orogen, western US. Thrusting in the Death Valley region of the orogen, however, has been regarded as Middle Triassic or younger and thus kinematically distinct. The authors present new isotopic age limits on two posttectonic stocks that intrude major structures of the Death Valley thrust belt. The stocks are no younger than Middle Triassic, but are likely Late Permian in age, consistent with stratigraphic and structural data suggesting that thrusting predates the overlap sequence. The authors hypothesize that Permian shortening may have affected more than 700 km of the Cordilleran orogen at the same time arc activity began within cratonic North America but prior to Early Triassic emplacement of the structurally higher Sonomian arc terrane.

  1. Cyclostratigraphy of the Middle Triassic bedded chert sequence in the Chichibu Belt, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soda, K.; Onoue, T.; Ikeda, M.

    2014-12-01

    Triassic bedded cherts from the Jurassic accretionary complexes in Japan consist of centimeter scale alternations of chert and shale beds. Previous studies have proposed that the rhythmical alternations of Triassic chert and shale beds represent astronomical cycles. Although cyclostratigraphy of the Triassic bedded chert sequence was identified in the Inuyama area of the Mino Belt, central Japan, the validity of its cyclostratigraphy requires detailed cyclostratigraphic correlations to other Triassic bedded chert sequences in Japan. In this study, we performed cyclostratigraphic analysises to the Middle Triassic (Anisian-Ladinian) bedded chert sequence in the Tsukumi area of the Chichibu Belt, southwest Japan. The average duration of a chert-shale couplet in the Middle Triassic bedded chert of the Tsukumi area is ~10 kyr. This duration is inconsistent with the ~20 kyr duration of the precession cycle during the Triassic, which was confirmed by estimated average duration of a chert-shale couplet in the Triassic bedded chert of the Inuyama area. The dominat cycles in a bed number series of thickness variations in the Middle Triassic chert beds show approximately 2-5, 10, 40, 200, 300 and 400 beds cycles. Given that the average duration of one chert-shale couplet is 10 kyr, these cycles correspond to approximately 20-50, 100, 400, 2000, 3000 and 4000 kyr periodicities. The periodicities of the Tsukumi chert are consistent with those of the Inuyama chert (approximately 40-60, 100, 140, 240, 400 and 4000 kyr). Previous paleomagnetic studies have revealed that the Middle Triassic bedded cherts in the Tsukumi area were deposited in the equatorial region (2.1°±5.2°S), whereas the deposition of the Inuyama cherts occur at relatively higher latitude (16.9°±10.2°N). If the interpretation that rhythmical alternations of chert and shale beds are paced by precession and eccentricity cycles is valid, the average duration of a chet-shale couplet from the Tsukumi area might reflect the semi-precession cycle (~10 kyr) in the equator area caused by biannual passage of the Sun. Further cyclostratigraphic analysises will requires to estimate the paleolatitudinally dependent patterns in the cyclicities of the Triassic bedded chert sequences in Japan.

  2. An optimal modification of a Kalman filter for time scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Kalman filter in question, which was implemented in the time scale algorithm TA(NIST), produces time scales with poor short-term stability. A simple modification of the error covariance matrix allows the filter to produce time scales with good stability at all averaging times, as verified by simulations of clock ensembles.

  3. Time Horizon and Social Scale in Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    In 2009 our center (CRED) published a first version of The Psychology of Climate Change Communication. In it, we attempted to summarize facts and concepts from psychological research that could help guide communication. While this work focused on climate change, most of the ideas are at least partly applicable for communication about a variety of natural hazards. Of the many examples in this guide, I mention three. Single-action bias is the human tendency to stop considering further actions that might be needed to deal with a given hazard, once a single action has been taken. Another example is the importance of group affiliation in motivating voluntary contributions to joint action. A third concerns the finding that group participation enhances understanding of probabilistic concepts and promotes action in the face of uncertainty. One current research direction, which goes beyond those included in the above publication, focuses on how time horizons arise in the thinking of individuals and groups, and how these time horizons might influence hazard preparedness. On the one hand, individuals sometimes appear impatient, organizations look for immediate results, and officials fail to look beyond the next election cycle. Yet under some laboratory conditions and in some subcultures, a longer time horizon is adopted. We are interested in how time horizon is influenced by group identity and by the very architecture of planning and decision making. Institutional changes, involving long-term contractual relationships among communities, developers, insurers, and governments, could greatly increase resilience in the face of natural hazards. Communication about hazards, in the context of such long-term contractual relationships might look very different from communication that is first initiated by immediate threat. Another new direction concerns the social scale of institutions and of communication about hazards. Traditionally, insurance contracts share risk among a large number of insurees: each contributes a small premium toward a fund that is adequate to cover the large losses that occasionally occur. Participatory processes are needed that extend risk sharing to larger social scales and that reduce adversarial relationships between insurers, insurees, insurance regulators, and governments that intervene or fail to intervene on an ad hoc rather than a contractual basis.

  4. Basin-scale time reversal communications.

    PubMed

    Song, H C; Kuperman, W A; Hodgkiss, W S

    2009-01-01

    During November 1994, broadband acoustic signals were transmitted from a 75-Hz source to a 20-element, 700-m vertical array at approximately 3250 km range in the eastern North Pacific Ocean as part of the acoustic engineering test (AET) of the acoustic thermometry of ocean climate program [Worcester et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 3185-3201 (1999)]. The AET tomography signal can be treated as a binary-phase shift-keying communication signal with an information rate of 37.5 bitss. With the multipath arrivals spanning 5-8 sec, these data represent an extreme case of intersymbol interference. The AET array data are processed using time reversal combined with frequent channel updates to accommodate channel variations over the 20-min long reception, followed by a single channel decision-feedback equalizer. The almost error-free performance using all 20 array elements demonstrates the feasibility of time reversal communications at basin scale. Further, comparable performance of single receive element communications integrating over multiple transmissions indicates that the ocean provided temporal diversity that is as effective as the spatial diversity provided by the array. PMID:19173408

  5. Stratigraphy and correlation of Upper Triassic strata between west Texas and eastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, S.G. ); Anderson, O.J. )

    1992-04-01

    Lithostratigraphy and vertebrate biochronology allow precise correlation of Upper Triassic strata between west Texas and eastern New Mexico. Upper Triassic strata are well exposed in west Texas from Oldham to Scurry counties, and are assigned to the Dockum Formation of the Chinle Group. Fossil vertebrates from the Camp Springs and Tecovas Members are of late Carnian age, whereas those from the Copper Member are of early Norian age. Upper Triassic strata in east-central New Mexico, across the Llano Estacado from the west Texas outcrops, correlate as follows: Camper Springs = lower Santa Rose; Tecovas = upper Santa Rosa/Garita Creek; Trujillo = Trujillo ('Cuervo'); Cooper = lower Bull Canyon. Upper Triassic strata in southeastern New Mexico and in Howard and adjacent counties in Texas are the lower Santa Rosa/Camper Springs overlain by mudstones and sandstones that contain late Carnian vertebrates and are informally termed upper member of Dockum Formation. Available data refute several long-held ideas about the Upper Triassic of west Texas. These data demonstrate that: (1) there is a pervasive unconformity at the base of the Dockum Formation that represents much of Triassic time; (2) the Trujillo Member is not correlative with the Santa Rosa of eastern New Mexico: Trujillo is a medial Dockum unit, whereas Santa Rosa is at the base of the Upper Triassic section; (3) very little Dockum mudrock was deposited in lakes; and (4) Dockum rivers flowed almost exclusively to the north, northwest, and west, so there was no closed depositional basin in west Texas during the Late Triassic.

  6. Triassic deformation of Permian Early Triassic arc-related sediments in the Beishan (NW China): Last pulse of the accretionary orogenesis in the southernmost Altaids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhonghua; Xiao, Wenjiao; Sun, Jimin; Windley, Brian F.; Glen, Richard; Han, Chunming; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ji'en; Wan, Bo; Ao, Songjian; Song, Dongfang

    2015-11-01

    The Beishan orogenic collage (BOC) in the southernmost Altaids provides evidence of the final stage of evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. However, the closure time of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in the BOC is controversial. From field mapping, and structural analysis of mesoscale, superposed folds in Early Triassic sediments in the Hongyanjing Basin in the central BOC, we define at least two phases of deformation, which we can bracket in age as end-Permian to Early-Late Triassic. The sandstones in the basin are poorly sorted with angular clasts, which indicates immaturity characteristic of proximal and rapid deposition. Geochemical data indicate that the Hongyanjing Basin probably developed in an arc-related setting near an active continental margin or mature island arc. Combined with published regional geological data, we interpret the Hongyanjing Basin as a Permian-Early Triassic inter-arc basin between the Carboniferous Mazongshan arc to the north and the Ordovician to Permian Huaniushan-Dundunshan arc to the south. In addition, the age distribution of our sediments shows that the active continental margin or continental arc on which the Hongyanjing arc-related basin sat was somehow independently distributed in the Paleo-Asian Ocean without any major contribution of provenance from the Tarim Craton and Dunhuang Block to the south and Southern Mongolia accretionary system to the north. Deformation of the superposed folds began in the end-Permian, continued in the Early Triassic, and ended before the middle Late Triassic (219 Ma). Therefore the accretionary orogenesis in the Beishan part of the southernmost Altaids was still ongoing in the early to middle Triassic, and it finished in the Late Triassic, which might have been the last pulse of the accretionary orogenesis in the southernmost Altaids. We correlate this terminal event with tectonic developments in the Kunlun and Qinling orogens in the Tethyan domain.

  7. Noether theorem for Birkhoffian systems on time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chuan-Jing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-10-01

    Birkhoff equations on time scales and Noether theorem for Birkhoffian system on time scales are studied. First, some necessary knowledge of calculus on time scales are reviewed. Second, Birkhoff equations on time scales are obtained. Third, the conditions for invariance of Pfaff action and conserved quantities are presented under the special infinitesimal transformations and general infinitesimal transformations, respectively. Fourth, some special cases are given. And finally, an example is given to illustrate the method and results.

  8. Detection of crossover time scales in multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Erjia; Leung, Yee

    2013-04-01

    Fractal is employed in this paper as a scale-based method for the identification of the scaling behavior of time series. Many spatial and temporal processes exhibiting complex multi(mono)-scaling behaviors are fractals. One of the important concepts in fractals is crossover time scale(s) that separates distinct regimes having different fractal scaling behaviors. A common method is multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). The detection of crossover time scale(s) is, however, relatively subjective since it has been made without rigorous statistical procedures and has generally been determined by eye balling or subjective observation. Crossover time scales such determined may be spurious and problematic. It may not reflect the genuine underlying scaling behavior of a time series. The purpose of this paper is to propose a statistical procedure to model complex fractal scaling behaviors and reliably identify the crossover time scales under MF-DFA. The scaling-identification regression model, grounded on a solid statistical foundation, is first proposed to describe multi-scaling behaviors of fractals. Through the regression analysis and statistical inference, we can (1) identify the crossover time scales that cannot be detected by eye-balling observation, (2) determine the number and locations of the genuine crossover time scales, (3) give confidence intervals for the crossover time scales, and (4) establish the statistically significant regression model depicting the underlying scaling behavior of a time series. To substantive our argument, the regression model is applied to analyze the multi-scaling behaviors of avian-influenza outbreaks, water consumption, daily mean temperature, and rainfall of Hong Kong. Through the proposed model, we can have a deeper understanding of fractals in general and a statistical approach to identify multi-scaling behavior under MF-DFA in particular.

  9. Early Triassic Marine Biotic Recovery: The Predators' Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Scheyer, Torsten M.; Romano, Carlo; Jenks, Jim; Bucher, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Examining the geological past of our planet allows us to study periods of severe climatic and biological crises and recoveries, biotic and abiotic ecosystem fluctuations, and faunal and floral turnovers through time. Furthermore, the recovery dynamics of large predators provide a key for evaluation of the pattern and tempo of ecosystem recovery because predators are interpreted to react most sensitively to environmental turbulences. The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe crisis experienced by life on Earth, and the common paradigm persists that the biotic recovery from the extinction event was unusually slow and occurred in a step-wise manner, lasting up to eight to nine million years well into the early Middle Triassic (Anisian) in the oceans, and even longer in the terrestrial realm. Here we survey the global distribution and size spectra of Early Triassic and Anisian marine predatory vertebrates (fishes, amphibians and reptiles) to elucidate the height of trophic pyramids in the aftermath of the end-Permian event. The survey of body size was done by compiling maximum standard lengths for the bony fishes and some cartilaginous fishes, and total size (estimates) for the tetrapods. The distribution and size spectra of the latter are difficult to assess because of preservation artifacts and are thus mostly discussed qualitatively. The data nevertheless demonstrate that no significant size increase of predators is observable from the Early Triassic to the Anisian, as would be expected from the prolonged and stepwise trophic recovery model. The data further indicate that marine ecosystems characterized by multiple trophic levels existed from the earliest Early Triassic onwards. However, a major change in the taxonomic composition of predatory guilds occurred less than two million years after the end-Permian extinction event, in which a transition from fish/amphibian to fish/reptile-dominated higher trophic levels within ecosystems became apparent. PMID:24647136

  10. Osmium isotope evidence for a large Late Triassic impact event.

    PubMed

    Sato, Honami; Onoue, Tetsuji; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Anomalously high platinum group element concentrations have previously been reported for Upper Triassic deep-sea sediments, which are interpreted to be derived from an extraterrestrial impact event. Here we report the osmium (Os) isotope fingerprint of an extraterrestrial impact from Upper Triassic chert successions in Japan. Os isotope data exhibit a marked negative excursion from an initial Os isotope ratio ((187)Os/(188)Osi) of ~0.477 to unradiogenic values of ~0.126 in a platinum group element-enriched claystone layer, indicating the input of meteorite-derived Os into the sediments. The timing of the Os isotope excursion coincides with both elevated Os concentrations and low Re/Os ratios. The magnitude of this negative Os isotope excursion is comparable to those found at Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary sites. These geochemical lines of evidence demonstrate that a large impactor (3.3-7.8?km in diameter) produced a global decrease in seawater (187)Os/(188)Os ratios in the Late Triassic. PMID:24036603

  11. Osmium isotope evidence for a large Late Triassic impact event

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Honami; Onoue, Tetsuji; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Anomalously high platinum group element concentrations have previously been reported for Upper Triassic deep-sea sediments, which are interpreted to be derived from an extraterrestrial impact event. Here we report the osmium (Os) isotope fingerprint of an extraterrestrial impact from Upper Triassic chert successions in Japan. Os isotope data exhibit a marked negative excursion from an initial Os isotope ratio (187Os/188Osi) of ?0.477 to unradiogenic values of ?0.126 in a platinum group element-enriched claystone layer, indicating the input of meteorite-derived Os into the sediments. The timing of the Os isotope excursion coincides with both elevated Os concentrations and low Re/Os ratios. The magnitude of this negative Os isotope excursion is comparable to those found at Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary sites. These geochemical lines of evidence demonstrate that a large impactor (3.3–7.8?km in diameter) produced a global decrease in seawater 187Os/188Os ratios in the Late Triassic. PMID:24036603

  12. Permo-Triassic tectonism in volcanic arc sequences of the western U.S. Cordillera and implications for the Sonoma orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyld, Sandra J.

    1991-10-01

    The Permo-Triassic Sonoma orogeny, western U.S. Cordillera, involved tight folding and imbricate thrust faulting of basinal strata of the Golconda allochthon. This event is generally interpreted in terms of accretion of upper Paleozoic volcanic arc rocks of the western U.S. Cordillera ("McCloud arc") to the North American continent, either via back arc basin closure or arc-continent collision. The structural history of the McCloud arc during the Sonoma orogeny is poorly understood, however, as are the implications of this history for tectonic models. This paper presents a synthesis of the Permian to Triassic stratigraphic and structural evolution of the McCloud arc, incorporating new data from the Pine Forest Range, northwest Nevada. The synthesis indicates that, on a regional scale, the arc was affected by widespread uplift but only local tilting, folding and faulting in the Late Permian to Early Triassic. The timing of Permo-Triassic tectonic activity in the McCloud arc is thus similar to the middle Permian to Early Triassic age of deformation in the Golconda allochthon but the structures produced in the two groups of rocks differ markedly. The significance of this contrasting structural response to Sonoma age tectonism can be evaluated by comparison with other better understood examples of arc-continent accretion (back arc basin closure in the southern Andes, "compressional" arc-continent collision in New Guinea and "extensional" arc-continent collision in the Mediterranean). This comparison indicates that the contrasting structural history of the McCloud arc and Golconda allochthon is entirely compatible with an arc-continent accretion model for the Sonoma orogeny and cannot be used as a basis for concluding that the McCloud arc was not involved in the orogenic event. The comparison further indicates that either back arc basin closure or "compressional" arc-continent collision are the most likely settings for the Sonoma orogeny. In contrast, an "extensional" Mediterranean-style arc-continent collision, as has been recently proposed for the earlier (middle Paleozoic) Antler orogeny, is probably not an appropriate analogue for the Sonoma orogeny. The weak structural response of the McCloud arc during Sonoman compression also provides new constraints on the specific processes involved in arc accretion, either via arc-continent collision or back arc basin closure. These constraints suggest that there may be few fundamental differences between the two models during the final stages of arc accretion. Regardless of tectonic setting, Permo-Triassic uplift and associated deformation in the McCloud arc should be considered as much a response to the Sonoma orogeny as is tight folding and imbricate faulting in the Golconda allochthon.

  13. Absolute calibration of the Greenland time scale: implications for Antarctic time scales and for ? 14C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackleton, N. J.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Chiu, Tzu-chien; Parrenin, F.

    2004-07-01

    We propose a new age scale for the two ice cores (GRIP and GISP2) that were drilled at Greenland summit, based on accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating of foraminifera in core MD95-2042 (Paleoceanography 15 (2000) 565), calibrated by means of recently obtained paired 14C and 230Th measurements on pristine corals (Marine radiocarbon calibration curve spanning 10,500 to 50,000 years BP (thousand years before present) Based on paired 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 14C dates on Pristine Corals Geological Society of America Bulletin, 2003, submitted for publication). The record of core MD95-2042 can be correlated very precisely to the Greenland ice cores. Between 30 and 40 ka BP our scale is 1.4 ka older than the GRIP SS09sea time scale (Journal of Quaternary Science 16 (2001) 299). At the older end of Marine Isotope Stage 3 we use published 230Th dates from speleothems to calibrate the record. Using this scale we show a ? 14C record that is broadly consistent with the modelled record (Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 200 (2002) 177) and with the data of Hughen et al. (Science 303 (2004) 202), but not consistent with the high values obtained by Beck et al. (Science 292 (2001) 2453) or by Voelker et al. (Radiocarbon 40 (1998) 517). We show how a set of age scales for the Antarctic ice cores can be derived that are both fully consistent with the Greenland scale, and glaciologically reasonable.

  14. Estimation of longterm basin scale evapotranspiration from streamflow time series

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Estimation of longterm basin scale evapotranspiration from streamflow time series Sari Palmroth,1 longterm annual evapotranspiration (ETQ) at the watershed scale by combining continuous daily streamflow (Q), Estimation of longterm basin scale evapotranspiration from streamflow time series, Water Resour. Res., 46, W

  15. Linking Response-Time Parameters onto a Common Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2010-01-01

    Although response times on test items are recorded on a natural scale, the scale for some of the parameters in the lognormal response-time model (van der Linden, 2006) is not fixed. As a result, when the model is used to periodically calibrate new items in a testing program, the parameter are not automatically mapped onto a common scale. Several…

  16. Detecting separate time scales in genetic expression data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Biological processes occur on a vast range of time scales, and many of them occur concurrently. As a result, system-wide measurements of gene expression have the potential to capture many of these processes simultaneously. The challenge however, is to separate these processes and time scales in the data. In many cases the number of processes and their time scales is unknown. This issue is particularly relevant to developmental biologists, who are interested in processes such as growth, segmentation and differentiation, which can all take place simultaneously, but on different time scales. Results We introduce a flexible and statistically rigorous method for detecting different time scales in time-series gene expression data, by identifying expression patterns that are temporally shifted between replicate datasets. We apply our approach to a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell-cycle dataset and an Arabidopsis thaliana root developmental dataset. In both datasets our method successfully detects processes operating on several different time scales. Furthermore we show that many of these time scales can be associated with particular biological functions. Conclusions The spatiotemporal modules identified by our method suggest the presence of multiple biological processes, acting at distinct time scales in both the Arabidopsis root and yeast. Using similar large-scale expression datasets, the identification of biological processes acting at multiple time scales in many organisms is now possible. PMID:20565716

  17. Biogeography of Triassic tetrapods: evidence for provincialism and driven sympatric cladogenesis in the early evolution of modern tetrapod lineages.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Martin D

    2010-08-22

    Triassic tetrapods are of key importance in understanding their evolutionary history, because several tetrapod clades, including most of their modern lineages, first appeared or experienced their initial evolutionary radiation during this Period. In order to test previous palaeobiogeographical hypotheses of Triassic tetrapod faunas, tree reconciliation analyses (TRA) were performed with the aim of recovering biogeographical patterns based on phylogenetic signals provided by a composite tree of Middle and Late Triassic tetrapods. The TRA found significant evidence for the presence of different palaeobiogeographical patterns during the analysed time spans. First, a Pangaean distribution is observed during the Middle Triassic, in which several cosmopolitan tetrapod groups are found. During the early Late Triassic a strongly palaeolatitudinally influenced pattern is recovered, with some tetrapod lineages restricted to palaeolatitudinal belts. During the latest Triassic, Gondwanan territories were more closely related to each other than to Laurasian ones, with a distinct tetrapod fauna at low palaeolatitudes. Finally, more than 75 per cent of the cladogenetic events recorded in the tetrapod phylogeny occurred as sympatric splits or within-area vicariance, indicating that evolutionary processes at the regional level were the main drivers in the radiation of Middle and Late Triassic tetrapods and the early evolution of several modern tetrapod lineages. PMID:20392730

  18. On time scales and time synchronization using LORAN-C as a time reference signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    The long term performance of the eight LORAN-C chains is presented in terms of the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) of the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO); and the use of the LORAN-C navigation system for maintaining the user's clock to a UTC scale is described. The atomic time scale and the UTC of several national laboratories and observatories relative to the international atomic time are reported. Typical performance of several NASA tracking station clocks, relative to the USNO master clock, is also presented.

  19. Lucas, S.G. and Spielmann, J.A., eds., 2007, The Global Triassic. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 41. WHATDOWE KNOWABOUTTHE MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY

    E-print Network

    McRoberts, Christopher A.

    History and Science Bulletin 41. WHATDOWE KNOWABOUTTHE MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY ACROSS THE TRIASSIC-JURASSIC Rocks deposited across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (TJB) are preserved in several areas, including Magmatic Province (CAMP), and the state of the geomagnetic field during this time period. Parts

  20. Corrected Late Triassic latitudes for continents adjacent to the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Kent, Dennis V; Tauxe, Lisa

    2005-01-14

    We use a method based on a statistical geomagnetic field model to recognize and correct for inclination error in sedimentary rocks from early Mesozoic rift basins in North America, Greenland, and Europe. The congruence of the corrected sedimentary results and independent data from igneous rocks on a regional scale indicates that a geocentric axial dipole field operated in the Late Triassic. The corrected paleolatitudes indicate a faster poleward drift of approximately 0.6 degrees per million years for this part of Pangea and suggest that the equatorial humid belt in the Late Triassic was about as wide as it is today. PMID:15653500

  1. On the Uncertainty of the Annular Mode Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junsu; Reichler, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The proper simulation of the annular mode (AM) time scale may be regarded as an important benchmark for climate models. Previous research demonstrated that climate models systematically overestimate this time scale. As suggested by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, this may imply that models are overly sensitive to external forcings. Previous research also made it clear that calculating the AM time scale is a slowly converging process, necessitating relatively long time series and casting doubts on the usefulness of the historical reanalysis record to constrain climate models in terms of the AM time scale. Here, we use a 4000-year-long control simulation with the GFDL climate model CM2.1 to study the effects of internal atmospheric variability on the stability of the AM time scale. In particular, we ask whether a model's AM time scale and climate sensitivity can be constrained from the 50-year-long reanalysis record. We find that internal variability attaches large uncertainty to the AM time scale when diagnosed from decadal records. Even under fixed forcing conditions, at least 100 years of data are required in order to keep the uncertainty in the AM time scale of the Northern Hemisphere to 10%; over the Southern Hemisphere the required length increases to 200 years. If nature's AM time scale is similarly variable, there is no guarantee that the historical reanalysis record is a fully representative target for model evaluation. We further use the model simulation to investigate the dynamical coupling between the stratosphere and the troposphere from the perspective of the AM time scale. Over the Northern Hemisphere we find only weak indication for influences from stratosphere-troposphere coupling on the AM time scale. The situation is very different over the Southern Hemisphere, where we find robust connections between the AM time scale in the stratosphere and that in the troposphere, confirming and extending earlier results of influences of stratospheric variability on the troposphere.

  2. Observation time scale, free-energy landscapes, and molecular symmetry

    E-print Network

    Salamon, Peter

    Observation time scale, free-energy landscapes, and molecular symmetry David J. Walesa,1 and Peter structures that interconvert on a given time scale are lumped together, the corresponding free-energy surface that are connected by free-energy barriers below a certain threshold. We illustrate this time dependence for some

  3. Interest point detection and scale selection in space-time

    E-print Network

    Lindeberg, Tony

    . In this way, events that correspond to curved space-time struc- tures are emphasised, while structuresInterest point detection and scale selection in space-time Ivan Laptev and Tony Lindeberg of interesting events in space-time data. Moreover, we develop a mechanism for spatio-temporal scale selection

  4. THE AERODYNAMICS OF THE BRITISH LATE TRIASSIC KUEHNEOSAURIDAE

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    THE AERODYNAMICS OF THE BRITISH LATE TRIASSIC KUEHNEOSAURIDAE by KOEN STEIN* , COLIN PALMER been limited. Here, we provide a thorough aerodynamic analysis of both genera of British kuehneosaur words: Kuehneosauridae, Diapsida, Late Triassic, glid- ing, aerodynamics. The Kuehneosauridae

  5. Palaeogeography of Late Triassic red-beds in Singapore and the Indosinian Orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Grahame; Prave, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    A red-bed facies of the Upper Triassic Jurong Formation has been logged on Sentosa Island, Singapore. An overall coarsening and thickening-upward pattern is well developed. The lower part of the section is dominated by purple-red, massive to finely laminated illite-smectite-kaolin-rich mudstones containing thin, discontinuous lenses of fine sandstone marked by low-angle lamination and small ripples. One dinosaur-like foot print has been discovered in a loose block of red mudstone. It is concluded that this is a lacustrine sequence and it is proposed to name the lake, Lake Sentosa. The upper part of the sequence consists of flat-laminated to trough cross-bedded medium-grained sandstone and granule to cobble conglomerates alternating with purple-red mudstone. The mudstone-sandstone packages are arranged in decametre-scale coarsening-upward cycles. The channelling and decimetre-scale cross-bedding characterising the sandstone and conglomeratic beds is evidence for deposition by flashy fluvial flood processes, possibly feeding into the lake as a fresh water delta. One possible dinosaur trackway in granule size conglomerate has been located. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages vary from 2.7 Ba to 209 Ma with significant populations at ˜245 Ma and 220 Ma. These ages throw light on the timing of the Indosinian Orogeny. The molasse red-beds of the Jurong Formation were deposited in a half graben formed in the hangingwall of the Bukit Timah Fault when central Peninsular Malaysia went into extension following the climax of the Indosinian Orogeny in the Late Triassic.

  6. The Inception of the Colorado Plateau Coring Project: Filling the Triassic Geochronologic Gap and Providing a Continuous Record of Continental Environmental Change in Western Equatorial Pangea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, J. W.; Olsen, P. E.; Kent, D. V.; Irmis, R. B.; Gehrels, G. E.; Mundil, R.; Parker, W.; Bachmann, G. H.; Kurschner, W. M.; Sha, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Triassic Period was punctuated by two of the largest Phanerozoic mass-extinctions and witnessed the evolution of elements of the modern biota and the advent of the age of dinosaurs. A rich archive of biotic and environmental changes on land for the early Mesozoic is on the Colorado Plateau, which despite over 100 years of study still remains poorly calibrated in time and poorly registered to other global records. Over 15 years ago, a diverse team of scientists began to develop the concept of a multi-phase, long term Colorado Plateau Coring Project (CPCP). Planning involved two major meetings (DOSECC/NSFICDP supported in Fall, 2007, St. George, UT; and International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) supported in Spring, 2009, Albuquerque, NM). The National Park Service embraced the concept of Phase One drilling at Petrified Forest National Park (PFNP) in northern Arizona, which exposes one of the most famous and best studied successions of the continental Triassic on Earth, and the Phase One target was decided. Most drilling operation costs were secured from ICDP in Summer, 2010. In late 2013, following more recent NSF support, the research team, utilizing Ruen Drilling Inc., drilled a continuous ~530 m core (60o plunge) through the entire section of Triassic strata (Chinle and Moenkopi fms.) in the north end and a ~240 m core (75o plunge) in lower Chinle and all Moenkopi strata at the south end of the PFNP. Our continuous sampling will place this record in a reliable quantitative and exportable time scale, as a reference section in which magnetostratigraphic, geochronologic, environmental, and paleontologic data are registered to a common thickness scale with unambiguous superposition using pristine samples. The cores are being scanned at the High Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography Facility at UT Austin. They will be transported to the LacCore National Lacustrine Core Facility at U Minnesota, where they will be split, imaged, and scanned for several properties, including XRF data. The core will then be transported to the Rutgers University for sampling. The planning team is contemplating Phase Two options (e.g., the Middle to Lower Triassic marine-influenced section west of the Colorado Plateau (St. George, Utah) area or the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic sequence in the Comb Ridge area (Bluff, Utah)).

  7. Systematic risk and time scales Ramazan Gencay

    E-print Network

    Whitcher, Brandon

    ; Harvey, 1991), non-synchronous data issues (Scholes and Williams, 1977), time horizon of investors- ples of the concerns on the beta estimation are as follows: The stability of beta over time (Harvey (Garcia and Ghysels, 1998), the effect of world markets and volatility (Bekaert and Harvey, 1995, 1997

  8. TriassicJurassic boundary events: Problems, progress, possibilities 1. Problems

    E-print Network

    McRoberts, Christopher A.

    As for most geological period boundaries, the Triassic­Jurassic (T­J) transition, 200 million years agoEditorial Triassic­Jurassic boundary events: Problems, progress, possibilities 1. Problems to reconstruct past events, a physical record of their passing is essential. Here again the Triassic­Jurassic

  9. A gigantic nothosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    at least by the early Middle Triassic, after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME). However, indicates global recovery of shallow marine ecosystems from PTME by the early Middle Triassic. T he Permian as extrinsic causes, primarily repeated periods of global warming, ocean acidification and anoxia linked

  10. Simple time-variant filtering by operator scaling

    E-print Network

    Park, Choon Byong; Black, Ross A.

    1995-09-01

    A convolutional method of time?variant, band?pass filtering presented shows that a change of filter cutoff frequencies with time is achieved by frequency scaling the amplitude spectrum of a reference operator. According ...

  11. Current Status of the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic APTS from Continental Sediments and Correlation with Standard Marine Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, D. V.; Olsen, P. E.; Muttoni, G.

    2014-12-01

    A reproducible geomagnetic polarity template for the Late Triassic and earliest Jurassic continues to be that determined from ~5,000 meters of cored section in the Newark basin and ~2,500 meters of outcrop section in the Hartford basin, sampled at nominal ~20 kyr intervals according to a well-developed climate cyclicity that characterizes the lacustrine strata present in all but the fluviatile portions of the basins [Kent & Olsen, 1999, 2008 JGR]. The age model is based on the 405 kyr Milankovich climate cycle and pegging the sequence to high precision U-Pb dating of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) at 201.6 to 200.9 Ma [Blackburn+2013 Science], the initiation of which is practically coincident with the end-Triassic extinction level (formerly set to 202 Ma) and within a climatic precession cycle after magnetochron E23r. The resulting astrochronostratigraphic polarity time scale (APTS) has 66 Poisson-distributed polarity intervals from chrons E8r (~225 Ma) to H27n (~199 Ma) with a constant sediment-accumulation rate extrapolation to chron E1r (~233 Ma). Magnetostratigraphic correlations from the most complete and usually the thickest Tethyan marine sections suggest that the Carnian/Norian boundary occurs within ~E7n [Channell+2003 PPP; Muttoni+2004 GSAB] at an APTS age of 227.5 Ma and for the Norian/Rhaetian boundary anywhere from E16n [Husing+2011 EPSL] at ~210.5 Ma to E20r [Maron+2014 Geology] at ~205.4 Ma depending on choice of conodont taxa, whereas the Hettangian/Sinemurian boundary can be placed at ~199.5 Ma within the marine equivalent of H25r [Husing+2014 EPSL]. These APTS ages are in substantive agreement with available high-precision dates in marine strata for the late Carnian [231 Ma: Furin+2006 Geology], latest Norian [205.5 Ma: Wotslaw+2014 Geology], and the boundaries of the Triassic/Jurassic [201.3 Ma: Guex+2012 PPP] and the Hettangian/Sinemurian [199.5 Ma: Schaltegger+2008 EPSL]. Carnian magnetostratigraphy needs to be improved but attempts to make a composite magnetostratigraphic sequence for the Late Triassic by merging disparate marine and non-marine records have not produced a clearer signal. The Newark-Hartford APTS already provides a framework for long-distance correlation and dating, for example, the timing of dinosaur dispersal across Pangea [Kent+2014 PNAS].

  12. Triassic actinopterygian fishes: the recovery after the end-Permian crisis.

    PubMed

    Tintori, Andrea; Hitij, Tomaž; Jiang, Dayong; Lombardo, Cristina; Sun, Zuoyu

    2014-08-01

    In the last 15 years, the discovery of several new actinopterygian fish faunas from the Early and Middle Triassic of the Tethys, cast new light on the timing, speed and range of their recovery after the end-Permian crisis. In addition to several new taxa having been described, the stratigraphical and geographical record of many others have been greatly extended. In fact, most of the new fossiliferous sites are in southern China, thus at the Eastern end of the Tethys, and furthermore a few are somewhat older (Chaohu, Panxian, Luoping) than the major classical Western Tethys sites (Monte San Giorgio). Following these new finds, it is possible to have a better definition of the Triassic recovery stages. Indeed, after a quite short phase till the end of the Smithian (Olenekian, Early Triassic) in which a rather consistent fauna was present all around the Pangea coasts, a major radiation occurred in the Early-Middle Anisian after the new Middle Triassic fish fauna already appeared in the late Early Triassic, thus occuring well before what was previously supposed from the Alps localities. Furthermore, the new assemblages from southern China point to an early broader differentiation among the basal neopterygians rather than in the 'subholosteans', the group that was then dominant in the Western Tethys since the Late Anisian. It stands that during the Norian a new basal neopterygian radiation gave rise to several new branches that dominated the remaining part of the Mesozoic. PMID:24148549

  13. Examination of hypotheses for the Permo-Triassic boundary extinction by carbon cycle modeling.

    PubMed

    Berner, Robert A

    2002-04-01

    The biological extinction that occurred at the Permian-Triassic boundary represents the most extensive loss of species of any known event of the past 550 million years. There have been a wide variety of explanations offered for this extinction. In the present paper, a number of the more popular recent hypotheses are evaluated in terms of predictions that they make, or that they imply, concerning the global carbon cycle. For this purpose, a mass balance model is used that calculates atmospheric CO2 and oceanic delta13C as a function of time. Hypotheses considered include: (i) the release of massive amounts of CO2 from the ocean to the atmosphere resulting in mass poisoning; (ii) the release of large amounts of CO2 from volcanic degassing; (iii) the release of methane stored in methane hydrates; (iv) the decomposition and oxidation of dead organisms to CO2 after sudden mass mortality; and (v) the long-term reorganization of the global carbon cycle. The modeling indicates that measured short-term changes in delta13C at the boundary are best explained by methane release with mass mortality and volcanic degassing contributing in secondary roles. None of the processes result in excessively high levels of atmospheric CO2 if they occurred on time scales of more than about 1,000 years. The idea of poisoning by high levels of atmospheric CO2 depends on the absence of subthermocline calcium carbonate deposition during the latest Permian. The most far-reaching effect was found to be reorganization of the carbon cycle with major sedimentary burial of organic matter shifting from the land to the sea, resulting in less burial overall, decreased atmospheric O2, and higher atmospheric CO2 for the entire Triassic Period. PMID:11917102

  14. Local-time effect on small space-time scale

    E-print Network

    V. A. Panchelyuga; V. A. Kolombet; M. S. Panchelyuga; S. E. Shnoll

    2006-10-18

    The paper presents an investigation of local-time effect - one of the manifestations of macroscopic fluctuations phenomena. Was shown the existence of the named effect for longitudinal distance between locations of measurements up to 500 meters. Also a structure of intervals distribution in neighborhood of local-time peak was studied and splitting of the peak was found out. Obtained results lead to conclusion about sharp anisotropy of space-time.

  15. Ion-Beam Sculpting Time Scales Derek Stein,1

    E-print Network

    Golovchenko, Jene A.

    Ion-Beam Sculpting Time Scales Derek Stein,1 Jiali Li,2 and Jene A. Golovchenko1,2 1 Division) A study of ion sculpting dynamics in SiO2 and SiN using periodically pulsed ion beams reveals material nanoscale matter transport can occur over second long time scales after the ion beam has been extinguished

  16. Singular perturbation and time scale approaches in discrete control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naidu, D. S.; Price, D. B.

    1988-01-01

    After considering a singularly perturbed discrete control system, a singular perturbation approach is used to obtain outer and correction subsystems. A time scale approach is then applied via block diagonalization transformations to decouple the system into slow and fast subsystems. To a zeroth-order approximation, the singular perturbation and time-scale approaches are found to yield equivalent results.

  17. A new generalization of Ostrowski type inequality on time scales

    E-print Network

    Wenjun Liu; Quoc Anh Ngo; Wenbin Chen

    2008-05-04

    In this paper we first extend a generalization of Ostrowski type inequality on time scales for functions whose derivatives are bounded and then unify corresponding continuous and discrete versions. We also point out some particular integral type inequalities on time scales as special cases.

  18. LINK BETWEEN COSMIC RAYS AND CLOUDS ON DIFFERENT TIME SCALES

    E-print Network

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    LINK BETWEEN COSMIC RAYS AND CLOUDS ON DIFFERENT TIME SCALES ILYA G. USOSKIN and GENNADY A is related to a link between the cosmic ray flux and cloudiness. Here we review evidences relating terrestrial climate variability to changes of cosmic ray flux in the Earth's vicinity on different time scales

  19. Time scales of tunneling decay of a localized state

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, Yue; Muga, J. G.; Sherman, E. Ya.; Buettiker, M.

    2010-12-15

    Motivated by recent time-domain experiments on ultrafast atom ionization, we analyze the transients and time scales that characterize, aside from the relatively long lifetime, the decay of a localized state by tunneling. While the tunneling starts immediately, some time is required for the outgoing flux to develop. This short-term behavior depends strongly on the initial state. For the initial state, tightly localized so that the initial transients are dominated by over-the-barrier motion, the time scale for flux propagation through the barrier is close to the Buettiker-Landauer traversal time. Then a quasistationary, slow-decay process follows, which sets ideal conditions for observing diffraction in time at longer times and distances. To define operationally a tunneling time at the barrier edge, we extrapolate backward the propagation of the wave packet that escaped from the potential. This extrapolated time is considerably longer than the time scale of the flux and density buildup at the barrier edge.

  20. Evidence from ammonoids and conodonts for multiple Early Triassic mass extinctions.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Steven M

    2009-09-01

    Ammonoids and conodonts, being characterized by exceptionally high background rates of origination and extinction, were vulnerable to global environmental crises, which characteristically intensified background rates of extinction. Thus, it is not surprising that these taxa suffered conspicuous mass extinctions at the times of three negative Early Triassic global carbon isotopic excursions that resembled those associated with the two preceding Permian mass extinctions. In keeping with their high rates of origination, both the ammonoids and conodonts rediversified dramatically between the Early Triassic crises. Other marine taxa, characterized by much lower intrinsic rates of origination, were held at low levels of diversity by the Early Triassic crises; because global mass extinctions affect all marine life, these taxa must have experienced relatively modest expansions and contractions that have yet to be discovered, because they do not stand out in the fossil record and because the stratigraphic ranges of these taxa, being of little value for temporal correlation, have not been thoroughly studied. PMID:19721005

  1. Scaling of events spaced in time.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, J G; Stubbs, D A; Dreyfus, L R

    1986-06-01

    Pigeons were trained to peck on a key, which could be lit by red or green light, and produce feeder-light stimuli intermittently. On some trials, food followed the fourth feeder flash providing the key color was red, while on other trials food followed the sixteenth flash providing the color was green. The change in color from red to green was produced by a peck to a second, changeover key. Pigeons typically responded in the presence of red until four or more flashes occured and then, if food had not been delivered, changed the main-key color and responded on the green key. Following training, the variable-interval schedule arranging-feeder light events was changed to longer and shorter values to alter the amount of time (and number of responses) between events. Data from these test days indicate that the change from red to green was influenced by the number of events, but also by the time elapsed and/or responses emitted since the onset of a trial. The results suggest multiple sources of related information and stimulus control when events and behavior occur over time. PMID:24924863

  2. Allometric scaling and maximum efficiency in physiological eigen time

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Bjarne; Shiner, J. S.; Uehlinger, Dominik E.

    2002-01-01

    General optimization results from physics indicate that maximum efficiency of a process, in the sense of minimum overall entropy production, is achieved when the rate of entropy production is constant over time, however not in ordinary clock time but on an, in general varying, “eigen timescale, intrinsic to the system. We identify the eigen time of a biological system with “physiological time,” which generally scales with the 1/4 power of body mass, M1/4, over a vast range of species. Since it is equally well established that metabolic rate scales as M3/4, it follows that organisms produce entropy at the same intrinsic rate, fulfilling a necessary condition for maximum efficiency, and are all, furthermore, equally efficient on the physiological eigen time scale. PMID:11959910

  3. The Late Triassic bivalve Monotis in accreted terranes of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silberling, Norman J.; Grant-Mackie, J. A.; Nichols, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Late Triassic bivalves of the genus Monotis occur in at least 16 of the lithotectonic terranes and subterranes that together comprise nearly all of Alaska, and they also occur in the Upper Yukon region of Alaska where Triassic strata are regarded as representing non-accretionary North America. On the basis of collections made thus far, 14 kinds of Monotis that differ at the species or subspecies level can be recognized from alaska. These are grouped into the subgenera Monotis (Monotis), M. (Pacimonotis), M. (Entomonotis), and M. (Eomonotis). In places, Monotis shells of one kind or another occur in rock-forming abundance. On the basis of superpositional data from Alaska, as well as from elsewhere in North America and Far Eastern Russia, at least four distince biostratigraphic levels can be discriminated utilizing Monotis species. Different species of M. (Eomonotis) characterize two middle Norian levels, both probably within the supper middle Norian Columbianus Ammonite Zone. Two additional levels are recognized in the lower upper Norian Cordilleranus Ammonite Zone utilizing species of M. (Monotis) or M. (Entomonotis), both of which subgenera are restricted to the late Norian. An attached-floating mode of life is commonly attributed to Monotis; thus, these bivalves would have been pseudoplanktonic surface dwellers that were sensitive to surface-water temperature and paleolatitude. Distinctly different kinds of Monotis occur at different paleolatitudes along the Pacific and Arctic margins of the North American craton inboard of the accreted terranes. Comparison between thse craton-bound Monotis faunas and those of the Alaskan terranes in southern Alaska south of the Denali fault were paleoequatorial in latitude during Late Triassic time. Among these terranes, the Alexander terrane was possibly in the southern hemisphere at that time. Terranes of northern Alaska, on the other hand, represent middle, possibly high-middle, northern paleolatitudes.

  4. Evolution of a Permo-Triassic sedimentary melange, Grindstone terrane, east-central Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, C.D.; Nestell, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Perceives the Grindstone rocks to be a sedimentary melange composed of Paleozoic limestone slide and slump blocks that became detached from a carbonate shelf fringing a volcanic knoll or edifice in Late Permian to Middle Triassic time and were intermixed with Permian and Triassic slope to basinal clastic and volcaniclastic rocks in a forearc basin setting. Paleogeographic affinities of the Grindstone limestone faunas and volcaniclastic debris in the limestone and clastic rocks all indicate deposition in promixity to an island-arc system near the North American craton. -from Authors

  5. The "terminal Triassic catastrophic extinction event" in perspective: a review of carboniferous through Early Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate extinction patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    A catastrophic terminal Triassic extinction event among terrestrial vertebrates is not supported by available evidence. The current model for such an extinction is based on at least eight weak or untenable assumptions: (1) a terminal Triassic extinction-inducing asteroid impact occurred, (2) a terminal Triassic synchronous mass extinction of terrestrial vertebrates occurred, (3) a concurrent terminal Triassic marine extinction occurred, (4) all terrestrial vertebrate families have similar diversities and ecologies, (5) changes in familial diversity can be gauged accurately from the known fossil record, (6) extinction of families can be compared through time without normalizing for changes in familial diversity through time, (7) extinction rates can be compared without normalizing for differing lengths of geologic stages, and (8) catastrophic mass extinctions do not select for small size. These assumptions have resulted in unsupportable and (or) erroneous conclusions. Carboniferous through Early Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate families mostly have evolution and extinction patterns unlike the vertebrate evolution and extinction patterns during the terminal Cretaceous event. Only the Serpukhovian (mid Carboniferous) extinction event shows strong analogy to the terminal Cretaceous event. Available data suggest no terminal Triassic extinction anomaly, but rather a prolonged and nearly steady decline in the global terrestrial vertebrate extinction rate throughout the Triassic and earliest Jurassic. ?? 1992.

  6. Lystrosaurus zone (triassic) fauna from antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kitching, J W; Collinson, J W; Elliot, D H; Colbert, E H

    1972-02-01

    Tetrapod skeletons recently found in the Fremouw Formation in the Shackleton Glacier area, Transantarctic Mountains, include several forms that closely compare to South African species. Faunal similarities that confirm a close connection between Antarctica and Africa during the Triassic Period lend further support to the concept of Gondwanaland and continental drift. PMID:17755654

  7. Middle Triassic source rocks in north Lombardy

    SciTech Connect

    Gnaccolini, M.; Gaetani, M.; Mattavelli, L.; Leoni, C.; Poliani, G.; Riva, A.

    1988-08-01

    Using molecular geochemistry techniques, we established that the Perledo-Verenna and Meride Formations (Middle Triassic, southern Alps) represent the source rocks of the Gaggiano and Villafortuna deep oil fields discovered 40 km northwest of Milan. To find the geological factors which control the areal extent thickness and organic matter distribution relative to these sequences, a sedimentological and geochemical study was undertaken.

  8. Time Scaling of Chaotic Systems: Application to Secure Communications

    E-print Network

    Donatello Materassi; Michele Basso

    2007-10-25

    The paper deals with time-scaling transformations of dynamical systems. Such scaling functions operate a change of coordinates on the time axis of the system trajectories preserving its phase portrait. Exploiting this property, a chaos encryption technique to transmit a binary signal through an analog channel is proposed. The scheme is based on a suitable time-scaling function which plays the role of a private key. The encoded transmitted signal is proved to resist known decryption attacks offering a secure and reliable communication.

  9. Time scales of polymetamorphism from diffusive alteration of garnet growth zoning (Wölz Complex, Eastern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestel, M.; Gawronski, T.; Abart, R.

    2009-04-01

    Garnet prophyroblasts in micaschists from the Wölz crystalline complex (Eastern Alps) typically show two distinct growth zones. The first growth zone is of Permian age and forms the garnet cores. The second growth zone is of Cretaceous age and forms the garnet rims. Both growth zones show pronounced compositional zoning. From garnet isopleth geo thermo-barometry garnet growth at temperatures of 550 to 570°C and pressures of 400 to 500 MPa is inferred for garnet cores and growth at similar temperatures and pressures of 700 to 800 MPa is inferred for garnet rims. In several samples the primary growth zoning of the garnet cores is modified by late stage diffusive alteration along cracks, around mineral inclusions, and at the interface between the first and second garnet growth zone. Two generations of alteration phenomena are discerned. A first generation of alteration phenomena extends over several 100 µm into the pre-existing garnet cores and is ascribed to diffusive exchange with the rock matrix during a long lasting high temperature anneal associated with Permian metamorphism. A second generation of alteration phenomena is restricted to an about 50 µm wide zone along the interface between the two garnet growth zones and around mineral inclusion in the second garnet growth zone. These alteration phenomena are ascribed to diffusion controlled exchange between the first and second garnet growth zones and to late stage exchange between garnet and the rock matrix during Eo-Alpine metamorphism in the Cretaceous. Whereas the time scale obtained for the high temperature stage of the Permian event is on the order of 10 Ma, the time scale obtained for the Cretaceous event is only on the order of 0.2 Ma. This reflects the long lived nature of a stage of elevated heat flux and high geothermal gradient associated with an extensional regime in the Austroalpine realm during the Permian and the lower Triassic. The comparatively short duration of the Cretaceous event reflects rapid exhumation of the Austroalpine lower plate subsequent to the intra continental subduction, which was associated with the Eo-Alpine continent-continent collision.

  10. A gigantic nothosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of SW China and its implication for the Triassic biotic recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Hu, Shi-Xue; Rieppel, Olivier; Jiang, Da-Yong; Benton, Michael J.; Kelley, Neil P.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.; Zhou, Chang-Yong; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-Yuan; Xie, Tao; Lv, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The presence of gigantic apex predators in the eastern Panthalassic and western Tethyan oceans suggests that complex ecosystems in the sea had become re-established in these regions at least by the early Middle Triassic, after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME). However, it is not clear whether oceanic ecosystem recovery from the PTME was globally synchronous because of the apparent lack of such predators in the eastern Tethyan/western Panthalassic region prior to the Late Triassic. Here we report a gigantic nothosaur from the lower Middle Triassic of Luoping in southwest China (eastern Tethyan ocean), which possesses the largest known lower jaw among Triassic sauropterygians. Phylogenetic analysis suggests parallel evolution of gigantism in Triassic sauropterygians. Discovery of this gigantic apex predator, together with associated diverse marine reptiles and the complex food web, indicates global recovery of shallow marine ecosystems from PTME by the early Middle Triassic.

  11. A gigantic nothosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of SW China and its implication for the Triassic biotic recovery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Hu, Shi-xue; Rieppel, Olivier; Jiang, Da-yong; Benton, Michael J.; Kelley, Neil P.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.; Zhou, Chang-yong; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-yuan; Xie, Tao; Lv, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The presence of gigantic apex predators in the eastern Panthalassic and western Tethyan oceans suggests that complex ecosystems in the sea had become re-established in these regions at least by the early Middle Triassic, after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME). However, it is not clear whether oceanic ecosystem recovery from the PTME was globally synchronous because of the apparent lack of such predators in the eastern Tethyan/western Panthalassic region prior to the Late Triassic. Here we report a gigantic nothosaur from the lower Middle Triassic of Luoping in southwest China (eastern Tethyan ocean), which possesses the largest known lower jaw among Triassic sauropterygians. Phylogenetic analysis suggests parallel evolution of gigantism in Triassic sauropterygians. Discovery of this gigantic apex predator, together with associated diverse marine reptiles and the complex food web, indicates global recovery of shallow marine ecosystems from PTME by the early Middle Triassic. PMID:25429609

  12. Supraregional seismites in Triassic - Jurassic boundary strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindström, Sofie; Pedersen, Gunver K.; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Johansson, Leif; Petersen, Henrik I.; Dybkjær, Karen; Weibel, Rikke; Hansen, Katrine H.; Erlström, Mikael; Alwmark, Carl; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Oschmann, Wolfgang; Tegner, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction event (201.564 Ma) was synchronous with the earliest volcanic phase during the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), a large igneous province (LIP) formed during the initial breakup of Pangea. Volcanic degassing of CO2 and other volatile gases, and/or thermogenic methane, from the CAMP is generally regarded as the main cause of the end-Triassic biotic crisis. However, discrepancies in the durations of the ETE (50 Kyrs) and the CAMP volcanism (600 Kyrs) as well as temporal offsets between carbon cycle perturbations and biotic turnovers suggest a more complex scenario that require further studies of the temporal succession of events in Triassic-Jurassic (TJ) boundary strata. Here, we present and examine multiple episodes of soft-sediment deformation (seismite) within uppermost Rhaetian marine and terrestrial strata of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. These seismites are stratigraphically constrained by palynology and C-isotopes to the latest Rhaetian, and are synchronous to the single seismite layer from the UK, which similarly predates the T/J boundary, and has been explained by an extraterrestrial bolide impact. Instead, we argue that the multiple episodes of soft-sediment deformation, interbedded by undisturbed strata, were formed from repeated intense earthquake activity restricted to an interval within the latest Rhaetian bracketed by two negative excursions in ?13C and also containing palynological evidence for deforestation and fern proliferation. The fact that these biotic changes coincide with repeated seismic activity has implications for the end-Triassic extinction and the CAMP scenario. We discuss the temporal position of the seismites in regards to other end-Triassic events, and argue that their supraregional distribution in pre-TJ-boundary strata of NW Europe may be linked to intensified earthquake activity during CAMP emplacement, rather than an extraterrestrial impact.

  13. Liquidity Spillover in International Stock Markets through Distinct Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale. PMID:24465918

  14. Liquidity spillover in international stock markets through distinct time scales.

    PubMed

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale. PMID:24465918

  15. How was the Triassic Songpan-Ganzi basin filled? A provenance study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enkelmann, E.; Weislogel, A.; Ratschbacher, L.; Eide, E.; Renno, A.; Wooden, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Triassic Songpan-Ganzi complex comprises >200,000 km2 of 5-15 km thick turbiditic sediments. Although surrounded by several magmatic and orogenic belts, the Triassic high- and ultrahigh-pressure Qinling-Tongbai-Hong'an-Dabie (QTHD) orogen, located several hundred kilometers to the east, was proposed as its major source. Middle to Late Triassic samples from the northern and southern Songpan-Ganzi complex, studied using detrital white mica 40Ar/39Ar ages, Si-in-white mica content, and detrital zircon U/Pb ages, suggest that the northern Songpan-Ganzi deposystem obtained detritus from the north: the north China block, east Kunlun, northern Qaidam, Qilian, and western Qinling; the southern Songpan-Ganzi deposystem was supplied from the northeasterly located Paleozoic QTHD area throughout the Ladinian and received detritus from the Triassic Hong'an-Dabie orogen during the Carnian, indicative of exhumation of the orogen at that time. The QTHD orogen fed the Norian samples in the southeastern southern Songpan-Ganzi deposystem, signifying long drainage channels along the western margin of the south China block. An additional supply from the Emeishan magmatic province and/or the Yidun arc is suggested by the paucity of white mica in the southern Songpan-Ganzi deposystem. Mica ages of Rhaetian sediments from the northwestern Sichuan basin best correlate with those of the Triassic QTHD orogen. Our Si-in-white mica data demonstrate that the high- and ultrahigh-pressure rocks of the Hong'an-Dabie Shan were not exposed in the Middle to Late Triassic. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Diffusion Time-Scale of Porous Pressure-Sensitive Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Teduka, Norikazu; Kameda, Masaharu; Asai, Keisuke

    2001-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is an optical pressure sensor that utilizes the oxygen quenching of luminescence. PSP measurements in unsteady aerodynamic flows require fast time response of the paint. There are two characteristic time-scales that are related to the time response of PSP. One is the luminescent lifetime representing an intrinsic physical limit for the achievable temporal resolution of PSP. Another is the time-scale of oxygen diffusion across the PSP layer. When the time-scale of oxygen diffusion is much larger than the luminescent lifetime, the time response of PSP is controlled by oxygen diffusion. In a thin homogenous polymer layer where diffusion is Fickian, the oxygen concentration 1021 can be described by the diffusion equation in one-dimension.

  17. Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, Harold J.

    2010-12-15

    We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.

  18. Does the Permo-Triassic Geomagnetic Dipole Low Exist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, D.; Kravchinsky, V. A.; Valet, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Siberian trap basalts erupted during a short period of ~1 Myr at the Permo-Triassic boundary. It provides a unique opportunity to study absolute paleointensity during this one of the best-dated periods of Paleozoic era. Previous studies suggest relatively low paleointensity values (Heunemann et al. 2004), result that leads the authors to propose that the Mesozoic Dipole Low could be extended at least to the Permo-Triassic boundary. In this contribution we present new paleointensity results for sills and dykes from the eastern (areas of the kimberlite pipes Sytikanskaya, Yubileinaya and Aikhal) and north-western (intrusions near Norilsk city) parts of the Siberian platform. A total of 341 samples were subject to a modified Thellier-Thellier technique. In order to assure the reliability of the paleointensity estimates partial thermoremanent magnetization checks and multidomain tail check were applied. North-western (Norilsk) samples did not meet reliability criteria and have been rejected from the paleointensity analysis although paleomagnetic analysis demonstrated matching to the expected Permo-Triassic direction of the Siberian traps. Our paleointensity estimates from the eastern trap occurrences show a virtual dipolar moment (VDM) close to the present geomagnetic field value, 5.71±0.92×1022Am2, 5.89±0.37×1022Am2 and 6.21±0.78×1022Am2 for the three study areas, respectively. Our values are about two times higher than reported in Heunemann et al. (2004). There could be a variety of reasons for the discrepancy between our results and previous studies: (1) Magnetostratigraphy studies on the Siberian trap basalts (Gurevitch et al. 2004) have shown that several reversal processes occurred during the time of their formation. As shown by Valet et al. (2005), a period of time is required for the geomagnetic field to recover after a reversal occurrence. During such period it is still possible to have a stable normal or reverse direction and low paleointensity values at the same time (Dormy et al. 2000). We suggest that Heunemann et al. (2004) paleointensity results correspond to a period of stable polarity but relatively low intensity values, while it is possible that our study sills and dykes were intruded during a period were the field had enough time to recovered and stable direction and larger intensity values were acquired. (2) Theoretically, longer cooling rates can lead to overestimates in paleointensity values (Dodson and McClelland 1980; Halgedahl et al. 1980). It could alternatively be a reason for the discrepancy between our intrusive basalts and the previous results obtained from extrusive formations if our study intrusions had long enough time to cool down. Although more study should be done for an accurate reconstruction of the VDM variability at the Permo-Triassic boundary our results suggest that the geomagnetic dipole low cannot perhaps be straightforwardly extended to the Permo-Triassic boundary.

  19. Time Scales in Probabilistic Models of Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Anatoly Manita

    2013-02-28

    We consider a stochastic model of clock synchronization in a wireless network consisting of N sensors interacting with one dedicated accurate time server. For large N we find an estimate of the final time sychronization error for global and relative synchronization. Main results concern a behavior of the network on different time scales $t=t_N \\to \\infty$, $N \\to \\infty$. We discuss existence of phase transitions and find exact time scales on which an effective clock synchronization of the system takes place.

  20. Russian national time scale long-term stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshina, A. P.; Gaigerov, B. A.; Koshelyaevsky, N. B.; Pushkin, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    The Institute of Metrology for Time and Space NPO 'VNIIFTRI' generates the National Time Scale (NTS) of Russia -- one of the most stable time scales in the world. Its striking feature is that it is based on a free ensemble of H-masers only. During last two years the estimations of NTS longterm stability based only on H-maser intercomparison data gives a flicker floor of about (2 to 3) x 10(exp -15) for averaging times from 1 day to 1 month. Perhaps the most significant feature for a time laboratory is an extremely low possible frequency drift -- it is too difficult to estimate it reliably. The other estimations, free from possible inside the ensemble correlation phenomena, are available based on the time comparison of NTS relative to the stable enough time scale of outer laboratories. The data on NTS comparison relative to the time scale of secondary time and frequency standards at Golitzino and Irkutsk in Russia and relative to NIST, PTB and USNO using GLONASS and GPS time transfer links gives stability estimations which are close to that based on H-maser intercomparisons.

  1. Time and scale Hurst exponent analysis for financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, José A. O.; Gama, Sílvio M. A.; Ruskin, Heather J.; Sharkasi, Adel Al; Crane, Martin

    2008-06-01

    We use a new method of studying the Hurst exponent with time and scale dependency. This new approach allows us to recover the major events affecting worldwide markets (such as the September 11th terrorist attack) and analyze the way those effects propagate through the different scales. The time-scale dependence of the referred measures demonstrates the relevance of entropy measures in distinguishing the several characteristics of market indices: “effects” include early awareness, patterns of evolution as well as comparative behaviour distinctions in emergent/established markets.

  2. Resistivity scaling and electron relaxation times in metallic nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Moors, Kristof; Sorée, Bart; Magnus, Wim; T?kei, Zsolt

    2014-08-14

    We study the resistivity scaling in nanometer-sized metallic wires due to surface roughness and grain-boundaries, currently the main cause of electron scattering in nanoscaled interconnects. The resistivity has been obtained with the Boltzmann transport equation, adopting the relaxation time approximation of the distribution function and the effective mass approximation for the conducting electrons. The relaxation times are calculated exactly, using Fermi's golden rule, resulting in a correct relaxation time for every sub-band state contributing to the transport. In general, the relaxation time strongly depends on the sub-band state, something that remained unclear with the methods of previous work. The resistivity scaling is obtained for different roughness and grain-boundary properties, showing large differences in scaling behavior and relaxation times. Our model clearly indicates that the resistivity is dominated by grain-boundary scattering, easily surpassing the surface roughness contribution by a factor of 10.

  3. Multiple-time scales analysis of physiological time series under neural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, C. K.; Hausdorff, J. M.; Havlin, S.; Mietus, J. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss multiple-time scale properties of neurophysiological control mechanisms, using heart rate and gait regulation as model systems. We find that scaling exponents can be used as prognostic indicators. Furthermore, detection of more subtle degradation of scaling properties may provide a novel early warning system in subjects with a variety of pathologies including those at high risk of sudden death.

  4. Triassic/Jurassic faulting patterns of Conecuh Ridge, southwest Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Hutley, J.K.

    1985-02-01

    Two major fault systems influenced Jurassic structure and deposition on the Conecuh Ridge, southwest Alabama. Identification and dating of these fault systems are based on seismic-stratigraphic interpretation of a 7-township grid in Monroe and Conecuh Counties. Relative time of faulting is determined by fault geometry and by formation isopachs and isochrons. Smackover and Norphlet Formations, both Late Jurassic in age, are mappable seismic reflectors and are thus reliable for seismicstratigraphic dating. The earlier of the 2 fault systems is a series of horsts and grabens that trends northeast-southwest and is Late Triassic to Early Jurassic in age. The system formed in response to tensional stress associated with the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The resulting topography was a series of northeast-southwest-trending ridges. Upper Triassic Eagle Mills and Jurassic Werner Formations were deposited in the grabens. The later fault system is also a series of horsts and grabens trending perpendicular to the first. This system was caused by tensional stress related to a pulse in the opening of the Gulf of Mexico. Faulting began in Early Jurassic and continued into Late Jurassic, becoming progressively younger basinward. At the basin margin, faulting produced a very irregular shoreline. Submerged horst blocks became centers for shoaling or carbonate buildups. Today, these blocks are exploration targets in southwest Alabama.

  5. Triassic oils and related hydrocarbon kitchens in the Adriatic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, L.; Demaison, G. )

    1988-08-01

    Without exception, the oils from both the Abruzzi basin and Albanian foredeep are of lower Liassic to Upper Triassic origin. This is demonstrated by biological marker-based correlations between the oils and stratigraphically controlled, carbonate-rich source rocks. The biomarker studies also provided proof to conclude that many of the oils possess low API gravities and high sulfur contents because they are immature rather than biodegraded. Following the geochemical investigations, a computer-aided, basinwise maturation simulation of the hydrocarbon kitchens was carried out, with backstripping in geologic time. The simulations, performed with the Tissot-Espitalie kinetic model, used basin-specific kerogen activation energies obtained by the optimum method. These simulated values were calibrated with observed values in deep wells. Two characteristics diverge from normal petroleum basin situations (e.g., the North Sea basin): sulfur-rich kerogens in the source rocks, featuring relatively low activation energy distributions, and low geothermal gradients in the subsurface. The geographic outlines of simulated Triassic-lower Liassic hydrocarbon kitchens closely coincide with the zones of petroleum occurrence and production in the Adriatic basin. Furthermore, API gravities of the oils are broadly predicted by the mathematical simulations. This methodology has once again shown its ability to rationally high-grade the petroleum-rich sectors of sedimentary basin while identifying those areas where chances of success are extremely low regardless of the presence of structures.

  6. Stratigraphy and environmental significance of continental Triassic rock of Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Gawloski, T.

    1983-03-01

    The continental Triassic rocks of Texas are represented by four distinct but similar rock groups that exist both in outcrop and in the subsurface and include the Eagle Mills Formation (south-central and northeast Texas), Sycamore Formation (central Texas), Dockum Group (west Texas), and Bissett Formation (southwest Texas). They are clearly terrigenous in nature derived principally from older Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The rock groups are composed in part or entirely of mudstone, siltstone, medium to coarse-grained sandstone, and pebble to boulder conglomerate (intrabasinal and extrabasinal). The sediments were deposited in alluvial fans, braided and meandering streams, lobate deltas, fan deltas, and lakes. The coarse sandstone and conglomerate are the products of high-energy, short-duration depositional events. Sedimentation was greatly affected by alternating climatic conditions that produced changes in base level, water depth, and lake area as well as the type of streams that flowed into the depositional basins. The character of the rock groups strongly suggests semi-arid to arid deposition typical of the low latitude desert regions of today. Thus, the rocks comprising the Eagle Mills, Sycamore, Dockum, and Bissett Formations appear to be products of continental clastic deposition during a major semi-arid to arid climatic episode, such as that of late Triassic time.

  7. Zircon U-Pb geochronology links the end-Triassic extinction with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Terrence J; Olsen, Paul E; Bowring, Samuel A; McLean, Noah M; Kent, Dennis V; Puffer, John; McHone, Greg; Rasbury, E Troy; Et-Touhami, Mohammed

    2013-05-24

    The end-Triassic extinction is characterized by major losses in both terrestrial and marine diversity, setting the stage for dinosaurs to dominate Earth for the next 136 million years. Despite the approximate coincidence between this extinction and flood basalt volcanism, existing geochronologic dates have insufficient resolution to confirm eruptive rates required to induce major climate perturbations. Here, we present new zircon uranium-lead (U-Pb) geochronologic constraints on the age and duration of flood basalt volcanism within the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. This chronology demonstrates synchroneity between the earliest volcanism and extinction, tests and corroborates the existing astrochronologic time scale, and shows that the release of magma and associated atmospheric flux occurred in four pulses over about 600,000 years, indicating expansive volcanism even as the biologic recovery was under way. PMID:23519213

  8. Integrated Sr isotope variations and global environmental changes through the Late Permian to early Late Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Haijun; Wignall, Paul B.; Tong, Jinnan; Song, Huyue; Chen, Jing; Chu, Daoliang; Tian, Li; Luo, Mao; Zong, Keqing; Chen, Yanlong; Lai, Xulong; Zhang, Kexin; Wang, Hongmei

    2015-08-01

    New 87Sr/86Sr data based on 127 well-preserved and well-dated conodont samples from South China were measured using a new technique (LA-MC-ICPMS) based on single conodont albid crown analysis. These reveal a spectacular climb in seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratios during the Early Triassic that was the most rapid of the Phanerozoic. The rapid increase began in Bed 25 of the Meishan section (GSSP of the Permian-Triassic boundary, PTB), and coincided closely with the latest Permian extinction. Modeling results indicate that the accelerated rise of 87Sr/86Sr ratios can be ascribed to a rapid increase (>2.8×) of riverine flux of Sr caused by intensified weathering. This phenomenon could in turn be related to an intensification of warming-driven runoff and vegetation die-off. Continued rise of 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Early Triassic indicates that continental weathering rates were enhanced >1.9 times compared to those of the Late Permian. Continental weathering rates began to decline in the middle-late Spathian, which may have played a role in the decrease of oceanic anoxia and recovery of marine benthos. The 87Sr/86Sr values decline gradually into the Middle Triassic to an equilibrium values around 1.2 times those of the Late Permian level, suggesting that vegetation coverage did not attain pre-extinction levels thereby allowing higher runoff.

  9. Scaling properties in time-varying networks with memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyewon; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-12-01

    The formation of network structure is mainly influenced by an individual node's activity and its memory, where activity can usually be interpreted as the individual inherent property and memory can be represented by the interaction strength between nodes. In our study, we define the activity through the appearance pattern in the time-aggregated network representation, and quantify the memory through the contact pattern of empirical temporal networks. To address the role of activity and memory in epidemics on time-varying networks, we propose temporal-pattern coarsening of activity-driven growing networks with memory. In particular, we focus on the relation between time-scale coarsening and spreading dynamics in the context of dynamic scaling and finite-size scaling. Finally, we discuss the universality issue of spreading dynamics on time-varying networks for various memory-causality tests.

  10. Thermodynamics Constrains Allometric Scaling of Optimal Development Time in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Michael E.; Frazier, Melanie R.

    2013-01-01

    Development time is a critical life-history trait that has profound effects on organism fitness and on population growth rates. For ectotherms, development time is strongly influenced by temperature and is predicted to scale with body mass to the quarter power based on 1) the ontogenetic growth model of the metabolic theory of ecology which describes a bioenergetic balance between tissue maintenance and growth given the scaling relationship between metabolism and body size, and 2) numerous studies, primarily of vertebrate endotherms, that largely support this prediction. However, few studies have investigated the allometry of development time among invertebrates, including insects. Abundant data on development of diverse insects provides an ideal opportunity to better understand the scaling of development time in this ecologically and economically important group. Insects develop more quickly at warmer temperatures until reaching a minimum development time at some optimal temperature, after which development slows. We evaluated the allometry of insect development time by compiling estimates of minimum development time and optimal developmental temperature for 361 insect species from 16 orders with body mass varying over nearly 6 orders of magnitude. Allometric scaling exponents varied with the statistical approach: standardized major axis regression supported the predicted quarter-power scaling relationship, but ordinary and phylogenetic generalized least squares did not. Regardless of the statistical approach, body size alone explained less than 28% of the variation in development time. Models that also included optimal temperature explained over 50% of the variation in development time. Warm-adapted insects developed more quickly, regardless of body size, supporting the “hotter is better” hypothesis that posits that ectotherms have a limited ability to evolutionarily compensate for the depressing effects of low temperatures on rates of biological processes. The remaining unexplained variation in development time likely reflects additional ecological and evolutionary differences among insect species. PMID:24391935

  11. Common scaling patterns in intertrade times of U. S. stocks.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Yuen, Ainslie; Podobnik, Boris; Lee, Youngki

    2004-05-01

    We analyze the sequence of time intervals between consecutive stock trades of thirty companies representing eight sectors of the U.S. economy over a period of 4 yrs. For all companies we find that: (i) the probability density function of intertrade times may be fit by a Weibull distribution, (ii) when appropriately rescaled the probability densities of all companies collapse onto a single curve implying a universal functional form, (iii) the intertrade times exhibit power-law correlated behavior within a trading day and a consistently greater degree of correlation over larger time scales, in agreement with the correlation behavior of the absolute price returns for the corresponding company, and (iv) the magnitude series of intertrade time increments is characterized by long-range power-law correlations suggesting the presence of nonlinear features in the trading dynamics, while the sign series is anticorrelated at small scales. Our results suggest that independent of industry sector, market capitalization and average level of trading activity, the series of intertrade times exhibit possibly universal scaling patterns, which may relate to a common mechanism underlying the trading dynamics of diverse companies. Further, our observation of long-range power-law correlations and a parallel with the crossover in the scaling of absolute price returns for each individual stock, support the hypothesis that the dynamics of transaction times may play a role in the process of price formation. PMID:15244883

  12. Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

  13. Conodont paleoecology of Lower Triassic Thaynes Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, T.R.

    1983-03-01

    The Lower Triassic (Smithian) Thaynes Formation represents a broad spectrum of paleoenvironments. Samples arranged along a generalized depth-salinity environmental gradient from tidal flats to a relatively deep, commonly dysaerobic, basin yielded a conodont fauna of 30 form elements. Association and similarity analysis were used to group the conodont elements into eight conodont entities, reflecting both biologic association (multielement apparatuses) and ecologic association (biofacies). Simple chi-square tests and discriminant analyses, using the eight conodont entities, and indicate presence of three distinctive conodont biofacies related to the generalized environmental gradient. The restricted inner shelf biotope was characterized by a conodont fauna dominated by Parachirognathus. The outer shelf biotope was distinguished by a diverse conodont fauna including the distinctive form Furnishius. The biotope farthest offshore consists of a low diversity conodont fauna composed primarily of species of Neogondolella. Some early Triassic conodonts such as Neospathodus and Ellisonia triassica are ubiquitous, and provide the foundation for a inter-basinal conodont zonation. Early Triassic conodont biotopes can be arranged along a generalized environmental gradient that probably reflects changes in hydrographic factors (e.g., salinity, temperature, and energy) which affected the distribution of conodonts.

  14. Inferring Synaptic Structure in Presence of Neural Interaction Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Capone, Cristiano; Filosa, Carla; Gigante, Guido; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico; Del Giudice, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Biological networks display a variety of activity patterns reflecting a web of interactions that is complex both in space and time. Yet inference methods have mainly focused on reconstructing, from the network’s activity, the spatial structure, by assuming equilibrium conditions or, more recently, a probabilistic dynamics with a single arbitrary time-step. Here we show that, under this latter assumption, the inference procedure fails to reconstruct the synaptic matrix of a network of integrate-and-fire neurons when the chosen time scale of interaction does not closely match the synaptic delay or when no single time scale for the interaction can be identified; such failure, moreover, exposes a distinctive bias of the inference method that can lead to infer as inhibitory the excitatory synapses with interaction time scales longer than the model’s time-step. We therefore introduce a new two-step method, that first infers through cross-correlation profiles the delay-structure of the network and then reconstructs the synaptic matrix, and successfully test it on networks with different topologies and in different activity regimes. Although step one is able to accurately recover the delay-structure of the network, thus getting rid of any a priori guess about the time scales of the interaction, the inference method introduces nonetheless an arbitrary time scale, the time-bin dt used to binarize the spike trains. We therefore analytically and numerically study how the choice of dt affects the inference in our network model, finding that the relationship between the inferred couplings and the real synaptic efficacies, albeit being quadratic in both cases, depends critically on dt for the excitatory synapses only, whilst being basically independent of it for the inhibitory ones. PMID:25807389

  15. Inferring synaptic structure in presence of neural interaction time scales.

    PubMed

    Capone, Cristiano; Filosa, Carla; Gigante, Guido; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico; Del Giudice, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Biological networks display a variety of activity patterns reflecting a web of interactions that is complex both in space and time. Yet inference methods have mainly focused on reconstructing, from the network's activity, the spatial structure, by assuming equilibrium conditions or, more recently, a probabilistic dynamics with a single arbitrary time-step. Here we show that, under this latter assumption, the inference procedure fails to reconstruct the synaptic matrix of a network of integrate-and-fire neurons when the chosen time scale of interaction does not closely match the synaptic delay or when no single time scale for the interaction can be identified; such failure, moreover, exposes a distinctive bias of the inference method that can lead to infer as inhibitory the excitatory synapses with interaction time scales longer than the model's time-step. We therefore introduce a new two-step method, that first infers through cross-correlation profiles the delay-structure of the network and then reconstructs the synaptic matrix, and successfully test it on networks with different topologies and in different activity regimes. Although step one is able to accurately recover the delay-structure of the network, thus getting rid of any a priori guess about the time scales of the interaction, the inference method introduces nonetheless an arbitrary time scale, the time-bin dt used to binarize the spike trains. We therefore analytically and numerically study how the choice of dt affects the inference in our network model, finding that the relationship between the inferred couplings and the real synaptic efficacies, albeit being quadratic in both cases, depends critically on dt for the excitatory synapses only, whilst being basically independent of it for the inhibitory ones. PMID:25807389

  16. Continental weathering in the Early Triassic in Himalayan Tethys, central Nepal: Implications for abrupt environmental change on the northern margin of Gondwanaland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kohki; Kawamura, Toshio; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Regmi, Amar Deep; Gyawali, Babu Ram; Shiga, Yuka; Adachi, Yoshiko; Dhital, Megh Raj

    2014-01-01

    The geochemistry of Triassic mudstones in the Himalayan Tethys sequence, central Nepal, was studied with respect to changes in sedimentary facies, grain size, and source rocks. The Triassic sedimentary facies of mudstone and carbonates show deposition in offshore to hemiplegic environments. The rare earth element (REE) pattern of the Permian and Triassic mudstones suggests uniformity correlatable to average shale. The major element geochemistry of the Early Triassic Griesbachian-early Smithian mudstones indicates a sediment supply from strongly weathered sources with the chemical index of alteration (CIA) values of 76-81. However, the mudstones in the late Smithian show weakly weathered sources with CIA values of 68-74. The lower part of the Middle Triassic Anisian mudstones return to Early Triassic paleoweathering levels. There are no significant relationships among lithofacies, the grain size of the sediments, and CIA values. Thus, the abrupt change of the degree of paleoweathering in the Early Triassic, late Smithian time, suggests a dramatic decrease in continental weathering, which is related to a predominantly arid climate in the northern marginal area of Gondwana.

  17. Time Scales for Energy Release in Hall Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huba, J. D.; Rudakov, L. I.

    2004-05-01

    We present a study of the time scales for energy release in 2D Hall magnetic reconnection. We use the NRL Hall MHD code VooDoo for this study. We consider a 2D reversed field current layer with a magnetic perturbation that initiates the reconnection process. We use boundary conditions that allow inflow and outflow (i.e., not periodic) and let the system reach a steady state. We find that the system goes through three stages: a relatively long current layer thinning process, a fast reconnection phase, and a final steady state phase. We define the time scale for energy release as the fast reconnection period: from onset to steady state. Preliminary results indicate that the time for energy release scales as the initial thickness of the current layer. We apply these results to the magnetotail and magnetopause. Research supported by NASA and ONR.

  18. Early-middle Triassic paleomagnetic result from the Hexi corridor, and the relationship between the North China and Tarim blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Liu, J.; Tong, Y.; Yuan, W.

    2009-12-01

    A paleomagnetic study was carried out on early-middle Triassic red beds at Jingtai area of Hexi corridor. The characteristic higher temperature component (HTC) isolated by stepwise thermal demagnetization exhibits dual polarity, which passed the fold and reversal tests at the 95% confidence level. Compared with paleomagnetic coveal results from the NCB, this result suggests that the paleolatitude differences between the observed at Jingtai area and those expected from the NCB reference early and/or middle Triassic poles are -0.9+/-7.3 degrees and 4.9+/-5.9 degrees, respectively. This implies that the Hexi Corridor was the extension of the NCB by the middle Triassic. However, in comparison with early and middle Triassic results from the NCB, an anticlockwise rotation of studied area relative to the NCB with 22.8+/-4.9 degress or 24+/-4.4 degrees, is detected, which might be illustrated by the ball-bearing model. Our results are different from the data obtained from the Tarim block, which include the discrimination of declinations, as well as paleolatitudes. The result indicates that Jingtai area, the western part of the NCB, and Tarim block, were not connected with each other during the early-middle Triassic. The amalgamation between the NCB and Tarim block may be late by the Jurassic, through the Cenozoic evolution of the large scale left lateral displacement of the Altyn Tage fault and the orogenic process within the Qilian fold belt.

  19. Evaluation of Scaling Invariance Embedded in Short Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie; Zhu, Chenping

    2014-01-01

    Scaling invariance of time series has been making great contributions in diverse research fields. But how to evaluate scaling exponent from a real-world series is still an open problem. Finite length of time series may induce unacceptable fluctuation and bias to statistical quantities and consequent invalidation of currently used standard methods. In this paper a new concept called correlation-dependent balanced estimation of diffusion entropy is developed to evaluate scale-invariance in very short time series with length . Calculations with specified Hurst exponent values of show that by using the standard central moving average de-trending procedure this method can evaluate the scaling exponents for short time series with ignorable bias () and sharp confidential interval (standard deviation ). Considering the stride series from ten volunteers along an approximate oval path of a specified length, we observe that though the averages and deviations of scaling exponents are close, their evolutionary behaviors display rich patterns. It has potential use in analyzing physiological signals, detecting early warning signals, and so on. As an emphasis, the our core contribution is that by means of the proposed method one can estimate precisely shannon entropy from limited records. PMID:25549356

  20. Time scales for molecule formation by ion-molecule reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W. D.; Glassgold, A. E.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical solutions are obtained for nonlinear differential equations governing the time-dependence of molecular abundances in interstellar clouds. Three gas-phase reaction schemes are considered separately for the regions where each dominates. The particular case of CO, and closely related members of the Oh and CH families of molecules, is studied for given values of temperature, density, and the radiation field. Nonlinear effects and couplings with particular ions are found to be important. The time scales for CO formation range from 100,000 to a few million years, depending on the chemistry and regime. The time required for essentially complete conversion of C(+) to CO in the region where the H3(+) chemistry dominates is several million years. Because this time is longer than or comparable to dynamical time scales for dense interstellar clouds, steady-state abundances may not be observed in such clouds.

  1. Memory on multiple time-scales in an Abelian sandpile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Melatos, Andrew; Kieu, Tien; Webster, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    We report results of a numerical analysis of the memory effects in two-dimensional Abelian sandpiles. It is found that a sandpile forgets its instantaneous configuration in two distinct stages: a fast stage and a slow stage, whose durations roughly scale as N and N2 respectively, where N is the linear size of the sandpile. We confirm the presence of the longer time-scale by an independent diagnostic based on analysing emission probabilities of a hidden Markov model applied to a time-averaged sequence of avalanche sizes. The application of hidden Markov modelling to the output of sandpiles is novel. It discriminates effectively between a sandpile time series and a shuffled control time series with the same time-averaged event statistics and hence deserves further development as a pattern-recognition tool for Abelian sandpiles.

  2. Late Triassic, arc-related, potassic igneous rocks in the North American Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortimer, N.

    1986-12-01

    Igneous rocks of Late Triassic age are widespread in the Cordillera of western North America and, except in Wrangellia, consist of subduction-related plutonic and volcanic suites. Many of these, including those in the Stikinia, Quesnellia, Rattlesnake Creek, and Jackson terrenes and in southern California, are clinopyroxene rich and belong to high-potassium and shoshonitic rock series, features that are generally absent from older and younger igneous rocks in the same terranes. The Late Triassic subduction-related rocks are exposed in two discontinuous belts that lie east and west of the Cache Creek terrane in Canada and correlative melange terranes farther south. Stratigraphic and structural data suggest that these belts were spatially separate magmatic arcs in Late Triassic time. Tectonic implications of this analysis include an explanation of Middle Jurassic Cordilleran deformation as the result of collision of the western with the eastern belt, absence of Late Triassic links between Stikinia and Quesnellia, disassociation of Stikinia with terranes in northwestern Nevada, and tentative correlation of the Wallowa (Seven Devils) terrane with Stikinia rather than Wrangellia. *Present address: New Zealand Geological Survey, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Private Bag, Dunedin, New Zealand

  3. Integrated Record of Terrestrial Biotic Change from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of northern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmis, R. B.; Lindström, S.; Dunlavey, M.; Whiteside, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Triassic Period was an interval of major biotic and environmental changes sandwiched between two major mass extinctions. During the Late Triassic (235-201.3 Ma), dinosaurs originated and diversified across Pangaea, and several major extant vertebrate groups also appeared for the first time. Unfortunately, few detailed stratigraphically-precise local-regional paleontological records exist for continental Triassic strata, which hinders any attempt to understand the tempo and mode of biotic change through the Late Triassic. We present a new stratigraphically well-constrained fossil vertebrate and palynomorph record (10-15 Ma in duration) from the upper Chinle Formation of the Chama Basin, northern New Mexico, an area that is famous for preserving one of the best records of early dinosaurs in North America. Our data indicate that vertebrate faunas were generally stable, experiencing only one identifiable species turnover event. Dinosaurs, although relatively diverse, were never abundant components of the fauna. Contemporaneous palynological records indicate that floral composition fluctuated considerably. The drought-tolerant conifer pollen Enzonalasporites and other gymnosperms such as Alisporites and Protodiploxypinus dominate most palynofloral assemblages, but there is a distinct increase in fern spore abundance near the top of the section. In combination with evidence of variability from organic carbon stable isotopes, these data indicate that the vertebrate fauna, including early dinosaurs, remained stable over millions of years despite living within a dynamic ecosystem associated with rapidly changing environmental conditions.

  4. The displaced eugeoclinal rocks in the El Paso Mountains and northern Mojave Desert: A Triassic sliver

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.S.; Glazner, A.F. . Dept. of Geology); Walker, J.D.; Martin, M.W. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Many workers have drawn attention to the displaced eugeoclinal rocks in the northern Mojave Desert and El Paso Mountains and their importance in models for the development of an active continental margin in the western Cordillera. Existing models can generally for either strike-slip juxtaposition or thrust emplacement. New field data, U-Pb zircon geochronology, and isotopic data for metasedimentary rocks and plutons in the northern Mojave Desert and El Paso Mountains shed light on the timing and mechanism of emplacement of the eugeoclinal allocthon. The observations and data above indicate that Early Triassic plutons in the northern Mojave Desert came through oceanic lithosphere but later Jurassic plutons intercepted continental lithosphere. The authors suggest a model where eugeoclinal rocks were deposited on oceanic crust which was initially brought southward along a strike-slip fault and later thrust eastward over the cratonal assemblage. Permian thrusting is incompatible with their data and observations. Intrusion of lower Triassic strata by Early Triassic plutons in the Lane Mountain area permits some Early Triassic thrusting but the oceanic affinity of the plutons implies that thrusting did not involve continental lithosphere.

  5. Macropredatory ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic and the origin of modern trophic networks

    PubMed Central

    Fröbisch, Nadia B.; Fröbisch, Jörg; Sander, P. Martin; Schmitz, Lars; Rieppel, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The biotic recovery from Earth’s most severe extinction event at the Permian-Triassic boundary largely reestablished the preextinction structure of marine trophic networks, with marine reptiles assuming the predator roles. However, the highest trophic level of today's marine ecosystems, i.e., macropredatory tetrapods that forage on prey of similar size to their own, was thus far lacking in the Paleozoic and early Mesozoic. Here we report a top-tier tetrapod predator, a very large (>8.6 m) ichthyosaur from the early Middle Triassic (244 Ma), of Nevada. This ichthyosaur had a massive skull and large labiolingually flattened teeth with two cutting edges indicative of a macropredatory feeding style. Its presence documents the rapid evolution of modern marine ecosystems in the Triassic where the same level of complexity as observed in today’s marine ecosystems is reached within 8 My after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and within 4 My of the time reptiles first invaded the sea. This find also indicates that the biotic recovery in the marine realm may have occurred faster compared with terrestrial ecosystems, where the first apex predators may not have evolved before the Carnian. PMID:23297200

  6. Dynamics symmetries of Hamiltonian system on time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Keke Luo, Yiping

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, the dynamics symmetries of Hamiltonian system on time scales are studied. We study the symmetries and quantities based on the calculation of variation and Lie transformation group. Particular focus lies in: the Noether symmetry leads to the Noether conserved quantity and the Lie symmetry leads to the Noether conserved quantity if the infinitesimal transformations satisfy the structure equation. As the new application of result, at end of the article, we give a simple example of Noether symmetry and Lie symmetry on time scales.

  7. Time-scale modification of complex acoustic signals in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quatieri, Thomas F.; Dunn, Robert B.; McAulay, Robert J.; Hanna, Thomas E.

    1994-02-01

    A new approach is introduced for time-scale modification of short-duration complex acoustic signals to improve their audibility. The method preserves an approximate time-scaled temporal envelope of a signal, thus capitalizing on the perceptual importance of the signal's temporal structure, while also maintaining the character of a noise background. The basis for the approach is a subband signal representation, derived from a filter bank analysis/synthesis, the channel phases of which are controlled to shape the temporal envelope of the time-scaled signal. Channel amplitudes and filter bank inputs are selected to shape the spectrum and correlation of the time-scaled background. The phase, amplitude, and input control are derived from locations of events that occur within filter bank outputs. A frame-based generalization of the method imposes phase consistency and background noise continuity across consecutive synthesis frames. The approach and its derivatives are applied to synthetic and actual complex acoustic signals consisting of closely spaced sequential time components.

  8. Appropriate time scales for nonlinear analyses of deterministic jump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Tomoya

    2011-06-01

    In the real world, there are many phenomena that are derived from deterministic systems but which fluctuate with nonuniform time intervals. This paper discusses the appropriate time scales that can be applied to such systems to analyze their properties. The financial markets are an example of such systems wherein price movements fluctuate with nonuniform time intervals. However, it is common to apply uniform time scales such as 1-min data and 1-h data to study price movements. This paper examines the validity of such time scales by using surrogate data tests to ascertain whether the deterministic properties of the original system can be identified from uniform sampled data. The results show that uniform time samplings are often inappropriate for nonlinear analyses. However, for other systems such as neural spikes and Internet traffic packets, which produce similar outputs, uniform time samplings are quite effective in extracting the system properties. Nevertheless, uniform samplings often generate overlapping data, which can cause false rejections of surrogate data tests.

  9. THEORETICAL REVIEW The Hippocampus, Time, and Memory Across Scales

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Marc W.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of experimental studies with animals have offered insights about how neural networks within the hippocampus support the temporal organization of memories. These studies have revealed the existence of “time cells” that encode moments in time, much as the well-known “place cells” map locations in space. Another line of work inspired by human behavioral studies suggests that episodic memories are mediated by a state of temporal context that changes gradually over long time scales, up to at least a few thousand seconds. In this view, the “mental time travel” hypothesized to support the experience of episodic memory corresponds to a “jump back in time” in which a previous state of temporal context is recovered. We suggest that these 2 sets of findings could be different facets of a representation of temporal history that maintains a record at the last few thousand seconds of experience. The ability to represent long time scales comes at the cost of discarding precise information about when a stimulus was experienced—this uncertainty becomes greater for events further in the past. We review recent computational work that describes a mechanism that could construct such a scale-invariant representation. Taken as a whole, this suggests the hippocampus plays its role in multiple aspects of cognition by representing events embedded in a general spatiotemporal context. The representation of internal time can be useful across nonhippocampal memory systems. PMID:23915126

  10. Dynamical masses, time-scales, and evolution of star clusters

    E-print Network

    Ortwin Gerhard

    2000-07-18

    This review discusses (i) dynamical methods for determining the masses of Galactic and extragalactic star clusters, (ii) dynamical processes and their time-scales for the evolution of clusters, including evaporation, mass segregation, core collapse, tidal shocks, dynamical friction and merging. These processes lead to significant evolution of globular cluster systems after their formation.

  11. Gott Time Machines, BTZ Black Hole Formation, and Choptuik Scaling

    E-print Network

    Danny Birmingham; Siddhartha Sen

    1999-08-23

    We study the formation of BTZ black holes by the collision of point particles. It is shown that the Gott time machine, originally constructed for the case of vanishing cosmological constant, provides a precise mechanism for black hole formation. As a result, one obtains an exact analytic understanding of the Choptuik scaling.

  12. Speech Compensation for Time-Scale-Modified Auditory Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogane, Rintaro; Honda, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine speech compensation in response to time-scale-modified auditory feedback during the transition of the semivowel for a target utterance of /ija/. Method: Each utterance session consisted of 10 control trials in the normal feedback condition followed by 20 perturbed trials in the modified auditory…

  13. Gott Time Machines, BTZ Black Hole Formation, and Choptuik Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmingham, Danny; Sen, Siddhartha

    2000-02-01

    We study the formation of Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes by the collision of point particles. It is shown that the Gott time machine, originally constructed for the case of vanishing cosmological constant, provides a precise mechanism for black hole formation. As a result, one obtains an exact analytic understanding of the Choptuik scaling.

  14. MULTIPLE TIME SCALE NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE INVERTED PENDULUM PROBLEM

    E-print Network

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    MULTIPLE TIME SCALE NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE INVERTED PENDULUM PROBLEM RICHARD SHARP, YEN-HSI TSAI multiscale methods (HMM) [1]. We apply the methods to compute the averaged path of the inverted pendulum approximate the averaged equation and thus compute the average path of the inverted pendulum. 1. INTRODUCTION

  15. Multiple time scale numerical methods for the inverted pendulum problem

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Yen-Hsi Richard

    Multiple time scale numerical methods for the inverted pendulum problem Richard Sharp1, Yen (HMM) [1]. We apply the methods to compute the averaged path of the inverted pendulum under a highly and thus compute the average path of the inverted pendulum. 1 Introduction The focus of this paper

  16. Parallel trends in organic and inorganic carbon isotopes across the Permian/Triassic boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Magaritz, M. ); Krishnamurthy, R.V. ); Holser, W.T. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY )

    1992-12-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios in both inorganic and organic reservoirs have been widely applied to model environmental and sedimentological changes on a global scale. Most studies dealing with major extinction events have used the record of inorganic carbon. In this paper the authors report the relation between shifts in carbon-13 content of organic matter and coexisting carbonate fractions at a major extinction event, the Permian/Triassic boundary. They found that both [delta][sup 13]C[sub carb] and [delta][sup 13]C[sub org] of the surface ocean varied dramatically across the boundary, but the fractionation [Delta][sup 13]C between organic matter and carbonate remained constant. This result appreciably restricts the interpretation of changes in the carbon cycle during this critical interval. The new data are best explained by a combination of two mechanisms for variation in [delta][sup 13]C[sub carb]: (1) burial and erosion of organic carbon, with a long time constant; and (2) sequestration of organic carbon into shallow and deep oceanic reservoirs, with a shorter time constant. For application to their case, the first mechanism is limited by possible buildup of marine pCO[sub 2], which would increase the isotopic fractionation factor. The second mechanism is limited in application to short-term transient variations in [delta][sup 13]C. Modeling of the carbon cycle and its variations of [delta][sup 13]C must take both mechanisms into account.

  17. Spectral decomposition of time-scales in hyporheic exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörman, Anders; Riml, Joakim

    2015-04-01

    Hyporheic exchange of heat and solute mass in streams is manifested both in form of different exchange mechanisms and their associated distributions of residence times as well as the range of time-scales characterizing the forcing boundary conditions. A recently developed analytical technique separates the spectrum of time-scales and relates the forcing boundary fluctuations of heat and solute mass through a physical model of the hydrological transport to the response of heat and solute mass. This spectral decomposition can be done both for local (point-scale) observations in the hyporhiec zone itself as well as for transport processes on the watershed scale that can be considered 'well-behaved' in terms of knowledge of the forcing (input) quantities. This paper presents closed-form solutions in spectral form for the point-, reach- and watershed-scale and discusses their applicability to selected data of heat and solute concentration. We quantify the reliability and highlight the benefits of the spectral approach to different scenarios and, peculiarly, the importance for linking the periods in the spectral decomposition of the solute response to the distribution of transport times that arise due to the multitude of exchange mechanisms existing in a watershed. In a point-scale example the power spectra of in-stream temperature is related to the power spectrum of the temperature at a specific sediment depth by means of exact solutions of a physically based formulation of the vertical heat transport. It is shown that any frequency (?) of in-stream temperature fluctuation scales with the effective thermal diffusivity (?e) and the vertical separation distance between the pairs of temperature (É?) data as ? ? ?e/(2É?2), which implies a decreasing weight to higher frequencies (shorter periods) with depth. Similarly on the watershed-scale one can link the watershed dispersion to the damping of the concentration fluctuations in selected frequency intervals reflecting various environments responsible for the damping. The frequency-dependent parameters indicate that different environments dominate the response at different temporal scales.

  18. Paleomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic investigations of the whitehorse group/quartermaster (Dewey Lake) formation (upper permian-lowermost triassic) in the Palo Duro basin, northwest Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Dylan R.

    In northwest Texas, upper Permian to lowermost Triassic hematite-cemented detrital sedimentary rocks, which include a small number of regionally extensive ash beds, were deposited during the time interval of the greatest mass extinction event sequences in Earth history. The magnetic polarity stratigraphy, as well as key rock magnetic properties, of the upper Whitehorse Group (WH) and Quartermaster formations (QM) at selected sections in the Palo Duro Basin, have been determined using thermal, and chemical demagnetization approaches and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, acquisition of isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and backfield demagnetization, and thermal demagnetization of three component IRM methods. Demagnetization results show that the WH/QM contains a primary/near-primary characteristic remanent magnetization at each level sampled and thus the magnetic polarity stratigraphy for each section can be compared with existing polarity time scales across the Permian-Triassic boundary. Estimated site mean directions yield a paleomagnetic pole for the latest Permian for North America of 57.8°N, 130.6°E from 38 sampled sites.

  19. Characterizing Complex Time Series from the Scaling of Prediction Error.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, Brant Eric

    This thesis concerns characterizing complex time series from the scaling of prediction error. We use the global modeling technique of radial basis function approximation to build models from a state-space reconstruction of a time series that otherwise appears complicated or random (i.e. aperiodic, irregular). Prediction error as a function of prediction horizon is obtained from the model using the direct method. The relationship between the underlying dynamics of the time series and the logarithmic scaling of prediction error as a function of prediction horizon is investigated. We use this relationship to characterize the dynamics of both a model chaotic system and physical data from the optic tectum of an attentive pigeon exhibiting the important phenomena of nonstationary neuronal oscillations in response to visual stimuli.

  20. Multiple time scale based reduction scheme for nonlinear chemical dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D.; Ray, D. S.

    2013-07-01

    A chemical reaction is often characterized by multiple time scales governing the kinetics of reactants, products and intermediates. We eliminate the fast relaxing intermediates in autocatalytic reaction by transforming the original system into a new one in which the linearized part is diagonal. This allows us to reduce the dynamical system by identifying the associated time scales and subsequent adiabatic elimination of the fast modes. It has been shown that the reduced system sustains the robust qualitative signatures of the original system and at times the generic form of the return map for the chaotic system from which complex dynamics stems out in the original system can be identified. We illustrate the scheme for a three-variable cubic autocatalytic reaction and four-variable peroxidase-oxidase reaction.

  1. Sequence stratigraphy of the Triassic in the Barentsz Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Skjold, L.JU.; Van Veen, P.M.; Gjelberg, J.; Kristensen, S.E.; Rasmussen, A.; Skott, P.H.; Stoelan, T. )

    1990-05-01

    A regional study of the Triassic in the Barentsz Sea (20-32{degree}E, 71-74{degree}N) revealed sequences that correlate seismically for hundreds of kilometers. Recent offshore drilling results enabled them to establish a biostratigraphic time framework. Comparisons with information from onshore outcrops (such as the Svalbard Archipelago) aided the piecing together of these superregional sequences. Seismic character analysis identified three units with composite progradational patterns (Induan, Olenekian, and Anisian). Fluvial, deltaic, and marine deposits can be distinguished and located relative to the paleocoastlines. Corresponding downlap surfaces suggest the development of condensed intervals, predicted to consist of organic-rich source rocks, as was later confirmed by drilling. Regional predictions based on this sequence-stratigraphic approach have proved valuable when correlating and evaluating well information. The sequences identified also help define third-order sea level curves for the area; these improve published curves thought to have global significance.

  2. The oldest dinosaur? A Middle Triassic dinosauriform from Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Barrett, Paul M.; Werning, Sarah; Sidor, Christian A.; Charig, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    The rise of dinosaurs was a major event in vertebrate history, but the timing of the origin and early diversification of the group remain poorly constrained. Here, we describe Nyasasaurus parringtoni gen. et sp. nov., which is identified as either the earliest known member of, or the sister–taxon to, Dinosauria. Nyasasaurus possesses a unique combination of dinosaur character states and an elevated growth rate similar to that of definitive early dinosaurs. It demonstrates that the initial dinosaur radiation occurred over a longer timescale than previously thought (possibly 15 Myr earlier), and that dinosaurs and their immediate relatives are better understood as part of a larger Middle Triassic archosauriform radiation. The African provenance of Nyasasaurus supports a southern Pangaean origin for Dinosauria. PMID:23221875

  3. Arthropods in amber from the Triassic Period.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander R; Jancke, Saskia; Lindquist, Evert E; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Roghi, Guido; Nascimbene, Paul C; Schmidt, Kerstin; Wappler, Torsten; Grimaldi, David A

    2012-09-11

    The occurrence of arthropods in amber exclusively from the Cretaceous and Cenozoic is widely regarded to be a result of the production and preservation of large amounts of tree resin beginning ca. 130 million years (Ma) ago. Abundant 230 million-year-old amber from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of northeastern Italy has previously yielded myriad microorganisms, but we report here that it also preserves arthropods some 100 Ma older than the earliest prior records in amber. The Triassic specimens are a nematoceran fly (Diptera) and two disparate species of mites, Triasacarus fedelei gen. et sp. nov., and Ampezzoa triassica gen. et sp. nov. These mites are the oldest definitive fossils of a group, the Eriophyoidea, which includes the gall mites and comprises at least 3,500 Recent species, 97% of which feed on angiosperms and represents one of the most specialized lineages of phytophagous arthropods. Antiquity of the gall mites in much their extant form was unexpected, particularly with the Triassic species already having many of their present-day features (such as only two pairs of legs); further, it establishes conifer feeding as an ancestral trait. Feeding by the fossil mites may have contributed to the formation of the amber droplets, but we find that the abundance of amber during the Carnian (ca. 230 Ma) is globally anomalous for the pre-Cretaceous and may, alternatively, be related to paleoclimate. Further recovery of arthropods in Carnian-aged amber is promising and will have profound implications for understanding the evolution of terrestrial members of the most diverse phylum of organisms. PMID:22927387

  4. Arthropods in amber from the Triassic Period

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Alexander R.; Jancke, Saskia; Lindquist, Evert E.; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Roghi, Guido; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Schmidt, Kerstin; Wappler, Torsten; Grimaldi, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of arthropods in amber exclusively from the Cretaceous and Cenozoic is widely regarded to be a result of the production and preservation of large amounts of tree resin beginning ca. 130 million years (Ma) ago. Abundant 230 million-year-old amber from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of northeastern Italy has previously yielded myriad microorganisms, but we report here that it also preserves arthropods some 100 Ma older than the earliest prior records in amber. The Triassic specimens are a nematoceran fly (Diptera) and two disparate species of mites, Triasacarus fedelei gen. et sp. nov., and Ampezzoa triassica gen. et sp. nov. These mites are the oldest definitive fossils of a group, the Eriophyoidea, which includes the gall mites and comprises at least 3,500 Recent species, 97% of which feed on angiosperms and represents one of the most specialized lineages of phytophagous arthropods. Antiquity of the gall mites in much their extant form was unexpected, particularly with the Triassic species already having many of their present-day features (such as only two pairs of legs); further, it establishes conifer feeding as an ancestral trait. Feeding by the fossil mites may have contributed to the formation of the amber droplets, but we find that the abundance of amber during the Carnian (ca. 230 Ma) is globally anomalous for the pre-Cretaceous and may, alternatively, be related to paleoclimate. Further recovery of arthropods in Carnian-aged amber is promising and will have profound implications for understanding the evolution of terrestrial members of the most diverse phylum of organisms. PMID:22927387

  5. Global coal gap between Permian-Triassic extinction and Middle Triassic recovery of peat-forming plants

    SciTech Connect

    Retallack, G.J.; Veevers, J.J.; Morante, R.

    1996-02-01

    Early Triassic coals are unknown, and Middle Triassic coals are rare and thin. The Early Triassic coal gap began with extinction of peat-forming plants at the end of the Permian (ca. 250 Ma), with no coal known anywhere until Middle Triassic (243 Ma). Permian levels of plant diversity and peat thickness were not recovered until Late Triassic (230 Ma). Tectonic and climatic explanations for the coal gap fail because deposits of fluctuating sea levels and sedimentary facies and paleosols commonly found in coal-bearing sequences are present also in Early Triassic rocks. Nor do we favor explanations involving evolutionary advances in the effectiveness of fungal decomposers, insects or tetrapod herbivores, which became cosmopolitan and much reduced in diversity across the Permian-Triassic boundary. Instead, we favor explanations involving extinction of peat-forming plants at the Permian-Triassic boundary, followed by a hiatus of some 10 m.y. until newly evolved peat-forming plants developed tolerance to the acidic dysaerobic conditions of wetlands. This view is compatible not only with the paleobotanical record of extinction of swamp plants, but also with indications of a terminal Permian productivity crash from {delta}{sup 13}C{sub org} and total organic carbon of both nonmarine and shallow marine shales. 205 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Probing Fission Time Scales with Neutrons and GDR Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, R. P.; Botting, Tye; Chubarian, G G; Wolf, K; Hurst, B J; Jabs, H; Hamelin, M; Bacak, A; Oganessian, Yuri Ts.; Itkis, M. G.; Kozulin, E M; Kondratiev, N. A.; Salamatin, V S; Pokrovsky, I V; Hanappe, F; de Goes Brennand, E.; Huck, A; Stuttge, L; Liatard, E; Beene, James R; Varner Jr, Robert L; Halbert, Melvyn L; Gan, Ning

    2003-06-01

    The time scales for nuclear fission have been explored using both pre-and postfission neutrons and GDR gamma rays. Four systems were investigated: 133-MeV 16O + 176Yb and 208Pb and 104-MeV 4He + 188Os and 209Bi. Fission fragments were measured in coincidence with PPACs. The neutrons were detected using eight detectors from the DEMON array, while gamma rays were measured using the US BaF2 array. The pre-and postfission gamma rays were determined using moving source fits parallel and perpendicular to the fission fragment emission directions. The time scales for fission for the neutrons were determined using the neutron clock technique. The gamma-ray data were fitted using a statistical model calculation based on the code CASCADE. The results of the fits from both data types were used to extract nuclear friction coefficients, ?, and fission time scales. The ? values ranged from 7 to 20, while the fission times were (31-105) 10?21 s. From Yadernaya Fizika, Vol. 66, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1199-1203.

  7. Reconstructions of solar irradiance on centennial time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami K.; Dasi Espuig, Maria; Kok Leng, Yeo

    Solar irradiance is the main external source of energy to Earth's climate system. The record of direct measurements covering less than 40 years is too short to study solar influence on Earth's climate, which calls for reconstructions of solar irradiance into the past with the help of appropriate models. An obvious requirement to a competitive model is its ability to reproduce observed irradiance changes, and a successful example of such a model is presented by the SATIRE family of models. As most state-of-the-art models, SATIRE assumes that irradiance changes on time scales longer than approximately a day are caused by the evolving distribution of dark and bright magnetic features on the solar surface. The surface coverage by such features as a function of time is derived from solar observations. The choice of these depends on the time scale in question. Most accurate is the version of the model that employs full-disc spatially-resolved solar magnetograms and reproduces over 90% of the measured irradiance variation, including the overall decreasing trend in the total solar irradiance over the last four cycles. Since such magnetograms are only available for about four decades, reconstructions on time scales of centuries have to rely on disc-integrated proxies of solar magnetic activity, such as sunspot areas and numbers. Employing a surface flux transport model and sunspot observations as input, we have being able to produce synthetic magnetograms since 1700. This improves the temporal resolution of the irradiance reconstructions on centennial time scales. The most critical aspect of such reconstructions remains the uncertainty in the magnitude of the secular change.

  8. Tectonic setting of the Late Triassic volcaniclastic series of the Luang Prabang Basin, Laos, and geodynamic implications from the Triassic to Jurassic in SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignol, Camille; Bourquin, Sylvie; Dabard, Marie-Pierre; Hallot, Erwan; Poujol, Marc; Nalpas, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    The Luang Prabang Basin, located on the eastern margin of the Indochina block, is mainly composed of volcaniclastic continental deposits. The interpretation of U-Pb zircon geochronological dates shows that volcanism is contemporaneous with the sedimentation during the Late Triassic (c.a. 225 to 215 Ma; Blanchard et al., 2013, J. Asian Earth Sci., 70-71; 8-26). At the same time, volcanism is also known along the Eastern margin of the Indochina block (present day Thailand). There are currently two main contrasting interpretations concerning the tectonic setting related to these volcanic events: are they arc-related (e.g. Barr et al., 2006, J. Geol. Soc. London, 163; 1037-1046) or post collisional (e.g. Srichan et al., 2009, Island Arc, 18; 32-51)? We have performed geochemical analysis on both sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Luang Prabang Basin in order to evaluate the relationships between the volcanic events and to propose a geodynamic interpretation. The geochemical characteristics of the Luang Prabang Late Triassic volcaniclastic and volcanic rocks are compatible with a volcanic arc setting. The confrontation of these results with the stratigraphic evolution of the eastern margin of the Indochina block leads to reconsider the Late Triassic to Jurassic geodynamic evolution of this area. Arc-related volcanism seems to occur during nearly the whole Triassic, implying a subduction of the Paleotethys beneath the Indochina block. As the stratigraphic record of north-eastern Thailand and western Myanmar shows an important stratigraphic gap spanning from the Early to the Middle Jurassic, the collision between the Indochina and the Sibumasu blocks likely occurred at that period.

  9. The Colorado Plateau Coring Project (CPCP): A Continuous Cored Record of Triassic Continental Environmental Change in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, P. E.; Geissman, J. W.; Gehrels, G. E.; Irmis, R. B.; Kent, D. V.; Mundil, R.; Parker, W.; Sha, J.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Kuerschner, W.; Bachmann, G. H.; Schaller, M. F.; Zakharova, N. V.; Colbert, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Triassic Period (251.9-201.3 Ma) is bound by two of the Earth's largest mass extinctions, suffered several giant bolide impacts and eruption of 3 large igneous provinces, and witnessed evolution of the main components of modern tetrapod communities, and yet has sparse geochronological calibration. To bridge this gap, NSF- and ICDP-funded coring of Phase 1 of the CPCP finished in 12/2013 with the recovery of two major cores (1A, 518m and 2B, 253m; 31km apart) from opposites sides of Petrified Forest National Park spanning nearly the entire Triassic sequence (Chinle & Moenkopi fms) with many U-Pb datable levels (1,2,3) and a recoverable paleomagnetic polarity record (4). The cores will provide a U-Pb and paleomagnetic exportable time scale and sedimentary and geochemical proxies with undoubted superposition testing the motivating hypotheses of: 1) the accuracy of orbitally-paced cyclicity of the Newark APTS (5); 2) apparent climate trends as a function of drift through climate belts (6) and atmospheric CO2 (7); 3) the temporal link between the mid-Late Triassic biotic turnover and the ~100 km Manicouagan impact (1); and 4) the delayed ecological dominance of dinosaurs coupled to climate-driven provinciality (1,8). For orientation, the cores were drilled using a azimuth-tracking device, deviated 30° and 15° from vertical to the SE and S, and CT-scanned. The unprecedented sedimentological and stratigraphic detail visible in the CT-scans, and geophysical logs, plus the ~100% recovery promises successful tests of the motivating hypotheses and provide a superbly detailed reference section for this key episode in Earth system history. 1, Irmis+,2011, EPSL 309:258; 2, Ramazani+, 2011, GSA Bull. 123:2142; 3, Ramazani+, 2014, AJS 314:981; 4, Steiner & Lucas, 2000, JGR B 105:25791; 5, Kent & Olsen, 1999, JGR 104(B6):12831-12841; 6, Kent and Tauxe, 2005, Science 307:240-244; 7, Schaller+, 2012, EPSL 323-324:27-39; 8, Kent +, 2014, PNAS 111:7958-7963.

  10. Assestment of correlations and crossover scale in electroseismic time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Vargas, L.; Ramírez-Rojas, A.; Angulo-Brown, F.

    2009-04-01

    Evaluating complex fluctuations in electroseismic time series is an important task not only for earthquake prediction but also for understanding complex processes related to earthquake preparation. Previous studies have reported alterations, as the emergence of correlated dynamics in geoelectric potentials prior to an important earthquake (EQ). In this work, we apply the detrended fluctuation analysis and introduce a statistical procedure to characterize the presence of crossovers in scaling exponents, to analyze the fluctuations of geoelectric time series monitored in two sites located in Mexico. We find a complex behavior characterized by the presence of a crossover in the correlation exponents in the vicinity of a M=7.4 EQ occurred on Sept. 14, 1995. Finally, we apply the t-student test to evaluate the level of significance between short and large scaling exponents.

  11. Realization of a time-scale with an optical clock

    E-print Network

    Grebing, C; Dörscher, S; Häfner, S; Gerginov, V; Weyers, S; Lipphardt, B; Riehle, F; Sterr, U; Lisdat, C

    2015-01-01

    Optical clocks are not only powerful tools for prime fundamental research, but are also deemed for the re-definition of the SI base unit second as they surpass the performance of caesium atomic clocks in both accuracy and stability by more than an order of magnitude. However, an important obstacle in this transition has so far been the limited reliability of the optical clocks that made a continuous realization of a time-scale impractical. In this paper, we demonstrate how this dilemma can be resolved and that a time-scale based on an optical clock can be established that is superior to one based on even the best caesium fountain clocks. The paper also gives further proof of the international consistency of strontium lattice clocks on the $10^{-16}$ accuracy level, which is another prerequisite for a change in the definition of the second.

  12. Solar Irradiance Variations on Active Region Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labonte, B. J. (editor); Chapman, G. A. (editor); Hudson, H. S. (editor); Willson, R. C. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    The variations of the total solar irradiance is an important tool for studying the Sun, thanks to the development of very precise sensors such as the ACRIM instrument on board the Solar Maximum Mission. The largest variations of the total irradiance occur on time scales of a few days are caused by solar active regions, especially sunspots. Efforts were made to describe the active region effects on total and spectral irradiance.

  13. Time scale interactions and the coevolution of humans and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Blöschl, Günter

    2015-09-01

    We present a coevolutionary view of hydrologic systems, revolving around feedbacks between environmental and social processes operating across different time scales. This brings to the fore an emphasis on emergent phenomena in changing water systems, such as the levee effect, adaptation to change, system lock-in, and system collapse due to resource depletion. Changing human values play a key role in the emergence of these phenomena and should therefore be considered as internal to the system. Guidance is provided for the framing and modeling of these phenomena to test alternative hypotheses about how they arose. A plurality of coevolutionary models, from stylized to comprehensive system-of-system models, may assist strategic water management for long time scales through facilitating stakeholder participation, exploring the possibility space of alternative futures, and helping to synthesize the observed dynamics in a wide range of case studies. Future research opportunities lie in exploring emergent phenomena arising from time scale interactions through historical, comparative, and process studies of human-water feedbacks.

  14. Scale dependence of the directional relationships between coupled time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi, Amir Hossein; Aghamohammadi, Cina; Anvari, Mehrnaz; Bahraminasab, Alireza; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza; Peinke, Joachim; Sahimi, Muhammad; Marsili, Matteo

    2013-02-01

    Using the cross-correlation of the wavelet transformation, we propose a general method of studying the scale dependence of the direction of coupling for coupled time series. The method is first demonstrated by applying it to coupled van der Pol forced oscillators and coupled nonlinear stochastic equations. We then apply the method to the analysis of the log-return time series of the stock values of the IBM and General Electric (GE) companies. Our analysis indicates that, on average, IBM stocks react earlier to possible common sector price movements than those of GE.

  15. Scaling Brain Size, Keeping Timing: Evolutionary Preservation of Brain Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Buzsáki, György; Logothetis, Nikos; Singer, Wolf

    2014-01-01

    Despite the several-thousand-fold increase of brain volume during the course of mammalian evolution, the hierarchy of brain oscillations remains remarkably preserved, allowing for multiple-time-scale communication within and across neuronal networks at approximately the same speed, irrespective of brain size. Deployment of large-diameter axons of long-range neurons could be a key factor in the preserved time management in growing brains. We discuss the consequences of such preserved network constellation in mental disease, drug discovery, and interventional therapies. PMID:24183025

  16. Horizontal structure of winter time 250 mb jet stream variations on the fifteen day time scale 

    E-print Network

    Park, Sangwook

    1993-01-01

    The horizontal structure of the 250 mb jet stream on the fifteen-day time scale during Northern Hemisphere winter is presented. The winter season is divided into six fifteen-day periods for the 24-year NMC data set. The fifteen-day time...

  17. 5nsec Dead time multichannel scaling system for Mössbauer spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrastro, C.; Trombetta, G.; Pita, A.; Saragovi, C.; Duhalde, S.

    1991-11-01

    A PC programmable and fast multichannel scaling module has been designed to use a commercial Mössbauer spectrometer. This module is based on a 10 single chip 8 bits microcomputer (MC6805) and on a 35 fast ALU, which allows a high performance and low cost system. The module can operate in a stand-alone mode. Data analysis are performed in real time display, on XT/AT IBM PC or compatibles. The channels are ranged between 256 and 4096, the maximum number of counts is 232-1 per channel, the dwell time is 3 ?sec and the dead time between channels is 5 nsec. A friendly software display the real time spectrum and offers menues with different options at each state.

  18. Fault rock texture and porosity type in Triassic dolostones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosta, Fabrizio; Grieco, Donato; Bardi, Alessandro; Prosser, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    Preliminary results of an ongoing project aimed at deciphering the micromechanics and porosity evolution associated to brittle deformation of Triassic dolostones are presented. Samples collected from high-angle, oblique-slip, 10's to 100's m-throw normal faults crosscutting Mesozoic carbonates of the Neo Tethys (Campanian-Lucanian Platform) are investigated by mean of field geological mapping, optical microscopy, SEM and image analyses. The goal is to characterize in detail composition, texture and porosity of cataclastic rocks in order to assess the structural architecture of dolomitic fault cores. Moreover, the present study addresses the time-space control exerted by several micro-mechanisms such as intragranular extensional fracturing, chipping and shear fracturing, which took place during grain rolling and crushing within the evolving faults, on type, amount, dimensions and distribution of micropores present within the cataclastic fault cores. Study samples are representative of well-exposed dolomitic fault cores of oblique-slip normal faults trending either NW-SE or NE-SW. The high-angle normal faults crosscut the Mesozoic carbonates of the Campanian-Lucanian Platform, which overrode the Lagonegro succession by mean of low-angle thrust faults. Fault throws are measured by considering the displaced thrust faults as key markers after large scale field mapping (1:10,000 scale) of the study areas. In the field, hand samples were selected according to their distance from main slip surfaces and, in some case, along secondary slip surfaces. Microscopy analysis of about 100 oriented fault rock samples shows that, mostly, the study cataclastic rocks are made up of dolomite and sparse, minute survivor silicate grains deriving from the Lagonegro succession. In order to quantitatively assess the main textural classes, a great attention is paid to the grain-matrix ratio, grain sphericity, grain roundness, and grain sorting. By employing an automatic box-counting technique, the fractal dimension of representative samples is also computed. Results of such a work shows that five main textural types are present: 1) fractured and fragmented dolomites; 2) protocataclasites characterized by intense intragranular extensional fracturing; 3) cataclasites due to a chipping-dominated mechanism; 4) cataclasites and ultracataclasites with pronounced shear fracturing; 5) cemented fault rocks, which localize along the main slip surfaces. The first four textural types are therefore indicative to the fault rock maturity within individual cataclastic fault cores. A negative correlation among grain-matrix ratio and grain sphericity, roundness and sorting is computed, which implies that ultracataclasites are made up of more spherical and rounded smaller grains relative to cataclasites and protocataclasites. Each textural type shows distinct D0-values (box-counting dimension). As expected, a good correlation between the D0-value and fault rock maturity is computed. Ongoing analysis of selected images obtained from representative samples of the five textural classes will shed lights on the relative role played by the aforementioned micro-mechanisms on the porosity evolution within the cataclastic fault cores.

  19. Exceptional vertebrate biotas from the Triassic of China, and the expansion of marine ecosystems after the Permo-Triassic mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Michael J.; Zhang, Qiyue; Hu, Shixue; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Wen, Wen; Liu, Jun; Huang, Jinyuan; Zhou, Changyong; Xie, Tao; Tong, Jinnan; Choo, Brian

    2013-10-01

    The Triassic was a time of turmoil, as life recovered from the most devastating of all mass extinctions, the Permo-Triassic event 252 million years ago. The Triassic marine rock succession of southwest China provides unique documentation of the recovery of marine life through a series of well dated, exceptionally preserved fossil assemblages in the Daye, Guanling, Zhuganpo, and Xiaowa formations. New work shows the richness of the faunas of fishes and reptiles, and that recovery of vertebrate faunas was delayed by harsh environmental conditions and then occurred rapidly in the Anisian. The key faunas of fishes and reptiles come from a limited area in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou provinces, and these may be dated relative to shared stratigraphic units, and their palaeoenvironments reconstructed. The Luoping and Panxian biotas, both from the Guanling Formation, are dated as Anisian (Pelsonian) on the basis of conodonts and radiometric dates, the former being slightly older than the latter. The Xingyi biota is from the Zhuganpo Formation, and is Ladinian or early Carnian, while the Guanling biota is from the overlying Xiaowa Formation, dated as Carnian. The first three biotas include extensive benthos and burrowing in the sediments, and they were located in restricted basins close to shore. Further, even though the Luoping and Panxian biotas are of similar age, their faunas differ significantly, reflecting perhaps palaeogeographically isolated basins. Between the time of the Xingyi and Guanling biotas, there was a major transgression, and the Guanling biota is entirely different in character from the other three, being dominated by pelagic forms such as large floating crinoids attached to logs, very large ichthyosaurs and thalattosaurs, and pseudoplanktonic bivalves, with no benthos and no burrowing. Phylogenetic study of the fishes and marine reptiles shows apparently explosive diversification among 20 actinopterygian lineages very early in the Early Triassic, but a later expansion of marine reptile groups, in the late Olenekian and early Anisian. This offset in diversification patterns is matched by comparisons of feeding guild categories and body size data. New research tools will shed considerable light on the phylogenetic and ecological implications of recovery of mairne vertebrates in the Triassic.

  20. Time Scale Hierarchies in the Functional Organization of Complex Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional approaches to cognitive modelling generally portray cognitive events in terms of ‘discrete’ states (point attractor dynamics) rather than in terms of processes, thereby neglecting the time structure of cognition. In contrast, more recent approaches explicitly address this temporal dimension, but typically provide no entry points into cognitive categorization of events and experiences. With the aim to incorporate both these aspects, we propose a framework for functional architectures. Our approach is grounded in the notion that arbitrary complex (human) behaviour is decomposable into functional modes (elementary units), which we conceptualize as low-dimensional dynamical objects (structured flows on manifolds). The ensemble of modes at an agent’s disposal constitutes his/her functional repertoire. The modes may be subjected to additional dynamics (termed operational signals), in particular, instantaneous inputs, and a mechanism that sequentially selects a mode so that it temporarily dominates the functional dynamics. The inputs and selection mechanisms act on faster and slower time scales then that inherent to the modes, respectively. The dynamics across the three time scales are coupled via feedback, rendering the entire architecture autonomous. We illustrate the functional architecture in the context of serial behaviour, namely cursive handwriting. Subsequently, we investigate the possibility of recovering the contributions of functional modes and operational signals from the output, which appears to be possible only when examining the output phase flow (i.e., not from trajectories in phase space or time). PMID:21980278

  1. Terrestrial Waters and Sea Level Variations on Interannual Time Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llovel, W.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A.; Jevrejeva, S.; Alkama, R.; Decharme, B.; Douville, H.; Ablain, M.; Beckley, B.

    2011-01-01

    On decadal to multi-decadal time scales, thermal expansion of sea waters and land ice loss are the main contributors to sea level variations. However, modification of the terrestrial water cycle due to climate variability and direct anthropogenic forcing may also affect sea level. For the past decades, variations in land water storage and corresponding effects on sea level cannot be directly estimated from observations because these are almost non-existent at global continental scale. However, global hydrological models developed for atmospheric and climatic studies can be used for estimating total water storage. For the recent years (since mid-2002), terrestrial water storage change can be directly estimated from observations of the GRACE space gravimetry mission. In this study, we analyse the interannual variability of total land water storage, and investigate its contribution to mean sea level variability at interannual time scale. We consider three different periods that, each, depend on data availability: (1) GRACE era (2003-2009), (2) 1993-2003 and (3) 1955-1995. For the GRACE era (period 1), change in land water storage is estimated using different GRACE products over the 33 largest river basins worldwide. For periods 2 and 3, we use outputs from the ISBA-TRIP (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere-Total Runoff Integrating Pathways) global hydrological model. For each time span, we compare change in land water storage (expressed in sea level equivalent) to observed mean sea level, either from satellite altimetry (periods 1 and 2) or tide gauge records (period 3). For each data set and each time span, a trend has been removed as we focus on the interannual variability. We show that whatever the period considered, interannual variability of the mean sea level is essentially explained by interannual fluctuations in land water storage, with the largest contributions arising from tropical river basins.

  2. Neonatal and infancy time scale for extension into childhood and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Paul, M H; Kardatzke, M L; Lapin, G D

    1989-12-01

    A logarithmic time scale is presented for exposition of clinical events and related data on a unified scale extending from neonatal time into childhood and adulthood. Such a scale preserves time scale proportions but has the advantage for certain applications of featuring early neonatal and infancy events. This type of time base avoids the disadvantages of a crowded and obscured linear scale or an arbitrary and non-unified split time scale. For clinical application all timed events are initially converted to a common unit such as days. A visually comprehensible logarithmic time scale can be derived by plotting the logarithmic scale (labeled in days, base 2) and then establishing conventional calendar interval marks (weeks, months, years) and the data plot points. A simple equation is presented for establishing the time scale graph markers and the plot data points for a logarithmic time scale of any scale axis length. PMID:2586131

  3. The Triassic of Timor: Lithostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, T. R.; Barber, A. J.; McGowan, A. J.; Nicoll, R. S.; Roniewicz, E.; Cook, S. E.; Barkham, S. T.; Bird, P. R.

    2009-10-01

    The palaeontologically rich and lithologically diverse Triassic successions of Timor provide a key stratigraphic and palaeontological link between northwestern Australia and other terranes of former eastern Gondwana (present-day Southeast Asia). Timor is now located in the zone of collision between the northern margin of the Australian continent and island arc terranes bordering the Eurasian plate, with the Triassic successions exposed in a fold-and-thrust belt and an extensive mélange complex. Three formal lithostratigraphic units have been defined previously within the main Triassic succession in Timor (Niof, Aitutu and Babulu formations), with a fourth, the Wai Luli Formation, primarily Jurassic in age but extending down into the Triassic. The Niof Formation (Anisian to Ladinian, possibly also Early Triassic) is a fine-grained deepwater succession, succeeded conformably by the Aitutu and Babulu formations (Ladinian to Norian/Rhaetian), which were deposited contemporaneously, with the Aitutu Formation continuing locally into the Lower Jurassic. The Aitutu Formation consists of deep shelf limestones interbedded with shales and marls, while the Babulu Formation is a deltaic to turbiditic siliciclastic succession. The Late Triassic to Jurassic Wai Luli Formation is characterised by marine shales and marls. Informal stratigraphic units include the Cephalopod Limestone Facies, a Rosso Ammonitico-type deposit, which contains an extremely rich fossil fauna (particularly ammonoids) and ranges through the entire Triassic; and the Fatu Limestone and Pualaca Facies which consists of shallow to marginal marine carbonates (mud mounds, oolitic limestones and reefs) restricted to the Late Triassic. Facies diversity was low during the Early Triassic and Anisian, but became more pronounced from the Ladinian and continuing through the Late Triassic, probably as a consequence of renewed tectonic extension. Triassic extension was not associated with major volcanism, unlike a previous phase of extension in the Early Permian. The Cablac Limestone Formation, originally defined as a Miocene stratigraphic element, is now recognised to be at least partly Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in age, with lithologies comparable to parts of the Fatu Limestone. The stratigraphy of these shallow marine carbonate sequences is clearly in need of rigorous revision, but it is not yet possible to suggest appropriate redefined formations.

  4. Heterogenous scaling in interevent time of on-line bookmarking

    E-print Network

    Wang, Peng; Yeung, Chi Ho; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the statistical properties of bookmarking behaviors in Delicious.com. We find that the interevent time distributions of bookmarking decays powerlike as interevent time increases at both individual and population level. Remarkably, we observe a significant change in the exponent when interevent time increases from intra-day to inter-day range. In addition, dependence of exponent on individual Activity is found to be different in the two ranges. These results suggests that mechanisms driving human actions are different in intra- and inter-day range. Instead of monotonically increasing with Activity, we find that inter-day exponent peaks at value around 3. We further show that less active users are more likely to resemble poisson process in bookmarking. Based on the temporal-preference model, preliminary explanations for this dependence have been given . Finally, a universal behavior in inter-day scale is observed by considering the rescaled variable.

  5. Optimal Control Modification for Time-Scale Separated Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2012-01-01

    Recently a new optimal control modification has been introduced that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. This modification is based on an optimal control formulation to minimize the L2 norm of the tracking error. The optimal control modification adaptive law results in a stable adaptation in the presence of a large adaptive gain. This study examines the optimal control modification adaptive law in the context of a system with a time scale separation resulting from a fast plant with a slow actuator. A singular perturbation analysis is performed to derive a modification to the adaptive law by transforming the original system into a reduced-order system in slow time. A model matching conditions in the transformed time coordinate results in an increase in the actuator command that effectively compensate for the slow actuator dynamics. Simulations demonstrate effectiveness of the method.

  6. Multiple-Time Scaling and Universal Behavior of the Earthquake Interevent Time Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Bottiglieri, M.; Godano, C.; Lippiello, E.; Arcangelis, L. de

    2010-04-16

    The interevent time distribution characterizes the temporal occurrence in seismic catalogs. Universal scaling properties of this distribution have been evidenced for entire catalogs and seismic sequences. Recently, these universal features have been questioned and some criticisms have been raised. We investigate the existence of universal scaling properties by analyzing a Californian catalog and by means of numerical simulations of an epidemic-type model. We show that the interevent time distribution exhibits a universal behavior over the entire temporal range if four characteristic times are taken into account. The above analysis allows us to identify the scaling form leading to universal behavior and explains the observed deviations. Furthermore, it provides a tool to identify the dependence on the mainshock magnitude of the c parameter that fixes the onset of the power law decay in the Omori law.

  7. Early Triassic conodonts of Jiarong, Nanpanjiang Basin, southern Guizhou Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanlong; Jiang, Haishui; Lai, Xulong; Yan, Chunbo; Richoz, Sylvain; Liu, Xiaodan; Wang, Lina

    2015-06-01

    Jiarong (Huishui County, Guizhou Province, South China) is a key locality for the study of the Early Triassic recovery after the end-Permian mass extinction. The size reduction of conodonts at the Smithian/Spathian transition was first documented in Jiarong, and it is also a locality that contributes to the documentation of the Early Triassic paleo-seawater temperatures. In the Jiarong sections, thirteen conodont zones were identified for the Early Triassic; in ascending order, they are Hindeodus parvus Zone, Hindeodus sosioensis Zone, Clarkina krystyni Zone, Neoclarkina discreta Zone, Neospathodus cristagalli-Eurygnathodus costatus assemblage zone, Novispathodus waageni eowaageni Zone, Novispathodus waageni waageni Zone, Discretella discreta Zone, Pachycladina-Parachirognathus assemblage zone, Novispathodus pingdingshanensis Zone, Icriospathodus collinsoni Zone, Triassospathodus homeri Zone, Triassospathodus triangularis Zone. These conodont zones in the Jiarong sections improve the global correlation of Early Triassic sections and also provide better regional age constraints in an area that is important for studies of recovery from the extinction. Based on the first appearance of Nv. waageni eowaageni, the Induan/Olenekian boundary is recognized at 3.6 m above the base of the Jiarong III Section. The dominance of blade-shaped (segminate) conodonts was replaced by gondola-shaped (segminiplanate) conodonts twice; the first time was in the late Griesbachian, and the second time was in the early Spathian. The dominance of segminiplanate conodonts probably indicates that the deeper seawater environment became more oxygenated during the late Griesbachian and early Spathian for short time intervals, as it is believed that the Griesbachian segminiplanate conodonts favored deeper oxygenated water habitats. A new genus, Spathogondolella gen. nov., and a new species, Spathogondolella jiarongensis sp. nov., have been recognized.

  8. Wood remains from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of Jordan and their paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Hamad, Abdalla M. B.; Jasper, André; Uhl, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    During field work in the Triassic of Jordan fossil wood remains have been discovered at five horizons (S-1AR-S-5AR) of the Late Triassic (Carnian) Abu Ruweis Formation in NW Jordan. In most horizons wood remains are too badly preserved to allow for a detailed xylotomic investigation. Only two horizons provided material which exhibited anatomical details: (1) in horizon S-1AR we found rare and rather small fragments of woody charcoal exhibiting cellular details (representing the first macroscopic evidence of paleo-wildfires from the Late Triassic of the Middle East), and (2) in horizon S-5AR surfaces of partly compressed (gagatized) and partly permineralized wood fragments exhibited anatomical details that could be investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy. All wood remains that allow for a detailed investigation show features typical of gymnosperms, but at the moment nothing can be said about a more specific taxonomic affinity of most of the woods, although wood from horizon S-5AR exhibits characteristics of protopinoid wood. Our data provide evidence that gymnospermous woody vegetation cover has existed in the source areas of the sediments deposited in the Abu Ruweis Formation in Jordan and that this woody vegetation occasionally experienced wildfires. This, together with lithological data, provides evidence for a seasonally dry (maybe even arid) climate during deposition of the Abu Ruweis Formation. On a larger scale our findings contribute to the very scarce current knowledge about Late Triassic wildfires on the entire continent Gondwana, from where so far only three records of macro-charcoals, as undisputed evidence of paleo-wildfires, have been published from this period.

  9. Defining a trend for time series using the intrinsic time-scale decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan M.; Venkataramani, Shankar; Comeau, Darin; Flaschka, Hermann

    2014-08-01

    We propose criteria that define a trend for time series with inherent multi-scale features. We call this trend the tendency of a time series. The tendency is defined empirically by a set of criteria and captures the large-scale temporal variability of the original signal as well as the most frequent events in its histogram. Among other properties, the tendency has a variance no larger than that of the original signal; the histogram of the difference between the original signal and the tendency is as symmetric as possible; and with reduced complexity, the tendency captures essential features of the signal. To find the tendency we first use the intrinsic time-scale decomposition (ITD) of the signal, introduced in 2007 by Frei and Osorio, to produce a set of candidate tendencies. We then apply the criteria to each of the candidates to single out the one that best agrees with them. While the criteria for the tendency are independent of the signal decomposition scheme, it is found that the ITD is a simple and stable methodology, well suited for multi-scale signals. The ITD is a relatively new decomposition and little is known about its outcomes. In this study we take the first steps towards a probabilistic model of the ITD analysis of random time series. This analysis yields details concerning the universality and scaling properties of the components of the decomposition.

  10. Depositional and thermal history of Lower Triassic rocks in southwestern Montana and adjacent parts of Wyoming and Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, R.K.; Paull, R.A.; Kraemer, B.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Forty-two stratigraphic sections in Montana and adjacent parts of Wyoming and Idaho provide the framework for a conodont biostratigraphic and carbonate sedimentologic analysis of Lower Triassic marine rocks. From oldest to youngest, these units are the Dinwoody, Woodside (Red Peak to the east), and Thaynes Formations. The Dinwoody disconformably overlies Upper Permian rocks with little or no physical evidence of a 1 to 6-m.y. hiatus. The initial Triassic transgression was extensive and geologically instantaneous across the study area, and it resulted in deposition of interbedded calcareous mudstone, siltstone, and limestone. The Dinwoody varies in thickness from zero on the northeast to greater than 270 m in the southwest. Maximum thicknesses of Woodside red beds and Thaynes carbonates and siltstones are 244 and 400 m, respectively. Post-Triassic erosion progressively truncated the Thaynes, Woodside, and Dinwoody from north to south across the region. The western margin of the Triassic seaway in the study area is obscured by erosion, structural complexities, igneous activity, and younger sedimentary deposits. The sparse and scattered exposures that remain provide an intriguing mosaic of depositional environments that range from shallow marine to basinal and represent most of Early Triassic time. Lower Triassic rocks produce gas in the Wyoming-Idaho thrust belt, and similar potential may exist in Montana. Conodonts recovered from surface exposures are thermally unaltered except in close proximity to intrusive bodies and within the Medicine Lodge thrust system. This establishes that subsurface units in much of the study area are within the temperature regime for dry gas generation.

  11. Progress in integrated Late Triassic carbon isotopic stratigraphy of the Northern Calcareous Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richoz, Sylvain; Krystyn, Leopold; Lein, Richard

    2015-04-01

    During the Late Triassic, despite new important originations a general decline in biodiversity was marked by a series of steps between the Carnian and the Rhaetian, with the T-J boundary event as final strike. The Reingraben Event and the Julian-Tuvalian boundary are two first massive turnovers; the Carnian-Norian boundary records a major vertebrate turnover, the early to middle Norian boundary comes up with a turnover in both the reefal and pelagic fauna and the most dramatic loss (70%) in biodiversity among Late Triassic molluscs. Around the Norian-Rhaetian boundary, the pelagic fauna of higher trophic level starts declining, whereas the reefs experience a blooming time. A refined stratigraphy and a construction of a well-calibrated carbon isotope reference curve are necessary to decipher between gradual environmental changes and abrupt or even catastrophic events during the Late Triassic. Improvement in the Upper Triassic d13Ccarb curve shows that after a gentle increase until the base of the Carnian, the early Carnian records three negative excursions of 2 to 3‰ amplitude. The two first excursions rebound to previous values, whereas the third negative excursion, at the Julian-Tuvalian boundary, is followed by a positive excursion up to +5‰. The remaining Upper Carnian displays stabile values around 2‰. The Carnian-Norian boundary interval is marked by a minor increase of less than 1‰. The Early to Middle Norian crisis is marked by a turning point from Early Norian slowly increasing carbon isotope values (up to 3.5‰) to gradually decreasing ones until 1.8‰ at the base of the Rhaetian. This Norian decrease display two accelerated steps, one in the middle Norian and the other one just after the Norian-Rhaetian Boundary. This last 1‰ decrease corresponds however to an important change in lithology. The values show then a small increase during the early Rhaetian, with a maximum in the middle Rhaetian (at 2.4‰). The isotopic record remains constant until the top of the Rhaetian with its significant negative shift identified in a number of marine sections in close proximity to the extinction event. The general stability of the curve even through the Norian-Rhaetian boundary crisis event describes a stable oceanic structure prior the mass extinction. From an isotopic point of view, only the two Lower Carnian excursions, the Early Late-Upper Carnian Boundary and the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary can be interpreted as events, whereas other biotic crises of the Late Triassic seem to have occurred during periods of gradual changes in the carbon isotopic composition of seawater.

  12. Permian and Triassic microfloral assemblages from the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawit, Enkurie L.

    2014-11-01

    Palynological investigation was carried out on surface samples from up to 400 m thick continental siliciclastic sediments, here referred to as “Fincha Sandstone”, in the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia. One hundred sixty species were identified from 15 productive samples collected along a continuous road-cut exposure. Six informal palynological assemblage zones have been identified. These assemblage zones, in ascending order, are: “Central Ethiopian Permian Assemblage Zone - CEPAZ I”, earliest Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian); “CEPAZ II”, late Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian); CEPAZ III - Late Permian (Kazanian-Tatarian); “CETAZ IV”, Lower Triassic (Olenekian Induan); “CETAZ V”, Middle Triassic (Anisian Ladinian); “CETAZ VI”, Late Triassic (Carnian Norian). Tentative age ranges proposed herein are compared with faunally calibrated palynological zones in Gondwana. The overall composition and vertical distribution of miospores throughout the studied section reveals a wide variation both qualitatively and quantitatively. The high frequency of monosaccate pollen in CEPAZ I may reflect a Glossopterid-dominated upland flora in the earliest Permian. The succeeding zone is dominated by straite/taeniate disaccate pollen and polyplicates, suggesting a notable increase in diversity of glossopterids. The decline in the diversity of taeniate disaccate pollen and the concomitant rise in abundance of non-taeniate disaccates in CEPAZ III may suggest the decline in Glossopteris diversity, though no additional evidence is available to equate this change with End-Permian extinction. More diverse and dominant non-taeniate, disaccate, seed fern pollen assignable to FalcisporitesAlisporites in CETAZ IV may represent an earliest Triassic recovery flora. The introduction of new disaccate forms with thick, rigid sacci, such as Staurosaccites and Cuneatisporites, in CETAZ V and VI may indicate the emergence of new gymnospermous plants that might have favourably adapted to coastal plain wetland environments with the return of humid conditions in the Middle to early Late Triassic. The present data constitute the first paleontologically substantiated record for the existence of Permian strata in the Blue Nile Basin. The new results allow for the first time a reliable biostratigraphic subdivision of the central Ethiopia Karoo and its correlation with coeval strata of adjacent regions in Gondwana. From a phytogeographic point of view, the overall microfloral evidence is in support of the position of central Ethiopia occupying the northern part of the southern Gondwana palynofloral province. In view of palaeoecological and paleoclimatic conditions, the microfloral change from the base to the top of the studied section may indicate a response to shifting climatic belts from warm- and cool-temparate climate in the earliest Permian to progressively drier seasonal conditions at successively higher palaeolatitudes during the Late Permian to Middle Triassic.

  13. Measurement of hyperpolarized gas diffusion at very short time scales

    PubMed Central

    Carl, Michael; Wilson Miller, G.; Mugler, John P.; Rohrbaugh, Scott; Tobias, William A.; Cates, Gordon D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new pulse sequence for measuring very-short-time-scale restricted diffusion of hyperpolarized noble gases. The pulse sequence is based on concatenating a large number of bipolar diffusion-sensitizing gradients to increase the diffusion attenuation of the MR signal while maintaining a fundamentally short diffusion time. However, it differs in several respects from existing methods that use oscillating diffusion gradients for this purpose. First, a wait time is inserted between neighboring pairs of gradient pulses; second, consecutive pulse pairs may be applied along orthogonal axes; and finally, the diffusion-attenuated signal is not simply read out at the end of the gradient train but is periodically sampled during the wait times between neighboring pulse pairs. The first two features minimize systematic differences between the measured (apparent) diffusion coefficient and the actual time-dependent diffusivity, while the third feature optimizes the use of the available MR signal to improve the precision of the diffusivity measurement in the face of noise. The benefits of this technique are demonstrated using theoretical calculations, Monte-Carlo simulations of gas diffusion in simple geometries, and experimental phantom measurements in a glass sphere containing hyperpolarized 3He gas. The advantages over the conventional single-bipolar approach were found to increase with decreasing diffusion time, and thus represent a significant step toward making accurate surface-to-volume measurements in the lung airspaces. PMID:17936048

  14. Role of Relaxation Time Scale in Noisy Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Alok Kumar; Chaudhury, Pinaki; Banik, Suman K

    2015-01-01

    Intra-cellular fluctuations, mainly triggered by gene expression, are an inevitable phenomenon observed in living cells. It influences generation of phenotypic diversity in genetically identical cells. Such variation of cellular components is beneficial in some contexts but detrimental in others. To quantify the fluctuations in a gene product, we undertake an analytical scheme for studying few naturally abundant linear as well as branched chain network motifs. We solve the Langevin equations associated with each motif under the purview of linear noise approximation and derive the expressions for Fano factor and mutual information in close analytical form. Both quantifiable expressions exclusively depend on the relaxation time (decay rate constant) and steady state population of the network components. We investigate the effect of relaxation time constraints on Fano factor and mutual information to indentify a time scale domain where a network can recognize the fluctuations associated with the input signal more reliably. We also show how input population affects both quantities. We extend our calculation to long chain linear motif and show that with increasing chain length, the Fano factor value increases but the mutual information processing capability decreases. In this type of motif, the intermediate components act as a noise filter that tune up input fluctuations and maintain optimum fluctuations in the output. For branched chain motifs, both quantities vary within a large scale due to their network architecture and facilitate survival of living system in diverse environmental conditions. PMID:25955500

  15. Time scale algorithms for an inhomogeneous group of atomic clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacques, C.; Boulanger, J.-S.; Douglas, R. J.; Morris, D.; Cundy, S.; Lam, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    Through the past 17 years, the time scale requirements at the National Research Council (NRC) have been met by the unsteered output of its primary laboratory cesium clocks, supplemented by hydrogen masers when short-term stability better than 2 x 10(exp -12)tau(sup -1/2) has been required. NRC now operates three primary laboratory cesium clocks, three hydrogen masers, and two commercial cesium clocks. NRC has been using ensemble averages for internal purposes for the past several years, and has a realtime algorithm operating on the outputs of its high-resolution (2 x 10(exp -13) s at 1 s) phase comparators. The slow frequency drift of the hydrogen masers has presented difficulties in incorporating their short-term stability into the ensemble average, while retaining the long-term stability of the laboratory cesium frequency standards. We report on this work on algorithms for an inhomogeneous ensemble of atomic clocks, and on our initial work on time scale algorithms that could incorporate frequency calibrations at NRC from the next generation of Zacharias fountain cesium frequency standards having frequency accuracies that might surpass 10(exp -15), or from single-trapped-ion frequency standards (Ba+, Sr+,...) with even higher potential accuracies. The requirements for redundancy in all the elements (including the algorithms) of an inhomogeneous ensemble that would give a robust real-time output of the algorithms are presented and discussed.

  16. Time-Dependent Earthquake Forecasts on a Global Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Holliday, J. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Graves, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    We develop and implement a new type of global earthquake forecast. Our forecast is a perturbation on a smoothed seismicity (Relative Intensity) spatial forecast combined with a temporal time-averaged ("Poisson") forecast. A variety of statistical and fault-system models have been discussed for use in computing forecast probabilities. An example is the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, which has been using fault-based models to compute conditional probabilities in California since 1988. An example of a forecast is the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS), which is based on the Gutenberg-Richter (GR) magnitude-frequency law, the Omori aftershock law, and Poisson statistics. The method discussed in this talk is based on the observation that GR statistics characterize seismicity for all space and time. Small magnitude event counts (quake counts) are used as "markers" for the approach of large events. More specifically, if the GR b-value = 1, then for every 1000 M>3 earthquakes, one expects 1 M>6 earthquake. So if ~1000 M>3 events have occurred in a spatial region since the last M>6 earthquake, another M>6 earthquake should be expected soon. In physics, event count models have been called natural time models, since counts of small events represent a physical or natural time scale characterizing the system dynamics. In a previous research, we used conditional Weibull statistics to convert event counts into a temporal probability for a given fixed region. In the present paper, we move belyond a fixed region, and develop a method to compute these Natural Time Weibull (NTW) forecasts on a global scale, using an internally consistent method, in regions of arbitrary shape and size. We develop and implement these methods on a modern web-service computing platform, which can be found at www.openhazards.com and www.quakesim.org. We also discuss constraints on the User Interface (UI) that follow from practical considerations of site usability.

  17. Scaling in a Continuous Time Model for Biological Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, R. M. C.; Thomas, G. L.

    In this paper, we consider a generalization to the asexual version of Penna model for biological aging, where we take a continuous time limit. The genotype associated to each individual is an interval of real numbers over which Dirac ?-functions are defined, representing genetically programmed diseases to be switched on at defined ages of the individual life. We discuss two different continuous limits for the evolution equation and two different mutation protocols, to be implemented during reproduction. Exact stationary solutions are obtained and scaling properties are discussed.

  18. A new Triassic procolophonoid reptile and its implications for procolophonoid survivorship during the Permo-Triassic extinction event.

    PubMed

    Modesto, S; Sues, H D; Damiani, R

    2001-10-01

    A reptile specimen from the Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone of the Beaufort Group, lowermost Triassic of South Africa, represents a new procolophonoid parareptile. Sauropareion anoplus gen. et sp. nov. is identified as the sister taxon of Procolophonidae in a phylogenetic analysis of procolophonoids. Stratigraphic calibration of the most parsimonious tree reveals that four of the six procolophonoid lineages originating in the Permian Period extended into the succeeding Triassic Period. This relatively high taxic survivorship (67%) across the Permo-Triassic boundary strongly suggests that procolophonoids were little if at all affected by the mass extinction event that punctuated the end of the Palaeozoic Era (ca. 251 million years ago). PMID:11571052

  19. First occurrence of tetrapod footprints from the continental Triassic of the Sidi Said Maachou area (Western Meseta, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hminna, Abdelkbir; Voigt, Sebastian; Klein, Hendrik; Saber, Hafid; Schneider, Jörg W.; Hmich, Driss

    2013-04-01

    The Sidi Said Maachou area in the Moroccan western Meseta preserves a succession, up to 400 m thick, of hitherto poorly studied continental Triassic deposits. Recent detailed geological mapping proposes a lithostratigraphic subdivision of the predominantly red-coloured siliciclastic deposits into three formations. Laminated mudstones and fine-grained sandstones in the upper part of the Oued Oum Er Rbiaa Formation have the most interesting fossil content including plant impressions, rhizoliths, fish scales, and invertebrate and vertebrate traces. These biogenic remains are partially associated with tool marks, microbially induced sedimentary structures, oscillation ripples, desiccation cracks, and halite pseudomorphs, suggesting sedimentation in a playa-like, fluvio-lacustrine system under semiarid conditions. All tetrapod footprints from these beds are assigned to Brachychirotherium parvum and indistinguishable from other occurrences of the ichnogenus in Central Europe and North America. Supposed trackmakers are archosaurs of the crocodile stem-group (Crurotarsi) that were widely spread over Triassic Pangaea. Because Brachychirotherium is only known from Late Triassic (Carnian-Rhaetian) deposits, the same age is attributed to the footprint horizon of the Oued Oum Er Rbiaa Formation. This is the first record of Brachychirotherium on the African continent and the first record of Triassic tetrapod footprints in Morocco outside of the High Atlas.

  20. Reusable Launch Vehicle Control in Multiple Time Scale Sliding Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shtessel, Yuri

    1999-01-01

    A reusable launch vehicle control problem during ascent is addressed via multiple-time scaled continuous sliding mode control. The proposed sliding mode controller utilizes a two-loop structure and provides robust, de-coupled tracking of both orientation angle command profiles and angular rate command profiles in the presence of bounded external disturbances and plant uncertainties. Sliding mode control causes the angular rate and orientation angle tracking error dynamics to be constrained to linear, de-coupled, homogeneous, and vector valued differential equations with desired eigenvalues placement. The dual-time scale sliding mode controller was designed for the X-33 technology demonstration sub-orbital launch vehicle in the launch mode. 6DOF simulation results show that the designed controller provides robust, accurate, de-coupled tracking of the orientation angle command profiles in presence of external disturbances and vehicle inertia uncertainties. It creates possibility to operate the X-33 vehicle in an aircraft-like mode with reduced pre-launch adjustment of the control system.

  1. Reusable Launch Vehicle Control In Multiple Time Scale Sliding Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shtessel, Yuri; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark

    2000-01-01

    A reusable launch vehicle control problem during ascent is addressed via multiple-time scaled continuous sliding mode control. The proposed sliding mode controller utilizes a two-loop structure and provides robust, de-coupled tracking of both orientation angle command profiles and angular rate command profiles in the presence of bounded external disturbances and plant uncertainties. Sliding mode control causes the angular rate and orientation angle tracking error dynamics to be constrained to linear, de-coupled, homogeneous, and vector valued differential equations with desired eigenvalues placement. Overall stability of a two-loop control system is addressed. An optimal control allocation algorithm is designed that allocates torque commands into end-effector deflection commands, which are executed by the actuators. The dual-time scale sliding mode controller was designed for the X-33 technology demonstration sub-orbital launch vehicle in the launch mode. Simulation results show that the designed controller provides robust, accurate, de-coupled tracking of the orientation angle command profiles in presence of external disturbances and vehicle inertia uncertainties. This is a significant advancement in performance over that achieved with linear, gain scheduled control systems currently being used for launch vehicles.

  2. Complex Processes from Dynamical Architectures with Time-Scale Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    The idea that complex motor, perceptual, and cognitive behaviors are composed of smaller units, which are somehow brought into a meaningful relation, permeates the biological and life sciences. However, no principled framework defining the constituent elementary processes has been developed to this date. Consequently, functional configurations (or architectures) relating elementary processes and external influences are mostly piecemeal formulations suitable to particular instances only. Here, we develop a general dynamical framework for distinct functional architectures characterized by the time-scale separation of their constituents and evaluate their efficiency. Thereto, we build on the (phase) flow of a system, which prescribes the temporal evolution of its state variables. The phase flow topology allows for the unambiguous classification of qualitatively distinct processes, which we consider to represent the functional units or modes within the dynamical architecture. Using the example of a composite movement we illustrate how different architectures can be characterized by their degree of time scale separation between the internal elements of the architecture (i.e. the functional modes) and external interventions. We reveal a tradeoff of the interactions between internal and external influences, which offers a theoretical justification for the efficient composition of complex processes out of non-trivial elementary processes or functional modes. PMID:21347363

  3. Cycads from the Triassic of Antarctica: Permineralized Cycad Leaves

    E-print Network

    Hermsen, Elizabeth; Taylor, Thomas N.; Taylor, Edith L.; Stevenson, Dennis W.

    2007-09-01

    of the omega in Yelchophyl- lum are often closely spaced and sometimes fused, particularly in the arms (‘‘collar’’ of Yoshida 2000) of the omega (fig. 1A). Bundle fusion occurs in extant cycads, particularly in the neck of the omega, although also in other... regions (Yoshida 2000). Among other fossil cycads, the Upper Triassic stem taxon Charmorgia also has petioles with an inverted-omega-shaped arrangement of vascular bundles (Ash 1985). Bock (1969) suggested that the stem cast Cycadenia from the Triassic...

  4. Time Dilation in the Peak-to-Peak Time Scale of GRBs

    E-print Network

    Ming Deng; Bradley E. Schaefer

    1998-05-31

    We present strong evidence of time stretching in the peak-to-peak time scales in the light curves of BATSE Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). Extensive tests are performed on artificially dilated bursts to verify that the procedure for extracting the peak-to-peak time scales correctly recovers the stretching of bursts. The resulting robust algorithm is then applied to the 4B GRB database. We derive a stretching factor of $1.92 \\pm 0.13$ between the brightest burst group ($P > 7.7 photon \\cdot cm^{-2} \\cdot s^{-1}$) and the dimmest burst group ($P = 1.0 \\sim 1.4 photon \\cdot cm^{-2} \\cdot s^{-1}$) with several independent peak-to-peak time scale definitions and they agree within uncertainties. Such an agreement strongly supports the interpretation of the observed time stretching as time dilation caused by the cosmological expansion, rather than physical selection effects. We fit the result to cosmological models with $\\Lambda = 0$, $\\Omega_{0}$ from 0.2 to 1.0, and contrained the standard candle luminosity to be $L_{0}= 7.0 \\pm 2.0 \\pm 2.7 \\times 10^{56} photons \\cdot s^{-1}$. Our luminosity value is fully consistent with the value from the combined PVO and BATSE LogN-LogP curve with the BATSE bright bursts at low redshifts of $z_{bright} = 0.11 \\pm 0.02 \\pm 0.025$. This luminosity fit is definitely inconsistent with the the larger distance scale implied from associating burst density with star formation rates.

  5. NOVEL THYROIDECTOMY DIFFICULTY SCALE CORRELATES WITH OPERATIVE TIMES

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, David F.; Mazeh, Haggi; Oltmann, Sarah C.; Chen, Herbert; Sippel, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate a new thyroidectomy difficulty scale (TDS) for its inter-rater agreement, correspondence with operative times, and correlation with complications. Methods We developed a four item, 20-point TDS. Following cases where two board-certified surgeons participated, each surgeon completed a TDS, blinded to the other’s responses. Paired sets of TDS scores were compared. The relationship between operative time and TDS scores was analyzed with linear regression. Multiple regression evaluated the association of TDS scores and other clinical data with operative times. Results A total of 119 patients were scored using TDS. In this cohort, 22.7% suffered from hyperthyroidism, 37.8% experienced compressive symptoms, and 58.8% had cancer. The median total TDS score was 8, and both surgeons’ total scores exhibited a high degree of correlation. 87.4% of both raters’ total scores were within one point of each other. Patients with hyperthyroidism received higher median scores compared to euthyroid patients (10 vs. 8, p<0.01). Similarly, patients who suffered a complication had higher scores compared to those patients without complications (10 vs. 8, p= 0.04). TDS scores demonstrated a linear relationship with operative times (R2 = 0.36, p<0.01, Figure 1). Cases with a score of 14 or greater took 41.0% longer compared to cases with scores of five or less (p<0.01). In multiple regression analysis, TDS scores independently predicted operative time (p<0.01). Conclusion The TDS is an accurate tool, and scores correlate with more difficult thyroidectomies as measured by complications and operative times. PMID:24615607

  6. Tectonic implications of Perm-Triassic paleomagnetic results from north and south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xixi; Coe, Robert S.

    Late Permian and Early Triassic paleomagnetic results of our own and others show that the North China Block (NCB), South China Block (SCB), and Siberia were not in their present positions relative to each other. Paleomagnetic poles for the NCB that derived from our studies of Permian rocks at several localities in Shanxi and Hebei provinces are concordant with poles from other studies of Permian rocks in Shanxi, Gansu, and Inner Mongolia. In addition, our poles for the Permian Emeishan Basalts and those from many other studies of the same formation over a sizeable portion of the SCB are consistent if we reinterpret the polarity of several of them. Early Triassic poles from both blocks are fairly close to the Late Permian ones, and greatly increase the areal extent covered by the data for the SCB. The equatorial paleolatitudes inferred by the data from both blocks are similar, but the mean declination for the SCB is rotated clockwise more than 60 degrees with respect to that for the NCB. To explain these results we propose a simple tectonic model in which initial collision of the blocks occurred in the Early Triassic near the eastern end of their boundary and progressed westward as the SCB rotated clockwise 67 degrees relative to the NCB. Eastward thinning and eventual disappearance of Triassic marine sediments on the northern margin of the SCB support this model. A simple alternative model involves sinistral movement on a transform fault that wraps around the SCB to the north and west, but evidence for the large Mesozoic displacement (2,500 km minimum) is presently lacking. Jurassic and Cretaceous poles for North and South China and for Siberia are overlapping, but no fold or reversal tests are available for the Jurassic data from China. Thus, the major movements between the three blocks were completed at least by the Late Cretaceous, perhaps during Jurassic time.

  7. Depositional history of Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation, Bighorn basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, R.A.; Paull, R.K.

    1986-08-01

    The Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation in the Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana records the northeasternmost extent of the widespread and rapid Griesbachian transgression onto the Wyoming shelf. Depositional patterns document a progressive change from sparsely fossiliferous, inner-shelf marine conditions in the southwest and west to restricted, marginal-marine environments to the north and east. Characteristic lithologies include greenish-gray calcareous or dolomitic mudstone and siltstone, very thin to thick beds of gypsum, and thin-bedded, commonly laminated dolomite. A formation thickness of approximately 20 m persists throughout most of the basin but diminishes abruptly near the northern and eastern limits of deposition. The Dinwoody is disconformable on the Ervay Member of the Permian Park City Formation except in the northeasternmost part of the basin, where it locally overlies the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone. Considering the significant time interval involved, physical evidence at the Permian-Triassic boundary is generally limited to an abrupt lithologic change from light-colored shallow marine or intertidal Permian dolomite to greenish-gray Dinwoody siltstone. The Dinwoody grades vertically as well as laterally to the east and north into red beds of the Lower Triassic Red Peak Formation of the Chugwater Group. The Early Triassic depositional environment in the present-day Bighorn basin was hostile. A sparse molluscan fauna was observed at only one of the 20 sections studied, and no conodonts were recovered from Dinwoody carbonates. Significant amounts of gypsum within the Dinwoody suggest periodic high evaporation from hypersaline waters on a low-energy shallow shelf during intervals of reduced terrigenous sediment supply from the north and east. However, sufficient organic material was present to create reducing conditions, as evidenced by greenish rock color and abundant pyrite.

  8. Global Precipitation Analyses at Monthly to 3-HR Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Global precipitation analysis covering the last few decades and the impact of the new TRMM precipitation observations are discussed. The 20+ year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to explore global and regional variations and trends and is compared to the much shorter TRMM(Tropica1 Rainfall Measuring Mission) tropical data set. A trend pattern that is a combination of both El Nino and La Nina precipitation features is evident in the 20-year data set. This pattern is related to an increase with time in the number of combined months of El Nino and La Nina during the 20 year period. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. The GPCP daily, 1deg latitude-longitude analysis, which is available from January 1997 to the present is described and the evolution of precipitation patterns on this time scale related to El Nino and La Nina is described. Finally, a TRMM-based 3-hr analysis is described that uses TRMM to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I and geosynchronous IR observations and merges the various calibrated observations into a final, 3-hr resolution map. This TRMM standard product will soon be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998- present). A real-time version of this merged product is being produced and is available at 0.25deg latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 50degN-50degS. Images from this data set can be seen at the U.S. TRMM web site (trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov). Examples will be shown, including its use in monitoring flood conditions and relating weather-scale events to climate variations.

  9. Development of the Permian-Triassic sequence in the basin Fringe area, southern Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Geluk, M.; Van Doorn, D.; Plomp, A.; Duin, E. )

    1993-09-01

    Geological studies in the fringe area of the southern Permian basin led to new insights in the distribution and development of the Permian-Triassic sequence. During the Permian, the fringe area formed a platform, attached to the London-Brabant Massif, while during the Triassic it is characterized by strongly subsiding half grabens. In the southern Netherlands, Rotliegende sandstones and conglomerates have a much wider distribution than previously recognized. The Rotliegende deposits are capped by claystones and carbonates of the Upper Permian Zechstein. In the offshore, an important feeder system of clastics from the London-Brabant Massif was active during deposition of the Rotliegende and the Zechstein. In course of time, the location of major sandstone deposition shifted westward. Deposition of the Triassic Buntsandstein was controlled by the development of a large feeder system, which transported clastics from the Vosges northward, through the Roer Valley Graben and West netherlands Basin into the Off Holland Low. This system was responsible for the deposition of the economically important sheet sandstones of the Volpriehausen, Detfurth, Hardegsen, and Solling formations. A regional unconformity occurs below the Solling Formation. The sandstones are capped by claystones, evaporites, and sandstones of the Rot Formation. During deposition of the Muschelkalk, the differences in subsidence decreased and shallow marine sediments are interbedded with evaporites. Several unconformities occur within the Keuper. In the previous half grabens in the southern Netherlands, the Keuper is incomplete, which may be indicative for a possible reversal of the tectonic movements during this period.

  10. Biostratigraphic restudy documents Triassic/Jurassic section in Georges Bank COST G-2 well

    SciTech Connect

    Cousminer, H.L.; Steinkraus, W.E.; Hall, R.E.

    1984-04-01

    In 1977, the COST G-2 well as drilled in Georges Bank, 132 mi (212 km) east of Nantucket Island to a total depth of 21,874 ft (6667 m). Biostratigraphic studies of 363 sidewall and conventional cores and 695 cutting samples resulted in a detailed zonation from the Late Jurassic to the present. Restudy of the original samples, as well as new preparations from previously unstudied core material, resulted in revision of the zonation of the Late Jurassic and older section. On the basis of our study of pollen and spores, dinoflagellates, nannofossils, and foraminifers, we revised the age sequence as follows: 5856 ft (1785 m) Late Jurassic (Thithonian); 6000 ft (1829 m) Kimmeridgian; 6420 ft (1957 m) Oxfordian; 6818 ft (2078 m) Callovian; 8200 ft (2499 m) Bathonian; 9677 ft (2950 m) Bajocian; 14567 ft (4440 m) Norian (Late Triassic). Norian dinoflagellate cysts and Tasmanites sp. indicate that intermittent normal marine sedimentation was taking place on Georges Bank as early as Norian time, although most of the Triassic section (+14,500 ft or 4420 m to T.D.) interpreted as having been deposited under evaporitic sabkha-like conditions. The Norian dinoflagellates (Noricysta, Heibergella, Hebecysta, Suessia, Dapcodinium, and Rhombodella) include species common to both Arctic Canada and the Tethyan region, indicating a possible Late Triassic marine connection.

  11. The oldest post-palaeozoic crinoid and permian-triassic origins of the articulata (echinodermata).

    PubMed

    Oji, Tatsuo; Twitchett, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    The Crinoidea are the most primitive class of living echinoderms, and suffered a severe crisis during the Late Permian mass extinction event. All post-Palaeozoic crinoids, including living species, belong to the Articulata, and morphological and recent molecular studies demonstrate that they form a monophyletic clade. The Articulata originated from Palaeozoic cladid crinoids, but the nature and timing of their origination remains obscure. Problems with understanding the origin and early evolution of the Articulata have arisen because the Permian-Triassic crinoid fossil record is particularly poor. We report on a new genus and species from the earliest Triassic, which is the oldest known post-Palaeozoic articulate crinoid and fundamentally alters our understanding of the early evolution of the Articulata. Prior to this study, the most primitive post-Palaeozoic articulate was thought to be Holocrinus of the order Isocrinida. Unexpectedly, the new taxon belongs to the order Encrinida, which reveals a previously hidden diversity of crinoids in the earliest Triassic. Its discovery implies either a dramatic radiation of crinoids in the immediate post-extinction aftermath, when environmental conditions were at their most severe, or a pre-extinction origin of the crown group articulates and survival of multiple lineages. PMID:25826072

  12. Mandibular and dental characteristics of Late Triassic mammaliaform Haramiyavia and their ramifications for basal mammal evolution

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhe-Xi; Gatesy, Stephen M.; Jenkins, Farish A.; Amaral, William W.; Shubin, Neil H.

    2015-01-01

    As one of the earliest-known mammaliaforms, Haramiyavia clemmenseni from the Rhaetic (Late Triassic) of East Greenland has held an important place in understanding the timing of the earliest radiation of the group. Reanalysis of the type specimen using high-resolution computed tomography (CT) has revealed new details, such as the presence of the dentary condyle of the mammalian jaw hinge and the postdentary trough for mandibular attachment of the middle ear—a transitional condition of the predecessors to crown Mammalia. Our tests of competing phylogenetic hypotheses with these new data show that Late Triassic haramiyids are a separate clade from multituberculate mammals and are excluded from the Mammalia. Consequently, hypotheses of a Late Triassic diversification of the Mammalia that depend on multituberculate affinities of haramiyidans are rejected. Scanning electron microscopy study of tooth-wear facets and kinematic functional simulation of occlusion with virtual 3D models from CT scans confirm that Haramiyavia had a major orthal occlusion with the tallest lingual cusp of the lower molars occluding into the lingual embrasure of the upper molars, followed by a short palinal movement along the cusp rows alternating between upper and lower molars. This movement differs from the minimal orthal but extensive palinal occlusal movement of multituberculate mammals, which previously were regarded as relatives of haramiyidans. The disparity of tooth morphology and the diversity of dental functions of haramiyids and their contemporary mammaliaforms suggest that dietary diversification is a major factor in the earliest mammaliaform evolution. PMID:26630008

  13. Rotational relaxation time as unifying time scale for polymer and fiber drag reduction

    E-print Network

    Boelens, A M P

    2015-01-01

    Using hybrid Direct Numerical Simulation with Langevin dynamics, a comparison is performed between polymer and fiber stress tensors in turbulent flow. The stress tensors are found to be similar, suggesting a common drag reducing mechanism in the onset regime for both flexible polymers and rigid fibers. Since fibers do not have an elastic backbone this must be a viscous effect. Analysis of the viscosity tensor reveals that all terms are negligible, except the off-diagonal shear viscosity associated with rotation. Based on this analysis, we identify the rotational orientation time as the unifying time scale setting a new time criterion for drag reduction by both flexible polymers and rigid fibers.

  14. Petrogenesis and geodynamic implications of the Mid-Triassic lavas from East Kunlun, northern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Huang, Xiongfei; Luo, Mingfei; Dong, Guochen; Mo, Xuanxue

    2015-06-01

    Lying in the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt (EKOB) is characterized by widespread of the late Permian to Late Triassic magmatic rocks. In order to better understand magma genesis and evolution during the waning stage of the Paleo-Tethyan oceanic subduction and subsequent collision, we present zircon U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotopes, whole-rock major and trace elements, and Sr-Nd isotope data for the Triassic volcanic lavas in the Haishigou area of the EKOB, northern Tibet. Lithologically, the Haishigou volcanic lavas are mainly composed of dacites and rhyolites. The LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb analyses for rhyolites have shown that the Haishigou volcanic rocks formed during the Middle Triassic with ages of ca. 244-245 Ma. The Haishigou volcanic lavas actually belong to part of the Middle Triassic Naocangjiangou Formation, rather than the Late Triassic Elashan Formation. Geochemically, Haishigou volcanic lavas have SiO2 = 60.31-76.19 wt% and K2O = 2.60-4.18 wt%, placing them in high-K calc-alkaline series. These lavas are characterized by enrichment in some large-ion lithophile elements (e.g., Rb, K and Pb) and light rare earth elements and depletion in some high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), with geochemical affinities to those rocks forming in a continental or an oceanic arc setting. All the volcanic rocks exhibit high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70614-0.70841) and moderately negative ?Nd(t) values (-5.9 to -4.3) that imply a continental rather than oceanic type magma source. The rhyolites in the Haishigou volcanics exhibit moderately negative to slightly positive ?Hf(t) values (-4.2 to 1.4). Combined with their zircon Hf two-stage model ages of 1187-1538 Ma and whole-rock Nd two-stage model ages of 1.37-1.38 Ga, it can be inferred that the crustal growth of East Kunlun occurred during the Mesoproterozoic, making them similar in age to the lower crust metamorphic basement beneath the EKOB (i.e., the Xiaomiao Group). We suggest that the Haishigou dacites were generated by partial melting of the mafic lower crust beneath the EKOB with addition of a mantle-derived mafic component and that the rhyolites were produced by fractional crystallization from a dacitic parent. Taking into account the Late Permian to Triassic geological record from the EKOB and surrounding regions, we argue that the Middle Triassic volcanic rocks in the Haishigou area erupted during the northward subduction of the Paleo-Tethyan oceanic plate. Consequently, the timing of closure of the Paleo-Tethyan Ocean just south of the EKOB is no earlier than the Middle Triassic.

  15. The MOND limit from space-time scale invariance

    E-print Network

    Mordehai Milgrom

    2009-06-03

    The MOND limit is shown to follow from a requirement of space-time scale invariance of the equations of motion for nonrelativistic, purely gravitational systems; i.e., invariance of the equations of motion under (t,r) goes to (qt,qr), in the limit a0 goes to infinity. It is suggested that this should replace the definition of the MOND limit based on the low-acceleration behavior of a Newtonian-MOND interpolating function. In this way, the salient, deep-MOND results--asymptotically flat rotation curves, the mass-rotational-speed relation (baryonic Tully-Fisher relation), the Faber-Jackson relation, etc.--follow from a symmetry principle. For example, asymptotic flatness of rotation curves reflects the fact that radii change under scaling, while velocities do not. I then comment on the interpretation of the deep-MOND limit as one of "zero mass": Rest masses, whose presence obstructs scaling symmetry, become negligible compared to the "phantom", dynamical masses--those that some would attribute to dark matter. Unlike the former masses, the latter transform in a way that is consistent with the symmetry. Finally, I discuss the putative MOND-cosmology connection in light of another, previously known symmetry of the deep-MOND limit. In particular, it is suggested that MOND is related to the asymptotic de Sitter geometry of our universe. It is conjectured, for example, that in an exact de Sitter cosmos, deep-MOND physics would exactly apply to local systems. I also point out, in this connection, the possible relevance of a de Sitter-conformal-field-theory (dS/CFT) duality.

  16. Life crises on land across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yuanqiao; Shi, G. R.

    2009-02-01

    The western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan area of southwest China commands a unique and significant position globally in the study of Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) events as it contains well and continuously exposed PTB sections of marine, non-marine and marginal-marine origin in the same area. By using a range of high-resolution stratigraphic methods including biostratigraphy, eventostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy, not only are the non-marine PTB sections correlated with their marine counterparts in the study area with high-resolution, the non-marine PTB sections of the study area can also be aligned with the PTB Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) at Meishan in eastern China. Plant megafossils ("megaplants") in the study area indicate a major loss in abundance and diversity across the PTB, and no coal beds and/or seams have been found in the non-marine Lower Triassic although they are very common in the non-marine Upper Permian. The megaplants, however, did not disappear consistently across the whole area, with some elements of the Late Permian Cathaysian Gigantopteris flora surviving the PTB mass extinction and locally even extending up to the Lower Triassic. Palynomorphs exhibit a similar temporal pattern characterized by a protracted stepwise decrease from fern-dominated spores in the Late Permian to pteridosperm and gymnosperm-dominated pollen in the Early Triassic, which was however punctuated by an accelerated loss in both abundance and diversity across the PTB. Contemporaneous with the PTB crisis in the study area was the peculiar prevalence and dominance of some fungi and/or algae species. The temporal patterns of megaplants and palynomorphs across the PTB in the study area are consistent with the regional trends of plant changes in South China, which also show a long-term decrease in species diversity from the Late Permian Wuchiapingian through the Changhsingian to the earliest Triassic, with about 48% and 77% losses of species occurring respectively in the end-Wuchiapingian and end-Changhsingian. Such consistent patterns, at both local and regional scales, contradict the hypothesis of a regional isochronous extinction of vegetation across the PTB, and hence call into question the notion that the end-Permian mass extinction was a one-hit disaster. Instead, the data from the study area and South China appears more consistent with a scenario that invokes climate change as the main driver for the observed land vegetation changes across the PTB in South China.

  17. Bulk mode piezoresistive thermal oscillators: time constants and scaling.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Subramanian; Weinstein, Dana

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents design and analysis for engineering the thermal and mechanical time constants of piezoresistive thermal oscillators. The optimal design is obtained by minimizing the threshold current density required to initiate self-sustained oscillations. Optimizing the oscillator geometry is of extreme practical importance given that the threshold current densities (GA/m(2)) are close to the breakdown current densities observed in silicon. The equivalent circuit model of the oscillator is used along with the lumped thermal, mechanical, and piezoresistive parameters to calculate the threshold current density of the oscillator. The optimal ratio of the thermal and mechanical time constants is found to be ?3 for bulkmode oscillators where the in-plane dimensions control the mechanical resonant frequency. The final frequency of oscillations is obtained as a function of the mechanical resonant frequency, quality factor (Q), and the ratio of the time constants. Results show that scaling the dimension (or frequency) has a weak sub-linear effect on the oscillator performance. Finally, we compare different bulk modes, based on the calculated threshold dc currents for a 1-GHz oscillator. PMID:26276963

  18. Variations in solar Lyman alpha irradiance on short time scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Variations in solar UV irradiance at Lyman alpha are studied on short time scales (from days to months) after removing the long-term changes over the solar cycle. The SME/Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analysis. In order to study the nonlinear effects, Lyman alpha irradiance is modeled with a 5th-degree polynomial as well. It is shown that the full-disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm, which is used as a proxy for the plages and active network, can best reproduce the changes observed in Lyman alpha. Approximately 72 percent of the solar-activity-related changes in Lyman alpha irradiance arise from plages and the network. The network contribution is estimated by the correlation analysis to be about 19 percent. It is shown that significant variability remains in Lyman alpha irradiance, with periods around 300, 27, and 13.5d, which is not explained by the solar activity indices. It is shown that the nonlinear effects cannot account for a significant part of the unexplained variation in Lyman alpha irradiance. Therefore, additional events (e.g., large-scale motions and/or a systematic difference in the area and intensity of the plages and network observed in the lines of Ca-K, He 1083, and Lyman alpha) may explain the discrepancies found between the observed and estimated irradiance values.

  19. Scale relativity and fractal space-time: theory and applications

    E-print Network

    Laurent Nottale

    2008-12-19

    In the first part of this contribution, we review the development of the theory of scale relativity and its geometric framework constructed in terms of a fractal and nondifferentiable continuous space-time. This theory leads (i) to a generalization of possible physically relevant fractal laws, written as partial differential equation acting in the space of scales, and (ii) to a new geometric foundation of quantum mechanics and gauge field theories and their possible generalisations. In the second part, we discuss some examples of application of the theory to various sciences, in particular in cases when the theoretical predictions have been validated by new or updated observational and experimental data. This includes predictions in physics and cosmology (value of the QCD coupling and of the cosmological constant), to astrophysics and gravitational structure formation (distances of extrasolar planets to their stars, of Kuiper belt objects, value of solar and solar-like star cycles), to sciences of life (log-periodic law for species punctuated evolution, human development and society evolution), to Earth sciences (log-periodic deceleration of the rate of California earthquakes and of Sichuan earthquake replicas, critical law for the arctic sea ice extent) and tentative applications to system biology.

  20. Variation of atmospheric depth profile on different time scales

    E-print Network

    B. Wilczynska; D. Gora; P. Homola; J. Pekala; M. Risse; H. Wilczynski

    2006-03-03

    The vertical profile of atmospheric depth is an important element in extensive air shower studies. The depth of shower maximum is one of the most important characteristics of the shower. In the fluorescence technique of shower detection, the geometrical reconstruction provides the altitude of shower maximum, so that an accurate profile of atmospheric depth is needed to convert this altitude to the depth of shower maximum. In this paper the temporal variation of experimentally measured profiles of atmospheric depth at different sites is studied and implications for shower reconstruction are shown. The atmospheric profiles vary on time scales from hours to years. It is shown that the daily variation of the profile is as important as its seasonal variation and should be accounted for in air shower studies. For precise shower reconstruction, the daily profiles determined locally at the site of the air shower detector are recommended.

  1. Dynamic Leidenfrost effect: relevant time- and length-scales

    E-print Network

    Shirota, Minori; Sun, Chao; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    When a liquid droplet impacts a hot solid surface, enough vapor may be generated under it as to prevent its contact with the solid. The minimum solid temperature for this so-called Leidenfrost effect to occur is termed the Leidenfrost temperature, or the dynamic Leidenfrost temperature when the droplet velocity is non-negligible. We observe the wetting/drying and the levitation dynamics of the droplet impacting on an (isothermal) smooth sapphire surface using high speed total internal reflection imaging, which enables us to observe the droplet base up to about 100 nm above the substrate surface. By this method we are able to reveal the processes responsible for the transitional regime between the fully wetting and the fully levitated droplet as the solid temperature increases, thus shedding light on the characteristic time- and length-scales setting the dynamic Leidenfrost temperature for droplet impact on an isothermal substrate.

  2. Dynamic Leidenfrost effect: relevant time- and length-scales

    E-print Network

    Minori Shirota; Michiel A. J. van Limbeek; Chao Sun; Andrea Prosperetti; Detlef Lohse

    2015-11-16

    When a liquid droplet impacts a hot solid surface, enough vapor may be generated under it as to prevent its contact with the solid. The minimum solid temperature for this so-called Leidenfrost effect to occur is termed the Leidenfrost temperature, or the dynamic Leidenfrost temperature when the droplet velocity is non-negligible. We observe the wetting/drying and the levitation dynamics of the droplet impacting on an (isothermal) smooth sapphire surface using high speed total internal reflection imaging, which enables us to observe the droplet base up to about 100 nm above the substrate surface. By this method we are able to reveal the processes responsible for the transitional regime between the fully wetting and the fully levitated droplet as the solid temperature increases, thus shedding light on the characteristic time- and length-scales setting the dynamic Leidenfrost temperature for droplet impact on an isothermal substrate.

  3. X-ray signatures: New time scales and spectral features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The millisecond bursts from Cyg X-1 are investigated and the overall chaotic variability for the bulk of the Cyg X-1 emission is compared to that of Sco X-1, showing that the essential character is remarkably similar (i.e. shot noise) although the fundamental time scales involved differ widely, from a fraction of a second (for Cyg X-1) to a fraction of a day (for Sco X-1). Recent OSO-8 observations of spectra features attributable to iron are reviewed. In particular, line emission is discussed within the context of a model for thermal radiation by a hot evolved gas in systems as different as supernova remnants and clusters of galaxies. Newly observed spectral structure in the emission from the X-ray pulsar Her X-1 is reported.

  4. Control of Systems With Slow Actuators Using Time Scale Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vehram; Nguyen, Nhan

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling a nonlinear plant with a slow actuator using singular perturbation method. For the known plant-actuator cascaded system the proposed scheme achieves tracking of a given reference model with considerably less control demand than would otherwise result when using conventional design techniques. This is the consequence of excluding the small parameter from the actuator dynamics via time scale separation. The resulting tracking error is within the order of this small parameter. For the unknown system the adaptive counterpart is developed based on the prediction model, which is driven towards the reference model by the control design. It is proven that the prediction model tracks the reference model with an error proportional to the small parameter, while the prediction error converges to zero. The resulting closed-loop system with all prediction models and adaptive laws remains stable. The benefits of the approach are demonstrated in simulation studies and compared to conventional control approaches.

  5. Towards a stable numerical time scale for the early Paleogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgen, Frederik; Kuiper, Klaudia; Sierro, Francisco J.; Wotzlaw, Jorn; Schaltegger, Urs; Sahy, Diana; Condon, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The construction of an astronomical time scale for the early Paleogene is hampered by ambiguities in the number, correlation and tuning of 405-kyr eccentricity related cycles in deep marine records from ODP cores and land-based sections. The two most competing age models result in astronomical ages for the K/Pg boundary that differ by ~750 kyr (~66.0 Ma of Vandenberghe et al. (2012) versus 65.25 Ma of Westerhold et al. (2012); these ages in turn are consistent with proposed ages for the Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) that differ by ~300 kyr (28.201 Ma of Kuiper et al. (2008) versus 27.89 Ma of Westerhold et al. (2012)); an even older age of 28.294 Ma is proposed based on a statistical optimization model (Renne et al., 2011). The astronomically calibrated FCs age of 28.201 ± 0.046 Ma of Kuiper et al. (2008), which is consistent with the astronomical age of ~66.0 Ma for the K/Pg boundary, is currently adopted in the standard geological time scale (GTS2012). Here we combine new and published data in an attempt to solve the controversy and arrive at a stable nuemrical time scale for the early Paleogene. Supporting their younger age model, Westerhold et al. (2012) argue that the tuning of Miocene sections in the Mediterranean, which underlie the older FCs age of Kuiper et al. (2008) and, hence, the coupled older early Paleogene age model of Vandenberghe et al. (2012), might be too old by three precession cycles. We thoroughly rechecked this tuning; distinctive cycle patterns related to eccentricity and precession-obliquity interference make a younger tuning that would be consistent with the younger astronomical age of 27.89 Ma for the FCs of Westerhold et al. (2012) challenging. Next we compared youngest U/Pb zircon and astronomical ages for a number of ash beds in the tuned Miocene section of Monte dei Corvi. These ages are indistinguishable, indicating that the two independent dating methods yield the same age when the same event is dated. This is consistent with results of single crystal U/Pb zircon dating of the Fish Canyon tuff itself (Wotzlaw et al., 2013), which produced a youngest U/Pb age of 28.196 ± 0.038 Ma that is indistinguishable from the astronomically calibrated age of 28.201 ± 0.046 Ma for the FCs. Finally, youngest U/Pb zircon ages for ash layers that are found directly above the K/Pg boundary in North America are close to 65.9 Ma and thus consistent with the older astronomical age model with an age of ~66.0 Ma for the boundary. Summarizing, the new and published data summarized above unanimously favor the older option of the two alternative astronomical time scales for the early Paleogene. References Kuiper, K.F., A. Deino, F.J. Hilgen, W. Krijgsman, P.R. Renne, and J.R. Wijbrans, 2008. Synchronizing the Rock Clocks of Earth history. Science 320, 500-504. Renne, P.R., G. Balco, K.R. Ludwig, R. Mundil, and K. Min, 2011. Response to the comment by W.H. Schwarz et al. on "Joint determination of 40K decay constants and 40Ar*/40K for the Fish Canyon sanidine standard, and improved accuracy for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology". Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 5097-5100. Vandenberghe, N., F.J. Hilgen, and R.P. Speijer, 2012. The Paleogene Period. In: The Geological Time Scale 2012, Gradstein, F., et al., eds., Elsevier, pp. 855-921. Westerhold, T., U. Röhl, and J. Laskar, 2012. Time scale controversy: Accurate orbital calibration of the early Paleogene. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q06015, doi:10.1029/2012GC004096. Wotzlaw, J.-F., U. Schaltegger, D.A. Frick, M.A. Dungan, A. Gerdes, and D. Günther, 2013. Tracking the evolution of large-volume silicic magma reservoirs from assembly to supereruption. Geology, doi:10.1130/G34366.1

  6. Geologic history of Florida-Bahama platform, Triassic through Paleocene

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, G.O.

    1988-02-01

    This study is based on top-to-bottom examination of samples from 146 wells from the Florida-Bahama platform. Following Triassic graben formation, three different structural configurations develop through time. In the Late Jurassic-Coahuilan, a northwestern and southeastern sedimentary province were separated by the Sarasota arch, located on the west Florida shelf. Modern basin configurations, which began to appear in the Comanchean, were modified by tectonics in Cuba in the early Gulfian. From the Late Jurassic through the Comanchean, the continental margin was occupied by a carbonate complex that restricted marine circulation in some areas. In the southeast, this barrier caused the deposition of lagoonal carbonates and anhydrites; in the north, clastics were deposited. Carbonate-evaporite deposition in the south ended at the close of the Comanchean and was followed by the deposition of chalk and chalky limestone in the Gulfian. During this epoch, the rapid subsidence of the Blake Plateau basin to bathal depths and the collapse of the Florida straits were associated with tectonic activity in northern Cuba. By the middle Gulfian, the Rebecca Shoal barrier reef had appeared on the upthrown northern side of the straits. This barrier reef expanded to encircle the Florida peninsula completely, at which time the Cedar Keys (Paleocene) lagoonal dolomite-anhydrite deposition was initiated.

  7. Homogenization of historical time series on a subdaily scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocen, Renate; Brönnimann, Stefan; Breda, Leila; Spadin, Reto; Begert, Michael; Füllemann, Christine

    2010-05-01

    Homogeneous long-term climatological time series provide useful information on climate back to the preindustrial era. High temporal resolution of climate data is desirable to address trends and variability in the mean climate and in climatic extremes. For Switzerland, three long (~250 yrs) historical time series (Basel, Geneva, Gr. St. Bernhard) that were hitherto available in the form of monthly means only have recently been digitized (in cooperation with MeteoSwiss) on a subdaily scale. The digitized time series contain subdaily data (varies from 2-5 daily measurements) on temperature, precipitation/snow height, pressure and humidity, as subdaily descriptions on wind direction, wind speeds and cloud cover. Long-term climatological records often contain inhomogeneities due to non climatic changes such as station relocations, changes in instrumentation and instrument exposure, changes in observing schedules/practices and environmental changes in the proximity of the observation site. Those disturbances can distort or hide the true climatic signal and could seriously affect the correct assessment and analysis of climate trends, variability and climatic extremes. It is therefore crucial to detect and eliminate artificial shifts and trends, to the extent possible, in the climate data prior to its application. Detailed information of the station history and instruments (metadata) can be of fundamental importance in the process of homogenization in order to support the determination of the exact time of inhomogeneities and the interpretation of statistical test results. While similar methods can be used for the detection of inhomogeneities in subdaily or monthly mean data, quite different correction methods can be chosen. The wealth of information in a high temporal resolution allows more physics-based correction methods. For instance, a detected radiation error in temperature can be corrected with an error model that incorporates radiation and ventilation terms using the subdaily information on cloud cover and wind from the station. The basic approach will be demonstrated.

  8. Use of a Walk Through Time to Facilitate Student Understandings of the Geological Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, H. L.

    2004-12-01

    Students often have difficulties in appreciating just how old the earth and the universe are. While they can simply memorize a number, they really do not understand just how big that number really is, in comparison with other, more familiar student referents like the length of a human lifetime or how long it takes to eat a pizza. (See, e.g., R.D. Trend 2001, J. Research in Science Teaching 38(2): 191-221) Students, and members of the general public, also display such well-known misconceptions as the "Flintstone chronology" of believing that human beings and dinosaurs walked the earth at the same time. (In the classic American cartoon "The Flintstones," human beings used dinosaurs as draft animals. As scientists we know this is fiction, but not all members of the public understand that.) In an interdisciplinary undergraduate college class that dealt with astronomy, cosmology, and biological evolution, I used a familiar activity to try to improve student understanding of the concept of time's vastness. Students walked through a pre-determined 600-step path which provided a spatial analogy to the geological time scale. They stopped at various points and engaged in some pre-determined discussions and debates. This activity is as old as the hills, but reports of its effectiveness or lack thereof are quite scarce. This paper demonstrates that this activity was effective for a general-audience, college student population in the U.S. The growth of student understandings of the geological time scale was significant as a result of this activity. Students did develop an understanding of time's vastness and were able to articulate this understanding in various ways. This growth was monitored through keeping track of several exam questions and through pre- and post- analysis of student writings. In the pre-writings, students often stated that they had "no idea" about how to illustrate the size of the geological time scale to someone else. While some post-time walk responses simply restated what was done in the walk through time, some students were able to develop their own ways of conceptualizing the vastness of the geological time scale. A variety of findings from student understandings will be presented. This work has been supported in part by the Distinguished Scholars Program of the National Science Foundation (DUE-0308557).

  9. PHYS 626 --Fundamentals of Plasma Physics --Section 6.8 1. The diffusion time scale

    E-print Network

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    PHYS 626 -- Fundamentals of Plasma Physics -- Section 6.8 1. The diffusion time scale R = µ0L2 time diffusion time is measured by comparing with the Alfven time A = L /VA , i.e., by looking topology in a time scale r much shorter than the resistive time, i.e., R >> r >> A . 4. The Sweet

  10. The Luoping biota: exceptional preservation, and new evidence on the Triassic recovery from end-Permian mass extinction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shi-xue; Zhang, Qi-yue; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Zhou, Chang-yong; Lü, Tao; Xie, Tao; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-yuan; Benton, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The timing and nature of biotic recovery from the devastating end-Permian mass extinction (252 Ma) are much debated. New studies in South China suggest that complex marine ecosystems did not become re-established until the middle–late Anisian (Middle Triassic), much later than had been proposed by some. The recently discovered exceptionally preserved Luoping biota from the Anisian Stage of the Middle Triassic, Yunnan Province and southwest China shows this final stage of community assembly on the continental shelf. The fossil assemblage is a mixture of marine animals, including abundant lightly sclerotized arthropods, associated with fishes, marine reptiles, bivalves, gastropods, belemnoids, ammonoids, echinoderms, brachiopods, conodonts and foraminifers, as well as plants and rare arthropods from nearby land. In some ways, the Luoping biota rebuilt the framework of the pre-extinction latest Permian marine ecosystem, but it differed too in profound ways. New trophic levels were introduced, most notably among top predators in the form of the diverse marine reptiles that had no evident analogues in the Late Permian. The Luoping biota is one of the most diverse Triassic marine fossil Lagerstätten in the world, providing a new and early window on recovery and radiation of Triassic marine ecosystems some 10 Myr after the end-Permian mass extinction. PMID:21183583

  11. Selective attention to temporal features on nested time scales.

    PubMed

    Henry, Molly J; Herrmann, Björn; Obleser, Jonas

    2015-02-01

    Meaningful auditory stimuli such as speech and music often vary simultaneously along multiple time scales. Thus, listeners must selectively attend to, and selectively ignore, separate but intertwined temporal features. The current study aimed to identify and characterize the neural network specifically involved in this feature-selective attention to time. We used a novel paradigm where listeners judged either the duration or modulation rate of auditory stimuli, and in which the stimulation, working memory demands, response requirements, and task difficulty were held constant. A first analysis identified all brain regions where individual brain activation patterns were correlated with individual behavioral performance patterns, which thus supported temporal judgments generically. A second analysis then isolated those brain regions that specifically regulated selective attention to temporal features: Neural responses in a bilateral fronto-parietal network including insular cortex and basal ganglia decreased with degree of change of the attended temporal feature. Critically, response patterns in these regions were inverted when the task required selectively ignoring this feature. The results demonstrate how the neural analysis of complex acoustic stimuli with multiple temporal features depends on a fronto-parietal network that simultaneously regulates the selective gain for attended and ignored temporal features. PMID:23978652

  12. Exact dynamical coarse-graining without time-scale separation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianfeng; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2014-07-28

    A family of collective variables is proposed to perform exact dynamical coarse-graining even in systems without time scale separation. More precisely, it is shown that these variables are not slow in general, yet satisfy an overdamped Langevin equation that statistically preserves the sequence in which any regions in collective variable space are visited and permits to calculate exactly the mean first passage times from any such region to another. The role of the free energy and diffusion coefficient in this overdamped Langevin equation is discussed, along with the way they transform under any change of variable in collective variable space. These results apply both to systems with and without inertia, and they can be generalized to using several collective variables simultaneously. The view they offer on what makes collective variables and reaction coordinates optimal breaks from the standard notion that good collective variable must be slow variable, and it suggests new ways to interpret data from molecular dynamics simulations and experiments. PMID:25084883

  13. A Group Simulation of the Development of the Geologic Time Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennington, J. Bret

    2000-01-01

    Explains how to demonstrate to students that the relative dating of rock layers is redundant. Uses two column diagrams to simulate stratigraphic sequences from two different geological time scales and asks students to complete the time scale. (YDS)

  14. A generalization of Ostrowski inequality on time scales for k points

    E-print Network

    Wenjun Liu; Quoc Anh Ngo

    2008-04-21

    In this paper we first generalize the Ostrowski inequality on time scales for k points and then unify corresponding continuous and discrete versions. We also point out some particular Ostrowski type inequalities on time scales as special cases.

  15. An aborted Triassic Ocean in west Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplonov, Sergei

    1988-12-01

    A small buried oceanic basin named the Obsky paleo-ocean has been found in West Siberia. It developed from 235 to 218 m.y. during the Triassic by rift propagation and seafloor spreading inside the west Siberian region of the continent. During the postspreading period the Obsky paleo-ocean did not collapse but instead was covered intact by a layer of sediments with a thickness of up to 15 km. This conclusion is based on detailed interpretation of geophysical and geological data. Striped magnetic anomalies marking the paleo-ocean spreading have been separated from the total magnetic field. They have been dated and interpreted within the framework of the Vine-Matthews concept. Seismic and gravitational data have permitted delineation of the Obsky paleo-ocean depression and contouring of the basement relief within its bounds. Investigation of the Obsky paleo-ocean basalts by means of deep boreholes has indicated that they are chemically similar to oceanic tholeiites and has also confirmed the presence of strong residual magnetism in them. Spreading of the Obsky paleo-ocean was a stage in the initial disintegration of Pangea at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary. The presence of a north trending buried spreading center along the axial zone of West Siberia accounts for many features of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of the region and its present-day structure.

  16. Carbonate "Clumped" Isotope Determination of Seawater Temperature During the End-Triassic Extinction Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammariello, R. T., Jr.; Petryshyn, V. A.; Ibarra, Y.; Greene, S. E.; Corsetti, F. A.; Bottjer, D. J.; Tripati, A.

    2014-12-01

    Stromatolites are laminated sedimentary structures that are commonly thought to be created by cyanobacteria, either through the trapping and binding of sediment, or through metabolically-induced precipitation. However, stromatolite formation is poorly understood. In general, stromatolite abundance was higher in the Proterozoic than the Phanerozoic, but notable increases in stromatolite abundance occur in association with Phanerozoic mass extinction events. Here, we focus on stromatolites from the latest Triassic Cotham Marble (United Kingdom) that are associated with the extinction interval. The end-Triassic mass extinction is coincident with large-scale volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) and the associated breakup of Pangea. Some hypothesize that CAMP-associated increases in atmospheric CO2 led to a rise in global temperatures and ocean acidification that caused or enhanced the extinction. In order to quantify the role of climate change with respect to the end-Triassic mass extinction, we applied the carbonate "clumped" isotope paleothermometer to the well-preserved Cotham Marble stromatolites. The stromatolites were deposited in the shallow Tethys Sea, and today occur in several localities across the southwestern UK. The stromatolites alternate on the cm scale between laminated and dendrolitic microstructures and each was microdrilled for clumped isotope analysis. The two microstructures display different temperatures of formation, where the dendrolitic portions apparently grew under cooler conditions than laminated layers, and younger layers grew in cooler conditions than older layers. Our results suggest that temperature fluctuated and potentially trended towards amelioration of the warm temperatures during the deposition of the Cotham Marble.

  17. Return to Coalsack Bluff and the Permian Triassic boundary in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retallack, Gregory J.; Greaver, Tara; Jahren, A. Hope

    2007-01-01

    Coalsack Bluff was the first discovery site in Antarctica for the latest Permian to earliest Triassic reptile Lystrosaurus. This together with discovery of Permian Glossopteris leaves during the heroic age of Antarctic exploration, indicated not only that Antarctica was part of Gondwanaland, but also that Antarctic rocks recorded faunas from the greatest of all mass extinctions at the Permian-Triassic boundary. Pinpointing the exact stratigraphic level of this life crisis has recently become possible using ? 13C values in terrestrial organic matter. Multiple, short-lived events of 13C depletion may reflect carbon cycle crises, with the isotopic change a measure of terrestrial and atmospheric disequilibrium. Additional evidence for ecosystem reorganization came from changes in paleosol types and their root traces. Such studies previously completed at the Antarctic localities of Graphite Peak, Mount Crean, Portal Mountain, Shapeless Mountain and Allan Hills, are here extended to Coalsack Bluff. Carbon isotopic values in Permian rocks at Coalsack Bluff average - 23.08 ± 0.25‰, but begin to decline within the last coal with leaves ( Glossopteris), roots ( Vertebraria) and permineralized stumps ( Araucarioxylon) of glossopterids. The low point in ä 13C values is - 27.19‰ at 5.6 m above the last coal, which is capped by unusually abundant pyrite, and a claystone breccia with common clasts of redeposited clayey soils. Above this are massive quartz-rich sandstones of braided streams, considered a geomorphic response to deforestation and soil erosion following the mass extinction. Distinctive berthierine-bearing paleosols (Dolores pedotype) within these sandstones have unoxidized iron taken as evidence of severe groundwater hypoxia. Other paleosols at this stratigraphic level are like those in other Early Triassic rocks of Antarctica, which indicate unusually warm and humid conditions for such high paleolatitude lowlands. Waterlogging is also indicated by newly discovered kinds of paleosol (Ernest pedotype) with groundwater calcretes. The lack of peat accumulation in such waterlogged lowlands, berthierine in paleosols and large negative carbon isotopic shift at Coalsack Bluff support the idea of atmospheric pollution with methane from submarine and permafrost clathrates as a cause for the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Hypoxic soils would have killed lowland plants by preventing root respiration and hypoxic air would have challenged vertebrates with pulmonary edema. Causes for catastrophic methane release remain unclear. Flood basalt eruptions, dolerite intrusions into coal measures, submarine landslides, tectonic faulting, and bolide impact suggested for episodes of methane release at other times are also plausible for the Permian-Triassic boundary.

  18. Long-term oceanic changes prior the end-Triassic mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clémence, Marie-Emilie; Mette, Wolfgang; Thibault, Nicolas; Korte, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    A number of potential causes and kill mechanisms have been proposed for the end-Triassic mass extinction such as palaeoclimatic and sea-level variations, massive volcanism and ocean acidification. Recent analysis of the stomatal index and density of fossil leaves and geochemical research on pedogenic carbonate nodules are suggestive of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and fluctuating climate in the Rhaetian. It seems therefore probable that the end-Triassic event was preceded by large climatic fluctuations and environmental perturbations in the Rhaetian which might have partly affected the composition and diversity of the terrestrial and marine biota prior to the end-Triassic interval. The Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) has long been favored for the study of the Rhaetian, since the GSSP of the Triassic/Jurassic (T/J) boundary and other important T/J sections are situated in this region. However, the most famous Rhaetian sections in the NCA are composed of carbonates from the Koessen Formation and were situated in a large isolated intraplatform Basin (the Eiberg Basin), bordered to the south-east by a well-developed coral reef in the NW of the Tethys border. Several Rhaetian sections composed of marls and shales of the Zlambach Formation were deposited at the same time on the other side of this reef, in the oceanic Halstatt Basin, which was in direct connection to the Tethys. Here, we present new results on sedimentology, stable isotope and trace element analysis of both intraplatform and oceanic basin deposits in the NCA. Intraplatform Rhaetian sections from the Koessen Formation bear a few minor intervals of shales with enrichments in organic matter, some of which are associated to carbon isotopic excursions. Oceanic sections from the Hallstatt Basin are characterized at the base by very cyclic marl-limestone alternations. Higher up in the section, sediments progressively turn into pure shale deposits and the top of the Formation is characterized by organic-rich, laminated black shales. This interval of black shales is associated with a 2 per mil negative carbon isotopic excursion and a strong warming as suggested by fluctuations in oxygen isotopes. Forthcoming geochemical and paleontological analysis on these two Formations should help us : (1) better constrain the stratigraphy of the Rhaetian in the NCA by correlating geochemical and climatic events that took place both in the intraplaform (Eiberg) and oceanic (Hallstatt) Basin, (2) decipher localized vs large Tethyan anoxic events and associated carbon-cycle perturbations and (3) constrain the possible influence of Rhaetian climatic perturbations on the biota before the end-Triassic mass extinction.

  19. Evidence for prosauropod dinosaur gastroliths in the Bull Run Formation (Upper Triassic, Norian) of Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, R.E.; Culp, M.J.; Wings, O.

    2007-01-01

    Definitive criteria for distinguishing gastroliths from sedimentary clasts are lacking for many depositional settings, and many reported occurrences of gastroliths either cannot be verified or have been refuted. We discuss four occurrences of gastrolith-like stones (category 6 exoliths) not found within skeletal remains from the Upper Triassic Bull Run Formation of northern Virginia, USA. Despite their lack of obvious skeletal association, the most parsimonious explanation for several characteristics of these stones is their prolonged residence in the gastric mills of large animals. These characteristics include 1) typical gastrolith microscopic surface texture, 2) evidence of pervasive surface wear on many of these stones that has secondarily removed variable amounts of thick weathering rinds typically found on these stones, and 3) a width/length-ratio modal peak for these stones that is more strongly developed than in any population of fluvial or fanglomerate stones of any age found in this region. When taken together, these properties of the stones can be explained most parsimoniously by animal ingestion and gastric-mill abrasion. The size of these stones indicates the animals that swallowed them were large, and the best candidate is a prosauropod dinosaur, possibly an ancestor of the Early Jurassic gastrolith-producing prosauropod Massospondylus or Ammosaurus. Skeletal evidence for Upper Triassic prosauropods is lacking in the Newark Supergroup basins; footprints (Agrestipus hottoni and Eubrontes isp.) from the Bull Run Formation in the Culpeper basin previously ascribed to prosauropods are now known to be underprints (Brachychirotherium parvum) of an aetosaur and underprints (Kayentapus minor) of a ceratosaur. The absence of prosauropod skeletal remains or footprints in all but the uppermost (upper Rhaetian) Triassic rocks of the Newark Supergroup is puzzling because prosauropod remains are abundant elsewhere in the world in Upper Triassic (Carnian, Norian, and lower Rhaetian) continental strata. The apparent scarcity of prosauropods in Upper Triassic strata of the Newark Supergroup is interpreted as an artifact of ecological partitioning, created by the habitat range and dietary preferences of phytosaurs and by the preservational biases at that time within the lithofacies of the Newark Supergroup basins.

  20. Computing time scales from reaction coordinates by milestoning Tony Faradjian and Ron Elber

    E-print Network

    Elber, Ron

    1 Computing time scales from reaction coordinates by milestoning Tony Faradjian and Ron Elber to compute time scales of complex processes following pre- determined milestones along a reaction coordinate not imply a single dominant time scale. The reaction coordinate need not include a single large barrier

  1. Can primordial helium survive in diamonds on geologic time scales? Rebecca Granot and Roi Baer*

    E-print Network

    Baer, Roi

    1 Can primordial helium survive in diamonds on geologic time scales? Rebecca Granot and Roi Baer, it is unclear whether primordial helium can actually survive in di- amonds on geologic time scales (billions temperatures and geologic time scales in di- amond. Based on ab initio calculations and an atomistic tight

  2. Day-Ahead and Real-Time Models for Large-Scale Energy Storage

    E-print Network

    Day-Ahead and Real-Time Models for Large-Scale Energy Storage Final Project Report Power Systems-Ahead and Real-Time Models for Large- Scale Energy Storage Final Project Report Project Team Kory W. Hedman project titled "Day-ahead and real-time models for large-scale energy storage" (project S-61G). We express

  3. Climatically driven biogeographic provinces of Late Triassic tropical Pangea

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Jessica H.; Grogan, Danielle S.; Olsen, Paul E.; Kent, Dennis V.

    2011-01-01

    Although continents were coalesced into the single landmass Pangea, Late Triassic terrestrial tetrapod assemblages are surprisingly provincial. In eastern North America, we show that assemblages dominated by traversodont cynodonts are restricted to a humid 6° equatorial swath that persisted for over 20 million years characterized by “semiprecessional” (approximately 10,000-y) climatic fluctuations reflected in stable carbon isotopes and sedimentary facies in lacustrine strata. More arid regions from 5–20°N preserve procolophonid-dominated faunal assemblages associated with a much stronger expression of approximately 20,000-y climatic cycles. In the absence of geographic barriers, we hypothesize that these variations in the climatic expression of astronomical forcing produced latitudinal climatic zones that sorted terrestrial vertebrate taxa, perhaps by excretory physiology, into distinct biogeographic provinces tracking latitude, not geographic position, as the proto-North American plate translated northward. Although the early Mesozoic is usually assumed to be characterized by globally distributed land animal communities due to of a lack of geographic barriers, strong provinciality was actually the norm, and nearly global communities were present only after times of massive ecological disruptions. PMID:21571639

  4. Evaluating the uncertainty of predicting future climate time series at the hourly time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, E.; Fatichi, S.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2011-12-01

    A stochastic downscaling methodology is developed to generate hourly, point-scale time series for several meteorological variables, such as precipitation, cloud cover, shortwave radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and atmospheric pressure. The methodology uses multi-model General Circulation Model (GCM) realizations and an hourly weather generator, AWE-GEN. Probabilistic descriptions of factors of change (a measure of climate change with respect to historic conditions) are computed for several climate statistics and different aggregation times using a Bayesian approach that weights the individual GCM contributions. The Monte Carlo method is applied to sample the factors of change from their respective distributions thereby permitting the generation of time series in an ensemble fashion, which reflects the uncertainty of climate projections of future as well as the uncertainty of the downscaling procedure. Applications of the methodology and probabilistic expressions of certainty in reproducing future climates for the periods, 2000 - 2009, 2046 - 2065 and 2081 - 2100, using the 1962 - 1992 period as the baseline, are discussed for the location of Firenze (Italy). The climate predictions for the period of 2000 - 2009 are tested against observations permitting to assess the reliability and uncertainties of the methodology in reproducing statistics of meteorological variables at different time scales.

  5. Scale-Invariant Extinction Time Estimates for Some Singular Diffusion Equations

    E-print Network

    Ikegami, Takashi

    Scale-Invariant Extinction Time Estimates for Some Singular Diffusion Equations Yoshikazu Giga becomes identically zero in finite time. We prove scale-invariant estimates for the extinction time, using is to prove finite-time extinction, i.e. to show that the solution becomes identically zero in finite time

  6. Establishing a time-scale for plant evolution.

    PubMed

    Clarke, John T; Warnock, Rachel C M; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2011-10-01

    • Plants have utterly transformed the planet, but testing hypotheses of causality requires a reliable time-scale for plant evolution. While clock methods have been extensively developed, less attention has been paid to the correct interpretation and appropriate implementation of fossil data. • We constructed 17 calibrations, consisting of minimum constraints and soft maximum constraints, for divergences between model representatives of the major land plant lineages. Using a data set of seven plastid genes, we performed a cross-validation analysis to determine the consistency of the calibrations. Six molecular clock analyses were then conducted, one with the original calibrations, and others exploring the impact on divergence estimates of changing maxima at basal nodes, and prior probability densities within calibrations. • Cross-validation highlighted Tracheophyta and Euphyllophyta calibrations as inconsistent, either because their soft maxima were overly conservative or because of undetected rate variation. Molecular clock analyses yielded estimates ranging from 568-815 million yr before present (Ma) for crown embryophytes and from 175-240 Ma for crown angiosperms. • We reject both a post-Jurassic origin of angiosperms and a post-Cambrian origin of land plants. Our analyses also suggest that the establishment of the major embryophyte lineages occurred at a much slower tempo than suggested in most previous studies. These conclusions are entirely compatible with current palaeobotanical data, although not necessarily with their interpretation by palaeobotanists. PMID:21729086

  7. Detonation initiation on the microsecond time scale: DDTs

    SciTech Connect

    Kassoy, Dr. David R; Kuehn, Jeffery A; Nabity, Mr. Matthew W.; Clarke, Dr. John F.

    2008-01-01

    Spatially resolved, thermal power deposition of limited duration into a finite volume of reactive gas is the initiator for a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) on the microsecond time scale. The reactive Euler equations with one-step Arrhenius kinetics are used to derive novel formulas for velocity and temperature variation that describe the physical phenomena characteristic of DDTs. A transformation of the variables is shown to yield a canonical equation system, independent of the activation energy. Numerical solutions of the reactive Euler equations are used to describe the detailed sequence of reactive gasdynamic processes leading to an overdriven planar detonation far from the power deposition location. Results are presented for deposition into a region isolated from the planar boundary of the reactive gas as well as for that adjacent to the boundary. The role of compressions and shocks reflected from the boundary into the partially reacted hot gas is described. The quantitative dependences of DDT evolution on the magnitude of thermal power deposition and activation energy are identified.

  8. Detonation initiation on the microsecond time scale: DDTs

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, Jeffery A; Kassoy, Dr. David R; Nabity, Mr. Matthew W.; Clarke, Dr. John F.

    2006-01-01

    Spatially resolved, thermal power deposition of limited duration into a finite volume of reactive gas is the initiator for a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) on the microsecond time scale. The reactive Euler equations with one-step Arrhenius kinetics are used to derive novel formulas for velocity and temperature variation that describe the physical phenomena characteristic of DDTs. A nonlinear transformation of the variables is shown to yield a canonical equation system, independent of the activation energy. Numerical solutions of the reactive Euler equations are used to describe the detailed sequence of reactive gas dynamic processes leading to an overdriven planar detonation far from the power deposition location. Results are presented for deposition into a region isolated from the planar boundary of the reactive gas as well as for that adjacent to the boundary. The role of compressions and shocks reflected from the boundary into the partially reacted hot gas is described. The quantitative dependences of DDT evolution on the magnitude of thermal power deposition and activation energy are identified.

  9. Titan's evaporites structure and their formation time-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordier, D.; Barnes, J.; Le Bahers, T.; Cornet, T.; Ferreira, A.

    2014-04-01

    Hydrocarbons lakes have been discovered in polar regions of Titan (Stofan et al. 2007) [1]. Already, Stofan et al. (2007) noticed features suggesting the occurence of an evaporation process in the recent past. Barnes et al. (2009) [2] performed a detailed study of shoreline features of Ontario Lacus, they interpreted the 5-?m brigth annulus around this lakes as a dry, low-water ice content zone, possibly corresponding to a deposit of organic condensates. Barnes et al. (2011) [3] used a sample of several lakes and lakebeds located in a region south of the Ligeia Mare. They got a strong correlation between RADAR-empty lakes and 5-?m brigth units interpreted as low-water ice content areas. On the theoretical side, Cordier et al. (2013) [4] elaborated a model for the chemical composition of the external layer of these possible organic evaporite deposits. This model was based on a simplified theory of dissolution (ideal solution and regular solution theory) and all computations were performed using a time-scale which did not enable any estimation for the depth of deposits layers.

  10. Detrital zircon provenance of the Late Triassic Songpan-Ganzi complex: Sedimentary record of collision of the North and South China blocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weislogel, A.L.; Graham, S.A.; Chang, E.Z.; Wooden, J.L.; Gehrels, G.E.; Yang, H.

    2006-01-01

    Using detrital zircon geochronology, turbidite deposystems fed from distinct sediment sources can be distinguished within the Songpan-Ganzi complex, a collapsed Middle to Late Triassic turbidite basin of central China. A southern Songpan-Ganzi deposystem initially was sourced solely by erosion of the Qinling-Dabie orogen during early Late Triassic time, then by Qinling-Dabie orogen, North China block, and South China block sources during middle to late Late Triassic time. A northern Songpan-Ganzi system was sourced by erosion of the Qinling-Dabie orogen and the North China block throughout its deposition. These separate deposystems were later tectonically amalgamated to form one complex and then uplifted as the eastern Tibet Plateau. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  11. Magnetic polarity stratigraphy and paleolatitude of the Triassic^Jurassic Blomidon Formation in the Fundy basin

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    Magnetic polarity stratigraphy and paleolatitude of the Triassic^Jurassic Blomidon Formation] characterized the Triassic as perhaps the most arid period of the Phanerozoic, citing evidence for widespread,5] and the apparent expan- sion of deserts in the Triassic and Early Jurassic to an extent not since repeated [6

  12. South American Reptiles Found in Virginia: Second Triassic Extinction Constrained in NorthAmerica

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    in the Triassic period, with the largest of all extinctions, the Permian-Triassic event (245 Ma), ushering in the period, and an- other great event, the Triassic Jurassic mass ex tinction (201 Ma) closing it (Fig 1 of large lakes, controlled by orbitally induced (Milan- kovitchtype) climate change, with a period

  13. Synchrony between the Central Atlantic magmatic province and the TriassicJurassic mass-extinction event?

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    Synchrony between the Central Atlantic magmatic province and the Triassic­Jurassic mass-extinction relationship between the Triassic­Jurassic mass extinction (202 Ma) and Earth's largest sequence of continental, S., 2002. Terrestrial and marine extinction at the Triassic­Jurassic boundary synchronized

  14. Resetting the evolution of marine reptiles at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    Resetting the evolution of marine reptiles at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary Philippa M. Thorne. Ichthyopterygia | cladistics | phylogeny | morphometrics Marine reptiles arose in the Early Triassic, some 250 Ma of diverse marine reptiles in the Triassic--the long-necked fish-eating eosaur- opterygians (pachypleurosaurs

  15. Kinematic restoration of the Mediterranean region since the Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Torsvik, Trond; Matenco, Liviu; Schmid, Stefan; Maffione, Marco; Spakman, Wim

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is one of the most complexly deformed areas in the world and its tectonic evolution has been instrumental in the development of numerous fundamental geological principles and geodynamic concepts. Reconstructions of the Mediterranean region invariably demonstrated that the area had a complex paleogeography with ribbon continents or micro-plates and narrow, elongated ocean basins systems in Mesozoic time. A western and northern ocean basin system was genetically related to the Atlantic Ocean, opened in Jurassic time and is known as the Alpine Tethys Ocean. A southern and eastern basin system was genetically related to the Neotethys domain located between Gondwana and Eurasia and - in the Mediterranean realm - opened in Triassic to Jurassic times. Continental domains of variable size within and between these ocean systems rifted away from Eurasia or Africa. This mosaic of pieces of continental and oceanic lithosphere became consumed by a complex configuration of subduction zones that accommodated convergence between the African and Eurasian plates since middle Jurassic times. Since Oligocene time, the overriding plate above subduction zones throughout the Mediterranean region became extended, locally leading to formation of new ocean floor, as a result of roll-back of subducted slab segments, culminating in todays complex and strongly curved configuration of subduction zones and slab segments. An area such as the tectonically complex Mediterranean invites attempt to kinematic restoration, and various reconstructions are already available. However, by now such reconstructions are no more merely a translation of - frequently qualitative - geological data into a quantitative description of surface evolution: with the advent of 3-dimensional numerical modeling tools that can be kinematically driven by plate reconstructions, they become critical input for attempts to integrate surface evolution into mantle dynamics. An increasingly widely used platform for kinematic reconstructions is the freely available GPlates plate kinematic reconstruction software (http://www.gplates.org). We provide the first fully quantitatively described GPlates-based kinematic reconstruction of the Mediterranean region back to Triassic time. Classic plate reconstructions assume plate rigidity, and motion concentrated along discrete plate boundaries. Convergence between Africa-Europe plate boundary in the Mediterranean region is, however, associated with regionally distributed deformation. In this reconstruction, we attempt to restore this distributed deformation, which in practice means that we allow for polygons to change shape and area over time. This reconstruction may (i) be used as input for numerical models that aim to constrain the geodynamic evolution of (parts of) the Mediterranean history, (ii) allow comparing relative tectonic motions of the Mediterranean region to the mantle using mantle reference frames, and (iii) provide regional kinematic context for future geological studies. Upon final publication, all shape and rotation files of this reconstruction will be made publically available, which may serve as a platform for further improvement when new constraints demand so, or when the reader wishes to test different tectonic scenarios.

  16. Massive Red-Staining and Albitization of Feldspars in Paleozoic Basement Rocks of Western Europe and Their Association with the Triassic Palaeogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrega, C.; Parcerisa, D.; Franke, C.; Thiry, M.; Yao, K.; Gómez-Gras, D.

    2013-12-01

    Albitization of feldspars is a widespread mineral replacement process of the upper crust. An ubiquitous and pervasive red-staining albitization of feldspars has been observed in the feldspathic rocks of the Variscan basement in the Sudetes, Armorican, Morvan, Roc de Frausa and Montseny-Guilleries Massifs (Western Europe). These crystalline massifs were strongly eroded during Permian and Triassic times and suffered a long-lasting exposition in the Permian-Triassic palaeosurface. The albitized rocks contain minute Fe-oxides hoisted within the microporosity of the secondary albite. The intimate textural relationship between the Fe-oxides and the albite strongly suggest that they are coetaneous with albitization. The microscope, cathodoluminescence, SEM and EMPA analyses reveal that almost all plagioclases and some K-feldspars are albitized in those areas close to the Permian-Triassic palaeosurface. Moving downwards the palaeosurface the albitization of Variscan rocks progressively disappears. Field mapping of the albitized areas points to estimated thickness about 100-200m. In the uppermost parts of the profile almost all plagioclases are totally albitized and the rock shows a strong and pervasive reddening, whereas in the lowermost parts the mineral replacement is restricted to fractures and neighbouring walls and the rock in tinted with a soft pink colour. These observations suggest that albitization is linked to that palaeosurface and constitutes a paleoalteration profile beneath the Permian-Triassic palaeosurface. All these observations suggest that the mineral replacement could have been driven by descending Na+ rich brines related with or coming from the Permian-Triassic palaeosurface. Ricodel et al. (2007) determined a Triassic age for the paleomagnetic signature of the Fe-oxides hoisted within the microporosity of albite in the Morvan Massif. The narrow textural relationship between the Fe-oxides and the albite support the idea that this is the age of albitization in this massif. The similarities in the petrographycal and geometrical aspects between the five studied massifs strongly suggest that they could record a common albitization event that affected the basement rocks of the Permian-Triassic palaeosurface during Triassic times. Although albitization usually is a deep process which occurs at depths greater then 900 m, during the end of the Permian and the beginning of the Triassic geochemical conditions of the atmosphere and the hydrosphere were radically distinctive and without equal in the earth. This exclusive geochemical conditions should had a role in de development of unusual shallow chemical reactions. In this contexts albitization developed close to the surface. The shallow Triassic albitization of the Variscan basement of Western Europe, and maybe around the Triassic continental long-lasting world, can be a useful tool in the reconstruction of the continental areas around the Triassic basins. [1] Ricordel, C., Parcerisa, D., Thiry, M., Moreau, M. G., & Gómez-Gras, D. (2007). Triassic magnetic overprints related to albitization in granites from the Morvan Massif (France). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 251, 268-282.

  17. EON: software for long time simulations of atomic scale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chill, Samuel T.; Welborn, Matthew; Terrell, Rye; Zhang, Liang; Berthet, Jean-Claude; Pedersen, Andreas; Jónsson, Hannes; Henkelman, Graeme

    2014-07-01

    The EON software is designed for simulations of the state-to-state evolution of atomic scale systems over timescales greatly exceeding that of direct classical dynamics. States are defined as collections of atomic configurations from which a minimization of the potential energy gives the same inherent structure. The time evolution is assumed to be governed by rare events, where transitions between states are uncorrelated and infrequent compared with the timescale of atomic vibrations. Several methods for calculating the state-to-state evolution have been implemented in EON, including parallel replica dynamics, hyperdynamics and adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo. Global optimization methods, including simulated annealing, basin hopping and minima hopping are also implemented. The software has a client/server architecture where the computationally intensive evaluations of the interatomic interactions are calculated on the client-side and the state-to-state evolution is managed by the server. The client supports optimization for different computer architectures to maximize computational efficiency. The server is written in Python so that developers have access to the high-level functionality without delving into the computationally intensive components. Communication between the server and clients is abstracted so that calculations can be deployed on a single machine, clusters using a queuing system, large parallel computers using a message passing interface, or within a distributed computing environment. A generic interface to the evaluation of the interatomic interactions is defined so that empirical potentials, such as in LAMMPS, and density functional theory as implemented in VASP and GPAW can be used interchangeably. Examples are given to demonstrate the range of systems that can be modeled, including surface diffusion and island ripening of adsorbed atoms on metal surfaces, molecular diffusion on the surface of ice and global structural optimization of nanoparticles.

  18. Collisional Time Scales in the Kuiper Disk and Their Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1995-01-01

    We explore the rate of collisions among bodies in the present-day Kuiper Disk as a function of the total mass and population size structure of the disk. We find that collisional evolution is an important evolutionary process in the disk as a whole, and indeed, that it is likely the dominant evolutionary process beyond approx. 42 AU, where dynamical instability time scales exceed the age of the solar system. Two key findings we report from this modeling work are: that unless the disk's population structure is sharply truncated for radii smaller than approx. 1-2 km, collisions between comets and smaller debris are occurring so frequently in the disk, and with high enough velocities, that the small body (i.e., KM-class object) population in the disk has probably developed into a collisional cascade, thereby implying that the Kuiper Disk comets may not all be primordial, and that the rate of collisions of smaller bodies with larger 100 less R less 400 km objects (like 1992QB(sub 1) and its cohorts) is so low that there appears to be a dilemma in explaining how QB(sub 1)s could have grown by binary accretion in the disk as we know it. Given these findings, it appears that either the present-day paradigm for the formation of Kuiper Disk is failed in some fundamental respect, or that the present-day disk is no longer representative of the ancient structure from which it evolved. This in turn suggests the intriguing possibility that the present-day Kuiper Disk evolved through a more erosional stage reminiscent of the disks around the stars Beta Pictorus, alpha PsA, and alpha Lyr.

  19. Lethally Hot Temperatures During the Early Triassic Greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yadong; Joachimski, Michael M.; Wignall, Paul B.; Yan, Chunbo; Chen, Yanlong; Jiang, Haishui; Wang, Lina; Lai, Xulong

    2012-10-01

    Global warming is widely regarded to have played a contributing role in numerous past biotic crises. Here, we show that the end-Permian mass extinction coincided with a rapid temperature rise to exceptionally high values in the Early Triassic that were inimical to life in equatorial latitudes and suppressed ecosystem recovery. This was manifested in the loss of calcareous algae, the near-absence of fish in equatorial Tethys, and the dominance of small taxa of invertebrates during the thermal maxima. High temperatures drove most Early Triassic plants and animals out of equatorial terrestrial ecosystems and probably were a major cause of the end-Smithian crisis.

  20. Redescription of Bellerophon bittneri (Gastropoda: Triassic) from Wyoming.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yochelson, E.L.; Boyd, D.W.; Wardlaw, B.

    1985-01-01

    Bellerophon bittneri Newell and Kummel is an Early Triassic bellerophontacean from the Dinwoody Formation in the Wind River Mountains. The available type material consists of one fair, but incomplete, external mold, which resembles a Bellerophon but is actually a Retispira. After repeated search, additional specimens were found at one locality in the southern Wind River Range of Wyoming; Retispira bittneri is redescribed from this new material. Like other Triassic bellerophontaceans, there is nothing unusual about the species apart from occurrence in the Mesozoic; it is clearly congeneric with Permian Retispira from underlying rocks. -Authors

  1. Photic zone euxinia during the Permian-triassic superanoxic event.

    PubMed

    Grice, Kliti; Cao, Changqun; Love, Gordon D; Böttcher, Michael E; Twitchett, Richard J; Grosjean, Emmanuelle; Summons, Roger E; Turgeon, Steven C; Dunning, William; Jin, Yugan

    2005-02-01

    Carbon and sulfur isotopic data, together with biomarker and iron speciation analyses of the Hovea-3 core that was drilled in the Perth Basin, Western Australia, indicate that euxinic conditions prevailed in the paleowater column during the Permian-Triassic superanoxic event. Biomarkers diagnostic for anoxygenic photosynthesis by Chlorobiaceae are particularly abundant at the boundary and into the Early Triassic. Similar conditions prevailed in the contemporaneous seas off South China. Our evidence for widespread photiczone euxinic conditions suggests that sulfide toxicity was a driver of the extinction and a factor in the protracted recovery. PMID:15661975

  2. Lethally hot temperatures during the Early Triassic greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yadong; Joachimski, Michael M; Wignall, Paul B; Yan, Chunbo; Chen, Yanlong; Jiang, Haishui; Wang, Lina; Lai, Xulong

    2012-10-19

    Global warming is widely regarded to have played a contributing role in numerous past biotic crises. Here, we show that the end-Permian mass extinction coincided with a rapid temperature rise to exceptionally high values in the Early Triassic that were inimical to life in equatorial latitudes and suppressed ecosystem recovery. This was manifested in the loss of calcareous algae, the near-absence of fish in equatorial Tethys, and the dominance of small taxa of invertebrates during the thermal maxima. High temperatures drove most Early Triassic plants and animals out of equatorial terrestrial ecosystems and probably were a major cause of the end-Smithian crisis. PMID:23087244

  3. A new Late Triassic age for the Puesto Viejo Group (San Rafael depocenter, Argentina): SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating and biostratigraphic correlations across southern Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottone, Eduardo G.; Monti, Mariana; Marsicano, Claudia A.; de la Fuente, Marcelo S.; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Armstrong, Richard; Mancuso, Adriana C.

    2014-12-01

    The Puesto Viejo Group crops out in the San Rafael Block, southwest Mendoza, at approximately 35° S and 68°20? W. It consists of the basal mainly grayish Quebrada de los Fósiles Formation (QF) overlying by the reddish Río Seco de la Quebrada Formation (RSQ). The basal unit includes both plant remains (pleuromeians and sphenopsids) and vertebrates (scattered fish scales, dicynodont synapsids and remains of an archosauriform). In contrast, the RSQ beds have yielded only tetrapods, although a more diverse fauna. The latter includes cynodonts as Cynognathus, Pascualognathus and Diademodon, and also dicynodonts (Vinceria and Kannemeyeria). Based on the assemblage of tetrapod taxa the bearing levels were correlated to the Cynognathus AZ of South Africa and thus referred to the Middle Triassic (Anisian). We obtained a SHRIMP 238U/206Pb age of 235.8 ± 2.0 Ma from a rhyolitic ignimbrite interdigitated between the QF and RSQ formations at the Quebrada de los Fósiles section. This new radiometric date for the Puesto Viejo Group suggests that the tetrapod fauna in the RSQ beds existed, instead, during the Late Triassic (early Carnian) some 10 Ma later than the currently accepted age. Two scenarios might explain our results: first, the Cynognathus AZ of South Africa is wrongly assigned to the lower Middle Triassic (Anisan) and should be considered younger in age, Late Triassic (Carnian); second, the relative age of the Cynognathus AZ of South Africa is correct but the inferred range of Cynognathus and Diademodon is incorrect as they were present during the Late Triassic (Carnian) at least in South America. In any case, this new date pose serious doubts about the validity of biostratigraphic correlations based solely on tetrapod taxa, a common practice for Triassic continental successions across Gondwana.

  4. Wavelet-based spatial and temporal multiscaling: Bridging the atomistic and continuum space and time scales

    E-print Network

    Deymier, Pierre

    Wavelet-based spatial and temporal multiscaling: Bridging the atomistic and continuum space and time scales G. Frantziskonis1, * and P. Deymier2 1 Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering that naturally addresses time scaling in addition to spatial scaling. The method combines recently developed

  5. Real time density functional simulations of quantum scale conductance

    E-print Network

    Evans, Jeremy Scott

    2009-01-01

    We study electronic conductance through single molecules by subjecting a molecular junction to a time dependent potential and propagating the electronic state in real time using time-dependent density functional theory ...

  6. Record of the end-Triassic crisis in south-western Sicily: palaeoenvironmental changes reflected by the carbonate facies architecture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciatore, M. S.; di Stefano, P.

    2009-04-01

    The Sciacca-Monti Sicani area, in south-western Sicily, offers a regional example of the facies architecture in an Upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic carbonate shelf margin to slope zone. It allows us to evaluate the interplay of different controlling factors on the sedimentary dynamics of a South Tethyan basin margin across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. In this segment of the Maghrebian thrust and fold belt, the Triassic/Jurassic facies associations and their spatial relationships were restored by the correlation of selected sections from several structural units. The Triassic carbonate shelf consists of thick successions of peritidal-lagoonal cycles (Sciacca Fm.). Our studies reveal that a NW-SE trending Dachstein-type reef edged the shelf of the platform towards east. This implies the contiguity of the carbonate shelf with a high-energy, open-marine environment, providing the optimum oligotrophic life conditions for sponge-coral-algae communities. A terminal complex, consisting of chaetetid-dominated boundstones, characterizes the Rhaetian topmost zone of the reef, probably because of the end-Triassic biotic crisis. A sharp discontinuity surface on top of the uppermost Triassic platform strata (Triasina facies) is overprinted in places by karstic dissolution. It is interpreted as a result of a Late Rhaetian sea-level fall. A lowering of the sea-level is also supported by the presence of fine skeletal grainstones in the slope-basinal successions. This implies a downslope forced shedding of reef-derived biodetritus, favoured probably by the shifting of the active bioconstruction to the outer shelf margin/upper slope. Around the Rhaetian-Hettangian boundary, a widespread clastic carbonate wedge was formed downslope by the cannibalization of the Upper Triassic reef. The selective source of clastics (Upper Triassic reef extraclasts) suggests, as trigger mechanisms, margin collapses coupled to an intense wave erosion of the reef limestones during the lowstand stage. Transtensional tectonics activity along the shelf edge, inducing margin retreats, is documented by local angular unconformities, so we cannot exclude the contribution of brittle deformations to the the production of clastic materials. The aggradation of Thaumatoporella-mollusc bearing peritidal cycles in the shelf and of oolitic-bioclastic sands along the shelf-edge indicate the recovery of the carbonate productivity during Early Jurassic times coupled to a sea-level rise during Hettangian times. Moreover an intense shedding of carbonate sands in the adjacent slope and peribasinal areas is recorded in all the studied deep-water successions. In the distal slope zone the observed switching of the intrabasinal carbonate supply from scarce biodetritus containing reef-derived foraminifers (e.g. Galeanella, Siculocosta and others) to abundant oolitic and skeletal sands, bearing Aeolisaccus sp. and Siphovalvulina gibraltarensis, can be used as a proxy of the Triassic/Jurassic boundary.

  7. Age and provenance of Triassic to Cenozoic sediments of West and Central Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfeld, H. Tim; Galin, Thomson; Hall, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Sarawak is located on the northern edge of Sundaland in NW Borneo. West and Central Sarawak include parts of the Kuching and Sibu Zones. These contain remnants of several sedimentary basins with ages from Triassic to Cenozoic. New light mineral, heavy mineral and U-Pb detrital zircon ages show differences in provenance reflecting the tectonic evolution of the region. The oldest clastic sediments are Triassic (Sadong Formation and its deep marine equivalent Kuching Formation). They were sourced by a Triassic (Carnian to Norian) volcanic arc and reworked Paleoproterozoic detritus derived from Cathaysialand. The Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous Pedawan Formation is interpreted as forearc basin fill with distinctive zircon populations indicating subduction beneath present-day West Sarawak which initiated in the Late Jurassic. Subsequent subduction until the early Late Cretaceous formed the Schwaner Mountains magmatic arc. After collision of SW Borneo and other microcontinental fragments with Sundaland in the early Late Cretaceous, deep marine sedimentation (Pedawan Formation) ceased, and there was uplift forming the regional Pedawan-Kayan unconformity. Two episodes of extension followed and were responsible for basin development on land in West Sarawak from the latest Cretaceous onwards, probably in a pull-apart setting. The first episode is associated with sediments of the Kayan Group, deposited in the Latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene, and the second episode with Upper Eocene sediments of the Ketungau Basin. Zircon ages indicate volcanic activity throughout the Early Cenozoic in NW Borneo, and inherited zircon ages indicate reworking of Triassic and Cretaceous rocks. A large deep marine basin, the Rajang Basin, was north of the Lupar Line Fault in Central Sarawak (Sibu Zone) from the Late Cretaceous to the Late Eocene. Zircons from sediments of the Rajang Basin indicate they have similar ages and provenance to contemporaneous terrestrial sediments of the Kayan Group and Ketungau Basin to the south, suggesting a narrow steep continental Sundaland margin at the position of the Lupar Line, and a large-scale sedimentary connection between the terrestrial and deep marine basins in the Late Cretaceous to Late Eocene. A recent reconstruction for the proto-South China Sea proposed an isolated so-called Semitau terrane colliding with SW Borneo and Sundaland in the Late Eocene. Our data show that the area of the Kuching and Sibu Zones were connected with SW Borneo and Sundaland from the Cretaceous onwards. The Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary basins were sourced by alternations of Schwaner Mountains and Malay Tin Belt rocks. Our new age and provenance data cannot be explained by an isolated Semitau terrane and a Late Eocene collision.

  8. The Pangea conundrum: Implications of new Paleomagnetic data from Permo-Triassic Araguainha Impact Crater (Central Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, D.; Yokoyama, E.; Trindade, R. I.; Tohver, E.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a new Permo-Triassic paleomagnetic pole for South America based on impact-related material from the Araguainha Dome. The relative position of southern and northern continents in Pangea between the Carboniferous and the Triassic has been a topic of intense debate for almost half a century, since when T. Irving has shown dramatic inconsistencies between the original A. Wegener's Pangea and the then-available paleomagnetic data. Recent compilations of paleomagnetic poles for both hemispheres of Pangea (Laurussia and Gondwana) seem to concur that part of those inconsistencies are related to the quality of the Carboniferous to Triassic paleomagnetic record and emphasize the urgent need for high-quality data for this time period. Permo-Triassic paleomagnetic data for South America were obtained mainly from sedimentary rocks, which are inherently affected by several recording problems such as inclination shallowing or remagnetization, also presenting large uncertainties in their ages. Thus, it is necessary to improve the database with paleomagnetic poles derived from igneous rocks carrying stable thermoremanent magnetization that can be easily dated. However, volcanic rocks are scarce for this time period at the central part of the continent. In this way, we targeted the well-dated melt impact material from the Araguainha dome. The Araguainha Dome is the biggest and oldest complex impact structure yet recognized in South America. It is 40 km wide and has excavated about 2500 meters of the sedimentary rocks of the Paraná basin, reaching the basement crystalline rocks. A multi-method dating of the impact melts provided a precise age for the impact at 254.7 ± 2.5 Ma overlapping the Permo-Triassic limit. The same impact-related melt sheets and dykes were sampled for paleomagnetic studies in 23 sites (138 specimens). Alternating field and thermal demagnetization indicate stable, usually univectorial magnetizations carried by magnetite and hematite. All sites but one show coherent directions along the same normal polarity with a resulting mean at Dec = 356.4°; Inc = -38.7°; N = 22; k = 95.6; ?95 = 3.2°, and a paleomagnetic pole at Lat= -83.7; Lon=340.2; K=87.6; A95=3.3°; SB=8.1°. The pole matches the apparent polar wander path built from a selection of high-quality poles from the West Gondwana (Domeier et al., 2012, Tectonophysics, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2011.10.021). Our result provides a strong constraint on the position of Gondwana at the Permo-Triassic boundary and favors the Pangea A reconstruction.

  9. RHAETIAN (LATE TRIASSIC) MONOTIS (BIVALVIA: PECTINOIDA) FROM THE EASTERN NORTHERN

    E-print Network

    McRoberts, Christopher A.

    RHAETIAN (LATE TRIASSIC) MONOTIS (BIVALVIA: PECTINOIDA) FROM THE EASTERN NORTHERN CALCAREOUS ALPS and `filamentous' red, white and grey pelagic limestones of the ancient Tethys Ocean, here collectively termed Calcareous Alps, which are quite extraordinary in that they occur within Hallstatt facies of demonstrable

  10. TETRAPOD POSTURAL SHIFT ESTIMATED FROM PERMIAN AND TRIASSIC TRACKWAYS

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    TETRAPOD POSTURAL SHIFT ESTIMATED FROM PERMIAN AND TRIASSIC TRACKWAYS by TAI KUBO* and MICHAEL J in revised form 6 November 2008 Abstract: The end-Permian mass extinction, 252 million years (myr) ago, marks, the critical 20 myr during which period the postural shift occurred. The shift to erect posture was completed

  11. Macrofossil Evidence For Pleuromeialean Lycophytes From the Triassic of Antarctica

    E-print Network

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Krings, Michael; Taylor, Edith L.; Taylor, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    , air chambers, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica. Benjamin Bomfleur [bennibomfleur@gmx.de], Forschungsstelle für Paläobotanik am Institut für Geologie und Palä? ontologie, Westfälische Wilhelms?Universität Münster, Hindenburgplatz 57, D?48143 Münster... Sixtel, 1961; Triassic Madygen Formation, southern Fergana, Kyrgyz Republic. Mesenteriophyllum serratum Sixtel, 1961 Fig. 4. Material.—PCUK T5568, one block containing three larger leaf segments and abundant smaller leaf fragments. Description...

  12. Scale-Invariant Extinction Time Estimates for Some Singular Diffusion Equations

    E-print Network

    Scale-Invariant Extinction Time Estimates for Some Singular Diffusion Equations Yoshikazu Giga that the solution becomes identically zero in finite time. We prove scale-invariant estimates for the extinction and q > 1). Our goal is to prove finite-time extinction, i.e. to show that the solution becomes

  13. Filling a 30 Million Year Gap: Radioisotopic Age Constraints for the Late Triassic Timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmis, R. B.; Mundil, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Triassic Period records a critical interval of Phanerozoic Earth history, including major paleoenvironmental changes in a greenhouse world, recovery from one mass extinction and the onset of another, and the origin of modern terrestrial ecosystems. Recent efforts have been instrumental in calibrating the timing of these events by producing numerous high resolution radioisotopic ages from Early and Middle Triassic marine strata that facilitate building of a robust 20 Ma chronostratigraphic framework. This contrasts starkly with the Late Triassic (Carnian, Norian, and Rhaetian stages), where ~30 Ma of the timescale is virtually uncalibrated by high-resolution radioisotopic data. This is the only interval of such long duration in the Mesozoic or Cenozoic that remains so poorly constrained by reliable absolute ages, despite the occurrence of major events such as the origin and early diversification of dinosaurs, major reef building episodes in marine ecosystems, key paleoenvironmental changes (e.g., Carnian Pluvial Event), and large extraterrestrial bolide impacts (e.g., Manicouagan). An additional challenge is that the biostratigraphically-defined marine timescale cannot be applied globally, so that other areas (e.g., New Zealand) have independent timescales that cannot be confidently correlated to classic Laurasian sections. All of these problems preclude formulating robust first-order hypotheses about the Late Triassic world. We present new CA-TIMS U-Pb zircon data from volcaniclastic units within both marine and terrestrial strata that aim at calibrating the timescale itself and as a result constrain the timing of some of these major events in Earth history. Several preliminary ages support the hypothesis that the Norian Stage was very long, ~20 Ma. Our new data from marine sequences in New Zealand demonstrate that the timescale divisions there do not correlate directly with biostratigraphic boundaries in the Tethys; specifically, the Ladinian-Carnian boundary is somewhere within the Kaihikuan biozone, and the lower Otamitan biozone is correlative with the mid-Norian. Our new data from the terrestrial Chinle Formation in the southwestern US demonstrate that all of this formation is Norian in age or later, younger than South American sequences it had previously been correlated with. This supports the hypothesis that the rise of dinosaurs was diachronous, occurring later in North America than in Argentina and Brazil. These new ages also constrain a major faunal turnover event in the middle Chinle Fm to the mid-Norian, close in age to the Manicouagan impact event. Correlation and calibration of these major events will be further strengthened by the unambiguous superposition provided by core samples, such as the forthcoming Colorado Plateau Coring Project.

  14. The carbon and sulfur cycles and atmospheric oxygen from middle Permian to middle Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, Robert A.

    2005-07-01

    The results of a theoretical isotope mass balance model are presented for the time dependence of burial and weathering-plus-degassing fluxes within the combined long-term carbon and sulfur cycles. Averaged data for oceanic ? 13C and ? 34S were entered for every million years from 270 to 240 Ma (middle Permian to middle Triassic) to study general trends across the Permian-Triassic boundary. Results show a drop in the rate of global organic matter burial during the late Permian and a predominance of low values during the early-to-middle Triassic. This overall decrease with time is ascribed mainly to epochs of conversion of high biomass forests to low biomass herbaceous vegetation resulting in a decrease in the production of terrestrially derived organic debris. Additional contributions to lessened terrestrial carbon burial were increased aridity and a drop in sea level during the late Permian which led to smaller areas of low-lying coastal wetlands suitable for coal and peat deposition. Mirroring the drop in organic matter deposition was an increase in the burial of sedimentary pyrite, and a dramatic increase in the calculated global mean ratio of pyrite-S to organic-C. High S/C values resulted from an increase of deposition in marine euxinic basins combined with a decrease in the burial of low-pyrite associated terrestrial organic matter. The prediction of increased oceanic anoxia during the late Permian and early Triassic agrees with independent studies of the composition of sedimentary rocks. Weathering plus burial fluxes for organic carbon and pyrite sulfur were used to calculate changes in atmospheric oxygen. The striking result is a continuous drop in O 2 concentration from ˜30% to ˜13% over a twenty million year period. This drop was brought about mainly by a decrease in the burial of terrestrially derived organic matter. but with a possible contribution from the weathering of older organic matter on land. It must have exerted a considerable influence on animal evolution because of the role of O 2 in respiration. Some examples are the extinction of many vertebrates, loss of giant insects and amphibians, and the restriction of animals to low elevations. It is concluded that the extinction of plants may have contributed to the extinction of animals.

  15. Structure and dating errors in the geologic time scale and periodicity in mass extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Structure in the geologic time scale reflects a partly paleontological origin. As a result, ages of Cenozoic and Mesozoic stage boundaries exhibit a weak 28-Myr periodicity that is similar to the strong 26-Myr periodicity detected in mass extinctions of marine life by Raup and Sepkoski. Radiometric dating errors in the geologic time scale, to which the mass extinctions are stratigraphically tied, do not necessarily lessen the likelihood of a significant periodicity in mass extinctions, but do spread the acceptable values of the period over the range 25-27 Myr for the Harland et al. time scale or 25-30 Myr for the DNAG time scale. If the Odin time scale is adopted, acceptable periods fall between 24 and 33 Myr, but are not robust against dating errors. Some indirect evidence from independently-dated flood-basalt volcanic horizons tends to favor the Odin time scale.

  16. Time resolved single photon imaging in Nanometer Scale CMOS technology 

    E-print Network

    Richardson, Justin Andrew

    2010-06-28

    Time resolved imaging is concerned with the measurement of photon arrival time. It has a wealth of emerging applications including biomedical uses such as fluorescence lifetime microscopy and positron emission tomography, ...

  17. The Late Triassic and Late Jurassic stress fields and tectonic transmission of North China craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Guiting; Wang, Yanxin; Hari, K. R.

    2010-09-01

    The transmission of the tectonic regime from the Paleo-Asian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean during Mesozoic era was reconstructed using the modeling of Late Triassic (T 3) and Late Jurassic (J 3) stress fields employing two dimensional linear finite element models (2-D FEM). The model at T 3 proposes that Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogens coevally collided and the model J 3 proposes that Subei block continued to collide with the North China block along the Sulu orogen while the collision of the Qinling-Dabie orogen was terminated. The stress fields at T 3 and J 3 during the two episodes were calculated based on mechanical conditions under different deviatoric stresses acting along the boundaries of the North China craton by elastic finite modeling. The transmission between two episodes of stress fields resulted from Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision between North China and South China in the Late Triassic period, and from continued collision between the Subei block and North China by the NW-trending movement of Izanagi plate during Late Jurassic. The results from modeling of the Mesozoic stress fields of the North China suggest that late Jurassic was the key transmission period of the tectonic regime of the North China block when large scale thrusting triggered the subsequent destruction of the North China craton.

  18. Paleoclimate cycles and tectonic controls on fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian strata in upper Triassic Chinle Formation, San Juan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dubiel, R.F. )

    1989-09-01

    Sedimentologic study of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in the San Juan basin (SJB) indicates that Late Triassic paleoclimate and tectonic movements influenced the distribution of continental lithofacies. The Shinarump, Monitor Butte, and Petrified Forest Members in the lower part of the Chinle consist of complexly interfingered fluvial, floodplain, marsh, and lacustrine rocks; the Owl Rock and Rock Point Members in the upper part consists of lacustrine-basin and eolian sandsheet strata. Facies analysis, vertebrate and invertebrate paleontology, and paleoclimate models demonstrate that the Late Triassic was dominated by tropical monsoonal circulation, which provided abundant precipitation interspersed with seasonally dry periods. Owl Rock lacustrine strata comprise laminated limestones that reflect seasonal monsoonal precipitation and larger scale, interbedded carbonates and fine-grained clastics that represent longer term, alternating wet and dry climatic cycles. Overlying Rock Point eolian sand-sheet and dune deposits indicate persistent alternating but drier climatic cyclicity. Within the Chinle, upward succession of lacustrine, alternating lacustrine/eolian sand-sheet, and eolian sand-sheet/dune deposits reflects an overall decrease in precipitation due to the northward migration of Pangaea out of low latitudes dominated by monsoonal circulation.

  19. A Middle Triassic thoracopterid from China highlights the evolutionary origin of overwater gliding in early ray-finned fishes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Hui; Zhao, Li-Jun; Shen, Chen-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Gliding adaptations in thoracopterid flying fishes represent a remarkable case of convergent evolution of overwater gliding strategy with modern exocoetid flying fishes, but the evolutionary origin of this strategy was poorly known in the thoracopterids because of lack of transitional forms. Until recently, all thoracopterids, from the Late Triassic of Austria and Italy and the Middle Triassic of South China, were highly specialized 'four-winged' gliders in having wing-like paired fins and an asymmetrical caudal fin with the lower caudal lobe notably larger than the upper lobe. Here, we show that the new genus Wushaichthys and the previously alleged 'peltopleurid' Peripeltopleurus, from the Middle Triassic (Ladinian, 235-242 Ma) of South China and near the Ladinian/Anisian boundary of southern Switzerland and northern Italy, respectively, represent the most primitive and oldest known thoracopterids. Wushaichthys, the most basal thoracopterid, shows certain derived features of this group in the skull. Peripeltopleurus shows a condition intermediate between Wushaichthys and Thoracopterus in having a slightly asymmetrical caudal fin but still lacking wing-like paired fins. Phylogenetic studies suggest that the evolution of overwater gliding of thoracopterids was gradual in nature; a four-stage adaption following the 'cranial specialization-asymmetrical caudal fin-enlarged paired fins-scale reduction' sequence has been recognized in thoracopterid evolution. Moreover, Wushaichthys and Peripeltopleurus bear hooklets on the anal fin of supposed males, resembling those of modern viviparious teleosts. Early thoracopterids probably had evolved a live-bearing reproductive strategy. PMID:25568155

  20. Triassic and Jurassic rocks at Currie, Nevada Preliminary paleontologic evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.A.; Dubiel, R.F.; Brouwers, E.M. ); Litwin, R.J. ); Ash, S.R. ); Good, S.C. )

    1993-04-01

    A sequence of continental rocks overlies the Lower Triassic Thaynes Formation in a poorly exposed syncline near Currie in northeastern NV. The authors recognize four lithostratigraphic units above the Thaynes near Currie and provide new paleontologic data. In ascending order, unit 1 (120 ft) consists of reddish-brown, very fine grained sandstone. Unit 2 (50 ft) consists of light-gray, trough cross-stratified, coarse-grained, conglomeratic sandstone. Unit 3 (at least 500 ft) consists of green, red, and brown sandstone and mudstone. Unit 4 occurs as isolated outcrops of reddish-orange, fine- to medium-grained sandstone. New fossil evidence, while not definitive, constrain the age of this sequence. Plant megafossils in unit 1 include (1) a specimen with narrow ovate leaves, possibly from an early Mesozoic conifer and (2) abundant fragments of probable Neocalamites. The presence of these fossils and the absence of any angiosperm leaves or wood fragments suggest an early Mesozoic age. Ostracodes in unit 3 are exclusively Darwinula sp., and their association with conchostracans in the absence of younger ostracodes suggests a Triassic age. Finally, two small outcrops, previously mapped as Triassic/Jurassic, contain the gastropods Pilidae indet. and Lymnaea sp., which resemble Late Cretaceous to Paleocene faunas. The sequence is similar to the nearest Lower Mesozoic section on the Colorado Plateau at Cove Fort, Utah, 165 miles to the southeast. The authors' new evidence supports the longstanding correlation of units 1--4 with the Lower Triassic Moenkopi Formation (part), the Shinarump and Petrified Forest Members of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, and the Lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone of the Plateau. These rocks at Currie demonstrate that the Early Mesozoic depositional systems of the Colorado Plateau extended at least this far west and provide constraints on Early Mesozoic tectonism in the eastern Great Basin.

  1. Oil and gas potential of the Triassic in west Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Bochkarev, V.S.; Kulakhmetov, N.KH.; Nesterov, I.I. )

    1993-09-01

    Permian-Triassic rocks are widely spread within the West Siberian basin, and they include volcanics, volcanoclastics, and clastics. Their thickness varies from tens of meters of 3000 m. Recently, three commercial oil pools have been discovered in Triassic effusive-sedimentary rocks. These discoveries, together with other geological and geochemical data, identify the Triassic complex as a major play. Oil-bearing intervals have been found in three different types of sequences; a fourth also may be prospective. The first type is represented by lacustrine-terrigenous sediments, which comprise oil-saturated sandstones interbedded with basalts (the Turin series). Oil influxes were obtained in the Yakhlinskaya and Triyurtin-skaya structures in the Shaim region. The second type is distinguished from the first by the presence of coal-bearing intervals in the upper part. Oil was produced in the Yerofeyev area of the Chelyabinsk garben. The third type differs from the other two by the presence of potassic rhyolites and dacites. Their age is not precisely dated, and supposedly they are of Permian age. The largest oil influxes have been obtained from fractured and eroded rocks of this type in the Rogozhnikovskaya and other places in the Krasnoleninsk region. Rhyodacites often underlie Turin basalts, but locally they occur in the upper part of the series. Triassic and Permian-Trissic rocks of the three types are overlain by Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks with a large break. The fourth type of section is completely terrigenous (Tampei series). It is developed in the northern part of west Siberia. Here Triassic sediments are overlain by the Jurassic complex without a break. According to well-log data, productive horizons occur at Urengoy and Beregovaya (in the Urengoy region).

  2. Duration and Eruptive Chronology of CAMP: Implications for Central Atlantic Rifting and the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomade, S.; Knight, K. B.; Beutel, E.; Renne, P. R.; Verati, C.; Feraud, G.; Marzoli, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is among the largest igneous provinces on Earth, emplaced synchronously with or just prior to the Triassic-Jurassic boundary ca. 200 Ma. In great part due to the controversial connection between the occurrence of CAMP and the events of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, the demand for better constraints on the duration and eruptive chronology of this province has increased. A careful review and selection of available ages, as well as 16 new ages from the Carolinas, Newark basin (US), French Guyana and Morocco are presented. Judicious selection yields a total of 59 dates for CAMP, ranging from 202 to 190 Ma covering every part of the CAMP. Extrusive activity commenced abruptly around 200 Ma, reaching peak volume and intensity around 199 Ma on the African margin. The main period of CAMP magmatism is confirmed as brief, but is suggested to consist of at least two phases over 1.5 Ma, during which time data suggest a southward migration of the magmatism from the Africa-North American margins towards South America. Two volumetrically minor, but distinctive magmatic peaks at 195 and 192 Ma are mirrored in data from all three continents, highlighted by our statistical approach. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the chronology of CAMP, we emphasize that the lack of a well-defined Triassic-Jurassic boundary age, as well as an absence of relevant comparison between U/Pb and Ar/Ar data for this time period remain limiting factors to unambiguously linking CAMP in time with the events of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

  3. The characteristic time scale for basin hydrological response using radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Efrat; Enzel, Yehouda; Shamir, Uri; Garti, Rami

    2001-10-01

    The transformation of rainfall into runoff at a basin outlet is the combined effect of many hydrological processes, which occur at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. However, determining the scale of the combined hydrological response of the basin is still problematic and concepts for its definition are yet to be identified. In this paper high-resolution meteorological radar data are used for the determination of a characteristic temporal scale for the hydrological response of the basin — the 'response time scale' (T s?). T s? is defined as the time scale at which the pattern of the time-averaged radar rainfall hietograph is most similar to the pattern of the measured outlet runoff hydrograph. The existence of such similarity at a relatively stable time scale for a specific basin indicates that it is an intrinsic property of the basin and is related to its hydrological response. The identification of the response time scale is carried out by analysis of observations only, without assuming a specific rainfall-runoff model. T s? is examined in four small basins (10-100 km 2) in Israel. The spatial scale is assumed as the entire basin. For all analyzed basins a stable response time scale is identified. Relatively short time scales are found for the urban and arid basins (15-30 min), while for the rural basins longer time scale are identified (90-180 min). The issues of relationship between the response time scale and basin properties and modeling at the response time scale have yet to be determined.

  4. The Triassic dicynodont Kombuisia (Synapsida, Anomodontia) from Antarctica, a refuge from the terrestrial Permian-Triassic mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröbisch, Jörg; Angielczyk, Kenneth D.; Sidor, Christian A.

    2010-02-01

    Fossils from the central Transantarctic Mountains in Antarctica are referred to a new species of the Triassic genus Kombuisia, one of four dicynodont lineages known to survive the end-Permian mass extinction. The specimens show a unique combination of characters only present in this genus, but the new species can be distinguished from the type species of the genus, Kombuisia frerensis, by the presence of a reduced but slit-like pineal foramen and the lack of contact between the postorbitals. Although incomplete, the Antarctic specimens are significant because Kombuisia was previously known only from the South African Karoo Basin and the new specimens extend the taxon’s biogeographic range to a wider portion of southern Pangaea. In addition, the new finds extend the known stratigraphic range of Kombuisia from the Middle Triassic subzone B of the Cynognathus Assemblage Zone into rocks that are equivalent in age to the Lower Triassic Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone, shortening the proposed ghost lineage of this taxon. Most importantly, the occurrence of Kombuisia and Lystrosaurus mccaigi in the Lower Triassic of Antarctica suggests that this area served as a refuge from some of the effects of the end-Permian extinction. The composition of the lower Fremouw Formation fauna implies a community structure similar to that of the ecologically anomalous Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone of South Africa, providing additional evidence for widespread ecological disturbance in the extinction’s aftermath.

  5. The Time Dependence of Fundamental Constants and Planck Scale Physics

    E-print Network

    Rothwarfs, F; Rothwarfs, Frederick; Roy, Sisir

    2003-01-01

    A real aether model of the vacuum proposed by Allen Rothwarf based upon a degenerate Fermion fluid of polarizable particle-antiparticle pairs, leads to a big bang model of the universe where the velocity of light varies inversely with the square root of the cosmological time. Here, this model is used to determine the time dependence of certain fundamental constants, i.e. permittivity, permeability of free space : the Gravitational constant, and the Planck units: length, time and mass.

  6. The Time Dependence of Fundamental Constants and Planck Scale Physics

    E-print Network

    Frederick Rothwarfs; Sisir Roy

    2003-11-14

    A real aether model of the vacuum proposed by Allen Rothwarf based upon a degenerate Fermion fluid of polarizable particle-antiparticle pairs, leads to a big bang model of the universe where the velocity of light varies inversely with the square root of the cosmological time. Here, this model is used to determine the time dependence of certain fundamental constants, i.e. permittivity, permeability of free space : the Gravitational constant, and the Planck units: length, time and mass.

  7. Global terrestrial biogeochemistry: Perturbations, interactions, and time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Braswell, B.H. Jr.

    1996-12-01

    Global biogeochemical processes are being perturbed by human activity, principally that which is associated with industrial activity and expansion of urban and agricultural complexes. Perturbations have manifested themselves at least since the beginning of the 19th Century, and include emissions of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from fossil fuel combustion, agricultural emissions of reactive nitrogen, and direct disruption of ecosystem function through land conversion. These perturbations yield local impacts, but there are also global consequences that are the sum of local-scale influences. Several approaches to understanding the global-scale implications of chemical perturbations to the Earth system are discussed. The lifetime of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is an important concept for understanding the current and future commitment to an altered atmospheric heat budget. The importance of the terrestrial biogeochemistry relative to the lifetime of excess CO{sub 2} is demonstrated using dynamic, aggregated models of the global carbon cycle.

  8. The lower Triassic microbiolites in Chaohu region, East China and their contribution to the early Triassic recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhihai; Zhang, Liwei; Hong, Tianqiu

    2010-05-01

    The lower Triassic is well preserved in Chaohu Region, Anhui Province, East China. It can be divided into Yinkeng Formation (80 meters thick, was formed during the Indian and early Smitian), Helongshan Formation (21 meters thick, was formed during the end Smithian) and Nanlinghu Formation (more than 157 meters thick, was formed during the Spathian) from bottom to top. It is mainly composed of carbonatites such as micrite limestones and nodular limestones, as well as shales and calcareous marls. The lower Triassic in this area has been well researched for more than a decade, and many fossils such as ammonites, bivalves, fishes, ichthyosaurus, conodonts, and ichnofossils have been found, but the microbiolites have been neglected. Microbiolites were mainly outcropped in the Helongshan Formaiton and the lower Nanlinghu Formation. In the lower Helongshan Formaiton, tens microbial mat layers and thin bedded calcareous marl layers formed cyclothems which have been named as nodular limstones. The thin-section observation of the microbial mats indicate that many films and thin-shell bivalve fragments deposited almost horizontally. In the upper Helongshan Formaiton, six microstromatolite bioherm layers were outcropped in the thin bedded calcareous marl layers. The diameter of the stromatolite column is about 2 millimeters, the bioherms are lenticular and no more than 3 centimeters thick in the central, their diameters change from 5 centimeters to 30 centimeters, calcareous marls were deposited around the bioherms, and many ammonoids, bivalves and burrows were found in such layers. The microfacies differentiation of the stromatolites such as the basement, reef core and the capping beds can be recognised clearly in thin sections. Several microstromatolite layers were outcropped in the micritic limestones with a stable thickness of 15 millimeters in the lower Nanlinghu Formation and the stromatolite column look like the ones in the Helongshan Formation. Few microbiolites have been found in the middle and upper Nanlinghu Formation. The macro fossil association of the lower Triassic in Chaohu region is quite different in different Formations. Ammonoids and bivalves can be found in the whole lower Triassic strata, and they are especially dominant in the Yinkeng Formation and lower Helongshan Formaiton, worms and borrowing animals can be found in the middle Helongshan Formation, fishes can be found in the uppermost Helongshan Formation and the lower Nanlinghu Formation, and the oldest ichthyosaurus in the world can be found in the upper Nanlinghu Formation. According to the changing characters of the fossil association in this area, it is indicated that the high-level ecosystem had been formed in this area in the late early Triassic, and the appearance of the microbiolites in the Helongshan Formation might be the milestone for the early Triassic recovery. Though the global recovery process after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction might be postponed to the end of the early Triassic, regional recovery process in Chaohu region might start at the end Smithian and actualized at the middle Spathian. The microbioilites might be the original impetus for the early Triassic recovery. Key words: microbiolites, early Triassic, regional recovery, Chaohu region Acknowledgments This work is supported by the grants from National Natural Science Fundation of China (No. 40902096 and No.J0830522) and the IGCP 572 program. * Corresponding author: zhihai.jia@gmail.com

  9. Integration of molecules and new fossils supports a Triassic origin for Lepidosauria (lizards, snakes, and tuatara)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lepidosauria (lizards, snakes, tuatara) is a globally distributed and ecologically important group of over 9,000 reptile species. The earliest fossil records are currently restricted to the Late Triassic and often dated to 227 million years ago (Mya). As these early records include taxa that are relatively derived in their morphology (e.g. Brachyrhinodon), an earlier unknown history of Lepidosauria is implied. However, molecular age estimates for Lepidosauria have been problematic; dates for the most recent common ancestor of all lepidosaurs range between approximately 226 and 289 Mya whereas estimates for crown-group Squamata (lizards and snakes) vary more dramatically: 179 to 294 Mya. This uncertainty restricts inferences regarding the patterns of diversification and evolution of Lepidosauria as a whole. Results Here we report on a rhynchocephalian fossil from the Middle Triassic of Germany (Vellberg) that represents the oldest known record of a lepidosaur from anywhere in the world. Reliably dated to 238–240 Mya, this material is about 12 million years older than previously known lepidosaur records and is older than some but not all molecular clock estimates for the origin of lepidosaurs. Using RAG1 sequence data from 76 extant taxa and the new fossil specimens two of several calibrations, we estimate that the most recent common ancestor of Lepidosauria lived at least 242 Mya (238–249.5), and crown-group Squamata originated around 193 Mya (176–213). Conclusion A Early/Middle Triassic date for the origin of Lepidosauria disagrees with previous estimates deep within the Permian and suggests the group evolved as part of the faunal recovery after the end-Permain mass extinction as the climate became more humid. Our origin time for crown-group Squamata coincides with shifts towards warmer climates and dramatic changes in fauna and flora. Most major subclades within Squamata originated in the Cretaceous postdating major continental fragmentation. The Vellberg fossil locality is expected to become an important resource for providing a more balanced picture of the Triassic and for bridging gaps in the fossil record of several other major vertebrate groups. PMID:24063680

  10. Quantifying the uncertainty of the annular mode time scale and the role of the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junsu; Reichler, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The proper simulation of the annular mode time scale may be regarded as an important benchmark for climate models. Previous research demonstrated that this time scale is systematically overestimated by climate models. As suggested by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, this may imply that climate models are overly sensitive to external forcings. Previous research also made it clear that calculating the AM time scale is a slowly converging process, necessitating relatively long time series and casting doubts on the usefulness of the historical reanalysis record to constrain climate models in terms of the annular mode time scale. Here, we use long control simulations with the coupled and uncoupled version of the GFDL climate model, CM2.1 and AM2.1, respectively, to study the effects of internal atmospheric variability and forcing from the lower boundary on the stability of the annular mode time scale. In particular, we ask whether a model's annular mode time scale and dynamical sensitivity can be constrained from the 50-year-long reanalysis record. We find that internal variability attaches large uncertainty to the annular mode time scale when diagnosed from decadal records. Even under the fixed forcing conditions of our long control run at least 100 years of data are required in order to keep the uncertainty in the annular mode time scale of the Northern Hemisphere to 10 %; over the Southern Hemisphere, the required length increases to 200 years. If nature's annular mode time scale over the Northern Hemisphere is similarly variable, there is no guarantee that the historical reanalysis record is a fully representative target for model evaluation. Over the Southern Hemisphere, however, the discrepancies between model and reanalysis are sufficiently large to conclude that the model is unable to reproduce the observed time scale structure correctly. The effects of ocean coupling lead to a considerable increase in time scale and uncertainty in time scale, effects which are noticeable in both troposphere and stratosphere. We further use the model simulation to investigate the dynamical coupling between the stratosphere and the troposphere from the perspective of the annular mode time scale. Over the Northern Hemisphere, we find only weak indication for influences from stratosphere-troposphere coupling on the annular mode time scale. The situation is very different over the Southern Hemisphere, where we find robust connections between the annular mode time scale in the stratosphere and that in the troposphere, confirming and extending earlier results of influences of stratospheric variability on the troposphere.

  11. Efficiently Measuring Bandwidth at All Time Scales Frank Uyeda

    E-print Network

    Suri, Subhash

    of a microburst is the transmis- sion of more than B bytes of data in a time interval t on a single link, where that are correlated in time across several input links. Microbursts cause problems because data center link speeds with the microburst phenomena [4] because even a latency advantage of 1 millisecond over the competition may translate

  12. Microsecond-Scale Timing Precision in Rodent Trigeminal Primary Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Michael R.; Campagner, Dario; Erskine, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Communication in the nervous system occurs by spikes: the timing precision with which spikes are fired is a fundamental limit on neural information processing. In sensory systems, spike-timing precision is constrained by first-order neurons. We found that spike-timing precision of trigeminal primary afferents in rats and mice is limited both by stimulus speed and by electrophysiological sampling rate. High-speed video of behaving mice revealed whisker velocities of at least 17,000°/s, so we delivered an ultrafast “ping” (>50,000°/s) to single whiskers and sampled primary afferent activity at 500 kHz. Median spike jitter was 17.4 ?s; 29% of neurons had spike jitter < 10 ?s. These results indicate that the input stage of the trigeminal pathway has extraordinary spike-timing precision and very high potential information capacity. This timing precision ranks among the highest in biology. PMID:25878266

  13. Tethyan and German Triassic stratigraphy, correlation and numerical ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozur, Heinz W.; Bachmann, Gerhard H.

    2010-05-01

    The correlation of the Germanic Triassic with the Tethyan Triassic is well constrained biostratigraphically. However, radiometric data are lacking and have to be imported for numerical calibration of litho- and chronostratigraphic units. These imported data can be extended to intervals without primary numerical data by astronomical calibration with Milankovitch cycles that are well recognisable in continental lake deposits of the Germanic Triassic, and correlated back to the marine realm. Such cross-correlation is a powerful method for improving numerical stage ages in the marine realm. The calculations of numerical ages for the Germanic Lower and Middle Triassic by astronomical calibration are remarkably close to the subsequently published most recent radiometric data of different authors. For the Lower Triassic, up to the base of the Anisian, the 252.5 ± 0.3 Ma for the basal I. isarcica Zone at Meishan (Mundil et al., 2001) was taken as a reference value. On this base, Kozur (2003) calculated a numerical age of 252.6 Ma for the Permian-Triassic boundary, which age was later confirmed with new radiometric data by Mundil et al. (2004). Bachmann & Kozur (2004) correlated the base of the Stammen Beds (= base Thuringian Chirotherium Sandstone) with the Anisian base and calculated for this boundary 247 Ma. Lehrmann et al. (2006) used high-precision single zircon data for determination of the Anisian base at 247.2 Ma. In the mainly marine Germanic Middle Triassic the radiometric data from the Tethyan Middle Triassic can be used after marine biostratigraphic correlation. Both the older (late Illyrian and Ladinian) and newer radiometric data (early and middle Anisian) fit well with the ages calculated by astronomical calibration. The greatest problems are in the Upper Triassic, where very few radiometric data are known. At present there are mutually exclusive ages that have been proposed for the Carnian-Norian boundary, each based on radiometric dates. These conflicting data have produced a "short Norian model" and a "long Norian model." In the SW USA, there are several new radiometric data from which approximately 218 Ma can be calculated for the Norian base (Irmis & Mundil, 2008, and J. Ramezani, CPCP Meeting Albuquerque, May 2009). This value is close to the 216.5 Ma of the Norian base by Gradstein et al. (2004) and Ogg et al. (2008). From these data a duration of the Norian of 10.5-12 myrs results (short Norian model). Such contradicts, however, the 230.91 ± 0.33 Ma for the late early Tuvalian (Furin et al., 2006) and a corrected age of 231.4 Ma for the Tuvalian Adamanian LVF of Ishigualasto, Argentina (Irmis & Mundil, 2008) which would require a minimum duration of the Tuvalian of 14-15.5 myrs. The Tuvalian substage would then be longer than the entire Norian, which seems very improbable. The long Norian model of Gallet et al. (2003) placed the Norian base at ~227 Ma in the lower Stockton Formation of the Newark Basin and estimated the duration of the Norian as ~25 myrs. According to biostratigraphic data this Norian base lies within the middle Tuvalian, and the duration of the Norian is too long. Bachmann & Kozur (2004) and Kozur & Weems (2007) placed the Norian base between 223 to 226 Ma and assumed a Norian duration of 17-20 myrs. These data fit well with the Tuvalian radiometric ages (Lagonegro Basin, Furin et al., 2006; Ishigualasto, Irmis & Mundil, 2008), and with the basal Norian age of 225 ± 3 Ma from Alaska (Gehrels et al., 1987).

  14. Late Triassic bimodal igneous rocks in eastern Heilongjiang Province, NE China: Implications for the initiation of subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate beneath Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Xu, Yi-Gang; Gao, Fu-hong; Ge, Wen-chun

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports new zircon LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data, and whole-rock major and trace element data for Late Triassic igneous rocks of eastern Heilongjiang Province, NE China. These data provide new insights into the timing of the initiation of subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasian continent. The zircon U-Pb age data indicate that a suite of Late Triassic (228-202 Ma) igneous rocks is present within the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif and within the western margin of the Khanka Massif. The Late Triassic igneous rocks within the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif consist of basalts, basaltic andesites, gabbro-diabases, and rhyolites, whereas coeval igneous rocks in the western margin of the Khanka Massif consist of hornblende gabbros and syenogranitic porphyries. These Late Triassic rocks constitute a geochemically bimodal igneous rock association that contains mafic rocks enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE) and large ion lithophile elements (LILE), and depleted in heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and high field strength elements (HFSE) such as Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti. Zircons from these mafic rocks have ?Hf (t) values and TDM1 ages of +2.8 to +9.8 and 477-733 Ma, respectively, suggesting that they formed from a primary magma generated by the partial melting of depleted lithospheric mantle material that had been previously modified by subduction-related fluids. The coeval felsic rocks are characterized by enrichments in LREEs and LILEs, and depletions in HREEs and HFSEs (including Nb, Ta, and Ti), and their zircons have ?Hf (t) values and TDM2 ages of +0.6 to +7.9 and 766 to 1461 Ma, respectively, implying that these rocks were generated during the partial melting of juvenile crustal material. The Late Triassic bimodal igneous rocks in eastern Heilongjiang Province, combined with the regional geologic information, therefore record a post-orogenic extensional environment related to the final late Permian-Early Triassic closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. In addition, the presence of Late Triassic bimodal igneous rocks within the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent suggests that the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasian continent began after the Late Triassic.

  15. Palaeo-equatorial temperatures and carbon-cycle evolution at the Triassic- Jurassic boundary: A stable isotope perspective from shallow-water carbonates from the UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honig, M. R.; John, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic boundary was marked by global changes including carbon-cycle perturbations and the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. These changes were accompanied by one of the major extinction events of the Phanerozoic. The carbon-cycle perturbations have been recorded in carbon isotope curves from bulk carbonates, organic carbon and fossil wood in several Tethyan locations and have been used for chemostratigraphic purposes. Here we present data from shallow-marine carbonates deposited on a homoclinal Middle Eastern carbonate ramp (United Arab Emirates). Our site was located at the equator throughout the Late Triassic and the Early Jurassic, and this study provides the first constraints of environmental changes at the low-latitudes for the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Shallow-marine carbonate depositional systems are extremely sensitive to palaeoenvironmental changes and their usefulness for chemostratigraphy is being debated. However, the palaeogeographic location of the studied carbonate ramp gives us a unique insight into a tropical carbonate factory at a time of severe global change. Stable isotope measurements (carbon and oxygen) are being carried out on micrite, ooids and shell material along the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. The stable isotope results on micrite show a prominent negative shift in carbon isotope values of approximately 2 ‰ just below the inferred position of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. A similar isotopic trend is also observed across the Tethys but with a range of amplitudes (from ~2 ‰ to ~4 ‰). These results seem to indicate that the neritic carbonates from our studied section can be used for chemostratigraphic purposes, and the amplitudes of the carbon isotope shifts provide critical constraints on the magnitude of carbon-cycle perturbations at low latitudes across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Seawater temperatures across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary will be constrained using the clumped isotope palaeo-thermometer applied to blocky calcite, bulk carbonate, oyster shells and echinoids. Assuming a pristine depositional signal can be extracted from one of the components, clumped isotopes will either shed light on the palaeoenvironmental conditions and the isotopic composition of a tropical ocean during the Late Triassic / Early Jurassic, or on the diagenetic history of the platform. We gratefully acknowledge funding from Qatar Petroleum, Shell, and Qatar Science & Technology Park.

  16. Invited Review Article: The statistical modeling of atomic clocks and the design of time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Judah

    2012-02-15

    I will show how the statistical models that are used to describe the performance of atomic clocks are derived from their internal design. These statistical models form the basis for time scales, which are used to define international time scales such as International Atomic Time and Coordinated Universal Time. These international time scales are realized by ensembles of clocks at national laboratories such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and I will describe how ensembles of atomic clocks are characterized and managed.

  17. Invited review article: The statistical modeling of atomic clocks and the design of time scales.

    PubMed

    Levine, Judah; Ibarra-Manzano, O

    2012-02-01

    I will show how the statistical models that are used to describe the performance of atomic clocks are derived from their internal design. These statistical models form the basis for time scales, which are used to define international time scales such as International Atomic Time and Coordinated Universal Time. These international time scales are realized by ensembles of clocks at national laboratories such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and I will describe how ensembles of atomic clocks are characterized and managed. PMID:22380071

  18. Time scale of magma differentiation in arcs from protactinium-radium isotopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmerom, Yemane; Dufrane, S. Andrew; Mukasa, Samuel B.; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2005-08-01

    Absolute chronology of magma differentiation processes has been a long-desired goal, given its importance in understanding magma chamber dynamics and its connection to a fundamental understanding of the style and frequency of volcanic eruptions. Broad estimates of the duration of magma differentiation and overall crustal residence times have been made based on a variety of indirect approaches, such as physical models of magma chamber cooling, rates of crystal growth and settling, and long-lived radiogenic isotopes. In contrast, combined 231Pa-235U data may provide a robust measure of the time scale of magma differentiation. Based on 231Pa-235U, 230Th-238U and 226Ra-230Th data from Taal volcano, Luzon Arc, Philippine Archipelago, we show that 231Pa-235U data may provide a robust direct measure of the time scale of magma differentiation. A closed-system magma fractionation model gives a 231Pa-235U differentiation time scale in the range of 30 k.y., while the 226Ra-230Th time scale is considerably younger. The time scales are reconciled if we consider either fluid-mixing or magma-mixing models. The fluid-mixing model gives a time scale of differentiation similar to the 231Pa-235U closed-system time scale and is supported by the 230Th-238U data. The magma-mixing model gives a considerably longer time, in the range of 55 k.y. The combined observations support the robustness of the 231Pa-235U chronology, indicating a differentiation time scale in the range of 30 k.y., although this time scale for other volcanoes may vary depending on size and thermal state of the magma chamber. The 226Ra-230Th closed-system model ages, which yield much younger estimates for magma differentiation, are not likely to reflect time scales of magma differentiation.

  19. A Multi-Time-Scale Analysis of Chemical Reaction Networks : II. Stochastic Systems

    E-print Network

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    A Multi-Time-Scale Analysis of Chemical Reaction Networks : II. Stochastic Systems Xingye Kan1 reactions, and for which the time scales are widely separated. We develop a computational algorithm consider stochastic descriptions of chemical reaction networks in which there are both fast and slow

  20. Detonation Initiation on the Microsecond Time Scale: One and Two Dimensional Results Obtained from

    E-print Network

    Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) on the microsecond time scale. Sileem et al. 1(SKH) and Kassoy et a transition from deflagration to detonation." However, the high-speed defla- gration generated by the initialDetonation Initiation on the Microsecond Time Scale: One and Two Dimensional Results Obtained from

  1. Ice Sheet 200-900 Year Time Scale 27 July 2015

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    1 Ice Sheet 200-900 Year Time Scale 27 July 2015 James Hansen Yikes! It has been pointed out to me that the specificity of 200-900 years in my post about ice sheet time scales has the potential to be very unfair making major contributions to our understanding of ice sheets via numerous field investigations

  2. The time scale in concrete fracture: A model based on partitions of unity

    E-print Network

    van Zijl, G P A G; Wells, G N

    2001-01-01

    a finite element model which captures the time scale in concrete fracture. Visco-elasticity is employed to capture bulk creep. In the fracture process zone a different time scale acts. Therefore, a rate-dependent cracking resistance is modelled. A...

  3. RAP: A Real-Time Communication Architecture for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Stankovic, John A.

    RAP: A Real-Time Communication Architecture for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks Chenyang Lu different communication constraints from traditional networked systems. This paper presents RAP, a new real-time communication architecture for large-scale sensor networks. RAP provides convenient, high-level query and event

  4. RAP: A Real-Time Communication Architecture for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Huang, Wei

    1 RAP: A Real-Time Communication Architecture for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks Chenyang Lu communication constraints from tradi- tional networked systems. This paper presents RAP, a new real-time communication architecture for large- scale sensor networks. RAP provides convenient, high- level query

  5. Nested stochastic simulation algorithms for chemical kinetic systems with multiple time scales

    E-print Network

    Van Den Eijnden, Eric

    Nested stochastic simulation algorithms for chemical kinetic systems with multiple time scales as Gillespie's algorithm. It is in the form of a nested SSA and uses an outer SSA to simulate the slow in the system, derive effective dynamics on the slow time scale, and provide error estimates for the nested SSA

  6. The Theory of Scale Relativity: Non-Differentiable Geometry and Fractal Space-Time1

    E-print Network

    Nottale, Laurent

    The Theory of Scale Relativity: Non-Differentiable Geometry and Fractal Space-Time1 Laurent NOTTALE-differentiable space-time. 1. INTRODUCTION The theory of scale-relativity is an attempt to extend today's theories CNRS, LUTH, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, F-92195 Meudon Cedex, France Abstract. The aim of the theory

  7. Addition of random run FM noise to the KPW time scale algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    The KPW (Kalman plus weights) time scale algorithm uses a Kalman filter to provide frequency and drift information to a basic time scale equation. This paper extends the algorithm to three-state clocks nd gives results for a simulated eight-clock ensemble.

  8. Magnetostratigraphy and high-resolution lithostratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic boundary interval in Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szurlies, Michael; Bachmann, Gerhard H.; Menning, Manfred; Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Käding, Karl-C.

    2003-07-01

    A comprehensive lithostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic study was carried out in order to provide a magnetic polarity scale for the Lower Buntsandstein of the classic Germanic Trias. In its type area of Central Germany the ˜300 m thick Lower Buntsandstein consists of 20 small-scale fining-upward cycles. They can be correlated over large parts of the Central European Basin using a combination of high-resolution cyclic stratigraphy and gamma-ray logging. On the basis of this robust lithostratigraphic framework a very precise positioning and correlation of paleomagnetic results has been realized. Eight outcrops and one completely cored well were collected, yielding a total of ˜900 paleomagnetic samples. From about 80% of them a characteristic remanence was obtained. The consistent correlation of lithostratigraphic units and magnetozones supports an early acquisition of the characteristic magnetizations in both the magnetite-bearing gray lithologies as well as the hematite-bearing red-brown lithologies. The inter-section correlation of all investigated profiles allows the creation of a well-defined composite magnetic polarity scale. The uppermost Zechstein comprises one normal (znz) and two reversed (zry, zrz) magnetozones. In the overlying Lower Buntsandstein are delineated three normal (sn1 to sn3) and three reversed (sr1 to sr3) well-documented magnetozones, which can be correlated with magnetic records from the Boreal and Tethyan realms. The combination of magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data suggests the base of the Oolite Alpha 2 within the beds of the so-called 'Graubankbereich' (Lower Buntsandstein) as the position of the Hindeodus parvus calibrated Permian-Triassic boundary within the Germanic Trias. It is situated within the lowermost part of a remarkable thick normal magnetozone (sn1), which is a distinctive feature occurring in virtually all magnetic records across the Permian-Triassic boundary.

  9. Computer Response Time Measurements of Mood, Fatigue and Symptom Scale Items: Implications for Scale Response Time Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryman, David H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes study conducted with U.S. Marine Corps enlisted personnel to measure response time to computer-administered questionnaire items, and to evaluate how measurement of response time might be useful in various research areas. Topics addressed include mood states; the occurrence of straight lining; and experimental effects of sleep loss and…

  10. Time scales of variability associated with Nordeste precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K.R. ); Hameed, S. . Inst. for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres)

    1991-06-01

    The Northeast section of Brazil, called the Nordeste, experiences flood and drought regimes as the norm rather than the exception. This region receives its principal dose of precipitation during March--April, subsequent to regions to the west and north due to its proximity to the southern Atlantic subtropical high. A weakening of this anticyclone and strengthening of its counterpart in the northern Atlantic during this season results in the farthest southward penetration of the ITCZ and the Nordeste rainy season. Fluctuations in the large-scale circulation of the atmosphere, such as ENSO, modulate the track of the ITCZ causing the interannual drought or flood conditions that plague this region. Empirical studies have shown that Nordeste rainfall is related to the sea-surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Probing Single-Photon Ionization on the Attosecond Time Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Kluender, K.; Dahlstroem, J. M.; Gisselbrecht, M.; Fordell, T.; Swoboda, M.; Guenot, D.; Johnsson, P.; Mauritsson, J.; L'Huillier, A.; Caillat, J.; Maquet, A.; Taieeb, R.

    2011-04-08

    We study photoionization of argon atoms excited by attosecond pulses using an interferometric measurement technique. We measure the difference in time delays between electrons emitted from the 3s{sup 2} and from the 3p{sup 6} shell, at different excitation energies ranging from 32 to 42 eV. The determination of photoemission time delays requires taking into account the measurement process, involving the interaction with a probing infrared field. This contribution can be estimated using a universal formula and is found to account for a substantial fraction of the measured delay.

  12. Late Permian to Late Triassic basin evolution of North Vietnam: geodynamic implications for the South China and Indochina blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignol, Camille; Bourquin, Sylvie; Hallot, Erwan; Poujol, Marc; Roger, Françoise

    2015-04-01

    The core of South East Asia is composed of a mosaic of continental blocks, among which the Indochina and the South China blocks (present day northern Vietnam), amalgamated during the Permian and/or the Triassic. Late Permian to Late Triassic geodynamic evolution of these two blocks remains controversial. The main discussion points concern the existence and the closure of an oceanic domain separating the Indochina and the South China blocks during this period. Especially, the polarity and the timing of the subduction zone that led to the collision between the blocks as well as the present location of the suture delimiting them are a matter of debate. Despite the valuable information they can provide, the sedimentary basins from northern Vietnam have been neglected in the previous studies dealing with the geodynamic evolution of South East Asia. To determine the geodynamic evolution of the area, the basins of Sam Nua and Song Da, presently located in North Vietnam, have been investigated using a combined approach involving sedimentology, geochronology (U-Pb/zircon) and geochemistry (whole-rock major and trace elements composition of both volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks). The palaeoenvironment evolution, the main unconformities, their age and the tectonic affinities of the interbedded volcanic and volcaniclastics series have been characterized for these two basins. Our results demonstrate (i) that the Song Da Basin exhibits a palaeogeographic affinity with the South China block, (ii) the occurrence of extensive calk-alkaline volcanism and associated volcaniclastic deposits in the Sam Nua Basin, related to the existence of an active magmatic arc during the Early and the lower Middle Triassic, (iii) a South dipping (present day coordinate) oceanic lithosphere beneath the Indochina block, deduced from the location of the magmatic arc south of the potential suture zones, (iv) that an angular unconformity postdates the lower Middle Triassic volcaniclastic deposits in the Sam Nua basin. This unconformity, crosscutting the subduction related deposits, is interpreted as the result of the collision between the Indochina and the South China blocks.

  13. Fertile structures with in situ spores of a dipterid fern from the Triassic in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongdong; Li, Liqin; Guignard, Gaëtan; Dilcher, David L; Xie, Xiaoping; Tian, Ning; Zhou, Ning; Wang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    Clathropteris was a typical dipterid fern with well documented fossil record and was widely dispersed during the Mesozoic; however, our knowledge of fertile structures including in situ spores for this genus is still very limited. Here we report well-preserved compression specimens of Clathropteris obovata Oishi from the Late Triassic of Guangyuan, Sichuan Province, China. The specimens show round to oval and exindusiate sori, vertical to oblique annuli in sporangia, and in situ trilete spores with verrucate and baculate sculptures, which are comparable to dispersed spore genera of Converrucosisporites and Conbaculatisporites. Comparisons of relevant fossil taxa suggest that specimens of C. obovata from Triassic of China provide for the first time in Asia the detailed fertile structures with in situ spore characters of dipterid fossil Clathropteris. Unlike living Dipteris, Mesozoic fossils of Dipteridaceae show a high diversity and a range of complex morphology of in situ spores, thus are significant for the evolutionary links between Dipteridaceae and other related fern clade, including Gleicheniaceae and Matoniaceae of the Gleicheniales. PMID:25773305

  14. Ichthyosaurs from the French Rhaetian indicate a severe turnover across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Valentin; Cappetta, Henri; Vincent, Peggy; Garcia, Géraldine; Goolaerts, Stijn; Martin, Jeremy E.; Roggero, Daniel; Valentin, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Mesozoic marine reptiles went through a severe turnover near the end of the Triassic. Notably, an important extinction event affected ichthyosaurs, sweeping a large part of the group. This crisis is, however, obscured by an extremely poor fossil record and is regarded as protracted over the entire Norian-earliest Jurassic interval, for the lack of a more precise scenario. The iconic whale-sized shastasaurid ichthyosaurs are regarded as early victims of this turnover, disappearing by the middle Norian. Here we evaluate the pattern of this turnover among ichthyosaurs by analysing the faunal record of two Rhaetian localities. One locality is Autun, eastern France; we rediscovered in this material the holotypes or partial `type' series of Rachitrema pellati, Actiosaurus gaudryi, Ichthyosaurus rheticus, Ichthyosaurus carinatus and Plesiosaurus bibractensis; a revised taxonomic scheme is proposed. The second assemblage comes from a new locality: Cuers, southeastern France. Both these assemblages provide several lines of evidence for the presence of shastasaurid-like ichthyosaurs in the Rhaetian of Europe. These occurrences suggest that both the demise of shastasaurids and the sudden radiation of neoichthyosaurians occurred within a short time window; this turnover appears not only more abrupt but also more complex than previously postulated and adds a new facet of the end-Triassic mass extinction.

  15. Body Size Evolution in Conodonts from the Cambrian through the Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, E. K.; Morgan, D. J.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    The size of an organism exercises tremendous control over its physiology, life history, and ecology, yet the factors that influence body size evolution remain poorly understood. One major limitation is the lack of appropriate datasets spanning long intervals of evolutionary time. Here, we document size trends in conodonts (tooth-like microfossils from marine chordates) because they evolved rapidly and are known to change size during intervals of environmental change. By measuring photographs from the Catalogue of Conodonts (Ziegler 1982), we compiled a database of conodont P1 element measurements for 575 species and subspecies from the Cambrian through Triassic periods. Because tooth size correlates with body size in conodont animals and their extant relatives, conodont element length can serve as a proxy for the size of the conodont animal. We find that mean and maximum size across species increased during the early Paleozoic, peaked during the Devonian-Mississippian, and then generally decreased until conodonts went extinct at the end of the Triassic. We used regression analyses to compare conodont mean size trends to potential environmental predictors, such as changing atmospheric pO2, atmospheric pCO2, and sea level. Conodont size exhibited poor correlation with these environmental factors, suggesting that conodont evolution may have been more strongly influenced by other environmental covariates or ecological variables such as predation and competition.

  16. Brain connectivity at different time-scales measured with EEG

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, T; Studer, D; Hubl, D; Melie, L; Strik, W.K

    2005-01-01

    We present an overview of different methods for decomposing a multichannel spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) into sets of temporal patterns and topographic distributions. All of the methods presented here consider the scalp electric field as the basic analysis entity in space. In time, the resolution of the methods is between milliseconds (time-domain analysis), subseconds (time- and frequency-domain analysis) and seconds (frequency-domain analysis). For any of these methods, we show that large parts of the data can be explained by a small number of topographic distributions. Physically, this implies that the brain regions that generated one of those topographies must have been active with a common phase. If several brain regions are producing EEG signals at the same time and frequency, they have a strong tendency to do this in a synchronized mode. This view is illustrated by several examples (including combined EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)) and a selective review of the literature. The findings are discussed in terms of short-lasting binding between different brain regions through synchronized oscillations, which could constitute a mechanism to form transient, functional neurocognitive networks. PMID:16087445

  17. Time Scales in the JPL and CfA Ephemerides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, E. M.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decades, the IAU has repeatedly attempted to correct its definition of the basic fundamental argument used in the emphemerides. Finally, they have defined a time system which is physically possible, according to the accepted standard theory of gravitation.

  18. Scale relativity and fractal space-time: theory and applications

    E-print Network

    Nottale, Laurent

    belt objects, value of solar and solar-like star cycles), to sciences of life (log-periodic law-time. This theory leads (i) to a generalization of possible physically relevant fractal laws, written as partial for species punctuated evolution, human development and society evolution), to Earth sciences (log-periodic

  19. Behavior of carbonate shelf communities in the Upper Triassic of Nevada: Evidence of impact mediated faunal turnover

    SciTech Connect

    Hogler, J.A. . Museum of Paleontology)

    1993-04-01

    The carbonate shelf sediments of the Luning and Gabbs Formations of Nevada span the last several million years of the Triassic. This richly fossiliferous sequence provides a relatively continuous record of benthic community behavior during a long interval of global biotic turnover. Upper Carnian-Lower Norian and Upper Norian sea floors in this region were inhabited by a variety of invertebrate communities, all of them mollusc-dominated. Across a range of offshore shelf to basinal environments and throughout repeated community replacements, the most abundant and diverse taxa were infaunal and epifaunal bivalves and ammonites. The sequence of Upper Triassic molluscan communities was interrupted by a Lower or Middle Norian interval of brachiopod-dominated faunas. Although preserved in similar offshore carbonate shelf sediments, these communities are nearly devoid of the infaunal bivalves and ammonites that characterize both older and younger assemblages in the section. This pattern, of a temporary replacement of molluscan communities by brachiopod faunas, mimics that reported for some shelf assemblages across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. That brief resurgence of brachiopods is linked to a sharp drop in marine primary productivity, which suggests that a disruption of planktonic food chains may also have occurred early in the Norian. The timing and pattern of Carnian-Norian faunal and physical events and their resemblance to K/T sequences are consistent with the proposal that an asteroid impact played a role in the Upper Triassic faunal transition.

  20. Rock-inhabiting fungi originated during periods of dry climate in the late Devonian and middle Triassic.

    PubMed

    Gueidan, Cécile; Ruibal, Constantino; de Hoog, G S; Schneider, Harald

    2011-10-01

    Non-lichenized rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF) are slow-growing melanized ascomycetes colonizing rock surfaces in arid environments. They possess adaptations, which allow them to tolerate extreme abiotic conditions, such as high UV radiations and extreme temperatures. They belong to two separate lineages, one consisting in the sister classes Dothideomycetes and Arthoniomycetes (Dothideomyceta), and the other consisting in the order Chaetothyriales (Eurotiomycetes). Because RIF often form early diverging groups in Chaetothyriales and Dothideomyceta, the ancestors of these two lineages were suggested to most likely be rock-inhabitants. The lineage of RIF related to the Chaetothyriales shows a much narrower phylogenetic spectrum than the lineage of RIF related to Dothideomyceta, suggesting a much more ancient origin for the latter. Our study aims at investigating the times of origin of RIF using a relaxed clock model and several fossil and secondary calibrations. Our results show that the RIF in Dothideomyceta evolved in the late Devonian, much earlier than the RIF in Chaetothyriales, which originated in the middle Triassic. The origin of the chaetothyrialean RIF correlates well with a period of recovery after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and an expansion of arid landmasses. The period preceding the diversification of the RIF related to Dothideomyceta (Silurian--Devonian) is also characterized by large arid landmasses, but temperatures were much cooler than during the Triassic. The paleoclimate record provides a good explanation for the diversification of fungi subjected to abiotic stresses and adapted to life on rock surfaces in nutrient-poor habitats. PMID:21944211

  1. Siberian Origins of Neoproterozoic to Upper Triassic Rocks of Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, J. G.; Blodgett, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    Evidence for a connection of the Arctic Alaska plate (including Chukotka) with Siberia from Cambrian until Late Triassic time can be made on the basis of paleobiogeography. Arctic Alaska contains a number of biogeographically distinctive megafossils for select time intervals, notably the Middle Cambrian, Early and Late Ordovician, Early and Middle Devonian, Mississippian, and Late Triassic. Middle Cambrian trilobites are strictly Siberian in affinity, but also show close affinities with coeval trilobites from the Farewell terrane of SW Alaska. Late Ordovician brachiopods, gastropods, trilobites, and ostracodes are known from the Shublik Mountains, NE Brooks Range and York Mountains of the Seward Peninsula. Affinities are likewise primarily with Siberia (sharing the primarily Siberian pentameroid brachiopod genera Tcherskidium and Eoconchidium and the strictly Siberian trilobite genus Monorakos), but also with the Farewell terrane. Late Early Devonian and Middle Devonian brachiopods and calcareous green algae from Arctic Alaska are similarly allied with Siberia and the Farewell and Alexander terranes of southern Alaska. Early Mississippian faunas from the lower part of the Lisburne Group and underlying Endicott Group contain relatively widespread fauna, including taxa recognized both in North America and Eurasia, consistent with the relatively cosmopolitan paleobiogeographic conditions of this interval. However, Late Mississippian brachiopod fauna from the upper part of the Lisburne Group contain many brachiopods of strictly Eurasian affinities, notably the gigantoproductids, which are unknown in cratonic North America, but widespread across Eurasia and even North Africa. Late Mississippian lycopods from this terrane have previously been noted as demonstrating strong Angaran affinities. Permian faunas of Arctic Alaska show strong affinities as well with the Siberian Arctic, virtually lacking any fusilinids and reefal buildups, which in contradistinction are commonly found in the Canadian Arctic Islands Richly diverse Upper Triassic fauna (halobiid and monotid bivalves, brachiopods) are present in the both the Shublik Formation and Otuk Group. These show closer affinities with NE Siberia rather than to western or northern North America, suggesting close spatial relationships between Siberia and Arctic Alaska at least until Late Triassic time. Sedimentary provenance studies in eastern Brooks Range Precambrian rocks indicate age ranges that are dissimilar to Proterozoic detrital-zircon ages from clastic rocks of the northern Canadian Cordillera and Canadian Arctic Islands where a detrital source within the Grenville orogen is indicated. Paleocurrent directions for the Neoproterozoic Katakturuk Dolomite in the northeast Brooks Range and similar-age units in the adjacent Victoria Island and Amundsen Basin are in approximately 100 degree opposition for a counterclockwise rotational- restored Arctic Alaska. Upper Devonian clastics of northern Alaska are in 180 degree opposition to coeval units in the Canadian Arctic Islands when the Arctic Alaska plate is restored in the rotational model. Therefore, based on paleobiogeography, sediment provenance, stratigraphy and sedimentology, tectonic models for the opening of the Canada Basin must take into account that Triassic and older rocks in Arctic Alaska have Siberian origins or were deposited proximal to Siberia.

  2. Ophiuroids Discovered in the Middle Triassic Hypersaline Environment

    PubMed Central

    Salamon, Mariusz A.; Nied?wiedzki, Robert; Lach, Rafa?; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Gorzelak, Przemys?aw

    2012-01-01

    Echinoderms have long been considered to be one of the animal phyla that is strictly marine. However, there is growing evidence that some recent species may live in either brackish or hypersaline environments. Surprisingly, discoveries of fossil echinoderms in non-(open)marine paleoenvironments are lacking. In Wojkowice Quarry (Southern Poland), sediments of lowermost part of the Middle Triassic are exposed. In limestone layer with cellular structures and pseudomorphs after gypsum, two dense accumulations of articulated ophiuroids (Aspiduriella similis (Eck)) were documented. The sediments with ophiuroids were formed in environment of increased salinity waters as suggested by paleontological, sedimentological, petrographical and geochemical data. Discovery of Triassic hypersaline ophiuroids invalidates the paleontological assumption that fossil echinoderms are indicators of fully marine conditions. Thus caution needs to be taken when using fossil echinoderms in paleoenvironmental reconstructions. PMID:23185442

  3. Bi-Plasma Interactions on Femtosecond Time-Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-22

    Ultrafast THz radiation has important applications in materials science studies, such as characterizing transport properties, studying the vibrational response of materials, and in recent years, controlling materials and elucidating their response in intense electromagnetic fields. THz fields can be generated in a lab setting using various plasma-based techniques. This study seeks to examine the interaction of two plasmas in order to better understand the fundamental physics associated with femtosecond filamentation processes and to achieve more efficient THz generation in a lab setting. The intensity of fluorescence in the region of overlap was measured as a function of polarization, power, and relative time delay of the two plasma-generating laser beams. Results of time dependent intensity studies indicate strikingly similar behaviors across polarizations and power levels; a sudden intensity spike was observed at time-zero, followed by a secondary maxima and subsequent decay to the initial plasma intensity. Dependence of the intensity on the power through either beam arm was also observed. Spectral studies of the enhanced emission were also carried out. Although this physical phenomenon is still not fully understood, future studies, including further spectral analysis of the fluorescence overlap, could yield new insight into the ultrafast processes occurring at the intersection of femtosecond filaments, and would provide a better understanding of the mechanisms for enhanced THz production.

  4. Crystallization time scales for polydisperse hard-sphere fluids.

    PubMed

    Vargas, M Cristina; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    We study the evolution of crystallization in dense mono- and polydisperse hard sphere fluids, initially quenched to an amorphous configuration. We use as signatures of crystallization both the decay of the reduced pressure Z and the increase in the local and global orientational order parameters Q[over ¯](6). For a given realization of the crystallization process these parameters show sudden changes, both large and small, separated by long periods of quiescence. However, averaging over a large number of realizations, a well-defined scenario for their evolution appears. We find an initial fast relaxation to a disordered state, followed by a period of slow variation, associated to the presence of nucleation events, followed by a fast change, composed of the growth of a few crystals with different orientations, and a final and slow coarsening in a domain-growth process. No clear scaling for this whole process was found. We also find that the transition to an stable glassy fluid is quite sharp as the polydispersity is increased, showing a probable first-order phase transition behavior. A well-defined boundary between crystallizing and permanently amorphous fluids should exist, at least for a region in packing fractions. We looked for segregation at large values of polydispersity, but no effects of this type were found. PMID:23679420

  5. The Triassic section north of Currie, Elko County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, S.G.; Goodspeed, T.H. )

    1993-04-01

    More than 600 m of Triassic strata are exposed just N of Currie, Nevada in secs. 8--9 T29N, R64E. The Thaynes Formation is 468 m of limestone, calcareous shale and siltstone that rest disconformably on the Permian Gerster Formation. A 7.7-m-thick interval of ammonite packstones is 8.8 m above the base of the Thaynes in the NW1/4NW1/SW1/4 sec. 8. Ammonites from these packstones indicate the Tardus Zone of late Smithian age. The Shinarump Formation of the Chinle Group (Upper Triassic) disconformably overlies the Thaynes Formation and is 19.4 m of trough-crossbedded, silica-pebble conglomerate and quartzarenite with silicified wood in the SW1/4SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 9. Shinarump crossbeds dip to the N. Chinle Group strata above the Shinarump are 169.2 m thick and consist of reddish brown siltstone, fine sandstone and minor micritic limestone. Ripple laminations and horizontal bedding are the dominant bedforms. These strata are assigned to the Rock Point Formation, the top of which is cut by a fault N of Currie. Upper Triassic nonmarine strata north of Currie are the northwesternmost outcrops of the Chinle Group. Rock Point strata here are tidal flat facies that indicate proximity of the Late Triassic shoreline in northeastern Nevada. However, it is likely that the Chinle Group strata N of Currie are allochthonous, having been originally deposited to the E in what is now Utah.

  6. Metamorphism of Triassic sediments from the Dunbarton Basin, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Snipes, D.S.; Warner, R.D. . Earth Sciences Dept.); Price, V. Jr. ); Thayer, P. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Modal analyses and microprobe studies were performed on eight core samples obtained from the US Geological Survey Well A1 324. The well is situated in the southern part of the buried Triassic Dunbarton Basin, about 1 km south of the US Department of Energy's Westinghouse Savannah River Company Site. The samples came from an interval of 407.0--413.4 m beneath the land surface. At the well site, Triassic red beds are overlain by Late Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments which have an aggregate thickness of 408 m. The sample from a depth of 407 m is a weathered, poorly sorted, clayey sandstone from the basal portion of the Late Cretaceous Cape Fear Formation. This specimen is not metamorphosed; whereas, the Triassic specimens taken from an interval of 411.6--413.4 m exhibit evidence of thermal metamorphism as well as hydrothermal alteration. In hand specimen, three of the samples (412.8--413.4 m) resemble hornfelses. These samples exhibit decussate texture. Results of modal analyses of the two deepest specimens follow: plagioclase (43-52%), quartz (9-23%), chlorite (22-29%), epidote (1-6%), hematite (3-4%), and magnetite (2-3%). Relict detrital quartz grains, especially the finer ones, are mostly angular-to-subangular and the grain boundaries show little evidence of rounding. The authors feel that hydrothermal alteration was the principal metamorphic process. This belief is supported by the fact that most of the plagioclase has undergone extensive sericitization. In addition, the presence of abundant chlorite together with a minor amount of epidote supports this interpretation. The alteration halo extends upward for 1.8 m. This interpretation is based on the observation that two Triassic arkose sandstone specimens (411.6 m, 412.2 m) contain clouded, slightly sericitized K-feldspar and plagioclase grains in a matrix of red-colored smectite.

  7. Mixed arbuscular mycorrhizae from the Triassic of Antarctica

    E-print Network

    Phipps, Charlie J.; Taylor, Thomas N.

    1996-02-05

    , University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 Abstract: Arbuscular mycorrhizae are the most ubiq- uitous of mycorrhizal fungi, that have formed mutu- alistic relationships with virtually almost all major groups of vascular plants. Five genera of arbuscular... endomycorrhizal fungi are currently delineated, but fossil arbuscular mycorrhizae have been allied with only two, Glomus and Sclerocystis. A Triassic arbuscu- lar mycorrhiza described inhabiting the roots of An- tarcticycas was originally allied with Glomus...

  8. The Permian and Triassic in the Albanian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, Maurizio; Meço, Selam; Rettori, Roberto; Henderson, Charles M.; Tulone, Accursio

    2015-09-01

    The sedimentary succession of the Permian to Middle Triassic of the Albanian Alps is described, as part of the eastern Adria passive margin towards the Tethys. A carbonate ramp deepening towards NE in present day coordinates developed during the Middle Permian and was affected by block faulting with the deposition of carbonate breccia. The Early Triassic was characterized by intense terrigenous deposition with several cobble conglomerate units up to 80 m-thick, and by oolitic carbonate shoals. The fine clastic deposition ended gradually during the earliest Anisian and a wide calcarenitic ramp occupied the area, with small local carbonate mounds. Basinward, the red nodular limestone of the Han Bulog Formation was interbedded with calcarenitic material exported from the ramp. Drowning to more open conditions occurred towards the end of the Pelsonian. Subsequently, cherty limestone and tuffitic layers spread over the entire area. Towards the end of the Ladinian, with the end of the volcanic activity, red pelagic limestone was deposited locally for a short period. By the latest Ladinian most of the area returned to shallow-water conditions, with a peritidal carbonate platform. In the Theth area, in contrast, a basin with black organic-rich dolostone and limestone developed which seems to be unique in that part of the Adria passive margin. The occurrence of cobble conglomerate units in the Lower Triassic testifies to very active block faulting and high accommodation, not yet described for the area.

  9. Increased Atmospheric SO2 Detected from Changes in Leaf Physiognomy across the Triassic–Jurassic Boundary Interval of East Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Karen L.; Belcher, Claire M.; Haworth, Matthew; McElwain, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    The Triassic–Jurassic boundary (Tr–J; ?201 Ma) is marked by a doubling in the concentration of atmospheric CO2, rising temperatures, and ecosystem instability. This appears to have been driven by a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle due to massive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. It is hypothesized that this volcanism also likely delivered sulphur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere. The role that SO2 may have played in leading to ecosystem instability at the time has not received much attention. To date, little direct evidence has been presented from the fossil record capable of implicating SO2 as a cause of plant extinctions at this time. In order to address this, we performed a physiognomic leaf analysis on well-preserved fossil leaves, including Ginkgoales, bennettites, and conifers from nine plant beds that span the Tr–J boundary at Astartekløft, East Greenland. The physiognomic responses of fossil taxa were compared to the leaf size and shape variations observed in nearest living equivalent taxa exposed to simulated palaeoatmospheric treatments in controlled environment chambers. The modern taxa showed a statistically significant increase in leaf roundness when fumigated with SO2. A similar increase in leaf roundness was also observed in the Tr–J fossil taxa immediately prior to a sudden decrease in their relative abundances at Astartekløft. This research reveals that increases in atmospheric SO2 can likely be traced in the fossil record by analyzing physiognomic changes in fossil leaves. A pattern of relative abundance decline following increased leaf roundness for all six fossil taxa investigated supports the hypothesis that SO2 had a significant role in Tr–J plant extinctions. This finding highlights that the role of SO2 in plant biodiversity declines across other major geological boundaries coinciding with global scale volcanism should be further explored using leaf physiognomy. PMID:23593262

  10. Dynamic Time Scales in Colored Glass Nuclear Matter

    E-print Network

    V. Parihar; A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava

    2006-11-16

    In Ultra high energy collisions, the concept of a glass law is invoked in the framework of 'low tension' QCD strings. It is shown that the excitation of QCD strings at low energy has a negative temperature and at high energy has a positive temperature always higher than the Hagedorn temperature, T_H. Very high energy strings T->T_H + 0+ move very slowly as a viscous melted glass with very high viscosity. However, in a very short collision time, it is difficult to transfer the initial collision kinetic energy into the internal energy of a few strings. The low energy strings at high T>>T_H have a low viscosity giving rise to an almost perfect fluid. The role of strings in a nucleus is closely analogous to the role of polymer chains in some viscous glass beads.

  11. A chemical time scale approach for FPI modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savre, Julien; Bertier, Nicolas; D'Angelo, Yves; Gaffié, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    In most reactive CFD codes, the set of resolved governing equations is not compatible with the original formulation of the "Flame Prolongation of ILDM" (so-called FPI) tabulation technique. In the absence of an explicit continuity equation, the total mass conservation may be expressed implicitly, through the transport of each species. The corresponding reaction rates are then to be evaluated in the FPI database. With this procedure, any chemical source term perturbation often results in very poor predictions of the flame inner structure. In the present work, we propose a chemical-time based formulation aimed at correcting the table interpolated species reaction rates. The very good agreement obtained by this modified approach on an elementary 1D premixed laminar flame bench-mark validates the effective improvement of the FPI model. To cite this article: J. Savre et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  12. The space-time variability and scaling of climate data, climate models and their converge as functions of space-time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; Elias, Lydia

    2014-05-01

    Climate models are evaluated by comparing them with other models and (when possible), with climate data: one attempts to match the data and numerics as closely as possible pixel by pixel, time step by time step- i.e. deterministically. As a consequence very little attention has been paid to understanding the space-time statistical properties of the models and data. There is little understanding of the convergence of the model and data to their 'climates' and to each other. In the time domain, there is no objective definition of the distinction between weather and climate in the spatial domain, there is corresponding lack of understanding of climate regions. In order to overcome this, we systematically study the statistics of fluctuations (primarily of temperature but also precipitation and pressure) as function of space and time. For both data and models, we find that in space, that fluctuations increase up to about 5000 km before starting to decrease; this quantitatively defines the typical size of regional climates. In time, we find that fluctuations decrease out to about 10-30 years in the industrial epoch, out to 50 -100 years in the pre-industrial epoch and then starts to increase; this defines the difference between 'macroweather' and the climate. Applying fluctuation analysis to longer time scales, we examine last millennium simulations from four GCMs, we show that control runs only reproduce macroweather. When various (reconstructed) climate forcings are included, in the recent (industrial) period they show global fluctuations strongly increasing at scales >_10-30 yr, which is quite close to the observations. However, in the preindustrial period we find that the multicentennial variabilities are too weak and by analysing the scale dependence of solar and volcanic forcings, we argue that these forcings are unlikely to be sufficiently strong to account for the multicentennial and longer-scale temperature variability. A likely explanation is that the models lack important slow 'climate' processes such as land ice or various biogeochemical processes. This technique can be used to show that the error in estimating the global temperature is about ±0.03K, and this - surprisingly - at any time scale out to over 100 years. Similarly, in space the different surface temperature only start to converge (i.e. to agree with each other) at scales larger than ? 2000 km. The same fluctuation analysis technique can be used to quantify the convergence of the models to the model climates and to the real climate. By comparing different realizations of the NASA GISS model historical simulations (from 1850), we show that in time, they converge to each other (i.e. to the model climate) at the slow rate ?t-0.3; however in space, they diverge up to about 5000km (? ?t0.4) only converging to their climate at larger scales, this 'continental scale' is thus the smallest scale that can be attained by climate models and this likely imposes a fundamental limit on regional skill. By comparing the model to the data (20C reanalysis), we find that the two differ by between ±1 and ±2K at all space and time scales - beyond about 8 months, temporal averaging does not improve agreement, nor does spatial averaging help much. However, if the long tem averages are know and removed - so that one considers anomalies - space-time statistics of the model and the data are remarkably similar. This indicates that the model produces space-time fields of similar type to the data, but that the model and real climates are significantly different.

  13. Modelling soil carbon movement by erosion over large scales and long time periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, John; Davies, Jessica; Tipping, Ed

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural intensification accelerates physical erosion rates and the transport of carbon within the landscape. In order to improve understanding of how past, present and future anthropogenic land-use change has and will influence carbon and nutrient cycling, it is necessary to develop quantitative tools that can predict soil erosion and carbon movement at large temporal and spatial scales, that are consistent with the time constants of biogeochemical processes and the spatial scales of land-use change and natural resources. However, representing erosion and its impact on the carbon cycle over large spatial scales and long time periods is challenging. Erosion and sediment transport processes operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales with splash erosion dominating at the sub-plot scale and occurring within seconds, up to gully formation operating at field-catchment scales over days to months. In addition, most erosion production observations are made at the experimental plot scale, where fine time scales and detailed processes dominate. This is coupled with complexities associated with carbon detachment, decomposition and uncertainties surrounding carbon burial rates and stability - all of which occur over widely different temporal and spatial scales. As such, these data cannot be simply scaled to inform erosion and carbon representation at the regional scale, where topography, vegetation cover and landscape organisation become more important controls on sediment fluxes. We have developed a simple energy-based regional scale method of soil erosion modelling, which is integration into a hydro-biogeochemical model that will simulate carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus pools and fluxes across the UK from the industrial revolution to the present day. The model is driven by overland flow, dynamic vegetation cover, soil properties, and topographic distributions and produces sediment production and yield at the 5km grid scale. In this paper we will introduce the modelling approach and examine some of the challenges facing attempts to erosion and carbon transport processes at larger spatial and temporal scales.

  14. Scaling Behavior of the First Arrival Time of a Random-Walking Magnetic Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Im, M.-Y.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, D.-H.; Fischer, P.; Shin, S.-C.

    2008-02-04

    We report a universal scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a traveling magnetic domain wall into a finite space-time observation window of a magneto-optical microscope enabling direct visualization of a Barkhausen avalanche in real time. The first arrival time of the traveling magnetic domain wall exhibits a nontrivial fluctuation and its statistical distribution is described by universal power-law scaling with scaling exponents of 1.34 {+-} 0.07 for CoCr and CoCrPt films, despite their quite different domain evolution patterns. Numerical simulation of the first arrival time with an assumption that the magnetic domain wall traveled as a random walker well matches our experimentally observed scaling behavior, providing an experimental support for the random-walking model of traveling magnetic domain walls.

  15. Using Focused Regression for Accurate Time-Constrained Scaling of Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B; Garren, J; Lowenthal, D; Reeves, J; de Supinski, B; Schulz, M; Rountree, B

    2010-01-28

    Many large-scale clusters now have hundreds of thousands of processors, and processor counts will be over one million within a few years. Computational scientists must scale their applications to exploit these new clusters. Time-constrained scaling, which is often used, tries to hold total execution time constant while increasing the problem size along with the processor count. However, complex interactions between parameters, the processor count, and execution time complicate determining the input parameters that achieve this goal. In this paper we develop a novel gray-box, focused median prediction errors are less than 13%. regression-based approach that assists the computational scientist with maintaining constant run time on increasing processor counts. Combining application-level information from a small set of training runs, our approach allows prediction of the input parameters that result in similar per-processor execution time at larger scales. Our experimental validation across seven applications showed that median prediction errors are less than 13%.

  16. Scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a random-walking magnetic domain.

    PubMed

    Im, M-Y; Lee, S-H; Kim, D-H; Fischer, P; Shin, S-C

    2008-04-25

    We report a universal scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a traveling magnetic domain wall into a finite space-time observation window of a magneto-optical microscope enabling direct visualization of a Barkhausen avalanche in real time. The first arrival time of the traveling magnetic domain wall exhibits a nontrivial fluctuation and its statistical distribution is described by universal power-law scaling with scaling exponents of 1.34+/-0.07 for CoCr and CoCrPt films, despite their quite different domain evolution patterns. Numerical simulation of the first arrival time with an assumption that the magnetic domain wall traveled as a random walker well matches our experimentally observed scaling behavior, providing an experimental support for the random-walking model of traveling magnetic domain walls. PMID:18518241

  17. A multiscale mass scaling approach for explicit time integration using proper orthogonal decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    G. J. de Frias; W. Aquino; K. H. Pierson; M. W. Heinstein; B. W. Spencer

    2014-03-01

    One of the main computational issues with explicit dynamics simulations is the significant reduction of the critical time step as the spatial resolution of the finite element mesh increases. In this work, a selective mass scaling approach is presented that can significantly reduce the computational cost in explicit dynamic simulations, while maintaining accuracy. The proposed method is based on a multiscale decomposition approach that separates the dynamics of the system into low (coarse scales) and high frequencies (fine scales). Here, the critical time step is increased by selectively applying mass scaling on the fine scale component only. In problems where the response is dominated by the coarse (low frequency) scales, significant increases in the stable time step can be realized. In this work, we use the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method to build the coarse scale space. The main idea behind POD is to obtain an optimal low-dimensional orthogonal basis for representing an ensemble of high-dimensional data. In our proposed method, the POD space is generated with snapshots of the solution obtained from early times of the full-scale simulation. The example problems addressed in this work show significant improvements in computational time, without heavily compromising the accuracy of the results.

  18. Modeling geomagnetic storms on prompt and diffusive time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhao

    The discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts in the 1958 was the first major discovery of the Space Age. There are two belts of energetic particles. The inner belt is very stable, but the outer belt is extremely variable, especially during geomagnetic storms. As the energetic particles are hazardous to spacecraft, understanding the source of these particles and their dynamic behavior driven by solar activity has great practical importance. In this thesis, the effects of magnetic storms on the evolution of the electron radiation belts, in particular the outer zone, is studied using two types of numerical simulation: radial diffusion and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) test-particle simulation. A radial diffusion code has been developed at Dartmouth, applying satellite measurements to model flux as an outer boundary condition, exploring several options for the diffusion coefficient and electron loss time. Electron phase space density is analyzed for July 2004 coronal mass ejection (CME) driven storms and March-April 2008 co-rotating interaction region (CIR) driven storms, and compared with Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite measurements within 5 degrees of the magnetic equator at L=4.16. A case study of a month-long interval in the Van Allen Probes satellite era, March 2013, confirms that electron phase space density is well described by radial diffusion for the whole month at low first invariant <400~MeV/G, but peaks in phase space density observed by the ECT instrument suite at higher first invariant are not reproduced by radial transport from a source at higher L. A 3D guiding center code with plasmasheet injection is used to simulate particle motion in time-dependent MHD fields calculated from the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global MHD code, as an extension of the Hudson et al. (2012) study of the Whole Heliosphere Interval of CIR-driven storms in March-April 2008. Direct comparison with measured fluxes at GOES show improved comparison with observations relative to the 2D guiding center test particle simulations and enhancement of flux at >0.6 MeV by an order of magnitude over 24 hours as observed.

  19. A wavelet based approach to measure and manage contagion at different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Theo

    2015-10-01

    We decompose financial return series of US stocks into different time scales with respect to different market regimes. First, we examine dependence structure of decomposed financial return series and analyze the impact of the current financial crisis on contagion and changing interdependencies as well as upper and lower tail dependence for different time scales. Second, we demonstrate to which extent the information of different time scales can be used in the context of portfolio management. As a result, minimizing the variance of short-run noise outperforms a portfolio that minimizes the variance of the return series.

  20. Updating the planetary time scale: focus on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Quantin-Nataf, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Formal stratigraphic systems have been developed for the surface materials of the Moon, Mars, Mercury, and the Galilean satellite Ganymede. These systems are based on geologic mapping, which establishes relative ages of surfaces delineated by superposition, morphology, impact crater densities, and other relations and features. Referent units selected from the mapping determine time-stratigraphic bases and/or representative materials characteristic of events and periods for definition of chronologic units. Absolute ages of these units in some cases can be estimated using crater size-frequency data. For the Moon, the chronologic units and cratering record are calibrated by radiometric ages measured from samples collected from the lunar surface. Model ages for other cratered planetary surfaces are constructed primarily by estimating cratering rates relative to that of the Moon. Other cratered bodies with estimated surface ages include Venus and the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. New global geologic mapping and crater dating studies of Mars are resulting in more accurate and detailed reconstructions of its geologic history.

  1. On the time scale associated with Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Bal, Kristof M; Neyts, Erik C

    2014-11-28

    Uniform-acceptance force-bias Monte Carlo (fbMC) methods have been shown to be a powerful technique to access longer timescales in atomistic simulations allowing, for example, phase transitions and growth. Recently, a new fbMC method, the time-stamped force-bias Monte Carlo (tfMC) method, was derived with inclusion of an estimated effective timescale; this timescale, however, does not seem able to explain some of the successes the method. In this contribution, we therefore explicitly quantify the effective timescale tfMC is able to access for a variety of systems, namely a simple single-particle, one-dimensional model system, the Lennard-Jones liquid, an adatom on the Cu(100) surface, a silicon crystal with point defects and a highly defected graphene sheet, in order to gain new insights into the mechanisms by which tfMC operates. It is found that considerable boosts, up to three orders of magnitude compared to molecular dynamics, can be achieved for solid state systems by lowering of the apparent activation barrier of occurring processes, while not requiring any system-specific input or modifications of the method. We furthermore address the pitfalls of using the method as a replacement or complement of molecular dynamics simulations, its ability to explicitly describe correct dynamics and reaction mechanisms, and the association of timescales to MC simulations in general. PMID:25429930

  2. Palaeogeographic evolution of the marine Middle Triassic marine Germanic Basin changements - With emphasis on the carbonate tidal flat and shallow marine habitats of reptiles in Central Pangaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2009-01-01

    More than seventy-five vertebrate track-sites have been found in Central Europe in 243-246.5 m.y. old Triassic coastal intertidal to sabkha carbonates. In the western part of the very flat Triassic intracontinental Germanic Basin, the carbonate strata contain at least 22 laterally extensive track horizons (called megatracksites). In contrast, in the eastern part of the basin only six megatracksites extended to near the centre of the Basin during marine low stands. Marine ingression and the development of extensive coastal marine environments began during the Aegean (Anisian) stage. This incursion began in the region of the eastern Carpathian and Silesian gates and spread westward due to the development of a tectonically controlled intracratonic basin. The tectonic origin of this basin made it susceptible to tsunamis and submarine earthquakes, which constituted very dangerous hazards for coastal terrestrial and even marine reptiles. The shallow sea that spread across the Germanic Basin produced extensive tidal flats that at times formed extensive inter-peninsular bridges between the Rhenish and Bohemian Massifs. The presence of these inter-peninsular bridges explains the observed distribution and movement of reptiles along coastal Europe and the northern Tethys Seaway during the Middle Triassic epoch. Two small reptiles, probably Macrocnemus and Hescherleria, left millions of tracks and trackways known as Rhynchosauroides and Procolophonichnium in the Middle Triassic coastal intertidal zone. The great abundance of their tracks indicates that their trackmakers Macrocnemus and Hescherleria were permanent inhabitants of this environment. In sharp contrast, tracks of other large terrestrial reptiles are quite rare along the coastal margins of the Germanic Basin, for example the recently discovered archaeosaur tracks and trackways referable to Isochirotherium, which most probably were made by the carnivore Ticinosuchus. Smaller medium-sized predatory thecodont reptiles, possibly Euparkeria, probably made the Brachychirotherium trackways that have been found across much of Central Europe. Large lepidosaurs such as Tanystrophaeus probably hunted in the tidal ponds and channels, where they locally produced Synaptichnium tracks. Recently discovered tracks made by a basal prosauropod are the world's oldest record of this group of dinosaurs, occurring in beds that have an age of about 243.5 Ma. (Pelsonian substage). This shows that very large prosauropods existed much earlier than was previously believed. These prosauropod tracks, along with tracks of small bipedal dinosaurs found in the Alps and Eastern France, show that by the middle part of the Middle Triassic the radiation and diversification of dinosaurs was already in progress. In the Germanic Basin, aquatic-adapted paraxial swimming sauropterygians are not known to have left tracks, except for occasional subaquatic swimming scratch-mark "trackways" within the coastal tidal flat zone. Marine-adapted aquatic reptiles migrated into the Germanic Basin with increasing frequency in the upper part of the Middle Triassic, when the bathymetry of the Germanic Basin was at its deepest following a strong regression that occurred due to basin uplift in the middle part of the Middle Triassic. These large marine reptiles included Pistosaurus, the ichthyosaurs Cymbospondylus or Mixosaurus, and many placodonts such as Cyamodus, Placodus and Paraplacodus, which fed on macroalgae and seem to have been the Triassic sea cows of their day. The distribution of these reptiles was mainly controlled by tectonics, but eustatic changes in sea level also were important and produced widespread environmental changes across the tidal flats up until their disappearance in the Germanic Basin in the late Middle Triassic. The initial break-up of Pangaea already had started in Middle Triassic time, and this event had begun to drastically change environments all over Central Europe. It is very interesting that dinosaurs began to diversify at exactly this time, and it seems likely that this was a direct

  3. Correlation transfer in stochastically driven neural oscillators over long and short time scales.

    PubMed

    Abouzeid, Aushra; Ermentrout, Bard

    2011-12-01

    In the absence of synaptic coupling, two or more neural oscillators may become synchronized by virtue of the statistical correlations in their noisy input streams. Recent work has shown that the degree of correlation transfer from input currents to output spikes depends not only on intrinsic oscillator dynamics, but also on the length of the observation window over which the correlation is calculated. In this paper we use stochastic phase reduction and regular perturbations to derive the correlation of the total phase elapsed over long time scales, a quantity that provides a convenient proxy for the spike count correlation. Over short time scales, we derive the spike count correlation directly using straightforward probabilistic reasoning applied to the density of the phase difference. Our approximations show that output correlation scales with the autocorrelation of the phase resetting curve over long time scales. We also find a concise expression for the influence of the shape of the phase resetting curve on the initial slope of the output correlation over short time scales. These analytic results together with numerical simulations provide new intuitions for the recent counterintuitive finding that type I oscillators transfer correlations more faithfully than do type II over long time scales, while the reverse holds true for the better understood case of short time scales. PMID:22304123

  4. Computational Modeling of Semiconductor Dynamics at Femtosecond Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Govind P.; Goorjian, Peter M.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of the Joint-Research Interchange NCC2-5149 was to develop computer codes for accurate simulation of femtosecond pulse propagation in semiconductor lasers and semiconductor amplifiers [I]. The code should take into account all relevant processes such as the interband and intraband carrier relaxation mechanisms and the many-body effects arising from the Coulomb interaction among charge carriers [2]. This objective was fully accomplished. We made use of a previously developed algorithm developed at NASA Ames [3]-[5]. The new algorithm was tested on several problems of practical importance. One such problem was related to the amplification of femtosecond optical pulses in semiconductors. These results were presented in several international conferences over a period of three years. With the help of a postdoctoral fellow, we also investigated the origin of instabilities that can lead to the formation of femtosecond pulses in different kinds of lasers. We analyzed the occurrence of absolute instabilities in lasers that contain a dispersive host material with third-order nonlinearities. Starting from the Maxwell-Bloch equations, we derived general multimode equations to distinguish between convective and absolute instabilities. We find that both self-phase modulation and intensity-dependent absorption can dramatically affect the absolute stability of such lasers. In particular, the self-pulsing threshold (the so-called second laser threshold) can occur at few times the first laser threshold even in good-cavity lasers for which no self-pulsing occurs in the absence of intensity-dependent absorption. These results were presented in an international conference and published in the form of two papers.

  5. Computational Modeling of Semiconductor Dynamics at Femtosecond Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Govind P.; Goorjian, Peter M.

    1998-01-01

    The Interchange No. NCC2-5149 deals with the emerging technology of photonic (or optoelectronic) integrated circuits (PICs or OEICs). In PICs, optical and electronic components are grown together on the same chip. To build such devices and subsystems, one needs to model the entire chip. PICs are useful for building components for integrated optical transmitters, integrated optical receivers, optical data storage systems, optical interconnects, and optical computers. For example, the current commercial rate for optical data transmission is 2.5 gigabits per second, whereas the use of shorter pulses to improve optical transmission rates would yield an increase of 400 to 1000 times. The improved optical data transmitters would be used in telecommunications networks and computer local-area networks. Also, these components can be applied to activities in space, such as satellite to satellite communications, when the data transmissions are made at optical frequencies. The research project consisted of developing accurate computer modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in semiconductors. Such modeling is necessary for the successful development of PICs. More specifically, these computer codes would enable the modeling of such devices, including their subsystems, such as semiconductor lasers and semiconductor amplifiers in which there is femtosecond pulse propagation. Presently, there are no computer codes that could provide this modeling. Current codes do not solve the full vector, nonlinear, Maxwell's equations, which are required for these short pulses and also current codes do not solve the semiconductor Bloch equations, which are required to accurately describe the material's interaction with femtosecond pulses. The research performed under NCC2-5149 solves the combined Maxwell's and Bloch's equations.

  6. Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, M.; Ueno, Y.; Nishizawa, M.; Isozaki, Y.; Takai, K.; Yao, J.; Ji, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopic compositions of upper Permian to lowermost Triassic rocks were analyzed at Chaotian, Sichuan, China, to clarify changes in the oceanic N cycle around the Permian-Triassic boundary (P-TB) including the entire Changhsingian (Late Late Permian) prior to the extinction. The analyzed ca. 40 m thick interval across the P-TB at Chaotian consists of three stratigraphic units: the upper Wujiaping Formation, the Dalong Formation, and the lowermost Feixianguan Formation, in ascending order. The upper Wujiaping Formation is composed of dark gray limestone with diverse shallow-marine fossils, such as calcareous algae, deposited on the shallow shelf. In contrast, the overlying Dalong Formation, ca. 25 m thick, is mainly composed of thinly bedded black mudstone and siliceous mudstone containing abundant radiolarians, deposited on the relatively deep slope/basin. Absence of bioturbation, substantially high TOC contents, and abundant occurrence of pyrite framboids in the Dalong Formation indicate deposition under anoxic conditions. The lowermost Feixianguan Formation is composed of thinly bedded gray marl and micritic limestone with minor fossils, deposited on the relatively shallow slope. ?15N values are in positive values around +1 to +2‰ in the upper Wujiaping Formation implying denitrification and/or anammox in the ocean. ?15N values gradually decrease to -1‰ in the lower Dalong Formation and are consistently low (around 0‰) in the middle Dalong to lowermost Feixianguan Formation. No clear ?15N shift is recognized across the extinction horizon. The consistently low ?15N values suggest the enhanced N fixation in the ocean during the Changhsingian at Chaotian. Composite profiles based on previous and the present studies demonstrate the substantial ?15N variation on a global scale in the late Permian to earliest Triassic; a systematic ?15N difference by low and high latitudes is particularly clarified. Although the enhanced N fixation throughout the Changhsingian at Chaotian was likely a regional event in northwestern South China, the composite ?15N profiles imply that the sea area in which fixed N is depleted has gradually developed worldwide in the Changhsingian, possibly acting as a prolonged stress to the shallow-marine biota.

  7. Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Masafumi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Nishizawa, Manabu; Isozaki, Yukio; Takai, Ken; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhansheng

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen isotopic compositions of upper Permian to lowermost Triassic rocks were analyzed at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, in order to clarify changes in the oceanic nitrogen cycle around the Permian-Triassic boundary (P-TB) including the entire Changhsingian (Late Late Permian) prior to the extinction. The analyzed ca. 40 m thick interval across the P-TB at Chaotian consists of three stratigraphic units: the upper Wujiaping Formation, the Dalong Formation, and the lowermost Feixianguan Formation, in ascending order. The upper Wujiaping Formation, ca. 10 m thick, is mainly composed of dark gray limestone with diverse shallow-marine fossils such as calcareous algae and brachiopods, deposited on the shallow shelf. In contrast, the overlying Dalong Formation, ca. 25 m thick, is mainly composed of thinly bedded black mudstone and siliceous mudstone containing abundant radiolarians, deposited on the relatively deep slope/basin. Absence of bioturbation, substantially high total organic carbon contents (up to 15%), and abundant occurrence of pyrite framboids in the main part of the Dalong Formation indicate deposition under anoxic condition. The lowermost Feixianguan Formation, ca. 5 m thick, is composed of thinly bedded gray marl and micritic limestone with minor fossils such as ammonoids and conodonts, deposited on the relatively shallow slope. ?15NTN values are in positive values around +1 to +2‰ in the upper Wujiaping Formation implying denitrification and/or anammox in the ocean. ?15NTN values gradually decrease to -1‰ in the lower Dalong Formation and are consistently low (around 0‰) in the middle Dalong to lowermost Feixianguan Formation. No clear ?15NTN shift is recognized across the extinction horizon. The consistently low ?15NTN values suggest the enhanced nitrogen fixation in the ocean during the Changhsingian at Chaotian. Composite profiles based on previous and the present studies demonstrate the substantial ?15N variation on a global scale in the late Permian to earliest Triassic; a systematic ?15N difference by low and high latitudes is particularly clarified. Although the enhanced nitrogen fixation throughout the Changhsingian at Chaotian was likely a regional event in northwestern South China, the composite ?15N profiles imply that the sea area in which fixed nitrogen is depleted has gradually developed worldwide in the Changhsingian, possibly acting as a prolonged stress to shallow-marine biota.

  8. Time scales of porphyry Cu deposit formation: insights from titanium diffusion in quartz

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, Celestine N.; Reed, Mark H.; Mercer, Cameron M.

    2015-01-01

    Porphyry dikes and hydrothermal veins from the porphyry Cu-Mo deposit at Butte, Montana, contain multiple generations of quartz that are distinct in scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) images and in Ti concentrations. A comparison of microprobe trace element profiles and maps to SEM-CL images shows that the concentration of Ti in quartz correlates positively with CL brightness but Al, K, and Fe do not. After calibrating CL brightness in relation to Ti concentration, we use the brightness gradient between different quartz generations as a proxy for Ti gradients that we model to determine time scales of quartz formation and cooling. Model results indicate that time scales of porphyry magma residence are ~1,000s of years and time scales from porphyry quartz phenocryst rim formation to porphyry dike injection and cooling are ~10s of years. Time scales for the formation and cooling of various generations of hydrothermal vein quartz range from 10s to 10,000s of years. These time scales are considerably shorter than the ~0.6 m.y. overall time frame for each porphyry-style mineralization pulse determined from isotopic studies at Butte, Montana. Simple heat conduction models provide a temporal reference point to compare chemical diffusion time scales, and we find that they support short dike and vein formation time scales. We interpret these relatively short time scales to indicate that the Butte porphyry deposit formed by short-lived episodes of hydrofracturing, dike injection, and vein formation, each with discrete thermal pulses, which repeated over the ~3 m.y. generation of the deposit.

  9. Contrasting Triassic ferroan granitoids from northwestern Liaoning, North China: Magmatic monitor of Mesozoic decratonization and a craton-orogen boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Yuan, Lingling; Xue, Fuhong; Zhang, Yanbin

    2012-07-01

    The diversity exhibited by ferroan granitoids testifies to multiple distinct crustal and mantle processes generally within extensional environments and thus holds the key to monitoring important geodynamic and crustal evolutionary processes and calibrating terrane tectonic affinity. This study documents three Middle to Late Triassic ferroan granitoid suites from northwestern Liaoning, North China, and proposes distinct petrogenetic scenarios for each. The Middle Triassic (ca. 238 Ma) Ping'andi (PAD) granites are mainly calc-alkali and peraluminous. Their radiogenic whole-rock Nd and zircon Hf isotopic signatures argue for an origin consistent with partial melting of a juvenile quartzofeldspathic crust formed by prior mantle-derived magmatic underplating and their differentiations. By contrast, the Late Triassic (ca. 220 Ma) Dashaoleng (DSL) and Sijiazi (SJZ) suites show an evolved character from alkali-calcic to alkali and from metaluminous to peraluminous. Their variably evolved whole-rock Sr-Nd and mixed zircon Hf isotopic compositions suggest that both suites were formed by variable mixing between depleted mantle-derived mafic magma and old crust-derived felsic magma, with distinctively higher input from juvenile components in the DSL suite. These contrasting ferroan granitoid suites not only provide a spatial marker for monitoring juxtaposition of the North China Craton (NCC) and the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) along a lithospheric-scale boundary fault in the region, but also present a temporal snapshot that records a southwardly-progressing crustal growth scenario possibly in response to lithospheric dripping within a post-orogenic extensional regime. The cratonic scale synthesis further indicates that diachronous decratonization pattern of the NCC might record episodic response of the craton to evolved plate tectonic processes with two contrasting Phanerozoic orogenic systems.

  10. Multi-time scale data assimilation for atmosphere-ocean state estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiger, N.; Hakim, G.

    2015-08-01

    Paleoclimate proxy data span seasonal to millennial time scales, and Earth's climate system has both high- and low-frequency components. Yet it is currently unclear how best to incorporate multiple time scales of proxy data into a single reconstruction framework and to also capture both high- and low-frequency components of reconstructed variables. Here we present a data assimilation algorithm that can explicitly incorporate proxy data at arbitrary time scales. Through a series of pseudoproxy experiments, we find that atmosphere-ocean states are most skilfully reconstructed by incorporating proxies across multiple time scales compared to using proxies at short (annual) or long (~ decadal) time scales alone. Additionally, reconstructions that incorporate long time-scale pseudoproxies improve the low-frequency components of the reconstructions relative to using only high-resolution pseudoproxies. We argue that this is because time averaging high-resolution observations improves their covariance relationship with the slowly-varying components of the coupled-climate system, which the data assimilation algorithm can exploit. These results are insensitive to the choice of climate model, despite the model variables having very different spectral characteristics. Our results also suggest that it may be possible to reconstruct features of the oceanic meridional overturning circulation based solely on atmospheric surface temperature proxies.

  11. Space and time dependent scaling of numbers in mathematical structures: Effects on physical and geometric quantities

    E-print Network

    Paul Benioff

    2015-08-07

    The relationship between the foundations of mathematics and physics is a topic of of much interest. This paper continues this exploration by examination of the effect of space and time dependent number scaling on theoretical descriptions of some physical and geometric quantities. Fiber bundles provide a good framework to introduce a space and time or space time dependent number scaling field. The effect of the scaling field on a few nonlocal physical and geometric quantities is described. The effect on gauge theories is to introduce a new complex scalar field into the derivatives appearing in Lagrangians. U(1) invariance of Lagrangian terms does not affect the real part of the scaling field. For this field, any mass is possible. The scaling field is also shown to affect quantum wave packets and path lengths, and geodesic equations even on flat space. Scalar fields described so far in physics, are possible candidates for the scaling field. The lack of direct evidence for the field in physics restricts the scaling field in that the gradient of the field must be close to zero in a local region of cosmological space and time. There are no restrictions outside the region. It is also seen that the scaling field does not affect comparisons of computation or measurements outputs with one another. However it does affect the assignment of numerical values to the outputs of computations or measurements. These are needed because theory predictions are in terms of numerical values.

  12. FoodCam256: A Large-scale Real-time Mobile Food Recognition System employing

    E-print Network

    Yanai, Keiji

    American Japanese Thai Chinese Vietnamese Indonesian New 256 large-scale food dataset World foodFoodCam256: A Large-scale Real-time Mobile Food Recognition System employing High Yoshiyuki Kawano and Keiji Yanai x x2 Recognition accuracy by the proposed method and our previous work Food

  13. A Fully Polynomial-Time Approximation Scheme for Speed Scaling with Sleep State

    E-print Network

    Waldmann, Uwe

    A Fully Polynomial-Time Approximation Scheme for Speed Scaling with Sleep State Antonios Antoniadis equipped with both dynamic speed scaling and sleep state capabilities: Each task is specified by a release that is supplied with a sleep state. In the sleep state, the processor consumes no energy, but a constant wake

  14. Comment on ``Earthquakes Descaled: On Waiting Time Distributions and Scaling Laws''

    E-print Network

    Christensen, Kim

    Comment on ``Earthquakes Descaled: On Waiting Time Distributions and Scaling Laws'' Lindman et al=cÿp, to model earthquake occurrence. We are going to show that, contrary to claims in Ref. [1], this extremely visualization of its complex- ity and the fundamentals of the unified scaling law of earthquakes. A´ lvaro

  15. Mastering Uncertainty and Risk at Multiple Time Scales in the Future Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Bent, Russell W.; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2012-07-10

    Today's electrical grids enjoy a relatively clean separation of spatio-temporal scales yielding a compartmentalization of grid design, optimization, control and risk assessment allowing for the use of conventional mathematical tools within each area. In contrast, the future grid will incorporate time-intermittent renewable generation, operate via faster electrical markets, and tap the latent control capability at finer grid modeling scales; creating a fundamentally new set of couplings across spatiotemporal scales and requiring revolutionary advances in mathematics techniques to bridge these scales. One example is found in decade-scale grid expansion planning in which today's algorithms assume accurate load forecasts and well-controlled generation. Incorporating intermittent renewable generation creates fluctuating network flows at the hourly time scale, inherently linking the ability of a transmission line to deliver electrical power to hourly operational decisions. New operations-based planning algorithms are required, creating new mathematical challenges. Spatio-temporal scales are also crossed when the future grid's minute-scale fluctuations in network flows (due to intermittent generation) create a disordered state upon which second-scale transient grid dynamics propagate effectively invalidating today's on-line dynamic stability analyses. Addressing this challenge requires new on-line algorithms that use large data streams from new grid sensing technologies to physically aggregate across many spatial scales to create responsive, data-driven dynamic models. Here, we sketch the mathematical foundations of these problems and potential solutions.

  16. Evolution of Early Triassic outer platform paleoenvironments in the Nanpanjiang Basin (South China) and their significance for the

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    Evolution of Early Triassic outer platform paleoenvironments in the Nanpanjiang Basin (South China by abundant corals, calcareous algae, calcareous sponges, crinoids, brachiopods, gastropods, ostracods localities. The comparison between the Early Triassic stratigraphic evolution of Tethyan outer platform

  17. NEA Scout Solar Sail: Half-scale Fold Time Lapse - Duration: 37 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this time lapse, the Near-Earth Asteroid Scout (NEA Scout) CubeSat team rolls a half-scale prototype of the small satellite's solar sail in preparation for a deployment test. During its mission,...

  18. Existence of Solutions for a One Dimensional p-Laplacian on Time-Scales

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Douglas R.

    real numbers), or hZ (a constant graininess), the p-Laplacian arises in non-Newtonian fluids, in some theorem of Calculus, a result that has been generalized and extended to time-scales; to gain a good

  19. Approximate solution of the probability density function of bedload transport rate over multiple time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X.; Ma, H.; Heyman, J.; Mettra, F.; Ancey, C.

    2013-12-01

    Bedload transport rate in mountain rivers is highly fluctuating and has strong stochastic behavior even under steady flow conditions. Its stochastic description thus offers deeper insights into its dynamics than the deterministic one. As a random quantity, it is sampled from experimental devices at a given time resolution i.e. the sampling time scale. Previous studies showed that bedload transport behaves as a scale-dependent process. (Singh et al., 2009). In this study, we report bedload transport rate characteristics over different sampling time scales from an experimental study. Then, starting from Ancey's Markov model (Ancey et al., 2008), we propose a theoretical expression for bedload transport rate that is valid across multiple sampling time scales. Although the complete probability density function(PDF) cannot be analytically obtained, all

  20. Influence of Mean State on Climate Variability at Interannual and Decadal Time Scales 

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Xiaojie

    2013-05-17

    This dissertation reports on studies on the role of the mean state in modulating climate variability at interannual and decadal time scales. In the atmosphere, the nonlinear superposition of mean flow and anomalous flow has important implications...

  1. A stochastic methodology for generation of seasonal time series reproducing overyear scaling behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langousis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2006-05-01

    In generating synthetic time series of hydrological processes at sub-annual scales, it is important to preserve seasonal characteristics and short-term persistence. At the same time, it is equally important to preserve annual characteristics and overyear scaling behaviour. This scaling behaviour, which is equivalent to the Hurst phenomenon and has been interpreted by many as nonstationarity of processes, has been detected in a large number of hydroclimatic series and has important effects on the planning and design of hydrosystems. However, when seasonal models are used the preservation of annual characteristics and overyear scaling is a difficult task and is often ignored unless disaggregation techniques are applied, which, however, involve several difficulties (e.g. in parameter estimation) and inaccuracies. As an alternative, a new methodology is proposed that directly operates on seasonal time scale, avoiding disaggregation, and that simultaneously preserves annual statistics and the scaling properties on overyear time scales. Two specific stochastic models are proposed, a simple widely used seasonal model with short memory to which long-term persistence is imposed using a linear filter, and a combination of two sub-models, a stationary one with long memory and a cyclostationary one with short memory. Both models are capable of generating spatially correlated synthetic time series for more than one location simultaneously. The models are tested in a real world case and found to be accurate in reproducing all the desired statistical properties and virtually equivalent from an operational point of view.

  2. Minimal variability time scale - central black hole mass relation of the ?-ray loud blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovk, Ievgen; Babi?, Ana

    2015-06-01

    Context. The variability time scales of the blazar ?-ray emission contain the imprints of the sizes of their emission zones and are generally expected to be larger than the light-crossing times of these zones. In several cases the time scales were found to be as short ~ 10 min, suggesting that the emission zone sizes are comparable with the sizes of the central supermassive black holes. Previously, these measurements also led to the suggestion of a possible connection between the observed minimal variability time scales and the masses of the corresponding black holes. This connection can be used to determine the location of the ?-ray emission site, which currently remains uncertain. Aims: The study aims to investigate the suggested "minimum time scale - black hole mass" relation using the blazars, detected in the TeV band. Methods: To obtain the tightest constraints on the variability time scales this work uses a compilation of observations by the Cherenkov telescopes HESS, MAGIC, and VERITAS. These measurements are compared to the blazar central black hole masses found in the literature. Results: The majority of the studied blazars show the variability time scales which are at least comparable to the period of rotation along the last stable orbit of the central black hole - and in some cases as short as its light-crossing time. For several sources the observed variability time scales are found to be smaller than the black hole light-crossing time. This suggests that the detected ?-ray variability originates, most probably, from the turbulence in the jet, sufficiently far from the central black hole.

  3. A two-time-scale autopilot for high-performance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Chatterji, G. B.; Cheng, V. H. L.

    1991-01-01

    A two-time-scale autopilot is proposed for the Aircraft Controls Design Challenge problem. This control law uses a nonlinear aircraft model constructed from the given vehicle simulation. The vehicle model is partitioned into slow translational dynamics and fast rotational dynamics. Feedback linearization is then employed to synthesize control laws for these two-time scales. Due to the nature of the synthesis, the control law is suitable for automatic trajectory following, and also for pilot control.

  4. Early Triassic stromatolites in a siliciclastic nearshore setting in northern Perth Basin, Western Australia: Geobiologic features and implications for post-extinction microbial proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Wang, Yongbiao; Kershaw, Stephen; Luo, Mao; Yang, Hao; Zhao, Laishi; Feng, Yuheng; Chen, Jianbo; Yang, Li; Zhang, Lei

    2014-10-01

    An Early Triassic stromatolite deposit in Gondwana is documented from the Smithian succession of the Lower Triassic Kockatea Shale Formation in the Northampton area, northern Geraldton, Western Australia. Abundant tube-like sheaths of filaments and tiny circular microspherule balls are well preserved in laminae of the Northampton stromatolites, which are characterized by finely laminated domes and digitate high-relief columns. These filament sheaths are superficially analogous to their counterparts of modern stromatolites, and thus are interpreted as putative fossilized filamentous cyanobacteria. Elemental mapping of EDS analysis shows very high contents of both Fe and Si elements as well as common presence of both S and Al elements along the laminae of the stromatolites, suggesting that the stromatolites may have been ferritized or silicified. Both ferritization and silicification may have played a crucial role in the exceptional preservation of the micro-structures in the Northampton stromatolites. The high content of Al along the laminae indicates that the stromatolites may have been influenced by terrigenous fine-grained clastics during their growth. The Northampton stromatolites show several growth modes, initiating on either pebbles/conglomerates or sandy seafloor and building laminar domes and digitate, high-relief columns during an initial transgression period. Steady increase in sea level facilitated the growth of stromatolites. The Early Triassic stromatolites ceased growth due to either rapid rise in sea level or increased clay influx probably sourced from increased weathering on land at that time, or both. The occurrence of the Northampton stromatolites in the siliciclastic succession, in comparison with published records of Early Triassic microbialites, reveals that post-extinction microbialites were widespread in the Smithian. Stromatolites show a broad geographic distribution from low-latitude to southern high-latitude regions of Gondwana and inhabited not only carbonate settings, but also siliciclastic nearshore settings. All features of these Early Triassic stromatolites indicate a microbial bloom in the aftermath of the P-Tr mass extinction.

  5. Permian to Late Triassic evolution of the Longmen Shan Foreland Basin (Western Sichuan): Model results from both the lithospheric extension and flexure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lijuan

    2014-10-01

    The lithosphere was extended during the Permian-Middle Triassic in the Yangtze Craton where the Sichuan Basin located, and then bent due to thrusting of the Longmen Shan orogen, leading to formation of the Longmen Shan Foreland Basin (Western Sichuan) during the Late Triassic Indosinian orogeny. The lateral variation of the lithospheric strength resulted by former differential extension would inevitably influence the subsequent evolution of the foreland basin. In order to investigate this, both extensional and flexural models were applied in modeling Permian-Late Triassic basin evolution. A 2D kinematic extensional model was initially developed along a profile crossing the Yangtze Craton to simulate the lithospheric thermal evolution during the Permian-Middle Triassic. Based on the thermal results, the thermal-rheological structure, as well as the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere (Te), was then determined. Extension model show that the stretching factors decrease gradually from Songpan-Ganzi to the Sichuan Basin, leading to variable thermal-rheological structure and increased Te from west to east. Taking into account of the Te variation, a flexural model was finally constructed to investigate the evolution of the Longmen Shan Foreland Basin during the Late Triassic spanning the time period c. 227-206 Ma. Three episodes were divided according to the corresponding tectonostratigraphic units. By matching the stratigraphic observations, three phase advance distances eastward of the Longmen Shan along the Qingchuan-Maowen Fault turned out to be 18, 22, and 18 km. It implied a slow and similar thrust advance rate of 3.6 (c.227-222 Ma), 2.2 (c.222-212 Ma), and 3 mm/yr (c.212-206 Ma), respectively.

  6. Late Triassic rifting and Jurassic-Cretaceous passive margin development of the Southern Neotethys: evidence from the Ad?yaman area, SE Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. H. F.; Parlak, O.; Y?ld?r?m, N.; Dumitrica, P.; Tasl?, K.

    2015-05-01

    Evidence of rifting and continental break-up to form the S Neotethys is found within the volcanic-sedimentary Koçali Complex. This is a folded, thrust-imbricated succession that includes lavas, volcaniclastic sediments, pelagic carbonates, radiolarites and manganiferous deposits. Interbedded ribbon cherts contain radiolarians of Late Triassic to Late Jurassic age. The lower part of the succession of Mid?-Late Triassic age (Tarasa Formation) is dominated by enriched mid-ocean ridge basalt (E-MORB). The overlying Late Triassic to Mid-Jurassic interval (Konak Formation) is characterised by intercalations of ocean island basalt and E-MORB. Taking account of structural position, the basalts erupted within the outer part of a continent-ocean transition zone. Continental break-up probably occurred during the Late Triassic (Carnian-Norian). Early to Mid-Jurassic lavas and volcaniclastic sediments record volcanism probably after continental break-up. In addition, the Karadut Complex is a broken formation that is located at a relatively low structural position just above the Arabian foreland. Pelagic carbonates, redeposited carbonates and radiolarites predominate. Radiolarians are dated as Early to Mid-Jurassic and Late Cretaceous in age. The pelagic carbonates include planktic foraminifera of Late Cretaceous age. The Karadut Complex resulted from the accumulation of calcareous gravity flows, pelagic carbonate and radiolarites in a relatively proximal, base-of-slope setting. After continental break-up, MORB and ophiolitic rocks formed within the S Neotethys further north. Tectonic emplacement onto the Arabian platform took place by earliest Maastrichtian time. Regional interpretation is facilitated by comparisons with examples of Triassic rifting and continental break-up in the eastern Mediterranean region and elsewhere.

  7. Development of lower Triassic wrinkle structures: implications for the search for life on other planets.

    PubMed

    Mata, Scott A; Bottjer, David J

    2009-11-01

    Wrinkle structures are microbially mediated sedimentary structures that are a common feature of Proterozoic and earliest Phanerozoic siliciclastic seafloors on Earth and occur only rarely in post-Cambrian strata. These macroscopic microbially induced sedimentary structures are readily identifiable at the outcrop scale, and their recognition on other planetary bodies by landed missions may suggest the presence of past microbial life. Wrinkle structures of the Lower Triassic (Spathian) Virgin Limestone Member of the Moenkopi Formation in the western United States record an occurrence of widespread microbialite formation in the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction, the largest biotic crisis of the Phanerozoic. Wrinkle structures occur on proximal sandy tempestites deposited within the offshore transition. Storm layers appear to have been rapidly colonized by microbial mats and were subsequently buried by mud during fair-weather conditions. Wrinkle structures exhibit flat-topped crests and sinuous troughs, with associated mica grains oriented parallel to bedding, suggestive of trapping and binding activity. Although Lower Triassic wrinkle structures postdate the widespread occurrence of these features during the Proterozoic and Cambrian, they exhibit many of the same characteristics and environmental trends, which suggests a conservation of microbial formational and preservational processes in subtidal siliciclastic settings on Earth from the Precambrian into the Phanerozoic. In the search for extraterrestrial life, it may be these conservative characteristics that prove to be the most useful and robust for recognizing microbial features on other planetary bodies, and may add to an ever-growing foundation of knowledge for directing future explorations aimed at seeking out macroscopic microbial signatures. PMID:19968465

  8. Impact of sequential disorder on the scaling behavior of airplane boarding time

    E-print Network

    Baek, Yongjoo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2013-01-01

    Airplane boarding process is an example where disorder properties of the system are relevant to the emergence of universality classes. Based on a simple model, we present a systematic analysis of finite-size effects in boarding time, and propose a comprehensive view of the role of sequential disorder in the scaling behavior of boarding time against the plane size. Using numerical simulations and mathematical arguments, we find how the scaling behavior depends on the number of seat columns and the range of sequential disorder. Our results show that new scaling exponents can arise as disorder is localized to varying extents.

  9. Time-Scales for Non-Inductive Current Buildup in Low-Aspect-Ratio Toroidal Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    S.C. Jardin

    1999-11-01

    The fundamental differences between inductive and non-inductive current buildup are clarified and the associated time-scales and other implications are discussed. A simulation is presented whereby the plasma current in a low-aspect-ratio torus is increased primarily by the self-generated bootstrap current with only 10% coming from external current drive. The maximum obtainable plasma current by this process is shown to scale with the toroidal field strength. The basic physics setting the time-scales can be obtained from a 1D analysis. Comparisons are made between the timescales found here and those reported in the experimental literature.

  10. A new Triassic shortening-extrusion tectonic model for Central-Eastern Asia: Structural, geochronological and paleomagnetic investigations in the Xilamulun Fault (North China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pan; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan; Shi, Guanzhong; Xu, Bei

    2015-09-01

    At the northern margin of the North China Block (NCB), the Xilamulun Fault (XMF) is a key belt to decipher the tectonic evolution of Central-Eastern Asia, as it records the Paleozoic final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, and localizes a Late Triassic intracontinental deformation. In this study, structural analysis, 40Ar-39Ar dating, and paleomagnetic studies were performed to investigate the kinematics of the XMF and to further discuss its Triassic geodynamic significance in the Central-Eastern Asia framework after the Paleozoic Central Asian Orogenic evolution. The structural analyses reveal two phases of ductile deformation. The first one (D1), which displays N-verging and E-W trending folds, is related to the Early Paleozoic collisional event between the NCB and the Songliao-Hunshandake Block (SHB). The second phase (D2) displays a high-angle foliation and a pervasive sub-horizontal E-W stretching lineation with kinematic criteria indicative of dextral strike-slip shearing. The 40Ar-39Ar dating on mylonitic granite places the main shearing event around 227-209 Ma. This D2 shearing is coeval with that of the dextral strike-slip Bayan Obo-Chifeng Fault (BCF) and the Chicheng-Fengning-Longhua Fault to the south, which together constitute a dextral shearing fault system on the northern margin of the NCB during the Late Triassic. The paleomagnetic study performed on the Middle Permian Guangxingyuan pluton, located between the XMF and BCF, documents a local clockwise rotation of this pluton with respect to the NCB and SHB. Our multidisciplinary study suggests an NNW-SSE shortening and strike-slip shearing dominated tectonic setting on the northern margin of the NCB during the Late Triassic. Combining the contemporaneous dextral strike-slip movements of the XMF and BCF in northern China and the sinistral strike-slip movement of East Gobi Fault (EGF) in southeastern Mongolia with the large-scale tectonic framework, a Late Triassic NNW-SSE shortening-eastward extrusion tectonic model for Central-Eastern Asia is firstly proposed. The NNW-SSE shortening results in the eastward extrusion of the continental wedge bounded by the BCF and EGF, which is accommodated by the different kinematic patterns of the southern (XMF and BCF) and northwestern (EGF) bounding faults. This shortening-extrusion tectonic framework is tentatively interpreted as the result of the far field forces associated with three Late Triassic lithosphere-scale convergences in East Asia: i) northward intracontinental subduction between the NCB and South China Block, ii) collision of the Qiangtang Block with the Qaidam Block, and iii) southward subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean beneath the Mongolia Block.

  11. C 1-Almost Periodic Solutions of BAM Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays on Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongkun; Zhao, Lili; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    On a new type of almost periodic time scales, a class of BAM neural networks is considered. By employing a fixed point theorem and differential inequality techniques, some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence and global exponential stability of C 1-almost periodic solutions for this class of networks with time-varying delays are established. Two examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method and results. PMID:25685847

  12. A new chronology for the end-Triassic mass extinction M.H.L. Deenen a,

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    from the Triassic to Jurassic Period, initiating the `Age of the dinosaurs', approximately 200 Ma. This event closely coincides with a period of extensive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. The Triassic­Jurassic (T­J) boundary is recently proposed in the marine record at the first occurrence datum

  13. MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC: SHERWOOD SANDSTONE GROUP, SOUTH DEVON, UK

    E-print Network

    MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC: SHERWOOD SANDSTONE GROUP, SOUTH DEVON, UK , UK, e is predominantly carried by haematite. The sandstones probably have an extended period of haematite authigenesis, evident in a few cases, by specimens possessing both reversed and normal Triassic-like directions. However

  14. A petrologic comparison of Triassic plutonism in the San Gabriel and Mule Mountains, southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, A.P. ); Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L. )

    1990-11-10

    Triassic magmatism in the southwest US Cordillera forms a semicontinuous magmatic arc extending from northwestern Nevada to southeastern California. Quartz monzodioritic and quartz monzonitic rocks and associated diorites and granites are widespread in southeastern California, and the authors suggest that these rocks represent exposure of a structurally deeper part of the Triassic arc, where it was emplaced into comparatively thick Proterozoic crust. Elemental and isotopic data suggest that Triassic quartz monzodiorites and quartz monzonites in the Mule and San Gabriel Mountains were derived from a relatively undepleted, nonradiogenic mafic lithospheric source, with virtually no upper crustal interaction. Very limited data for associated Triassic ( ) diorites indicate a wide range in composition and a surprisingly radiogenic isotopic signature. Younger Triassic( ) granites record a strong geochemical signature of interaction with continental crust, including inherited zircon and high initial Sr ratios but comparatively less radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions. The major and trace element geochemistry of Late Triassic plutonic rocks in southeastern California is similar in many respects to akalic components of the Triassic arc in the Mojave Desert. However, contemporaneous rocks farther north have a calc-alkalic signature, perhaps reflecting the variation in age and composition of lithosphere across which the Triassic arc was constructed.

  15. Correlation of upper Triassic strata between southern Colorado Plateau and southern High Plains, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, S.G. )

    1989-09-01

    Almost 600 m of Upper Triassic strata are exposed in the Hagan basin. They pertain to the basal Agua Zarca member of the Chinle Formation (as much as 80 m), overlain by about 500 m of mud-rock-dominated red beds of the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation. The top of the Triassic section here is the 5.5-24 m-thick Correo Sandstone Bed of Chinle Formation, which is disconformably overlain by the medial silty member of the Middle Jurassic Entrada Sandstone. At Lamy, approximately 370 m of Upper Triassic strata represent the westernmost outcrops of the Triassic section typical of the Tucumcari basin. This Triassic section consists of about 140 m of Santa Rosa Formation (divisible into three members) overlain by a mud-rock-dominated section (Chinle Formation) split by a medial sandy interval, the Cuervo member (Trujillo Formation of the Palo Duro basin). The youngest Triassic strata near Lamy are rhythmically bedded sediments of the Redonda Member. Based on lithologic similarity, stratigraphic position, and limited paleontological data, the central New Mexico Upper Triassic strata support for the following correlations (from west to east): (1) Shinarump = Agua Zarca = Santa Rosa; (2) lower Petrified Forest = lower shale member of the Chinle = Tecovas; (3) Sonsela = Poleo = Cuervo = Trujillo; (4) upper Petrified Forest = upper shale member of the Chinle; and (5) Owl Rock = Redonda = Correo. These correlations reflect homotaxis of sedimentary cycles across a broad region of the southern Western Interior during the Late Triassic.

  16. MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE MIDDLE AND UPPER TRIASSIC: MERCIA MUDSTONE GROUP, SOUTH DEVON, UK

    E-print Network

    MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE MIDDLE AND UPPER TRIASSIC: MERCIA MUDSTONE GROUP, SOUTH DEVON, UK , UK to other European upper Triassic VGP's. The dual polarity palaeomagnetic signal is carried by haematite probability experienced an extended period of haematite authigenesis, evident by specimens which occur near

  17. Current perspectives on the PermianTriassic boundary and end-Permian mass extinction: Preface

    E-print Network

    Ikegami, Takashi

    Current perspectives on the Permian­Triassic boundary and end-Permian mass extinction: Preface Ian: Received 14 July 2009 Accepted 18 July 2009 Keywords: Permian­Triassic boundary Mass extinction extinction is now robustly dated at 252.6 ± 0.2 Ma (U­Pb) and the Permian­Tri- assic (P­T) GSSP level

  18. Triassic-Jurassic faunal and floral transition in the Fundy Basin, Nova

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    . The Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction may have cleared ecological space for dinosaurian ascent much as the K-T is at least equal in magnitude to that at the more famous Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (Benton, 1995) (Fig. 1 of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and subsequent events in the Fundy basin, one of the richest sources for data

  19. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 13 JULY 2009 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO577 Floral changes across the Triassic/Jurassic

    E-print Network

    Falkowski, Paul G.

    occurred at the boundary of the Triassic and Jurassic periods, 201.6 million years ago. The loss of marineARTICLES PUBLISHED ONLINE: 13 JULY 2009 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO577 Floral changes across the Triassic/Jurassic volcanism. Here we present pollen, spore and geochemical analyses across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary from

  20. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Lilai; Gao, Peiqing; Cui, Shenghui; Liu, Chun

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ? We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ? The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ? At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ? At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ? At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to develop integrated policies and measures for waste management over the long term.

  1. Feasibility of measuring the Shapiro time delay over meter-scale distances

    E-print Network

    S. Ballmer; S. Márka; P. Shawhan

    2010-07-13

    The time delay of light as it passes by a massive object, first calculated by Shapiro in 1964, is a hallmark of the curvature of space-time. To date, all measurements of the Shapiro time delay have been made over solar-system distance scales. We show that the new generation of kilometer-scale laser interferometers being constructed as gravitational wave detectors, in particular Advanced LIGO, will in principle be sensitive enough to measure variations in the Shapiro time delay produced by a suitably designed rotating object placed near the laser beam. We show that such an apparatus is feasible (though not easy) to construct, present an example design, and calculate the signal that would be detectable by Advanced LIGO. This offers the first opportunity to measure space-time curvature effects on a laboratory distance scale.

  2. Pre-, syn-, and postcollisional stratigraphic framework and provenance of upper triassic-upper cretaceous strata in the northwestern talkeetna mountains, alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, B.A.; Ridgway, K.D.; O'Neill, J. M.; Gehrels, G.E.; Schmidt, J.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Mesozoic strata of the northwestern Talkeetna Mountains are located in a regional suture zone between the allochthonous Wrangellia composite terrane and the former Mesozoic continental margin of North America (i.e., the Yukon-Tanana terrane). New geologic mapping, measured stratigraphic sections, and provenance data define a distinct three-part stratigraphy for these strata. The lowermost unit is greater than 290 m thick and consists of Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic mafic lavas, fossiliferous limestone, and a volcaniclastic unit that collectively we informally refer to as the Honolulu Pass formation. The uppermost 75 m of the Honolulu Pass formation represent a condensed stratigraphic interval that records limited sedimentation over a period of up to ca. 25 m.y. during Early Jurassic time. The contact between the Honolulu Pass formation and the overlying Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous clastic marine strata of the Kahiltna assemblage represents a ca. 20 m.y. depositional hiatus that spans the Middle Jurassic and part of Late Jurassic time. The Kahiltna assemblage may to be up to 3000 m thick and contains detrital zircons that have a robust U-Pb peak probability age of 119.2 Ma (i.e., minimum crystallization age/maximum depositional age). These data suggest that the upper age of the Kahiltna assemblage may be a minimum of 10-15 m.y. younger than the previously reported upper age of Valanginian. Sandstone composition (Q-43% F-30% L-27%-Lv-71% Lm-18% Ls-11%) and U-Pb detrital zircon ages suggest that the Kahiltna assemblage received igneous detritus mainly from the active Chisana arc, remnant Chitina and Talkeetna arcs, and Permian-Triassic plutons (Alexander terrane) of the Wrangellia composite terrane. Other sources of detritus for the Kahiltna assemblage were Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic plutons of the Taylor Mountains batholith and Devonian-Mississippian plutons; both of these source areas are part of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. The Kahiltna assemblage is overlain by previously unrecognized nonmarine strata informally referred to here as the Caribou Pass formation. This unit is at least 250 m thick and has been tentatively assigned an Albian-Cenomanian-to-younger age based on limited palynomorphs and fossil leaves. Sandstone composition (Q-65% F-9% L-26%-Lv-28% Lm-52% Ls-20%) from this unit suggests a quartz-rich metamorphic source terrane that we interpret as having been the Yukon-Tanana terrane. Collectively, provenance data indicate that there was a fundamental shift from mainly arc-related sediment derivation from sources located south of the study area during Jurassic-Early Cretaceous (Aptian) time (Kahiltna assemblage) to mainly continental margin-derived sediment from sources located north and east of the study area by Albian-Cenomanian time (Caribou Pass formation). We interpret the threepart stratigraphy defined for the northwestern Talkeetna Mountains to represent pre- (the Honolulu Pass formation), syn- (the Kahiltna assemblage), and post- (the Caribou Pass formation) collision of the Wrangellia composite terrane with the Mesozoic continental margin. A similar Mesozoic stratigraphy appears to exist in other parts of south-central and southwestern Alaska along the suture zone based on previous regional mapping studies. New geologic mapping utilizing the three-part stratigraphy interprets the northwestern Talkeetna Mountains as consisting of two northwest-verging thrust sheets. Our structural interpretation is that of more localized thrust-fault imbrication of the three-part stratigraphy in contrast to previous interpretations of nappe emplacement or terrane translation that require large-scale displacements. Copyright ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  3. Triassic arc-derived detritus in the Triassic Karakaya accretionary complex was not derived from either the S Eurasian margin (Istanbul terrane) or the N Gondwana margin (Taurides)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Gerdes, Axel; Zulauf, Gernold

    2014-05-01

    We present new U-Pb zircon source age data for Upper Triassic sandstones of the Istanbul Terrane (S Eurasian margin) and also for Triassic sandstones of the Taurides (N Gondwana margin). The main aim is to detect and quantify the contribution of Triassic magmatism as detritus to either of these crustal blocks. This follows the recent discovery of a Triassic magmatic arc source for the Triassic sandstones of the Palaeotethyan Karakaya subduction-accretion complex (Ustaömer et al. 2013; this meeting). Carboniferous (Variscan) zircon grains also form a significant detrital population, plus several more minor populations. Six sandstone samples were studied, two from the ?stanbul Terrane (Bak?rl?k?ran Formation of the Kocaeli Triassic Basin) and four from the Tauride Autochthon (latest Triassic Üzümdere Formation and Mid-Triassic Kas?mlar Formations; Bey?ehir region). Detrital zircon grains were dated by the laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb method at Goethe University, Frankfurt. Our results do not reveal Triassic detritus in the Üzümdere Formation. The U-Pb age of the analysed zircon grains ranges from 267 Ma to 3.2 Ga. A small fraction of Palaeozoic zircons are Permian (267 to 296 Ma), whereas the remainder are Early Palaeozoic. Ordovician grains (4%) form two age clusters, one at ca. 450 Ma and the other at ca. 474 Ma. Cambrian-aged grains dominate the zircon population, while the second largest population is Ediacaran (576 to 642 Ma). Smaller populations occur at 909-997 Ma, 827-839 Ma, 1.8-2.0 Ga and 2.4-2.6 Ga. The sandstones of the Kas?mlar Formation have similar zircon age cluster to those of the somewhat younger Üzümdere Formation, ranging from 239 Ma to 2.9 Ga. A few grains gave Anisian ages. Cambrian zircon grains are less pronounced than in the Kas?mlar Formation compared to the Üzümdere Formation. The detrital zircon record of Tauride sandstones, therefore, not indicates significant contribution of Triassic or Carboniferous (Variscan) arc sources, in marked contrast to those of the Triassic Karakaya subduction complex. In comparison, the ages of the analysed zircons in the Upper Triassic sandstones of the Istanbul Terrane range from 294 Ma to 3.1 Ga. Triassic zircons are again absent, while Variscan-aged zircons (294 to 339 Ma) dominate the zircon population. Additional zircon populations are dated at 554 to 655 Ma, 0.9 to 1.2 Ga, 1.5 Ga, 1.65 Ga, 2.0 to 2.15 and 2.5 to 2.8 Ga. The Precambrian zircon age spectra are compatible with derivation from an Avalonian/Amazonian/Baltic crustal provenance. In summary, there is no evidence in either the Triassic sandstones of the ?stanbul Terrane or of the Taurides of the Triassic magmatic arc source that dominates the Triassic Karakaya subduction-accretion complex. Where then was the source of the Karakaya arc detritus? A likely option is that the Karakaya subduction-accretion complex is an exotic terrane that was detached from a source magmatic arc and displaced to its present location, probably prior the initial deposition of the Early Jurassic cover sediments. This study was supported by TUBITAK, Project No: 111R015

  4. The stability of the critical scaling against the time-dependent perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Heungsik; Park, Hyunggyu

    2004-04-01

    We study the stability of critical scaling against the time-dependent perturbation in the contact process(CP) model. The critical probability of the particle varies asp = p0 + ct-?. we perform the static Monte Carlo simulation using the finite size scaling theory in the steady state. For the ? > 1/v?, the time dependent perturbation is irrelevant, therefore , the critical exponents ?/v?,?/v? have the DP value. For the ? = 1/v?, ?/v? is DP value but ?/v? is varied with perturbation strength c. For the ? < 1/v?, the particle density is decayed with ? ˜ t?? in thermodynamic limit. However, for the all case, z have DP value. To study the stability of critical scaling, we introduce the time-dependent perturbation and know that critical scaling function is satisfied in all cases. Numerical simulations confirm our predictions.

  5. Increasing temperature forcing reduces the Greenland Ice Sheet's response time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, Patrick J.; Parizek, Byron R.; Nicholas, Robert E.; Alley, Richard B.; Keller, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    Damages from sea level rise, as well as strategies to manage the associated risk, hinge critically on the time scale and eventual magnitude of sea level rise. Satellite observations and paleo-data suggest that the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) loses mass in response to increased temperatures, and may thus contribute substantially to sea level rise as anthropogenic climate change progresses. The time scale of GIS mass loss and sea level rise are deeply uncertain, and are often assumed to be constant. However, previous ice sheet modeling studies have shown that the time scale of GIS response likely decreases strongly with increasing temperature anomaly. Here, we map the relationship between temperature anomaly and the time scale of GIS response, by perturbing a calibrated, three-dimensional model of GIS behavior. Additional simulations with a profile, higher-order, ice sheet model yield time scales that are broadly consistent with those obtained using the three-dimensional model, and shed light on the feedbacks in the ice sheet system that cause the time scale shortening. Semi-empirical modeling studies that assume a constant time scale of sea level adjustment, and are calibrated to small preanthropogenic temperature and sea level changes, may underestimate future sea level rise. Our analysis suggests that the benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, in terms of avoided sea level rise from the GIS, may be greatest if emissions reductions begin before large temperature increases have been realized. Reducing anthropogenic climate change may also allow more time for design and deployment of risk management strategies by slowing sea level contributions from the GIS.

  6. Northern and eastern margins of the Siberian continent in Triassic

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, A.Yu. )

    1993-09-01

    Siliciclastic sedimentation has been predominant on the northern and eastern margins of the Siberian continent since the Triassic period. Seven transgression-regression cycles can be recognized in the Triassic succession: Griesbachien-Dienerian, Smithian-Low Spathian, Upper Spathian, Anissian (with subcycles), Ladian, Carnian, and Norlan (with subcycles). All zonal units were distinguished within transgressive portions of the cycles. Regressive portions of the cycles formed practically instantaneously. Very high sedimentation rate (300-3000 mm/1000 yr), specific structures of sedimentary rocks, and distribution of unconformities led to the conclusion that active avalanche sedimentation at the basin margins was of major significance. six facies regions are recognized in the sedimentation area: Taimyr, Kotuy-Anabar, Leno-Anabar, Bur-Olenek, Verkhoyansk, and Novosibirsk (New Siberian Islands). The main source areas were located at the Patoma Mountains for the eastern margin and at the Anabar anticline and Olenek uplift for the northern margin. Most sediments were transported to the eastern margin by a large river with a huge delta which was similar in size to the modern Lena's delta. Sediments were further distributed by contour streams. Local synsedimentary structures controlled the paleogeography of the entire area. The paleogeographical evolution of the eastern margin is the history of this delta development. The rifting activities with the trappean magmatism were the main events at the northern margin, especially in the Talmyr area. The pelagic sedimentation has been predominant in the New Siberian Islands area and most of the Laptev Sea aquatoria. The organic-rich sediments have been distinguished in Low Olenekian (Smithian), Low Anissian, Low Ladinian, and Low Carnian substages. Most of them could be hydrocarbon source rocks. Triassic oil and gas seeps have been discovered at the northern portion of the Vilyui syncline, near the Lena's delta and the Nordvic Bay.

  7. Stromatolite beds from lower Triassic Virgin Formation, Spring Mountains, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, J.K.; Bottjer, D.J.

    1989-04-01

    Extensive beds of marine stromatolites are a typical feature of the Precambrian and lower Paleozoic stratigraphic record. Because stromatolites of younger age are generally thought to have been deposited in refugia of nonmarine salinity, two beds of large marine stromatolites found in the lower Triassic (Scythian) Virgin Formation (Spring Mountains, Nevada) are unusual in their occurrence. Stromatolite mounds averaging about 1 m in height merge laterally to form the largest and stratigraphically lowest of the two stromatolite beds (about 1 m thick), and mounds in a higher bed (averaging about 75 cm thick) may be separated by several meters and are 50 cm to 1 m high. Spaces between mounds are filled with accumulations of the overlying sediment, and, in the lower stromatolite bed, thin beds of crinoidal debris. Mounds in both beds consist of broad stromatolite domes, which range from 5 to 25 cm high and 10 to 55 cm wide, and drape slightly over one another, exhibiting a hummocky upper surface in outcrop. Where weathered in cross section, the domes appear to consist of roughly hemispherical laminae defined by alternating lighter and darker gray layers, or may consist of several smaller columns, which appear to have grown together. The occurrence of these two large stromatolite beds in marine post-Paleozoic rocks may be related to the unique conditions following the Permian-Triassic mass extinction event. Lower diversity and abundance of those grazing organisms thought to have caused the Phanerozoic retreat of stromatolites to refugia may have permitted the growth of these relatively large stromatolites in the Early Triassic.

  8. Triassic-Jurassic Mass Extinction: Evidence for Bolide Impact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, R.; Becker, L.; Haggart, J.; Poreda, R.

    2003-04-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic (TJ) mass extinction event is one of the most severe in geologic history and is one of the five largest in the Phanerozoic with as many as 80% of the species lost. It is also one of the most poorly understood. Only a few geologic sections have been identified for the TJ extinction and most of those are not well preserved. Previously, the paucity of suitable stratigraphic sections has prevented corroborative geochemical studies. Recently a well-preserved stratigraphic section spanning the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (˜200 mya) was identified at Kennecott Point, Queen Charlotte, Islands, British Columbia. Initial studies have shown that the Kennecott Point sequence is one of the best preserved and contains one of the most complete radiolarian microfossil turnovers known. Analyses of stable isotopes have shown that a 13C perturbation exits within the sequence and suggests a decline in organic productivity (Ward et al., 2001). Preliminary results of laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) of selected Queen Charlotte samples suggest that fullerenes (C60 to C200) may be present in the Kennecott Point stratigraphic sequence. Previous studies have shown that fullerenes are present in the mass extinction boundary of the Permian-Triassic (˜251 mya) as well as the well-known "dinosaur" extinction event of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (˜65 mya). Therefore, three of the big five extinction events appear to have associated fullerenes. The possible presence of fullerenes along with the productivity collapse (rapid environmental change) suggests that a cometary or asteroidal impact may have occurred. Although no known impact crater exists, we hope to present chemical evidence that an impact or multiple impacts may have been responsible for the TJ mass extinction.

  9. Time scale for cyclostome evolution inferred with a phylogenetic diagnosis of hagfish and lamprey cDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Kuraku, Shigehiro; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2006-12-01

    The Cyclostomata consists of the two orders Myxiniformes (hagfishes) and Petromyzoniformes (lampreys), and its monophyly has been unequivocally supported by recent molecular phylogenetic studies. Under this updated vertebrate phylogeny, we performed in silico evolutionary analyses using currently available cDNA sequences of cyclostomes. We first calculated the GC-content at four-fold degenerate sites (GC(4)), which revealed that an extremely high GC-content is shared by all the lamprey species we surveyed, whereas no striking pattern in GC-content was observed in any of the hagfish species surveyed. We then estimated the timing of diversification in cyclostome evolution using nucleotide and amino acid sequences. We obtained divergence times of 470-390 million years ago (Mya) in the Ordovician-Silurian-Devonian Periods for the interordinal split between Myxiniformes and Petromyzoniformes; 90-60 Mya in the Cretaceous-Tertiary Periods for the split between the two hagfish subfamilies, Myxininae and Eptatretinae; 280-220 Mya in the Permian-Triassic Periods for the split between the two lamprey subfamilies, Geotriinae and Petromyzoninae; and 30-10 Mya in the Tertiary Period for the split between the two lamprey genera, Petromyzon and Lethenteron. This evolutionary configuration indicates that Myxiniformes and Petromyzoniformes diverged shortly after the common ancestor of cyclostomes split from the future gnathostome lineage. Our results also suggest that intra-subfamilial diversification in hagfish and lamprey lineages (especially those distributed in the northern hemisphere) occurred in the Cretaceous or Tertiary Periods. PMID:17261918

  10. Sedimentology of a muddy alluvial deposit: Triassic Denwa Formation, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Sarkar, Soumen; Maulik, Pradip

    2006-09-01

    Triassic Upper Denwa Formation (˜ 380 m) in the Satpura Gondwana basin, central India is a mudstone-dominated fluvial succession that comprises isolated ribbon-shaped (2-5-m-thick) channel-fill bodies encased within fine-grained extra-channel deposits. Eight architectural elements are recognized, of which five belong to channel-fill deposits and the remaining three to extra-channel deposits. Majority of channel-fill deposits are characterized by sandy or muddy inclined heterolithic strata (IHS) that record limited lateral accretion of point bars or benches (constrained by cohesive banks) in mixed- to suspended-load sinuous channels. A few ribbon bodies are mud rich and attest to nearly stagnant conditions in partly abandoned channels. A few single- or multistorey ribbon bodies that are dominantly sandy and lack inclined strata represent deposits of straight, laterally stable channel. The smallest ribbon bodies (˜ 1 m thick) of calcirudite/calcarenite possibly represent deposits of secondary channels in the interfluves. Coexistence of channel-fill bodies of different dimension, lithology and internal organization in restricted stratigraphic intervals suggests an anabranching system having channels with different fill histories. The extra-channel deposits mainly comprise red mudstone (1-5 m thick) that indicates pervasive oxidation of overbank sediments in well-aerated and well-drained setting. Sporadically developed calcic vertisols suggest a hot, semi-arid climate during the Upper Denwa period. Sandy to heterolithic sheets (70 cm to 2 m thick) with sharp, planar basal surfaces are replete with features suggestive of unconfined sheet flow. Also at places there are indications of subaqueous emplacement of sands. These bodies with paleocurrent oblique to that of the channel-fills are interpreted as crevasse splay deposits. Tabular heterolithic bodies (3-5 m thick) are characterized by undulating basal surface, complex organization of sandstone lenses interwoven with heteroliths and red mudstone (in decimeter-scale) with desiccation cracks. Such tabular bodies are attributed to repetitive, sheet-like and poorly channelized splaying. Very thick (10 to 20 m) mudstones intervals are inexplicable in terms of overbank flooding only. Poorly developed pedogenic features in sandy to muddy heterolithic sheets and certain mudstone intervals and well-developed cumulative paleosols in surrounding mudstone highlights the contrast between rapidly emplaced splay deposits and slowly accumulated floodplain deposits. The Denwa channels are comparable with modern, low-gradient and low-energy anabranching river system in which the sediment load is dominantly fine-grained. The semi-arid climate possibly facilitated enhanced supply of fines to the Upper Denwa system. However, sediment partitioning and distribution in a particular channel was controlled by flow diversion to and from other channels in that anabranching system. Low flow strength with periodic flood events, high bank strength and a rate of sediment supply that slightly exceeded that of onward transport probably were important factors for the development of the Upper Denwa anabranching system.

  11. Evolutionary and Ecological Sequelae of Mass Extinctions: Examples From the Continental Triassic-Jurassic Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, P. E.; Whiteside, J. H.

    2003-12-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic boundary at ˜200 Ma marks one of the five major mass-extinctions of the Phanerozoic and, depending on the metrics used, was similar in magnitude to the K-T mass extinction. In continental environments about 50% of all tetrapod families are eliminated and although floral diversity change is difficult to gauge, a similar proportion of palynomorph taxa disappear at the boundary. The extinction event appears to have been very abrupt, followed by a roughly 900 ky super-greenhouse period characterized by increased precipitation. We hypothesize a series of biological consequences of the drop in diversity and associated super-greenhouse based on observations of the earliest Jurassic assemblages, largely from eastern North America. 1) The drop in diversity results in a collapse of ecological interactions that tend to stabilize the composition of regional biotas and buffer them from invading forms. Triassic assemblages show considerable biogeographic provinciality despite the existence of Pangea, but the earliest Jurassic assemblages were extraordinarily homogenous with many vertebrate genera being essentially global in distribution. 2) Initially the post-boundary terrestrial assemblages were comprised of eurytopic trophic generalists, with animal communities with few herbivores, but abundant carnivores and detritivores subsisting on aquatic-based food webs. The earliest Jurassic tetrapod footprint record is overwhelmingly dominated by the footprints of ceratosaurian theropod dinosaurs, the latter having skull characteristics usually associated at least in part with piscivory. 3) The dramatic size changes over very short periods of time were likely due to an absence of competition (i.e., ecological release). The maximum size of theropod dinosaur footprints increased by about 25% within 10 ky following the boundary, corresponding to a doubling of mass. 4) Representatives of clades with intrinsically high rates of speciation tend to form species flocks after the boundary. Species flocks of semionotid fishes dominated earliest Jurassic giant rift lakes in eastern North America, but not Triassic or later Early Jurassic lakes in the same basins. Based on footprint data, it is quite possible that there were also species flocks of morphologically similar ceratosaurian theropod dinosaurs in the Early Jurassic.

  12. Pterosauria from the Late Triassic of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaparte, J. F.; Schultz, C. L.; Soares, M. B.

    A few postcranial remains of a Late Triassic pterosaur from the early Coloradian Caturrita Formation of Rio Grande do Sul are communicated. The general morphology of the coracoid, proximal portion of the humerus, femur, tibia and fibula suggests that it is more primitive than the pterosaurs from the Norian of northern Italy. The morphology and proportions of the different bones support their assignment to a primitive pterosaur. An almost complete maxilla with three teeth is tentatively referred to the same taxon because it was collected at some distance from the postcrania cited above.

  13. Troglomorphism in the middle Triassic crinoids from Poland.

    PubMed

    Brom, Krzysztof R; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz A

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we document the Middle Triassic marine fauna recovered from the fissure/cave system of Stare Gliny (southern Poland) developed in the Devonian host dolomite. The fossils are mostly represented by in situ preserved and small-sized holdfasts of crinoids (Crinoidea) that are attached to the cave walls. Other fossils found in the cave infills include articulated brittle stars and brachiopods. Our findings constitute the oldest Mesozoic evidence for troglophile crinoids. We suggest that troglomorphism in these echinoderms was likely related to protection against predation, which underscores the magnitude of anti-predatory adaptations to increased predation pressure that occurred during the Early Mesozoic Marine Revolution. PMID:26373558

  14. Troglomorphism in the middle Triassic crinoids from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brom, Krzysztof R.; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we document the Middle Triassic marine fauna recovered from the fissure/cave system of Stare Gliny (southern Poland) developed in the Devonian host dolomite. The fossils are mostly represented by in situ preserved and small-sized holdfasts of crinoids (Crinoidea) that are attached to the cave walls. Other fossils found in the cave infills include articulated brittle stars and brachiopods. Our findings constitute the oldest Mesozoic evidence for troglophile crinoids. We suggest that troglomorphism in these echinoderms was likely related to protection against predation, which underscores the magnitude of anti-predatory adaptations to increased predation pressure that occurred during the Early Mesozoic Marine Revolution.

  15. Synchronous Wildfire Activity Rise and Mire Deforestation at the Triassic–Jurassic Boundary

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Henrik I.; Lindström, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction event (?201.4 million years ago) caused major faunal and floral turnovers in both the marine and terrestrial realms. The biotic changes have been attributed to extreme greenhouse warming across the Triassic–Jurassic (T–J) boundary caused by massive release of carbon dioxide and/or methane related to extensive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), resulting in a more humid climate with increased storminess and lightning activity. Lightning strikes are considered the primary source of wildfires, producing charcoal, microscopically recognized as inertinite macerals. The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of pyrolytic origin and allochthonous charcoal in siliciclastic T–J boundary strata has suggested widespread wildfire activity at the time. We have investigated largely autochthonous coal and coaly beds across the T–J boundary in Sweden and Denmark. These beds consist of predominantly organic material from the in situ vegetation in the mires, and as the coaly beds represent a substantial period of time they are excellent environmental archives. We document a remarkable increase in inertinite content in the coal and coaly beds across the T–J boundary. We show estimated burning temperatures derived from inertinite reflectance measurements coupled with palynological data and conclude that pre-boundary late Rhaetian mire wildfires included high-temperature crown fires, whereas latest Rhaetian–Sinemurian mire wildfires were more frequent but dominated by lower temperature surface fires. Our results suggest a major change in the mire ecosystems across the T–J boundary from forested, conifer dominated mires to mires with a predominantly herbaceous and shrubby vegetation. Contrary to the overall regional vegetation for which onset of recovery commenced in the early Hettangian, the sensitive mire ecosystem remained affected during the Hettangian and did not start to recover until around the Hettangian–Sinemurian boundary. Decreasing inertinite content through the Lower Jurassic suggests that fire activity gradually resumed to considerable lower levels. PMID:23077574

  16. Synchronous wildfire activity rise and mire deforestation at the triassic-jurassic boundary.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Henrik I; Lindström, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction event (?201.4 million years ago) caused major faunal and floral turnovers in both the marine and terrestrial realms. The biotic changes have been attributed to extreme greenhouse warming across the Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary caused by massive release of carbon dioxide and/or methane related to extensive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), resulting in a more humid climate with increased storminess and lightning activity. Lightning strikes are considered the primary source of wildfires, producing charcoal, microscopically recognized as inertinite macerals. The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of pyrolytic origin and allochthonous charcoal in siliciclastic T-J boundary strata has suggested widespread wildfire activity at the time. We have investigated largely autochthonous coal and coaly beds across the T-J boundary in Sweden and Denmark. These beds consist of predominantly organic material from the in situ vegetation in the mires, and as the coaly beds represent a substantial period of time they are excellent environmental archives. We document a remarkable increase in inertinite content in the coal and coaly beds across the T-J boundary. We show estimated burning temperatures derived from inertinite reflectance measurements coupled with palynological data and conclude that pre-boundary late Rhaetian mire wildfires included high-temperature crown fires, whereas latest Rhaetian-Sinemurian mire wildfires were more frequent but dominated by lower temperature surface fires. Our results suggest a major change in the mire ecosystems across the T-J boundary from forested, conifer dominated mires to mires with a predominantly herbaceous and shrubby vegetation. Contrary to the overall regional vegetation for which onset of recovery commenced in the early Hettangian, the sensitive mire ecosystem remained affected during the Hettangian and did not start to recover until around the Hettangian-Sinemurian boundary. Decreasing inertinite content through the Lower Jurassic suggests that fire activity gradually resumed to considerable lower levels. PMID:23077574

  17. Seismic analyses of the Triassic in Northern Germany for hydrogeothermal exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilecke, Thies; Buness, Hermann; Musmann, Patrick; Schulz, Rüdiger

    2010-05-01

    Hydrothermal resources provide a large potential for the energy supply in Germany. However, the risk in reservoir detection is a major obstacle for its commercial utilization. Deep drillholes for a geothermal plant demand financial investments of several ten million Euros, without a comprehensive guarantee that the delivery and temperature of the required energy supply are met. A risk reduction is offered through the application of seismic techniques that have been developed in the oil and gas industry. Yet, in the geothermic business the topic of exploration cost reduction often has a higher priority. This is the reason why the necessity of 3D seismic is being repeatedly questioned. However, a seismic dataset from northern Germany currently being studied reveals a complicated fault zone network that has been partly generated by salt tectonics. It would be unrepresentable without the aid of 3D seismic. For fault detection in particular, time slices of the signal variance with a short time window and few traces have proven their suitability. In northern Germany some strata of the middle and lower Triassic are being regarded as hydrogeothermal reservoirs because of their temperature and permeability. Typically, areal amplitude distributions are being analyzed for anomalies. In the referred dataset, such areal analyses are however degraded by the intercalated complicated fault zone structures. In particular, in large sections of the lower Triassic the fault zone detection with signal variance calculation is also poor because of small seismic reflection amplitudes. It can be concluded that in some cases, 3D seismic offers the only way to recognize the subsurface structures. On the other hand, there are cases where even 3D seismic data needs carefully guided analysis instead of automatic algorithms.

  18. Change ?S of the entropy in natural time under time reversal: Complexity measures upon change of scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarlis, N. V.; Christopoulos, S.-R. G.; Bemplidaki, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    The entropy S in natural time as well as the entropy in natural time under time reversal S- have already found useful applications in the physics of complex systems, e.g., in the analysis of electrocardiograms (ECGs). Here, we focus on the complexity measures ?l which result upon considering how the statistics of the time series ? S?ft[\\equiv S- S-\\right] changes upon varying the scale l. These scale-specific measures are ratios of the standard deviations ?(? S_l) and hence independent of the mean value and the standard deviation of the data. They focus on the different dynamics that appear on different scales. For this reason, they can be considered complementary to other standard measures of heart rate variability in ECG, like SDNN, as well as other complexity measures already defined in natural time. An application to the analysis of ECG —when solely using NN intervals— is presented: We show how ?l can be used to separate ECG of healthy individuals from those suffering from congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death.

  19. Time scales separation for dynamo action E. Dormy1,3

    E-print Network

    Gerard-Varet, David - Institut de Mathématiques de Jussieu, Université Paris 7

    of the flow (either analytical, or in the form of an heteroclinic cycle), whereas we want to study the effectsepl draft Time scales separation for dynamo action E. Dormy1,3 and D. G´erard-Varet2,3 1 MAG (Ecole configuration for which dynamo action is not realised. We study the effect of time dependent perturbations

  20. Sodium storage in deep paleoweathering profiles beneath the Paleozoic-Triassic unconformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, M.; Parcerisa, D.; Ricordel-Prognon, C.; Schmitt, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    A major sodium accumulation has been recognized for long and by numerous authors in the Permo-Triassic salt deposits (Hay et al., 2006). Beside these basinal deposits, important masses of sodium were stored on the continents within deep palaeoweathering profiles in form of albite. Indeed, wide surfaces and huge volumes of granito-gneissic basements of the Hercynian massifs are albitized from North-Africa up to Scandinavia. These albitized rocks have usually been considered as related to tardi-magmatic metasomatic processes (Cathelineau 1986; Petersson and Eliasson 1997). Geometrical arrangement and dating of these alterations point out that these albitizations, or at least a part of them, developed under low temperature subsurface conditions in relation with the Triassic palaeosurface (Ricordel et al., 2007; Parcerisa et al., 2009). Petrology The albitized igneous rocks show a strong alteration with pseudomorphic replacement of the primary plagioclases into albite, replacement of primary biotite by chlorite and minor precipitation of neogenic minerals like albite, chlorite, apatite, haematite, calcite and titanite. Albitized rocks are characterized by their pink coloration due to the presence of minute haematite inclusions in the albite. The development and distribution of the albitization and related alterations above the unaltered basement occurs in three steps that define a vertical profile, up to 100-150 m depth. 1) In the lower part of the profile, albitization occurs within pink-colored patches in the unaltered rock, giving a pink-spotted aspect to the rock. 2) In the middle part of the profile, rocks have an overall pink coloration due to the albitization of the primary Ca-bearing igneous plagioclases. Usually, this facies develops in a pervasive manner, affecting the whole rock, but it may also be restricted to joints, giving a sharp-pink coloration to the fracture wall. 3) Finally, the top of the profile is defined by the same mineral paragenesis as in the pink stage, with an increase in the amount and size of sericite and hematite inclusions. The latter causes the red coloration of the altered rocks. Regional layout Regional distribution of the alterations which affect the Carboniferous igneous and volcanic formations beneath the Jurassic sedimentary cover lead to associate these alterations to the Triassic unconformity. Besides, albitized facies show generally both topographic and regional arrangements, with more altered facies occurring in the mountain highs and in the external parts of the massifs and unaltered facies occurring in the river valleys and in the central parts of the massifs. Moreover, the haematite associated with these albitized basement rocks has been dated from Early Trias by means of paleomagnetism (Ricordel et al, 2007). From this layout and dating, it is deduced that albitization is related to the development of a deep weathering profile (up to 150 m deep) during a long-lasting exposure of the Triassic erosional unconformity (regolith). Geochemistry and paleoenvironmental setting It has to be highlighted that, this alteration may not behave like an "ordinary" weathering profile and occurred under unusual, or at least very specific, geological settings. The scale of the profiles (over 100 m depth) relates this alteration rather to a groundwater environment. The weak mobility of most chemical elements may point to a groundwater with very low outflows and deep water table. This may occur in very subdued landscape and in arid climatic conditions. It has also to be pointed that this alteration may have lasted for several 10's of Ma. Albite formation at low temperature may be envisioned consequently in alkaline, confined waters with sufficient concentrations of sodium and silica. Early attempts of modeling (Schmitt, 1994) have also indicated that a high Na+/K+ ratio is as well probably required. Petrographic data also indicate an import of sodium by the weathering solutions, without any clear enrichment in potassium. The Na+ enrichment is most likely linked with the peculiar geochemic

  1. Coevolution of strategy-selection time scale and cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Zhihai; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Chen, Guanrong

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate a networked prisoner's dilemma game where individuals' strategy-selection time scale evolves based on their historical learning information. We show that the more times the current strategy of an individual is learnt by his neighbors, the longer time he will stick on the successful behavior by adaptively adjusting the lifetime of the adopted strategy. Through characterizing the extent of success of the individuals with normalized payoffs, we show that properly using the learned information can form a positive feedback mechanism between cooperative behavior and its lifetime, which can boost cooperation on square lattices and scale-free networks.

  2. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of the Syracuse Athena Temple: Scale Invariance in the Timing of Ruptures

    SciTech Connect

    Niccolini, G.; Carpinteri, A.; Lacidogna, G.; Manuello, A.

    2011-03-11

    We perform a comparative statistical analysis between the acoustic-emission time series from the ancient Greek Athena temple in Syracuse and the sequence of nearby earthquakes. We find an apparent association between acoustic-emission bursts and the earthquake occurrence. The waiting-time distributions for acoustic-emission and earthquake time series are described by a unique scaling law indicating self-similarity over a wide range of magnitude scales. This evidence suggests a correlation between the aging process of the temple and the local seismic activity.

  3. Can inertial electrostatic confinement work beyond the ion-ion collisional time scale?

    SciTech Connect

    Nevins, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Inertial electrostatic confinement systems are predicated on a non-equilibrium ion distribution function. Coulomb collisions between ions cause this distribution to relax to a Maxwellian on the ion-ion collisional time-scale. The power required to prevent this relaxation and maintain the IEC configuration for times beyond the ion-ion collisional time scale is shown to be at least an order of magnitude greater than the fusion power produced. It is concluded that IEC systems show little promise as a basis for the development of commercial electric power plants.

  4. Calibration of the geologic time scale: Cenozoic and Late Cretaceous glauconite and nonglauconite dates compared

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, L.E.; Smith, A.G. ); Armstrong, R.L. )

    1989-09-01

    Revision of the 1982 time scale of Harland et al. has led to the compilation of 377 isotopic dates for calibration of the Cenozoic to Cretaceous time interval. The results show that the ages of stage boundaries based on glauconite dates are on average about 2 m.y. younger than those based on nonglauconite dates, but for many Cenozoic and Late Cretaceous stages the differences are too small to require special consideration of glauconite dates. Future work may reveal an irreducible systematic difference between glauconite and nonglauconite time scales, but the progress made so far in recognizing those glauconites likely to yield reliable dates for the Cenozoic to Late Cretaceous interval may continue to provide useful time-scale calibration points.

  5. Water balance modeling over variable time scales based on the Budyko framework Model development and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Potter, Nick; Hickel, Klaus; Zhang, Yongqiang; Shao, Quanxi

    2008-10-01

    SummaryPartitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and runoff is controlled by climate and catchment characteristics. The degree of control exerted by these factors varies with the spatial and temporal scales of processes modeled. The Budyko framework or the "limits" concept was used to model water balance at four temporal scales (mean annual, annual, monthly and daily). The method represents a top-down approach to hydrologic modeling and is expected to achieve parsimony of model parameters. Daily precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and streamflow from 265 catchments in Australia were used. On a mean annual basis, the index of dryness defined as the ratio of potential evapotranspiration to precipitation was confirmed to be a dominant factor in determining the water balance with one model parameter. Analysis of the data, however, suggested increased model complexity is necessary on finer time scale such as monthly. In response, the Budyko framework for mean annual water balance was extended to include additional factors and this resulted in a parsimonious lumped conceptual model on shorter-time scale. The model was calibrated and tested against measured streamflow at variable time scales and showed promising results. The strengths of the model are consistent water balance relationships across different time scales, and model parsimony and robustness. As result, the model has the potential to be used to predict streamflow for ungauged catchments.

  6. Discovery of a Triassic magmatic arc source for the Permo-Triassic Karakaya subduction complex, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Ustaömer, Timur; Gerdes, Axel; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Zulauf, Gernold

    2014-05-01

    The Permo-Triassic Karakaya Complex is well explained by northward subduction of Palaeotethys but until now no corresponding magmatic arc has been identified in the region. With the aim of determining the compositions and ages of the source units, ten sandstone samples were collected from the mappably distinct Ortaoba, Hodul, Kendirli and Orhanlar Units. Zircon grains were extracted from these sandstones and >1300 were dated by the U-Pb method and subsequently analysed for the Lu-Hf isotopic compositions by LA-MC-ICPMS at Goethe University, Frankfurt. The U-Pb-Hf isotope systematics are indicative of two different sediment provenances. The first, represented by the Ortaoba, Hodul and Kendirli Units, is dominated by igneous rocks of Triassic (250-220 Ma), Early Carboniferous-Early Permian (290-340 Ma) and Early to Mid-Devonian (385-400 Ma) ages. The second provenance, represented by the Orhanlar Unit, is indicative of derivation from a peri-Gondwanan terrane. In case of the first provenance, the Devonian and Carboniferous source rocks exibit intermediate eHf(t) values (-11 to -3), consistent with the formation at a continental margin where juvenile mantle-derived magmas mixed with (recycled) old crust having Palaeoproterozoic Hf model ages. In contrast, the Triassic arc magma exhibits higher eHf(t) values (-6 to +6), consistent with the mixing of juvenile mantle-derived melts with (recycled) old crust perhaps somewhat rejuvanated during the Cadomian period. We have therefore identified a Triassic magmatic arc as predicted by the interpretation of the Karakaya Complex as an accretionary complex related to northward subduction (Carboniferous and Devonian granites are already well documented in NW Turkey). Possible explanations for the lack of any outcrop of the source magmatic arc are that it was later subducted or the Karakaya Complex was displaced laterally from its source arc (both post 220 Ma). Strike-slip displacement (driven by oblique subduction?) can also explain the presence of two different sandstone source areas as indicated by the combined U-Pb-Hf isotope and supporting petrographic data. This study was supported by TUBITAK, Project no: 111R015

  7. Space and time scales of shoreline change at Cape Cod National Seashore, MA, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.R.; LaBash, C.L.; List, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Different processes cause patterns of shoreline change which are exhibited at different magnitudes and nested into different spatial and time scale hierarchies. The 77-km outer beach at Cape Cod National Seashore offers one of the few U.S. federally owned portions of beach to study shoreline change within the full range of sediment source and sink relationships, and barely affected by human intervention. 'Mean trends' of shoreline changes are best observed at long time scales but contain much spatial variation thus many sites are not equal in response. Long-term, earlier-noted trends are confirmed but the added quantification and resolution improves greatly the understanding of appropriate spatial and time scales of those processes driving bluff retreat and barrier island changes in both north and south depocenters. Shorter timescales allow for comparison of trends and uncertainty in shoreline change at local scales but are dependent upon some measure of storm intensity and seasonal frequency. Single-event shoreline survey results for one storm at daily intervals after the erosional phase suggest a recovery time for the system of six days, identifies three sites with abnormally large change, and that responses at these sites are spatially coherent for now unknown reasons. Areas near inlets are the most variable at all time scales. Hierarchies in both process and form are suggested.

  8. New constraints on space-time Planck scale fluctuations from established high energy astronomy observations

    E-print Network

    R. Le Gallou

    2003-10-31

    The space-time metric is widely believed to be subject to stochastic fluctuations induced by quantum gravity at the Planck scale. This work is based on two different phenomenological approaches being currently made to this topic, and theoretical models which describe this phenomenon are not dealt with here. By using the idea developed in one of these two approaches in the framework of the other one, it is shown that the constraints on the nature of Planck scale space-time fluctuations already set by the observation of electrons and gamma-rays with energies above 15 TeV are much stronger than have been shown so far. It is concluded that for the kind of Planck scale fluctuations implied by several models, including the most naive one, to be consistent with the observations, the transformation laws between different reference frames must be modified in order to let the Planck scale be observer-independent.

  9. A Carapace-Like Bony ‘Body Tube’ in an Early Triassic Marine Reptile and the Onset of Marine Tetrapod Predation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-hong; Motani, Ryosuke; Cheng, Long; Jiang, Da-yong; Rieppel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Parahupehsuchus longus is a new species of marine reptile from the Lower Triassic of Yuan’an County, Hubei Province, China. It is unique among vertebrates for having a body wall that is completely surrounded by a bony tube, about 50 cm long and 6.5 cm deep, comprising overlapping ribs and gastralia. This tube and bony ossicles on the back are best interpreted as anti-predatory features, suggesting that there was predation pressure upon marine tetrapods in the Early Triassic. There is at least one sauropterygian that is sufficiently large to feed on Parahupehsuchus in the Nanzhang-Yuan’an fauna, together with six more species of potential prey marine reptiles with various degrees of body protection. Modern predators of marine tetrapods belong to the highest trophic levels in the marine ecosystem but such predators did not always exist through geologic time. The indication of marine-tetrapod feeding in the Nanzhang-Yuan’an fauna suggests that such a trophic level emerged for the first time in the Early Triassic. The recovery from the end-Permian extinction probably proceeded faster than traditionally thought for marine predators. Parahupehsuchus has superficially turtle-like features, namely expanded ribs without intercostal space, very short transverse processes, and a dorsal outgrowth from the neural spine. However, these features are structurally different from their turtle counterparts. Phylogeny suggests that they are convergent with the condition in turtles, which has a fundamentally different body plan that involves the folding of the body wall. Expanded ribs without intercostal space evolved at least twice and probably even more among reptiles. PMID:24718682

  10. Intra-platformal organic-rich facies of the Alpine Triassic

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, M.T.

    1988-08-01

    During the Middle and Late Triassic, large areas of the Alpine-Mediterranean region were blanketed by carbonate-platform systems that developed prior to the initiation of major rifting that ultimately produced the Ligurian Tethys Ocean. Field studies reveal that the stratigraphic record of these platforms includes a number of locally developed beds, in particular of Ladinian and late Norian-Rhaetian age, characterized by the preferential preservation of organic carbon in a range of facies, from subtidal right through to stromatolitic units conventionally referred to as inter/supratidal environments. This heightened carbon preservation is most strikingly developed in Ladinian and Norian-Rhaetian deposits of intraplatformal depressions with limited area (up to 1,000 km/sup 2/). These successions can approach 500 m thick and commonly consist of dark interbedded shales, limestones, and/or dolomite with 1 to 5% organic carbon, depending on carbonate dilution. With hydrogen indices up to 500 mg HC/g and S/sub 2/ pyrolysis yields in the range of 5-20 kg/MT, they clearly have considerable bulk petroleum source potential. In condensed sections these values may be greatly exceeded. The carbon-rich sequences were usually associated with Mesozoic structural highs which received relatively thin post-Triassic cover and as a consequence were commonly pushed into the oil window in the latest flysch phases, i.e., post-Alpine deformation. Thus not only were the source horizons surrounded by abundant carbonate reservoirs, but also any secondary migration should have occurred at a time when potential structural traps were stable.

  11. The Osteology of the Basal Archosauromorph Tasmaniosaurus triassicus from the Lower Triassic of Tasmania, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ezcurra, Martín D.

    2014-01-01

    Proterosuchidae are the most taxonomically diverse archosauromorph reptiles sampled in the immediate aftermath of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction and represent the earliest radiation of Archosauriformes (archosaurs and closely related species). Proterosuchids are potentially represented by approximately 15 nominal species collected from South Africa, China, Russia, Australia and India, but the taxonomic content of the group is currently in a state of flux because of the poor anatomic and systematic information available for several of its putative members. Here, the putative proterosuchid Tasmaniosaurus triassicus from the Lower Triassic of Hobart, Tasmania (Australia), is redescribed. The holotype and currently only known specimen includes cranial and postcranial remains and the revision of this material sheds new light on the anatomy of the animal, including new data on the cranial endocast. Several bones are re-identified or reinterpreted, contrasting with the descriptions of previous authors. The new information provided here shows that Tasmaniosaurus closely resembles the South African proterosuchid Proterosuchus, but it differed in the presence of, for example, a slightly downturned premaxilla, a shorter anterior process of maxilla, and a diamond-shaped anterior end of interclavicle. Previous claims for the presence of gut contents in the holotype of Tasmaniosaurus are considered ambiguous. The description of the cranial endocast of Tasmaniosaurus provides for the first time information about the anatomy of this region in proterosuchids. The cranial endocast preserves possibly part of the vomero-nasal (?=?Jacobson’s) system laterally to the olfactory bulbs. Previous claims of the absence of the vomero-nasal organs in archosaurs, which is suggested by the extant phylogenetic bracket, are questioned because its absence in both clades of extant archosaurs seems to be directly related with the independent acquisition of a non-ground living mode of life. PMID:24497988

  12. Enstrophy bounds and the range of space-time scales in the hydrostatic primitive equations

    E-print Network

    J. D. Gibbon; D. D. Holm

    2011-09-14

    The hydrostatic primitive equations (HPE) form the basis of most numerical weather, climate and global ocean circulation models. Analytical (not statistical) methods are used to find a scaling proportional to $(Nu\\,Ra\\,Re)^{1/4}$ for the range of horizontal spatial sizes in HPE solutions, which is much broader than currently achievable computationally. The range of scales for the HPE is determined from an analytical bound on the time-averaged enstrophy of the horizontal circulation. This bound allows the formation of very small spatial scales, whose existence would excite unphysically large linear oscillation frequencies and gravity wave speeds.

  13. Time Scale for Cold-Air Pool Breakup by Turbulent Erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Shiyuan; Bian, Xindi; Whiteman, Charles D.

    2003-08-01

    Turbulent erosion has been proposed as a major mechanism for removing wintertime cold-air pools (CAPs) from basins and valleys. The time scales involved in this erosion process, which are of great interest for winter weather forecasting, have not been studied systematically in the past. In this short contribution, a semi-analytical model is developed to estimate the time required for the dissipation of cold air pools from above by downward micro-scale turbulent erosion for different wind speeds aloft, different static stabilities inside the cold pool, and for different basin cross sections. The calculations show that micro-scale turbulent erosion is a rather slow process and that the erosion rate decreases rapidly with time as static stability increases in the capping inversion at the top of the cold pool. The rate of erosion is determined mainly by wind speed above the CAP and the temperature inversion strength inside the CAP; it is less sensitive to the shape of the topography. Shallow CAPs of a few tens of meters in depth with a weak inversion may be removed in a matter of hours if winds aloft are sufficiently strong to initiate and maintain turbulent mixing. It is unlikely, however, that deeper CAPs with a moderate to strong inversion can be destroyed by micro-scale turbulent erosion unless combined with other regional and synoptic-scale processes that produce larger-scale turbulent mixing.

  14. Precise Re-Os age and low initial 187Os/188Os for latest Permian black shales from the mid-Norwegian shelf herald the Permo-Triassic extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, S.; Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.; Bingen, B.; Xu, G.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, A.; Weiss, H. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Permo-Triassic boundary records a profound chemical transition and the largest mass extinction in Earth history. Understanding the causal events requires detailed examination of bio/chemo stratigraphic changes precisely pinned in absolute time. Here we report Re-Os isotopic results for well-defined black shale horizons within the Upper Permian marine succession from the Mid-Norwegian shelf: (1) a high-precision Re-Os depositional age and (2) a record of the changes in the Os isotopic composition of seawater at the onset of the Permo-Triassic extinction. Drill core penetrating a Permian-Triassic turbidite succession on the Trøndelag platform, offshore mid-Norway, provided nine organic rich (~3.5% TOC) shale samples over a ca. 30 cm interval. The Re-Os isochron age associated with these samples is extremely precise (< 1 m.y. uncertainty) at 253 Ma with an MSWD near unity. These data place a precise time pin in the studied section and the presumably correlative onshore exposures of the Ravnefjeld formation in East Greenland, indicating deposition of these shales immediately before the catastrophic changes at the Permo-Triassic boundary. Accompanying the isochron regression is a well-determined initial 187Os/188Os ratio of ca. 0.5, notably lower than seawater in the Lower Triassic (Xu et al. 2009). This Os isotopic composition for latest Permian seawater suggests an increase in mantle (or meteoric) material and/or a markedly reduced supply of eroded continental material heralding the up-coming extinction event. These Permian black shales are considered as alternative or complementary source rocks for some of the oil resources in the Norwegian Sea. Our work confirms geographically extensive Upper Permian black shale across the shelves of East Greenland and Norway, implying a major anoxia at the northern margin of Pangea shortly before the Permo-Triassic mass extinction. Xu et al. (2009) GCA, v. 73, no. 13. p. A1463

  15. Loop formation in unfolded polypeptide chains on the picoseconds to microseconds time scale

    PubMed Central

    Fierz, Beat; Satzger, Helmut; Root, Christopher; Gilch, Peter; Zinth, Wolfgang; Kiefhaber, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Intrachain loop formation allows unfolded polypeptide chains to search for favorable interactions during protein folding. We applied triplet–triplet energy transfer between a xanthone moiety and naphthylalanine to directly measure loop formation in various unfolded polypeptide chains with loop regions consisting of polyserine, poly(glycine–serine) or polyproline. By combination of femtosecond and nanosecond laserflash experiments loop formation could be studied over many orders of magnitude in time from picoseconds to microseconds. The results reveal processes on different time scales indicating motions on different hierarchical levels of the free energy surface. A minor (<15%) very fast reaction with a time constant of ?3 ps indicates equilibrium conformations with donor and acceptor in contact at the time of the laserflash. Complex kinetics of loop formation were observed on the 50- to 500-ps time scale, which indicate motions within a local well on the energy landscape. Conformations within this well can form loops by undergoing local motions without having to cross major barriers. Exponential kinetics observed on the 10- to 100-ns time scale are caused by diffusional processes involving large-scale motions that allow the polypeptide chain to explore the complete conformational space. These results indicate that the free energy landscape for unfolded polypeptide chains and native proteins have similar properties. The presence of local energy minima reduces the conformational space and accelerates the conformational search for energetically favorable local intrachain contacts. PMID:17284588

  16. Reconciling Changes to the Geologic Time Scale, in the U.S. Geologic Names Lexicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soller, D. R.; Stamm, N. R.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geologic Names Lexicon ("Geolex", http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Geolex/), is a standard reference for the Nation's stratigraphic nomenclature. Geolex's content is drawn from the literature published since the late 1800's. Since that time, modifications to the geologic time scale have been significant, particularly in recent decades (e.g., the Ordovician, Carboniferous, Permian, and Quaternary), owing in part to more precise biostratigraphic zonations and advances in isotopic dating techniques. Because the definitions of geologic time intervals have been modified as more information is gathered, interpreted, and published, the geologic age of a unit as stated in a report published in, for example, 1950, may be different according to today's time scale. In order to ensure that people can search Geolex for geologic units according to today's time scale, we have updated to the modern time scale the age estimates for many geologic units. These updated age estimates are shown in Geolex's "Unit Summary" pages; the ages as originally determined are preserved in the synopsis for each publication. This presentation will focus on our methodology.

  17. Signal duration and the time scale dependence of signal integration in biochemical pathways

    E-print Network

    Jason W. Locasale

    2008-02-19

    Signal duration (e.g. the time scales over which an active signaling intermediate persists) is a key regulator of biological decisions in myriad contexts such as cell growth, proliferation, and developmental lineage commitments. Accompanying differences in signal duration are numerous downstream biological processes that require multiple steps of biochemical regulation. Here, we present an analysis that investigates how simple biochemical motifs that involve multiple stages of regulation can be constructed to differentially process signals that persist at different time scales. We compute the dynamic gain within these networks and resulting power spectra to better understand how biochemical networks can integrate signals at different time scales. We identify topological features of these networks that allow for different frequency dependent signal processing properties. Our studies suggest design principles for why signal duration in connection with multiple steps of downstream regulation is a ubiquitous control motif in biochemical systems.

  18. Fractal patterns in riverbed morphology produce fractal scaling of water storage times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubeneau, A. F.; Martin, R. L.; Bolster, D.; Schumer, R.; Jerolmack, D.; Packman, A.

    2015-07-01

    River topography is famously fractal, and the fractality of the sediment bed surface can produce scaling in solute residence time distributions. Empirical evidence showing the relationship between fractal bed topography and scaling of hyporheic travel times is still lacking. We performed experiments to make high-resolution observations of streambed topography and solute transport over naturally formed sand bedforms in a large laboratory flume. We analyzed the results using both numerical and theoretical models. We found that fractal properties of the bed topography do indeed affect solute residence time distributions. Overall, our experimental, numerical, and theoretical results provide evidence for a coupling between the sand-bed topography and the anomalous transport scaling in rivers. Larger bedforms induced greater hyporheic exchange and faster pore water turnover relative to smaller bedforms, suggesting that the structure of legacy morphology may be more important to solute and contaminant transport in streams and rivers than previously recognized.

  19. Predicting Regional Drought on Sub-Seasonal to Decadal Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Suarez, Max; Koster, Randal

    2011-01-01

    Drought occurs on a wide range of time scales, and within a variety of different types of regional climates. It is driven foremost by an extended period of reduced precipitation, but it is the impacts on such quantities as soil moisture, streamflow and crop yields that are often most important from a users perspective. While recognizing that different users have different needs for drought information, it is nevertheless important to understand that progress in predicting drought and satisfying such user needs, largely hinges on our ability to improve predictions of precipitation. This talk reviews our current understanding of the physical mechanisms that drive precipitation variations on subseasonal to decadal time scales, and the implications for predictability and prediction skill. Examples are given highlighting the phenomena and mechanisms controlling precipitation on monthly (e.g., stationary Rossby waves, soil moisture), seasonal (ENSO) and decadal time scales (PD and AMO).

  20. Re-evaluation of the epicontinental paradigm for genesis of the Triassic succession in southern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamini, Chaim; Korngreen, Dorit; Bialik, Or

    2014-05-01

    The Middle and Late Triassic succession in southern Israel has been regarded as part of the epicontinental marginal marine zone of the Gondwanan margin. This scenario is at odds with field evidence in southern Israel. The clastic-dominated Pelsonian succession and the carbonate-evaporite late Anisian to Carnian successions were largely marine low energy settings below storm wave base. ?13C values occur within a range characteristic of the Triassic open marine environment. Some deeper settings were marked by downslope transport to the deep ramp. Sea level falls are evidenced by shallowing to proximal subtidal zones of wave or storm activity. Subaerial exposure features are absent except in the late Pelsonian, when rate of sedimentation of continental clastics briefly exceeded subsidence, and at the termination of tectonic subsidence in the Carnian, when evaporites were superseded by prograding microbialites. Early Pelsonian mixed siliciclastic/carbonate sediments initially accumulated below storm wave base. Sea level fall and aridization in the hinterland led briefly to reduction of siliciclastic influx, This transition was in the lower --Balatonicus ammonoid zone, correlative to a Bithynian/ Pelsonian humid pulse followed by a Pelsonian semi-arid regime recorded elsewhere in the Tethys. Subsequent increased rainfall and concomitant siliciclastic influx caused delta progradation and inhibition of carbonates. The delta front zone was mostly below or near fair weather wave base, with the proximal subtidal zone reached only at the time of sea level fall. Rising sea level of the later Pelsonian led to flooding of clastic-dominated deltaic lagoons and the increasingly carbonate-dominated, fully marine settings of the Illyrian and Fassanian. The Longobardian stromatolitic and incipient evaporite facies indicate both lowered sea-level and climate change to aridity. Ocean connectivity fluctuated between deep hypersaline waters pooled behind a deep barrier at sea-level highstands, and stromatolite-dominated biofacies during lowstands. The low overall rate of sedimentation was consistent with condensation. In the Longobardian, thin clastic-type evaporite horizons are interbedded with fossiliferous carbonates. Evaporites vs. carbonates formed on the proximal shallow margins of the basin according to whether climate was arid or humid, and were transported downslope. An early Carnian carbonate-free interval indicates a humid pulse, followed by development of thick cycles of shale, dolomite, and laminated gypsarenite, the latter representing resedimented evaporite crystals on the deep ramp and toe of slope of a subsiding basin. Subsidence terminated in aggrading subtidal microbialites beneath a major regional truncation surface. Termination of differential subsidence in the latest Carnian - Norian is coeval across Israel from south to north, but coincides with establishment of a reefal succession on the northwestern Israel coast. The Triassic succession of southern Israel formed within a varied bathymetric shelf-edge depositional setting of variably restricted basins and highs, responding to eustatic sea level changes, remote climate conditions and events, and local and regional tectonic movements. The dominance of deep, open water settings calls into question the extensive ramp- or platform- like nature assumed for epicontinental marine environments of the Triassic in Israel.

  1. The time scale of the silicate weathering negative feedback on atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbourn, G.; Ridgwell, A.; Lenton, T. M.

    2015-05-01

    The ultimate fate of CO2 added to the ocean-atmosphere system is chemical reaction with silicate minerals and burial as marine carbonates. The time scale of this silicate weathering negative feedback on atmospheric pCO2 will determine the duration of perturbations to the carbon cycle, be they geological release events or the current anthropogenic perturbation. However, there has been little previous work on quantifying the time scale of the silicate weathering feedback, with the primary estimate of 300-400 kyr being traceable to an early box model study by Sundquist (1991). Here we employ a representation of terrestrial rock weathering in conjunction with the "GENIE" (Grid ENabled Integrated Earth system) model to elucidate the different time scales of atmospheric CO2 regulation while including the main climate feedbacks on CO2 uptake by the ocean. In this coupled model, the main dependencies of weathering—runoff, temperature, and biological productivity—were driven from an energy-moisture balance atmosphere model and parameterized plant productivity. Long-term projections (1 Myr) were conducted for idealized scenarios of 1000 and 5000 PgC fossil fuel emissions and their sensitivity to different model parameters was tested. By fitting model output to a series of exponentials we determined the e-folding time scale for atmospheric CO2 drawdown by silicate weathering to be ˜240 kyr (range 170-380 kyr), significantly less than existing quantifications. Although the time scales for reequilibration of global surface temperature and surface ocean pH are similar to that for CO2, a much greater proportion of the peak temperature anomaly persists on this longest time scale; ˜21% compared to ˜10% for CO2.

  2. Vibro-Acoustic Signature Comparison and Time-Warping Correction with Multi-Scale Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léonard, François; Foata, Marc; Paquin, Jean-Yves

    2000-05-01

    A vibro-acoustic signature in the context of power transformer tap-changers comprises a burst of transients generated by a sequence of electromechanical events. Comparison of vibro-acoustic signatures lacks precision unless the events in the sequence are synchronised to make juxtaposition of the signatures possible. Time warping offers a solution of this problem in that it temporally reorganises the position of the elements of one of the signatures so that it matches the time frame of the other. Furthermore, the scale of the time warp has a useful diagnostic function. However, the dynamic time-warping (DTW) algorithm used in speech processing is inapplicable in the context of electrical switchgear since some discontinuities are present in the time frame. To overcome this DTW limitation, we propose a multi-scale correlation algorithm which processes these discontinuities adequately and allows us to find the time relationship between the events of two signatures. This paper presents the operating principle of both these algorithms along with results that bear witness to the sharp time-warping correction obtained with multi-scale correlation. This correlation can even correct the order of appearance of events so that the time sequences are juxtaposed and comparison of signatures can be undertaken.

  3. Lie-point symmetries of the Lagrangian system on time scales

    E-print Network

    Cai Ping-Ping; Song-Duan; Fu Jing-Li; Hong Fang-Yu

    2012-12-11

    This letter investigates the Lie point symmetries and conserved quantities of the Lagrangian systems on time scales, which unify the Lie symmetries of the two cases for the continuous and the discrete Lagrangian systems. By defining the infinitesimal transformations' generators and using the invariance of differential equations under infinitesimal transformations, the determining equations of the Lie symmetries on time scales are established. Then the structure equations and the form of conserved quantities with delta derivatives are obtained. The letter also gives brief discussion on the Lie symmetries for the discrete systems. Finally, several examples are designed to illustrate these results.

  4. IUE program SUGSD: Varability time scale of H Ly-alpha from Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrance, Samuel T.; Clarke, J. T.; Moss, H. W.; Boyer, S.

    1988-01-01

    The scientific motivation for this program was to determine the time scale for the variability of the H Lyman-alpha emission from Uranus. The purpose of this series of observation is to determine its variability on shorter time scales. A series of observations was carried out in coordination with ESA to cover as completely as possible one 24 hour period of the Uranian H Lyman-alpha emission. The observations were obtained on April 23 and 24. Two additional ovservations on April 25 and 26 were obtained to search for longer term trends. A small modulation in the brightness was observed and the results presented.

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamics Study on the Effects of RATO Timing on the Scale Model Acoustic Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Tanner; Williams, B.; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) is a 5% scale test of the Space Launch System (SLS), which is currently being designed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The purpose of this test is to characterize and understand a variety of acoustic phenomena that occur during the early portions of lift off, one being the overpressure environment that develops shortly after booster ignition. The SLS lift off configuration consists of four RS-25 liquid thrusters on the core stage, with two solid boosters connected to each side. Past experience with scale model testing at MSFC (in ER42), has shown that there is a delay in the ignition of the Rocket Assisted Take Off (RATO) motor, which is used as the 5% scale analog of the solid boosters, after the signal to ignite is given. This delay can range from 0 to 16.5ms. While this small of a delay maybe insignificant in the case of the full scale SLS, it can significantly alter the data obtained during the SMAT due to the much smaller geometry. The speed of sound of the air and combustion gas constituents is not scaled, and therefore the SMAT pressure waves propagate at approximately the same speed as occurs during full scale. However, the SMAT geometry is much smaller allowing the pressure waves to move down the exhaust duct, through the trench, and impact the vehicle model much faster than occurs at full scale. To better understand the effect of the RATO timing simultaneity on the SMAT IOP test data, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using the Loci/CHEM CFD software program. Five different timing offsets, based on RATO ignition delay statistics, were simulated. A variety of results and comparisons will be given, assessing the overall effect of RATO timing simultaneity on the SMAT overpressure environment.

  6. Stable carbon isotopes of C3 plant resins and ambers record changes in atmospheric oxygen since the Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappert, Ralf; McKellar, Ryan C.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Tappert, Michelle C.; Ortega-Blanco, Jaime; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2013-11-01

    Estimating the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen (pO2) in the geological past has been challenging because of the lack of reliable proxies. Here we develop a technique to estimate paleo-pO2 using the stable carbon isotope composition (?13C) of plant resins-including amber, copal, and resinite-from a wide range of localities and ages (Triassic to modern). Plant resins are particularly suitable as proxies because their highly cross-linked terpenoid structures allow the preservation of pristine ?13C signatures over geological timescales. The distribution of ?13C values of modern resins (n = 126) indicates that (a) resin-producing plant families generally have a similar fractionation behavior during resin biosynthesis, and (b) the fractionation observed in resins is similar to that of bulk plant matter. Resins exhibit a natural variability in ?13C of around 8‰ (?13C range: -31‰ to -23‰, mean: -27‰), which is caused by local environmental and ecological factors (e.g., water availability, water composition, light exposure, temperature, nutrient availability). To minimize the effects of local conditions and to determine long-term changes in the ?13C of resins, we used mean ?13C values (?13Cmeanresin) for each geological resin deposit. Fossil resins (n = 412) are generally enriched in 13C compared to their modern counterparts, with shifts in ?13Cmeanresin of up to 6‰. These isotopic shifts follow distinctive trends through time, which are unrelated to post-depositional processes including polymerization and diagenesis. The most enriched fossil resin samples, with a ?13Cmeanresin between -22‰ and -21‰, formed during the Triassic, the mid-Cretaceous, and the early Eocene. Experimental evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that neither change in pCO2 nor in the ?13C of atmospheric CO2 can account for the observed shifts in ?13Cmeanresin. The fractionation of 13C in resin-producing plants (?13C), instead, is primarily influenced by atmospheric pO2, with more fractionation occurring at higher pO2. The enriched ?13Cmeanresin values suggest that atmospheric pO2 during most of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic was considerably lower (pO2 = 10-20%) than today (pO2 = 21%). In addition, a correlation between the ?13Cmeanresin and the marine ?18O record implies that pO2, pCO2, and global temperatures were inversely linked, which suggests that intervals of low pO2 were generally accompanied by high pCO2 and elevated global temperatures. Intervals with the lowest inferred pO2, including the mid-Cretaceous and the early Eocene, were preceded by large-scale volcanism during the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs). This suggests that the influx of mantle-derived volcanic CO2 triggered an initial phase of warming, which led to an increase in oxidative weathering, thereby further increasing greenhouse forcing. This process resulted in the rapid decline of atmospheric pO2 during the mid-Cretaceous and the early Eocene greenhouse periods. After the cessation in LIP volcanism and the decrease in oxidative weathering rates, atmospheric pO2 levels continuously increased over tens of millions of years, whereas CO2 levels and temperatures continuously declined. These findings suggest that atmospheric pO2 had a considerable impact on the evolution of the climate on Earth, and that the ?13C of fossil resins can be used as a novel tool to assess the changes of atmospheric compositions since the emergence of resin-producing plants in the Paleozoic.

  7. Recovery vs. Restructuring: Establishing Ecologic Patterns in Early and Middle Triassic Paleocommunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraiser, M.; Dineen, A.; Sheehan, P.

    2013-12-01

    Published data has been interpreted as indicating that marine ecological devastation following the end-Permian mass extinction was protracted and may have lasted 5 million years into the Middle Triassic (Anisian). However, a review of previous literature shows that understanding of biotic recovery is typically based on only a few components of the ecosystem, such as on taxonomic diversity, a single genus/phylum, or facies. Typically, paleocommunities are considered fully recovered when dominance and diversity are regained and normal ecosystem functioning has resumed. However, in addition to the biodiversity crash at the end of the Permian, taxonomic and ecologic structure also changed,with the extinction marking the faunal shift from brachiopod-rich Paleozoic Evolutionary Fauna (EF) to the mollusc-rich Modern EF. This suggests that the extreme reorganizational nature of the Triassic does not adhere to the standard definition of recovery, which is a return to previous conditions. Thus, we propose the term 'restructuring' to describe this interval, as Early and Middle Triassic communities might not exhibit the typical characteristics of a 'normal' Permian one. To more fully characterize Triassic ecologic restructuring, paleoecologists should take into account functional diversity and redundancy. We quantified functional richness and regularity in four different paleocommunities from classic Permian and Triassic sections. Functional richness was low in paleocommunities after the end-Permian mass extinction, but increased to high levels by the Middle Triassic. In contrast, functional regularity was low in the Middle Permian, but high in all the Triassic paleocommunities. The change from low to high functional regularity/redundancy at the P/T boundary may be a factor of the highly stressful Triassic environmental conditions (i.e. anoxia, hypercapnia), as high regularity in a community can boost survival in harsh environments. Parameters such as these will more accurately establish if the biotic patterns represent either failed biotic restructuring or a fully restructured marine community adapted to harsh Triassic environments.

  8. Absoluteness of Velocity Produced by Accelerating Process and Absolute Space-time Theory with Variable Scales

    E-print Network

    Mei Xiaochun

    2006-03-03

    It is proved by means of the dynamical effects of special relativity that velocity caused by accelerating process is not a relative concept. The influence of accelerating process should be considered in space-time theory. Besides the Newtonian absolute space-time theory with invariable space-time scales and the Einstein relative space-time theory with variable space-time scales, there exists the third space-time theory, i.e., the absolute space-time theory with variable space-time scales. At present, special relativity is divided into two parts, kinematics and dynamics. In kinematics, force and acceleration are not considered so that space and time becomes relative concepts. This division is completely artificial and irrational. The rational space-time theory should be established on the foundation of dynamics consistently. The changing rules of space, time and mass with speed should be dependent of accelerating processes and with absolute significance. The real meaning of invariability principle of high speed should be that we can not make the speed of an object speed with rest mass reach and exceed the speed of light in vacuum by the method of accelerating object. It is proved that the absolutely resting reference frame exists. In order to eliminate multifarious space-time paradoxes in special relativity, and coincide with Big-bang cosmology, the absolutely resting frame is necessary. A method is put forward to look for the absolutely resting reference frame. The isotropy reference frame of cosmic microwave background radiation can be regarded as the absolutely resting reference frame actually at present.

  9. Streamflow response of a small forested catchment on different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabaleta, A.; Antigüedad, I.

    2012-08-01

    The hydrological response of a catchment to rainfall on different time scales is result of a complex system involving a range of physical processes which may operate simultaneously and have different spatial and temporal influences. This paper presents the analysis of streamflow response of a small humid-temperate catchment (Aixola, 4.8 km2) in the Basque Country on different time scales and discusses the role of the controlling factors. Firstly, daily time series analysis was used to establish a hypothesis on the general functioning of the catchment through the relationship between precipitation and discharge on an annual and multi-annual scale (2003-2008). Second, rainfall-runoff relationships and relationships among several hydrological variables, including catchment antecedent conditions, were explored at the event scale (222 events) to check and improve the hypothesis. Finally, the evolution of electrical conductivity (EC) during some of the monitored storm events (28 events) was examined to identify the time-origin of waters. Quick response of the catchment to almost all the rainfall events as well as a considerable regulation capacity was deduced from the correlation and spectral analyses. These results agree with runoff event scale data analysis; however the event analysis revealed the non-linearity of the system, as antecedent conditions play a significant role in this catchment. Further, analysis at the event scale made possible to clarify factors controlling (precipitation, precipitation intensity and initial discharge) the different aspects of the runoff response (runoff coefficient and discharge increase) for this catchment. Finally, the evolution of EC of the waters enabled the time origin (event or pre-event waters) of the quickflow to be established; specifically, the conductivity showed that pre-event waters usually represent a high percentage of the total discharge during runoff peaks. The importance of soil waters in the catchment is being studied more deeply.

  10. Influence of climate change and marine chemistry on ecological shifts following the Triassic/Jurassic mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritterbush, K. A.; West, A. J.; Berelson, W.; Rosas, S.; Bottjer, D. J.; Yager, J. A.; Corsetti, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    Two aspects of the Triassic/Jurassic transition that seem incongruous are increasing warming and increasing ecological dominance by siliceous sponges on shallow shelves. Warming is interpreted from proxy data showing increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations associated with eruption pulses of the Central Atlantic Province (CAMP) basalts across rifting Pangea. Post-extinction ecological dominance by siliceous sponges is found in recent field investigations of Nevada and Peru, and literature on the Austrian Alps. Whereas evidence from the Panthalassan siliceous sponge ramps of the early Jurassic clearly records deposition on sub- and tropical shallow shelves (a warm environment), modern sponge occupations of comparable intensity exist only in deep and cold environments. Resolving this apparent contrast requires consideration of silica cycling. Silica is a limiting nutrient for siliceous sponges, and the post-extinction sponges of the earliest Jurassic show desmid spicule morphologies matching modern phenotypic indicators of high silica concentration. During the Triassic the major documented biosiliceous sink was radiolarian deep sea chert deposits despite a major species-level turnover at the extinction. Diatoms did not exist in the Triassic. A major alteration to silica cycling in the early Jurassic could have resulted from increased terrigenous supply for two reasons: increased atmospheric carbon dioxide would likely intensify continental weathering, and the extensive flood basalts produced an easily-weathered silica source. Simple box model calculations allow consideration of supply vs demand, and of the pace of possible changes. Potential weathering rates of silica are contrasted with recent published data on sponge silica sequestration, showing that the presence of the CAMP basalts alone could support increased sponge abundance across tropical carbonate shelves. Estimates of doubling and residence times in a simple one-box model show that the change in silica concentration likely occurred over hundred-thousand year timescales relevant to the post-extinction ecology. The influence of climate and weathering on marine chemistry and ecological opportunity presents an excellent example of interrelated Earth and life systems at a critical transition point.

  11. First evidence for Permian-Triassic boundary volcanism in the Northern Gemericum: geochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozárová, Anna; Presnyakov, Sergey; Šarinová, Katarína; Šmelko, Miloš

    2015-10-01

    Several magmatic events based on U-Pb zircon geochronology were recognized in the Permian sedimentary succession of the Northern Gemeric Unit (NGU). The Kungurian magmatic event is dominant. The later magmatism stage was documented at the Permian-Triassic boundary. The detrital zircon assemblages from surrounding sediments documented the Sakmarian magmatic age. The post-orogenic extensional/transtensional faulting controlled the magma ascent and its emplacement. The magmatic products are represented by the calc-alkaline volcanic rocks, ranging from basaltic metaandesite to metarhyolite, associated with subordinate metabasalt. The whole group of the studied NGU Permian metavolcanics has values for the Nb/La ratio at (0.44-0.27) and for the Nb/U ratio at (9.55-4.18), which suggests that they represent mainly crustal melts. Magma derivation from continental crust or underplated crust is also indicated by high values of Y/Nb ratios, ranging from 1.63 to 4.01. The new 206U-238Pb zircon ages (concordia age at 269 ± 7 Ma) confirm the dominant Kungurian volcanic event in the NGU Permian sedimentary basin. Simultaneously, the Permian-Triassic boundary volcanism at 251 ± 4 Ma has been found for the first time. The NGU Permian volcanic activity was related to a polyphase extensional tectonic regime. Based on the new and previous U-Pb zircon ages, the bulk of the NGU Permian magmatic activity occurred during the Sakmarian and Kungurian. It was linked to the post-orogenic transpression/transtension tectonic movements that reflected the consolidation of the Variscan orogenic belt. The Permian-Triassic boundary magmatism was accompanied by extension, connected with the beginning of the Alpine Wilson cycle.

  12. Time and Space Scales of Variability of Sea Surface Salinity from Aquarius Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannshardt, E.; Bingham, F.; Sucic, K.; Fuentes, M.

    2012-12-01

    Using Aquarius level 2 sea surface salinity data, we have investigated the time and space scales of variability between 30S and 30N. Maps of standard deviations show agreement, in magnitude and pattern, with the World Ocean Atlas. A map of decorrelation time scale is consistent with the patterns of amplitude of the seasonal harmonic published by Bingham et al (2012) derived from historic in situ data. Aquarius decorrelation time scales range from 10-20 days in the mid-ocean to 80-100 days in the intertropical convergence zone. Calculation of skewness indicates that much of the ocean is skewed negative in the Aquarius data, as previously indicated by published estimates. Methods to account for the sampling bias and change-of-support issue between satellite data and smaller-scale rainfall events are also considered. To describe the tails of the distribution of salinity, a quantile-regression approach is explored. Finally, we look at along-track spatial scales of variability and find them in agreement with published estimates. The results of this study indicate that in the region studied (mid-ocean subtropics and tropics) the Aquarius data are in excellent agreement with in situ data in terms of simple statistical properties.

  13. Finite-time and finite-size scaling of the Kuramoto oscillators.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Jin; Yi, Su Do; Kim, Beom Jun

    2014-02-21

    Phase transition in its strict sense can only be observed in an infinite system, for which equilibration takes an infinitely long time at criticality. In numerical simulations, we are often limited both by the finiteness of the system size and by the finiteness of the observation time scale. We propose that one can overcome this barrier by measuring the nonequilibrium temporal relaxation for finite systems and by applying the finite-time-finite-size scaling (FTFSS) which systematically uses two scaling variables, one temporal and the other spatial. The FTFSS method yields a smooth scaling surface, and the conventional finite-size scaling curves can be viewed as proper cross sections of the surface. The validity of our FTFSS method is tested for the synchronization transition of Kuramoto models in the globally coupled structure and in the small-world network structure. Our FTFSS method is also applied to the Monte Carlo dynamics of the globally coupled q-state clock model. PMID:24579603

  14. Linking Time and Space Scales in Distributed Hydrological Modelling - a case study for the VIC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsen, Lieke; Teuling, Adriaan; Torfs, Paul; Zappa, Massimiliano; Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2015-04-01

    One of the famous paradoxes of the Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea (~450 BC) is the one with the arrow: If one shoots an arrow, and cuts its motion into such small time steps that at every step the arrow is standing still, the arrow is motionless, because a concatenation of non-moving parts does not create motion. Nowadays, this reasoning can be refuted easily, because we know that motion is a change in space over time, which thus by definition depends on both time and space. If one disregards time by cutting it into infinite small steps, motion is also excluded. This example shows that time and space are linked and therefore hard to evaluate separately. As hydrologists we want to understand and predict the motion of water, which means we have to look both in space and in time. In hydrological models we can account for space by using spatially explicit models. With increasing computational power and increased data availability from e.g. satellites, it has become easier to apply models at a higher spatial resolution. Increasing the resolution of hydrological models is also labelled as one of the 'Grand Challenges' in hydrology by Wood et al. (2011) and Bierkens et al. (2014), who call for global modelling at hyperresolution (~1 km and smaller). A literature survey on 242 peer-viewed articles in which the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model was used, showed that the spatial resolution at which the model is applied has decreased over the past 17 years: From 0.5 to 2 degrees when the model was just developed, to 1/8 and even 1/32 degree nowadays. On the other hand the literature survey showed that the time step at which the model is calibrated and/or validated remained the same over the last 17 years; mainly daily or monthly. Klemeš (1983) stresses the fact that space and time scales are connected, and therefore downscaling the spatial scale would also imply downscaling of the temporal scale. Is it worth the effort of downscaling your model from 1 degree to 1/24 degree, if in the end you only look at monthly runoff? In this study an attempt is made to link time and space scales in the VIC model, to study the added value of a higher spatial resolution-model for different time steps. In order to do this, four different VIC models were constructed for the Thur basin in North-Eastern Switzerland (1700 km²), a tributary of the Rhine: one lumped model, and three spatially distributed models with a resolution of respectively 1x1 km, 5x5 km, and 10x10 km. All models are run at an hourly time step and aggregated and calibrated for different time steps (hourly, daily, monthly, yearly) using a novel Hierarchical Latin Hypercube Sampling Technique (Vo?echovský, 2014). For each time and space scale, several diagnostics like Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, Kling-Gupta efficiency, all the quantiles of the discharge etc., are calculated in order to compare model performance over different time and space scales for extreme events like floods and droughts. Next to that, the effect of time and space scale on the parameter distribution can be studied. In the end we hope to find a link for optimal time and space scale combinations.

  15. Time Domain Optical Studies of Dynamics in Supercooled o-Terphenyl: Comparison to Mode Coupling Theory on Fast and Slow Time Scales

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Time Domain Optical Studies of Dynamics in Supercooled o-Terphenyl: Comparison to Mode Coupling Theory on Fast and Slow Time Scales S. D. Gottke, David D. Brace, G. Hinze, and M. D. Fayer* Department of temperatures and time scales using optical heterodyne detected optical Kerr effect techniques. A combination

  16. Transitions in effective scaling behavior of accelerometric time series across sleep and wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Patrick; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Zinkhan, Melanie; Schumann, Aicko Y.; Penzel, Thomas; Fietze, Ingo; Pillmann, Frank; Stang, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    We study the effective scaling behavior of high-resolution accelerometric time series recorded at the wrists and hips of 100 subjects during sleep and wake. Using spectral analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis we find long-term correlated fluctuations with a spectral exponent \\beta \\approx 1.0 (1/f noise). On short time scales, ? is larger during wake (\\approx 1.4 ) and smaller during sleep (\\approx 0.6 ). In addition, characteristic peaks at 0.2-0.3 Hz (due to respiration) and 4-10 Hz (probably due to physiological tremor) are observed in periods of weak activity. Because of these peaks, spectral analysis is superior in characterizing effective scaling during sleep, while detrending analysis performs well during wake. Our findings can be exploited to detect sleep-wake transitions.

  17. Lower Jurassic unconformity (J-O) from the Colorado Plateau to the eastern Mojave Desert: evidence of a major tectonic event at the close of the Triassic

    SciTech Connect

    Marzolf, J.E. )

    1991-04-01

    From southern Nevada to the eastern Mojave Desert, the Lower Jurassic basal unconformity (J-0) cuts down section from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation to deformed Paleozoic carbonate rocks. The Chinle Formation is not present southwest of the central Spring Mountians. Stratigraphic relations suggest correlation of J-0 with unconformities in western Arizona and the Inyo Mountains. Close proximity of J-0 in time and space to (1) first appearance of western-derived volcanic clasts in lower Mesozoic cratonal stratigraphy, (2) early Mesozoic thrust faults, and (3) the J-1 cusp in the apparent polar wander path imply a major change in tetonic setting of the southwestern Cordillera at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary.

  18. Paleomagnetic evidence for a Tertiary not Triassic age for rocks in the lower part of the Grober-Fuqua #1 well, southeastern Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, M.R.; Grauch, V.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    A sedimentary sequence penetrated in the lower part of the Grober-Fuqua #1 well in the southeastern Albuquerque Basin has previously been interpreted as either Triassic or Eocene in age. Paleomagnetic study of three specimens from two core fragments yielded a 54.5?? mean inclination of remanent magnetization relative to bedding. This inclination is like that expected in Tertiary time and is distinct from an expected low-angle Triassic inclination. Although the data are very few, when considered in combination with stratigraphic relations and the presence of a gravity low in this southeastern part of the basin, the paleomagnetic evidence favors a Tertiary age for strata in the lower part of the Grober-Fuqua #1 well.

  19. Lifetime of Anthropogenic Climate Change: Millennial Time Scales of Potential CO2 and Surface Temperature Perturbations

    E-print Network

    Lifetime of Anthropogenic Climate Change: Millennial Time Scales of Potential CO2 and Surface the lifetime of anthropogenic climate change will largely depend on the perturbation lifetime of CO2 be taken up rapidly by the land, through changes in soil and vege- tation carbon, and by dissolution

  20. Signatures of multiple time-scale behaviour in the power spectra of water

    E-print Network

    Ramaswamy, Ram

    Signatures of multiple time-scale behaviour in the power spectra of water Anirban Mudi Abstract Power spectra associated with fluctuations in the tagged particle potential and kinetic energies are analysed for bulk SPC/E water for a range of temperatures along the 1.0 g/cm3 isochore. Fluctuations

  1. Two time scale output feedback regulation for ill-conditioned systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Moerder, D. D.

    1986-01-01

    Issues pertaining to the well-posedness of a two time scale approach to the output feedback regulator design problem are examined. An approximate quadratic performance index which reflects a two time scale decomposition of the system dynamics is developed. It is shown that, under mild assumptions, minimization of this cost leads to feedback gains providing a second-order approximation of optimal full system performance. A simplified approach to two time scale feedback design is also developed, in which gains are separately calculated to stabilize the slow and fast subsystem models. By exploiting the notion of combined control and observation spillover suppression, conditions are derived assuring that these gains will stabilize the full-order system. A sequential numerical algorithm is described which obtains output feedback gains minimizing a broad class of performance indices, including the standard LQ case. It is shown that the algorithm converges to a local minimum under nonrestrictive assumptions. This procedure is adapted to and demonstrated for the two time scale design formulations.

  2. Dynamical robustness of biological networks with hierarchical distribution of time scales

    E-print Network

    Radulescu, Ovidiu

    useful ideas on robustness have been imported from the theory of control of dynamical systemsDynamical robustness of biological networks with hierarchical distribution of time scales A by biologists to explain a variety of stability phenomena in molecular biology are analysed. Then

  3. A Time-efficient Information Collection Protocol for Large-scale RFID Systems

    E-print Network

    Chen, Shigang

    applications. For example, consider a large chilled food storage facility, where sensor-enabled RFID tagsA Time-efficient Information Collection Protocol for Large-scale RFID Systems Hao Yue, Chi Zhang@, zhangchi@, miaopan@, fang@ece., sgchen@cise.}ufl.edu Abstract--Sensor-enabled RFID technology has generated

  4. Statistical Properties of Task Running Times in a Global-Scale Grid Environment

    E-print Network

    van der Mei, Rob

    Statistical Properties of Task Running Times in a Global-Scale Grid Environment Menno Dobber Vrije@few.vu.nl Abstract-- Over the years, the use of global grid environments have become widespread. In order to make applications robust against the dynamics of those grid environments it is essential to develop powerful

  5. Modeling of Large Scale RF-MEMS Circuits Using Efficient Time-Domain Techniques

    E-print Network

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Modeling of Large Scale RF-MEMS Circuits Using Efficient Time-Domain Techniques N. Bushyager, E Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332-0250, USA Abstract RF-MEMS design is made difficult due to the lack of tools capable of simulating both MEMS devices and their surrounding circuits

  6. Coarse-graining dynamics by telescoping down time-scales: comment for Faraday FD144

    E-print Network

    Ard A. Louis

    2010-01-07

    I briefly review some concepts related to coarse-graining methods for the dynamics of soft matter systems and argue that such schemes will almost always need to telescope down the physical hierarchy of time-scales to a more compressed, but more computationally manageable, separation.

  7. Large volume recycling of oceanic lithosphere over short time scales: geochemical constraints from the Caribbean Large

    E-print Network

    Graham, David W.

    Large volume recycling of oceanic lithosphere over short time scales: geochemical constraints from with derivation from recycled oceanic crust, while the depleted lavas are derived from a highly residual source source mantle could have been 9 500 Ma before CLIP formation and interpreted to reflect the recycling

  8. A WENO algorithm for radiative transfer with resonant scattering: the time scale of the

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Jingmei

    A WENO algorithm for radiative transfer with resonant scattering: the time scale of the Wouthuysen essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) scheme is suitable to handle this problem, as this algorithm has been found to be highly stable and robust for solving Boltzmann-like equations. We first show that the WENO solutions can

  9. How Much Energy Is Transferred from the Winds to the Thermocline on ENSO Time Scales?

    E-print Network

    How Much Energy Is Transferred from the Winds to the Thermocline on ENSO Time Scales? JACLYN N the winds (via wind power) and changes in the storage of available potential energy in the tropical ocean~o is characterized by a decrease in wind power that leads to a decrease in available potential energy, and hence

  10. time scale observed in some close binary systems (19), and tidal dissipation (20)

    E-print Network

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    time scale observed in some close binary systems (19), and tidal dissipation (20) may also cause). At this stage, the core of star A undergoes collapse, and the residual nuclear fuel is ignited to power aware that both tidal and general relativistic ef- fects will be important in this system

  11. Photoinduced electron transfer and geminate recombination in liquids on short time scales: Experiments and theory

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Photoinduced electron transfer and geminate recombination in liquids on short time scales 23 February 2006 The coupled processes of intermolecular photoinduced forward electron transfer of the donor excited state due to forward electron transfer and the survival kinetics of the radicals produced

  12. Disease dynamics over very different time-scales: foot-and-mouth disease and

    E-print Network

    Kiss, Istvan Zoltan

    Disease dynamics over very different time-scales: foot-and-mouth disease and scrapie on the network of livestock movements in the UK and the dynamics of two diseases: foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which has conditions, a static network analysis can be an appropriate tool for gaining insights into disease dynamics

  13. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Time Management for Exercise Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellsten, Laurie-ann M.; Rogers, W. Todd

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect preliminary validity evidence for a time management scale for exercise. An initial pool of 91 items was developed from existing literature. Ten exercise/health psychologists evaluated each of the items in terms of relevance and representativeness. Forty-nine items met all criteria. Exploratory factor…

  14. Terrestrial waters and sea level variations on interannual time scale W. Llovel a,

    E-print Network

    Terrestrial waters and sea level variations on interannual time scale W. Llovel a, , M. Becker expansion of sea waters and land ice loss are the main contributors to sea level variations. However also affect sea level. For the past decades, variations in land water storage and corresponding effects

  15. Numerical methods for large-scale time-dependent partial differential equations. [in fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, E.

    1980-01-01

    The factors that influence the choice of a numerical solution scheme for large-scale time-dependent partial differential equations are examined with emphasis on the treatment of boundaries. Consideration is given to standard boundary treatments, moving boundaries, and artificial boundaries simulating an infinite domain. Implicit methods and applications to specific problems are discussed with special attention to shocks and steady state solutions.

  16. Improving Building Performance at Urban Scale with a Framework for Real-time Data Sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Xiufeng; Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-06-03

    This paper describes work in progress toward an urban-scale system aiming to reduce energy use in neighboring buildings by providing three components: a database for accessing past and present weather data from high quality weather stations; a network for communicating energy-saving strategies between building owners; and a set of modeling tools for real-time building energy simulation.

  17. Thermal performance curves, phenotypic plasticity, and the time scales of temperature exposure.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Patricia M; Healy, Timothy M; Fangue, Nann A

    2011-11-01

    Thermal performance curves (TPCs) describe the effects of temperature on biological rate processes. Here, we use examples from our work on common killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) to illustrate some important conceptual issues relating to TPCs in the context of using these curves to predict the responses of organisms to climate change. Phenotypic plasticity has the capacity to alter the shape and position of the TPCs for acute exposures, but these changes can be obscured when rate processes are measured only following chronic exposures. For example, the acute TPC for mitochondrial respiration in killifish is exponential in shape, but this shape changes with acclimation. If respiration rate is measured only at the acclimation temperature, the TPC is linear, concealing the underlying mechanistic complexity at an acute time scale. These issues are particularly problematic when attempting to use TPCs to predict the responses of organisms to temperature change in natural environments. Many TPCs are generated using laboratory exposures to constant temperatures, but temperature fluctuates in the natural environment, and the mechanisms influencing performance at acute and chronic time scales, and the responses of the performance traits at these time scales may be quite different. Unfortunately, our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the responses of organisms to temperature change is incomplete, particularly with respect to integrating from processes occurring at the level of single proteins up to whole-organism functions across different time scales, which is a challenge for the development of strongly grounded mechanistic models of responses to global climate change. PMID:21841184

  18. Efficient Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing for Large-scale Delivery Points

    E-print Network

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    Efficient Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing for Large-scale Delivery Points Yaguang Li, Dingxiong Deng, Ugur Demiryurek, Cyrus Shahabi Integrated Media Systems Center University of Southern California System Architecture §Oracle Network Data Model (NDM) integration §Populate the LA road network and TD patterns

  19. Multiple time scales and pressure forcing in discontinuous Galerkin approximations to layered ocean

    E-print Network

    Higdon, Robert L.

    Multiple time scales and pressure forcing in discontinuous Galerkin approximations to layered ocean involving the application of discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods to ocean circulation models having obtained with a standard finite difference formulation. Keywords: ocean modeling; multi-layer ocean models

  20. Time Scales in Turbulence and Sediment Concentration Over Mobile Sand Dunes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between turbulent fluid motions and sediment particles over mobile sand dunes may be better understood by examining the time scales over which the quantities fluctuate. In laboratory experiments performed at the USDA-ARS-National Sedimentation Laboratory, profiles of acoustic backs...

  1. Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motor.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zheng-Ming; Chang, Ching-Ming; Chen, Yen-Sheng

    2006-09-15

    Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motors is studied in this paper. In order to analyse a variety of periodic and chaotic phenomena, we employ several numerical techniques such as phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents. Anti-control of chaos can be achieved by adding an external constant term or an external periodic term. PMID:16893797

  2. SMEX02: Field scale variability, time stability and similarity of soil moisture

    E-print Network

    SMEX02: Field scale variability, time stability and similarity of soil moisture Jennifer M. Jacobsa 2004 Abstract Evaluation of air- or space-borne remote sensors measuring soil moisture requires strategic ground-based sampling. As part of the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02), daily surface soil

  3. Small-Time Scaling Behaviors of Internet Backbone Traffic: An Empirical Study

    E-print Network

    Moon, Sue B.

    Moon, and Christophe Diot Sprint ATL Email: {sbmoon,cdiot}@sprintlabs.com Abstract-- We study the small the traffic composition of the traces along two dimensions ­ flow size and flow density. Our study uncovers in small time scales, and reveals that the traffic composition in terms of proportions of dense vs. sparse

  4. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of Cambrian to Triassic miogeoclinal and eugeoclinal strata of Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gehrels, G.E.; Stewart, John H.

    1998-01-01

    One hundred and eighty two individual detrital zircon grains from Cambrian through Permian miogeoclinal strata, Ordovician eugeoclinal rocks, and Triassic post-orogenic sediments in northwestern Sonora have been analyzed. During Cambrian, Devonian, Permian, and Triassic time, most zircons accumulating along this part of the Cordilleran margin were shed from 1.40-1.45 and 1.62-1.78 Ga igneous rocks that are widespread in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Zircons with ages of approximately 1.11 Ga are common in Cambrian strata and were apparently shed from granite bodies near the sample site. The sources of 225-280 Ma zircons in our Triassic sample are more problematic, as few igneous rocks of these ages are recognized in northwestern Mexico. Such sources may be present but unrecognized, or the grains could have been derived from igneous rocks of the appropriate ages to the northwest in the Mojave Desert region, to the east in Chihuahua and Coahuila, or to the south in accreted(?) arc-type terranes. Because the zircon grains in our Cambrian and Devonian to Triassic samples could have accumulated in proximity to basement rocks near their present position or in the Death Valley region of southern California, our data do not support or refute the existence of the Mojave-Sonora megashear. Ordovician strata of both miogeoclinal and eugeoclinal affinity are dominated by >1.77 Ga detrital zircons, which are considerably older than most basement rocks in the region. Zircon grains in the miogeoclinal sample were apparently derived from the Peace River arch area of northwestern Canada and transported southward by longshore currents. The eugeoclinal grains may also have come from the Peace River arch region, with southward transport by either sedimentary or tectonic processes, or they may have been shed from off-shelf slivers of continents (perhaps Antarctica?) removed from the Cordilleran margin during Neoproterozoic rifting. It is also possible that the Ordovician eugeoclinal strata are far traveled and exotic to North America.

  5. The beginning of the Buntsandstein cycle (Early-Middle Triassic) in the Catalan Ranges, NE Spain: Sedimentary and palaeogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galán-Abellán, Belén; López-Gómez, José; Barrenechea, José F.; Marzo, Mariano; De la Horra, Raúl; Arche, Alfredo

    2013-10-01

    The Early-Middle Triassic siliciclastic deposits of the Catalan Ranges, NE Spain, are dominated by aeolian sediments indicating a predominance of arid climate during this time span, in sharp contrast with the coeval fluvial sediments found in the Castilian Branch of the Iberian Ranges, 300 km to the SW. The NE-SW-oriented Catalan Basin evolved during the Middle-Late Permian as the result of widespread extension in the Iberian plate. This rift basin was bounded by the Pyrenees, Ebro and Montalbán-Oropesa highs. The Permian-Early Triassic-age sediments of the Catalan Basin were deposited in three isolated subbasins (Montseny, Garraf, Prades), separated by intrabasinal highs, but linked by transversal NW-SE oriented faults. The three subbasins show evidence of diachronic evolution with different subsidence rates and differences in their sedimentary records. The Buntsandstein sedimentary cycle started in the late Early Triassic (Smithian-Spathian) in the central and southern domains (Garraf and Prades), with conglomerates of alluvial fan origin followed by fluvial and aeolian sandstones. Source area of the fluvial sediments was nearby Paleozoic highs to the north and west, in contrast with the far-away source areas of the fluvial sediments in the Iberian Ranges, to the SW. These fluvial systems were interacting with migrating aeolian dune fields located towards the S, which developed in the shadow areas behind the barriers formed by the Paleozoic highs. These highs were separating the subbasins under arid and semi-arid climate conditions. The dominating winds came from the east where the westernmost coast of the Tethys Sea was located, and periods of water run-off and fields of aeolian dunes development alternated. Some of the fluvial systems were probably evaporating as they were mixed into the interdune areas, never reaching the sea. From the end of the Smithian to the Spathian, the Catalan Basin and neighbour peri-Tethys basins of the present-day southern France, Sardinia and Minorca islands constituted a geographical arch where arid and semi-arid conditions represented an extension of the prevailed arid and hyper-arid conditions in surrounding areas of the Variscan Belt. Harsh climatic conditions in this area prevented the life recovery in the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic extinction event until the early Anisian, when more humid climate allowed for the colonisation of the area by plants, amphibians and reptiles. The boundary between desert areas and semi-arid and/or seasonal climate domains during the Smithian-Spathian in SW Europe can be precisely established in NE Iberia, between the Catalan-Ebro region and the Castilian Branch of the Iberian Ranges, to the SW.

  6. First-passage times in multiscale random walks: The impact of movement scales on search efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Daniel; Bartumeus, Frederic; Raposo, E. P.; Méndez, Vicenç

    2015-11-01

    An efficient searcher needs to balance properly the trade-off between the exploration of new spatial areas and the exploitation of nearby resources, an idea which is at the core of scale-free Lévy search strategies. Here we study multiscale random walks as an approximation to the scale-free case and derive the exact expressions for their mean-first-passage times in a one-dimensional finite domain. This allows us to provide a complete analytical description of the dynamics driving the situation in which both nearby and faraway targets are available to the searcher, so the exploration-exploitation trade-off does not have a trivial solution. For this situation, we prove that the combination of only two movement scales is able to outperform both ballistic and Lévy strategies. This two-scale strategy involves an optimal discrimination between the nearby and faraway targets which is only possible by adjusting the range of values of the two movement scales to the typical distances between encounters. So, this optimization necessarily requires some prior information (albeit crude) about target distances or distributions. Furthermore, we found that the incorporation of additional (three, four, …) movement scales and its adjustment to target distances does not improve further the search efficiency. This allows us to claim that optimal random search strategies arise through the informed combination of only two walk scales (related to the exploitative and the explorative scales, respectively), expanding on the well-known result that optimal strategies in strictly uninformed scenarios are achieved through Lévy paths (or, equivalently, through a hierarchical combination of multiple scales).

  7. Comparing Time-Dependent Geomagnetic and Atmospheric Effects on Cosmogenic Nuclide Production Rate Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    A recently published cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling model based on analytical fits to Monte Carlo simulations of atmospheric cosmic ray flux spectra (both of which agree well with measured spectra) (Lifton et al., 2014, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 386, 149-160: termed the LSD model) provides two main advantages over previous scaling models: identification and quantification of potential sources of bias in the earlier models, and the ability to generate nuclide-specific scaling factors easily for a wide range of input parameters. The new model also provides a flexible framework for exploring the implications of advances in model inputs. In this work, the scaling implications of two recent time-dependent spherical harmonic geomagnetic models spanning the Holocene will be explored. Korte and Constable (2011, Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 188, 247-259) and Korte et al. (2011, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 312, 497-505) recently updated earlier spherical harmonic paleomagnetic models used by Lifton et al. (2014) with paleomagnetic measurements from sediment cores in addition to archeomagnetic and volcanic data. These updated models offer improved accuracy over the previous versions, in part to due to increased temporal and spatial data coverage. With the new models as input, trajectory-traced estimates of effective vertical cutoff rigidity (RC- the standard method for ordering cosmic ray data) yield significantly different time-integrated scaling predictions when compared to the earlier models. These results will be compared to scaling predictions using another recent time-dependent spherical harmonic model of the Holocene geomagnetic field by Pavón-Carrasco et al. (2014, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 388, 98-109), based solely on archeomagnetic and volcanic paleomagnetic data, but extending to 14 ka. In addition, the potential effects of time-dependent atmospheric models on LSD scaling predictions will be presented. Given the typical dominance of altitudinal over latitudinal scaling effects on cosmogenic nuclide production, incorporating transient global simulations of atmospheric structure (e.g., Liu et al., 2009, Science 325, 310-314) into scaling frameworks may contribute to improved understanding of long-term production rate variations.

  8. Fine-scale bacterial community dynamics and the taxa-time relationship within a full-scale activated sludge bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wells, George F; Park, Hee-Deung; Eggleston, Brad; Francis, Christopher A; Criddle, Craig S

    2011-11-01

    In activated sludge bioreactors, aerobic heterotrophic communities efficiently remove organics, nutrients, toxic substance