Sample records for triassic time scale

  1. Magnetostratigraphic dating of the proposed Rhaetian GSSP at Steinbergkogel (Upper Triassic, Austria): Implications for the Late Triassic time scale

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    by cyclostratigraphic control on the marine Pizzo Mondello (Italy) section, where a combination of long period The Late Triassic period is characterized by increasingenvironmental stress that eventually culminated and Rhaetian stages. The GSSP defining the base of the Hettangian (base Jurassic) was formally accepted by ICS

  2. The continental PermianTriassic boundary in the Netherlands: Implications for the geomagnetic polarity time scale

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    magnetozone is estimated to have lasted c. 700 ka, and roughly coincides with the main phase of Siberian TrapThe continental Permian­Triassic boundary in the Netherlands: Implications for the geomagnetic: magnetostratigraphy cyclic stratigraphy wireline logs Permian­Triassic boundary Zechstein-Buntsandstein interval

  3. High-precision U-Pb zircon geochronological constraints on the End-Triassic Mass Extinction, the late Triassic Astronomical Time Scale and geochemical evolution of CAMP magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, T. J.; Olsen, P. E.; Bowring, S. A.; McLean, N. M.; Kent, D. V.; Puffer, J. H.; McHone, G.; Rasbury, T.

    2012-12-01

    Mass extinction events that punctuate Earth's history have had a large influence on the evolution, diversity and composition of our planet's biosphere. The approximate temporal coincidence between the five major extinction events over the last 542 million years and the eruption of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) has led to the speculation that climate and environmental perturbations generated by the emplacement of a large volume of magma in a short period of time triggered each global biologic crisis. Establishing a causal link between extinction and the onset and tempo of LIP eruption has proved difficult because of the geographic separation between LIP volcanic deposits and stratigraphic sequences preserving evidence of the extinction. In most cases, the uncertainties on available radioisotopic dates used to correlate between geographically separated study areas often exceed the duration of both the extinction interval and LIP volcanism by an order of magnitude. The "end-Triassic extinction" (ETE) is one of the "big five" and is characterized by the disappearance of several terrestrial and marine species and dominance of Dinosaurs for the next 134 million years. Speculation on the cause has centered on massive climate perturbations thought to accompany the eruption of flood basalts related to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), the most aerially extensive and volumetrically one of the largest LIPs on Earth. Despite an approximate temporal coincidence between extinction and volcanism, there lacks evidence placing the eruption of CAMP prior to or at the initiation of the extinction. Estimates of the timing and/or duration of CAMP volcanism provided by astrochronology and Ar-Ar geochronology differ by an order of magnitude, precluding high-precision tests of the relationship between LIP volcanism and the mass extinction, the causes of which are dependent upon the rate of magma eruption. Here we present high precision zircon U-Pb ID-TIMS geochronologic data for eight CAMP flows and sills from the eastern U.S. and Morocco. These data are used first to independently test the astronomically calibrated time scale and sediment accumulation rates within the Triassic-Jurassic rift basins along the eastern North America. The U-Pb, paleontological, magnetostratigraphic and astronomical data are combined to constrain the onset and duration of the CAMP and clarify the temporal relationship between the CAMP and the ETE. The dataset together allows more precise estimates of eruptive volume per unit time, a requirement for rigorous evaluation of climate-driven models for the extinction.

  4. The continental Permian-Triassic boundary in the Netherlands: Implications for the geomagnetic polarity time scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Szurlies; M. C. Geluk; W. Krijgsman; W. M. Krschner

    2012-01-01

    In Central and NW Europe, the transition from the Permian to the Triassic (i.e., the ZechsteinBuntsandstein boundary interval) is developed mainly in red bed facies. This continental sedimentary succession is marked by relatively high sedimentation rates providing a high temporal resolution favorable for magnetic polarity stratigraphy. Here, we present a Zechstein to Lower Buntsandstein magnetostratigraphy obtained from the c. 100

  5. The continental Permian-Triassic boundary in the Netherlands: Implications for the geomagnetic polarity time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szurlies, Michael; Geluk, Mark C.; Krijgsman, Wout; Krschner, Wolfram M.

    2012-02-01

    In Central and NW Europe, the transition from the Permian to the Triassic (i.e., the Zechstein-Buntsandstein boundary interval) is developed mainly in red bed facies. This continental sedimentary succession is marked by relatively high sedimentation rates providing a high temporal resolution favorable for magnetic polarity stratigraphy. Here, we present a Zechstein to Lower Buntsandstein magnetostratigraphy obtained from the c. 100 m thick Everdingen-1 core from the Netherlands. Seven magnetozones (EV1n to EV4n) and five submagnetozones (EV1n.1r to EV3r.1n) have been delineated. The Everdingen-1 magnetostratigraphy has been integrated into the well-established high-resolution Zechstein-Buntsandstein stratigraphic framework, and verifies the geomagnetic polarity record from Central Germany. This confirms the hypothesis of nearly synchronous base-level cycles within the interior of the Central European Basin. These cycles are related to solar-induced ~ 100 ka eccentricity cycles. The most distinctive feature of the Everdingen-1 magnetostratigraphy is a transition from a thin reverse to a thick dominantly normal magnetic polarity interval. This reversal predates both the terrestrial mass extinction, which is indicated by a palynofloral turnover and a major sediment provenance change at the base of the Buntsandstein, and the marine Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB). The PTB is located within the lowermost Buntsandstein and is approximated by the last occurrence of the conchostracan Falsisca postera and a negative excursion in the carbon isotope record. According to the Buntsandstein cyclostratigraphy, the R/N reversal predates the marine end-Permian extinction event by about 0.1 Ma and the marine biostratigraphic PTB by about 0.2 Ma. The thick normal magnetozone is estimated to have lasted c. 700 ka, and roughly coincides with the main phase of Siberian Trap volcanism.

  6. Status Report on the 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb Dating of Tuffs in the Dewey Lake Formation of West Texas Towards Constraining the Permo-Triassic Magnetostratigraphic Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.; Renne, P. R.; Mundil, R.

    2007-12-01

    A detailed magnetic polarity time scale for the Permo-Triassic Boundary interval, critical for correlating events in marine and terrestrial paleoenvironments, is not yet well-established. Recently, late Permian magnetostratigraphic studies have been reported for non-marine sections in Europe and South Africa (Szurlies et al., 2003; Nawrocki, 2004; Ward et al., 2005). However, these sections are devoid of index fossil suitable for correlation with marine successions and also lack age constraints from radioisotopic dating methods. In other words, it is dubious to correlate these magnetostratigraphic data with the GSSP Permo-Triassic boundary and mass extinction. The Dewey Lake red beds formation of West Texas, believed to be the youngest Permian formation in North America, has yielded high-quality paleomagnetic data (Molina-Garza et al., 1989; Steiner, 2001) and contains several silicic tuffs potentially enabling high-resolution calibration of the magnetic polarity time scale in this critical age range. The tuffs have yet to be placed into a regional stratigraphic or magnetostratigraphic framework, and it is unclear exactly how many distinct eruptive units are represented by the 7 distinct samples collected to date from widely separated (>160 km) localities. 40Ar/39Ar (sanidine and biotite) and U/Pb (zircon) studies reveal that all 7 sampled tuffs were probably erupted within several hundred ka of the Permo-Triassic boundary as dated at the Meishan GSSP section (Renne et al., 1995; Mundil et al., 2004) but results thus far are inadequate to convincingly resolve age differences between the various samples. U/Pb dating of some samples is severely challenged by Pb-loss from the zircons despite application of the Mattinson (2005) annealing/chemical abrasion technique. 40Ar/39Ar data have been obtained from as many as four different irradiations in order to reduce neutron fluence related error. We observe the familiar ~1% bias between U/Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages. Biotite microprobe data, zircon U/Th TIMS data, and the absence of sanidine from some samples serve to help correlate or distinguish some samples despite irresolvable age differences; existing data suggest that 4 distinct tuffs are present in the Dewey Lake Formation. Resolving their ages convincingly will require further work, but it is clear from our results combined with previous magnetostratigraphic data that magnetic polarity reversals were relatively frequent in the latest Permian. Thus the uniqueness of correlations elsewhere with the Permo-Triassic boundary based on magnetostratigraphy alone are not well-founded.

  7. Testing the fossil record: Sampling proxies and scaling in the British TriassicJurassic

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    Testing the fossil record: Sampling proxies and scaling in the British Triassic­Jurassic Alexander March 2014 Available online 30 March 2014 Keywords: Palaeodiversity Fossil record Sampling Proxy Triassic Jurassic The quality of the fossil record varies immensely across taxa, geographic regions

  8. Teaching about time by understanding Geologic Time Scales: The Geological Society of America Geologic Time Scale and its history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, J. W.; Walker, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic time scales, of one form or another, are used in most undergraduate geosciences courses, even including introductory physical geology or equivalent. However, satisfactory discussions of how geologic time scales originated, and how they have evolved to modern versions, are far too often conveniently or inconveniently left out of classroom discussions. Yet it is these kinds of discussions that have the potential of solidifying student appreciation of deep time and rates of geologic processes. We use the history and development of the Geological Society of America Geologic Time Scale, which reflects major developments in the fields of stratigraphy, geochronology, magnetic polarity stratigraphy, astrochronology, and chemostratigraphy, as a focus of how specific details of time scales can be used to teach about time. Advances in all of these fields have allowed many parts of the time scale to be calibrated to precisions approaching less than 0.05 %. Notable time intervals for which collaborative, multifaceted efforts have led to dramatic improvements in our understanding of the character and temporal resolution of key evolutionary events, in both marine and terrestrial environments, include the Triassic-Jurassic, Permo-Triassic, and Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic boundaries (or transitions). Many of the details, but certainly not all, can be incorporated in discussions of how we know about geologic time in the classroom. For example, we presently understand that both the end-Permian ecological crisis and the biostratigraphic Permian-Triassic boundary, as calibrated by conodonts, lie within a ca. 700 ka long normal polarity chron. The reverse to normal polarity transition at the beginning of this chron is ca. 100 ka earlier than the ecological crisis and thus slightly older than the current estimate, based on high precision U-Pb zircon age determinations, of ca. 252.4 Ma for the Permian-Triassic boundary. This polarity transition occurred during the early part of the major negative del 13C isotope excursion that is estimated to have lasted ca. 500 ka beginning in the very latest Permian. Current geologic time scales are vastly improved over the first geologic time scale published by Holmes, nearly a hundred years ago in 1913, that used a total of eight numerical ages to establish the Phanerozoic time scale.

  9. Paleosol caliche in the New Haven Arkose, Connecticut: Record of semiaridity in Late Triassic Early Jurassic Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Hubert

    1977-01-01

    Recently discovered caliche paleosol profiles are widely distributed in braided-stream sandstone and overbank mudstone in the 1,500- to 2,500-m sequence of red beds in the New Haven Arkose. During Late Triassic to Early Jurassic time, the tropical rift valley commonly was semiarid with an annual 100 to 500 mm of seasonal precipitation. The paleoclimate was much drier than is indicated

  10. Timing is everything: ecological vs. evolutionary pacing of Triassic-Jurassic carbon cycle disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteside, J. H.; Olsen, P. E.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2007-12-01

    Eruption of Earth's largest flood basalt, the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) has been proposed as the trigger for a major carbon cycle disruption at the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction interval at ~201 Ma. Inferred from negative excursions in the carbon isotopic composition (?13C) of carbonate and organic matter, this perturbation has been linked to massive dissociation of isotopically light, methane-rich gas hydrates caused by volcanogenic CO2-induced global warming. However, both the sequence and duration of the CAMP eruptions relative to the carbon cycle perturbation remain circumstantial and indirect, because the data have been from stratigraphic sections far from the flood basalts and without accumulation rate constraints. Here we use a record of atmospheric (?13C) from specific molecules (nC25 - nC32 n-alkanes) diagnostic of terrestrial plant leaf waxes from astronomically-paced cyclical lacustrine strata in which CAMP flood basalts are interbedded to directly examine the relationship between the (?13C) excursions and their durations. We show that the flood basalts postdate the abrupt start of a ~400 ky negative excursion coincident with the initiation of the mass extinction event, but predate a protracted 1.5 m.y. negative excursion. Based on a modified BLAG carbon cycle model, the timing and long durations of our (?13C) excursions are incompatible with CAMP-triggered gas hydrate release. Instead, we suggest that the (?13C) pattern is more consistent with a catastrophically-triggered functional reorganization of the biosphere, part of which involved the ascent of dinosaurs to ecological dominance, playing out over evolutionary time.

  11. Position of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and timing of the end-Triassic extinctions on land: Data from the Moenave Formation on the southern Colorado Plateau, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, S.G.; Tanner, L.H.; Donohoo-Hurley, L.; Geissman, J.W.; Kozur, H.W.; Heckert, A.B.; Weems, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Strata of the Moenave Formation on and adjacent to the southern Colorado Plateau in Utah-Arizona, U.S.A., represent one of the best known and most stratigraphically continuous, complete and fossiliferous terrestrial sections across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. We present a synthesis of new biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic data collected from across the Moenave Formation outcrop belt, which extends from the St. George area in southwestern Utah to the Tuba City area in northern Arizona. These data include palynomorphs, conchostracans and vertebrate fossils (including footprints) and a composite polarity record based on four overlapping magnetostratigraphic sections. Placement of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary in strata of the Moenave Formation has long been imprecise and debatable, but these new data (especially the conchostracans) allow us to place the Triassic-Jurassic boundary relatively precisely in the middle part of the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation, stratigraphically well above the highest occurrence of crurotarsan body fossils or footprints. Correlation to marine sections based on this placement indicates that major terrestrial vertebrate extinctions preceded marine extinctions across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and therefore were likely unrelated to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) volcanism. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Geological Time Scale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This document describes how geologic time is approached in discussions of geologic topics. The uses of relative time and absolute time are compared, and a geologic time scale is provided to represent both concepts. References are provided.

  13. Large-scale diabase intrusion in the Durham Triassic Basin of North Carolina: geophysics and geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Bolich, R.E.; Bevis, M.G.; Won, I.J.; Fodor, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    Gravity and magnetic data obtained from the Durham Triassic Basin of North Carolina reveal pronounced positive gravity and magnetic anomalies of 10 milligals and 300 gammas, respectively, along the western border of the basin. In the vicinity of these anomalies, diabase outcrops, some with chilled margins and others with flow features, occur sporadically, but have a combined area of about 100 sq. km. Two-dimensional modeling of the gravity data indicates that the diabase body accounts for the gravity anomaly as a semi-continuous subsurface intrusion. The intrusive body is greater than 250 m thick near the western border of the basin, but thins to about 100 m near the center of the basin. Geochemical data for samples recovered from 4 air-drill sites at one diabase outcrop in Butner, North Carolina yield high MgO concentrations, and low FeO, K2O, and TiO2. The geophysical and geochemical data are consistent with an uncontaminated basaltic magma ascending along a major fissure or fissures and into the basin. In the basin, the diabase encountered unlithified sediments, resulting in both intrusive and extrusive forms. Although similar chemical compositions for Mesozoic North American dikes have been reported, this is the first indication of an intrusive body of such a large extent and primitive chemical composition.

  14. Time scales for sonoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Weninger, K.; Hiller, R.; Putterman, S.; Barber, B.P. (Phys. Dept., UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States))

    1994-11-01

    The establishment of stable sonoluminescence from a single trapped bubble of air in water requires more than 5 s. During this time the bubble goes through a transition period (about 1 s long) that is characterized by an emitted intensity which is over ten times smaller than the steady state. Pure noble gas bubbles turn on to their steady state values on a much shorter time scale (say less than 0.2 s). During the transient period light from an air bubble is weaker than light from an Argon bubble but in the steady state the air bubble is brighter. In view of the long time scale required for the establishment of sonoluminescence from a single bubble of air it is concluded that this is a fundamentally different phenomenon from the transient multibubble sonoluminescence that has been studied since its discovery in 1934. [Work supported by the U.S. DOE Division of Advanced Energy Projects.

  15. Basin scale evolution of formation waters: a diagenetic and formation water study of the Triassic Chaunoy Formation, Paris Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H Worden; M. L Coleman; J-M Matray

    1999-01-01

    Formation waters and their movements within basins are commonly attributed with responsibility for patterns of cementation and porosity-loss within reservoirs and aquifers. It is thus important to understand when and how waters move in the subsurface. We have studied the evolution and movement of formation water in the Triassic Chaunoy Formation of the Paris Basin, NW Europe to define the

  16. Basin scale evolution of formation waters: a diagenetic and formation water study of the Triassic Chaunoy Formation, Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, R. H.; Coleman, M. L.; Matray, J.-M.

    1999-10-01

    Formation waters and their movements within basins are commonly attributed with responsibility for patterns of cementation and porosity-loss within reservoirs and aquifers. It is thus important to understand when and how waters move in the subsurface. We have studied the evolution and movement of formation water in the Triassic Chaunoy Formation of the Paris Basin, NW Europe to define the way in which the water has evolved and to interpret water movement patterns using mineral isotope and fluid inclusion data in conjunction with detailed formation water analyses. The Chaunoy Formation is cemented with different types of dolomite, calcite and quartz cement. We have studied the evolution of waters in terms of oxygen, carbon and strontium isotopes and salinity. Connate waters were meteoric in origin but strongly influenced by the proximity of a playa lake. Input of palaeo-meteoric water, which entered the Chaunoy via eastern halite bodies, resulted in highly saline formation water for the majority of the Chaunoy Formation from about 100 Ma until (and for some time after) maximum burial. Saline waters spread into the aquifer initially taking a west-north west trajectory and then switching to a west-south west pattern in the Eocene. Following the Alpine orogeny and localised uplift of the basin margin, the southern portion of Chaunoy received fresh, low salinity, meteoric water. It is likely that formation water was lost from the Chaunoy in a more central part of the basin, via sub-vertical cross formational flow to the Mid Jurassic Dogger Formation, to accommodate the influx of fresh water.

  17. The Geologic Time Scale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains a large, easy to read, detailed geologic time scale for the Phanerozoic Eon (544 million years ago - Present). This is the period of time, also known as an eon, between the end of the Precambrian and today. The Phanerozoic begins with the start of the Cambrian period, 544 million years ago. It encompasses the period of abundant, complex life on Earth. The chart includes the Era, Period or System, and the Epoch or Series and features a brief description of each.

  18. Web Geologic Time Scale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of California-Berkeley Museum of Paleontology (last mentioned in the June 16, 1995 Scout Report) has recently updated its Web Geologic Time Scale, an online feature that helps users learn about the geologic timeline and explore related museum exhibits. The familiar geologic timeline appears on the main page of the Web site, with hypertext links for each division of time. Every page of the Web Geologic Time Machine site is liberally sprinkled with links to related UCMP Web pages; think of it as a portal to all online information available from the museum. Altogether, this Web site provides a well-organized and comprehensive resource for learning how the planet has changed over time, and would be a great addition to earth or life sciences classroom material for a broad range of grades.

  19. Systematic Palaeontology(Invertebrate Palaeontology) Early Triassic recovery of echinoderms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Twitchett; Tatsuo Oji

    The Permian-Triassic mass extinction interval was an important time in the evolutionary history of the echinoderms. Details of the extinction and, in particular the immediate post-extinction recovery in the Early Triassic, are seldom addressed because of a perception that the Permian-Triassic echinoderm fossil record is too poor. However, only the Holothuroidea and Asteroidea lack any Early Triassic fossil representatives. Even

  20. The Triassic-Jurassic boundary in eastern North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, P. E.; Comet, B.

    1988-01-01

    Rift basins of the Atlantic passive margin in eastern North America are filled with thousands of meters of continental rocks termed the Newark Supergroup which provide an unprecedented opportunity to examine the fine scale structure of the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction in continental environments. Time control, vital to the understanding of the mechanisms behind mass extinctions, is provided by lake-level cycles apparently controlled by orbitally induced climate change allowing resolution at the less than 21,000 year level. Correlation with other provinces is provided by a developing high resolution magnetostratigraphy and palynologically-based biostratigraphy. A large number of at least local vertebrate and palynomorph extinctions are concentrated around the boundary with survivors constituting the earliest Jurassic assemblages, apparently without the introduction of new taxa. The palynofloral transition is marked by the dramatic elimination of a relatively high diversity Triassic pollen assemblage with the survivors making up a Jurassic assemblage of very low diversity overwhelmingly dominated by Corollina. Based principally on palynological correlations, the hypothesis that these continental taxonomic transitions were synchronous with the massive Triassic-Jurassic marine extinctions is strongly corroborated. An extremely rapid, perhaps catastrophic, taxonomic turnover at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, synchronous in continental and marine realms is hypothesized and discussed.

  1. Permian-Triassic Osteichthyes (bony fishes): diversity dynamics and body size evolution.

    PubMed

    Romano, Carlo; Koot, Martha B; Kogan, Ilja; Brayard, Arnaud; Minikh, Alla V; Brinkmann, Winand; Bucher, Hugo; Kriwet, Jrgen

    2014-11-27

    The Permian and Triassic were key time intervals in the history of life on Earth. Both periods are marked by a series of biotic crises including the most catastrophic of such events, the end-Permian mass extinction, which eventually led to a major turnover from typical Palaeozoic faunas and floras to those that are emblematic for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Here we review patterns in Permian-Triassic bony fishes, a group whose evolutionary dynamics are understudied. Based on data from primary literature, we analyse changes in their taxonomic diversity and body size (as a proxy for trophic position) and explore their response to Permian-Triassic events. Diversity and body size are investigated separately for different groups of Osteichthyes (Dipnoi, Actinistia, 'Palaeopterygii', 'Subholostei', Holostei, Teleosteomorpha), within the marine and freshwater realms and on a global scale (total diversity) as well as across palaeolatitudinal belts. Diversity is also measured for different palaeogeographical provinces. Our results suggest a general trend from low osteichthyan diversity in the Permian to higher levels in the Triassic. Diversity dynamics in the Permian are marked by a decline in freshwater taxa during the Cisuralian. An extinction event during the end-Guadalupian crisis is not evident from our data, but 'palaeopterygians' experienced a significant body size increase across the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary and these fishes upheld their position as large, top predators from the Late Permian to the Late Triassic. Elevated turnover rates are documented at the Permian-Triassic boundary, and two distinct diversification events are noted in the wake of this biotic crisis, a first one during the Early Triassic (dipnoans, actinistians, 'palaeopterygians', 'subholosteans') and a second one during the Middle Triassic ('subholosteans', neopterygians). The origination of new, small taxa predominantly among these groups during the Middle Triassic event caused a significant reduction in osteichthyan body size. Neopterygii, the clade that encompasses the vast majority of extant fishes, underwent another diversification phase in the Late Triassic. The Triassic radiation of Osteichthyes, predominantly of Actinopterygii, which only occurred after severe extinctions among Chondrichthyes during the Middle-Late Permian, resulted in a profound change within global fish communities, from chondrichthyan-rich faunas of the Permo-Carboniferous to typical Mesozoic and Cenozoic associations dominated by actinopterygians. This turnover was not sudden but followed a stepwise pattern, with leaps during extinction events. PMID:25431138

  2. Constraints on the timing of the Permian-Triassic biotic crisis: New U\\/Pb zircon-ages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mundil; K. R. Ludwig; P. R. Renne; I. Metcalfe

    2001-01-01

    New IDTIMS U\\/Pb single-zircon data from ash layers intercalated within the Permo-Triassic (P-T) deposits of the Shangsi section (Sichuan Province, Central China) in combination with recently published ages from the GSSP in Meishan (Zhejiang Province, E China) constrain the most profound biotic crisis in the Earth's history, causing the near extinction of both terrestrial and marine life, to an age

  3. Research paper Pedogenic hematitic concretions from the Triassic New Haven Arkose, Connecticut

    E-print Network

    Glotch, Timothy D.

    Research paper Pedogenic hematitic concretions from the Triassic New Haven Arkose, Connecticut Keywords: Sedimentary concretions Diagenetic processes Geochemistry Mars The Triassic New Haven Arkose locally contains mm-scaled pedogenic hematitic concretions, within red arkosic sandy mudstones

  4. Time scales in LISA

    E-print Network

    S. Pireaux

    2007-03-23

    The LISA mission is a space interferometer aiming at the detection of gravitational waves in the [$10^{-4}$,$10^{-1}$] Hz frequency band. In order to reach the gravitational wave detection level, a Time Delay Interferometry (TDI) method must be applied to get rid of (most of) the laser frequency noise and optical bench noise. This TDI analysis is carried out in terms of the coordinate time corresponding to the Barycentric Coordinate Reference System (BCRS), TCB, whereas the data at each of the three LISA stations is recorded in terms of each station proper time. We provide here the required proper time versus BCRS time transformation. We show that the difference in rate of station proper time versus TCB is of the order of $5 10^{-8}$. The difference between station proper times and TCB exhibits an oscillatory trend with a maximum amplitude of about $10^{-3}$ s.

  5. Deep Time: The Geologic Time Scale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-04-25

    This page examines the issues involved in teaching students about the geologic time scale. There are suggestions for tackling troublesome issues in class as well as activities that can be used to clarify how geoscientists look at deep time. Five main concepts with which students struggle when thinking about Deep Time are addressed here: imagining or comprehending big numbers; the difference between relative and numerical age; the concept of "timescales"; the ways we know about the age of the Earth and other materials; and resolving perceived issues with religious beliefs.

  6. Triassic-Jurassic marine anoxia in response to massive carbon release from CAMP?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, M.; Bjerrum, C. J.; Canfield, D. E.; Frei, R.

    2012-04-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction [~201.3 Ma], marked by marine and terrestrial ecosystem collapse and global marine biodiversity loss, coincides with the onset of extensive volcanic activity and emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). Massive and rapid greenhouse gas release from surface basalts, subsurface organic rich strata and ocean-floor clathrate-hydrates had a profound impact on the global exogenic carbon cycle and it dramatically increased atmospheric pCO2 values. Although Permian-Triassic [~252 Ma] and early Toarcian [~183 Ma] volcanic carbon release is thought to have initiated global ocean anoxic events, ocean redox changes at the end-Triassic mass extinction are poorly constrained. Marine anoxia is only suggested by organic-rich, finely laminated sediment deposition in marginal marine basins. We studied the biostratigraphically well-constrained Triassic-Jurassic marine sedimentary record from St. Audrie's Bay (UK), which is astronomically calibrated to the continental geomagnetic polarity time-scale (GPTS) of the continental Newark basin. This marine geological archive is marked by precession paced black-shale deposition, similar to Neogene Mediterranean sapropels. We studied redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo, U, V, Cu, Ni), iron-speciation (FeHR/FeT, FePY/FeHR) and ?34S-pyrite through the end-Triassic mass extinction and subsequent 3 million years of the lower Jurassic. We observe direct stratigraphic correlation between CAMP flood basalt emplacement, strong atmospheric pCO2 increase and development of marine anoxia. This now allows evaluation of mechanistic relations between massive greenhouse gas emissions initiated by CAMP volcanism, subsequent environmental change and upper Triassic and lower Jurassic biotic response.

  7. Atomic time scales and pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, G.

    2014-12-01

    I review the atomic time scales generated by the BIPM, International Atomic Time TAI and the realization of Terrestrial Time TT(BIPM). TT(BIPM) is shown to be now accurate to within a few 10..16 in relative frequency and the performances of TAI and TT(BIPM) are compared. Millisecond pulsars have a very regular period of rotation and data from several pulsars may be used to realize an ensemble pulsar timescale. It is shown that a pulsar timescale may detect past instabilities in TAI. However TT(BIPM) is much more stable than TAI and should be used as a reference in pulsar analysis. Since the beginning of regular millisecond pulsar observations in the 1980s, primary standards and atomic time have gained one order of magnitude in accuracy every ~ 12 years, and this trend should continue for some time.

  8. Time scales in cognitive neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Papo, David

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience boils down to describing the ways in which cognitive function results from brain activity. In turn, brain activity shows complex fluctuations, with structure at many spatio-temporal scales. Exactly how cognitive function inherits the physical dimensions of neural activity, though, is highly non-trivial, and so are generally the corresponding dimensions of cognitive phenomena. As for any physical phenomenon, when studying cognitive function, the first conceptual step should be that of establishing its dimensions. Here, we provide a systematic presentation of the temporal aspects of task-related brain activity, from the smallest scale of the brain imaging technique's resolution, to the observation time of a given experiment, through the characteristic time scales of the process under study. We first review some standard assumptions on the temporal scales of cognitive function. In spite of their general use, these assumptions hold true to a high degree of approximation for many cognitive (viz. fast perceptual) processes, but have their limitations for other ones (e.g., thinking or reasoning). We define in a rigorous way the temporal quantifiers of cognition at all scales, and illustrate how they qualitatively vary as a function of the properties of the cognitive process under study. We propose that each phenomenon should be approached with its own set of theoretical, methodological and analytical tools. In particular, we show that when treating cognitive processes such as thinking or reasoning, complex properties of ongoing brain activity, which can be drastically simplified when considering fast (e.g., perceptual) processes, start playing a major role, and not only characterize the temporal properties of task-related brain activity, but also determine the conditions for proper observation of the phenomena. Finally, some implications on the design of experiments, data analyses, and the choice of recording parameters are discussed. PMID:23626578

  9. Early Triassic seawater sulfate drawdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huyue; Tong, Jinnan; Algeo, Thomas J.; Song, Haijun; Qiu, Haiou; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Tian, Li; Bates, Steven; Lyons, Timothy W.; Luo, Genming; Kump, Lee R.

    2014-03-01

    The marine sulfur cycle is intimately linked to global carbon fluxes, atmospheric composition, and climate, yet relatively little is known about how it responded to the end-Permian biocrisis, the largest mass extinction of the Phanerozoic. Here, we analyze carbonate-associated-sulfate (CAS) from three Permo-Triassic sections in South China in order to document the behavior of the C-S cycle and its relationship to marine environmental changes during the mass extinction and its aftermath. We find that ?34SCAS varied from +9 to +44 at rates up to 100 Myr-1 during the Griesbachian-Smithian substages of the Early Triassic. We model the marine sulfur cycle to demonstrate that such rapid variation required drawdown of seawater sulfate concentrations to ?4 mM and a reduction in its residence time to ?200 kyr. This shorter residence time resulted in positive covariation with ?13Ccarb due to strong coupling of the organic carbon and pyrite burial fluxes. Carbon and sulfur isotopic shifts were associated with contemporaneous changes in climate, marine productivity, and microbial sulfate reduction rates, with negative shifts in ?13Ccarb and ?34SCAS linked to warming, decreased productivity, and reduced sulfate reduction. Sustained cooling during the Spathian re-invigorated oceanic overturning circulation, reduced marine anoxia, and limited pyrite burial. As seawater sulfate built to higher concentrations during the Spathian, the coupling of the marine C and S cycles came to an end and a general amelioration of marine environmental conditions set the stage for a recovery of invertebrate faunas. Variation in seawater sulfate during the Early Triassic was probably controlled by climate change, possibly linked to major eruptive phases of the Siberian Traps.

  10. The Sail-Backed Reptile Ctenosauriscus from the Latest Early Triassic of Germany and the Timing and Biogeography of the Early Archosaur Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Richard J.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Reich, Mike; Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Schoch, Rainer R.; Hornung, Jahn J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Archosaurs (birds, crocodilians and their extinct relatives including dinosaurs) dominated Mesozoic continental ecosystems from the Late Triassic onwards, and still form a major component of modern ecosystems (>10,000 species). The earliest diverse archosaur faunal assemblages are known from the Middle Triassic (c. 244 Ma), implying that the archosaur radiation began in the Early Triassic (252.3247.2 Ma). Understanding of this radiation is currently limited by the poor early fossil record of the group in terms of skeletal remains. Methodology/Principal Findings We redescribe the anatomy and stratigraphic position of the type specimen of Ctenosauriscus koeneni (Huene), a sail-backed reptile from the Early Triassic (late Olenekian) Solling Formation of northern Germany that potentially represents the oldest known archosaur. We critically discuss previous biomechanical work on the sail of Ctenosauriscus, which is formed by a series of elongated neural spines. In addition, we describe Ctenosauriscus-like postcranial material from the earliest Middle Triassic (early Anisian) Rt Formation of Waldhaus, southwestern Germany. Finally, we review the spatial and temporal distribution of the earliest archosaur fossils and their implications for understanding the dynamics of the archosaur radiation. Conclusions/Significance Comprehensive numerical phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that both Ctenosauriscus and the Waldhaus taxon are members of a monophyletic grouping of poposauroid archosaurs, Ctenosauriscidae, characterised by greatly elongated neural spines in the posterior cervical to anterior caudal vertebrae. The earliest archosaurs, including Ctenosauriscus, appear in the body fossil record just prior to the Olenekian/Anisian boundary (c. 248 Ma), less than 5 million years after the PermianTriassic mass extinction. These earliest archosaur assemblages are dominated by ctenosauriscids, which were broadly distributed across northern Pangea and which appear to have been the first global radiation of archosaurs. PMID:22022431

  11. Improving the Geologic Time Scale (Jean Baptiste Lamarck Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradstein, Felix M.

    2010-05-01

    The Geologic Time Scale (GTS) provides the framework for the physical, chemical and biological processes on Earth. The time scale is the tool "par excellence" of the geological trade, and insight in its construction, strength, and limitations enhances its function and its utility. Earth scientists should understand how time scales are constructed and its myriad of physical and abstract data are calibrated, rather than merely using ages plucked from a convenient chart or card. Calibration to linear time of the succession of events recorded in the rocks on Earth has three components: (1) the standard stratigraphic divisions and their correlation in the global rock record, (2) the means of measuring linear time or elapsed durations from the rock record, and (3) the methods of effectively joining the two scales, the stratigraphic one and the linear one. Under the auspices of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), the international stratigraphic divisions and their correlative events are now largely standardized, especially using the GSSP (Global Stratigraphic Section and Point) concept. The means of measuring linear time or elapsed durations from the rock record are objectives in the EARTH TIME and GTS NEXT projects, that also are educating a new generation of GTS dedicated scientists. The U/Pb, Ar/Ar and orbital tuning methods are intercalibrated, and external error analysis improved. Existing Ar/Ar ages become almost 0.5% older, and U/Pb ages stratigraphically more realistic. The new Os/Re method has potential for directly dating more GSSP's and its correlative events. Such may reduce scaling uncertainty between the sedimentary levels of an age date and that of a stage boundary. Since 1981, six successive Phanerozoic GTS have been published, each new one achieving higher resolution and more users. The next GTS is scheduled for 2011/2012, with over 50 specialists taking part. New chapters include an expanded planetary time scale, sequence stratigraphy, Osmium, Carbon and Oxygen stratigraphy, the Cryogenian period, history of the plants, hominid prehistory, and last but not least the Anthropocene. The Cambrian Period is radically improved with 10 standard stages and detailed trilobite biochronology. Ordovician now has a stable international stages and graptolites scale. The integration of a refined 100 and 400 ka sedimentary cycles scale and a truly high-resolution U/Pb ages scale for the Mississippian is a major step towards the global Carboniferous GTS. The Devonian GTS leaves to be desired with lack of firm definitions for its upper boundary, and the long Emsian stage; it also lacks age dates. Its stages scaling is disputed. The Rhaetian and Norian stages in the Triassic and the Berriasian stage in the Cretaceous urgently require lower boundary definitions, and also boundary age dates. The single ~400 ka eccentricity component is very stable and can extend orbital tuning from the Cenozoic well into the Mesozoic portion of the GTS. Jurassic and Cretaceous now have long orbitally tuned segments. A completely astronomical-tuned Geological Time Scale (AGTS) for the Cenozoic is within reach showing unprecedented accuracy, precision and resolution. Burdigalian in the Miocene, and Lutetian, Bartonian and Priabonian stages in the Eocene still require formal definition. The K/T boundary will become about 0.5 0.1 Ma older. After 25 years of research and authorship in the GTS it behoves me to especially thank my colleagues James Ogg, Frits Agterberg, John McArthur and Roger Cooper for longstanding collaboration. As a final note I urge construction of more regional time scales(like developed down under') calibrated to the standard global GTS, to scale regional rock units.

  12. How severe is the modern biotic crisis?A comparison of global change and biotic crisis between Permian-Triassic transition and modern times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hongfu; He, Weihong; Xie, Shucheng

    2011-03-01

    A comparison of the modern condition with the Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB) times was made to estimate how severe the modern biotic crisis is. About the global changes, the two periods are correlative in carbon dioxide concentration and carbon isotope negative excursion, UV strengthening, temperature increase, ocean acidification, and weathering enhancement. The following tendencies of biotic crises are also correlative: acceleration of extinction rates accompanied by parabolic curve of extinction with a turning interval representing the critical crisis; decline of the three main ecosystems: reefs, tropical rain forests and marine phytoplankton. It is also interesting to note that certain leading organism in both periods undergo accelerated evolution during the crisis. The comparison shows that the modern crisis is about at the turning point from decline to decimation. The extinction curve is now parabolic, and the extinction rate has been accelerated, but the decimation is not yet in real. This is also justified by the modern situation of the three main ecosystems. Modern biotic decline may worsen into decimation and mass extinction but may also get better and recover to ordinary evolution. Since human activities are the main cause of the deterioration of environments and organisms, mankind should be responsible and able to strive for the recovery of the crisis. For the future of mankind, Homo sapiens may become extinct, i.e., disappear without leaving descendants, or evolve into a new and more advanced species, i.e., disappear but leave descendants. For a better future, mankind should be conscious of the facing danger and act as a whole to save biodiversity and harmonize with the environments.

  13. A Triassic spider from Italy

    E-print Network

    Dalla Vecchia, F.M.; Selden, Paul A.

    2013-01-25

    A Triassic spider from Italy FABIO M. DALLA VECCHIA and PAUL A. SELDEN A new fossil spider from the Triassic (Norian) Dolomia di Forni Formation of Friuli, Italy, is described as Friularachne rigoi gen. et sp. nov. This find brings the number... from the Triassic (Norian) Dolomia di Forni Formation of Friuli, north?east Italy. It possibly belongs to the mygalomorph superfamily Atypoidea, and the discovery would extend the fossil record of the superfamily by some 98115 Ma from the previous...

  14. Advances in the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale--Developments and Integration with the Geologic Time Scale and Future Directions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    We celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Vine-Matthews/Morley-Larochelle hypothesis (Vine and Matthews, Nature, 1963, v. 199, #4897, p. 947-949), which integrated marine magnetic anomaly data with a rapidly evolving terrestrial-based geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS). The five decades of research since 1963 have witnessed the expansion and refinement of the GPTS, to the point where ages of magnetochron boundaries, in particular in the Cenozoic, can be estimated with uncertainties better than 0.1%. This has come about by integrating high precision geochronology, cyclostratigraphy at different time scales, and magnetic polarity data of increased quality, allowing extension of the GPTS back into the Paleozoic. The definition of a high resolution GPTS across time intervals of major events in Earth history has been of particular interest, as a specific magnetochron boundary correlated across several localities represents a singular global datum. A prime example is the end Permian, when some 80 percent of genus-level extinctions and a range of 75 to 96 percent species- level extinctions took place in the marine environment, depending upon clade. Much our understanding of the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) is based on relatively slowly deposited marine sequences in Europe and Asia, yet a growing body of observations from continental sequences demonstrates a similar extinction event and new polarity data from some of these sequences are critical to refining the GPTS across the PTB and testing synchronicity of marine and terrestrial events. The data show that the end-Permian ecological crisis and the conodont calibrated biostratigraphic PTB both followed a key polarity reversal between a short interval (subchron) of reverse polarity to a considerably longer (chron) of normal polarity. Central European Basin strata (continental Permian and epicontinental Triassic) yield high-quality magnetic polarity stratigraphic records (Szurlies et al., 2003; Szurlies, 2007; and Szurlies, 2013, in press). In combination with cyclostratigraphic records, the normal polarity chron, with both the end-Permian crisis and the biostratigraphic PTB, is estimated to be ~0.7 Ma in duration, with the ecological crisis some 0.2 Ma after the reversal. The author and colleagues are currently refining the magnetic polarity stratigraphy across the PTB contained in strata of the Ochoan/Induan Dewey Lake Formation exposed in west Texas (USA) and in strata of the Beaufort Group of the central Karoo Basin (South Africa). The hematitic siltstones and mudstones of the Dewey Lake Formation yield magnetizations of high quality and are not remagnetized, thus providing an unambiguous polarity record, including what we infer as the R-N transition immediately before the PTB. A continuous core (~150 m) through the entire Dewey Lake Formation from southeast New Mexico will be available for polarity study in early September, 2013. In the Karoo Basin, a nearly continuously exposed 225 +/- m thick section (over 100 distinct sites) near Lootsberg Pass is dominated by non-hematitic siltstone but fine grained sandstone and carbonate concretions in mudstone intervals have been also sampled. At present, it remains unclear whether the Beaufort Group strata in this part of the central Karoo Basin retain a primary magnetization, as the likelihood of remagnetization by ca. 184 +/- Ma mafic sills of the Karoo Large Igneous Province remains a concern.

  15. A novel proxy links CAMP volcanism with end-Triassic mass extinction and early Jurassic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, M.; Bjerrum, C. J.; Frei, R.

    2011-12-01

    Global mass extinction events are marked by a major loss of terrestrial and marine biodiversity and the global collapse of ecosystems during times of extensive volcanic activity and the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Large-scale greenhouse gas release, initiated by volcanism, had a profound impact on global geochemical cycles (e.g. initiating strong perturbations in ?13C records). Hence, these events may be regarded as natural deep-time analogues for studying mechanistic feedbacks between rapid and large/scale greenhouse gas emissions, environmental change and biotic crises. Such studies require high resolution stratigraphic correlation between volcanic activity, disruption of global geochemical cycles and biotic crises, which at present is poorly constrained. Here we present a novel proxy that records explosive continental volcanic activity in distant marine shale sediments. The proxy builds on the relative abundance of the trace elements Lu, Hf, Y and Nb (monitored as the (Lu/ Hf)/(Y/ Nb)-ratio). We test the method on a marine sedimentary record comprising Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) volcanism and the associated end-Triassic global mass extinction, at ~201.38 Ma. We show that the onset of sharp well-defined peaks in the (Lu/ Hf)/(Y/ Nb)-ratio coincides with the end-Triassic biotic crisis. Subsequent subordinate peaks closely correspond to periods of early Jurassic biotic radiation and evolution. Large-scale volcanic activity therefore not only initiated the end-Triassic mass extinction, it possibly also actively punctuated and regulated the pace of early Jurassic evolution. Further, the proxy also records the timing of Siberian Traps volcanism relative to the end-Permian mass extinction, the largest extinction in Earth's history. Hence, this proxy for the first time allows causality studies between increased volcanic activity, disruption of global geochemical cycles and global biodiversity loss, in unprecedented stratigraphic resolution. End-Triassic changes in biodiversity and extinction and evolution of species is most severe in the marine realm. Reactive iron and trace element data (e.g. Mo, U) suggest strong changes in water column redox-conditions and anoxia and euxinia coinciding with CAMP volcanic activity. This suggests that the end-Triassic mass extinction in the marine realm maybe mostly related to marine anoxia, initiated by volcanism driven greenhouse gas release, in at least marginal marine basins.

  16. Microbialites and geochemistry of the Early Triassic enigma?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bour, Ivan; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Thomazo, Christophe; Brayard, Arnaud; Olivier, Nicolas; Escarguel, Gilles; Bylund, Kevin G.; Jenks, Jim; Stephen, Daniel A.

    2013-04-01

    The Permian-Triassic mass extinction, 252 Myr ago, is the most devastating global-scale event ever recorded. Ecological and environmental changes during this interval are commonly assumed to be associated with numerous perturbations (i.e. productivity changes, acidification, redox changes, eustatism) that still remain elusive. The present study focus on the relationships between the redox conditions within the water column, the successive sedimentary deposits and marine community turnovers. Our study is based on new Early Triassic sections from the western USA Basin that preserve diversified reefs and bioaccumulations that contain microbialites and various benthic and pelagic organisms (e.g. serpulids, bivalves, ostracods, gastropods, cephalopods). Such a sedimentary prisitine record provides interesting new prospects to decipher the relationships between lithology, microbial structures and the geochemistry of the water column. Three outcrops were studied: the Mineral Mountains, the Confusion Range and the Pahvant Range, that record a general transgressive trend from proximal to distal deposits during the Smithian substage. Continental to open marine conditions are deduced from sedimentological studies and are related to variations of the microbialite meso- and micro-structures over a short time scale. Hydrodynamics and bathymetry are shown to be the major parameters that influence the morphology and distribution of these microbialites. Additionally to the study of the different microbialites structures and associated depositional environments, the chemiotratigraphic record of both carbon isotopes and major elements indicate a complex and a wide range of variations at short time scale. Carbon isotopes vary from -5 to 2 PDB and FeHR/FeT ratio, after iron speciation, indicate a broad range of variation between 0.1 and 1.5. On the one hand, these analyses suggest potential transient oxygen depletion within the water column. On the other hand, fluctuations of these geochemical proxies seem to be influenced by lithology. We thus suggest that biogeochemical cycles of carbon and iron in the studied sections were influenced by the paleo-bathymetry and the distal to proximal polarity between the three locations. A second order control on the water column geochemistry is also probably the consequence of the microbially-induced carbonate precipitation. This study suggests that the Early Triassic paleoenvironments with the western USA basin were highly variable in terms of sedimentology and geochemistry, but also suggest a low oxygen concentration within the water column during the Smithian substage.

  17. Lithospheric inhomogeneity - the main factor controlling the Permo/Triassic Siberian plume location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikishin, Anatoly; Sobornov, Konstantin; Pravikova, Natalia

    2010-05-01

    Northwestern part of the Siberian platform is one of the interesting places to study the relations between the intraplate tectonics and the short-term large scale magmatic events. We will focus on four events which affected nearly the same area: (1) Vendian(~Ediacaran) to Early Paleozoic rapid subsidence without rifting; (2) Late Carboniferous to Early Permiam syncompressional subsidence; (3) Permo/Triassic large-scale Siberian (Tunguska) plume-related basaltic magmatism; (4) large-scale intraplate inversional tectonic events, close to the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. During the Riphean, several large sedimentary rift-related and passive margin related basins occupied the marginal parts of the platform. The total thicknesses of sediments locally exceeds 10 km. Approximately at the Riphean-Vendian boundary (630-620 Ma), a major collision took place along the northern (Taymyr), western (the Enisey Ridge) and southeastern (Transbaikal area) parts of the platform. The compression was transmitted to the inner domains of the platform, causing the long-wavelength intraplate basement-involved folding and thrusting, followed by general uplift and erosion. This compression was followed by rapid regional Vendian to Silurian subsidence, with the vertical amplitude of up to 5-7 km. This subsidence is likely thermally controlled, and does not reveal any relation with rifting. We propose this subsidence was related with lithosphere cooling which followed the postcollisional delamination (figure). Rapid subsidence occured at nearly the same place during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian times, synchronously with the main Uralian-West Siberian orogeny. It could have a syncompressional nature. The depocentre of Permo/Triassic Siberian traps (flood basalts) is located rather close to the depocentre of previous, Vendian to Permian, subsidence. So we can imagine that the location of mantle plume intrusion in the lithosphere was not occasional. At the same time, the Permo/Triassic boundary is characterized by maximum sea-level fall, and possible global stress event. We can propose that the ascent of the mantle plume could be controlled by some factors, which reveal the correlation with the previous tectonic history of the region. A major Phanerozoic compressional event took place during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. The abnormally hot platform was subjected to strong intraplate deformation. It is recorded by the widespread regional-scale pre-Jurassic unconformity. Sinistral thick-skinned transpression took place within the broad area between the West Siberian basin and the Siberian platform, including the western part of Siberian trap region (e.g., the Norilsk area). This unique event could be explained by the softening of the cratonic lithosphere after the mantle plume impact.

  18. Review of time scales. [Universal Time-Ephemeris Time-International Atomic Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinot, B.

    1974-01-01

    The basic time scales are presented: International Atomic Time, Universal Time, and Universal Time (Coordinated). These scales must be maintained in order to satisfy specific requirements. It is shown how they are obtained and made available at a very high level of precision.

  19. Multiple time scale methods in tokamak magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jardin, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods are discussed for integrating the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in tokamak systems on other than the fastest time scale. The dynamical grid method for simulating ideal MHD instabilities utilizes a natural nonorthogonal time-dependent coordinate transformation based on the magnetic field lines. The coordinate transformation is chosen to be free of the fast time scale motion itself, and to yield a relatively simple scalar equation for the total pressure, P = p + B/sup 2//2..mu../sub 0/, which can be integrated implicitly to average over the fast time scale oscillations. Two methods are described for the resistive time scale. The zero-mass method uses a reduced set of two-fluid transport equations obtained by expanding in the inverse magnetic Reynolds number, and in the small ratio of perpendicular to parallel mobilities and thermal conductivities. The momentum equation becomes a constraint equation that forces the pressure and magnetic fields and currents to remain in force balance equilibrium as they evolve. The large mass method artificially scales up the ion mass and viscosity, thereby reducing the severe time scale disparity between wavelike and diffusionlike phenomena, but not changing the resistive time scale behavior. Other methods addressing the intermediate time scales are discussed.

  20. Kalman plus weights: a time scale algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    KPW is a time scale algorithm that combines Kalman filtering with the basic time scale equation (BTSE). A single Kalman filter that estimates all clocks simultaneously is used to generate the BTSE frequency estimates, while the BTSE weights are inversely proportional to the white FM variances of the clocks. Results from simulated clock ensembles are compared to previous simulation results from other algorithms.

  1. Gondwana's climate history inferred from the palynological record of South Africa's coal deposits: the Early Triassic wet intermezzo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gtz, Annette E.

    2013-04-01

    Permian-Triassic coals of the South African Karoo Basin play a central role in the study and interpretation of Gondwana's climate history and related vegetational changes in time and space. The palynological record of the coal-bearing formations reveals major phases of climate amelioration succeeding the Permo-Carboniferous Gondwana glaciations. Subsequent to the melting of the Dwyka ice, cold to cool-temperate climate conditions prevailed during the Early Permian and a continuous change to hot and dry climate conditions of the Late Permian and Triassic was inferred from sedimentological and palaeontological data so far. The here presented new palynological and geochemical data from the Early Triassic Molteno coal (Stormberg Group) point to a short-term switch from dry to wet climate conditions. To date, this wet intermezzo of Gondwana's early Mesozoic climate history has been overlooked in the Molteno coal of the Karoo Basin. The spore/pollen ratios, used as a proxy for humidity changes, indicate a significant climatic change corresponding to a prominent C-isotope excursion. Ongoing studies will provide a detailed palynological inventory of the Early Triassic coal deposits on an intra-Gondwanic scale, contributing to the interpretation of early Mesozoic palaeoclimates.

  2. Long term stability of atomic time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, G.; Arias, F.

    2015-03-01

    We review the stability and accuracy achieved by the reference atomic time scales TAI and TT(BIPM). We show that they presently are in the low 10-16 in relative value, based on the performance of primary standards, of the ensemble time scale and of the time transfer techniques. We consider how the 1 10-16 value could be reached or superseded and which are the present limitations to attain this goal.

  3. Tephrastratigraphy and Analysis of Tectonic Setting of Triassic Intermediate Volcanic Strata: Nanpanjiang Basin, South China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. T. Newkirk

    2002-01-01

    The Nanpanjiang is a deep-marine basin in the southern margin of the Yangtze microcontinent of South China. The basin contains several shallow-marine carbonate platforms developed in Triassic time. Differential carbonate platform development and subsidence analysis suggests that the Nanpanjiang basin developed into a foreland basin resulting from an arc collision in the southern part of the basin in the Triassic.

  4. Mouse Activity across Time Scales: Fractal Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Lima, G. Z. dos Santos; Lobo-Soares, B.; do Nascimento, G. C.; Frana, Arthur S. C.; Muratori, L.; Ribeiro, S.; Corso, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we devise a classification of mouse activity patterns based on accelerometer data using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We use two characteristic mouse behavioural states as benchmarks in this study: waking in free activity and slow-wave sleep (SWS). In both situations we find roughly the same pattern: for short time intervals we observe high correlation in activity - a typical 1/f complex pattern - while for large time intervals there is anti-correlation. High correlation of short intervals ( to : waking state and to : SWS) is related to highly coordinated muscle activity. In the waking state we associate high correlation both to muscle activity and to mouse stereotyped movements (grooming, waking, etc.). On the other side, the observed anti-correlation over large time scales ( to : waking state and to : SWS) during SWS appears related to a feedback autonomic response. The transition from correlated regime at short scales to an anti-correlated regime at large scales during SWS is given by the respiratory cycle interval, while during the waking state this transition occurs at the time scale corresponding to the duration of the stereotyped mouse movements. Furthermore, we find that the waking state is characterized by longer time scales than SWS and by a softer transition from correlation to anti-correlation. Moreover, this soft transition in the waking state encompass a behavioural time scale window that gives rise to a multifractal pattern. We believe that the observed multifractality in mouse activity is formed by the integration of several stereotyped movements each one with a characteristic time correlation. Finally, we compare scaling properties of body acceleration fluctuation time series during sleep and wake periods for healthy mice. Interestingly, differences between sleep and wake in the scaling exponents are comparable to previous works regarding human heartbeat. Complementarily, the nature of these sleep-wake dynamics could lead to a better understanding of neuroautonomic regulation mechanisms. PMID:25275515

  5. Metabolic Imaging in Multiple Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    We report here a novel combination of time-resolved imaging methods for probing mitochondrial metabolism multiple time scales at the level of single cells. By exploiting a mitochondrial membrane potential reporter fluorescence we demonstrate the single cell metabolic dynamics in time scales ranging from milliseconds to seconds to minutes in response to glucose metabolism and mitochondrial perturbations in real time. Our results show that in comparison with normal human mammary epithelial cells, the breast cancer cells display significant alterations in metabolic responses at all measured time scales by single cell kinetics, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and by scaling analysis of time-series data obtained from mitochondrial fluorescence fluctuations. Furthermore scaling analysis of time-series data in living cells with distinct mitochondrial dysfunction also revealed significant metabolic differences thereby suggesting the broader applicability (e.g. in mitochondrial myopathies and other metabolic disorders) of the proposed strategies beyond the scope of cancer metabolism. We discuss the scope of these findings in the context of developing portable, real-time metabolic measurement systems that can find applications in preclinical and clinical diagnostics. PMID:24013043

  6. Filling the Triassic Geochronologic Gap: A Continuous Cored Record of Continental Environmental Change in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, P. E.; Kent, D. V.; Geissman, J. W.; Mundil, R.; Gehrels, G. E.; Irmis, R. B.; Whiteside, J. H.; Schaller, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Triassic Period (252.2-201.6 Ma) is bracketed by two mass extinctions, witnessed the evolution of the major groups of modern tetrapods, saw giant bolide impacts, and was typified by generally high atmospheric CO2 and a lack of ice at the poles. Testing hypotheses relevant to these major features of the Triassic, as well as problems related to the Earth system in general, requires temporally well-defined records of environmental and biotic change, especially in terrestrial environments, which until recently were lacking. The NSF and ICDP funded ~500 m long core at Petrified Forest National Park, scheduled to be drilled in Fall, 2013, is part of an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional, Colorado Plateau Coring Project, and is a major step towards providing a network of such records. The core will recover virtually the entire pre-Owl-Rock-Member Late Triassic age Chinle and underlying Early-Middle Triassic age Moenkopi formations. A core is required despite excellent outcrop and a long and distinguished history of study because of ambiguities in local correlation, a lack of constraints on the temporal duration and resolution of biotic events, and an inability to make clear global correlations. Specifically, by integrating a densely sampled paleomagnetic record with high-resolution radioisotopic ages in unquestioned superposition, the new core will allow us to test at least five sets of hypotheses: (1) were marine and continental biotic turnover events in the Late Triassic coupled? (2) was there high faunal provinciality during the existence of the supercontinent of Pangea?; (3) is the time scale of the Newark basin astronomically calibrated GPTS for the Triassic accurate, particularly for the Norian age part that is relevant for mapping the chaotic evolution of the Solar System, as well as global correlations?; (4) is the supposed Carnian-Norian boundary in the Chinle actually a late middle Norian extinction coinciding with the 215.5 Ma Manicouagan impact?; (5) is the stratigraphic record in the Triassic a reflection of changes in local climate due to plate motion through climate belts or changes in global climate driven by other processes, such as CO2 fluctuations? The Petrified Forest core will thus be key to unambiguous testing of these ideas, and observations from it promise to fundamentally change the certainty and specificity of the questions that relate the rich surface record from the Chinle and Moenkopi to Earth system processes.

  7. Time scale synchronization of chaotic oscillators

    E-print Network

    Alexander Hramov; Alexey Koronovskii

    2006-02-25

    This paper presents the result of the investigation of chaotic oscillator synchronization. A new approach for detecting of synchronized behaviour of chaotic oscillators has been proposed. This approach is based on the analysis of different time scales in the time series generated by the coupled chaotic oscillators. This approach has been applied for the coupled Rossler and Lorenz systems.

  8. Strontium Isotope Constraints on Permian-Triassic Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, E. K.; Paytan, A.; Payne, J.

    2011-12-01

    The most rapid increase in seawater 87Sr/86Sr during the Phanerozoic occurred from the latest Permian through the Early Triassic. Strontium isotope values jumped from 0.7070 to 0.7082 in 10 million years or less. However, the rate and timing of Early Triassic isotopic change are poorly known because of gaps in the data and poor age control. Previous work has suggested that enhanced continental weathering drove the increase in seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratio, but the underlying driver remains poorly understood because the timing of major Permian glacial and orogenic events is too early to account for the large radiogenic excursion. To address this problem, we collected new Sr isotope data from Early Triassic carbonates of south China and Turkey, and use this record to model the Sr cycle through the same time interval. Constrained by recent improvements in Early Triassic geochronology, the Sr data reveal a dramatic rate of change in seawater 87Sr/86Sr: most of the excursion occurred during the first two million years of Early Triassic time. We use a strontium cycle box model to investigate possible causes of the Sr excursion and to quantitatively assess the potential role of Siberian Traps volcanism through weathering feedbacks. We find that the proposed magnitude of CO2 release (132,000 Gt) during Siberian Traps volcanism is sufficient to account for much of the observed increase in seawater 87Sr/86Sr through CO2 enhancement of continental weathering rates. This interpretation of the Sr cycle is consistent with geological, geochemical, and paleontological evidence for end-Permian and Early Triassic global warming, enhanced continental weathering and nutrient delivery, high primary productivity, and marine anoxia.

  9. The Geologic Time Scale in Historical Perspective

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This brief discussion of the development of the Geologic Time Scale begins with Nicolas Steno in 1669 whose ideas have become known as the principles of original horizontal deposition and superposition. Next are James Hutton in 1795 and Charles Lyell in the early 1800s who supported the principle of uniformitarianism. The work of William Smith and the principle of faunal succession is also noted. The site goes on to explain how and why the scale is divided as it is.

  10. Assessing the record and causes of Late Triassic extinctions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, L.H.; Lucas, S.G.; Chapman, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated biotic turnover during the Late Triassic has led to the perception of an end-Triassic mass extinction event, now regarded as one of the "big five" extinctions. Close examination of the fossil record reveals that many groups thought to be affected severely by this event, such as ammonoids, bivalves and conodonts, instead were in decline throughout the Late Triassic, and that other groups were relatively unaffected or subject to only regional effects. Explanations for the biotic turnover have included both gradualistic and catastrophic mechanisms. Regression during the Rhaetian, with consequent habitat loss, is compatible with the disappearance of some marine faunal groups, but may be regional, not global in scale, and cannot explain apparent synchronous decline in the terrestrial realm. Gradual, widespread aridification of the Pangaean supercontinent could explain a decline in terrestrial diversity during the Late Triassic. Although evidence for an impact precisely at the boundary is lacking, the presence of impact structures with Late Triassic ages suggests the possibility of bolide impact-induced environmental degradation prior to the end-Triassic. Widespread eruptions of flood basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) were synchronous with or slightly postdate the system boundary; emissions of CO2 and SO2 during these eruptions were substantial, but the contradictory evidence for the environmental effects of outgassing of these lavas remains to be resolved. A substantial excursion in the marine carbon-isotope record of both carbonate and organic matter suggests a significant disturbance of the global carbon cycle at the system boundary. Release of methane hydrates from seafloor sediments is a possible cause for this isotope excursion, although the triggering mechanism and climatic effects of such a release remain uncertain. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Paleomagnetic age constrains and magneto-mineralogic implications for the Triassic paleosurface in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Christine; Thiry, Medard; Gomez-Gras, David; Jelenska, Maria; Kadzialko-Hofmokl, Magdalena; Lagroix, France; Parcerisa, David; Spassov, Simo; Szuszkiewicz, Adam; Turniak, Krzysztof

    2010-05-01

    The reconstruction of paleosurfaces represents a unique tool to access the evolution of ancient continents. Paleosurfaces contribute to the study of global changes through paleoweathering features/profiles and record uplift and subsidence of the ancient continents driven by crustal geodynamics and plate tectonics. However, age constraints for basement paleosurfaces are often difficult to obtain since the geological record of ancient land surfaces is usually limited, fragmented by unconformities and scrambled by successive superimposed evolutions, leaving a patchwork of relict landforms and weathering products, discontinuous over time and space. The crystalline basement of European Paleozoic massifs, consisting of igneous and metamorphic rocks, often show Permo-Triassic overprints resulting in underestimated age determinations. These remagnetisations are ubiquitous [e.g. Edel & Schneider, 1995], affecting many emerged Paleozoic rocks in Europe. The rejuvenated age estimations are attributed to an alteration of the primary paleomagnetic signal and carried by secondary hematite [Ricordel et al., 2007; Preeden et al., 2009; Preeden, 2009]. Moreover, published paleomagnetic ages [Ricordel et al., 2007] showed a strong relationship between the remagnetization and the development of pinkish-red crystalline facies associated to the albitized underlying rocks of the Morvan Massif (France). Parcerisa et al. [2009] performed further field and petrographic analyses and proposed that the albitization was linked to the precipitation of secondary haematite. Since hematite forms under oxidising conditions one may deduce that the remagnetization occurring in the Paleozoic crystalline rocks formed during the exposure of these rocks at the Permo-Triassic (paleo)surface. The extent of the altered zone (~200 m in depth) points to a sodium enriched groundwater environment [Thiry et al., 2009]. Demonstrating that the albitized facies are of supergenic origin and bound to the Triassic paleosurface deeply renews the ideas about the evolution of basement areas. The recognition of the Triassic paleosurface on widespread basements in Europe will provide spatio-temporal benchmarks to constrain the ablation of these massifs since the Triassic. This will be a major contribution to the geodynamic modelling of continental evolution of Europe. To deepen our understanding of this paleoalteration phenomenon on a supra-regional scale and to obtain a reasonable distribution of paleomagnetic age determinations, we aim to acquire more tie points for this Permo-Triassic surface, which was preserved in the crystalline basement of Europe throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic epochs. We will present results from paleomagnetic investigations as well as magneto-mineralogic analyses of the profiles through albitized granite and porphyry from the Sudetes in SW-Poland and the Catalonian Mountains in NE-Spain, for which preliminary age estimations have been carried out. Further European Paleozoic sample sites are in process. Depending on the depth situation of the sampled facies compared to the weathering profile, the Triassic paleomagnetic ages show dispersion towards rather older ages at the top and younger ages at the bottom of the sequence. This seems to correlate with the results from magneto-mineralogical analyses which show a decreasing hematite concentration with depth. The oldest ages are carried by a single component, identified as single-domain secondary hematite inclusions in the secondary albite crystals. With increasing depth the samples are rather characterized by a two-component signal, still showing (younger) Triassic ages for both components. These were identified as secondary hematite and maghemite. The latter is most probably a product of either low-temperature magnetite oxidation or precipitates during the albitization of the primary rock. These processes are both linked to less oxidising conditions than at the top of the weathering profile. A systematic interpretation of the paleomagnetic ages and the identification of the magnetic carrier assem

  12. Reccurent Early Triassic marine anoxia, impacts of volcanics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasby, Stephen; Beauchamp, Benoit; Sanei, Hamed

    2014-05-01

    NW Pangea records a complex history of recurrent development of anoxia through the Permo-Triassic Biotic Crises. The Early Triassic record from the Smithian strato-type in the Sverdrup Basin, as well as for the more open ocean setting of Svalbard, have organic carbon isotope records that closely correspond to major fluctuations in the inorganic carbon records from the Tethys, demonstrating truly global perturbations of the carbon cycle occurred during this time. Geochemical proxies for anoxia are strongly correlated with carbon isotopes, whereby negative shifts in ?13Corg are associated with shifts to more anoxic to euxinic conditions, and positive shifts are related to return to more oxic conditions. Rather than a delayed or prolonged recovery, the Early Triassic is characterized better by a series of aborted biotic recoveries related to shifts back to ocean anoxia, potentially driven by recurrent volcanism.

  13. The time scale of evolutionary innovation.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Pavlogiannis, Andreas; Adlam, Ben; Nowak, Martin A

    2014-09-01

    A fundamental question in biology is the following: what is the time scale that is needed for evolutionary innovations? There are many results that characterize single steps in terms of the fixation time of new mutants arising in populations of certain size and structure. But here we ask a different question, which is concerned with the much longer time scale of evolutionary trajectories: how long does it take for a population exploring a fitness landscape to find target sequences that encode new biological functions? Our key variable is the length, L, of the genetic sequence that undergoes adaptation. In computer science there is a crucial distinction between problems that require algorithms which take polynomial or exponential time. The latter are considered to be intractable. Here we develop a theoretical approach that allows us to estimate the time of evolution as function of L. We show that adaptation on many fitness landscapes takes time that is exponential in L, even if there are broad selection gradients and many targets uniformly distributed in sequence space. These negative results lead us to search for specific mechanisms that allow evolution to work on polynomial time scales. We study a regeneration process and show that it enables evolution to work in polynomial time. PMID:25211329

  14. The Time Scale of Evolutionary Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Pavlogiannis, Andreas; Adlam, Ben; Nowak, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental question in biology is the following: what is the time scale that is needed for evolutionary innovations? There are many results that characterize single steps in terms of the fixation time of new mutants arising in populations of certain size and structure. But here we ask a different question, which is concerned with the much longer time scale of evolutionary trajectories: how long does it take for a population exploring a fitness landscape to find target sequences that encode new biological functions? Our key variable is the length, of the genetic sequence that undergoes adaptation. In computer science there is a crucial distinction between problems that require algorithms which take polynomial or exponential time. The latter are considered to be intractable. Here we develop a theoretical approach that allows us to estimate the time of evolution as function of We show that adaptation on many fitness landscapes takes time that is exponential in even if there are broad selection gradients and many targets uniformly distributed in sequence space. These negative results lead us to search for specific mechanisms that allow evolution to work on polynomial time scales. We study a regeneration process and show that it enables evolution to work in polynomial time. PMID:25211329

  15. The hippocampus, time, and memory across scales.

    PubMed

    Howard, Marc W; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-11-01

    A wealth of experimental studies with animals have offered insights about how neural networks within the hippocampus support the temporal organization of memories. These studies have revealed the existence of "time cells" that encode moments in time, much as the well-known "place cells" map locations in space. Another line of work inspired by human behavioral studies suggests that episodic memories are mediated by a state of temporal context that changes gradually over long time scales, up to at least a few thousand seconds. In this view, the "mental time travel" hypothesized to support the experience of episodic memory corresponds to a "jump back in time" in which a previous state of temporal context is recovered. We suggest that these 2 sets of findings could be different facets of a representation of temporal history that maintains a record at the last few thousand seconds of experience. The ability to represent long time scales comes at the cost of discarding precise information about when a stimulus was experienced--this uncertainty becomes greater for events further in the past. We review recent computational work that describes a mechanism that could construct such a scale-invariant representation. Taken as a whole, this suggests the hippocampus plays its role in multiple aspects of cognition by representing events embedded in a general spatiotemporal context. The representation of internal time can be useful across nonhippocampal memory systems. PMID:23915126

  16. Universal time scaling for Hamiltonian parameter estimation

    E-print Network

    Haidong Yuan; Chi-Hang Fred Fung

    2015-03-24

    Time is a valuable resource and it seems intuitive that longer time should lead to better precision in Hamiltonian parameter estimation. However recent studies have put this intuition into question, showing longer time may even lead to worse estimation in certain cases. Here we show that the intuition can be restored if coherent feedback controls are included. By deriving asymptotically optimal feedback controls we present a quantification of the maximal improvement feedback controls can provide in Hamiltonian parameter estimation and show a universal time scaling for the precision limit of Hamiltonian parameter estimation under the optimal feedback scheme.

  17. The end-triassic mass extinction event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallam, A.

    1988-01-01

    The end-Triassic is the least studied of the five major episodes of mass extinction recognized in the Phanerozoic, and the Triassic-Jurassic boundary is not precisely defined in most parts of the world, with a paucity of good marine sections and an insufficiency of biostratigraphically valuable fossils. Despite these limitations it is clear that there was a significant episode of mass extinction, affecting many groups, in the Late Norian and the existing facts are consistent with it having taken place at the very end of the period. The best record globally comes from marine strata. There was an almost complete turnover of ammonites across the T-J boundary, with perhaps no more than one genus surviving. About half the bivalve genera and most of the species went extinct, as did many archaeogastropods. Many Paleozoic-dominant brachiopods also disappeared, as did the last of the conodonts. There was a major collapse and disappearance of the Alpine calcareous sponge. Among terrestrial biota, a significant extinction event involving tetrapods was recognized. With regard to possible environmental events that may be postulated to account for the extinctions, there is no evidence of any significant global change of climate at this time. The existence of the large Manicouagan crater in Quebec, dated as about late or end-Triassic, has led to the suggestion that an impact event might be implicated, but so far despite intensive search no unequivocal iridium anomaly or shocked quartz was discovered. On the other hand there is strong evidence for significant marine regression in many parts of the world. It is proposed therefore that the likeliest cause of the marine extinctions is severe reduction in habitat area caused either by regression of epicontinental seas, subsequent widespread anoxia during the succeeding transgression, or a combination of the two.

  18. Triassic deposits of the Chukotka Arctic continental margin (sedimentary implications and detrital zircon data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchkova, Marianna; Sokolov, Sergey; Verzhbitsky, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Triassic clastic deposits of Chukotka are represented by rhythmic intercalation of sandstones, siltstones and mudstones. During the Triassic, sedimentation was represented by continental slope progradation. Detrital zircons from Triassic sedimentary rocks were collected for constrain its paleogeographic links to source terranes. Zircons populations from three Chukotka's samples are very similar, and youngest zircon ages show peaks at 236-255 Ma (Miller et al., 2006). Lower Triassic sandstones from the Chaun subterrane do not contain the young population 235-265 Ma that is characteristic of the Upper Triassic rocks from the Anyui subterrane and Wrangel Island. The young zircon population is missing also from the coeval Sadlerochit Group (Alaska) and Blind Fiord Formation of the Sverdrup basin (Miller et al., 2006; Omma et al., 2011). Our data of Triassic sandstones of Wrangel island demonstrate detrital zircons ages dominated by Middle Triassic (227-245 Ma), Carboniferous (309-332 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic (1808-2500 Ma) ages. The new data on Chukotka show that populations of detrital zircons from Chukotka, the Sverdrup basin, and Alaska, the Sadlerochit Mountains included, demonstrate greater similarity than it was previously thought. Consequently, it may be assumed that they originate from a single source situated in the north. The data on zircon age of gabbro-dolerite magmatism in eastern Chukotka (252 Ma. Ledneva et al., 2011) and K-Ar ages obtained for sills and small intrusive bodies (Geodynamics, 2006) in Lower Triassic deposits allow the local provenance. The presence of products of synchronous magmatism and shallow-water facies in the Lower Triassic sequences confirm this assumption. At the same time, coeval zircons appear only in the Upper Triassic strata. It is conceivable that the young zircon population originates from intrusive, not volcanic rocks, which were subjected to erosion only in the Late Triassic. In our opinion, the assumption of the local source with synchronous magmatism is consistent with the evolution of the petrological-mineralogical and geochemical compositions in the Triassic sandstones of Chukotka. Similar zircon peaks in Triassic rocks of northern Wrangel Island, Sverdrup basin, and Alaska indicate the same provenances for the Triassic periods. It is possible that all obtained data may indirectly support existence of the hypothetical "Hyperborean Platform" or Crockerland-Arctida microcontinent Work was supported by RBRR projects 11-05-00787, 11-05-00074, Scientific school # NSh-5177.2012.5, kontrakts 01/14/20/11; and we are extremely grateful to the TGS company for execution of a joint research project "Geological history of Wrangel Island".

  19. Triassic origin and early radiation of multicellular volvocine algae

    E-print Network

    Triassic origin and early radiation of multicellular volvocine algae Matthew D. Herron1 , Jeremiah-studied ETIs is the origin of multicellularity in the green alga Volvox, a model system for the evolution occurred dozens of times independently, for example in the red algae, brown algae, land plants, animals

  20. A comment on the use of flushing time, residence time, and age as transport time scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monsen, N.E.; Cloern, J.E.; Lucas, L.V.; Monismith, S.G.

    2002-01-01

    Applications of transport time scales are pervasive in biological, hydrologic, and geochemical studies yet these times scales are not consistently defined and applied with rigor in the literature. We compare three transport time scales (flushing time, age, and residence time) commonly used to measure the retention of water or scalar quantities transported with water. We identify the underlying assumptions associated with each time scale, describe procedures for computing these time scales in idealized cases, and identify pitfalls when real-world systems deviate from these idealizations. We then apply the time scale definitions to a shallow 378 ha tidal lake to illustrate how deviations between real water bodies and the idealized examples can result from: (1) non-steady flow; (2) spatial variability in bathymetry, circulation, and transport time scales; and (3) tides that introduce complexities not accounted for in the idealized cases. These examples illustrate that no single transport time scale is valid for all time periods, locations, and constituents, and no one time scale describes all transport processes. We encourage aquatic scientists to rigorously define the transport time scale when it is applied, identify the underlying assumptions in the application of that concept, and ask if those assumptions are valid in the application of that approach for computing transport time scales in real systems.

  1. Evidence of synsedimentary tectonic movements in the Triassic halite of Cheshire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger M. Tucker; Maurice E. Tucker

    1981-01-01

    During the Triassic, north-west Europe was subjected to tensional stresses which resulted in the formation of a complex system of rapidly subsiding grabens and wrench-faulted basins. This pattern of regional crustal extension, which is part of the larger scale Mesozoic break-up of the Pangean megacontinent, is related to the Triassic opening of the Tethys Ocean in southern Europe and rifting

  2. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Substorm Recovery Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Chua, D H.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Previous statistical observations have shown that the recovery time scales of substorms occurring in the winter and near equinox (when the nighttime auroral zone was in darkness) are roughly twice as long as the recovery time scales for substorms occurring in the summer (when the nighttime auroral region was sunlit). This suggests that auroral substorms in the northern and southern hemispheres develop asymmetrically during solstice conditions with substorms lasting longer in the winter (dark) hemisphere than in the summer (sunlit) hemisphere. Additionally, this implies that more energy is deposited by electron precipitation in the winter hemisphere than in the summer one during substorms. This result, coupled with previous observations that have shown that auroral activity is more common when the ionosphere is in darkness and is suppressed when the ionosphere is in daylight, strongly suggests that the ionospheric conductivity plays an important role governing how magnetospheric energy is transferred to the ionosphere during substorms. Therefore, the ionosphere itself may dictate how much energy it will accept from the magnetosphere during substorms rather than this being an externally imposed quantity. Here, we extend our earlier work by statistically analyzing the recovery time scales for a large number of substorms observed in the conjugate hemispheres simultaneously by two orbiting global auroral imagers: Polar UVI and IMAGE FUV. Our current results are consistent with previous observations. The recovery time scales are observed to be longer in the winter (dark) hemisphere while the auroral activity has a shorter duration in the summer (sunlit) hemisphere. This leads to an asymmetric energy input from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere with more energy being deposited in the winter hemisphere than in the summer hemisphere.

  3. Relative Geologic Time and the Geologic Time Scale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bret Bennington

    Students are given a short introduction to fossils, strata, Steno's law of superposition, and the development of the geologic time scale from initial description of systems, through the realization that fossils could be used to correlate between systems, to the assembly of the modern geologic time scale. Then, each student in the course is given a sheet of paper with a simple stratigraphic column and associated fossils representing a geologic system on one side and a short description of the location and history of discovery of the system on the other. On a large wall, students then assemble four geologic columns from their systems representing mainland Europe, Great Britain, the Eastern U.S. and the Western U.S. using the fossils illustrated on their sheets to correlate systems. The instructor guides this process by placing the first system on the wall and by providing some narration as the columns take shape. Europe and Great Britain are assembled first, one sheet at a time, providing when completed the framework of the modern geologic time scale. Once this is up on the wall, the remaining students can assemble the other two columns in minutes using fossils to correlate between American and European systems. A temporal gap in the Grand Canyon sequence provides an opportunity to discuss the incompleteness of the rock record in any one place and a system composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks with no fossils is used to point out the difference between radiometric (absolute) and biostratigraphic (relative) dating.

  4. A NEW SHRIMP (DECAPODA, DENDROBRANCHIATA, PENAEOIDEA) FROM THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF YUNNAN, SOUTHWEST CHINA

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    the type species, Aeger tipularius from the Jurassic Solnhofen Plattenkalk, in having a long, smooth of the marine ecosystem between Eastern and Western Tethys. INTRODUCTION THE TRIASSIC Period was a pivotal time

  5. Time ephemeris and general relativistic scale factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    Time ephemeris is the location-independent part of the transformation formula relating two time coordinates such as TCB and TCG (Fukushima 1995). It is computed from the corresponding (space) ephemerides providing the relative motion of two spatial coordinate origins such as the motion of geocenter relative to the solar system barycenter. The time ephemerides are inevitably needed in conducting precise four dimensional coordinate transformations among various spacetime coordinate systems such as the GCRS and BCRS (Soffel et al. 2003). Also, by means of the time average operation, they are used in determining the information on scale conversion between the pair of coordinate systems, especially the difference of the general relativistic scale factor from unity such as LC. In 1995, we presented the first numerically-integrated time ephemeris, TE245, from JPL's planetary ephemeris DE245 (Fukushima 1995). It gave an estimate of LC as 1.4808268457(10) 10-8, which was incorrect by around 2 10-16. This was caused by taking the wrong sign of the post-Newtonian contribution in the final summation. Four years later, we updated TE245 to TE405 associated with DE405 (Irwin and Fukushima 1999). This time the renewed vale of LC is 1.48082686741(200) 10-8 Another four years later, by using a precise technique of time average, we improved the estimate of Newtonian part of LC for TE405 as 1.4808268559(6) 10-8 (Harada and Fukushima 2003). This leads to the value of LC as LC = 1.48082686732(110) 10-8. If we combine this with the constant defining the mean rate of TCG-TT, LG = 6.969290134 10-10 (IAU 2001), we estimate the numerical value of another general relativistic scale factor LB = 1.55051976763(110) 10-8, which has the meaning of the mean rate of TCB-TT. The main reasons of the uncertainties are the truncation effect in time average and the uncertainty of asteroids' perturbation. The former is a natural limitation caused by the finite length of numerical planetary ephemerides and the latter is due to the uncertainty of masses of some heavy asteroids. As a compact realization of the time ephemeris, we prepared HF2002, a Fortran routine to compute approximate harmonic series of TE405 with the RMS error of 0.446 ns for the period 1600 to 2200 (Harada and Fukushima 2003). It is included in the IERS Convention 2003 (McCarthy and Petit 2003) and available from the IERS web site; http://tai.bipm.org/iers/conv2003/conv2003_c10.html.

  6. Time Ephemeris and General Relativistic Scale Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2010-11-01

    Time ephemeris is the location-independent part of the transformation formula relating two time coordinates such as TCB and TCG (Fukushima 2009). It is computed from the corresponding (space) ephemerides providing the relative motion of two spatial coordinate origins such as the motion of geocenter relative to the solar system barycenter. The time ephemerides are inevitably needed in conducting precise four dimensional coordinate transformations among various spacetime coordinate systems such as the GCRS and BCRS (Soffel et al. 2003). Also, by means of the time average operation, they are used in determining the information on scale conversion between the pair of coordinate systems, especially the difference of the general relativistic scale factor from unity such as LC. In 1995, we presented the first numerically-integrated time ephemeris, TE245, from JPL's planetary ephemeris DE245 (Fukushima 1995). It gave an estimate of LC as 1.4808268457(10) 10-8, which was incorrect by around 2 10-16. This was caused by taking the wrong sign of the post-Newtonian contribution in the final summation. Four years later, we updated TE245 to TE405 associated with DE405 (Irwin and Fukushima 1999). This time the renewed vale of LC is 1.48082686741(200) 10-8 Another four years later, by using a precise technique of time average, we improved the estimate of Newtonian part of LC for TE405 as 1.4808268559(6) 10-8 (Harada and Fukushima 2003). This leads to the value of LC as LC = 1.48082686732(110) 10-8. If we combine this with the constant defining the mean rate of TCG-TT, LG = 6.969290134 10-10 (IAU 2001), we estimate the numerical value of another general relativistic scale factor LB = 1.55051976763(110) 10-8, which has the meaning of the mean rate of TCB-TT. The main reasons of the uncertainties are the truncation effect in time average and the uncertainty of asteroids' perturbation. As a compact realization of the time ephemeris, we prepared HF2002, a Fortran routine to compute approximate harmonic series of TE405 with the RMS error of 0.446 ns for the period 1600 to 2200 (Harada and Fukushima 2003). It is included in the IERS Convention 2003 (McCarthy and Petit 2003) and available from the IERS web site; http://tai.bipm.org/iers/conv2003/conv2003_c10.html.

  7. Time Ephemeris and Relativistic Scaling of Ephemerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2009-05-01

    Time ephemeris is the location-independent part of the transformation formula relating two time coordinates such as TCB and TCG. It is computed from the corresponding (space) ephemerides providing the relative motion of two spatial coordinate origins associated such as the motion of geocenter relative to the solar system barycenter. The time ephemerides are inevitablly needed in conducting a precise four-dimensional coordinate transformation among various spacetime coodrinate systems such as the GCRS and BCRS. Also, by means of the time average operation, it is useful in determining the information on scale conversion between the pair of coordinate systems, especially scale conversion factors such as LC. In 1995, we presented the first numerically-integrated time ephemeris, TE245, from JPL's planetary ephemeris DE245 (Fukushima 1995, A&Ap, 294, 895-906). Four years later, we updated it to TE405 associated with DE405 (Irwin and Fukushima 1999, A&Ap, 348, 642-652). The former gave an estimate of LC, the scale conversion factor between TCB and TCG, as 1.4808268457(10) x 10-8. Meanwhile the latter renewed it as 1.48082686741(200) x 10-8. Another four years later, by using a precise technique of time avarage, we improved the estimate as 1.4808268559(6) x 10-8 (Harada and Fukushima 2003, AJ, 126, 2557-2561). The main reasons of these uncertainties are the truncation effect in time average and the uncertainty of asteroids' perturbation. The former is a natural limitation caused by the finite length of numerical planetary ephemerides and the latter is due to the uncertainty of masses of some heavy asteroids. In the talk, we review the post-Newtonian formulas to integrate time ephemerides as well as some practical details on their numerical integration. Also, we explain two kinds of techniques of time average. One is a semi-numerical approach as explained in 1991 A&Ap article and the other is purely numerical as given in 2003 AJ paper.

  8. A perspective on time: Loss frequencies, time scales, and lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Michael; Holmes, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    The need to describe the Earth system and its components with a quantity that has units of time is ubiquitous since the 1970s work of Bolin, Rodhe and Junge. These quantities are often used as metrics of the system to describe the duration or cumulative impact of an action, such as in global-warming and ozone-depletion potentials, as in the SPARC lifetime re-assessment. The quantity designated "lifetime" is often calculated inconsistently and/or misused when applied to the subsequent evaluations of impacts. A careful set of definitions and derivations is needed to ensure that we are reporting, publishing, and comparing the same quantities. There are many different ways to derive metrics of time, and they describe different properties of the system. Here we carefully define several of those metrics - denoted here as loss frequency, time scale, and lifetime - and demonstrate which properties of the system they describe. Three generalizable examples demonstrate (i) how the non-linear chemistry of tropospheric ozone makes simple approaches for tracking pollution in error; (ii) why the lifetime of a gas depends on the history of emissions, and (iii) when multiple reservoirs generate time scales quite separate from the traditionally defined lifetime. Proper use of the many "time" parameters in a system, however, gives a very powerful understanding of the response to anthropogenic perturbations.

  9. CO2 and the end-Triassic mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Beerling, David

    2002-01-24

    The end of the Triassic period was marked by one of the largest and most enigmatic mass-extinction events in Earth's history and, with few reliable marine geochemical records, terrestrial sediments offer an important means of deciphering environmental changes at this time. Tanner et al. describe an isotopic study of Mesozoic fossil soils which suggests that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (pCO2) across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary was relatively constant (within 250 p.p.m.v.), but this is inconsistent with high-resolution evidence from the stomatal characters of fossil leaves. Here I show that the temporal resolution of the fossil-soil samples may have been inadequate for detecting a transient rise in pCO2. I also show that the fossil-soil data are consistent with a large increase in pCO2 across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary when variations in the stable carbon isotope (denoted as delta13C) in terrestrial plant leaves are taken into account. These factors suggest that the linkage between pCO2, global warming and the end-Triassic mass extinction remains intact. PMID:11807542

  10. Early Triassic stromatolites as post-mass extinction disaster forms

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, J.K.; Bottjer, D.J. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Aftermaths of mass extinctions have been thought to be characterized by relaxation of ecological constraints accompanied by increased prominence of opportunistic generalists. Such taxa, termed 'disaster forms,' have been shown to increase dramatically in range and abundance after several mass extinction events. The Cambrian-Ordovician stromatolite decline in normal-marine level-bottom environments has been explained as a direct or indirect consequence of increases in ecological constraints, such as greater levels of predation and/or bioturbation of microbial communities, caused by early Paleozoic benthic invertebrate evolution and diversification. Thus, one would predict that in post-Ordovician strata, stromatolites might appear in normal-marine level-bottom environments as disaster forms in the aftermaths of mass extinction particularly devastating to the benthic biota, such as during Early Triassic time. Mounded stromatolites are present in two beds (up to 1.5 m thick) of the Lower Triassic (Spathian) Virgin Limestone Member (Moenkopi Formation) in the southwestern Spring Mountains of Nevada. Stromatolites from level-bottom normal-marine subtidal environments have also been described from other Lower Triassic strata in North America, Europe, and Asia. These stromatolites, unusual in level-bottom normal-marine settings, may have developed locally during the long aftermath (4-5 m.y.) of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction because of partial relaxation of the ecological constraints that typically restricted them from unstressed subtidal, normal-marine, level-bottom environments.

  11. A new chronology for the end-Triassic mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deenen, M. H. L.; Ruhl, M.; Bonis, N. R.; Krijgsman, W.; Kuerschner, W. M.; Reitsma, M.; van Bergen, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    The transition from the Triassic to Jurassic Period, initiating the 'Age of the dinosaurs', approximately 200 Ma, is marked by a profound mass extinction with more than 50% genus loss in both marine and continental realms. This event closely coincides with a period of extensive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) associated with the initial break-up of Pangaea but a causal relationship is still debated. The Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary is recently proposed in the marine record at the first occurrence datum of Jurassic ammonites, post-dating the extinction interval that concurs with two distinct perturbations in the carbon isotope record. The continental record shows a major palynological turnover together with a prominent change in tetrapod taxa, but a direct link to the marine events is still equivocal. Here we develop an accurate chronostratigraphic framework for the T-J boundary interval and establish detailed trans-Atlantic and marine-continental correlations by integrating astrochronology, paleomagnetism, basalt geochemistry and geobiology. We show that the oldest CAMP basalts are diachronous by 20 kyr across the Atlantic Ocean, and that these two volcanic pulses coincide with the end-Triassic extinction interval in the marine realm. Our results support the hypotheses of Phanerozoic mass extinctions resulting from emplacement of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) and provide crucial time constraints for numerical modelling of Triassic-Jurassic climate change and global carbon-cycle perturbations.

  12. Ecosystem remodelling among vertebrates at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Russia.

    PubMed

    Benton, M J; Tverdokhlebov, V P; Surkov, M V

    2004-11-01

    The mass extinction at the Permian-Triassic boundary, 251 million years (Myr) ago, is accepted as the most profound loss of life on record. Global data compilations indicate a loss of 50% of families or more, both in the sea and on land, and these figures scale to a loss of 80-96% of species, based on rarefaction analyses. This level of loss is confirmed by local and regional-scale studies of marine sections, but the terrestrial record has been harder to analyse in such close detail. Here we document the nature of the event in Russia in a comprehensive survey of 675 specimens of amphibians and reptiles from 289 localities spanning 13 successive geological time zones in the South Urals basin. These changes in diversity and turnover cannot be explained simply by sampling effects. There was a profound loss of genera and families, and simplification of ecosystems, with the loss of small fish-eaters and insect-eaters, medium and large herbivores and large carnivores. Faunal dynamics also changed, from high rates of turnover through the Late Permian period to greater stability at low diversity through the Early Triassic period. Even after 15 Myr of ecosystem rebuilding, some guilds were apparently still absent-small fish-eaters, small insect-eaters, large herbivores and top carnivores. PMID:15525988

  13. A Major Unconformity Between Permian and Triassic Strata at Cape Kekurnoi, Alaska Peninsula: Old and New Observations on Stratigraphy and Hydrocarbon Potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Sralla, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    A major angular unconformity separates carbonates and shales of the Upper Triassic Kamishak Formation from an underlying unnamed sequence of Permian agglomerate, volcaniclastic rocks (sandstone), and limestone near Puale Bay on the Alaska Peninsula. For the first time, we photographically document the angular unconformity in outcrop, as clearly exposed in a seacliff ~1.3 mi (2.1 km) west of Cape Kekurnoi in the Karluk C?4 and C?5 1:63,360-scale quadrangles. This unconformity is also documented by examination of core chips, ditch cuttings, and (or) open-hole electrical logs in two deep oil-and-gas-exploration wells (Humble Oil & Refining Co.?s Bear Creek No. 1 and Standard Oil Co. of California?s Grammer No. 1) drilled along the Alaska Peninsula southwest of Puale Bay. A third well (Richfield Oil Corp.?s Wide Bay Unit No. 1), south of and structurally on trend with the other two wells, probed deeply into the Paleozoic basement, but Triassic strata are absent, owing to either a major unconformity or a large fault. Here we briefly review current and newly acquired data on Permian and Triassic rocks of the Puale Bay-Becharof Lake-Wide Bay area on the basis of an examination of surface and subsurface materials. The resulting reinterpretation of the Permian and Triassic stratigraphy has important economic ramifications for oil and gas exploration on the Alaska Peninsula and in the Cook Inlet basin. We also present a history of petroleum exploration targeting Upper Triassic reservoirs in the region.

  14. Time scales in nuclear giant resonances

    E-print Network

    WD Heiss; RG Nazmitdinov; FD Smit

    2009-12-18

    We propose a general approach to characterise fluctuations of measured cross sections of nuclear giant resonances. Simulated cross sections are obtained from a particular, yet representative self-energy which contains all information about fragmentations. Using a wavelet analysis, we demonstrate the extraction of time scales of cascading decays into configurations of different complexity of the resonance. We argue that the spreading widths of collective excitations in nuclei are determined by the number of fragmentations as seen in the power spectrum. An analytic treatment of the wavelet analysis using a Fourier expansion of the cross section confirms this principle. A simple rule for the relative life times of states associated with hierarchies of different complexity is given.

  15. Parametric instabilities in picosecond time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Baldis, H.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rozmus, W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Labaune, C.; Mounaix, Ph.; Pesme, D.; Baton, S. [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Tikhonchuk, V.T. [P.N. Lebedev Physics Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1993-03-01

    The coupling of intense laser light with plasmas is a rich field of plasma physics, with many applications. Among these are inertial confinement fusion (ICF), x-ray lasers, particle acceleration, and x-ray sources. Parametric instabilities have been studied for many years because of their importance to ICF; with laser pulses with duration of approximately a nanosecond, and laser intensities in the range 10{sup 14}--10{sup 15}W/cm{sup 2} these instabilities are of crucial concern because of a number of detrimental effects. Although the laser pulse duration of interest for these studies are relatively long, it has been evident in the past years that to reach an understanding of these instabilities requires their characterization and analysis in picosecond time scales. At the laser intensities of interest, the growth rate for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is of the order of picoseconds, and of an order of magnitude shorter for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). In this paper the authors discuss SBS and SRS in the context of their evolution in picosecond time scales. They describe the fundamental concepts associated with their growth and saturation, and recent work on the nonlinear treatment required for the modeling of these instabilities at high laser intensities.

  16. [Insects at the borderline between the Permian and the early triassic (Urzhum - Olenek age) and the problem of Permian-Triassic biodiversity crisis].

    PubMed

    Rasnitsyn, A P; Aristov, D S; Rasnitsyn, D A

    2013-01-01

    Distribution of 115 insect families is considered in 15 local assemblages of European Russia, Siberia, Australia and South Africa. The assemblage ages embrace the Urzhum stage of the Middle Permian, the Late Permian, and the transitional Permian-Triassic interval. The assemblages are ordered statistically using two criteria. Ordination after the appearance of a fauna, that is, relation of the number of younger vs. older families, is found to be generally consistent with the stratigraphic data. The method of minimizing the gaps (ghost ranges) in distribution of the families is useful in interpreting the results. Urzhum time is characterized by the balance of emergence and extinction of families (counted as their first and latest appearances, respectively). In Severodvinsk and particularly in Vyatka time, the number of first appearances was decreasing resulted in prevailing extinction. In the transitional Permian-Triassic interval, the emergence of new families accelerated. Initially, the appearance of assemblages was typically Paleozoic (with older families prevailed). It changed gradually, so as by the end of Vyatka time it turned to be quite post-Paleozoic. Diversity was the highest in Severodvinsk time, and it halved at Vyatka time and at the transition interval. However, if we consider transitional families (those not found on a particular interval, but known before and after), the extinction rate reduces to one-third. And when normalized after the material volume, the diversity drop decreases up to a quarter. There was no mass extinction found at the end of the Permian, and the less so at the Permian-Triassic boundary and during the Lower Triassic. Structure of the Permian-Triassic diversity crisis is similar to that of the Cretaceous crisis in many respects. Since the Middle Triassic and up to now, the biodiversity kept increasing quickly and continuously. This implies that the Permian-Triassic crisis resulted in profound modification of the biosphere structure, so as its capacity increased manifold. PMID:23659113

  17. Paleogeographic regionalization of Triassic seas based on conodontophorids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klets, T. V.

    2008-10-01

    Geographic differentiation of conodontophorids between northern and southern latitudes commenced in the Triassic since the early Induan. Cosmopolitan long-lived genera of predominantly smooth morphotypes without sculpturing were characteristic of high-latitude basins of the Panboreal Superrealm. Since the early Olenekian until the Carnian inclusive, this superrealm consisted of the Siberian Realm that extended over Northeast Asia and the Canada-Svalbard Realm that included the Svalbard Archipelago and northern regions of Canada. Throughout the Triassic period, conodontophorids characteristic of the Tethys-Panthalassa Superrealm spanning the Tethys and low-latitude zones of the Pacific were highly endemic, very diverse in taxonomic aspect, having well-developed sculpturing and tempos of morphological transformations. Distinctions between the Early-Middle Triassic conodontophorids from northern and southern zones were not as great as afterward, and their impoverished assemblages from southern Tethyan basins were close in some respects to the Boreal ones. Their habitat basins of that time can be grouped into the Mediterranean-Pacific and India-Pakistan realms. Hence, the extent of geographic differentiation of conodontophorids was not constant and gradually grew, as their taxonomic diversity was reducing in northern basins but relatively increasing in southern ones. The Panboreal e Tethys-Panthalassa superrealms of conodontophorids, which are most clearly recognizable, are close to first-rank paleobiochores (superrealms) established earlier for ammonoids and bivalve mollusks. Main factor that controlled geographic differentiation of Triassic conodontophorids was climatic zoning. Initially lower diversity of southern Tethyan assemblages points probably to relatively cooler water regime in the peri-Gondwanan part of the Tethys. The established patterns in geographic distribution of conodontophorids characterize most likely the real trend of their differentiation and evolution, i.e., the distribution area contraction prior to complete extinction at the end of the Triassic

  18. Late Triassic dinosaursfrom the western United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian P. Hunt; Spencer G. Lucas; Andrew B. Heckert; Robert M. Sullivan; Martin G. Lockley

    1998-01-01

    Western North America has one of the most extensive fossil records of Late Triassic dinosaurs. AllUpper Triassic strata are assigned to the Chinle Group which yields four successive, dinosaur-bearing faunas. Otischalkian (early Tuvalian) dinosaur specimens are fragmentary and indeterminate. Adamanian (late Tuvalian) dinosaurs include a herrerasaurid, Camposaurus arizonensis nov. gen. et sp., Caseosaurus crosbyensis nov. gen. et sp., Tecovasaurus murryi,

  19. EDITORIAL: Special issue on time scale algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsakis, Demetrios; Tavella, Patrizia

    2008-12-01

    This special issue of Metrologia presents selected papers from the Fifth International Time Scale Algorithm Symposium (VITSAS), including some of the tutorials presented on the first day. The symposium was attended by 76 persons, from every continent except Antarctica, by students as well as senior scientists, and hosted by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA) in San Fernando, Spain, whose staff further enhanced their nation's high reputation for hospitality. Although a timescale can be simply defined as a weighted average of clocks, whose purpose is to measure time better than any individual clock, timescale theory has long been and continues to be a vibrant field of research that has both followed and helped to create advances in the art of timekeeping. There is no perfect timescale algorithm, because every one embodies a compromise involving user needs. Some users wish to generate a constant frequency, perhaps not necessarily one that is well-defined with respect to the definition of a second. Other users might want a clock which is as close to UTC or a particular reference clock as possible, or perhaps wish to minimize the maximum variation from that standard. In contrast to the steered timescales that would be required by those users, other users may need free-running timescales, which are independent of external information. While no algorithm can meet all these needs, every algorithm can benefit from some form of tuning. The optimal tuning, and even the optimal algorithm, can depend on the noise characteristics of the frequency standards, or of their comparison systems, the most precise and accurate of which are currently Two Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) and GPS carrier phase time transfer. The interest in time scale algorithms and its associated statistical methodology began around 40 years ago when the Allan variance appeared and when the metrological institutions started realizing ensemble atomic time using more than one single atomic clock. An international symposium dedicated to these topics was initiated in 1972 as the first International Symposium on Atomic Time Scale Algorithms and it was the beginning of a series: 1st Symposium: organized at the NIST (NBS at that epoch) in 1972, 2nd Symposium: again at the NIST in 1982, 3rd Symposium: in Italy at the INRIM (IEN at that epoch) in 1988, 4th Symposium: in Paris at the BIPM in 2002 (see Metrologia 40 (3), 2003) 5th Symposium: in San Fernando, Spain at the ROA in 2008. The early symposia were concerned with establishing the basics of how to estimate and characterize the behavior of an atomic frequency standard in an unambiguous and clearly identifiable way, and how to combine the reading of different clocks to form an optimal time scale within a laboratory. Later, as atomic frequency standards began to be used as components in larger systems, interest grew in understanding the impact of a clock in a more complex environment. For example, use of clocks in telecommunication networks in a Synchronous Digital Hierarchy created a need to measure the maximum time error spanned by a clock in a certain interval. Timekeeping metrologists became interested in estimating time deviations and time stability, so they had to find ways to convert their common frequency characteristics to time characteristics. Tests of fundamental physics provided a motivation for launching atomic frequency standards into space in long-lasting missions, whose high-precision measurements might be available for only a few hours a day, yielding a series of clock data with many gaps and outliers for which a suitable statistical analysis was necessary to extract as much information as possible from the data. In the 21st century, the field has been transformed by the advent of atomic-clock-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), the steady increase in precision brought about by rapidly improving clocks and measurement systems, and the growing number of relatively inexpensive small clock ensembles. Although technological transformations have raised the

  20. Deep-sea record of impact apparently unrelated to mass extinction in the Late Triassic

    PubMed Central

    Onoue, Tetsuji; Sato, Honami; Nakamura, Tomoki; Noguchi, Takaaki; Hidaka, Yoshihiro; Shirai, Naoki; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Osawa, Takahito; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Toh, Yosuke; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Harada, Hideo; Orchard, Michael J.; Nedachi, Munetomo

    2012-01-01

    The 34-million-year (My) interval of the Late Triassic is marked by the formation of several large impact structures on Earth. Late Triassic impact events have been considered a factor in biotic extinction events in the Late Triassic (e.g., end-Triassic extinction event), but this scenario remains controversial because of a lack of stratigraphic records of ejecta deposits. Here, we report evidence for an impact event (platinum group elements anomaly with nickel-rich magnetite and microspherules) from the middle Norian (Upper Triassic) deep-sea sediment in Japan. This includes anomalously high abundances of iridium, up to 41.5 parts per billion (ppb), in the ejecta deposit, which suggests that the iridium-enriched ejecta layers of the Late Triassic may be found on a global scale. The ejecta deposit is constrained by microfossils that suggest correlation with the 215.5-Mya, 100-km-wide Manicouagan impact crater in Canada. Our analysis of radiolarians shows no evidence of a mass extinction event across the impact event horizon, and no contemporaneous faunal turnover is seen in other marine planktons. However, such an event has been reported among marine faunas and terrestrial tetrapods and floras in North America. We, therefore, suggest that the Manicouagan impact triggered the extinction of terrestrial and marine organisms near the impact site but not within the pelagic marine realm. PMID:23129649

  1. Deep-sea record of impact apparently unrelated to mass extinction in the Late Triassic.

    PubMed

    Onoue, Tetsuji; Sato, Honami; Nakamura, Tomoki; Noguchi, Takaaki; Hidaka, Yoshihiro; Shirai, Naoki; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Osawa, Takahito; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Toh, Yosuke; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Harada, Hideo; Orchard, Michael J; Nedachi, Munetomo

    2012-11-20

    The 34-million-year (My) interval of the Late Triassic is marked by the formation of several large impact structures on Earth. Late Triassic impact events have been considered a factor in biotic extinction events in the Late Triassic (e.g., end-Triassic extinction event), but this scenario remains controversial because of a lack of stratigraphic records of ejecta deposits. Here, we report evidence for an impact event (platinum group elements anomaly with nickel-rich magnetite and microspherules) from the middle Norian (Upper Triassic) deep-sea sediment in Japan. This includes anomalously high abundances of iridium, up to 41.5 parts per billion (ppb), in the ejecta deposit, which suggests that the iridium-enriched ejecta layers of the Late Triassic may be found on a global scale. The ejecta deposit is constrained by microfossils that suggest correlation with the 215.5-Mya, 100-km-wide Manicouagan impact crater in Canada. Our analysis of radiolarians shows no evidence of a mass extinction event across the impact event horizon, and no contemporaneous faunal turnover is seen in other marine planktons. However, such an event has been reported among marine faunas and terrestrial tetrapods and floras in North America. We, therefore, suggest that the Manicouagan impact triggered the extinction of terrestrial and marine organisms near the impact site but not within the pelagic marine realm. PMID:23129649

  2. Timing of post-depositional events in the Burano Formation of the Secchia valley (Upper Triassic, Northern Apennines), clues from gypsumanhydrite transitions and carbonate metasomatism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lugli

    2001-01-01

    The Burano Evaporite Formation from the Secchia River Valley is an up to 2200m-thick sequence composed of meter-to decameter-scale interbeds of gypsumanhydrite and dolostones with minor halite. The deposit has been affected by a complex array of post-depositional modifications, thermal events and large-scale evaporite dissolution, preventing a satisfactory reconstruction of the environment of deposition. The modifications are intense because these

  3. Late Permian-early Middle Triassic back-arc basin development in West Qinling, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Meng, Qingren; Pullen, Alex; Garzione, Carmala N.; Wu, Guoli; Wang, Yanling; Ma, Shouxian; Duan, Liang

    2014-06-01

    The Late Permian-early Middle Triassic strata of the northern West Qinling area, northeastern Tibetan Plateau, are composed of sediment gravity flow deposits. Detailed sedimentary facies analysis indicates these strata were deposited in three successive deep-marine environments. The Late Permian-early Early Triassic strata of the Maomaolong Formation and the lowest part of the Longwuhe Formation define a NW-SE trending proximal slope environment. Facies of the Early Triassic strata composing the middle and upper Longwuhe Formation are consistent with deposition in a base-of-slope apron environment, whereas facies of the Middle Triassic Anisian age Gulangdi Formation are more closely associated with a base-of-slope fan depositional environment. The lithofacies and the spatial-temporal changes in paleocurrent data from these strata suggest the opening of a continental margin back-arc basin system during Late Permian to early Middle Triassic time in the northern West Qinling. U-Pb zircon ages for geochemically varied igneous rocks with diabasic through granitic compositions intruded into these deep-marine strata range from 250 to 234 Ma. These observations are consistent with extensional back-arc basin development and rifting between the Permian-Triassic Eastern Kunlun arc and North China block during the continent-continent collision and underthrusting of the South China block northward beneath the Qinling terrane of the North China block. Deep-marine sedimentation ended in the northern West Qinling by the Middle Triassic Ladinian age, but started in the southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi to the south. We attribute these observations to southward directed rollback of Paleo-Tethys oceanic lithosphere, continued attenuation of the West Qinling on the upper plate, local post-rift isostatic compensation in the northern West Qinling area, and continued opening of a back-arc basin in the southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi. Rollback and back-arc basin development during Late Permian to early Middle Triassic time in the West Qinling area explains: the truncated map pattern of the Eastern Kunlun arc, the age difference of deep-marine sediment gravity flow deposits between the Late Permian-early Middle Triassic northern West Qinling and the late Middle Triassic-Late Triassic southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi, and the discontinuous trace of ophiolitic rocks associated with the Anyemaqen-Kunlun suture.

  4. Reappraisal of Displacement of Northern Cordilleran Terranes Since the Triassic and Jurassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, D. V.; Irving, E.

    2008-12-01

    Triassic-Jurassic paleomagnetic data from the Cordillera of Canada had initially indicated displacements of about 1000 km from the south. Later, as a result of revisions in the APW path for North America, it was contended that there had been no such displacements. The Cordilleran data are from Wrangellia (Nicolai/Karmutsen (225 Ma) and Bonanza (195 Ma) formations) and Stikinia (Hazelton (195-180 Ma) and Stuhinni (~210 Ma) formations). These are two largest exotic superterranes in the Cordillera. Data all are from massive lavas (mainly) or diabase sills whose bedding attitudes are well controlled and whose magnetizations are believed to record accurately the field direction. On the other hand, several of the APW paths determined from North America that were sometimes used for reference are dominated by results from sedimentary rocks, which recently published work using directional distributions and anisotropy measurements has demonstrated are commonly affected by inclination flattening, for example, Late Triassic and Early Jurassic sedimentary rocks in rift basins of eastern North America. When corrected for inclination flattening, sedimentary data agree with inclinations from coeval igneous rocks when these data are available, for example, 200 Ma CAMP volcanics, but don't support the J1 cusp, previously a cornerstone of many APW paths for North America. In order to avoid possible shallow bias in latitude determinations, we make a special effort to avoid errors arising from inclination-flattening in sedimentary rocks by (1) using only data from sedimentary rocks that have been corrected for inclination-flattening, and by rejecting all other sedimentary data, and (2) incorporating igneous data from all other major continents. Relative to present geography the global APW path relative to North America begins in Mongolia in the Early Triassic, trends north-northwest towards the estuary of the Ob River by the end of the Early Jurassic, where it lingers before rapidly moving to the vicinity of Nunivak Island by the end of the Jurassic (and then boomerangs to the Cretaceous standstill position in the Chukchi Sea). Cordilleran magnetizations always have inclinations that are shallower than expected from the reference path. There is therefore no ambiguity about the sense of displacements - they are always from the south relative to cratonic North America. However, within these structurally disrupted terranes, only individual poles and not their paths can be constructed and there are uncertainties in relating individual results to the global polarity time-scale, and so we cannot say, from the paleomagnetic evidence alone, whether the terranes were in the southern or the northern hemisphere during the early Mesozoic. Assuming the closest (northern hemisphere) position, all the Cordilleran terrane strata nevertheless give displacements of about 1000 km or more. The Nicolai of Alaska yields a displacement of ~2500 km which reflects the strong northward motion of SE Alaska in the Tertiary. We believe this settles the debate: Triassic and Jurassic rocks of Wrangellia and Stikinia all have been displaced significantly from the south. Notable also are the strong anticlockwise rotations of 40-60 from the Nicolai (Triassic), Bonanza and Hazelton (Jurassic), which have been observed also by Enkin throughout the stratigraphy of the Skeena fold- belt of central Stikinia. The Karmutsen (Triassic) of Vancouver Island shows a huge 150 anticlockwise rotation, perhaps a composite of several deformation phases.

  5. Detection of crossover time scales in multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Erjia; Leung, Yee

    2013-04-01

    Fractal is employed in this paper as a scale-based method for the identification of the scaling behavior of time series. Many spatial and temporal processes exhibiting complex multi(mono)-scaling behaviors are fractals. One of the important concepts in fractals is crossover time scale(s) that separates distinct regimes having different fractal scaling behaviors. A common method is multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). The detection of crossover time scale(s) is, however, relatively subjective since it has been made without rigorous statistical procedures and has generally been determined by eye balling or subjective observation. Crossover time scales such determined may be spurious and problematic. It may not reflect the genuine underlying scaling behavior of a time series. The purpose of this paper is to propose a statistical procedure to model complex fractal scaling behaviors and reliably identify the crossover time scales under MF-DFA. The scaling-identification regression model, grounded on a solid statistical foundation, is first proposed to describe multi-scaling behaviors of fractals. Through the regression analysis and statistical inference, we can (1) identify the crossover time scales that cannot be detected by eye-balling observation, (2) determine the number and locations of the genuine crossover time scales, (3) give confidence intervals for the crossover time scales, and (4) establish the statistically significant regression model depicting the underlying scaling behavior of a time series. To substantive our argument, the regression model is applied to analyze the multi-scaling behaviors of avian-influenza outbreaks, water consumption, daily mean temperature, and rainfall of Hong Kong. Through the proposed model, we can have a deeper understanding of fractals in general and a statistical approach to identify multi-scaling behavior under MF-DFA in particular.

  6. New early Jurassic tetrapod assemblages constrain Triassic-Jurassic tetrapod extinction event.

    PubMed

    Olsen, P E; Shubin, N H; Anders, M H

    1987-08-28

    The discovery of the first definitively correlated earliest Jurassic (200 million years before present) tetrapod assemblage (Fundy basin, Newark Supergroup, Nova Scotia) allows reevaluation of the duration of the Triassic-Jurassic tetrapod extinction event. Present are tritheledont and mammal-like reptiles, prosauropod, theropod, and ornithischian dinosaurs, protosuchian and sphenosuchian crocodylomorphs, sphenodontids, and hybodont, semionotid, and palaeonisciform fishes. All of the families are known from Late Triassic and Jurassic strata from elsewhere; however, pollen and spore, radiometric, and geochemical correlation indicate an early Hettangian age for these assemblages. Because all "typical Triassic" forms are absent from these assemblages, most Triassic-Jurassic tetrapod extinctions occurred before this time and without the introduction of new families. As was previously suggested by studies of marine invertebrates, this pattern is consistent with a global extinction event at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. The Manicouagan impact structure of Quebec provides dates broadly compatible with the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and, following the impact theory of mass extinctions, may be implicated in the cause. PMID:3616622

  7. Trophic network models explain instability of Early Triassic terrestrial communities.

    PubMed

    Roopnarine, Peter D; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Wang, Steve C; Hertog, Rachel

    2007-09-01

    Studies of the end-Permian mass extinction have emphasized potential abiotic causes and their direct biotic effects. Less attention has been devoted to secondary extinctions resulting from ecological crises and the effect of community structure on such extinctions. Here we use a trophic network model that combines topological and dynamic approaches to simulate disruptions of primary productivity in palaeocommunities. We apply the model to Permian and Triassic communities of the Karoo Basin, South Africa, and show that while Permian communities bear no evidence of being especially susceptible to extinction, Early Triassic communities appear to have been inherently less stable. Much of the instability results from the faster post-extinction diversification of amphibian guilds relative to amniotes. The resulting communities differed fundamentally in structure from their Permian predecessors. Additionally, our results imply that changing community structures over time may explain long-term trends like declining rates of Phanerozoic background extinction. PMID:17609191

  8. A Late Triassic Impact Ejecta Layer in Southwestern Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkden, Gordon; Parker, Julian; Kelley, Simon

    2002-12-01

    Despite the 160 or so known terrestrial impact craters of Phanerozoic age, equivalent ejecta deposits within distal sedimentary successions are rare. We report a Triassic deposit in southwestern Britain that contains spherules and shocked quartz, characteristic of an impact ejecta layer. Inter- and intragranular potassium feldspar from the deposit yields an argon-argon age of 214 +/- 2.5 million years old. This is within the age range of several known Triassic impact craters, the two closest of which, both in age and location, are Manicouagan in northeastern Canada and Rochechouart in central France. The ejecta deposit provides an important sedimentary record of an extraterrestrial impact in the Mesozoic that will help to decipher the number and effect of impact events, the source and dynamics of the event that left this distinctive sedimentary marker, and the relation of this ejecta layer to the timing of extinctions in the fossil record.

  9. A Statistical Test for the Time Constancy of Scaling Exponents

    E-print Network

    Abry, Patrice

    1 A Statistical Test for the Time Constancy of Scaling Exponents Darryl Veitch(1) and Patrice Abry if scaling exponents vary over time. It is applicable to diverse scaling phenomena including long range detail coefficients are analysed and found to be small. The tests inherit the significant robustness

  10. Estimation of longterm basin scale evapotranspiration from streamflow time series

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Estimation of longterm basin scale evapotranspiration from streamflow time series Sari Palmroth,1 longterm annual evapotranspiration (ETQ) at the watershed scale by combining continuous daily streamflow (Q), Estimation of longterm basin scale evapotranspiration from streamflow time series, Water Resour. Res., 46, W

  11. Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch cycles of the Early Triassic Daye Formation, South China and their geochronological and paleoclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Zhang, S.; Feng, Q.; Jiang, G.; Li, H.; Yang, T.

    2011-12-01

    The most profound mass extinction in the Phanerozoic occurred at the end of the Permian, with global loss of nearly 90% of marine invertebrate species and 70% of terrestrial vertebrate genera. Recent studies suggested that volcanisms represented by the Siberian Trap were most likely cause of the end-Permian extinction. The post-extinction periods in the Early Triassic was characterized by low biodiversity, reduced abundance and size of invertebrates, hiatus in coal deposition, anomalously high sediment fluxes, and large perturbations of the carbon cycle, which have been interpreted as the consequence of persistently unfavorable environmental conditions. However, the time framework for the Early Triassic geological, biological and geochemical events is traditionally established by conodont biostratigraphy, but the absolute duration of condont biozones are not well constrained. In this study, a rock magnetic cyclostratigraphy, based on high-resolution analysis (2440 samples) of magnetic susceptibility (MS) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) intensity variations, was developed for the 55.1-m-thick, Early Triassic Daye Formation at the Daxiakou section, Hubei province in South China. The Daye Formation shows exceptionally well-preserved lithological cycles with alternations of thin-bedded mudstone, marl and limestone, which are closely tracked by the MS and ARM variations. Power spectral, wavelet and amplitude modulation (AM) analysis of the ARM and MS series reveal strong evidence for the presence of Milankovitch to sub-Milankovitch frequencies dominated by precession index signal and 4-5 ka cycles. Cycles expressed by variations in MS and ARM were likely controlled by the input of fine-grained detrital magnetite, which in turn may be driven by astronomically induced changes in monsoon intensity in the equatorial eastern Tethys during the Early Triassic greenhouse period. On the basis of the 100-ka tuning results, the astronomically constrained duration of the Induan stage is 1.162 Ma, with the Griesbachian and Dienerian substage of 491ka and 671 ka, respectively. The new astronomical time scale also provides time constraints for the conodont and bivalve biozones, the carbonate carbon isotope (?13C) records and magnetic polarity zones of the Lower Triassic Daye Formation. Time constraints for the conodont biozones include 34 ka for Hindeodus parvus , 24 ka for Isarcicella stachei-I. isarcica, 367 ka for Neogondolella planate-Ng. carinata, 66 ka for Neogondolella discreta, 255 ka for Neospathodus kummeli and 416 ka for Neospathodus dieneri. The Early Smithian negative ?13C shift near the Indun/Olenekian boundary may have happened within 430 ka. Global comparison indicates that Milankovitch and 4-5 ka sub-Milankovitch forcing depositional rhythms may have been common in tropical and sub-tropical carbonate platforms during Early and Middle Triassic time. The ultimate control on the 4-5 ka cycles may have been millennial-scale fluctuations in solar insolation.

  12. Early Triassic marine biotic recovery: the predators' perspective.

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Romano, Carlo; Jenks, Jim; Bucher, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Examining the geological past of our planet allows us to study periods of severe climatic and biological crises and recoveries, biotic and abiotic ecosystem fluctuations, and faunal and floral turnovers through time. Furthermore, the recovery dynamics of large predators provide a key for evaluation of the pattern and tempo of ecosystem recovery because predators are interpreted to react most sensitively to environmental turbulences. The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe crisis experienced by life on Earth, and the common paradigm persists that the biotic recovery from the extinction event was unusually slow and occurred in a step-wise manner, lasting up to eight to nine million years well into the early Middle Triassic (Anisian) in the oceans, and even longer in the terrestrial realm. Here we survey the global distribution and size spectra of Early Triassic and Anisian marine predatory vertebrates (fishes, amphibians and reptiles) to elucidate the height of trophic pyramids in the aftermath of the end-Permian event. The survey of body size was done by compiling maximum standard lengths for the bony fishes and some cartilaginous fishes, and total size (estimates) for the tetrapods. The distribution and size spectra of the latter are difficult to assess because of preservation artifacts and are thus mostly discussed qualitatively. The data nevertheless demonstrate that no significant size increase of predators is observable from the Early Triassic to the Anisian, as would be expected from the prolonged and stepwise trophic recovery model. The data further indicate that marine ecosystems characterized by multiple trophic levels existed from the earliest Early Triassic onwards. However, a major change in the taxonomic composition of predatory guilds occurred less than two million years after the end-Permian extinction event, in which a transition from fish/amphibian to fish/reptile-dominated higher trophic levels within ecosystems became apparent. PMID:24647136

  13. Early Triassic Marine Biotic Recovery: The Predators' Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Scheyer, Torsten M.; Romano, Carlo; Jenks, Jim; Bucher, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Examining the geological past of our planet allows us to study periods of severe climatic and biological crises and recoveries, biotic and abiotic ecosystem fluctuations, and faunal and floral turnovers through time. Furthermore, the recovery dynamics of large predators provide a key for evaluation of the pattern and tempo of ecosystem recovery because predators are interpreted to react most sensitively to environmental turbulences. The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe crisis experienced by life on Earth, and the common paradigm persists that the biotic recovery from the extinction event was unusually slow and occurred in a step-wise manner, lasting up to eight to nine million years well into the early Middle Triassic (Anisian) in the oceans, and even longer in the terrestrial realm. Here we survey the global distribution and size spectra of Early Triassic and Anisian marine predatory vertebrates (fishes, amphibians and reptiles) to elucidate the height of trophic pyramids in the aftermath of the end-Permian event. The survey of body size was done by compiling maximum standard lengths for the bony fishes and some cartilaginous fishes, and total size (estimates) for the tetrapods. The distribution and size spectra of the latter are difficult to assess because of preservation artifacts and are thus mostly discussed qualitatively. The data nevertheless demonstrate that no significant size increase of predators is observable from the Early Triassic to the Anisian, as would be expected from the prolonged and stepwise trophic recovery model. The data further indicate that marine ecosystems characterized by multiple trophic levels existed from the earliest Early Triassic onwards. However, a major change in the taxonomic composition of predatory guilds occurred less than two million years after the end-Permian extinction event, in which a transition from fish/amphibian to fish/reptile-dominated higher trophic levels within ecosystems became apparent. PMID:24647136

  14. Tetrapod localities from the Triassic of the SE of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tverdokhlebov, Valentin P.; Tverdokhlebova, Galina I.; Surkov, Mikhail V.; Benton, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Fossil tetrapods (amphibians and reptiles) have been discovered at 206 localities in the Lower and Middle Triassic of the southern Urals area of European Russia. The first sites were found in the 1940s, and subsequent surveys, from the 1960s to the present day, have revealed many more. Broad-scale stratigraphic schemes have been published, but full documentation of the rich tetrapod faunas has not been presented before. The area of richest deposits covers some 900,000 km 2 of territory between Samara on the River Volga in the NW, and Orenburg and Sakmara in the SW. Continental sedimentary deposits, consisting of mudstones, siltstones, sandstones, and conglomerates deposited by rivers flowing off the Ural Mountain chain, span much of the Lower and Middle Triassic (Induan, Olenekian, Anisian, Ladinian). The succession is divided into seven successive svitas, or assemblages: Kopanskaya (Induan), Staritskaya, Kzylsaiskaya, Gostevskaya, and Petropavlovskaya (all Olenekian), Donguz (Anisian), and Bukobay (Ladinian). This succession, comprising up to 3.5 km of fluvial and lacustrine sediments, documents major climatic changes. At the beginning of the Early Triassic, arid-zone facies were widely developed, aeolian, piedmont and proluvium. These were replaced by fluvial facies, with some features indicating aridity. At the end of the Middle Triassic, deltaic and lacustrine-marsh formations were dominant, indicating more humid conditions. The succession of Early to Mid Triassic tetrapod faunas documents the recovery of life after the end-Permian mass extinction. The earliest faunas consist only of small, aquatic tetrapods, in low-diversity, low-abundance assemblages. Climbing the succession through the Early Triassic, more terrestrially adapted tetrapods appear, and larger herbivorous and carnivorous reptiles come to dominate in the Mid Triassic as ecosystems were rebuilt.

  15. Osmium isotope evidence for a large Late Triassic impact event

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Honami; Onoue, Tetsuji; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Anomalously high platinum group element concentrations have previously been reported for Upper Triassic deep-sea sediments, which are interpreted to be derived from an extraterrestrial impact event. Here we report the osmium (Os) isotope fingerprint of an extraterrestrial impact from Upper Triassic chert successions in Japan. Os isotope data exhibit a marked negative excursion from an initial Os isotope ratio (187Os/188Osi) of ?0.477 to unradiogenic values of ?0.126 in a platinum group element-enriched claystone layer, indicating the input of meteorite-derived Os into the sediments. The timing of the Os isotope excursion coincides with both elevated Os concentrations and low Re/Os ratios. The magnitude of this negative Os isotope excursion is comparable to those found at CretaceousPaleogene boundary sites. These geochemical lines of evidence demonstrate that a large impactor (3.37.8?km in diameter) produced a global decrease in seawater 187Os/188Os ratios in the Late Triassic. PMID:24036603

  16. A Quaternary Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    Reversals and excursions of Earth's geomagnetic field create marker horizons that are readily detected in sedimentary and volcanic rocks worldwide. An accurate and precise chronology of these geomagnetic field instabilities is fundamental to understanding several aspects of Quaternary climate, dynamo processes, and surface processes. For example, stratigraphic correlation between marine sediment and polar ice records of climate change across the cryospheres benefits from a highly resolved record of reversals and excursions. The temporal patterns of dynamo behavior may reflect physical interactions between the molten outer core and the solid inner core or lowermost mantle. These interactions may control reversal frequency and shape the weak magnetic fields that arise during successive dynamo instabilities. Moreover, weakening of the axial dipole during reversals and excursions enhances the production of cosmogenic isotopes that are used in sediment and ice core stratigraphy and surface exposure dating. The Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale (GITS) is based on the direct dating of transitional polarity states recorded by lava flows using the 40Ar/39Ar method, in parallel with astrochronologic age models of marine sediments in which O isotope and magnetic records have been obtained. A review of data from Quaternary lava flows and sediments yields a GITS comprising 10 polarity reversals and 27 excursions during the past 2.6 million years. Nine of the ten reversals bounding chrons and subchrons are associated with 40Ar/39Ar ages of transitionally-magnetized lava flows. The tenth, the Guass-Matuyama chron boundary, is tightly bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar dated ash deposits. Of the 27 well-documented excursions, 14 occurred during the Matuyama chron and 13 during the Brunhes chron; 19 have been dated directly using the 40Ar/39Ar method on transitionally-magnetized volcanic rocks and form the backbone of the GITS. Excursions are clearly not the rare phenomena once thought. Rather, during the Quaternary period, they occur nearly three times as often as full polarity reversals. I will address analytical issues, including the size and consistency of system blanks, that have led to the recognition of minor (1%) discrepencies between the 40Ar/39Ar age for a particular reversal or excursion and the best astrochronologic estimates from ODP sediment cores. For example, re-analysis of lava flows from Haleakala volcano, Maui that record in detail the Matuyama-Brunhes polarity reversal have been undertaken with blanks an order of magntitude smaller and more stable than was common a decade ago. Using the modern astrochronologic calibration of 28.201 Ma for the age of the Fish Canyon sanidine standard, results thus far yield an 40Ar/39Ar age of 772 11 ka for the reversal that is identical to the most precise and accurate astrochronologic age of 773 2 ka for this reversal from ODP cores. Similarly, new dating of sanidine in the Cerro Santa Rosa I rhyolite dome, New Mexico reveals an age of 932 5 ka for the excursion it records, in perfect agreement with astrochronologically dated ODP core records. Work underway aims at refining the 40Ar/39Ar ages that underpin the entire GITS by further eliminating the bias between the radioisotopic and astrochronologically determined ages for several reversals and excursions.

  17. On time scales and time synchronization using LORAN-C as a time reference signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    The long term performance of the eight LORAN-C chains is presented in terms of the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) of the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO); and the use of the LORAN-C navigation system for maintaining the user's clock to a UTC scale is described. The atomic time scale and the UTC of several national laboratories and observatories relative to the international atomic time are reported. Typical performance of several NASA tracking station clocks, relative to the USNO master clock, is also presented.

  18. Evidence of Evolution Geologic time scale

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    -like scales present, lateral-line present loss of anal and dorsal fins enlarged and flattened head, mobile, but the hip vertebrae are fused to the hip bones still had teeth, unfused pelvis, shorter fingers, fully tail into pygostyle, but still has long dinosaurian fingers Oviraptor #12;5 Walking whales #12

  19. Permian-Carboniferous and Permian-Triassic magmatism in the rift zone bordering the Tethyan margin of southern Pangea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Veevers; R. C. Tewari

    1995-01-01

    Magma was emplaced in the India-Australia rift zone along the Tethyan margin during Permian-Carboniferous and Permian-Triassic time. Permian-Carboniferous alkalic granite and basaltic and rhyolitic lava flows and tuffs formed at the same time as right-lateral transtension of Pangea, as recorded by the magmatic rocks of neocratonic post-Variscan Europe and post-Kanimblan eastern Australia. Permian-Triassic tholeiitic basalt in India, alkalic magmatic rocks

  20. Corrected Late Triassic latitudes for continents adjacent to the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Kent, Dennis V; Tauxe, Lisa

    2005-01-14

    We use a method based on a statistical geomagnetic field model to recognize and correct for inclination error in sedimentary rocks from early Mesozoic rift basins in North America, Greenland, and Europe. The congruence of the corrected sedimentary results and independent data from igneous rocks on a regional scale indicates that a geocentric axial dipole field operated in the Late Triassic. The corrected paleolatitudes indicate a faster poleward drift of approximately 0.6 degrees per million years for this part of Pangea and suggest that the equatorial humid belt in the Late Triassic was about as wide as it is today. PMID:15653500

  1. The development of the Middle Triassic tectonical controlled Germanic Basin of Central Europe and the palaeoenvironmental related distribution of marine and terrestrial reptiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cajus G. Diedrich

    2010-01-01

    Nine Middle Triassic paleogeographical maps comprising the uppermost Upper Bunter, Lower to Middle Muschelkalk and Upper Muschelkalk to Lower Keuper time frame (Diedrich 2008b) show the marine ingression and regression cycle of the Middle Triassic Germanic Basin (Diedrich 2010c). For bathymetrical and palaeoenvironmental interpretations especially reptiles and their footprints are used. This Germanic Basin as analogon for the Arabian Gulf

  2. Time scales of supercooled water and implications for reversible polyamorphism

    E-print Network

    David T. Limmer; David Chandler

    2015-03-07

    Deeply supercooled water exhibits complex dynamics with large density fluctuations, ice coarsening and characteristic time scales extending from picoseconds to milliseconds. Here, we discuss implications of these time scales as they pertain to two-phase coexistence and to molecular simulations of supercooled water. Specifically, we argue that it is possible to discount liquid-liquid criticality because the time scales imply that correlation lengths for such behavior would be bounded by no more than a few nanometers. Similarly, it is possible to discount two-liquid coexistence because the time scales imply a bounded interfacial free energy that cannot grow in proportion to a macroscopic surface area. From time scales alone, therefore, we see that coexisting domains of differing density in supercooled water can be no more than nano-scale transient fluctuations.

  3. Scale relativity and fractal space-time: theory and applications

    E-print Network

    Nottale, Laurent

    Scale relativity and fractal space-time: theory and applications Laurent Nottale CNRS, LUTH, Paris In the first part of this contribution, we review the development of the theory of scale relativity and its concern of the theory of scale relativity is about the foundation of quantum mechanics. As it is now well

  4. A Statistical Test for the Time Constancy of Scaling Exponents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darryl Veitch; Patrice Abry

    1999-01-01

    A statistical test is described for determining if scaling exponents vary over time. It is applicable to diverse scaling phenomena including long range dependence and ex- actly self-similar processes in a uniform framework, without the need for prior knowledge of the type in question. It is based on the special properties of wavelet-based estimates of the scaling exponent, strongly motivating

  5. Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

  6. Palaeogeography of Late Triassic red-beds in Singapore and the Indosinian Orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Grahame; Prave, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    A red-bed facies of the Upper Triassic Jurong Formation has been logged on Sentosa Island, Singapore. An overall coarsening and thickening-upward pattern is well developed. The lower part of the section is dominated by purple-red, massive to finely laminated illite-smectite-kaolin-rich mudstones containing thin, discontinuous lenses of fine sandstone marked by low-angle lamination and small ripples. One dinosaur-like foot print has been discovered in a loose block of red mudstone. It is concluded that this is a lacustrine sequence and it is proposed to name the lake, Lake Sentosa. The upper part of the sequence consists of flat-laminated to trough cross-bedded medium-grained sandstone and granule to cobble conglomerates alternating with purple-red mudstone. The mudstone-sandstone packages are arranged in decametre-scale coarsening-upward cycles. The channelling and decimetre-scale cross-bedding characterising the sandstone and conglomeratic beds is evidence for deposition by flashy fluvial flood processes, possibly feeding into the lake as a fresh water delta. One possible dinosaur trackway in granule size conglomerate has been located. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages vary from 2.7 Ba to 209 Ma with significant populations at 245 Ma and 220 Ma. These ages throw light on the timing of the Indosinian Orogeny. The molasse red-beds of the Jurong Formation were deposited in a half graben formed in the hangingwall of the Bukit Timah Fault when central Peninsular Malaysia went into extension following the climax of the Indosinian Orogeny in the Late Triassic.

  7. Local-time effect on small space-time scale

    E-print Network

    V. A. Panchelyuga; V. A. Kolombet; M. S. Panchelyuga; S. E. Shnoll

    2006-10-18

    The paper presents an investigation of local-time effect - one of the manifestations of macroscopic fluctuations phenomena. Was shown the existence of the named effect for longitudinal distance between locations of measurements up to 500 meters. Also a structure of intervals distribution in neighborhood of local-time peak was studied and splitting of the peak was found out. Obtained results lead to conclusion about sharp anisotropy of space-time.

  8. Estimating ventilation time scales using overturning stream functions

    E-print Network

    Döös, Kristofer

    Estimating ventilation time scales using overturning stream functions Bijoy Thompson & Jonas for estimating ventilation time scales from overturning stream functions is proposed. The stream function may describing an ide- alized semi-enclosed ocean basin ventilated through a narrow strait over a sill

  9. Ion-Beam Sculpting Time Scales Derek Stein,1

    E-print Network

    Li, Jiali

    Ion-Beam Sculpting Time Scales Derek Stein,1 Jiali Li,2 and Jene A. Golovchenko1,2 1 Division) A study of ion sculpting dynamics in SiO2 and SiN using periodically pulsed ion beams reveals material nanoscale matter transport can occur over second long time scales after the ion beam has been extinguished

  10. A large time scale wind velocity simulation method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Yanjie; Wang Jun

    2010-01-01

    The wind speed has strong stochastic characteristics, and can be divided into long-term component and turbulence component. In short time scale simulation, the long-term component can be considered as constant. But in long time scale simulation, the slow fluctuating characteristics simulated by using Van der Hoven spectrum model presented in this paper must be included. The turbulence component is obtained

  11. A remark on Liouville's formula on small time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamec, Ladislav

    2005-04-01

    We present a new proof of the Liouville formula for a d-dimensional linear dynamic system x[Delta]=A(t)x on a time scale , where is in a sense small. Our proof demonstrates that Liouville's formula on small time scales is a direct consequence of its well-known counterpart for ordinary differential equations.

  12. LINK BETWEEN COSMIC RAYS AND CLOUDS ON DIFFERENT TIME SCALES

    E-print Network

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    LINK BETWEEN COSMIC RAYS AND CLOUDS ON DIFFERENT TIME SCALES ILYA G. USOSKIN and GENNADY A is related to a link between the cosmic ray flux and cloudiness. Here we review evidences relating terrestrial climate variability to changes of cosmic ray flux in the Earth's vicinity on different time scales

  13. TriassicJurassic boundary events: Problems, progress, possibilities 1. Problems

    E-print Network

    McRoberts, Christopher A.

    As for most geological period boundaries, the TriassicJurassic (TJ) transition, 200 million years agoEditorial TriassicJurassic boundary events: Problems, progress, possibilities 1. Problems to reconstruct past events, a physical record of their passing is essential. Here again the TriassicJurassic

  14. Scaling the Martian Walls of Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikki Thornton; Joseph Yagloski; Joe Fledderman; Gregg OMarr; Ben Weber; Chris Carlins; Shubh Krishna; Kevin Sloan; Taite Merriman; David Borowski

    2000-01-01

    On Earth, when scientists want to investigate planetary history they take a core sample, with deeper fragments corresponding to older materials. In essence, descending through sedimentary layers is like going back in time. But creating a robot capable of taking samples more than a few meters below the planetary surface is still beyond the current available technology. The cliffhanger idea

  15. Allometric scaling and maximum efficiency in physiological eigen time

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Bjarne; Shiner, J. S.; Uehlinger, Dominik E.

    2002-01-01

    General optimization results from physics indicate that maximum efficiency of a process, in the sense of minimum overall entropy production, is achieved when the rate of entropy production is constant over time, however not in ordinary clock time but on an, in general varying, eigen time scale, intrinsic to the system. We identify the eigen time of a biological system with physiological time, which generally scales with the 1/4 power of body mass, M1/4, over a vast range of species. Since it is equally well established that metabolic rate scales as M3/4, it follows that organisms produce entropy at the same intrinsic rate, fulfilling a necessary condition for maximum efficiency, and are all, furthermore, equally efficient on the physiological eigen time scale. PMID:11959910

  16. Probing Photosynthesis on a Picosecond Time Scale

    PubMed Central

    Seibert, Michael; Alfano, Robert R.

    1974-01-01

    Fluorescent emission kinetics of isolated spinach chloroplasts have been observed at room temperature with an instrument resolution time of 10 ps using a frequency doubled, mode-locked Nd:glass laser and an optical Kerr gate. At 685 nm two maxima are apparent in the time dependency of the fluorescence; the first occurs at 15 ps and the second at 90 ps after the flash. The intervening minimum occurs at about 50 ps. On the basis of theoretical models, lifetimes of the components associated with the two peaks and spectra (in escarole chloroplasts), the fluorescence associated with the first peak is interpreted as originating from Photosystem I (PSI) (risetime ?10 ps, lifetime ?10 ps) and the second peak from Photosystem II (PSII) (lifetime, 210 ps in spinach chloroplasts and 320 ps in escarole chloroplasts). The fact that there are two fluorescing components with a quantum yield ratio ?0.048 explains the previous discrepancy between the quantum yield of fluorescence measured in chloroplasts directly and that calculated from the lifetime of PSII. The 90 ps delay in the peak of PSII fluorescence is probably explained by energy transfer between accessory pigments such as carotenoids and Chl a. Energy spillover between PSI and PSII is not apparent during the time of observation. The results of this work support the view that the transfer of excitation energy to the trap complex in both photosystems occurs by means of a molecular excitation mechanism of intermediate coupling strength. Although triplet states are not of major importance in energy transfer to PSII traps, the possibility that they are involved in PSI photochemistry has not been eliminated. PMID:4830466

  17. Scaling the Martian Walls of Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Nikki; Yagloski, Joseph; Fledderman, Joe; OMarr, Gregg; Weber, Ben; Carlins, Chris; Krishna, Shubh; Sloan, Kevin; Merriman, Taite; Borowski, David

    2000-01-01

    On Earth, when scientists want to investigate planetary history they take a core sample, with deeper fragments corresponding to older materials. In essence, descending through sedimentary layers is like going back in time. But creating a robot capable of taking samples more than a few meters below the planetary surface is still beyond the current available technology. The cliffhanger idea takes advantage of the natural surface features of Mars to explore the history of the planet without digging. So interesting and difficult questions can be answered not with the brute force of a drill, but with creative mission design. Penn State University HEDS-UP team has designed a novel Mars mission approach. A main Lander with a Rover and a Cliffhanger will land near cliffs of Valles Mariners. Especially design cannon (gas, guided munitions or rocket) will deploy a long rope into the canyon. The rover will carry the cliffhanger to the edge of Valles Marineris following the rope, attach the cliffhanger to the rope. The Cliffhanger will then climb a 2 km down the rope and will allow the team to study sedimentary layers of rock on the side of the cliff. Samples and high-resolution images will be taken and delivered to the Lander for further investigation (optical multispectral imaging microscope, spectrometry) and sending the results to Earth. The robot has been designed to have the capability for locomotion at any angle (including somewhat uphill slopes) but maximum effective After the mission of rope-climbing is completed, the Rover am Lander will embark on another long-term mission to provide meteorological and geological data over a long period of time (long-term Mars Observatory), and perform acoustic and seismic experiments on the surface of Mars in preparation for human arrival.

  18. Evidence from ammonoids and conodonts for multiple Early Triassic mass extinctions

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonoids and conodonts, being characterized by exceptionally high background rates of origination and extinction, were vulnerable to global environmental crises, which characteristically intensified background rates of extinction. Thus, it is not surprising that these taxa suffered conspicuous mass extinctions at the times of three negative Early Triassic global carbon isotopic excursions that resembled those associated with the two preceding Permian mass extinctions. In keeping with their high rates of origination, both the ammonoids and conodonts rediversified dramatically between the Early Triassic crises. Other marine taxa, characterized by much lower intrinsic rates of origination, were held at low levels of diversity by the Early Triassic crises; because global mass extinctions affect all marine life, these taxa must have experienced relatively modest expansions and contractions that have yet to be discovered, because they do not stand out in the fossil record and because the stratigraphic ranges of these taxa, being of little value for temporal correlation, have not been thoroughly studied. PMID:19721005

  19. On time scale invariance of random walks in confined space.

    PubMed

    Bearup, Daniel; Petrovskii, Sergei

    2015-02-21

    Animal movement is often modelled on an individual level using simulated random walks. In such applications it is preferable that the properties of these random walks remain consistent when the choice of time is changed (time scale invariance). While this property is well understood in unbounded space, it has not been studied in detail for random walks in a confined domain. In this work we undertake an investigation of time scale invariance of the drift and diffusion rates of Brownian random walks subject to one of four simple boundary conditions. We find that time scale invariance is lost when the boundary condition is non-conservative, that is when movement (or individuals) is discarded due to boundary encounters. Where possible analytical results are used to describe the limits of the time scaling process, numerical results are then used to characterise the intermediate behaviour. PMID:25481837

  20. Time Scaling of Chaotic Systems: Application to Secure Communications

    E-print Network

    Donatello Materassi; Michele Basso

    2007-10-25

    The paper deals with time-scaling transformations of dynamical systems. Such scaling functions operate a change of coordinates on the time axis of the system trajectories preserving its phase portrait. Exploiting this property, a chaos encryption technique to transmit a binary signal through an analog channel is proposed. The scheme is based on a suitable time-scaling function which plays the role of a private key. The encoded transmitted signal is proved to resist known decryption attacks offering a secure and reliable communication.

  1. The "terminal Triassic catastrophic extinction event" in perspective: a review of carboniferous through Early Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate extinction patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    A catastrophic terminal Triassic extinction event among terrestrial vertebrates is not supported by available evidence. The current model for such an extinction is based on at least eight weak or untenable assumptions: (1) a terminal Triassic extinction-inducing asteroid impact occurred, (2) a terminal Triassic synchronous mass extinction of terrestrial vertebrates occurred, (3) a concurrent terminal Triassic marine extinction occurred, (4) all terrestrial vertebrate families have similar diversities and ecologies, (5) changes in familial diversity can be gauged accurately from the known fossil record, (6) extinction of families can be compared through time without normalizing for changes in familial diversity through time, (7) extinction rates can be compared without normalizing for differing lengths of geologic stages, and (8) catastrophic mass extinctions do not select for small size. These assumptions have resulted in unsupportable and (or) erroneous conclusions. Carboniferous through Early Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate families mostly have evolution and extinction patterns unlike the vertebrate evolution and extinction patterns during the terminal Cretaceous event. Only the Serpukhovian (mid Carboniferous) extinction event shows strong analogy to the terminal Cretaceous event. Available data suggest no terminal Triassic extinction anomaly, but rather a prolonged and nearly steady decline in the global terrestrial vertebrate extinction rate throughout the Triassic and earliest Jurassic. ?? 1992.

  2. Tectonic evolution of the Songpan Garz and adjacent areas (NE Tibet) from Triassic to Present : a synthesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, F.; Jolivet, M.; Malavieille, J.

    2009-04-01

    The 12th May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in the Longmen Shan occurred on a large thrust fault largely inherited from an Indosinian structure itself probably controlled by an older structural heritage of the South China block continental margin. Within the whole northeast Tibet region, such a structural inheritance has had a major impact on the Tertiary deformation. It appears of primary importance to assess the pre-Tertiary tectonic evolution of the main blocks involved to understand the actual deformation in the eastern edge of Tibet. Over the past decades, the Proterozoic to Cenozoic tectonic, metamorphic and geochronologic history of the Longmen Shan and Songpan Garz area have been largely studied. We present a synthesis of the tectonic evolution of the Songpan Garz fold and thrust belt from Triassic to present. The Songpan-Garz belt was formed during closure of a wide oceanic basin filled with a thick (5 to 15 km) sequence of Triassic flyschoid sediments [10]. Closure of the basin due to Triassic subduction involved strong shortening, intense folding and faulting of the Triassic series. A large-scale dcollement, that presently outcrops along the eastern boundary of the belt (Danba area), allowed the growth of a wide and thick accretionary wedge [9]. It develops in the Paleozoic and Triassic series and separates the accretionary prism from an autochthonous crystalline basement [5, 12, 6] which shares many similarities with the basement of the Yangtze Craton (0.7-0.9 Ga). To the north and northwest, below the thickened Triassic series of the belt, the composition (oceanic or continental) of the basement remains unknown. During the Indosinian orogeny the emplacement of orogenic granites (220 - 150 Ma) was associated to crustal thickening [12, 13, 17, 15]. The isotopic composition of granitoids shows that their magma source were predominantly derived from melting of the proterozoic basement with varying degrees of sedimentary material and negligible mantle source contribution. In the Danba area, the dcollement outcrops in a large tertiary antiform with a NNW-SSE axis [6, 12, 18]. It has been exhumed too in the hanging wall of the NE-SW faults of the Tertiary Longmen-Shan belt that marks the present day transition from the Tibetan plateau to the Sichuan basin. These faults have episodically absorbed significant shortening since the Late Triassic [3]. The amount and precise timing of post-triassic deformation are difficult to constrain especially because of the difficulty to isolate the tertiary thermochronological signal from the protracted late Triassic - Cretaceous thermal history (e.g. [14]). Nonetheless it is generally accepted that Jurassic - Cretaceous tectonism did not modified the general Triassic architecture of eastern Tibet contrarily to the Tertiary deformation (e.g. [2, 12, 5, 14]). The long-term cooling histories obtained on Mesozoic granites and on the metamorphic series of the Danba dome are very similar showing a very slow and regular cooling during Jurassic and Cretaceous, confirming the absence of major tectonic event between c.a. 150 and 30 Ma [16, 7, 6, 12, 18]. Low temperature thermochronology data indicate that final exhumation and cooling occurred in the Tertiary with an acceleration between 10 and 5 Ma along the major tectonic structures [11, 12, 1, 16, 7,14, 8]. Within the Longmen Shan range, a total denudation of 7 to 10 km is estimated for the late Cenozoic period [1, 7, 4]. Similar amounts of late Tertiary denudation have been estimated along an east-west section across the Xianshuihe fault [16]. 1 : Arne et al., (1997), Tectonophysics 280, 239-256. 2 : Burchfield et al. (1995), International Geology Review 37, 661-735. 3 : Chen and Wilson, (1996), Journal of Structural Geology 18, 413-440. 4 : Clark et al., (2005), Geology 33, 525-528. 5 : Harrowfield and Wilson, (2005), Journal of Structural Geology 27, 101-117. 6 : Huang et al., (2003), Journal of Metamorphic Geology 21(3), 223-240. 7 : Kirby et al., (2002), Tectonics 21(1), 10.1029/2000TC001246. 8 : Lai et al., (2007), Science in Ch

  3. The Late Permian - Early Triassic Evolution of the Western Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planke, S.; Svensen, H.; Faleide, J.; Myklebust, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic boundary was temporarily associated with formation of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province. Major Late Permian and Early Triassic subsidence is documented by seismic reflection data in the East Barents Basin. Further west, basin subsidence and an abrupt change from carbonate and evaporite deposition to clastic sedimentation is recorded by industry seismic and well data in the south and onshore Svalbard in the north. The Permian-Triassic boundary is commonly not preserved either due to non-deposition or erosion, but could be locally preserved in depocenters. A major northwestward prograding clastic delta sourced from the Uralian hinterland reached the Norwegian (western) part of the Barents Sea in the earliest Triassic (Induan). We suggest that the large-scale changes in paleoenviroment, vertical motions, and sedimentary processes in the Barents Sea region were strongly influenced by large-scale changes in mantle dynamics and paleoclimate caused by the Siberian Traps igneous event. By analogy with other Large Igneous Provinces, such as the North Atlantic Volcanic Province, regional uplift and subsidence associated with a rising mantle plume may precede the arrival of the plume at the base of the lithosphere with 10's of millions of years. In contrast, the paleoenvironmental changes and the associated extinction were mainly caused by rapid intrusion of magma into sedimentary basins and voluminous igneous eruptions.

  4. Early ornithischian dinosaurs: the Triassic record

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall B. Irmis; William G. Parker; Sterling J. Nesbitt; Jun Liu

    2007-01-01

    Ornithischian dinosaurs are one of the most taxonomically diverse dinosaur clades during the Mesozoic, yet their origin and early diversification remain virtually unknown. In recent years, several new Triassic ornithischian taxa have been proposed, mostly based upon isolated teeth. New discoveries of skeletal material of some of these tooth taxa indicate that these teeth can no longer be assigned to

  5. Impacts on Earth in the Late Triassic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis V. Kent

    1998-01-01

    Sprayet al. postulate that five widely dispersed terrestrial impact structures with very similar geological age estimates (about 214 million years ago, in the Late Triassic epoch) are evidence of a multiple impact event. Most notably, the three largest impact structures, Saint Martin in western Canada (~40 km diameter), Manicouagan in eastern Canada (~100 km diameter), and Rochechouart in France (~25

  6. Biogeochemistry of the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williford, K. H.; Ward, P. D.; Garrison, G. H.

    2006-12-01

    New biostratigraphic and biogeochemical data are presented from Triassic-Jurassic (Tr-J) boundary sections at Kennecott Point, Queen Charlotte Islands (QCI), Canada, Muller Canyon, Nevada, USA, and Marokopa Beach, New Zealand. The New Zealand record shows two negative excursions in ?13Corg of approximately 2 associated with the Tr-J transition. The QCI and Nevada boundary sections show a consistent isotopic trend indicative of multiple major perturbations to the carbon cycle: one negative excursion in ?13Corg of 2 at the boundary and one positive excursion of 3 to 5 following the boundary. The post-Tr-J boundary positive excursion is especially prominent in boundary sections from QCI, where the high organic content of the black shales makes the rocks suitable for a survey of lipid biomarkers. New GC-MS data are presented from this locality, revealing changes in the distribution and abundance of alkanes, hopanes, and steranes across the Tr-J transition. Litho-, bio- and chemostratigraphy from these boundary localities do not support a single impact cause for the late Triassic extinctions, although impact events such as the Manicouagan may well have exerted significant stress on a biosphere still recovering from the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. The data support the idea of a degraded late Triassic environment persisting for millions of years and characterized by low atmospheric oxygen and high carbon dioxide associated with Central Atlantic Magmatic Province volcanism. Global warming and sea level change may have led to destabilization of seafloor methane hydrates and runaway greenhouse conditions.

  7. Liquidity Spillover in International Stock Markets through Distinct Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale. PMID:24465918

  8. Time-Frequency Scaling Transformation of the Phonocardiogram Based of

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    . This difficulty increases when the heart rate increases. As an example, it is often difficult to recognize of the time scale of the PCG can be performed without perceptible change in its spectral characteristics been tested on 11 PCG's containing heart sounds and different murmurs. A scaling

  9. Lithospheric inhomogeneity - the main factor controlling the Permo\\/Triassic Siberian plume location

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anatoly Nikishin; Konstantin Sobornov; Natalia Pravikova

    2010-01-01

    Northwestern part of the Siberian platform is one of the interesting places to study the relations between the intraplate tectonics and the short-term large scale magmatic events. We will focus on four events which affected nearly the same area: (1) Vendian(~Ediacaran) to Early Paleozoic rapid subsidence without rifting; (2) Late Carboniferous to Early Permiam syncompressional subsidence; (3) Permo\\/Triassic large-scale Siberian

  10. Modes and emergent time scales of embayed beach dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratliff, Katherine M.; Murray, A. Brad

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we use a simple numerical model (the Coastline Evolution Model) to explore alongshore transport-driven shoreline dynamics within generalized embayed beaches (neglecting cross-shore effects). Using principal component analysis (PCA), we identify two primary orthogonal modes of shoreline behavior that describe shoreline variation about its unchanging mean position: the rotation mode, which has been previously identified and describes changes in the mean shoreline orientation, and a newly identified breathing mode, which represents changes in shoreline curvature. Wavelet analysis of the PCA mode time series reveals characteristic time scales of these modes (typically years to decades) that emerge within even a statistically constant white-noise wave climate (without changes in external forcing), suggesting that these time scales can arise from internal system dynamics. The time scales of both modes increase linearly with shoreface depth, suggesting that the embayed beach sediment transport dynamics exhibit a diffusive scaling.

  11. Supraregional seismites in Triassic - Jurassic boundary strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrm, Sofie; Pedersen, Gunver K.; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Johansson, Leif; Petersen, Henrik I.; Dybkjr, Karen; Weibel, Rikke; Hansen, Katrine H.; Erlstrm, Mikael; Alwmark, Carl; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Oschmann, Wolfgang; Tegner, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction event (201.564 Ma) was synchronous with the earliest volcanic phase during the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), a large igneous province (LIP) formed during the initial breakup of Pangea. Volcanic degassing of CO2 and other volatile gases, and/or thermogenic methane, from the CAMP is generally regarded as the main cause of the end-Triassic biotic crisis. However, discrepancies in the durations of the ETE (50 Kyrs) and the CAMP volcanism (600 Kyrs) as well as temporal offsets between carbon cycle perturbations and biotic turnovers suggest a more complex scenario that require further studies of the temporal succession of events in Triassic-Jurassic (TJ) boundary strata. Here, we present and examine multiple episodes of soft-sediment deformation (seismite) within uppermost Rhaetian marine and terrestrial strata of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. These seismites are stratigraphically constrained by palynology and C-isotopes to the latest Rhaetian, and are synchronous to the single seismite layer from the UK, which similarly predates the T/J boundary, and has been explained by an extraterrestrial bolide impact. Instead, we argue that the multiple episodes of soft-sediment deformation, interbedded by undisturbed strata, were formed from repeated intense earthquake activity restricted to an interval within the latest Rhaetian bracketed by two negative excursions in ?13C and also containing palynological evidence for deforestation and fern proliferation. The fact that these biotic changes coincide with repeated seismic activity has implications for the end-Triassic extinction and the CAMP scenario. We discuss the temporal position of the seismites in regards to other end-Triassic events, and argue that their supraregional distribution in pre-TJ-boundary strata of NW Europe may be linked to intensified earthquake activity during CAMP emplacement, rather than an extraterrestrial impact.

  12. Diffusion Time-Scale of Porous Pressure-Sensitive Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Teduka, Norikazu; Kameda, Masaharu; Asai, Keisuke

    2001-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is an optical pressure sensor that utilizes the oxygen quenching of luminescence. PSP measurements in unsteady aerodynamic flows require fast time response of the paint. There are two characteristic time-scales that are related to the time response of PSP. One is the luminescent lifetime representing an intrinsic physical limit for the achievable temporal resolution of PSP. Another is the time-scale of oxygen diffusion across the PSP layer. When the time-scale of oxygen diffusion is much larger than the luminescent lifetime, the time response of PSP is controlled by oxygen diffusion. In a thin homogenous polymer layer where diffusion is Fickian, the oxygen concentration 1021 can be described by the diffusion equation in one-dimension.

  13. A gigantic nothosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of SW China and its implication for the Triassic biotic recovery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Hu, Shi-xue; Rieppel, Olivier; Jiang, Da-yong; Benton, Michael J.; Kelley, Neil P.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.; Zhou, Chang-yong; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-yuan; Xie, Tao; Lv, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The presence of gigantic apex predators in the eastern Panthalassic and western Tethyan oceans suggests that complex ecosystems in the sea had become re-established in these regions at least by the early Middle Triassic, after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME). However, it is not clear whether oceanic ecosystem recovery from the PTME was globally synchronous because of the apparent lack of such predators in the eastern Tethyan/western Panthalassic region prior to the Late Triassic. Here we report a gigantic nothosaur from the lower Middle Triassic of Luoping in southwest China (eastern Tethyan ocean), which possesses the largest known lower jaw among Triassic sauropterygians. Phylogenetic analysis suggests parallel evolution of gigantism in Triassic sauropterygians. Discovery of this gigantic apex predator, together with associated diverse marine reptiles and the complex food web, indicates global recovery of shallow marine ecosystems from PTME by the early Middle Triassic. PMID:25429609

  14. A gigantic nothosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of SW China and its implication for the Triassic biotic recovery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Hu, Shi-Xue; Rieppel, Olivier; Jiang, Da-Yong; Benton, Michael J; Kelley, Neil P; Aitchison, Jonathan C; Zhou, Chang-Yong; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-Yuan; Xie, Tao; Lv, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The presence of gigantic apex predators in the eastern Panthalassic and western Tethyan oceans suggests that complex ecosystems in the sea had become re-established in these regions at least by the early Middle Triassic, after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME). However, it is not clear whether oceanic ecosystem recovery from the PTME was globally synchronous because of the apparent lack of such predators in the eastern Tethyan/western Panthalassic region prior to the Late Triassic. Here we report a gigantic nothosaur from the lower Middle Triassic of Luoping in southwest China (eastern Tethyan ocean), which possesses the largest known lower jaw among Triassic sauropterygians. Phylogenetic analysis suggests parallel evolution of gigantism in Triassic sauropterygians. Discovery of this gigantic apex predator, together with associated diverse marine reptiles and the complex food web, indicates global recovery of shallow marine ecosystems from PTME by the early Middle Triassic. PMID:25429609

  15. Kibble-Zurek mechanism and finite-time scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yingyi; Yin, Shuai; Feng, Baoquan; Zhong, Fan

    2014-10-01

    The Kibble-Zurek (KZ) mechanism has been applied to a variety of systems ranging from low-temperature Bose-Einstein condensations to grand unification scales in particle physics and cosmology and from classical phase transitions to quantum phase transitions. Here, we show that finite-time scaling (FTS) provides a detailed improved understanding of the mechanism. In particular, the finite time scale, which is introduced by the external driving (or quenching) and results in FTS, is the origin of the division of the adiabatic regimes from the impulse regime in the KZ mechanism. The origin of the KZ scaling for the defect density, generated during the driving through a critical point, is not that the correlation length ceases growing in the nonadiabatic impulse regime, but rather, is that it is taken over by the effective finite length scale corresponding to the finite time scale. We also show that FTS accounts well for and improves the scaling ansatz proposed recently by Liu, Polkovnikov, and Sandvik, [Phys. Rev. B 89, 054307 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.054307]. Further, we show that their universal power-law scaling form applies only to some observables in cooling but not to heating. Even in cooling, it is invalid either when an appropriate external field is present. However, this finite-time-finite-size scaling calls for caution in application of FTS. Detailed scaling behaviors of the FTS and finite-size scaling, along with their crossover, are explicitly demonstrated, with the dynamic critical exponent z being estimated for two- and three-dimensional Ising models under the usual Metropolis dynamics. These values of z are found to give rise to better data collapses than the extant values do in most cases but take on different values in heating and cooling in both two- and three-dimensional spaces.

  16. Time scale for point-defect equilibration in nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, Paul C.; Wolf, Dieter; Desai, Tapan [Materials Science Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Yamakov, Vesselin [National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, Virginia 23693 (United States)

    2008-10-20

    Molecular dynamics simulations of high-temperature annealing are performed on nanostructured materials enabling direct observation of vacancy emission from planar defects (i.e., grain boundaries and free surfaces) to populate the initially vacancy-free grain interiors on a subnanosecond time scale. We demonstrate a universal time-length scale correlation that governs these re-equilibration processes, suggesting that nanostructures are particularly stable against perturbations in their point-defect concentrations, caused for example by particle irradiation or temperature fluctuations.

  17. Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, Harold J., E-mail: hjk@dam.brown.ed [Brown University, Applied Math (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.

  18. Shape invariant time-scale and pitch modification of speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas F. Quatieri; Robert J. McAulay

    1992-01-01

    The simplified linear model of speech production predicts that when the rate of articulation is changed, the resulting waveform takes on the appearance of the original, except for a change in the time scale. A time-scale modification system that preserves this shape-invariance property during voicing is developed. This is done using a version of the sinusoidal analysis-synthesis system that models

  19. Signatures of discrete scale invariance in Dst time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasis, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Athanasopoulou, Labrini; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

    2011-07-01

    Self-similar systems are characterized by continuous scale invariance and, in response, the existence of power laws. However, a significant number of systems exhibits discrete scale invariance (DSI) which in turn leads to log-periodic corrections to scaling that decorate the pure power law. Here, we present the results of a search of log-periodic corrections to scaling in the squares of Dst index increments which are taken as proxies of the energy dissipation rate in the magnetosphere. We show that Dst time series exhibit DSI and discuss the consequence of this feature, as well as the possible implications of Dst DSI on space weather forecasting efforts.

  20. Characteristic Time Scales of Characteristic Magmatic Processes and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2004-05-01

    Every specific magmatic process, regardless of spatial scale, has an associated characteristic time scale. Time scales associated with crystals alone are rates of growth, dissolution, settling, aggregation, annealing, and nucleation, among others. At the other extreme are the time scales associated with the dynamics of the entire magmatic system. These can be separated into two groups: those associated with system genetics (e.g., the production and transport of magma, establishment of the magmatic system) and those due to physical characteristics of the established system (e.g., wall rock failure, solidification front propagation and instability, porous flow). The detailed geometry of a specific magmatic system is particularly important to appreciate; although generic systems are useful, care must be taken to make model systems as absolutely realistic as possible. Fuzzy models produce fuzzy science. Knowledge of specific time scales is not necessarily useful or meaningful unless the hierarchical context of the time scales for a realistic magmatic system is appreciated. The age of a specific phenocryst or ensemble of phenocrysts, as determined from isotopic or CSD studies, is not meaningful unless something can be ascertained of the provenance of the crystals. For example, crystal size multiplied by growth rate gives a meaningful crystal age only if it is from a part of the system that has experienced semi-monotonic cooling prior to chilling; crystals entrained from a long-standing cumulate bed that were mechanically sorted in ascending magma may not reveal this history. Ragged old crystals rolling about in the system for untold numbers of flushing times record specious process times, telling more about the noise in the system than the life of typical, first generation crystallization processes. The most helpful process-related time scales are those that are known well and that bound or define the temporal style of the system. Perhaps the most valuable of these times comes from the observed durations and rates of volcanism. There can be little doubt that the temporal styles of volcanism are the same as those of magmatism in general. Volcano repose times, periodicity, eruptive fluxes, acoustic emission structures, lava volumes, longevity, etc. must also be characteristic of pluton-dominated systems. We must therefore give up some classical concepts (e.g., instantaneous injection of crystal-free magma as an initial condition) for any plutonic/chambered system and move towards an integrated concept of magmatism. Among the host of process-related time scales, probably the three most fundamental of any magmatic system are (1) the time scale associated with crystal nucleation (J) and growth (G) (tx}=C{1(G3 J)-{1}/4; Zieg & Marsh, J. Pet. 02') along with the associated scales for mean crystal size (L) and population (N), (2) the time scale associated with conductive cooling controlled by a local length scale (d) (tc}=C{2 d2/K; K is thermal diffusivity), and (3) the time scale associated with intra-crystal diffusion (td}=C{3 L2/D; D is chemical diffusivity). It is the subtle, clever, and insightful application of time scales, dovetailed with realistic system geometry and attention paid to the analogous time scales of volcanism, that promises to reveal the true dynamic integration of magmatic systems.

  1. Time Scales in Probabilistic Models of Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Anatoly Manita

    2013-02-28

    We consider a stochastic model of clock synchronization in a wireless network consisting of N sensors interacting with one dedicated accurate time server. For large N we find an estimate of the final time sychronization error for global and relative synchronization. Main results concern a behavior of the network on different time scales $t=t_N \\to \\infty$, $N \\to \\infty$. We discuss existence of phase transitions and find exact time scales on which an effective clock synchronization of the system takes place.

  2. Effect of time scales on the unfolding of neural attractors.

    PubMed

    Pravitha, R; Indic, P; Nampoori, V P; Pratap, R

    2001-01-01

    A study of the effect of time scales in brain dynamics on the unfolding of the attractors in the phase space, reconstructed by a time delay embedding of the EEG signal, was carried out. Applying the techniques of nonlinear time series analysis, the unfolding rate of the system attractor was determined by analyzing the variation of the correlation dimension parameter and subjecting it to a bi-parametric fit. The behavior of the parameter, which measures the rate of unfolding, was monitored for varying time scales in two cases: (a) normal eyes closed condition and (b) the pathological case of epilepsy. Significant results were obtained. PMID:11912673

  3. How was the Triassic Songpan-Ganzi basin filled? A provenance study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enkelmann, E.; Weislogel, A.; Ratschbacher, L.; Eide, E.; Renno, A.; Wooden, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Triassic Songpan-Ganzi complex comprises >200,000 km2 of 5-15 km thick turbiditic sediments. Although surrounded by several magmatic and orogenic belts, the Triassic high- and ultrahigh-pressure Qinling-Tongbai-Hong'an-Dabie (QTHD) orogen, located several hundred kilometers to the east, was proposed as its major source. Middle to Late Triassic samples from the northern and southern Songpan-Ganzi complex, studied using detrital white mica 40Ar/39Ar ages, Si-in-white mica content, and detrital zircon U/Pb ages, suggest that the northern Songpan-Ganzi deposystem obtained detritus from the north: the north China block, east Kunlun, northern Qaidam, Qilian, and western Qinling; the southern Songpan-Ganzi deposystem was supplied from the northeasterly located Paleozoic QTHD area throughout the Ladinian and received detritus from the Triassic Hong'an-Dabie orogen during the Carnian, indicative of exhumation of the orogen at that time. The QTHD orogen fed the Norian samples in the southeastern southern Songpan-Ganzi deposystem, signifying long drainage channels along the western margin of the south China block. An additional supply from the Emeishan magmatic province and/or the Yidun arc is suggested by the paucity of white mica in the southern Songpan-Ganzi deposystem. Mica ages of Rhaetian sediments from the northwestern Sichuan basin best correlate with those of the Triassic QTHD orogen. Our Si-in-white mica data demonstrate that the high- and ultrahigh-pressure rocks of the Hong'an-Dabie Shan were not exposed in the Middle to Late Triassic. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Russian national time scale long-term stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshina, A. P.; Gaigerov, B. A.; Koshelyaevsky, N. B.; Pushkin, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    The Institute of Metrology for Time and Space NPO 'VNIIFTRI' generates the National Time Scale (NTS) of Russia -- one of the most stable time scales in the world. Its striking feature is that it is based on a free ensemble of H-masers only. During last two years the estimations of NTS longterm stability based only on H-maser intercomparison data gives a flicker floor of about (2 to 3) x 10(exp -15) for averaging times from 1 day to 1 month. Perhaps the most significant feature for a time laboratory is an extremely low possible frequency drift -- it is too difficult to estimate it reliably. The other estimations, free from possible inside the ensemble correlation phenomena, are available based on the time comparison of NTS relative to the stable enough time scale of outer laboratories. The data on NTS comparison relative to the time scale of secondary time and frequency standards at Golitzino and Irkutsk in Russia and relative to NIST, PTB and USNO using GLONASS and GPS time transfer links gives stability estimations which are close to that based on H-maser intercomparisons.

  5. Mantle plume: The invisible serial killer Application to the PermianTriassic boundary mass extinction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ezat Heydari; Nasser Arzani; Jamshid Hassanzadeh

    2008-01-01

    The Earth experienced a severe mass extinction at the PermianTriassic boundary (PTB) about 252million years ago. This biological catastrophe was accompanied by major changes in geochemical composition of the atmosphere and ocean and the appearance of sedimentary features which had not occurred since the Precambrian time. The eruption of the largest continental flood basalt, the Siberian Traps, overlapped this mass

  6. Floral changes across the Triassic\\/Jurassic boundary linked to flood basalt volcanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. van de Schootbrugge; T. M. Quan; S. Lindstrm; W. Pttmann; C. Heunisch; J. Pross; J. Fiebig; R. Petschick; H.-G. Rhling; S. Richoz; Y. Rosenthal; P. G. Falkowski

    2009-01-01

    One of the five largest mass extinctions of the past 600million years occurred at the boundary of the Triassic and Jurassic periods, 201.6million years ago. The loss of marine biodiversity at the time has been linked to extreme greenhouse warming, triggered by the release of carbon dioxide from flood basalt volcanism in the central Atlantic Ocean. In contrast, the biotic

  7. Time/scale-adjusted dyadic wavelet packet bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Marco, Stephen P.

    1996-03-01

    This paper generalizes the dyadic wavelet packet bases (DWP), developed by Coifman and Wickerhauser, to time/scale-adjusted DWP bases. These generalized DWP bases provide more flexibility in matching the time-scale characteristics of the input signal. Development of these generalized bases is achieved by combining the previously defined time-invariant DWP bases of Pesquet, Krim, Carfantan, and Proakis with a generalized scale sampling. The generalized scale sampling extends the usual dyadic sampling by adding a real-valued offset parameter to the integer power of two in the scale parameter. This offset parameter value is taken between zero and one. By combining both scale and translation generalizations, signal components existing between consecutive dyadic scales, or consecutive time translations, may be captured. It is shown how these DWP coefficients may be generated from a two step process; first projecting the input signal onto an appropriate space. Then, performing the usual wavelet low and highpass filtering operations, followed by downsampling. The projection operation is shown to be equivalent to a filtering operation. An expression for the filter taps is derived, and basic properties are proven. A translation-invariant transform defined on these scale-adjusted wavelet packets, is developed. An application to transient detection is presented, by developing a transient detector based on this transform. ROC curves, generated by Monte- Carlo simulation, are presented demonstrating detector performance. Detector performance is shown to be independent of the signal translation. It is further shown how matching the basis functions to the time-scale-frequency characteristics of the transient can provide improved detection performance.

  8. Time scale construction from multiple sources of information (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinverno, A.

    2013-12-01

    Geological age estimates are provided by diverse chronometers, such as radiometric measurements, astrochronology, and the spacing of magnetic anomalies recorded on mid-ocean ridges by seafloor spreading. These age estimates are affected by errors that can be systematic (e.g., biased radiometric dates due to imperfect assumptions) or random (e.g., imprecise recording of astronomical cycles in sedimentary records). Whereas systematic errors can be reduced by improvements in technique and calibration, uncertainties due to random errors will always be present and need to be dealt with. A Bayesian framework can be used to construct an integrated time scale that is based on several uncertain sources of information. In this framework, each piece of data and the final time scale have an associated probability distribution that describes their uncertainty. The key calculation is to determine the uncertainty in the time scale from the uncertain data that constrain it. In practice, this calculation can be performed by Monte Carlo sampling. In Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, the time scale is iteratively perturbed and the perturbed time scale is accepted or rejected depending on how closely it fits the data. The final result is a large ensemble of possible time scales that are consistent with all the uncertain data; while the average of this ensemble defines a 'best' time scale, the ensemble variability quantifies the time scale uncertainty. An example of this approach is the M-sequence (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, ~160-120 Ma) MHTC12 geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) of Malinverno et al. (2012, J. Geophys. Res., B06104, doi:10.1029/2012JB009260). Previous GPTSs were constructed by interpolating between dated marine magnetic anomalies while assuming constant or smoothly varying spreading rates. These GPTSs were typically based on magnetic lineations from one or a few selected spreading centers, and an undesirable result is that they imply larger spreading rate fluctuations on other ridges. On the other hand, the Monte Carlo algorithm used in MHTC12 makes it easy to sample GPTSs that result in small spreading rate variations over multiple spreading centers (in the Western Pacific, North Atlantic, and Indian Ocean NW of Australia). MHTC12 also accounts for the duration of five polarity chrons estimated from floating astrochronologies (CM0r through CM3r). A Bayesian framework and Monte Carlo sampling offer a useful strategy to construct time scales that incorporate different types of chronological information, have a quantified uncertainty, and can be easily updated with additional data that may become available in the future.

  9. Space/time coupling in brittle deformation at geophysical scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsan, David; Weiss, Jrme

    2010-08-01

    Strong intermittency as well as spatial heterogeneity characterize the brittle deformation of geophysical objects such as the Earth's crust or the Arctic sea-ice cover. They can be expressed through specific scaling laws, that relate, for a space-time domain, (a) the number of earthquakes or (b) the strain rate, vs. the size of the domain, for the Earth's crust or the Arctic sea ice, respectively. However, in both cases, spatial (respectively temporal) scaling depends on the time (respectively spatial) scale considered, i.e., the space and time scaling dependences are coupled. Here, we show that this space-time coupling of brittle deformation at geophysical scales can be summarized through a unique scaling law characterizing the discrete fracturing events (earthquakes or displacement events along sea-ice leads). As suggested by an analysis of southern Californian seismicity, we argue that this space-time coupling is likely to emerge from the complex correlation patterns related to chain triggering of earth- or ice-quakes.

  10. Multiple-time scales analysis of physiological time series under neural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, C. K.; Hausdorff, J. M.; Havlin, S.; Mietus, J. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss multiple-time scale properties of neurophysiological control mechanisms, using heart rate and gait regulation as model systems. We find that scaling exponents can be used as prognostic indicators. Furthermore, detection of more subtle degradation of scaling properties may provide a novel early warning system in subjects with a variety of pathologies including those at high risk of sudden death.

  11. Estimating ventilation time scales using overturning stream functions

    E-print Network

    Döös, Kristofer

    Estimating ventilation time scales using overturning stream functions Bijoy Thompson & Jonas 2014 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 Abstract A simple method for estimating ventilation time-enclosed ocean basin ventilated through a narrow strait over a sill, and the result is compared to age estimates

  12. Languages evolve too! Changing the Software Time Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-marie Favre

    2005-01-01

    Humans will have to live with software for a long time. As demonstrated by the Y2K problem, computer professionals used a wrong time scale when thinking about software. Large software products live much longer than expected. It took a few decades to the research community to admit that software engineering was not only about software development, but above all, about

  13. LOCALLY RECURRENT NETWORKS WITH MULTIPLE TIME-SCALES

    E-print Network

    Harris, John G.

    the standard tap delay line solutions can require thousands of taps. Unfortunately, the gamma structure has the time- constant along the delay line, a single delay line is able to represent signals that include delay line because of its ability to automatically choose an appropriate time-scale [l][2] [3

  14. Anomalous Multiphoton Photoelectric Effect in Ultrashort Time Scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kupersztych; M. Raynaud

    2005-01-01

    In a multiphoton photoelectric process, an electron needs to absorb a given number of photons to escape the surface of a metal. It is shown for the first time that this number is not a constant depending only on the characteristics of the metal and light, but varies with the interaction duration in ultrashort time scales. The phenomenon occurs when

  15. Deep-water asymmetric cycles and progradation of carbonate platforms governed by high-frequency eustatic oscillations (Triassic of the Dolomites, Italy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Masetti; Claudio Neri; Alfonso Bosellini

    1991-01-01

    The basinal San Cassiano Formation (Triassic, Dolomites, Italy) is interfingered with clinostratified megabreccia slope deposits of coeval carbonate platforms, and to a large extent is composed of metre-scale thickening, coarsening-upward cycles. These asymmetrical cycles, often representing bundles of five coarsening-upward sequences, are interpreted as platformbasin interactions governed by fourth- and fifth-order eustatic oscillations. According to this model, progradation of Triassic

  16. Planck Scale Physics, Pregeometry and the Notion of Time

    E-print Network

    S. Roy

    2003-11-04

    Recent progress in quantum gravity and string theory has raised interest among scientists to whether or not nature behaves discretely at the Planck scale. There are two attitudes twoards this discretenes i.e. top-down and bottom-up approach. We have followed up the bottom-up approach. Here we have tried to describe how macroscopic space-time or its underlying mesoscopic substratum emerges from a more fundamental concept. The very concept of space-time, causality may not be valid beyond Planck scale. We have introduced the concept of generalised time within the framework of Sheaf Cohomology where the physical time emrges around and above Planck scale. The possible physical amd metaphysical implications are discussed.

  17. Thermodynamics Constrains Allometric Scaling of Optimal Development Time in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Michael E.; Frazier, Melanie R.

    2013-01-01

    Development time is a critical life-history trait that has profound effects on organism fitness and on population growth rates. For ectotherms, development time is strongly influenced by temperature and is predicted to scale with body mass to the quarter power based on 1) the ontogenetic growth model of the metabolic theory of ecology which describes a bioenergetic balance between tissue maintenance and growth given the scaling relationship between metabolism and body size, and 2) numerous studies, primarily of vertebrate endotherms, that largely support this prediction. However, few studies have investigated the allometry of development time among invertebrates, including insects. Abundant data on development of diverse insects provides an ideal opportunity to better understand the scaling of development time in this ecologically and economically important group. Insects develop more quickly at warmer temperatures until reaching a minimum development time at some optimal temperature, after which development slows. We evaluated the allometry of insect development time by compiling estimates of minimum development time and optimal developmental temperature for 361 insect species from 16 orders with body mass varying over nearly 6 orders of magnitude. Allometric scaling exponents varied with the statistical approach: standardized major axis regression supported the predicted quarter-power scaling relationship, but ordinary and phylogenetic generalized least squares did not. Regardless of the statistical approach, body size alone explained less than 28% of the variation in development time. Models that also included optimal temperature explained over 50% of the variation in development time. Warm-adapted insects developed more quickly, regardless of body size, supporting the hotter is better hypothesis that posits that ectotherms have a limited ability to evolutionarily compensate for the depressing effects of low temperatures on rates of biological processes. The remaining unexplained variation in development time likely reflects additional ecological and evolutionary differences among insect species. PMID:24391935

  18. Non-parametric techniques for pitch-scale and time-scale modification of speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Moulines; Jean Laroche

    1995-01-01

    Time-scale and, to a lesser extent, pitch-scale modifications of speech and audio signals are the subject of major theoretical and practical interest. Applications are numerous, including, to name but a few, text-to-speech synthesis (based on acoustical unit concatenation), transformation of voice characteristics, foreign language learning but also audio monitoring or film\\/soundtrack post-synchronization. To fulfill the need for high-quality time and

  19. Time Scales in the Unstable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Meredith; Holmes, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Calculation of eddy covariances in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) requires separating the instantaneous signal into mean and fluctuating components. Since the ASL is not statistically stationary, an inherent ambiguity exists in defining the mean quantities. The present study compares four methods of calculating physically relevant time scales in the unstable ASL that may be used to remove the unsteady mean components of instantaneous time signals, in order to yield local turbulent fluxes that appear to be statistically stationary. The four mean-removal time scales are: ( t c ) based on the location of the maximum in the ogive of the heat flux cospectra, (tilde t_{MR}) the location of the zero crossing in the multiresolution decomposition of the heat flux, ( t *) the ratio of the mixed-layer depth over the convective velocity, and (tilde t ) the convergence time of the vertical velocity and temperature variances. The four time scales are evaluated using high quality, three-dimensional sonic anemometry data acquired at the Surface Layer Turbulence and Environmental Science Test (SLTEST) facility located on the salt flats of Utahs western desert. Results indicate that t_c? t_{MR} and t^*? tilde t , with t c achieving values about 2-3 times greater than t *. The sensitivity of the eddy covariances to the mean-removal time scale (given a fixed 4-h averaging period during midday) is also demonstrated.

  20. Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

  1. Triassic/Jurassic faulting patterns of Conecuh Ridge, southwest Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Hutley, J.K.

    1985-02-01

    Two major fault systems influenced Jurassic structure and deposition on the Conecuh Ridge, southwest Alabama. Identification and dating of these fault systems are based on seismic-stratigraphic interpretation of a 7-township grid in Monroe and Conecuh Counties. Relative time of faulting is determined by fault geometry and by formation isopachs and isochrons. Smackover and Norphlet Formations, both Late Jurassic in age, are mappable seismic reflectors and are thus reliable for seismicstratigraphic dating. The earlier of the 2 fault systems is a series of horsts and grabens that trends northeast-southwest and is Late Triassic to Early Jurassic in age. The system formed in response to tensional stress associated with the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The resulting topography was a series of northeast-southwest-trending ridges. Upper Triassic Eagle Mills and Jurassic Werner Formations were deposited in the grabens. The later fault system is also a series of horsts and grabens trending perpendicular to the first. This system was caused by tensional stress related to a pulse in the opening of the Gulf of Mexico. Faulting began in Early Jurassic and continued into Late Jurassic, becoming progressively younger basinward. At the basin margin, faulting produced a very irregular shoreline. Submerged horst blocks became centers for shoaling or carbonate buildups. Today, these blocks are exploration targets in southwest Alabama.

  2. Observation time scale, free-energy landscapes, and molecular symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Wales, David J.; Salamon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    When structures that interconvert on a given time scale are lumped together, the corresponding free-energy surface becomes a function of the observation time. This view is equivalent to grouping structures that are connected by free-energy barriers below a certain threshold. We illustrate this time dependence for some benchmark systems, namely atomic clusters and alanine dipeptide, highlighting the connections to broken ergodicity, local equilibrium, and feasible symmetry operations of the molecular Hamiltonian. PMID:24374625

  3. Zircon U-Pb geochronology links the end-Triassic extinction with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Terrence J; Olsen, Paul E; Bowring, Samuel A; McLean, Noah M; Kent, Dennis V; Puffer, John; McHone, Greg; Rasbury, E Troy; Et-Touhami, Mohammed

    2013-05-24

    The end-Triassic extinction is characterized by major losses in both terrestrial and marine diversity, setting the stage for dinosaurs to dominate Earth for the next 136 million years. Despite the approximate coincidence between this extinction and flood basalt volcanism, existing geochronologic dates have insufficient resolution to confirm eruptive rates required to induce major climate perturbations. Here, we present new zircon uranium-lead (U-Pb) geochronologic constraints on the age and duration of flood basalt volcanism within the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. This chronology demonstrates synchroneity between the earliest volcanism and extinction, tests and corroborates the existing astrochronologic time scale, and shows that the release of magma and associated atmospheric flux occurred in four pulses over about 600,000 years, indicating expansive volcanism even as the biologic recovery was under way. PMID:23519213

  4. Inferring Synaptic Structure in Presence of Neural Interaction Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Capone, Cristiano; Filosa, Carla; Gigante, Guido; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico; Del Giudice, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Biological networks display a variety of activity patterns reflecting a web of interactions that is complex both in space and time. Yet inference methods have mainly focused on reconstructing, from the networks activity, the spatial structure, by assuming equilibrium conditions or, more recently, a probabilistic dynamics with a single arbitrary time-step. Here we show that, under this latter assumption, the inference procedure fails to reconstruct the synaptic matrix of a network of integrate-and-fire neurons when the chosen time scale of interaction does not closely match the synaptic delay or when no single time scale for the interaction can be identified; such failure, moreover, exposes a distinctive bias of the inference method that can lead to infer as inhibitory the excitatory synapses with interaction time scales longer than the models time-step. We therefore introduce a new two-step method, that first infers through cross-correlation profiles the delay-structure of the network and then reconstructs the synaptic matrix, and successfully test it on networks with different topologies and in different activity regimes. Although step one is able to accurately recover the delay-structure of the network, thus getting rid of any a priori guess about the time scales of the interaction, the inference method introduces nonetheless an arbitrary time scale, the time-bin dt used to binarize the spike trains. We therefore analytically and numerically study how the choice of dt affects the inference in our network model, finding that the relationship between the inferred couplings and the real synaptic efficacies, albeit being quadratic in both cases, depends critically on dt for the excitatory synapses only, whilst being basically independent of it for the inhibitory ones. PMID:25807389

  5. Physics in space-time with scale-dependent metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.

    2013-10-01

    We construct three-dimensional space R?3 with the scale-dependent metric and the corresponding Minkowski space-time M?,?4 with the scale-dependent fractal (DH) and spectral (DS) dimensions. The local derivatives based on scale-dependent metrics are defined and differential vector calculus in R?3 is developed. We state that M?,?4 provides a unified phenomenological framework for dimensional flow observed in quite different models of quantum gravity. Nevertheless, the main attention is focused on the special case of flat space-time M1/3,14 with the scale-dependent Cantor-dust-like distribution of admissible states, such that DH increases from DH=2 on the scale ??0 to DH=4 in the infrared limit ??0, where ?0 is the characteristic length (e.g. the Planck length, or characteristic size of multi-fractal features in heterogeneous medium), whereas DS?4 in all scales. Possible applications of approach based on the scale-dependent metric to systems of different nature are briefly discussed.

  6. Scaling law for crystal nucleation time in glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokshin, Anatolii V.; Galimzyanov, Bulat N.

    2015-03-01

    Due to high viscosity, glassy systems evolve slowly to the ordered state. Results of molecular dynamics simulation reveal that the structural ordering in glasses becomes observable over "experimental" (finite) time-scale for the range of phase diagram with high values of pressure. We show that the structural ordering in glasses at such conditions is initiated through the nucleation mechanism, and the mechanism spreads to the states at extremely deep levels of supercooling. We find that the scaled values of the nucleation time, ?1 (average waiting time of the first nucleus with the critical size), in glassy systems as a function of the reduced temperature, T , are collapsed onto a single line reproducible by the power-law dependence. This scaling is supported by the simulation results for the model glassy systems for a wide range of temperatures as well as by the experimental data for the stoichiometric glasses at the temperatures near the glass transition.

  7. Scaling law for crystal nucleation time in glasses.

    PubMed

    Mokshin, Anatolii V; Galimzyanov, Bulat N

    2015-03-14

    Due to high viscosity, glassy systems evolve slowly to the ordered state. Results of molecular dynamics simulation reveal that the structural ordering in glasses becomes observable over "experimental" (finite) time-scale for the range of phase diagram with high values of pressure. We show that the structural ordering in glasses at such conditions is initiated through the nucleation mechanism, and the mechanism spreads to the states at extremely deep levels of supercooling. We find that the scaled values of the nucleation time, ?1 (average waiting time of the first nucleus with the critical size), in glassy systems as a function of the reduced temperature, T, are collapsed onto a single line reproducible by the power-law dependence. This scaling is supported by the simulation results for the model glassy systems for a wide range of temperatures as well as by the experimental data for the stoichiometric glasses at the temperatures near the glass transition. PMID:25770546

  8. Evaluation of Scaling Invariance Embedded in Short Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie; Zhu, Chenping

    2014-01-01

    Scaling invariance of time series has been making great contributions in diverse research fields. But how to evaluate scaling exponent from a real-world series is still an open problem. Finite length of time series may induce unacceptable fluctuation and bias to statistical quantities and consequent invalidation of currently used standard methods. In this paper a new concept called correlation-dependent balanced estimation of diffusion entropy is developed to evaluate scale-invariance in very short time series with length . Calculations with specified Hurst exponent values of show that by using the standard central moving average de-trending procedure this method can evaluate the scaling exponents for short time series with ignorable bias () and sharp confidential interval (standard deviation ). Considering the stride series from ten volunteers along an approximate oval path of a specified length, we observe that though the averages and deviations of scaling exponents are close, their evolutionary behaviors display rich patterns. It has potential use in analyzing physiological signals, detecting early warning signals, and so on. As an emphasis, the our core contribution is that by means of the proposed method one can estimate precisely shannon entropy from limited records. PMID:25549356

  9. A time scale for electrical screening in pulsed gas discharges

    E-print Network

    Teunissen, Jannis; Ebert, Ute

    2014-01-01

    The Maxwell time is a typical time scale for the screening of an electric field in a medium with a given conductivity. We introduce a generalization of the Maxwell time that is valid for gas discharges: the \\emph{ionization screening time}, that takes the growth of the conductivity due to impact ionization into account. We present an analytic estimate for this time scale, assuming a planar geometry, and evaluate its accuracy by comparing with numerical simulations in 1D and 3D. We investigate the minimum plasma density required to prevent the growth of streamers with local field enhancement, and we discuss the effects of photoionization and electron detachment on ionization screening. Our results are especially relevant for the description of nanosecond pulsed discharges.

  10. Redescription of Bellerophon asiaticus Wirth (Early Triassic: Gastropoda) from China, and a survey of Triassic Bellerophontacea.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yochelson, E.Y.; Yin, Hongfu

    1985-01-01

    The bilaterally symmetrical gastropod Bellerophon asiaticus Wirth is redescribed from specimens collected in Guizhou Province, PRC. The species is reassigned to Retispira, a common late Paleozoic taxon. Retispira is another example of a Paleozoic gastropod genus that crossed the era boundary. Associated pelecypods that date these Guizhou occurrences as Early Triassic are well known species in PRC and are illustrated. Both Bellerophon and Euphemites probably occur in the Early Triassic, though the quality of illustrations leaves some uncertainty; the existence of Stachella in the Triassic is more problematic. There was no dramatic reduction of the Bellerophontacea from their abundance and diversity in the Permian. It may be a general phenomenon that most late Paleozoic family-level and many generic-level taxa of gastropods were unaffected by the late Permian 'crisis'. from Authors

  11. Continental weathering in the Early Triassic in Himalayan Tethys, central Nepal: Implications for abrupt environmental change on the northern margin of Gondwanaland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kohki; Kawamura, Toshio; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Regmi, Amar Deep; Gyawali, Babu Ram; Shiga, Yuka; Adachi, Yoshiko; Dhital, Megh Raj

    2014-01-01

    The geochemistry of Triassic mudstones in the Himalayan Tethys sequence, central Nepal, was studied with respect to changes in sedimentary facies, grain size, and source rocks. The Triassic sedimentary facies of mudstone and carbonates show deposition in offshore to hemiplegic environments. The rare earth element (REE) pattern of the Permian and Triassic mudstones suggests uniformity correlatable to average shale. The major element geochemistry of the Early Triassic Griesbachian-early Smithian mudstones indicates a sediment supply from strongly weathered sources with the chemical index of alteration (CIA) values of 76-81. However, the mudstones in the late Smithian show weakly weathered sources with CIA values of 68-74. The lower part of the Middle Triassic Anisian mudstones return to Early Triassic paleoweathering levels. There are no significant relationships among lithofacies, the grain size of the sediments, and CIA values. Thus, the abrupt change of the degree of paleoweathering in the Early Triassic, late Smithian time, suggests a dramatic decrease in continental weathering, which is related to a predominantly arid climate in the northern marginal area of Gondwana.

  12. Macropredatory ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic and the origin of modern trophic networks.

    PubMed

    Frbisch, Nadia B; Frbisch, Jrg; Sander, P Martin; Schmitz, Lars; Rieppel, Olivier

    2013-01-22

    The biotic recovery from Earth's most severe extinction event at the Permian-Triassic boundary largely reestablished the preextinction structure of marine trophic networks, with marine reptiles assuming the predator roles. However, the highest trophic level of today's marine ecosystems, i.e., macropredatory tetrapods that forage on prey of similar size to their own, was thus far lacking in the Paleozoic and early Mesozoic. Here we report a top-tier tetrapod predator, a very large (>8.6 m) ichthyosaur from the early Middle Triassic (244 Ma), of Nevada. This ichthyosaur had a massive skull and large labiolingually flattened teeth with two cutting edges indicative of a macropredatory feeding style. Its presence documents the rapid evolution of modern marine ecosystems in the Triassic where the same level of complexity as observed in today's marine ecosystems is reached within 8 My after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and within 4 My of the time reptiles first invaded the sea. This find also indicates that the biotic recovery in the marine realm may have occurred faster compared with terrestrial ecosystems, where the first apex predators may not have evolved before the Carnian. PMID:23297200

  13. Integrated Record of Terrestrial Biotic Change from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of northern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmis, R. B.; Lindstrm, S.; Dunlavey, M.; Whiteside, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Triassic Period was an interval of major biotic and environmental changes sandwiched between two major mass extinctions. During the Late Triassic (235-201.3 Ma), dinosaurs originated and diversified across Pangaea, and several major extant vertebrate groups also appeared for the first time. Unfortunately, few detailed stratigraphically-precise local-regional paleontological records exist for continental Triassic strata, which hinders any attempt to understand the tempo and mode of biotic change through the Late Triassic. We present a new stratigraphically well-constrained fossil vertebrate and palynomorph record (10-15 Ma in duration) from the upper Chinle Formation of the Chama Basin, northern New Mexico, an area that is famous for preserving one of the best records of early dinosaurs in North America. Our data indicate that vertebrate faunas were generally stable, experiencing only one identifiable species turnover event. Dinosaurs, although relatively diverse, were never abundant components of the fauna. Contemporaneous palynological records indicate that floral composition fluctuated considerably. The drought-tolerant conifer pollen Enzonalasporites and other gymnosperms such as Alisporites and Protodiploxypinus dominate most palynofloral assemblages, but there is a distinct increase in fern spore abundance near the top of the section. In combination with evidence of variability from organic carbon stable isotopes, these data indicate that the vertebrate fauna, including early dinosaurs, remained stable over millions of years despite living within a dynamic ecosystem associated with rapidly changing environmental conditions.

  14. Groundwater recharge of carbonate aquifers of the Silesian-Cracow Triassic (southern Poland) under human impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Kowalczyk; Andrzej J. Witkowski

    2008-01-01

    A Triassic carbonate unit has been intensively drained by zinc and lead ore mines and numerous borehole fields since the nineteenth\\u000a century. Its groundwater recharge has increased due to: pumping of water from boreholes, mining activity, and urbanization.\\u000a An approach to determine the amounts of the recharge at a variety of spatial scales is presented in the paper. Different methods

  15. Extinction trajectories of benthic organisms across the TriassicJurassic boundary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Kiessling; Martin Aberhan; Benjamin Brenneis; Peter J. Wagner

    2007-01-01

    We analysed diversity and abundance patterns of benthic organisms across the TriassicJurassic (T-J) boundary based on the Paleobiology Database (PBDB), which compiles palaeontological collection data on a global scale. While Sepkoski's [Sepkoski, J.J. Jr., 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1563] compendium on the stratigraphic ranges of marine animal genera suggests that the

  16. Satellite attitude prediction by multiple time scales method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Y. C.; Ramnath, R.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation is made of the problem of predicting the attitude of satellites under the influence of external disturbing torques. The attitude dynamics are first expressed in a perturbation formulation which is then solved by the multiple scales approach. The independent variable, time, is extended into new scales, fast, slow, etc., and the integration is carried out separately in the new variables. The theory is applied to two different satellite configurations, rigid body and dual spin, each of which may have an asymmetric mass distribution. The disturbing torques considered are gravity gradient and geomagnetic. Finally, as multiple time scales approach separates slow and fast behaviors of satellite attitude motion, this property is used for the design of an attitude control device. A nutation damping control loop, using the geomagnetic torque for an earth pointing dual spin satellite, is designed in terms of the slow equation.

  17. Speed Scaling for Weighted Flow Time Nikhil Bansal

    E-print Network

    Pruhs, Kirk

    Speed Scaling for Weighted Flow Time Nikhil Bansal Kirk Pruhs Cliff Stein 1 Introduction the Windows XP operating system to dynamically change the speed of the processor to prolong battery life schedule. By far the most commonly used QoS measure in the computer systems literature is average response/flow

  18. Speech Compensation for Time-Scale-Modified Auditory Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogane, Rintaro; Honda, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine speech compensation in response to time-scale-modified auditory feedback during the transition of the semivowel for a target utterance of /ija/. Method: Each utterance session consisted of 10 control trials in the normal feedback condition followed by 20 perturbed trials in the modified auditory

  19. Time Flies When You're Learning About Scale!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amy R. Taylor

    2009-04-01

    Not many students would forget to say "Dinosaurs!" if you mention the Jurassic period, yet the word scale only conjures up ideas of measuring objects. Most students automatically think of measuring mass, volume, or distance, and not necessarily time. In t

  20. Dynamical masses, time-scales, and evolution of star clusters

    E-print Network

    Ortwin Gerhard

    2000-07-18

    This review discusses (i) dynamical methods for determining the masses of Galactic and extragalactic star clusters, (ii) dynamical processes and their time-scales for the evolution of clusters, including evaporation, mass segregation, core collapse, tidal shocks, dynamical friction and merging. These processes lead to significant evolution of globular cluster systems after their formation.

  1. The time-scale of escape from star clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Fukushige; D. C. Heggie

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a cluster is modelled as a smooth potential (due to the cluster stars) plus the steady tidal field of the Galaxy. In this model there is a minimum energy below which stars cannot escape. Above this energy, however, the time-scale on which a star escapes varies with the orbital parameters of the star (mainly its energy) in

  2. Space\\/time coupling in brittle deformation at geophysical scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Marsan; Jrme Weiss

    2010-01-01

    Strong intermittency as well as spatial heterogeneity characterize the brittle deformation of geophysical objects such as the Earth's crust or the Arctic sea-ice cover. They can be expressed through specific scaling laws, that relate, for a spacetime domain, (a) the number of earthquakes or (b) the strain rate, vs. the size of the domain, for the Earth's crust or the

  3. Separation of time scales in the HCA model for sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemunis, Andrzej; Wichtmann, Torsten

    2014-10-01

    Separation of time scales is used in a high cycle accumulation (HCA) model for sand. An important difficulty of the model is the limited applicability of the Miner's rule to multiaxial cyclic loadings applied simultaneously or in a combination with monotonic loading. Another problem is the lack of simplified objective HCA formulas for geotechnical settlement problems. Possible solutions of these problems are discussed.

  4. MULTIPLE TIME SCALE NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE INVERTED PENDULUM PROBLEM

    E-print Network

    Soatto, Stefano

    MULTIPLE TIME SCALE NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE INVERTED PENDULUM PROBLEM RICHARD SHARP, YEN-HSI TSAI multiscale methods (HMM) [1]. We apply the methods to compute the averaged path of the inverted pendulum approximate the averaged equation and thus compute the average path of the inverted pendulum. 1. INTRODUCTION

  5. Multiple time scale numerical methods for the inverted pendulum problem

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Yen-Hsi Richard

    Multiple time scale numerical methods for the inverted pendulum problem Richard Sharp1, Yen (HMM) [1]. We apply the methods to compute the averaged path of the inverted pendulum under a highly and thus compute the average path of the inverted pendulum. 1 Introduction The focus of this paper

  6. The Available Time Scale: Measuring Foster Parents' Available Time to Foster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Donna J.; Orme, John G.; Rhodes, Kathryn W.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a new measure of available time specific to fostering, the Available Time Scale (ATS). It was tested with a national sample of 304 foster mothers and is designed to measure the amount of time foster parents are able to devote to fostering activities. The ATS has excellent reliability, and good support exists for its validity.

  7. Multiple time scale based reduction scheme for nonlinear chemical dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D.; Ray, D. S.

    2013-07-01

    A chemical reaction is often characterized by multiple time scales governing the kinetics of reactants, products and intermediates. We eliminate the fast relaxing intermediates in autocatalytic reaction by transforming the original system into a new one in which the linearized part is diagonal. This allows us to reduce the dynamical system by identifying the associated time scales and subsequent adiabatic elimination of the fast modes. It has been shown that the reduced system sustains the robust qualitative signatures of the original system and at times the generic form of the return map for the chaotic system from which complex dynamics stems out in the original system can be identified. We illustrate the scheme for a three-variable cubic autocatalytic reaction and four-variable peroxidase-oxidase reaction.

  8. Scaling of average sending time on weighted Koch networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Liu, Jie

    2012-10-01

    Random walks on weighted complex networks, especially scale-free networks, have attracted considerable interest in the past. But the efficiency of a hub sending information on scale-free small-world networks has been addressed less. In this paper, we study random walks on a class of weighted Koch networks with scaling factor 0 < r ? 1. We derive some basic properties for random walks on the weighted Koch networks, based on which we calculate analytically the average sending time (AST) defined as the average of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) from a hub node to all other nodes, excluding the hub itself. The obtained result displays that for 0 < r < 1 in large networks the AST grows as a power-law function of the network order with the exponent, represented by log 43r+1/r, and for r = 1 in large networks the AST grows with network order as N ln N, which is larger than the linear scaling of the average receiving time defined as the average of MFPTs for random walks to a given hub node averaged over all starting points.

  9. Brownian motion at fast time scales and thermal noise imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rongxin

    This dissertation presents experimental studies on Brownian motion at fast time scales, as well as our recent developments in Thermal Noise Imaging which uses thermal motions of microscopic particles for spatial imaging. As thermal motions become increasingly important in the studies of soft condensed matters, the study of Brownian motion is not only of fundamental scientific interest but also has practical applications. Optical tweezers with a fast position-sensitive detector provide high spatial and temporal resolution to study Brownian motion at fast time scales. A novel high bandwidth detector was developed with a temporal resolution of 30 ns and a spatial resolution of 1 A. With this high bandwidth detector, Brownian motion of a single particle confined in an optical trap was observed at the time scale of the ballistic regime. The hydrodynamic memory effect was fully studied with polystyrene particles of different sizes. We found that the mean square displacements of different sized polystyrene particles collapse into one master curve which is determined by the characteristic time scale of the fluid inertia effect. The particle's inertia effect was shown for particles of the same size but different densities. For the first time the velocity autocorrelation function for a single particle was shown. We found excellent agreement between our experiments and the hydrodynamic theories that take into account the fluid inertia effect. Brownian motion of a colloidal particle can be used to probe three-dimensional nano structures. This so-called thermal noise imaging (TNI) has been very successful in imaging polymer networks with a resolution of 10 nm. However, TNI is not efficient at micrometer scale scanning since a great portion of image acquisition time is wasted on large vacant volume within polymer networks. Therefore, we invented a method to improve the efficiency of large scale scanning by combining traditional point-to-point scanning to explore large vacant space with thermal noise imaging at the proximity of the object. This method increased the efficiency of thermal noise imaging by more than 40 times. This development should promote wider applications of thermal noise imaging in the studies of soft materials and biological systems.

  10. Tethys- and Atlas-related deformations in the Triassic Basin, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.S.; Moore, S.R.; Quarles, A.I. [ARCO International Oil and Gas Company, Plano, TX (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Petroleum provinces of Algeria can be divided into Paleozoic and Mesozoic domains. Paleozoic basins are located on the Gondwanaland paleo-continent where the last significant tectonic episode is ascribed to the Late Paleozoic Hercynian Orogeny. Mesozoic basins are located on the south margin of the Neo-Tethyan seaway. These basins were subject to varying degrees of contractional deformation during the Cenozoic Atlas Orogeny. The Triassic Basin of Algeria is a Tethyan feature located above portions of the Paleozoic Oued M`ya and Ghadames Basins. Paleozoic strata are deeply truncated at the Hercynian Unconformity on a broad arch between the older basins. This is interpreted to reflect rift margin rebound during Carboniferous time. Continental Lower Triassic sediments were deposited in a series of northeast trending basins which opened as the Neo-Tethys basin propagated from east to west between Africa and Europe. Middle Triassic marine transgression from the east resulted in evaporate deposition persisting through the Early Jurassic. Passive margin subsidence associated with carbonate marine deposition continued through the Early Cretaceous. Several zones of coeval wrench deformation cross the Atlas and adjoining regions. In the Triassic Basin, inversion occurred before the end of the Early Cretaceous. This episode created discrete uplifts, where major hydrocarbon accumulations have been discovered, along northeast trending lineaments. During the Eocene, the main phase of the Atlas Orogeny produced low amplitude folding of Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments. The folds detach within the Triassic-Jurassic evaporate interval. Many of these folds have been tested without success, as the deeper reservoirs do not show structural closure.

  11. Petrochemical study of post-Triassic basalts from the Nan Suture, northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjasawatwong, Y.; Yaowanoiyothin, W.

    Mafic-ultramafic rocks along the Nan Suture, a continental suture between Shan-Thai and Indo-China cratons, include ocean-island basalts, backarc basin basalts and andesites, island-arc basalts and andesites, supra-subduction cumulates, and continental intraplate basalts. The first four compositional groups formed in the Carboniferous to Permo-Triassic, prior to the Late Triassic continental collision, whereas the other erupted in post-Triassic time, possibly the Cenozoic. The post-Triassic lavas form a discontinuous narrow belt, disconformably overlying metagabbros/amphibolites and serpentinite melange. They are much less deformed and altered relative to the older rocks. The post-Triassic lavas are evolved mildly alkalic rocks, characterized by SiO2 = 51.2-58.0 wt%, MgO = 3.4-6.3 wt%, Nb/Y = 0.8-1.0 , Ti/V > 50, ( La/Yb) n = 7.4-11.6 , and FeO, TiO 2 and V depletion with progressive fractionation. They may be classified as hawaiite, mugearite and benmoreite with Na2O/K2O = 1.8-2.4 . They are phyric with olivine (Fo 68.0-83.6), calcic clinopyroxene ( mg# = 0.70-0.86 , plagioclase, magnetite and ilmenite phenocrysts and microphenocrysts embedded in fine-grained matrix made up mainly of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine. Orthopyroxene ( mg# = 0.65-0.70) occurs as an additional microphenocryst phase in the highly evolved samples. These basalts are chemically broadly comparable with alkalic basalts such as those erupted in the postshield stages of Haleakala in the Hawaiian chain, and are interpreted to have erupted in continental environment as the Late Cenozoic basalts in mainland SE Asia.

  12. Trophic network models explain instability of Early Triassic terrestrial communities

    E-print Network

    Roopnarine, Peter D.

    Trophic network models explain instability of Early Triassic terrestrial communities Peter D al. 2005), and the post-extinction Early Triassic world was characterized by degraded terrestrial and the effect of community structure on such extinctions. Here we use a trophic network model that combines

  13. The Permo-Triassic Extinction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website covers details about the Permian extinction, which occurred about 250 million years ago. It contains a paleontological overview of the extinction, discussing the life present at that time, evidence for the extinction, and what types of lifeforms disappeared. Other sections discuss various theories about what caused the mass-extinction including volcanism, impacts, climate change, glaciation, Pangea and other proposed theories.

  14. Paleomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic investigations of the whitehorse group/quartermaster (Dewey Lake) formation (upper permian-lowermost triassic) in the Palo Duro basin, northwest Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Dylan R.

    In northwest Texas, upper Permian to lowermost Triassic hematite-cemented detrital sedimentary rocks, which include a small number of regionally extensive ash beds, were deposited during the time interval of the greatest mass extinction event sequences in Earth history. The magnetic polarity stratigraphy, as well as key rock magnetic properties, of the upper Whitehorse Group (WH) and Quartermaster formations (QM) at selected sections in the Palo Duro Basin, have been determined using thermal, and chemical demagnetization approaches and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, acquisition of isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and backfield demagnetization, and thermal demagnetization of three component IRM methods. Demagnetization results show that the WH/QM contains a primary/near-primary characteristic remanent magnetization at each level sampled and thus the magnetic polarity stratigraphy for each section can be compared with existing polarity time scales across the Permian-Triassic boundary. Estimated site mean directions yield a paleomagnetic pole for the latest Permian for North America of 57.8N, 130.6E from 38 sampled sites.

  15. Arthropods in amber from the Triassic Period

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Alexander R.; Jancke, Saskia; Lindquist, Evert E.; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Roghi, Guido; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Schmidt, Kerstin; Wappler, Torsten; Grimaldi, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of arthropods in amber exclusively from the Cretaceous and Cenozoic is widely regarded to be a result of the production and preservation of large amounts of tree resin beginning ca. 130million years (Ma) ago. Abundant 230million-year-old amber from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of northeastern Italy has previously yielded myriad microorganisms, but we report here that it also preserves arthropods some 100Ma older than the earliest prior records in amber. The Triassic specimens are a nematoceran fly (Diptera) and two disparate species of mites, Triasacarus fedelei gen. et sp. nov., and Ampezzoa triassica gen. et sp. nov. These mites are the oldest definitive fossils of a group, the Eriophyoidea, which includes the gall mites and comprises at least 3,500 Recent species, 97% of which feed on angiosperms and represents one of the most specialized lineages of phytophagous arthropods. Antiquity of the gall mites in much their extant form was unexpected, particularly with the Triassic species already having many of their present-day features (such as only two pairs of legs); further, it establishes conifer feeding as an ancestral trait. Feeding by the fossil mites may have contributed to the formation of the amber droplets, but we find that the abundance of amber during the Carnian (ca. 230Ma) is globally anomalous for the pre-Cretaceous and may, alternatively, be related to paleoclimate. Further recovery of arthropods in Carnian-aged amber is promising and will have profound implications for understanding the evolution of terrestrial members of the most diverse phylum of organisms. PMID:22927387

  16. Reconstructions of solar irradiance on centennial time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami K.; Dasi Espuig, Maria; Leng Yeo, Kok

    Solar irradiance is the main external source of energy to Earth's climate system. The record of direct measurements covering less than 40 years is too short to study solar influence on Earth's climate, which calls for reconstructions of solar irradiance into the past with the help of appropriate models. An obvious requirement to a competitive model is its ability to reproduce observed irradiance changes, and a successful example of such a model is presented by the SATIRE family of models. As most state-of-the-art models, SATIRE assumes that irradiance changes on time scales longer than approximately a day are caused by the evolving distribution of dark and bright magnetic features on the solar surface. The surface coverage by such features as a function of time is derived from solar observations. The choice of these depends on the time scale in question. Most accurate is the version of the model that employs full-disc spatially-resolved solar magnetograms and reproduces over 90% of the measured irradiance variation, including the overall decreasing trend in the total solar irradiance over the last four cycles. Since such magnetograms are only available for about four decades, reconstructions on time scales of centuries have to rely on disc-integrated proxies of solar magnetic activity, such as sunspot areas and numbers. Employing a surface flux transport model and sunspot observations as input, we have being able to produce synthetic magnetograms since 1700. This improves the temporal resolution of the irradiance reconstructions on centennial time scales. The most critical aspect of such reconstructions remains the uncertainty in the magnitude of the secular change.

  17. Time scale of diffusion in molecular and cellular biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcman, D.; Schuss, Z.

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion is the driver of critical biological processes in cellular and molecular biology. The diverse temporal scales of cellular function are determined by vastly diverse spatial scales in most biophysical processes. The latter are due, among others, to small binding sites inside or on the cell membrane or to narrow passages between large cellular compartments. The great disparity in scales is at the root of the difficulty in quantifying cell function from molecular dynamics and from simulations. The coarse-grained time scale of cellular function is determined from molecular diffusion by the mean first passage time of molecular Brownian motion to a small targets or through narrow passages. The narrow escape theory (NET) concerns this issue. The NET is ubiquitous in molecular and cellular biology and is manifested, among others, in chemical reactions, in the calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient of receptors diffusing on a neuronal cell membrane strewn with obstacles, in the quantification of the early steps of viral trafficking, in the regulation of diffusion between the mother and daughter cells during cell division, and many other cases. Brownian trajectories can represent the motion of a molecule, a protein, an ion in solution, a receptor in a cell or on its membrane, and many other biochemical processes. The small target can represent a binding site or an ionic channel, a hidden active site embedded in a complex protein structure, a receptor for a neurotransmitter on the membrane of a neuron, and so on. The mean time to attach to a receptor or activator determines diffusion fluxes that are key regulators of cell function. This review describes physical models of various subcellular microdomains, in which the NET coarse-grains the molecular scale to a higher cellular-level, thus clarifying the role of cell geometry in determining subcellular function.

  18. Space and Time Scales in Human-Landscape Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. Mathias; Podolak, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Exploring spatial and temporal scales provides a way to understand human alteration of landscape processes and human responses to these processes. We address three topics relevant to human-landscape systems: (1) scales of human impacts on geomorphic processes, (2) spatial and temporal scales in river restoration, and (3) time scales of natural disasters and behavioral and institutional responses. Studies showing dramatic recent change in sediment yields from uplands to the ocean via rivers illustrate the increasingly vast spatial extent and quick rate of human landscape change in the last two millennia, but especially in the second half of the twentieth century. Recent river restoration efforts are typically small in spatial and temporal scale compared to the historical human changes to ecosystem processes, but the cumulative effectiveness of multiple small restoration projects in achieving large ecosystem goals has yet to be demonstrated. The mismatch between infrequent natural disasters and individual risk perception, media coverage, and institutional response to natural disasters results in un-preparedness and unsustainable land use and building practices.

  19. The length and time scales of water's glass transitions.

    PubMed

    Limmer, David T

    2014-06-01

    Using a general model for the equilibrium dynamics of supercooled liquids, I compute from molecular properties the emergent length and time scales that govern the nonequilibrium relaxation behavior of amorphous ice prepared by rapid cooling. Upon cooling, the liquid water falls out of equilibrium whereby the temperature dependence of its relaxation time is predicted to change from super-Arrhenius to Arrhenius. A consequence of this crossover is that the location of the apparent glass transition temperature depends logarithmically on cooling rate. Accompanying vitrification is the emergence of a dynamical length-scale, the size of which depends on the cooling rate and varies between angstroms and tens of nanometers. While this protocol dependence clarifies a number of previous experimental observations for amorphous ice, the arguments are general and can be extended to other glass forming liquids. PMID:24908028

  20. Time Scales in the Unstable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meredith Metzger; Heather Holmes

    2008-01-01

    Calculation of eddy covariances in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) requires separating the instantaneous signal into mean\\u000a and fluctuating components. Since the ASL is not statistically stationary, an inherent ambiguity exists in defining the mean\\u000a quantities. The present study compares four methods of calculating physically relevant time scales in the unstable ASL that\\u000a may be used to remove the unsteady

  1. Solar Irradiance Variations on Active Region Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labonte, B. J. (editor); Chapman, G. A. (editor); Hudson, H. S. (editor); Willson, R. C. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    The variations of the total solar irradiance is an important tool for studying the Sun, thanks to the development of very precise sensors such as the ACRIM instrument on board the Solar Maximum Mission. The largest variations of the total irradiance occur on time scales of a few days are caused by solar active regions, especially sunspots. Efforts were made to describe the active region effects on total and spectral irradiance.

  2. Is climate predictable on a geological time scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakulenko, N. V.; Kotlyakov, V. M.; Sonechkin, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our work is to show that the global climate is predictable on a geological time scale (several tens and hundred thousands of years) on the basis of the structure of the peaks in the power spectra of the Pleistocene climate oscillations, which are the responses of the climate system to variations in solar radiation due to the orbital cyclicity of obliquity and precession of the Earth's orbit.

  3. Tectonic setting of the Late Triassic volcaniclastic series of the Luang Prabang Basin, Laos, and geodynamic implications from the Triassic to Jurassic in SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignol, Camille; Bourquin, Sylvie; Dabard, Marie-Pierre; Hallot, Erwan; Poujol, Marc; Nalpas, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    The Luang Prabang Basin, located on the eastern margin of the Indochina block, is mainly composed of volcaniclastic continental deposits. The interpretation of U-Pb zircon geochronological dates shows that volcanism is contemporaneous with the sedimentation during the Late Triassic (c.a. 225 to 215 Ma; Blanchard et al., 2013, J. Asian Earth Sci., 70-71; 8-26). At the same time, volcanism is also known along the Eastern margin of the Indochina block (present day Thailand). There are currently two main contrasting interpretations concerning the tectonic setting related to these volcanic events: are they arc-related (e.g. Barr et al., 2006, J. Geol. Soc. London, 163; 1037-1046) or post collisional (e.g. Srichan et al., 2009, Island Arc, 18; 32-51)? We have performed geochemical analysis on both sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Luang Prabang Basin in order to evaluate the relationships between the volcanic events and to propose a geodynamic interpretation. The geochemical characteristics of the Luang Prabang Late Triassic volcaniclastic and volcanic rocks are compatible with a volcanic arc setting. The confrontation of these results with the stratigraphic evolution of the eastern margin of the Indochina block leads to reconsider the Late Triassic to Jurassic geodynamic evolution of this area. Arc-related volcanism seems to occur during nearly the whole Triassic, implying a subduction of the Paleotethys beneath the Indochina block. As the stratigraphic record of north-eastern Thailand and western Myanmar shows an important stratigraphic gap spanning from the Early to the Middle Jurassic, the collision between the Indochina and the Sibumasu blocks likely occurred at that period.

  4. Scale and time dependence of serial correlations in word-length time series of written texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Aguilar-Cornejo, M.; Femat, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2014-11-01

    This work considered the quantitative analysis of large written texts. To this end, the text was converted into a time series by taking the sequence of word lengths. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was used for characterizing long-range serial correlations of the time series. To this end, the DFA was implemented within a rolling window framework for estimating the variations of correlations, quantified in terms of the scaling exponent, strength along the text. Also, a filtering derivative was used to compute the dependence of the scaling exponent relative to the scale. The analysis was applied to three famous English-written literary narrations; namely, Alice in Wonderland (by Lewis Carrol), Dracula (by Bram Stoker) and Sense and Sensibility (by Jane Austen). The results showed that high correlations appear for scales of about 50-200 words, suggesting that at these scales the text contains the stronger coherence. The scaling exponent was not constant along the text, showing important variations with apparent cyclical behavior. An interesting coincidence between the scaling exponent variations and changes in narrative units (e.g., chapters) was found. This suggests that the scaling exponent obtained from the DFA is able to detect changes in narration structure as expressed by the usage of words of different lengths.

  5. 5nsec Dead time multichannel scaling system for Mssbauer spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrastro, C.; Trombetta, G.; Pita, A.; Saragovi, C.; Duhalde, S.

    1991-11-01

    A PC programmable and fast multichannel scaling module has been designed to use a commercial Mssbauer spectrometer. This module is based on a 10 single chip 8 bits microcomputer (MC6805) and on a 35 fast ALU, which allows a high performance and low cost system. The module can operate in a stand-alone mode. Data analysis are performed in real time display, on XT/AT IBM PC or compatibles. The channels are ranged between 256 and 4096, the maximum number of counts is 232-1 per channel, the dwell time is 3 ?sec and the dead time between channels is 5 nsec. A friendly software display the real time spectrum and offers menues with different options at each state.

  6. Two-time-scale population evolution on a singular landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Song; Jiao, Shuyun; Jiang, Pengyao; Ao, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Under the effect of strong genetic drift, it is highly probable to observe gene fixation or gene loss in a population, shown by singular peaks on a potential landscape. The genetic drift-induced noise gives rise to two-time-scale diffusion dynamics on the bipeaked landscape. We find that the logarithmically divergent (singular) peaks do not necessarily imply infinite escape times or biological fixations by iterating the Wright-Fisher model and approximating the average escape time. Our analytical results under weak mutation and weak selection extend Kramers's escape time formula to models with B (Beta) function-like equilibrium distributions and overcome constraints in previous methods. The constructed landscape provides a coherent description for the bistable system, supports the quantitative analysis of bipeaked dynamics, and generates mathematical insights for understanding the boundary behaviors of the diffusion model.

  7. Intrinsic short time scale variability of W3(OH) maser

    E-print Network

    R. Ramachandran; A. A. Deshpande; W. M. Goss

    2006-08-04

    We have studied the OH masers in the star forming region, W3(OH), with data obtained from the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The data provide an angular resolution of $\\sim$5 mas, and a velocity resolution of 106 m s$^{-1}$. A novel analysis procedure allows us to differentiate between broadband temporal intensity fluctuations introduced by instrumental gain variations plus interstellar diffractive scintillation, and intrinsic narrowband variations. Based on this 12.5 hours observation, we are sensitive to variations with time scales of minutes to hours. We find statistically significant intrinsic variations with time scales of $\\sim$15--20 minutes or slower, based on the {\\it velocity-resolved fluctuation spectra}. These variations are seen predominantly towards the line shoulders. The peak of the line profile shows little variation, suggesting that they perhaps exhibit saturated emission. The associated modulation index of the observed fluctuation varies from statistically insignificant values at the line center to about unity away from the line center. Based on light-travel-time considerations, the 20-minute time scale of intrinsic fluctuations translates to a spatial dimension of $\\sim$2--3 AU along the sight-lines. On the other hand, the transverse dimension of the sources, estimated from their observed angular sizes of about $\\sim$3 mas, is about 6 AU. We argue that these source sizes are intrinsic, and are not affected by interstellar scatter broadening. The implied peak brightness temperature of the 1612/1720 maser sources is about $\\sim2\\times 10^{13}$ K, and a factor of about five higher for the 1665 line.

  8. Microbial biodiversity in Alpine Permo-Triassic rock salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radax, C.; Wieland, H.; Pfaffenhuemer, M.; Leuko, S.; Rittmann, S.; Weidler, G.; Gruber, C.; Stan-Lotter, H.

    2003-04-01

    Alpine Permo-Triassic rock salt (age 200-250 million years) was shown several times to contain living extremely halophilic Archaea. These organisms might stem from ancient populations that became entrapped and persisted in the rock salt since then. For this reason, rock salt is considered a promising model system for the search for bacterial extraterrestrial life. In our studies on biodiversity in Alpine rock salt, we employed both culture-dependent and culture-independent, PCR-based methods. The latter approach indicated the presence of at least 12 distinct sequence types (phylotypes) in our samples, all of which belonged to the extremely halophilic Archaea. None of the recovered sequences was identical to sequences from databases, suggesting the avoidance of contaminants during experimental procedures. Two phylotypes could be assigned to taxonomically described members of this family; the remaining ten phylotypes appeared only remotely related to known genera of the extremely halophilic Archaea. In contrast, attempts to isolate organisms from the same sample on 15 different growth media so far yielded only two groups of isolates that could be differentiated based on their 16S rRNA genes. One group was very similar to Halococcus strains that we frequently isolated from Alpine rock salt; the other group was closely correlated to one of our novel phylotypes. Analyses of whole cell protein patterns allowed to further differentiate the latter group into two different subgroups that could not be distinguished at the molecular level. These results show that both culture-dependent and culture-independent strategies have to be applied in order to obtain a more complete view of microbial biodiversity in Permo-Triassic rock salt: culture-independent methods yield information on the gross microbial diversity in rock salt, whereas subtle differences can currently only be registered between cultivated strains.

  9. The evidence for ocean acidification across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martindale, R. C.; Greene, S. E.; Ritterbush, K. A.; Bottjer, D. J.; Corsetti, F. A.; Berelson, W.

    2012-12-01

    The end-Triassic extinction is one of the "Big Five" mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic and until recently no consensus regarding the cause of this extinction has been established. Over the last decade, a robust temporal correlation between the eruption of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) and the end-Triassic extinction has been established. This correlation has led to the speculation that the release of CO2 and volatiles from the CAMP flood basalts induced a carbon cycle perturbation that acidified the Triassic oceans. It has also been suggested that an acidification event could have been the key mechanism that caused the end-Triassic marine ecosystem collapse. By combining observations and data from multiple fields such as volcanology, paleoceanography, chemostratigraphy, paleontology, and sedimentology, one can assess whether or not there was an ocean acidification event and to what degree it contributed to the extinction. The eruption of the CAMP flood basalts began at the very end of the Triassic period, albeit before the official Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary, (defined as the first Jurassic ammonite). CAMP is one of the largest continental flood basalts of the Phanerozoic (2-4 million cubic km) and was emplaced extremely rapidly (<1.6-2 Myr) in three to five pulses (possibly hundreds to tens of thousands of years). The massive injection of CAMP CO2 and other volcanic volatiles over such a short period of time would have caused a major change in ocean carbonate chemistry and, if short enough in duration, could have caused significant declines in oceanic carbonate saturation state (an ocean acidification event), possibly even undersaturating parts of the surface ocean with respect to aragonite and calcite. Although the change in saturation state of the ocean is extremely difficult to detect or quantify in the rock record, there is a distinct paucity of primary carbonate sediments in the T-J boundary interval, consistent with an ocean acidification event. Of the seventeen T-J boundary sections only three or four record potentially continuous carbonate deposition across the extinction interval, even so these carbonates are often marls and so may not be truly continuous. Finally, the end-Triassic extinction was particularly selective against pH-sensitive organisms (more so than perhaps any other extinction event). Not only was this extinction event one of the most severe extinctions of the 'Modern Fauna' in the geologic record, it also decimated reef ecosystems built by corals and hypercalcified sponges. End-Triassic extinction rates amongst acid-intolerant organisms and ecosystems are elevated and differ significantly from background extinction so that ocean acidification is a reasonable explanation for the interpreted extinction selectivity during this time interval. Given the volcanic, geochemical, sedimentological, and paleontological changes or events across the T-J interval it is likely that the end-Triassic extinction was heavily influenced by a CAMP-induced ocean acidification event. The dramatic taxonomic and ecosystem turnover at the T-J event implies that short-term acidification events may have long-term effects on ecosystems, a repercussion that has not previously been correlated with acidification events and has implications for future changes in ocean chemistry.

  10. A Hierarchy of Time-Scales and the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kiebel, Stefan J.; Daunizeau, Jean; Friston, Karl J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest that cortical anatomy recapitulates the temporal hierarchy that is inherent in the dynamics of environmental states. Many aspects of brain function can be understood in terms of a hierarchy of temporal scales at which representations of the environment evolve. The lowest level of this hierarchy corresponds to fast fluctuations associated with sensory processing, whereas the highest levels encode slow contextual changes in the environment, under which faster representations unfold. First, we describe a mathematical model that exploits the temporal structure of fast sensory input to track the slower trajectories of their underlying causes. This model of sensory encoding or perceptual inference establishes a proof of concept that slowly changing neuronal states can encode the paths or trajectories of faster sensory states. We then review empirical evidence that suggests that a temporal hierarchy is recapitulated in the macroscopic organization of the cortex. This anatomic-temporal hierarchy provides a comprehensive framework for understanding cortical function: the specific time-scale that engages a cortical area can be inferred by its location along a rostro-caudal gradient, which reflects the anatomical distance from primary sensory areas. This is most evident in the prefrontal cortex, where complex functions can be explained as operations on representations of the environment that change slowly. The framework provides predictions about, and principled constraints on, cortical structurefunction relationships, which can be tested by manipulating the time-scales of sensory input. PMID:19008936

  11. Terrestrial Waters and Sea Level Variations on Interannual Time Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llovel, W.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A.; Jevrejeva, S.; Alkama, R.; Decharme, B.; Douville, H.; Ablain, M.; Beckley, B.

    2011-01-01

    On decadal to multi-decadal time scales, thermal expansion of sea waters and land ice loss are the main contributors to sea level variations. However, modification of the terrestrial water cycle due to climate variability and direct anthropogenic forcing may also affect sea level. For the past decades, variations in land water storage and corresponding effects on sea level cannot be directly estimated from observations because these are almost non-existent at global continental scale. However, global hydrological models developed for atmospheric and climatic studies can be used for estimating total water storage. For the recent years (since mid-2002), terrestrial water storage change can be directly estimated from observations of the GRACE space gravimetry mission. In this study, we analyse the interannual variability of total land water storage, and investigate its contribution to mean sea level variability at interannual time scale. We consider three different periods that, each, depend on data availability: (1) GRACE era (2003-2009), (2) 1993-2003 and (3) 1955-1995. For the GRACE era (period 1), change in land water storage is estimated using different GRACE products over the 33 largest river basins worldwide. For periods 2 and 3, we use outputs from the ISBA-TRIP (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere-Total Runoff Integrating Pathways) global hydrological model. For each time span, we compare change in land water storage (expressed in sea level equivalent) to observed mean sea level, either from satellite altimetry (periods 1 and 2) or tide gauge records (period 3). For each data set and each time span, a trend has been removed as we focus on the interannual variability. We show that whatever the period considered, interannual variability of the mean sea level is essentially explained by interannual fluctuations in land water storage, with the largest contributions arising from tropical river basins.

  12. Optimal Control Modification for Time-Scale Separated Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2012-01-01

    Recently a new optimal control modification has been introduced that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. This modification is based on an optimal control formulation to minimize the L2 norm of the tracking error. The optimal control modification adaptive law results in a stable adaptation in the presence of a large adaptive gain. This study examines the optimal control modification adaptive law in the context of a system with a time scale separation resulting from a fast plant with a slow actuator. A singular perturbation analysis is performed to derive a modification to the adaptive law by transforming the original system into a reduced-order system in slow time. A model matching conditions in the transformed time coordinate results in an increase in the actuator command that effectively compensate for the slow actuator dynamics. Simulations demonstrate effectiveness of the method.

  13. Role of relaxation time scale in noisy signal transduction

    E-print Network

    Maity, Alok Kumar; Banik, Suman K

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular fluctuations, mainly triggered by gene expression, are an inevitable phenomenon observed in living cells. It influences generation of phenotypic diversity in genetically identical cells. Such variation of cellular components is beneficial in some contexts but detrimental in others. To quantify the fluctuations in a gene product, we undertake an analytical scheme for studying few naturally abundant linear as well as branched chain network motifs. We solve the Langevin equations associated with each motif under the purview of linear noise approximation and quantify Fano factor and mutual information. Both quantifiable expressions exclusively depend on the relaxation time (decay rate constant) and steady state population of the network components. We investigate the effect of relaxation time constraints on Fano factor and mutual information to indentify a time scale domain where a network can recognize the fluctuations associated with the input signal more reliably. We also show how input populatio...

  14. Paleostress evolution in the Moroccan African margin from Triassic to Present

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Ait Brahim; P. Chotin; S. Hinaj; A. Abdelouafi; A El Adraoui; C. Nakcha; D. Dhont; M. Charroud; F Sossey Alaoui; M. Amrhar; A Bouaza; H Tabyaoui; A Chaouni

    2002-01-01

    Paleostresses were calculated from more than 1000 fault-slip data on sites located in the Rif moutains, the Middle and High Atlas chains, the occidental Moroccan Meseta and northeastern Morocco. We sorted the state of stress according to the main tectonic events in order to present new synthetic maps of paleostresses of Morocco. In the Late TriassicEarly Cretaceous time, NWSE to

  15. Multiple-Time Scaling and Universal Behavior of the Earthquake Interevent Time Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Bottiglieri, M.; Godano, C.; Lippiello, E. [Department of Environmental Sciences and CNISM, Second University of Naples, Caserta (Italy); Arcangelis, L. de [IfB, ETH, Schafmattstr. 6, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland) and Department of Information Engineering and CNISM, Second University of Naples, Aversa (Italy)

    2010-04-16

    The interevent time distribution characterizes the temporal occurrence in seismic catalogs. Universal scaling properties of this distribution have been evidenced for entire catalogs and seismic sequences. Recently, these universal features have been questioned and some criticisms have been raised. We investigate the existence of universal scaling properties by analyzing a Californian catalog and by means of numerical simulations of an epidemic-type model. We show that the interevent time distribution exhibits a universal behavior over the entire temporal range if four characteristic times are taken into account. The above analysis allows us to identify the scaling form leading to universal behavior and explains the observed deviations. Furthermore, it provides a tool to identify the dependence on the mainshock magnitude of the c parameter that fixes the onset of the power law decay in the Omori law.

  16. Defining a trend for time series using the intrinsic time-scale decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan M.; Venkataramani, Shankar; Comeau, Darin; Flaschka, Hermann

    2014-08-01

    We propose criteria that define a trend for time series with inherent multi-scale features. We call this trend the tendency of a time series. The tendency is defined empirically by a set of criteria and captures the large-scale temporal variability of the original signal as well as the most frequent events in its histogram. Among other properties, the tendency has a variance no larger than that of the original signal; the histogram of the difference between the original signal and the tendency is as symmetric as possible; and with reduced complexity, the tendency captures essential features of the signal. To find the tendency we first use the intrinsic time-scale decomposition (ITD) of the signal, introduced in 2007 by Frei and Osorio, to produce a set of candidate tendencies. We then apply the criteria to each of the candidates to single out the one that best agrees with them. While the criteria for the tendency are independent of the signal decomposition scheme, it is found that the ITD is a simple and stable methodology, well suited for multi-scale signals. The ITD is a relatively new decomposition and little is known about its outcomes. In this study we take the first steps towards a probabilistic model of the ITD analysis of random time series. This analysis yields details concerning the universality and scaling properties of the components of the decomposition.

  17. Time scale algorithms for an inhomogeneous group of atomic clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacques, C.; Boulanger, J.-S.; Douglas, R. J.; Morris, D.; Cundy, S.; Lam, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    Through the past 17 years, the time scale requirements at the National Research Council (NRC) have been met by the unsteered output of its primary laboratory cesium clocks, supplemented by hydrogen masers when short-term stability better than 2 x 10(exp -12)tau(sup -1/2) has been required. NRC now operates three primary laboratory cesium clocks, three hydrogen masers, and two commercial cesium clocks. NRC has been using ensemble averages for internal purposes for the past several years, and has a realtime algorithm operating on the outputs of its high-resolution (2 x 10(exp -13) s at 1 s) phase comparators. The slow frequency drift of the hydrogen masers has presented difficulties in incorporating their short-term stability into the ensemble average, while retaining the long-term stability of the laboratory cesium frequency standards. We report on this work on algorithms for an inhomogeneous ensemble of atomic clocks, and on our initial work on time scale algorithms that could incorporate frequency calibrations at NRC from the next generation of Zacharias fountain cesium frequency standards having frequency accuracies that might surpass 10(exp -15), or from single-trapped-ion frequency standards (Ba+, Sr+,...) with even higher potential accuracies. The requirements for redundancy in all the elements (including the algorithms) of an inhomogeneous ensemble that would give a robust real-time output of the algorithms are presented and discussed.

  18. Dynamics and Time-scales in Breakup and Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, M.; Luong, D. H.; Hinde, D. J.; Evers, M.; Lin, C. J.; du Rietz, R.

    2013-03-01

    Nuclear reaction dynamics at energies near the fusion barrier is known to be dominated by quantum effects, such as tunneling, and quantum superpositions that gives rise to channel couplings. The understanding of near-barrier reaction dynamics continues to evolve as improved experimental techniques reveal new facets of interaction dynamics. Recent coincidence measurements using weakly bound stable nuclei have not only provided a complete picture of the physical mechanisms triggering breakup, but have also shown how information on reaction dynamics occurring on time-scales of ~zepto-seconds can be obtained experimentally. These new experimental findings demand major developments in quantum models of low energy nuclear reactions.

  19. The Time and Space Scales of Extreme Precipitation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, R.; Rasmussen, K. L.; Srland, S.

    2013-12-01

    Energetic atmospheric processes such as tropical storms, Mesoscale Convection Systems, and heavy rain storms can generate extreme hydro-meteorological events that can be the driver of processes at the earths surface such as floods, debris flows, and landslides. An important aspect of these events is the duration and intensity of the precipitation. Characteristic time and space scales can be defined based on the storm duration, strength, and speed. This paper will examine these characteristics over the western U.S., Himalaya's, and the Andes focusing on MCS's, monsoon depressions, rain on snow events and tropical storms. The analysis will be based on both observations and model simulations of these storm types.

  20. Scaling in a Continuous Time Model for Biological Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, R. M. C.; Thomas, G. L.

    In this paper, we consider a generalization to the asexual version of Penna model for biological aging, where we take a continuous time limit. The genotype associated to each individual is an interval of real numbers over which Dirac ?-functions are defined, representing genetically programmed diseases to be switched on at defined ages of the individual life. We discuss two different continuous limits for the evolution equation and two different mutation protocols, to be implemented during reproduction. Exact stationary solutions are obtained and scaling properties are discussed.

  1. Wood remains from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of Jordan and their paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Hamad, Abdalla M. B.; Jasper, Andr; Uhl, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    During field work in the Triassic of Jordan fossil wood remains have been discovered at five horizons (S-1AR-S-5AR) of the Late Triassic (Carnian) Abu Ruweis Formation in NW Jordan. In most horizons wood remains are too badly preserved to allow for a detailed xylotomic investigation. Only two horizons provided material which exhibited anatomical details: (1) in horizon S-1AR we found rare and rather small fragments of woody charcoal exhibiting cellular details (representing the first macroscopic evidence of paleo-wildfires from the Late Triassic of the Middle East), and (2) in horizon S-5AR surfaces of partly compressed (gagatized) and partly permineralized wood fragments exhibited anatomical details that could be investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy. All wood remains that allow for a detailed investigation show features typical of gymnosperms, but at the moment nothing can be said about a more specific taxonomic affinity of most of the woods, although wood from horizon S-5AR exhibits characteristics of protopinoid wood. Our data provide evidence that gymnospermous woody vegetation cover has existed in the source areas of the sediments deposited in the Abu Ruweis Formation in Jordan and that this woody vegetation occasionally experienced wildfires. This, together with lithological data, provides evidence for a seasonally dry (maybe even arid) climate during deposition of the Abu Ruweis Formation. On a larger scale our findings contribute to the very scarce current knowledge about Late Triassic wildfires on the entire continent Gondwana, from where so far only three records of macro-charcoals, as undisputed evidence of paleo-wildfires, have been published from this period.

  2. Permian and Triassic microfloral assemblages from the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawit, Enkurie L.

    2014-11-01

    Palynological investigation was carried out on surface samples from up to 400 m thick continental siliciclastic sediments, here referred to as Fincha Sandstone, in the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia. One hundred sixty species were identified from 15 productive samples collected along a continuous road-cut exposure. Six informal palynological assemblage zones have been identified. These assemblage zones, in ascending order, are: Central Ethiopian Permian Assemblage Zone - CEPAZ I, earliest Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian); CEPAZ II, late Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian); CEPAZ III - Late Permian (Kazanian-Tatarian); CETAZ IV, Lower Triassic (Olenekian Induan); CETAZ V, Middle Triassic (Anisian Ladinian); CETAZ VI, Late Triassic (Carnian Norian). Tentative age ranges proposed herein are compared with faunally calibrated palynological zones in Gondwana. The overall composition and vertical distribution of miospores throughout the studied section reveals a wide variation both qualitatively and quantitatively. The high frequency of monosaccate pollen in CEPAZ I may reflect a Glossopterid-dominated upland flora in the earliest Permian. The succeeding zone is dominated by straite/taeniate disaccate pollen and polyplicates, suggesting a notable increase in diversity of glossopterids. The decline in the diversity of taeniate disaccate pollen and the concomitant rise in abundance of non-taeniate disaccates in CEPAZ III may suggest the decline in Glossopteris diversity, though no additional evidence is available to equate this change with End-Permian extinction. More diverse and dominant non-taeniate, disaccate, seed fern pollen assignable to FalcisporitesAlisporites in CETAZ IV may represent an earliest Triassic recovery flora. The introduction of new disaccate forms with thick, rigid sacci, such as Staurosaccites and Cuneatisporites, in CETAZ V and VI may indicate the emergence of new gymnospermous plants that might have favourably adapted to coastal plain wetland environments with the return of humid conditions in the Middle to early Late Triassic. The present data constitute the first paleontologically substantiated record for the existence of Permian strata in the Blue Nile Basin. The new results allow for the first time a reliable biostratigraphic subdivision of the central Ethiopia Karoo and its correlation with coeval strata of adjacent regions in Gondwana. From a phytogeographic point of view, the overall microfloral evidence is in support of the position of central Ethiopia occupying the northern part of the southern Gondwana palynofloral province. In view of palaeoecological and paleoclimatic conditions, the microfloral change from the base to the top of the studied section may indicate a response to shifting climatic belts from warm- and cool-temparate climate in the earliest Permian to progressively drier seasonal conditions at successively higher palaeolatitudes during the Late Permian to Middle Triassic.

  3. The Solar Activity in the Miocene Period In this Subthesis we study the solar activity in the Miocene (or Triassic)

    E-print Network

    in prehistoric times. Study of annual tree rings of 12 different petrified trees from the Miocene (or. However, the sunspot cycle is far from regular, with a period ranging from 8 to 14 years (Eddy, 1988 in the Miocene (or Triassic) period. Measurements of the thickness of the annual treerings of petrified trees

  4. Some Preliminary Results of Detailed Paleomagnetic Investigations of the Siberian Permian-Triassic Traps in the Kotuy River Valley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Latyshev; A. Fetisova; R. Veselovskiy

    2009-01-01

    Now essential part of geological investigations is dedicated to revealing of reasons and time relation between the mass extinction on the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary and pulses of magmatic activity expressed in forming of the largest Permian-Triassic trap province on the Siberian platform. Thus revealing of the dynamic of the magmatic activity caused formation of the Siberian traps will allow to obtain

  5. Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction as trigger for the Mesozoic radiation of crocodylomorphs.

    PubMed

    Toljagic, Olja; Butler, Richard J

    2013-06-23

    Pseudosuchia, one of the two main clades of Archosauria (Reptilia: Diapsida), suffered a major decline in lineage diversity during the Triassic-Jurassic (TJ) mass extinction (approx. 201 Ma). Crocodylomorpha, including living crocodilians and their extinct relatives, is the only group of pseudosuchians that survived into the Jurassic. We reassess changes in pseudosuchian morphological diversity (disparity) across this time interval, using considerably larger sample sizes than in previous analyses. Our results show that metrics of pseudosuchian disparity did not change significantly across the TJ boundary, contrasting with previous work suggesting low pseudosuchian disparity in the Early Jurassic following the TJ mass extinction. However, a significant shift in morphospace occupation between Late Triassic and Early Jurassic taxa is recognized, suggesting that the TJ extinction of many pseudosuchian lineages was followed by a major and geologically rapid adaptive radiation of crocodylomorphs. This marks the onset of the spectacularly successful evolutionary history of crocodylomorphs in Jurassic and Cretaceous ecosystems. PMID:23536443

  6. Evidence for two time scales in long SNS junctions.

    PubMed

    Chiodi, F; Aprili, M; Reulet, B

    2009-10-23

    We use microwave excitation to elucidate the dynamics of long superconductor-normal metal-superconductor Josephson junctions. By varying the excitation frequency in the range 10 MHz-40 GHz, we observe that the critical and retrapping currents, deduced from the dc voltage versus dc current characteristics of the junction, are set by two different time scales. The critical current increases when the ac frequency is larger than the inverse diffusion time in the normal metal, whereas the retrapping current is strongly modified when the excitation frequency is above the electron-phonon rate in the normal metal. Therefore the critical and retrapping currents are associated with elastic and inelastic scattering, respectively. PMID:19905779

  7. Mid-infrared diffuse reflection on ultrafast time scales.

    PubMed

    Brauns, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an instrument capable of studying diffuse reflection of mid-infrared (mid-IR) photons on ultrafast time scales. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses are generated by difference frequency mixing the output of an optical parametric amplifier that is pumped using a regeneratively amplified Ti:Sapphire laser. Time resolution is achieved by up-converting the diffusely reflected photons with pulses from the Ti:Sapphire oscillator. Experiments were performed on a series of powdered KBr samples containing varying amounts of carbon black. The results suggest that diffusely reflected mid-IR photons fall into two distinct categories. A small fraction of the photons travel relatively long effective path lengths (1.3-2.3 mm), while the majority traverse a much shorter distance (0.2-0.05 mm). PMID:24405947

  8. Impacts on Earth in the Late Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Dennis V.

    1998-09-01

    Sprayet al. postulate that five widely dispersed terrestrial impact structures with very similar geological age estimates (about 214 million years ago, in the Late Triassic epoch) are evidence of a multiple impact event. Most notably, the three largest impact structures, Saint Martin in western Canada (~40 km diameter), Manicouagan in eastern Canada (~100 km diameter), and Rochechouart in France (~25 km diameter), plot at virtually the same palaeolatitude in a continental reconstruction. Spray et al. suggest that this apparent crater chain was produced within hours as a series of coaxial projectiles collided in rapid succession with the rotating planet Earth, and drew analogies to the recent collision sequence of fragmented comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter.

  9. A new Triassic procolophonoid reptile and its implications for procolophonoid survivorship during the Permo-Triassic extinction event.

    PubMed Central

    Modesto, S.; Sues, H. D.; Damiani, R.

    2001-01-01

    A reptile specimen from the Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone of the Beaufort Group, lowermost Triassic of South Africa, represents a new procolophonoid parareptile. Sauropareion anoplus gen. et sp. nov. is identified as the sister taxon of Procolophonidae in a phylogenetic analysis of procolophonoids. Stratigraphic calibration of the most parsimonious tree reveals that four of the six procolophonoid lineages originating in the Permian Period extended into the succeeding Triassic Period. This relatively high taxic survivorship (67%) across the Permo-Triassic boundary strongly suggests that procolophonoids were little if at all affected by the mass extinction event that punctuated the end of the Palaeozoic Era (ca. 251 million years ago). PMID:11571052

  10. Complex Processes from Dynamical Architectures with Time-Scale Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    The idea that complex motor, perceptual, and cognitive behaviors are composed of smaller units, which are somehow brought into a meaningful relation, permeates the biological and life sciences. However, no principled framework defining the constituent elementary processes has been developed to this date. Consequently, functional configurations (or architectures) relating elementary processes and external influences are mostly piecemeal formulations suitable to particular instances only. Here, we develop a general dynamical framework for distinct functional architectures characterized by the time-scale separation of their constituents and evaluate their efficiency. Thereto, we build on the (phase) flow of a system, which prescribes the temporal evolution of its state variables. The phase flow topology allows for the unambiguous classification of qualitatively distinct processes, which we consider to represent the functional units or modes within the dynamical architecture. Using the example of a composite movement we illustrate how different architectures can be characterized by their degree of time scale separation between the internal elements of the architecture (i.e. the functional modes) and external interventions. We reveal a tradeoff of the interactions between internal and external influences, which offers a theoretical justification for the efficient composition of complex processes out of non-trivial elementary processes or functional modes. PMID:21347363

  11. Nonlinear Dynamics of Extended Hydrologic Systems over long time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, Upmanu

    2014-05-01

    We often view our knowledge of hydrology and hence of nature as intransient, at least over the time scales over which we study processes we wish to predict and understand. Over the last few decades, this assumption has come under question, largely because of the vocal expression of a changing climate, but also the recurrent demonstration of significant land use change, both of which significantly affect the boundary conditions for terrestrial hydrology that is our forte. Most recently, the concepts of hydromorphology and social hydrology have entered the discussion, and the notion that climate and hydrology influence human action, which in turn shapes hydrology, is being recognized. Finally, as a field, we seem to be coming to the conclusion that the hydrologic system is an open system, whose boundaries evolve in time, and that the hydrologic system, at many scales, has a profound effect on the systems that drive it -- whether they be the ecological and climatic systems, or the social system. What a mess! Complexity! Unpredictability! At a certain level of abstraction, one can consider the evolution of these coupled systems with nonlinear feedbacks and ask what types of questions are relevant in terms of such a coupled evolution? What are their implications at the planetary scale? What are their implications for a subsistence farmer in an arid landscape who may under external influence achieve a new transient hydro-ecological equilibrium? What are the implications for the economy and power of nations? In this talk, I will try to raise some of these questions and also provide some examples with very simple dynamical systems that suggest ways of thinking about some practical issues of feedback across climate, hydrology and human behavior.

  12. 1. Geologic time scale 2. Local stratigraphic column ( Cambrian Flathead -f , Cambrian Wolsey -w , Cambrian

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    for each period of geologic time (e.g. Cambrian west to east transgression; Late Jurassic widespread that you know the geologic time scale, at least to the period level. Knowing the time scale is essential

  13. How noise contributes to time-scale invariance of interval timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprisan, Sorinel A.; Buhusi, Catalin V.

    2013-05-01

    Time perception in the suprasecond range is crucial for fundamental cognitive processes such as decision making, rate calculation, and planning. In the vast majority of species, behavioral manipulations, and neurophysiological manipulations, interval timing is scale invariant: the time-estimation errors are proportional to the estimated duration. The origin and mechanisms of this fundamental property are unknown. We discuss the computational properties of a circuit consisting of a large number of (input) neural oscillators projecting on a small number of (output) coincidence detector neurons, which allows time to be coded by the pattern of coincidental activation of its inputs. We show that time-scale invariance emerges from the neural noise, such as small fluctuations in the firing patterns of its input neurons and in the errors with which information is encoded and retrieved by its output neurons. In this architecture, time-scale invariance is resistant to manipulations as it depends neither on the details of the input population nor on the distribution probability of noise.

  14. In-situ detrital zircon geochronology and Hf isotopic analyses from Upper Triassic Tethys sequence strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangwei, Li; Xiaohan, Liu; Alex, Pullen; Lijie, Wei; Xiaobing, Liu; Feixin, Huang; Xuejun, Zhou

    2010-09-01

    Marine sedimentary rocks of the Tethyan Himalayan sequence exposed south of the India-Asia suture and north of the high Himalayan mountain belt are widely attributed to India's passive margin along the southern margin of the Neo-Tethys ocean. The focus of this study are the Tethyan sequence strata exposed in southern Tibet that yield U-Pb detrital zircon age probability spectra and ?Hf values that are in stark contrast with Tethyan sequence strata of known Indian affinity. The rocks of the Upper Triassic Songre and Nieru Formations, exposed < 10 km south of the India-Asia suture, yield populations of U-Pb zircon ages in the range of ~ 450-220 Ma. Detrital zircon crystals of this age are not known to populate India affinity Tethyan sequence strata. The youngest cluster of ages, in the range of ~ 266-224 Ma, typically have juvenile ?Hf (T) values (+ 5.5-+13.5). Zircon ages and ?Hf (T) values in this range are consistent with igneous rocks of the Lhasa terrane on the northern margin of the Neo-Tethys ocean during Triassic time or with a hypothesized juvenile arc source from within the Neo-Tethys ocean. Collectively these unexpected results highlight the current uncertainties over the nature Neo-Tethys ocean and tectonic setting of the southern Lhasa prior to the India-Asia collision. We propose that the Upper Triassic age northern Tethyan Himalayan strata studied here represent an independent terrane from the widely studied southern Tethyan Himalayan strata. These rocks where isolated from the southern Tethyan Himalayan strata during Late Triassic time. This isolation was the result of a bathymetric barrier within the Neo-Tethys ocean such as a spreading center or an inter-Tethys arc system.

  15. Macrofossil Evidence For Pleuromeialean Lycophytes From the Triassic of Antarctica

    E-print Network

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Krings, Michael; Taylor, Edith L.; Taylor, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    Triassic microfloras from Antarctica contain abundant lycophyte spores. However, macrofossils of this group of plants are missing, and thus the precise affinities of the spore producers remain unknown. Macrofossil remains of a pleuro? meialean...

  16. First occurrence of tetrapod footprints from the continental Triassic of the Sidi Said Maachou area (Western Meseta, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hminna, Abdelkbir; Voigt, Sebastian; Klein, Hendrik; Saber, Hafid; Schneider, Jrg W.; Hmich, Driss

    2013-04-01

    The Sidi Said Maachou area in the Moroccan western Meseta preserves a succession, up to 400 m thick, of hitherto poorly studied continental Triassic deposits. Recent detailed geological mapping proposes a lithostratigraphic subdivision of the predominantly red-coloured siliciclastic deposits into three formations. Laminated mudstones and fine-grained sandstones in the upper part of the Oued Oum Er Rbiaa Formation have the most interesting fossil content including plant impressions, rhizoliths, fish scales, and invertebrate and vertebrate traces. These biogenic remains are partially associated with tool marks, microbially induced sedimentary structures, oscillation ripples, desiccation cracks, and halite pseudomorphs, suggesting sedimentation in a playa-like, fluvio-lacustrine system under semiarid conditions. All tetrapod footprints from these beds are assigned to Brachychirotherium parvum and indistinguishable from other occurrences of the ichnogenus in Central Europe and North America. Supposed trackmakers are archosaurs of the crocodile stem-group (Crurotarsi) that were widely spread over Triassic Pangaea. Because Brachychirotherium is only known from Late Triassic (Carnian-Rhaetian) deposits, the same age is attributed to the footprint horizon of the Oued Oum Er Rbiaa Formation. This is the first record of Brachychirotherium on the African continent and the first record of Triassic tetrapod footprints in Morocco outside of the High Atlas.

  17. Global Precipitation Analyses at Monthly to 3-HR Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Global precipitation analysis covering the last few decades and the impact of the new TRMM precipitation observations are discussed. The 20+ year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to explore global and regional variations and trends and is compared to the much shorter TRMM(Tropica1 Rainfall Measuring Mission) tropical data set. A trend pattern that is a combination of both El Nino and La Nina precipitation features is evident in the 20-year data set. This pattern is related to an increase with time in the number of combined months of El Nino and La Nina during the 20 year period. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. The GPCP daily, 1deg latitude-longitude analysis, which is available from January 1997 to the present is described and the evolution of precipitation patterns on this time scale related to El Nino and La Nina is described. Finally, a TRMM-based 3-hr analysis is described that uses TRMM to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I and geosynchronous IR observations and merges the various calibrated observations into a final, 3-hr resolution map. This TRMM standard product will soon be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998- present). A real-time version of this merged product is being produced and is available at 0.25deg latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 50degN-50degS. Images from this data set can be seen at the U.S. TRMM web site (trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov). Examples will be shown, including its use in monitoring flood conditions and relating weather-scale events to climate variations.

  18. Monitoring bacterial community structure and variability in time scale in full-scale anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kang, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Young Haeng; Lee, Taek Jun; Han, Keumsuk; Choi, Youngjun; Park, Hee-Deung

    2012-07-01

    Using a high-throughput pyrosequencing technology, this study assessed bacterial community structure and time-scale variability in great detail in seven full-scale anaerobic digesters operated variously in terms of influent substrate, digestion temperature, and reactor configuration. Pyrosequencing generated a total of 83,774 sequence reads from 40 digester sludge samples collected monthly for six months. The highest number of sequence reads were detected within Proteobacteria (20.5%), followed by those within Bacteroidetes (19.7%), Firmicutes (17.8%), and Chloroflexi (4.8%). The relative composition of bacterial populations was varied within the digesters as well as between the digesters, and the bacterial community structures were mainly influenced by digestion temperature. Detailed bacterial community structures were assessed by analyzing the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% sequence similarity, which resulted in a total of 9051 OTUs. Among these, a total of 31 core OTUs were analyzed and inferred phylogenetically, which enabled us to classify the sequences within an unclassified phylum. Unclassified sequences were mostly affiliated with the sequences within Spirochaetes and Firmicutes. Interestingly, numerically dominant novel phylotypes (18% of the total sequence reads) presumably involved in anaerobic digestion within Spirochaetes were identified. Temporal variability was further explored using a non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination which demonstrated that the variability of the bacterial community within the digesters was smaller than between digesters. Correlation analysis demonstrated that digester performance and operational conditions affected the pattern of bacterial community in the ordination. Additionally, a multi-response permutation procedure revealed that the bacterial communities within the digesters were more similar than those belonging to other digesters statistically, demonstrating a patchiness of the digesters in the distribution of bacterial populations. Overall, this study revealed the correlation of bacterial community structure and time-scale variability with digester performance and operating conditions. PMID:22426622

  19. Scale relativity and fractal space-time: theory and applications

    E-print Network

    Laurent Nottale

    2008-12-19

    In the first part of this contribution, we review the development of the theory of scale relativity and its geometric framework constructed in terms of a fractal and nondifferentiable continuous space-time. This theory leads (i) to a generalization of possible physically relevant fractal laws, written as partial differential equation acting in the space of scales, and (ii) to a new geometric foundation of quantum mechanics and gauge field theories and their possible generalisations. In the second part, we discuss some examples of application of the theory to various sciences, in particular in cases when the theoretical predictions have been validated by new or updated observational and experimental data. This includes predictions in physics and cosmology (value of the QCD coupling and of the cosmological constant), to astrophysics and gravitational structure formation (distances of extrasolar planets to their stars, of Kuiper belt objects, value of solar and solar-like star cycles), to sciences of life (log-periodic law for species punctuated evolution, human development and society evolution), to Earth sciences (log-periodic deceleration of the rate of California earthquakes and of Sichuan earthquake replicas, critical law for the arctic sea ice extent) and tentative applications to system biology.

  20. Bounded diffusive motion on two different time scales in solid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.-K. [University of Missouri, Columbia; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Bai, M. [University of Missouri, Columbia; Hansen, F.Y. [Technical University of Denmark; Taub, H. [University of Missouri, Columbia; Copley, J.R.D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Garcia Sakai, V [University of Maryland and NIST; Gasparovic, Goran [NCNR and University of Maryland; Jenkins, Timothy [NCNR and University of Maryland; Tyagi, M. [NCNR and University of Maryland; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL; Neumann, D. A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Montfrooij, W. [University of Missouri, Columbia; Volkmann, U. G. [Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Chile

    2010-01-01

    High-energy-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering on three complementary spectrometers has been used to investigate molecular diffusive motion in solid nano- to bulk-sized particles of the alkane n-C32H66. The crystalline-to-plastic and plastic-to-fluid phase transition temperatures are observed to decrease as the particle size decreases. In all samples, localized molecular diffusive motion in the plastic phase occurs on two different time scales: a 'fast' motion corresponding to uniaxial rotation about the long molecular axis; and a 'slow' motion attributed to conformational changes of the molecule. Contrary to the conventional interpretation in bulk alkanes, the fast uniaxial rotation begins in the low-temperature crystalline phase.

  1. X-ray signatures: New time scales and spectral features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The millisecond bursts from Cyg X-1 are investigated and the overall chaotic variability for the bulk of the Cyg X-1 emission is compared to that of Sco X-1, showing that the essential character is remarkably similar (i.e. shot noise) although the fundamental time scales involved differ widely, from a fraction of a second (for Cyg X-1) to a fraction of a day (for Sco X-1). Recent OSO-8 observations of spectra features attributable to iron are reviewed. In particular, line emission is discussed within the context of a model for thermal radiation by a hot evolved gas in systems as different as supernova remnants and clusters of galaxies. Newly observed spectral structure in the emission from the X-ray pulsar Her X-1 is reported.

  2. Perspective: Time scales in scientific research with an emphasis on microbial cellular and molecular research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Trevors

    2010-01-01

    Scientists use time to describe and research the universe in which humans live. Geologists and evolutionary biologists often use time scales in the millions to billions of years while biochemists and molecular biologists use time scales in the milliseconds or less. The atom smashers use time scales that are almost the speed of light. However, in some areas of research

  3. Towards a stable numerical time scale for the early Paleogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgen, Frederik; Kuiper, Klaudia; Sierro, Francisco J.; Wotzlaw, Jorn; Schaltegger, Urs; Sahy, Diana; Condon, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The construction of an astronomical time scale for the early Paleogene is hampered by ambiguities in the number, correlation and tuning of 405-kyr eccentricity related cycles in deep marine records from ODP cores and land-based sections. The two most competing age models result in astronomical ages for the K/Pg boundary that differ by ~750 kyr (~66.0 Ma of Vandenberghe et al. (2012) versus 65.25 Ma of Westerhold et al. (2012); these ages in turn are consistent with proposed ages for the Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) that differ by ~300 kyr (28.201 Ma of Kuiper et al. (2008) versus 27.89 Ma of Westerhold et al. (2012)); an even older age of 28.294 Ma is proposed based on a statistical optimization model (Renne et al., 2011). The astronomically calibrated FCs age of 28.201 0.046 Ma of Kuiper et al. (2008), which is consistent with the astronomical age of ~66.0 Ma for the K/Pg boundary, is currently adopted in the standard geological time scale (GTS2012). Here we combine new and published data in an attempt to solve the controversy and arrive at a stable nuemrical time scale for the early Paleogene. Supporting their younger age model, Westerhold et al. (2012) argue that the tuning of Miocene sections in the Mediterranean, which underlie the older FCs age of Kuiper et al. (2008) and, hence, the coupled older early Paleogene age model of Vandenberghe et al. (2012), might be too old by three precession cycles. We thoroughly rechecked this tuning; distinctive cycle patterns related to eccentricity and precession-obliquity interference make a younger tuning that would be consistent with the younger astronomical age of 27.89 Ma for the FCs of Westerhold et al. (2012) challenging. Next we compared youngest U/Pb zircon and astronomical ages for a number of ash beds in the tuned Miocene section of Monte dei Corvi. These ages are indistinguishable, indicating that the two independent dating methods yield the same age when the same event is dated. This is consistent with results of single crystal U/Pb zircon dating of the Fish Canyon tuff itself (Wotzlaw et al., 2013), which produced a youngest U/Pb age of 28.196 0.038 Ma that is indistinguishable from the astronomically calibrated age of 28.201 0.046 Ma for the FCs. Finally, youngest U/Pb zircon ages for ash layers that are found directly above the K/Pg boundary in North America are close to 65.9 Ma and thus consistent with the older astronomical age model with an age of ~66.0 Ma for the boundary. Summarizing, the new and published data summarized above unanimously favor the older option of the two alternative astronomical time scales for the early Paleogene. References Kuiper, K.F., A. Deino, F.J. Hilgen, W. Krijgsman, P.R. Renne, and J.R. Wijbrans, 2008. Synchronizing the Rock Clocks of Earth history. Science 320, 500-504. Renne, P.R., G. Balco, K.R. Ludwig, R. Mundil, and K. Min, 2011. Response to the comment by W.H. Schwarz et al. on "Joint determination of 40K decay constants and 40Ar*/40K for the Fish Canyon sanidine standard, and improved accuracy for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology". Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 5097-5100. Vandenberghe, N., F.J. Hilgen, and R.P. Speijer, 2012. The Paleogene Period. In: The Geological Time Scale 2012, Gradstein, F., et al., eds., Elsevier, pp. 855-921. Westerhold, T., U. Rhl, and J. Laskar, 2012. Time scale controversy: Accurate orbital calibration of the early Paleogene. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q06015, doi:10.1029/2012GC004096. Wotzlaw, J.-F., U. Schaltegger, D.A. Frick, M.A. Dungan, A. Gerdes, and D. Gnther, 2013. Tracking the evolution of large-volume silicic magma reservoirs from assembly to supereruption. Geology, doi:10.1130/G34366.1

  4. Use of a Walk Through Time to Facilitate Student Understandings of the Geological Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, H. L.

    2004-12-01

    Students often have difficulties in appreciating just how old the earth and the universe are. While they can simply memorize a number, they really do not understand just how big that number really is, in comparison with other, more familiar student referents like the length of a human lifetime or how long it takes to eat a pizza. (See, e.g., R.D. Trend 2001, J. Research in Science Teaching 38(2): 191-221) Students, and members of the general public, also display such well-known misconceptions as the "Flintstone chronology" of believing that human beings and dinosaurs walked the earth at the same time. (In the classic American cartoon "The Flintstones," human beings used dinosaurs as draft animals. As scientists we know this is fiction, but not all members of the public understand that.) In an interdisciplinary undergraduate college class that dealt with astronomy, cosmology, and biological evolution, I used a familiar activity to try to improve student understanding of the concept of time's vastness. Students walked through a pre-determined 600-step path which provided a spatial analogy to the geological time scale. They stopped at various points and engaged in some pre-determined discussions and debates. This activity is as old as the hills, but reports of its effectiveness or lack thereof are quite scarce. This paper demonstrates that this activity was effective for a general-audience, college student population in the U.S. The growth of student understandings of the geological time scale was significant as a result of this activity. Students did develop an understanding of time's vastness and were able to articulate this understanding in various ways. This growth was monitored through keeping track of several exam questions and through pre- and post- analysis of student writings. In the pre-writings, students often stated that they had "no idea" about how to illustrate the size of the geological time scale to someone else. While some post-time walk responses simply restated what was done in the walk through time, some students were able to develop their own ways of conceptualizing the vastness of the geological time scale. A variety of findings from student understandings will be presented. This work has been supported in part by the Distinguished Scholars Program of the National Science Foundation (DUE-0308557).

  5. Fractal Space-Time, Non-Differentiable Geometry and Scale Relativity

    E-print Network

    Nottale, Laurent

    Fractal Space-Time, Non-Differentiable Geometry and Scale Relativity L. NOTTALE CNRS, LUTH recall the successive steps that we have followed in the construction of the scale-relativity theory of the relativity of scales. Various levels of description of scale-laws, from the simplest scale-invariant laws

  6. Scale relativity and fractal space-time: Applications to quantum physics, cosmology and chaotic systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Nottale

    1996-01-01

    The theory of scale relativity is a new approach to the problem of the origin of fundamental scales and of scaling laws in physics, that consists of generalizing Einstein's principle of relativity (up to now applied to motion laws) to scale transformations. Namely, we redefine space-time resolutions as characterizing the state of scale of the reference system and require that

  7. Multiple-Time Scaling and deviation from universality of the Earthquake Interevent Time Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippiello, E.; Godano, C.; de Arcangelis, L.; Bottiglieri, M.

    2010-12-01

    The distribution of interevent times between subsequent earthquakes provides important information on the temporal organization of seismic catalogs. Universal scaling properties of this distribution have been evidenced for seismic catalogs of different geografic regions and for seismic sequences [1,2]. Recently, these universal features have been questioned and some criticisms have been raised [3,4]. We present an analysis of the Californian catalog and of numerical simulations of an epidemic-type model in order to investigate the existence of universal scaling properties. We show [5] that the interevent time distribution exhibits a universal behavior over the entire temporal range if four characteristic times are taken into account. The above analysis allows us to identify the scaling form leading to universal behavior and explains the observed deviations. Furthermore, it provides a tool to identify the dependence on the mainshock magnitude of the c parameter that ?xes the onset of the power law decay in the Omori law. [1] P. Bak, K. Christensen, L. Danon, and T. Scanlon, . [2] A. Corral, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 108501 (2004). [3] S. Hainzl, C. Beauval, and F. Scherbaum, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 96, 313 (2006). [4] S. Touati, M. Naylor, and I. G. Main, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 168501 (2009). [5] M. Bottiglieri, L. de Arcangelis, C. Godano, and E. Lippiello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 158501 (2010)

  8. Astronomical timescale calibration for the Permian-Triassic boundary transition interval from global correlation of cyclic marine sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Hinnov, L. A.; Tong, J.; Chen, Z.

    2011-12-01

    The mass extinctions near the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) resulted in the greatest dying of life on Earth. The cause of this catastrophe remains enigmatic. High-resolution chronology is crucial to understanding the recorded pattern of biotic evolution and possible causes for the extinctions. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) data from Shangsi, South China shows evidence for astronomical forcing through the PTB interval, with strong 405-kyr cycling. This allows development of an astrochronology for the PTB interval based on the 405-kyr orbital eccentricity metronome that has been proposed for the Mesozoic timescale. Radioisotope dating combined with the 405-kyr tuned MS series from Shangsi shows that the 405-kyr-cycle predominates throughout the PTB interval. In the Permian segment, ~100-kyr cyclicity dominates, and the 100-kyr-scale MS maxima correlate with high-amplitude precession-scale MS variations. Minima in the ~1.5-Myr, 405-kyr and ~100-kyr cycles converge at 252.6 Ma, approximately 200 kyr before the onset of the main mass extinction near the PTB. In the Triassic aftermath, the recorded astronomical signal is different, with predominant 405-kyr cycles and loss of 100 kyr cyclicity, and appearance of ~33 kyr (obliquity scale) cyclicity; 100-kyr cyclicity strengthens again 2 Myr later. This pattern indicates a change in the response of the depositional environment (or magnetic susceptibility) to astronomical forcing before and after the mass extinction interval. The astrochronology interpolates the timescale between the radioisotopically determined absolute dates; this facilitates estimation of ages for specific events in the PTB crisis, including magnetic reversals, biozone boundaries, and the mass extinctions. An estimated ~700 kyr duration for the Mass Extinction Interval (MEI) at Shangsi based on the 405-kyr tuning is supported by eccentricity-tuned estimates of three other sections in China (Meishan, Huangzhishan, and Heping), and two Alpine sections (Gartnerkofel, Austria and Bulla, Italy) from the eastern and western margins of the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean during PTB time. This suggests that the PTB mass extinctions were not the result of a single catastrophic event. Siberian trap volcanism was largely synchronous with the MEI and appears to be the most likely cause of the mass extinctions; astronomically paced climate change may also have played a role.

  9. Geologic history of Florida-Bahama platform, Triassic through Paleocene

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, G.O.

    1988-02-01

    This study is based on top-to-bottom examination of samples from 146 wells from the Florida-Bahama platform. Following Triassic graben formation, three different structural configurations develop through time. In the Late Jurassic-Coahuilan, a northwestern and southeastern sedimentary province were separated by the Sarasota arch, located on the west Florida shelf. Modern basin configurations, which began to appear in the Comanchean, were modified by tectonics in Cuba in the early Gulfian. From the Late Jurassic through the Comanchean, the continental margin was occupied by a carbonate complex that restricted marine circulation in some areas. In the southeast, this barrier caused the deposition of lagoonal carbonates and anhydrites; in the north, clastics were deposited. Carbonate-evaporite deposition in the south ended at the close of the Comanchean and was followed by the deposition of chalk and chalky limestone in the Gulfian. During this epoch, the rapid subsidence of the Blake Plateau basin to bathal depths and the collapse of the Florida straits were associated with tectonic activity in northern Cuba. By the middle Gulfian, the Rebecca Shoal barrier reef had appeared on the upthrown northern side of the straits. This barrier reef expanded to encircle the Florida peninsula completely, at which time the Cedar Keys (Paleocene) lagoonal dolomite-anhydrite deposition was initiated.

  10. The Luoping biota: exceptional preservation, and new evidence on the Triassic recovery from end-Permian mass extinction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shi-xue; Zhang, Qi-yue; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Zhou, Chang-yong; L, Tao; Xie, Tao; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-yuan; Benton, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The timing and nature of biotic recovery from the devastating end-Permian mass extinction (252 Ma) are much debated. New studies in South China suggest that complex marine ecosystems did not become re-established until the middlelate Anisian (Middle Triassic), much later than had been proposed by some. The recently discovered exceptionally preserved Luoping biota from the Anisian Stage of the Middle Triassic, Yunnan Province and southwest China shows this final stage of community assembly on the continental shelf. The fossil assemblage is a mixture of marine animals, including abundant lightly sclerotized arthropods, associated with fishes, marine reptiles, bivalves, gastropods, belemnoids, ammonoids, echinoderms, brachiopods, conodonts and foraminifers, as well as plants and rare arthropods from nearby land. In some ways, the Luoping biota rebuilt the framework of the pre-extinction latest Permian marine ecosystem, but it differed too in profound ways. New trophic levels were introduced, most notably among top predators in the form of the diverse marine reptiles that had no evident analogues in the Late Permian. The Luoping biota is one of the most diverse Triassic marine fossil Lagersttten in the world, providing a new and early window on recovery and radiation of Triassic marine ecosystems some 10 Myr after the end-Permian mass extinction. PMID:21183583

  11. The Luoping biota: exceptional preservation, and new evidence on the Triassic recovery from end-Permian mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shi-xue; Zhang, Qi-yue; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Zhou, Chang-yong; L, Tao; Xie, Tao; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-yuan; Benton, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    The timing and nature of biotic recovery from the devastating end-Permian mass extinction (252 Ma) are much debated. New studies in South China suggest that complex marine ecosystems did not become re-established until the middle-late Anisian (Middle Triassic), much later than had been proposed by some. The recently discovered exceptionally preserved Luoping biota from the Anisian Stage of the Middle Triassic, Yunnan Province and southwest China shows this final stage of community assembly on the continental shelf. The fossil assemblage is a mixture of marine animals, including abundant lightly sclerotized arthropods, associated with fishes, marine reptiles, bivalves, gastropods, belemnoids, ammonoids, echinoderms, brachiopods, conodonts and foraminifers, as well as plants and rare arthropods from nearby land. In some ways, the Luoping biota rebuilt the framework of the pre-extinction latest Permian marine ecosystem, but it differed too in profound ways. New trophic levels were introduced, most notably among top predators in the form of the diverse marine reptiles that had no evident analogues in the Late Permian. The Luoping biota is one of the most diverse Triassic marine fossil Lagersttten in the world, providing a new and early window on recovery and radiation of Triassic marine ecosystems some 10 Myr after the end-Permian mass extinction. PMID:21183583

  12. An aborted Triassic Ocean in west Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplonov, Sergei

    1988-12-01

    A small buried oceanic basin named the Obsky paleo-ocean has been found in West Siberia. It developed from 235 to 218 m.y. during the Triassic by rift propagation and seafloor spreading inside the west Siberian region of the continent. During the postspreading period the Obsky paleo-ocean did not collapse but instead was covered intact by a layer of sediments with a thickness of up to 15 km. This conclusion is based on detailed interpretation of geophysical and geological data. Striped magnetic anomalies marking the paleo-ocean spreading have been separated from the total magnetic field. They have been dated and interpreted within the framework of the Vine-Matthews concept. Seismic and gravitational data have permitted delineation of the Obsky paleo-ocean depression and contouring of the basement relief within its bounds. Investigation of the Obsky paleo-ocean basalts by means of deep boreholes has indicated that they are chemically similar to oceanic tholeiites and has also confirmed the presence of strong residual magnetism in them. Spreading of the Obsky paleo-ocean was a stage in the initial disintegration of Pangea at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary. The presence of a north trending buried spreading center along the axial zone of West Siberia accounts for many features of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of the region and its present-day structure.

  13. Cognitive Components of Speech at Different Time Scales Ling Feng (lf@imm.dtu.dk)

    E-print Network

    Cognitive Components of Speech at Different Time Scales Ling Feng (lf@imm.dtu.dk) Informatics at different time scales looking for pos- sible hidden `cognitive structure'. Statistical regularities have support to our cognitive component hypothesis. Keywords: Cognitive component analysis; time scales; en

  14. Boundedness and Uniqueness of Solutions to Dynamic Equations on Time Scales

    E-print Network

    Tisdell, Chris

    Boundedness and Uniqueness of Solutions to Dynamic Equations on Time Scales ALLAN C. PETERSONa/or unique. Several examples are given. Keywords: Time scale; Lyapunov function; System of equations; Initial the boundedness and uniqueness of solutions to systems of dynamic equations in the more general time scale setting

  15. Time scales for the decay of induced large-scale magnetic fields in the Venus ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Russell, C. T.; Elphic, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Observations made with the aid of a magnetometer on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter have shown large-scale horizontal magnetic fields in the dayside ionosphere of Venus. According to Cloutier and Daniell (1981), the observed magnetic structures may be quasi-steady features produced by an ionospheric current system driven by solar wind interaction. Russell et al. (1983) have suggested that the altitude profiles of the horizontal field on different orbits exhibit a pattern which can be interpreted as phases in the temporal evolution of an initial state in which the ionosphere was permeated with magnetosheath-like fields. The present investigation is concerned with the argument in favor of a temporal versus spatial explanation for some of the observed field structure. A calculation indicates that the diffusion time for ionospheric fields is long enough to justify attributing the observed fields to the 'memory' of the Venus ionosphere in certain regions.

  16. Detonation initiation on the microsecond time scale: DDTs

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, Jeffery A [ORNL; Kassoy, Dr. David R [University of Colorado; Nabity, Mr. Matthew W. [University of Colorado; Clarke, Dr. John F. [Cranfield University

    2006-01-01

    Spatially resolved, thermal power deposition of limited duration into a finite volume of reactive gas is the initiator for a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) on the microsecond time scale. The reactive Euler equations with one-step Arrhenius kinetics are used to derive novel formulas for velocity and temperature variation that describe the physical phenomena characteristic of DDTs. A nonlinear transformation of the variables is shown to yield a canonical equation system, independent of the activation energy. Numerical solutions of the reactive Euler equations are used to describe the detailed sequence of reactive gas dynamic processes leading to an overdriven planar detonation far from the power deposition location. Results are presented for deposition into a region isolated from the planar boundary of the reactive gas as well as for that adjacent to the boundary. The role of compressions and shocks reflected from the boundary into the partially reacted hot gas is described. The quantitative dependences of DDT evolution on the magnitude of thermal power deposition and activation energy are identified.

  17. Detonation initiation on the microsecond time scale: DDTs

    SciTech Connect

    Kassoy, Dr. David R [University of Colorado; Kuehn, Jeffery A [ORNL; Nabity, Mr. Matthew W. [University of Colorado; Clarke, Dr. John F. [Cranfield University

    2008-01-01

    Spatially resolved, thermal power deposition of limited duration into a finite volume of reactive gas is the initiator for a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) on the microsecond time scale. The reactive Euler equations with one-step Arrhenius kinetics are used to derive novel formulas for velocity and temperature variation that describe the physical phenomena characteristic of DDTs. A transformation of the variables is shown to yield a canonical equation system, independent of the activation energy. Numerical solutions of the reactive Euler equations are used to describe the detailed sequence of reactive gasdynamic processes leading to an overdriven planar detonation far from the power deposition location. Results are presented for deposition into a region isolated from the planar boundary of the reactive gas as well as for that adjacent to the boundary. The role of compressions and shocks reflected from the boundary into the partially reacted hot gas is described. The quantitative dependences of DDT evolution on the magnitude of thermal power deposition and activation energy are identified.

  18. Bridging time-scale gaps via reaction path optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jhih-Wei

    2008-03-01

    In this talk I will present a series of new computational methodologies that can be applied to systematically investigate the mechanism, free energy profiles, and rates of large-scale conformational changes of biomolecules. First, we enhance the efficiency of reaction path optimization methods, which use a series of duplicated systems, or replicas, to represent a discrete path by using holonomic constraints instead of reparametrization or using penalty potential functions that may require force projections to maintain equal distances between replicas. As a result, this formulation allows a straightforward application of super-linear optimization schemes such as the Adopted Basis Newton Raphson method, which uses much fewer energy and force evaluations to optimize a path. Novel objective functions, such as Hamiltonian and action, have also been designed for the search of novel pathways in addition to minimum energy paths. We have also generalized this approach to compute minimum free energy paths of a reaction. Second, constraints for sampling on the hyper-planes along an optimized path have been developed for computing the potential of mean force using the blue- moon approach. For obtaining rate information, we propose to solve the time-dependent Fokker-Planck equation by using the free energy profiles along a path as input. I will present the studies of two important conformational changes using these methods: the cis-to- trans isomerization of an alanine dipeptide and the helix-to-hairpin transition of an amyloid beta peptide.

  19. Long-term oceanic changes prior the end-Triassic mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clmence, Marie-Emilie; Mette, Wolfgang; Thibault, Nicolas; Korte, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    A number of potential causes and kill mechanisms have been proposed for the end-Triassic mass extinction such as palaeoclimatic and sea-level variations, massive volcanism and ocean acidification. Recent analysis of the stomatal index and density of fossil leaves and geochemical research on pedogenic carbonate nodules are suggestive of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and fluctuating climate in the Rhaetian. It seems therefore probable that the end-Triassic event was preceded by large climatic fluctuations and environmental perturbations in the Rhaetian which might have partly affected the composition and diversity of the terrestrial and marine biota prior to the end-Triassic interval. The Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) has long been favored for the study of the Rhaetian, since the GSSP of the Triassic/Jurassic (T/J) boundary and other important T/J sections are situated in this region. However, the most famous Rhaetian sections in the NCA are composed of carbonates from the Koessen Formation and were situated in a large isolated intraplatform Basin (the Eiberg Basin), bordered to the south-east by a well-developed coral reef in the NW of the Tethys border. Several Rhaetian sections composed of marls and shales of the Zlambach Formation were deposited at the same time on the other side of this reef, in the oceanic Halstatt Basin, which was in direct connection to the Tethys. Here, we present new results on sedimentology, stable isotope and trace element analysis of both intraplatform and oceanic basin deposits in the NCA. Intraplatform Rhaetian sections from the Koessen Formation bear a few minor intervals of shales with enrichments in organic matter, some of which are associated to carbon isotopic excursions. Oceanic sections from the Hallstatt Basin are characterized at the base by very cyclic marl-limestone alternations. Higher up in the section, sediments progressively turn into pure shale deposits and the top of the Formation is characterized by organic-rich, laminated black shales. This interval of black shales is associated with a 2 per mil negative carbon isotopic excursion and a strong warming as suggested by fluctuations in oxygen isotopes. Forthcoming geochemical and paleontological analysis on these two Formations should help us : (1) better constrain the stratigraphy of the Rhaetian in the NCA by correlating geochemical and climatic events that took place both in the intraplaform (Eiberg) and oceanic (Hallstatt) Basin, (2) decipher localized vs large Tethyan anoxic events and associated carbon-cycle perturbations and (3) constrain the possible influence of Rhaetian climatic perturbations on the biota before the end-Triassic mass extinction.

  20. Evidence for prosauropod dinosaur gastroliths in the Bull Run Formation (Upper Triassic, Norian) of Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, R.E.; Culp, M.J.; Wings, O.

    2007-01-01

    Definitive criteria for distinguishing gastroliths from sedimentary clasts are lacking for many depositional settings, and many reported occurrences of gastroliths either cannot be verified or have been refuted. We discuss four occurrences of gastrolith-like stones (category 6 exoliths) not found within skeletal remains from the Upper Triassic Bull Run Formation of northern Virginia, USA. Despite their lack of obvious skeletal association, the most parsimonious explanation for several characteristics of these stones is their prolonged residence in the gastric mills of large animals. These characteristics include 1) typical gastrolith microscopic surface texture, 2) evidence of pervasive surface wear on many of these stones that has secondarily removed variable amounts of thick weathering rinds typically found on these stones, and 3) a width/length-ratio modal peak for these stones that is more strongly developed than in any population of fluvial or fanglomerate stones of any age found in this region. When taken together, these properties of the stones can be explained most parsimoniously by animal ingestion and gastric-mill abrasion. The size of these stones indicates the animals that swallowed them were large, and the best candidate is a prosauropod dinosaur, possibly an ancestor of the Early Jurassic gastrolith-producing prosauropod Massospondylus or Ammosaurus. Skeletal evidence for Upper Triassic prosauropods is lacking in the Newark Supergroup basins; footprints (Agrestipus hottoni and Eubrontes isp.) from the Bull Run Formation in the Culpeper basin previously ascribed to prosauropods are now known to be underprints (Brachychirotherium parvum) of an aetosaur and underprints (Kayentapus minor) of a ceratosaur. The absence of prosauropod skeletal remains or footprints in all but the uppermost (upper Rhaetian) Triassic rocks of the Newark Supergroup is puzzling because prosauropod remains are abundant elsewhere in the world in Upper Triassic (Carnian, Norian, and lower Rhaetian) continental strata. The apparent scarcity of prosauropods in Upper Triassic strata of the Newark Supergroup is interpreted as an artifact of ecological partitioning, created by the habitat range and dietary preferences of phytosaurs and by the preservational biases at that time within the lithofacies of the Newark Supergroup basins.

  1. Evidence for a late Triassic multiple impact event on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spray, John G.; Kelley, Simon P.; Rowley, David B.

    1998-03-01

    We present evidence for a multiple impact event that occurred on Earth. Five terrestrial impact structures have been found to possess comparable ages, coincident with the Norian stage of the Triassic period. These craters are Rochechouart (France), Manicouagan and Saint Martin (Canada), Obolon' (Ukraine), and Red Wing (USA). When these impact structures are plotted on a tectonic reconstruction of the North American and Eurasian plates for 214 Myr before present, the three largest structures (Rochechouart, Manicouagan and Saint Martin) are colatitudinal at 22.8 deg and span 43.5 deg of palaeolongitude. These structures may thus represent the remains of a crater chain at least 4462 km long. The Obolon' and Red Wing craters, on the other hand, lie on great circles of identical declination with Rochechouart and Saint Martin, respectively. We therefore suggest that the five impact structures were formed at the same time (within hours) during a multiple impact event caused by a fragmented comet or asteroid colliding with Earth.

  2. Climatically driven biogeographic provinces of Late Triassic tropical Pangea

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Jessica H.; Grogan, Danielle S.; Olsen, Paul E.; Kent, Dennis V.

    2011-01-01

    Although continents were coalesced into the single landmass Pangea, Late Triassic terrestrial tetrapod assemblages are surprisingly provincial. In eastern North America, we show that assemblages dominated by traversodont cynodonts are restricted to a humid 6 equatorial swath that persisted for over 20 million years characterized by semiprecessional (approximately 10,000-y) climatic fluctuations reflected in stable carbon isotopes and sedimentary facies in lacustrine strata. More arid regions from 520N preserve procolophonid-dominated faunal assemblages associated with a much stronger expression of approximately 20,000-y climatic cycles. In the absence of geographic barriers, we hypothesize that these variations in the climatic expression of astronomical forcing produced latitudinal climatic zones that sorted terrestrial vertebrate taxa, perhaps by excretory physiology, into distinct biogeographic provinces tracking latitude, not geographic position, as the proto-North American plate translated northward. Although the early Mesozoic is usually assumed to be characterized by globally distributed land animal communities due to of a lack of geographic barriers, strong provinciality was actually the norm, and nearly global communities were present only after times of massive ecological disruptions. PMID:21571639

  3. Climatically driven biogeographic provinces of Late Triassic tropical Pangea.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Jessica H; Grogan, Danielle S; Olsen, Paul E; Kent, Dennis V

    2011-05-31

    Although continents were coalesced into the single landmass Pangea, Late Triassic terrestrial tetrapod assemblages are surprisingly provincial. In eastern North America, we show that assemblages dominated by traversodont cynodonts are restricted to a humid 6 equatorial swath that persisted for over 20 million years characterized by "semiprecessional" (approximately 10,000-y) climatic fluctuations reflected in stable carbon isotopes and sedimentary facies in lacustrine strata. More arid regions from 5-20 N preserve procolophonid-dominated faunal assemblages associated with a much stronger expression of approximately 20,000-y climatic cycles. In the absence of geographic barriers, we hypothesize that these variations in the climatic expression of astronomical forcing produced latitudinal climatic zones that sorted terrestrial vertebrate taxa, perhaps by excretory physiology, into distinct biogeographic provinces tracking latitude, not geographic position, as the proto-North American plate translated northward. Although the early Mesozoic is usually assumed to be characterized by globally distributed land animal communities due to of a lack of geographic barriers, strong provinciality was actually the norm, and nearly global communities were present only after times of massive ecological disruptions. PMID:21571639

  4. Time-scales for runoff and erosion estimates, with implications for spatial scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, M. J.; Irvine, B. J.; Dalen, E. N.

    2009-04-01

    Using rainfall data at high temporal resolution, runoff may be estimated for every bucket-tip, or for aggregated hourly or daily periods. Although there is no doubt that finer resolution gives substantially better estimates, many models make use of coarser time steps because these data are more widely available. This paper makes comparisons between runoff estimates based on infiltration measurements used with high resolution rainfall data for SE Spain and theoretical work on improving the time resolution in the PESERA model from daily to hourly values, for areas where these are available. For a small plot at fine temporal scale, runoff responds to bursts of intense rainfall which, for the Guadalentin catchment, typically lasts for about 30 minutes. However, when a larger area is considered, the large and unstructured variability in infiltration capacity produces an aggregate runoff that differs substantially from estimates using average infiltration parameters (in the Green-Ampt equation). When these estimates are compared with estimates based on rainfall for aggregated hourly or daily periods, using a simpler infiltration model, it can be seen that there a substantial scatter, as expected, but that suitable parameterisation can provide reasonable average estimates. Similar conclusions may be drawn for erosion estimates, assuming that sediment transport is proportional to a power of runoff discharge.. The spatial implications of these estimates can be made explicit with fine time resolution, showing that, with observed low overland flow velocities, only a small fraction of the hillside is generally able to deliver runoff to the nearest channel before rainfall intensity drops and runoff re-infiltrates. For coarser time resolutions, this has to be parameterised as a delivery ratio, and we show that how this ratio can be rationally estimated from rainfall characteristics.

  5. Time scaling of cooperative multi-robot trajectories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seungbin B. Moon; Shaheen Ahmad

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm is developed to modify the trajectories of multiple robots in cooperative manipulation. If a given trajectory results in joint torques which exceed the admissible torque range for one or more joints, the trajectory speed is scaled so as to maintain all the torques within the admissible boundary. The trajectory scaling scheme described requires the use of linear programming

  6. Detrital zircon provenance of the Late Triassic Songpan-Ganzi complex: Sedimentary record of collision of the North and South China blocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weislogel, A.L.; Graham, S.A.; Chang, E.Z.; Wooden, J.L.; Gehrels, G.E.; Yang, H.

    2006-01-01

    Using detrital zircon geochronology, turbidite deposystems fed from distinct sediment sources can be distinguished within the Songpan-Ganzi complex, a collapsed Middle to Late Triassic turbidite basin of central China. A southern Songpan-Ganzi deposystem initially was sourced solely by erosion of the Qinling-Dabie orogen during early Late Triassic time, then by Qinling-Dabie orogen, North China block, and South China block sources during middle to late Late Triassic time. A northern Songpan-Ganzi system was sourced by erosion of the Qinling-Dabie orogen and the North China block throughout its deposition. These separate deposystems were later tectonically amalgamated to form one complex and then uplifted as the eastern Tibet Plateau. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  7. Evidence for Triassic salt domes in the Tunisian Atlas from gravity and geological data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chokri Jallouli; Mongi Chikhaoui; Ahmed Braham; Mohamed Moncef Turki; Kevin Mickus; Ramdhane Benassi

    2005-01-01

    Detailed gravity data were analyzed to constrain two controversial geological models of evaporitic structures within the Triassic diapiric zone (Triassic massifs of Jebel Debadib and Ben Gasseur) of the northern Tunisian Atlas. Based on surface observations, two geological models have been used to explain the origin of the Triassic evaporitic bodies: (1) salt dome\\/diapiric structure or (2) a salt glacier.

  8. Evidence for recurrent Early Triassic massive volcanism from quantitative interpretation of carbon isotope fluctuations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan L. Payne; Lee R. Kump

    2007-01-01

    Carbon cycle disturbance associated with mass extinction at the end of the Permian Period continued through the Early Triassic, an interval of approximately 5million years. Coincidence of carbon cycle stabilization with accelerated Middle Triassic biotic recovery suggests a link between carbon cycling and biodiversity, but the cause of Early Triassic carbon isotope excursions remains poorly understood. Previous modeling studies have

  9. Soil transport driven by biological processes over millennial time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roering, Joshua J.; Almond, Peter; Tonkin, Philip; McKean, James

    2002-12-01

    Downslope soil transport in the absence of overland flow has been attributed to numerous mechanisms, including particle-by-particle creep and disturbances associated with biological activity. Process stochasticity and difficulties associated with field measurement have obscured the characterization of relevant long-term soil transport rates and mechanisms. In a series of incised fluvial terraces along the Charwell River, South Island, New Zealand, we documented vertical profiles of tephra concentration and topographic derivatives along a hillslope transect to quantify soil transport processes. Along the undissected hilltop, we observed a thin primary tephra layer (ca. 22.6 ka) within loess deposits 80 cm below the landscape surface. In the downslope direction, the depth to the highly concentrated tephra layer decreases, coincident with an increase in hillslope convexity (which is proportional to landscape lowering rate if soil flux varies linearly with hillslope gradient). Exhumation of the tephra layer results from landscape lowering due to disturbance-driven soil transport. Approximately 20 m downslope of the interfluve, the depth to the tephra layer declines to 40 50 cm, peak tephra concentrations decrease by a factor of 4, and tephra is distributed uniformly within the upper 40 cm of soil. The transition from a thin, highly concentrated tephra layer at depth to less concentrated, widely distributed tephra in the upper soil may result from soil mixing and transport by biological disturbances. Along our transect, the depth to this transition is 50 cm, coincident with the rooting depth of podocarp and Nothofagus trees that populated the region during much of the Holocene. Our observations can be used to calibrate the linear transport model, but, more important, they suggest that over geomorphic time scales, stochastic bioturbation may generate a well-mixed and mobile soil layer, the depth of which is primarily determined by flora characteristics.

  10. EON: software for long time simulations of atomic scale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chill, Samuel T.; Welborn, Matthew; Terrell, Rye; Zhang, Liang; Berthet, Jean-Claude; Pedersen, Andreas; Jnsson, Hannes; Henkelman, Graeme

    2014-07-01

    The EON software is designed for simulations of the state-to-state evolution of atomic scale systems over timescales greatly exceeding that of direct classical dynamics. States are defined as collections of atomic configurations from which a minimization of the potential energy gives the same inherent structure. The time evolution is assumed to be governed by rare events, where transitions between states are uncorrelated and infrequent compared with the timescale of atomic vibrations. Several methods for calculating the state-to-state evolution have been implemented in EON, including parallel replica dynamics, hyperdynamics and adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo. Global optimization methods, including simulated annealing, basin hopping and minima hopping are also implemented. The software has a client/server architecture where the computationally intensive evaluations of the interatomic interactions are calculated on the client-side and the state-to-state evolution is managed by the server. The client supports optimization for different computer architectures to maximize computational efficiency. The server is written in Python so that developers have access to the high-level functionality without delving into the computationally intensive components. Communication between the server and clients is abstracted so that calculations can be deployed on a single machine, clusters using a queuing system, large parallel computers using a message passing interface, or within a distributed computing environment. A generic interface to the evaluation of the interatomic interactions is defined so that empirical potentials, such as in LAMMPS, and density functional theory as implemented in VASP and GPAW can be used interchangeably. Examples are given to demonstrate the range of systems that can be modeled, including surface diffusion and island ripening of adsorbed atoms on metal surfaces, molecular diffusion on the surface of ice and global structural optimization of nanoparticles.

  11. Kinematic restoration of the Mediterranean region since the Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Torsvik, Trond; Matenco, Liviu; Schmid, Stefan; Maffione, Marco; Spakman, Wim

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is one of the most complexly deformed areas in the world and its tectonic evolution has been instrumental in the development of numerous fundamental geological principles and geodynamic concepts. Reconstructions of the Mediterranean region invariably demonstrated that the area had a complex paleogeography with ribbon continents or micro-plates and narrow, elongated ocean basins systems in Mesozoic time. A western and northern ocean basin system was genetically related to the Atlantic Ocean, opened in Jurassic time and is known as the Alpine Tethys Ocean. A southern and eastern basin system was genetically related to the Neotethys domain located between Gondwana and Eurasia and - in the Mediterranean realm - opened in Triassic to Jurassic times. Continental domains of variable size within and between these ocean systems rifted away from Eurasia or Africa. This mosaic of pieces of continental and oceanic lithosphere became consumed by a complex configuration of subduction zones that accommodated convergence between the African and Eurasian plates since middle Jurassic times. Since Oligocene time, the overriding plate above subduction zones throughout the Mediterranean region became extended, locally leading to formation of new ocean floor, as a result of roll-back of subducted slab segments, culminating in todays complex and strongly curved configuration of subduction zones and slab segments. An area such as the tectonically complex Mediterranean invites attempt to kinematic restoration, and various reconstructions are already available. However, by now such reconstructions are no more merely a translation of - frequently qualitative - geological data into a quantitative description of surface evolution: with the advent of 3-dimensional numerical modeling tools that can be kinematically driven by plate reconstructions, they become critical input for attempts to integrate surface evolution into mantle dynamics. An increasingly widely used platform for kinematic reconstructions is the freely available GPlates plate kinematic reconstruction software (http://www.gplates.org). We provide the first fully quantitatively described GPlates-based kinematic reconstruction of the Mediterranean region back to Triassic time. Classic plate reconstructions assume plate rigidity, and motion concentrated along discrete plate boundaries. Convergence between Africa-Europe plate boundary in the Mediterranean region is, however, associated with regionally distributed deformation. In this reconstruction, we attempt to restore this distributed deformation, which in practice means that we allow for polygons to change shape and area over time. This reconstruction may (i) be used as input for numerical models that aim to constrain the geodynamic evolution of (parts of) the Mediterranean history, (ii) allow comparing relative tectonic motions of the Mediterranean region to the mantle using mantle reference frames, and (iii) provide regional kinematic context for future geological studies. Upon final publication, all shape and rotation files of this reconstruction will be made publically available, which may serve as a platform for further improvement when new constraints demand so, or when the reader wishes to test different tectonic scenarios.

  12. Massive Red-Staining and Albitization of Feldspars in Paleozoic Basement Rocks of Western Europe and Their Association with the Triassic Palaeogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrega, C.; Parcerisa, D.; Franke, C.; Thiry, M.; Yao, K.; Gmez-Gras, D.

    2013-12-01

    Albitization of feldspars is a widespread mineral replacement process of the upper crust. An ubiquitous and pervasive red-staining albitization of feldspars has been observed in the feldspathic rocks of the Variscan basement in the Sudetes, Armorican, Morvan, Roc de Frausa and Montseny-Guilleries Massifs (Western Europe). These crystalline massifs were strongly eroded during Permian and Triassic times and suffered a long-lasting exposition in the Permian-Triassic palaeosurface. The albitized rocks contain minute Fe-oxides hoisted within the microporosity of the secondary albite. The intimate textural relationship between the Fe-oxides and the albite strongly suggest that they are coetaneous with albitization. The microscope, cathodoluminescence, SEM and EMPA analyses reveal that almost all plagioclases and some K-feldspars are albitized in those areas close to the Permian-Triassic palaeosurface. Moving downwards the palaeosurface the albitization of Variscan rocks progressively disappears. Field mapping of the albitized areas points to estimated thickness about 100-200m. In the uppermost parts of the profile almost all plagioclases are totally albitized and the rock shows a strong and pervasive reddening, whereas in the lowermost parts the mineral replacement is restricted to fractures and neighbouring walls and the rock in tinted with a soft pink colour. These observations suggest that albitization is linked to that palaeosurface and constitutes a paleoalteration profile beneath the Permian-Triassic palaeosurface. All these observations suggest that the mineral replacement could have been driven by descending Na+ rich brines related with or coming from the Permian-Triassic palaeosurface. Ricodel et al. (2007) determined a Triassic age for the paleomagnetic signature of the Fe-oxides hoisted within the microporosity of albite in the Morvan Massif. The narrow textural relationship between the Fe-oxides and the albite support the idea that this is the age of albitization in this massif. The similarities in the petrographycal and geometrical aspects between the five studied massifs strongly suggest that they could record a common albitization event that affected the basement rocks of the Permian-Triassic palaeosurface during Triassic times. Although albitization usually is a deep process which occurs at depths greater then 900 m, during the end of the Permian and the beginning of the Triassic geochemical conditions of the atmosphere and the hydrosphere were radically distinctive and without equal in the earth. This exclusive geochemical conditions should had a role in de development of unusual shallow chemical reactions. In this contexts albitization developed close to the surface. The shallow Triassic albitization of the Variscan basement of Western Europe, and maybe around the Triassic continental long-lasting world, can be a useful tool in the reconstruction of the continental areas around the Triassic basins. [1] Ricordel, C., Parcerisa, D., Thiry, M., Moreau, M. G., & Gmez-Gras, D. (2007). Triassic magnetic overprints related to albitization in granites from the Morvan Massif (France). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 251, 268-282.

  13. Atmospheric response to the North Atlantic Ocean variability on seasonal to decadal time scales

    E-print Network

    D'Andrea, Fabio

    Atmospheric response to the North Atlantic Ocean variability on seasonal to decadal time scales in the North Atlantic region at seasonal to decadal time scales. At the seasonal scale, the air-sea interaction model and observations, the North Atlantic horseshoe SST anomaly pattern is in part generated

  14. Redescription of Bellerophon bittneri (Gastropoda: Triassic) from Wyoming.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yochelson, E.L.; Boyd, D.W.; Wardlaw, B.

    1985-01-01

    Bellerophon bittneri Newell and Kummel is an Early Triassic bellerophontacean from the Dinwoody Formation in the Wind River Mountains. The available type material consists of one fair, but incomplete, external mold, which resembles a Bellerophon but is actually a Retispira. After repeated search, additional specimens were found at one locality in the southern Wind River Range of Wyoming; Retispira bittneri is redescribed from this new material. Like other Triassic bellerophontaceans, there is nothing unusual about the species apart from occurrence in the Mesozoic; it is clearly congeneric with Permian Retispira from underlying rocks. -Authors

  15. Lethally hot temperatures during the Early Triassic greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yadong; Joachimski, Michael M; Wignall, Paul B; Yan, Chunbo; Chen, Yanlong; Jiang, Haishui; Wang, Lina; Lai, Xulong

    2012-10-19

    Global warming is widely regarded to have played a contributing role in numerous past biotic crises. Here, we show that the end-Permian mass extinction coincided with a rapid temperature rise to exceptionally high values in the Early Triassic that were inimical to life in equatorial latitudes and suppressed ecosystem recovery. This was manifested in the loss of calcareous algae, the near-absence of fish in equatorial Tethys, and the dominance of small taxa of invertebrates during the thermal maxima. High temperatures drove most Early Triassic plants and animals out of equatorial terrestrial ecosystems and probably were a major cause of the end-Smithian crisis. PMID:23087244

  16. Lethally Hot Temperatures During the Early Triassic Greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yadong; Joachimski, Michael M.; Wignall, Paul B.; Yan, Chunbo; Chen, Yanlong; Jiang, Haishui; Wang, Lina; Lai, Xulong

    2012-10-01

    Global warming is widely regarded to have played a contributing role in numerous past biotic crises. Here, we show that the end-Permian mass extinction coincided with a rapid temperature rise to exceptionally high values in the Early Triassic that were inimical to life in equatorial latitudes and suppressed ecosystem recovery. This was manifested in the loss of calcareous algae, the near-absence of fish in equatorial Tethys, and the dominance of small taxa of invertebrates during the thermal maxima. High temperatures drove most Early Triassic plants and animals out of equatorial terrestrial ecosystems and probably were a major cause of the end-Smithian crisis.

  17. Real time density functional simulations of quantum scale conductance

    E-print Network

    Evans, Jeremy Scott

    2009-01-01

    We study electronic conductance through single molecules by subjecting a molecular junction to a time dependent potential and propagating the electronic state in real time using time-dependent density functional theory ...

  18. Physiological Tracking of Differentiation Time Series Using Large Scale Gene Expression Analysis

    E-print Network

    . 4B). Analyses of the trophoblast differentiation time series revealed a proper differentiation untilPhysiological Tracking of Differentiation Time Series Using Large Scale Gene Expression Analysis M sources using shared physiological processes, submitted. Tracking differentiation time series We applied

  19. A new Late Triassic age for the Puesto Viejo Group (San Rafael depocenter, Argentina): SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating and biostratigraphic correlations across southern Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottone, Eduardo G.; Monti, Mariana; Marsicano, Claudia A.; de la Fuente, Marcelo S.; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Armstrong, Richard; Mancuso, Adriana C.

    2014-12-01

    The Puesto Viejo Group crops out in the San Rafael Block, southwest Mendoza, at approximately 35 S and 6820? W. It consists of the basal mainly grayish Quebrada de los Fsiles Formation (QF) overlying by the reddish Ro Seco de la Quebrada Formation (RSQ). The basal unit includes both plant remains (pleuromeians and sphenopsids) and vertebrates (scattered fish scales, dicynodont synapsids and remains of an archosauriform). In contrast, the RSQ beds have yielded only tetrapods, although a more diverse fauna. The latter includes cynodonts as Cynognathus, Pascualognathus and Diademodon, and also dicynodonts (Vinceria and Kannemeyeria). Based on the assemblage of tetrapod taxa the bearing levels were correlated to the Cynognathus AZ of South Africa and thus referred to the Middle Triassic (Anisian). We obtained a SHRIMP 238U/206Pb age of 235.82.0Ma from a rhyolitic ignimbrite interdigitated between the QF and RSQ formations at the Quebrada de los Fsiles section. This new radiometric date for the Puesto Viejo Group suggests that the tetrapod fauna in the RSQ beds existed, instead, during the Late Triassic (early Carnian) some 10Ma later than the currently accepted age. Two scenarios might explain our results: first, the Cynognathus AZ of South Africa is wrongly assigned to the lower Middle Triassic (Anisan) and should be considered younger in age, Late Triassic (Carnian); second, the relative age of the Cynognathus AZ of South Africa is correct but the inferred range of Cynognathus and Diademodon is incorrect as they were present during the Late Triassic (Carnian) at least in South America. In any case, this new date pose serious doubts about the validity of biostratigraphic correlations based solely on tetrapod taxa, a common practice for Triassic continental successions across Gondwana.

  20. Depositional environments of the Permo-Triassic sediments from the Moesian Platform (Romania)

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, P. [Bucharest Univ. (Romania)

    1995-08-01

    The analysis of lithostratigraphic and geophysics data suggest that during Permian-Lower Triassic and Upper Triassic at least in the northern part of the Moesian Platform has been developed a failed continental rift. This structogenetical evolution of the Moesian Platform has performed a continental environment during of the Permian-Lower Triassic and Upper Triassic as well as predominantly marine one during of the Middle Triassic. The depositional model for the Permian-Lower Triassic and Upper Triassic consists of facies belts of fluviatile, aeolian, evaporite/lacustrine deposits roughly paralleling the main uplifts of the Moesian Platform. The facies belts pass from alluvial fan facies, best developed in proximity to the main uplifts, through fluviatile sands, dune and inter-dune aeolian sands and finally into evaporite/lacustrine facies at the center of the main depressions. The facies associations consist predominantly of the fining-up type sequences. The marine environments for the Middle Triassic consist predominantly of carbonate facies. The best reservoir types consists of conglomerate-, sand- and carbonate-dominated facies associations located at the bottom of Permian-Lower Triassic, Upper Triassic and Middle Triassic respectively. In the north-western part of the Moesian Platform there are twelve oil and gas fields stored into these reservoir types.

  1. Time resolved single photon imaging in Nanometer Scale CMOS technology

    E-print Network

    Richardson, Justin Andrew

    2010-06-28

    Time resolved imaging is concerned with the measurement of photon arrival time. It has a wealth of emerging applications including biomedical uses such as fluorescence lifetime microscopy and positron emission tomography, ...

  2. Structure and dating errors in the geologic time scale and periodicity in mass extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Structure in the geologic time scale reflects a partly paleontological origin. As a result, ages of Cenozoic and Mesozoic stage boundaries exhibit a weak 28-Myr periodicity that is similar to the strong 26-Myr periodicity detected in mass extinctions of marine life by Raup and Sepkoski. Radiometric dating errors in the geologic time scale, to which the mass extinctions are stratigraphically tied, do not necessarily lessen the likelihood of a significant periodicity in mass extinctions, but do spread the acceptable values of the period over the range 25-27 Myr for the Harland et al. time scale or 25-30 Myr for the DNAG time scale. If the Odin time scale is adopted, acceptable periods fall between 24 and 33 Myr, but are not robust against dating errors. Some indirect evidence from independently-dated flood-basalt volcanic horizons tends to favor the Odin time scale.

  3. Scale-Invariant Extinction Time Estimates for Some Singular Diffusion Equations

    E-print Network

    Scale-Invariant Extinction Time Estimates for Some Singular Diffusion Equations Yoshikazu Giga that the solution becomes identically zero in finite time. We prove scale-invariant estimates for the extinction and q > 1). Our goal is to prove finite-time extinction, i.e. to show that the solution becomes

  4. PARTITOMORPHITAE, A NEW SUBGROUP OF TRIASSIC AND JURASSIC ACRITARCHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STANLEY A. J. POCOCK; WILLIAM A. S. SARJEANT

    Three new genera of acritarchs are described: Rugidinium, comprising two new species, R. ornatum and ,R. undulatum, from the Bajocian (Jurassic) of Canada; Thuledinium, represented by a single species, T. groenlandicum , from the Callovian (Jurassic) of Greenland; and Teichertodinium, represented by a single species, T. triassicum, from the Triassic (Anisian) of Pakistan. All three genera share the charac^ teristics

  5. A new chronology for the end-Triassic mass extinction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. L. Deenen; M. Ruhl; N. R. Bonis; W. Krijgsman; W. M. Kuerschner; M. Reitsma; M. J. van Bergen

    2010-01-01

    The transition from the Triassic to Jurassic Period, initiating the Age of the dinosaurs, approximately 200Ma, is marked by a profound mass extinction with more than 50% genus loss in both marine and continental realms. This event closely coincides with a period of extensive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) associated with the initial break-up of Pangaea but

  6. TRIASSIC AND JURASSIC FORMATIONS OF THE NEWARK BASIN

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    TRIASSIC AND JURASSIC FORMATIONS OF THE NEWARK BASIN PAUL E. OLSEN Bingham Laboratories, Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Abstract Newark Supergroup deposits of the Newark Basin (or lack thereof). Fossils are abundant in the sedimentary formations of the Newark Basin and provide

  7. Ocean drilling finds Triassic reef play off NW Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Exon, N.F.; Williamson, P.E. (Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Canberra (Australia)); Haq, B.U. (Nat'l Science Foundation, Washington (US)); O'Connell, S. (Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A and M Univ. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Seismic interpretation of the Wombat plateau is discussed in this article and the distribution of Triassic carbonates is shown. The significance of this discovery for petroleum exploration is addressed. The authors show a composite stratigraphic profile for the Wombat plateau drilling.

  8. Did an Impact Trigger the Permian-Triassic Extinction?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Morrison, David

    This resource, authored by David Morrison, contains the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Astrobiology Institute news story on new evidence of a 251-million year-old impact crater off the western coast of Australia that may have caused the "Great Dying", the Permian-Triassic extinction event.

  9. Evidence for a late Triassic multiple impact event on Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Spray; Simon P. Kelley; David B. Rowley

    1998-01-01

    We present evidence for a multiple impact event that occurred on Earth. Five terrestrial impact structures have been found to possess comparable ages, coincident with the Norian stage of the Triassic period. These craters are Rochechouart (France), Manicouagan and Saint Martin (Canada), Obolon' (Ukraine), and Red Wing (USA). When these impact structures are plotted on a tectonic reconstruction of the

  10. A Late Triassic Impact Ejecta Layer in Southwestern Britain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon Walkden; Julian Parker; Simon Kelley

    2002-01-01

    Despite the 160 or so known terrestrial impact craters of Phanerozoic age, equivalent ejecta deposits within distal sedimentary successions are rare. We report a Triassic deposit in southwestern Britain that contains spherules and shocked quartz, characteristic of an impact ejecta layer. Inter- and intragranular potassium feldspar from the deposit yields an argon-argon age of 214 +\\/- 2.5 million years old.

  11. The evolution of the Lorraine evaporite basin: implications for the chemical and isotope composition of the Triassic ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Fanlo; Carlos Ayora

    1998-01-01

    During the Upper Triassic times about 75 m of halite with minor anhydrite was deposited in the Lorraine basin. Samples of halite and sulfates were systematically collected from a borehole intersecting the sequence. The chemical evolution of the original brine was investigated by X-ray microanalysis of primary inclusions trapped in halite. The original brines were of the NaMgKCaCl type, being

  12. Plume-lithosphere interaction in generation of the Emeishan flood basalts at the Permian-Triassic boundary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun-Lin Chung; Bor-Ming Jahn

    1995-01-01

    The Emeishan flood volcanism that erupted at Permian-Triassic boundary time produced a large igneous province of at least 2.5 X 105 km2 in the western margin of the Yangtze craton, southwestern China. The volcanic successions, suggested to have resulted from a starting mantle plume, comprise thick piles of basaltic flows and subordinate picrites and pyroclastics. The picrites, which have high

  13. The space-time scaling of rain and thermal infra red radiances over weather and climate scales: theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinel, J.; Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Up until now, attempts to systematically understand the space-time statistical structure of the atmosphere (including precipitation) have been hampered by both inappropriate theoretical frameworks and inadequate, problematic data. On the one hand, the theories have concentrated on classical turbulent fluxes especially the energy and enstrophy fluxes which are only justified with strong but unrealistic isotropy assumptions: on the contrary, the real atmosphere is strongly anisotropic (stratified) but nevertheless scaling. On the other hand, if we restrict our attention to the wind, temperature and other standard meteorological fields, then only very narrow ranges of space-time scales are empirically accessible. If the stratification is scaling, then atmospheric dynamics can be governed by anisotropic cascades of nonstandard turbulent fluxes. In this generalized scaling framework we expect scaling relations of the (generalized) Kolmogorov form to hold: F(L) = e(L) L**H where F(L) is the fluctuation in a field at scale L and H is a scaling exponent and e(L) is the underlying resolution L flux. We use this approach to estimate e(L) and then to systematically degrade it to lower and lower resolutions. The cascade hypothesis predicts that = (Louter/L)**K(q) where here L is the resolution of the flux, Louter is the outer scale of the cascade (where it starts) and K(q) is a scaling exponent function describing all the statistical properties as a function of scale. In order to exploit the space-time data with highest resolution possible, we analysed infrared radiances data from the MTSAT satellite over the region 40S-30N latitude and 80E-200E longitude. The temporal and spatial resolutions are respectively 1 hour and 5km. We analysed the temporal and spatial properties and discuss scaling behaviour showed by these data in both space and time. Since the dynamical (velocity) field is strongly coupled to the radiances (via the cloud field), and the velocity couples the spatial and temporal statistics, we therefore determined the statistical lifetime-size relation for structures defined by the MTSAT infrared radiances field. We also discuss the spectral properties of the MTSAT radiances field and attempts to reproduce those spectral properties with the help of an anisotropic space-time scale function which characterize the space-time anisotropy of the atmospheric structures.

  14. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations and approximate dynamic programming on time scales.

    PubMed

    Seiffertt, John; Sanyal, Suman; Wunsch, Donald C

    2008-08-01

    The time scales calculus is a key emerging area of mathematics due to its potential use in a wide variety of multidisciplinary applications. We extend this calculus to approximate dynamic programming (ADP). The core backward induction algorithm of dynamic programming is extended from its traditional discrete case to all isolated time scales. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations, the solution of which is the fundamental problem in the field of dynamic programming, are motivated and proven on time scales. By drawing together the calculus of time scales and the applied area of stochastic control via ADP, we have connected two major fields of research. PMID:18632378

  15. Filling a 30 Million Year Gap: Radioisotopic Age Constraints for the Late Triassic Timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmis, R. B.; Mundil, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Triassic Period records a critical interval of Phanerozoic Earth history, including major paleoenvironmental changes in a greenhouse world, recovery from one mass extinction and the onset of another, and the origin of modern terrestrial ecosystems. Recent efforts have been instrumental in calibrating the timing of these events by producing numerous high resolution radioisotopic ages from Early and Middle Triassic marine strata that facilitate building of a robust 20 Ma chronostratigraphic framework. This contrasts starkly with the Late Triassic (Carnian, Norian, and Rhaetian stages), where ~30 Ma of the timescale is virtually uncalibrated by high-resolution radioisotopic data. This is the only interval of such long duration in the Mesozoic or Cenozoic that remains so poorly constrained by reliable absolute ages, despite the occurrence of major events such as the origin and early diversification of dinosaurs, major reef building episodes in marine ecosystems, key paleoenvironmental changes (e.g., Carnian Pluvial Event), and large extraterrestrial bolide impacts (e.g., Manicouagan). An additional challenge is that the biostratigraphically-defined marine timescale cannot be applied globally, so that other areas (e.g., New Zealand) have independent timescales that cannot be confidently correlated to classic Laurasian sections. All of these problems preclude formulating robust first-order hypotheses about the Late Triassic world. We present new CA-TIMS U-Pb zircon data from volcaniclastic units within both marine and terrestrial strata that aim at calibrating the timescale itself and as a result constrain the timing of some of these major events in Earth history. Several preliminary ages support the hypothesis that the Norian Stage was very long, ~20 Ma. Our new data from marine sequences in New Zealand demonstrate that the timescale divisions there do not correlate directly with biostratigraphic boundaries in the Tethys; specifically, the Ladinian-Carnian boundary is somewhere within the Kaihikuan biozone, and the lower Otamitan biozone is correlative with the mid-Norian. Our new data from the terrestrial Chinle Formation in the southwestern US demonstrate that all of this formation is Norian in age or later, younger than South American sequences it had previously been correlated with. This supports the hypothesis that the rise of dinosaurs was diachronous, occurring later in North America than in Argentina and Brazil. These new ages also constrain a major faunal turnover event in the middle Chinle Fm to the mid-Norian, close in age to the Manicouagan impact event. Correlation and calibration of these major events will be further strengthened by the unambiguous superposition provided by core samples, such as the forthcoming Colorado Plateau Coring Project.

  16. The carbon and sulfur cycles and atmospheric oxygen from middle Permian to middle Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, Robert A.

    2005-07-01

    The results of a theoretical isotope mass balance model are presented for the time dependence of burial and weathering-plus-degassing fluxes within the combined long-term carbon and sulfur cycles. Averaged data for oceanic ? 13C and ? 34S were entered for every million years from 270 to 240 Ma (middle Permian to middle Triassic) to study general trends across the Permian-Triassic boundary. Results show a drop in the rate of global organic matter burial during the late Permian and a predominance of low values during the early-to-middle Triassic. This overall decrease with time is ascribed mainly to epochs of conversion of high biomass forests to low biomass herbaceous vegetation resulting in a decrease in the production of terrestrially derived organic debris. Additional contributions to lessened terrestrial carbon burial were increased aridity and a drop in sea level during the late Permian which led to smaller areas of low-lying coastal wetlands suitable for coal and peat deposition. Mirroring the drop in organic matter deposition was an increase in the burial of sedimentary pyrite, and a dramatic increase in the calculated global mean ratio of pyrite-S to organic-C. High S/C values resulted from an increase of deposition in marine euxinic basins combined with a decrease in the burial of low-pyrite associated terrestrial organic matter. The prediction of increased oceanic anoxia during the late Permian and early Triassic agrees with independent studies of the composition of sedimentary rocks. Weathering plus burial fluxes for organic carbon and pyrite sulfur were used to calculate changes in atmospheric oxygen. The striking result is a continuous drop in O 2 concentration from 30% to 13% over a twenty million year period. This drop was brought about mainly by a decrease in the burial of terrestrially derived organic matter. but with a possible contribution from the weathering of older organic matter on land. It must have exerted a considerable influence on animal evolution because of the role of O 2 in respiration. Some examples are the extinction of many vertebrates, loss of giant insects and amphibians, and the restriction of animals to low elevations. It is concluded that the extinction of plants may have contributed to the extinction of animals.

  17. Fractal scaling properties in nonstationary heartbeat time series

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C. [Cardiovascular Division, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)]|[Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Havlin, S. [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Stanley, H.E. [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Goldberger, A.L. [Cardiovascular Division, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)]|[Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Under healthy conditions, the normal cardiac (sinus) interbeat interval fluctuates in a complex manner. Quantitative analysis using techniques adapted from statistical physics reveals the presence of long-range power-law correlations extending over thousands of heartbeats. This scale-invariant (fractal) behavior suggests that the regulatory system generating these fluctuations is operating far from equilibrium. In contrast, we find that for subjects at high risk of sudden death (e.g. congestive heart failure patients) these long-range correlations break down. Application of fractal scaling analysis and related techniques provides new approaches to assessing cardiac risk and forecasting sudden cardiac death, as well as motivating development of novel physiological models of systems that appear to be {open_quote}{open_quote}hetero-dynamic{close_quote}{close_quote} rather than {open_quote}{open_quote}homeo-static.{close_quote}{close_quote} {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Fractal scaling properties in nonstationary heartbeat time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, C.-K.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1996-06-01

    Under healthy conditions, the normal cardiac (sinus) interbeat interval fluctuates in a complex manner. Quantitative analysis using techniques adapted from statistical physics reveals the presence of long-range power-law correlations extending over thousands of heartbeats. This scale-invariant (fractal) behavior suggests that the regulatory system generating these fluctuations is operating far from equilibrium. In contrast, we find that for subjects at high risk of sudden death (e.g. congestive heart failure patients) these long-range correlations break down. Application of fractal scaling analysis and related techniques provides new approaches to assessing cardiac risk and forecasting sudden cardiac death, as well as motivating development of novel physiological models of systems that appear to be ``hetero-dynamic'' rather than ``homeo-static.''

  19. Global terrestrial biogeochemistry: Perturbations, interactions, and time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Braswell, B.H. Jr.

    1996-12-01

    Global biogeochemical processes are being perturbed by human activity, principally that which is associated with industrial activity and expansion of urban and agricultural complexes. Perturbations have manifested themselves at least since the beginning of the 19th Century, and include emissions of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from fossil fuel combustion, agricultural emissions of reactive nitrogen, and direct disruption of ecosystem function through land conversion. These perturbations yield local impacts, but there are also global consequences that are the sum of local-scale influences. Several approaches to understanding the global-scale implications of chemical perturbations to the Earth system are discussed. The lifetime of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is an important concept for understanding the current and future commitment to an altered atmospheric heat budget. The importance of the terrestrial biogeochemistry relative to the lifetime of excess CO{sub 2} is demonstrated using dynamic, aggregated models of the global carbon cycle.

  20. Astrobiology with haloarchaea from Permo-Triassic rock salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan-Lotter, H.; Radax, C.; Gruber, C.; Legat, A.; Pfaffenhuemer, M.; Wieland, H.; Leuko, S.; Weidler, G.; Kmle, N.; Kargl, G.

    2002-10-01

    Several viable halophilic archaebacteria were isolated previously from rock salt of Permo-Triassic age in an Austrian salt mine; one of these strains was the first to be recognized as a novel species from subterranean halite and was designated Halococcus salifodinae. The halophilic microorganisms have apparently survived in the salt sediments over extremely long periods of time. Halobacteria could therefore be suitable model organisms for exploring the possibility of long-term survival of microbes on other planets, in particular, since extraterrestrial halite has been detected in meteorites and is assumed to be present in the subsurface ocean on Europa. Our efforts are directed at the identification of the microbial content of ancient rock salt and the development of procedures for the investigation of the halobacterial response to extreme environmental conditions. Using modified culture media, further halophilic strains were isolated from freshly blasted rock salt and bore cores; in addition, growth of several haloarchaea was substantially improved. Molecular methods indicated the presence of at least 12 different 16S rRNA gene species in a sample of Alpine rock salt, but these strains have not been cultured yet. The exploration of Mars is a target of space missions in the 21st century; therefore, testing the survival of haloarchaea under conditions comparable to present-day Mars, using a simulation chamber, was begun. Preliminary results with Halococcus and Halobacterium species suggested at least tenfold higher survival rates when cells were kept in liquid brines than under dry conditions; staining of cells with the LIVE DEAD kit, which discriminates between damaged and intact membranes, corroborated these data.

  1. The Time Dependence of Fundamental Constants and Planck Scale Physics

    E-print Network

    Frederick Rothwarfs; Sisir Roy

    2003-11-14

    A real aether model of the vacuum proposed by Allen Rothwarf based upon a degenerate Fermion fluid of polarizable particle-antiparticle pairs, leads to a big bang model of the universe where the velocity of light varies inversely with the square root of the cosmological time. Here, this model is used to determine the time dependence of certain fundamental constants, i.e. permittivity, permeability of free space : the Gravitational constant, and the Planck units: length, time and mass.

  2. Oil and gas potential of the Triassic in west Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Bochkarev, V.S.; Kulakhmetov, N.KH.; Nesterov, I.I. (ZapSibNIGNI, Tyumen (Russian Federation))

    1993-09-01

    Permian-Triassic rocks are widely spread within the West Siberian basin, and they include volcanics, volcanoclastics, and clastics. Their thickness varies from tens of meters of 3000 m. Recently, three commercial oil pools have been discovered in Triassic effusive-sedimentary rocks. These discoveries, together with other geological and geochemical data, identify the Triassic complex as a major play. Oil-bearing intervals have been found in three different types of sequences; a fourth also may be prospective. The first type is represented by lacustrine-terrigenous sediments, which comprise oil-saturated sandstones interbedded with basalts (the Turin series). Oil influxes were obtained in the Yakhlinskaya and Triyurtin-skaya structures in the Shaim region. The second type is distinguished from the first by the presence of coal-bearing intervals in the upper part. Oil was produced in the Yerofeyev area of the Chelyabinsk garben. The third type differs from the other two by the presence of potassic rhyolites and dacites. Their age is not precisely dated, and supposedly they are of Permian age. The largest oil influxes have been obtained from fractured and eroded rocks of this type in the Rogozhnikovskaya and other places in the Krasnoleninsk region. Rhyodacites often underlie Turin basalts, but locally they occur in the upper part of the series. Triassic and Permian-Trissic rocks of the three types are overlain by Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks with a large break. The fourth type of section is completely terrigenous (Tampei series). It is developed in the northern part of west Siberia. Here Triassic sediments are overlain by the Jurassic complex without a break. According to well-log data, productive horizons occur at Urengoy and Beregovaya (in the Urengoy region).

  3. Abstract heterarchy: time/state-scale re-entrant form.

    PubMed

    Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Sasai, Kazauto; Wakisaka, Sohei

    2008-01-01

    A heterarchy is a dynamical hierarchical system inheriting logical inconsistencies between levels. Because of these inconsistencies, it is very difficult to formalize a heterarchy as a dynamical system. Here, the essence of a heterarchy is proposed as a pair of the property of self-reference and the property of a frame problem interacting with each other. The coupling of them embodies a one-ity inheriting logical inconsistency. The property of self-reference and a frame problem are defined in terms of logical operations, and are replaced by two kinds of dynamical system, temporal dynamics and state-scale dynamics derived from the same "liar statement". A modified tent map serving as the temporal dynamics is twisted and coupled with a tent map serving as the state-scale dynamics, and this results in a discontinuous self-similar map as a dynamical system. This reveals that the state-scale and temporal dynamics attribute to the system, and shows both robust and emergent behaviors. PMID:17897775

  4. Longitudinal fluvial drainage patterns within a foreland basin-fill: Permo-Triassic Sydney Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, E. Jun

    1993-05-01

    The north-south trending Permo-Triassic Sydney Basin (southern sector of the Sydney-Bowen Basin) is unique compared to many documented retro-arc foreland basins, in that considerable basin-fill was derived from a cratonic source as well as a coeval fold belt source. Quantitative analysis of up-sequence changes in sandstone petrography and palaeoflow directions, together with time-rock stratigraphy of the fluvial basin-fill, indicate two spatially and temporally separated depositional episodes of longitudinal fluvial dispersal systems. A longitudinal drainage-net similar in geometry to the modern Ganga River system (reduced to 60% original size) explains many of the palaeoflow patterns and cross-basinal petrofacies variation recorded in the basin-fill. The Late Permian to Early Triassic rocks reveal a basin-wide southerly directed fluvial drainage system, contemporaneous with east-west shortening recorded in the New England Fold Belt. In contrast, the Middle Triassic strata reveal a change to an easterly directed fluvial system, correlated to a shift in orogenic load to a NW-SE orientation in the fold belt northeast of the basin. The detailed petrofacies variation in the deposits of the second longitudinal fluvial dispersal system reveals vertical jumps in petrofacies compositions, with uniform compositions between jumps. The petrological jumps are interpreted as the result of minor fault adjustments in the fold belt, resulting in changing rates of sediment supply to the foreland basin. Uninterrupted erosion of the same terrain most likely caused the compositional uniformity between jumps. The identification of similar longitudinal fluvial systems, with transverse variation in detrital composition, is likely to help resolve the tectonic history of foreland fold belts elsewhere.

  5. The Early Triassic Indosinian orogeny in Vietnam (Truong Son Belt and Kontum Massif); implications for the geodynamic evolution of Indochina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepvrier, C.; Maluski, H.; Van Tich, Vu; Leyreloup, A.; Truong Thi, Phan; Van Vuong, Nguyen

    2004-11-01

    New structural field data at various scale and 40Ar- 39Ar geochronological results, from the basement rocks in the Truong Son belt and Kontum Massif of Vietnam, confirm that ductile deformation and high-temperature metamorphism were caused by the Early Triassic event of the Indosinian Orogeny in the range of 250-240 Ma. A compilation of isotopic data obtained in other countries along the Sibumasu-Indochina boundary broadly indicates same interval of ages. This tectonothermal event is interpreted as the result of a synchronous oblique collision of Indochina with both Sibumasu and South China, inducing dextral and sinistral shearing along E-W to NW-SE and N-S fault zones, respectively. The collision along Song Ma follows the northwards subduction of Indochina beneath South China and the subsequent development of the Song Da zone which in turn was affected by the Late Triassic Indosinian phase of shortening. Within the Indochina plate, internal collisions occurred coevally in the Early Triassic, as along the Poko suture, at the western border of the Kontum Massif.

  6. A Middle Triassic thoracopterid from China highlights the evolutionary origin of overwater gliding in early ray-finned fishes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Hui; Zhao, Li-Jun; Shen, Chen-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Gliding adaptations in thoracopterid flying fishes represent a remarkable case of convergent evolution of overwater gliding strategy with modern exocoetid flying fishes, but the evolutionary origin of this strategy was poorly known in the thoracopterids because of lack of transitional forms. Until recently, all thoracopterids, from the Late Triassic of Austria and Italy and the Middle Triassic of South China, were highly specialized 'four-winged' gliders in having wing-like paired fins and an asymmetrical caudal fin with the lower caudal lobe notably larger than the upper lobe. Here, we show that the new genus Wushaichthys and the previously alleged 'peltopleurid' Peripeltopleurus, from the Middle Triassic (Ladinian, 235-242 Ma) of South China and near the Ladinian/Anisian boundary of southern Switzerland and northern Italy, respectively, represent the most primitive and oldest known thoracopterids. Wushaichthys, the most basal thoracopterid, shows certain derived features of this group in the skull. Peripeltopleurus shows a condition intermediate between Wushaichthys and Thoracopterus in having a slightly asymmetrical caudal fin but still lacking wing-like paired fins. Phylogenetic studies suggest that the evolution of overwater gliding of thoracopterids was gradual in nature; a four-stage adaption following the 'cranial specialization-asymmetrical caudal fin-enlarged paired fins-scale reduction' sequence has been recognized in thoracopterid evolution. Moreover, Wushaichthys and Peripeltopleurus bear hooklets on the anal fin of supposed males, resembling those of modern viviparious teleosts. Early thoracopterids probably had evolved a live-bearing reproductive strategy. PMID:25568155

  7. Paleoclimate cycles and tectonic controls on fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian strata in upper Triassic Chinle Formation, San Juan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dubiel, R.F. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Sedimentologic study of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in the San Juan basin (SJB) indicates that Late Triassic paleoclimate and tectonic movements influenced the distribution of continental lithofacies. The Shinarump, Monitor Butte, and Petrified Forest Members in the lower part of the Chinle consist of complexly interfingered fluvial, floodplain, marsh, and lacustrine rocks; the Owl Rock and Rock Point Members in the upper part consists of lacustrine-basin and eolian sandsheet strata. Facies analysis, vertebrate and invertebrate paleontology, and paleoclimate models demonstrate that the Late Triassic was dominated by tropical monsoonal circulation, which provided abundant precipitation interspersed with seasonally dry periods. Owl Rock lacustrine strata comprise laminated limestones that reflect seasonal monsoonal precipitation and larger scale, interbedded carbonates and fine-grained clastics that represent longer term, alternating wet and dry climatic cycles. Overlying Rock Point eolian sand-sheet and dune deposits indicate persistent alternating but drier climatic cyclicity. Within the Chinle, upward succession of lacustrine, alternating lacustrine/eolian sand-sheet, and eolian sand-sheet/dune deposits reflects an overall decrease in precipitation due to the northward migration of Pangaea out of low latitudes dominated by monsoonal circulation.

  8. The Triassic dicynodont Kombuisia (Synapsida, Anomodontia) from Antarctica, a refuge from the terrestrial Permian-Triassic mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frbisch, Jrg; Angielczyk, Kenneth D.; Sidor, Christian A.

    2010-02-01

    Fossils from the central Transantarctic Mountains in Antarctica are referred to a new species of the Triassic genus Kombuisia, one of four dicynodont lineages known to survive the end-Permian mass extinction. The specimens show a unique combination of characters only present in this genus, but the new species can be distinguished from the type species of the genus, Kombuisia frerensis, by the presence of a reduced but slit-like pineal foramen and the lack of contact between the postorbitals. Although incomplete, the Antarctic specimens are significant because Kombuisia was previously known only from the South African Karoo Basin and the new specimens extend the taxons biogeographic range to a wider portion of southern Pangaea. In addition, the new finds extend the known stratigraphic range of Kombuisia from the Middle Triassic subzone B of the Cynognathus Assemblage Zone into rocks that are equivalent in age to the Lower Triassic Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone, shortening the proposed ghost lineage of this taxon. Most importantly, the occurrence of Kombuisia and Lystrosaurus mccaigi in the Lower Triassic of Antarctica suggests that this area served as a refuge from some of the effects of the end-Permian extinction. The composition of the lower Fremouw Formation fauna implies a community structure similar to that of the ecologically anomalous Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone of South Africa, providing additional evidence for widespread ecological disturbance in the extinctions aftermath.

  9. Reproductive Timing in Marine Fishes: Variability, Temporal Scales, and Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan K. Lowerre-Barbieri; Konstantinos Ganias; Fran Saborido-Rey; Hilario Murua; John R. Hunter

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive timing can be defined as the temporal pattern of reproduction over a lifetime. Although reproductive timing is highly variable in marine fishes, certain traits are universal, including sexual maturity, undergoing one or more reproductive cycles, participating in one or more spawning events within a reproductive cycle, release of eggs or offspring, aging, and death. These traits commonly occur at

  10. Nanometer-scale recording with transition time at nanosecond D.X. Shia,b,*

    E-print Network

    Gao, Hongjun

    Nanometer-scale recording with transition time at nanosecond D.X. Shia,b,* , D.C. Baa , S.J. Panga 2001; accepted 23 July 2001 Abstract Recording at a nanometer-scale on 3-phenyl-1-ureidonitrile (CPU Nanometer-scale data storage has stimulated much attention during the few past years because of its great

  11. Factor Structure of the Basic Interest Scales by Gender Across Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Lapan; Elizabeth McGrath; David Kaplan

    1990-01-01

    Studied gender differences in the factor structure of the Basic Interest Scales (BISs) across time. Nine correlation matrices, previously published in support of the BISs on the Strong Vocational Interest BlankStrong-Campbell Interest Inventory, were factor analyzed. Results describe a clear factor structure for the Basic Interest Scales. However, scale loadings did not support General Occupational Theme classifications of BISs. Similarities

  12. The Theory of Scale Relativity: Non-Differentiable Geometry and Fractal Space-Time1

    E-print Network

    Nottale, Laurent

    The Theory of Scale Relativity: Non-Differentiable Geometry and Fractal Space-Time1 Laurent NOTTALE of scale relativity is to derive the physical behavior of a non-differentiable and fractal space of the relativity of scales. We mainly study in this contribution the effects induced by internal fractal structures

  13. Metamorphic and volcanic quartz of the siliciclastic Tipuma Formation, West Papua, Indonesia: an insight into Triassic palaeogeography of northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Indra; Hall, Robert; Augustsson, Carita

    2013-04-01

    The origin and Triassic evolution of the Bird's Head of West Papua has been a subject of active discussion. Many interpretations have been proposed for the Triassic evolution, from active margin to passive margin models. The Bird's Head region is underlain by Australian continental crust and has a relatively complete stratigraphy from Palaeozoic to Recent. The Tipuma Formation is a Mesozoic siliciclastic sequence and a potentially important reservoir. Its sedimentation may record parts of the region's Mesozoic tectonic history, including several phases of rifting. Little is known about the variations in lithologies and their composition, and nothing is known about its provenance. The Tipuma Formation is dominated by red to cream well-bedded mudstone, sandstone and conglomerate. It rests unconformably on the Kemum Formation and is overlain by the Cretaceous Jass Formation. It is difficult to assess the depositional age of the Tipuma Formation due to the absence of fossils. The suggested Triassic age is based solely on its stratigraphic position. The Tipuma Formation was previously thought to be deposited in a stable continental setting. Detrital modes indicate acid plutonic, metamorphic, and recycled sedimentary source rocks for the Tipuma Formation sandstones. Angular volcanic quartz and elongate euhedral zircons suggest a contribution from previously unrecognised contemporaneous acid volcanics. New interpretations suggest that the widespread Permo-Triassic volcanic activity in the Bird's Head was caused by subduction associated with an Andean-type active margin and that the Tipuma Formation was deposited in a fluvial setting close to the volcanic arc. Cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics of quartz depend on variations in temperature, pressure, and geochemical environment during crystal growth and subsequent events. The CL colour spectra of quartz can be correlated with the formation conditions of the quartz. They can therefore be used as a provenance indicator along with other techniques. Quartz from Tipuma Formation sandstone is dominated by quartz of low-T metamorphic and volcanic origin and only with little plutonic quartz. This strongly suggests an input of detritus derived from contemporaneous acid volcanic rocks and some local low-grade metamorphic rocks. The results confirm assessment based on zircon study of the main contemporaneous volcanic activity, which waned or ceased during deposition of the Middle Member of the Tipuma Formation. Widespread Permo-Triassic volcanic activity in the Bird's Head possibly caused contact metamorphism in the area with uplift and erosion of low-T metamorphic rocks. The Tasman Line continues from Eastern Australia through New Guinea, into the Bird's Head region. At least since the Triassic, the Bird's Head has been part of the Gondwana margin and for the first time, we can provide compelling evidence that volcanic activity has played a major role in this region.

  14. Motor skill acquisition across short and long time scales: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging data.

    PubMed

    Lohse, K R; Wadden, K; Boyd, L A; Hodges, N J

    2014-07-01

    In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we explore how the time scale of practice affects patterns of brain activity associated with motor skill acquisition. Fifty-eight studies that involved skill learning with healthy participants (117 contrasts) met inclusion criteria. Two meta-contrasts were coded: decreases: peak coordinates that showed decreases in brain activity over time; increases: peak coordinates that showed increases in activity over time. Studies were grouped by practice time scale: short (?1 h; 25 studies), medium (>1 and ?24 h; 18 studies), and long (>24h to 5 weeks; 17 studies). Coordinates were analyzed using Activation Likelihood Estimation to show brain areas that were consistently activated for each contrast. Across time scales, consistent decreases in activity were shown in prefrontal and premotor cortex, the inferior parietal lobules, and the cerebellar cortex. Across the short and medium time scales there were consistent increases in supplementary and primary motor cortex and dentate nucleus. At the long time scale, increases were seen in posterior cingulate gyrus, primary motor cortex, putamen, and globus pallidus. Comparisons between time scales showed that increased activity in M1 at medium time scales was more spatially consistent across studies than increased activity in M1 at long time scales. Further, activity in the striatum (viz. putamen and globus pallidus) was consistently more rostral in the medium time scale and consistently more caudal in the long time scale. These data support neurophysiological models that posit that both a cortico-cerebellar system and a cortico-striatal system are active, but at different time points, during motor learning, and suggest there are associative/premotor and sensorimotor networks active within each system. PMID:24831923

  15. The lower Triassic microbiolites in Chaohu region, East China and their contribution to the early Triassic recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhihai; Zhang, Liwei; Hong, Tianqiu

    2010-05-01

    The lower Triassic is well preserved in Chaohu Region, Anhui Province, East China. It can be divided into Yinkeng Formation (80 meters thick, was formed during the Indian and early Smitian), Helongshan Formation (21 meters thick, was formed during the end Smithian) and Nanlinghu Formation (more than 157 meters thick, was formed during the Spathian) from bottom to top. It is mainly composed of carbonatites such as micrite limestones and nodular limestones, as well as shales and calcareous marls. The lower Triassic in this area has been well researched for more than a decade, and many fossils such as ammonites, bivalves, fishes, ichthyosaurus, conodonts, and ichnofossils have been found, but the microbiolites have been neglected. Microbiolites were mainly outcropped in the Helongshan Formaiton and the lower Nanlinghu Formation. In the lower Helongshan Formaiton, tens microbial mat layers and thin bedded calcareous marl layers formed cyclothems which have been named as nodular limstones. The thin-section observation of the microbial mats indicate that many films and thin-shell bivalve fragments deposited almost horizontally. In the upper Helongshan Formaiton, six microstromatolite bioherm layers were outcropped in the thin bedded calcareous marl layers. The diameter of the stromatolite column is about 2 millimeters, the bioherms are lenticular and no more than 3 centimeters thick in the central, their diameters change from 5 centimeters to 30 centimeters, calcareous marls were deposited around the bioherms, and many ammonoids, bivalves and burrows were found in such layers. The microfacies differentiation of the stromatolites such as the basement, reef core and the capping beds can be recognised clearly in thin sections. Several microstromatolite layers were outcropped in the micritic limestones with a stable thickness of 15 millimeters in the lower Nanlinghu Formation and the stromatolite column look like the ones in the Helongshan Formation. Few microbiolites have been found in the middle and upper Nanlinghu Formation. The macro fossil association of the lower Triassic in Chaohu region is quite different in different Formations. Ammonoids and bivalves can be found in the whole lower Triassic strata, and they are especially dominant in the Yinkeng Formation and lower Helongshan Formaiton, worms and borrowing animals can be found in the middle Helongshan Formation, fishes can be found in the uppermost Helongshan Formation and the lower Nanlinghu Formation, and the oldest ichthyosaurus in the world can be found in the upper Nanlinghu Formation. According to the changing characters of the fossil association in this area, it is indicated that the high-level ecosystem had been formed in this area in the late early Triassic, and the appearance of the microbiolites in the Helongshan Formation might be the milestone for the early Triassic recovery. Though the global recovery process after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction might be postponed to the end of the early Triassic, regional recovery process in Chaohu region might start at the end Smithian and actualized at the middle Spathian. The microbioilites might be the original impetus for the early Triassic recovery. Key words: microbiolites, early Triassic, regional recovery, Chaohu region Acknowledgments This work is supported by the grants from National Natural Science Fundation of China (No. 40902096 and No.J0830522) and the IGCP 572 program. * Corresponding author: zhihai.jia@gmail.com

  16. Some aspects of the PermianTriassic boundary (PTB) and of the possible causes for the biotic crisis around this boundary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W Kozur

    1998-01-01

    The first appearance datum (FAD) of Hindeodusparvus is an excellent datum very close to the base of the Otoceraswoodwardi Zone (priority base of the Triassic). For the first time, it allows an exact correlation of the PTB in all marine facies and faunal realms. The following features of the extinction and recovery patterns near the PTB are most important for

  17. Integration of molecules and new fossils supports a Triassic origin for Lepidosauria (lizards, snakes, and tuatara)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lepidosauria (lizards, snakes, tuatara) is a globally distributed and ecologically important group of over 9,000 reptile species. The earliest fossil records are currently restricted to the Late Triassic and often dated to 227 million years ago (Mya). As these early records include taxa that are relatively derived in their morphology (e.g. Brachyrhinodon), an earlier unknown history of Lepidosauria is implied. However, molecular age estimates for Lepidosauria have been problematic; dates for the most recent common ancestor of all lepidosaurs range between approximately 226 and 289 Mya whereas estimates for crown-group Squamata (lizards and snakes) vary more dramatically: 179 to 294 Mya. This uncertainty restricts inferences regarding the patterns of diversification and evolution of Lepidosauria as a whole. Results Here we report on a rhynchocephalian fossil from the Middle Triassic of Germany (Vellberg) that represents the oldest known record of a lepidosaur from anywhere in the world. Reliably dated to 238240 Mya, this material is about 12 million years older than previously known lepidosaur records and is older than some but not all molecular clock estimates for the origin of lepidosaurs. Using RAG1 sequence data from 76 extant taxa and the new fossil specimens two of several calibrations, we estimate that the most recent common ancestor of Lepidosauria lived at least 242 Mya (238249.5), and crown-group Squamata originated around 193 Mya (176213). Conclusion A Early/Middle Triassic date for the origin of Lepidosauria disagrees with previous estimates deep within the Permian and suggests the group evolved as part of the faunal recovery after the end-Permain mass extinction as the climate became more humid. Our origin time for crown-group Squamata coincides with shifts towards warmer climates and dramatic changes in fauna and flora. Most major subclades within Squamata originated in the Cretaceous postdating major continental fragmentation. The Vellberg fossil locality is expected to become an important resource for providing a more balanced picture of the Triassic and for bridging gaps in the fossil record of several other major vertebrate groups. PMID:24063680

  18. Invited Review Article: The statistical modeling of atomic clocks and the design of time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Judah [Time and Frequency Division and JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    I will show how the statistical models that are used to describe the performance of atomic clocks are derived from their internal design. These statistical models form the basis for time scales, which are used to define international time scales such as International Atomic Time and Coordinated Universal Time. These international time scales are realized by ensembles of clocks at national laboratories such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and I will describe how ensembles of atomic clocks are characterized and managed.

  19. Weak microlensing effect and stability of pulsar time scale

    E-print Network

    M. S. Pshirkov; M. V. Sazhin

    2006-10-23

    An influence of the weak microlensing effect on the pulsar timing is investigated for pulsar B1937+21. Average residuals of Time of Arrival (TOA) due to the effect would be as large as 10 ns in 20 years observation span. These residuals can be much greater (up to 1 ms in 20 years span) if pulsar is located in globular cluster (or behind it).

  20. Ocean-cloud interactions at decadal time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palle, E.; Vazquez, M.; Montanes-Rodriguez, P.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past century, our planet has experienced a global warming generally associated to an increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases, superimposed to an unknown intrinsic climate variability. To understand this warming, it is essential to know the response of the climate system to external forcing, and the decadal-scale energy exchange between the oceans and the atmosphere. Presently, two of the most uncertain elements in climate are the role of clouds and the Earth's ocean heat storage. Especially intriguing are the cloud feedback mechanisms, which strongly affect the ability of global circulation models to predict future climate change. Here, we compare 20 years of global ocean thermal properties and cloud amount data to derive their large- scale inter-annual relationships. Despite some restriction in our conclusions due to the nature of the datasets, we find significant correlations whose strength and sign vary with cloud type and latitude. At decadal timescales, we find an anti-correlation between the global mean cloud amount and the ocean's heat content, with the clouds leading in the correlation by about 1 year. Our results suggest that cloud changes, whether natural or anthropogenic in origin, might have a direct influence in the decadal variability of ocean temperatures and heat content.

  1. Time and length scales within a fire and implications for numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect

    TIESZEN,SHELDON R.

    2000-02-02

    A partial non-dimensionalization of the Navier-Stokes equations is used to obtain order of magnitude estimates of the rate-controlling transport processes in the reacting portion of a fire plume as a function of length scale. Over continuum length scales, buoyant times scales vary as the square root of the length scale; advection time scales vary as the length scale, and diffusion time scales vary as the square of the length scale. Due to the variation with length scale, each process is dominant over a given range. The relationship of buoyancy and baroclinc vorticity generation is highlighted. For numerical simulation, first principles solution for fire problems is not possible with foreseeable computational hardware in the near future. Filtered transport equations with subgrid modeling will be required as two to three decades of length scale are captured by solution of discretized conservation equations. By whatever filtering process one employs, one must have humble expectations for the accuracy obtainable by numerical simulation for practical fire problems that contain important multi-physics/multi-length-scale coupling with up to 10 orders of magnitude in length scale.

  2. Influence of Residence and Scalar Mixing Time Scales in Non Premixed Combustion in Supersonic Turbulent Flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Gomet; Vincent Robin; Arnaud Mura

    2012-01-01

    In high Mach number turbulent reactive flows, spontaneous ignition appears as a key ingredient for the stabilization of combustion. In our previous analyses devoted to such conditions, chemical kinetics as well as associated finite rate chemistry effects have already received considerable attention. However, the representation of flow time scales, such as residence and mixing time scales, still requires further work.

  3. Time Scale Decomposition of a Class of Generalized Stochastic Petri Net Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hany H. Ammar; S. M. Rezaul Islam

    1989-01-01

    A time-scale decomposition (TSD) algorithm of a class of generalized stochastic Petri net (GSPN) models of systems comprising activities whose duration differ by orders of magnitude is presented. The GSPN model of a system can be decomposed into a hierarchical sequence of aggregated subnets, each of which is valid at a certain time scale. These smaller subnets are solved in

  4. A dual-time-scale finite element model for simulating cyclic deformation of polycrystalline alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuteru Asai; Somnath Ghosh

    2007-01-01

    A dual-time scale finite element model is developed in this pa per for simulating cyclic defor- mation in polycrystalline alloys. The material is characte rized by crystal plasticity constitutive relations. The finite element formulation of the initial-bo undary value problems with cyclic load- ing involves decoupling the governing equations into two sets of problems corresponding to two different time scales.

  5. Characteristic Variations of Sea Surface Temperature with Multiple Time Scales in the North Pacific

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youichi Tanimoto; Kimio Hanawa; Yoshiaki Toba; Naoto Iwasaka

    1993-01-01

    Temporal evolution and spectral structure of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the North Pacific over the last 37 years are investigated on the three characteristic time scales: shorter than 24 months (HF), 24-60 months (ES), and longer than 60 months (DC). The leading empirical-orthogonal function (EOF) for the DC time scale is characterized by a zonally elongated monopole centered

  6. Author's personal copy Verification and training of real-time forecasting of multi-scale ocean

    E-print Network

    Leonard, John J.

    Author's personal copy Verification and training of real-time forecasting of multi-scale ocean February 2007 Abstract The Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS) provides real-time and hindcast, multi-scale oceanic field estimates for Maritime Rapid Environmental Assessment (MREA). Results of aspects

  7. Two-time scales in spatially structured models of population dynamics: A semigroup approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Snchez; P. Auger; J. C. Poggiale

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a unified approach to the treatment of a class of spatially structured population dynamics models whose evolution processes occur at two different time scales. In the setting of the C0-semigroup theory, we will consider a general formulation of some semilinear evolution problems defined on a Banach space in which the two-time scales

  8. Time scales of variability associated with Nordeste precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K.R. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Hameed, S. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (USA). Inst. for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres)

    1991-06-01

    The Northeast section of Brazil, called the Nordeste, experiences flood and drought regimes as the norm rather than the exception. This region receives its principal dose of precipitation during March--April, subsequent to regions to the west and north due to its proximity to the southern Atlantic subtropical high. A weakening of this anticyclone and strengthening of its counterpart in the northern Atlantic during this season results in the farthest southward penetration of the ITCZ and the Nordeste rainy season. Fluctuations in the large-scale circulation of the atmosphere, such as ENSO, modulate the track of the ITCZ causing the interannual drought or flood conditions that plague this region. Empirical studies have shown that Nordeste rainfall is related to the sea-surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Computer Response Time Measurements of Mood, Fatigue and Symptom Scale Items: Implications for Scale Response Time Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryman, David H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes study conducted with U.S. Marine Corps enlisted personnel to measure response time to computer-administered questionnaire items, and to evaluate how measurement of response time might be useful in various research areas. Topics addressed include mood states; the occurrence of straight lining; and experimental effects of sleep loss and

  10. Probing Single-Photon Ionization on the Attosecond Time Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Kluender, K.; Dahlstroem, J. M.; Gisselbrecht, M.; Fordell, T.; Swoboda, M.; Guenot, D.; Johnsson, P.; Mauritsson, J.; L'Huillier, A. [Department of Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Caillat, J.; Maquet, A.; Taieeb, R. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matiere et Rayonnement, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 11, Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex, 05 (France)

    2011-04-08

    We study photoionization of argon atoms excited by attosecond pulses using an interferometric measurement technique. We measure the difference in time delays between electrons emitted from the 3s{sup 2} and from the 3p{sup 6} shell, at different excitation energies ranging from 32 to 42 eV. The determination of photoemission time delays requires taking into account the measurement process, involving the interaction with a probing infrared field. This contribution can be estimated using a universal formula and is found to account for a substantial fraction of the measured delay.

  11. Late Triassic bimodal igneous rocks in eastern Heilongjiang Province, NE China: Implications for the initiation of subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate beneath Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Xu, Yi-Gang; Gao, Fu-hong; Ge, Wen-chun

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports new zircon LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data, and whole-rock major and trace element data for Late Triassic igneous rocks of eastern Heilongjiang Province, NE China. These data provide new insights into the timing of the initiation of subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasian continent. The zircon U-Pb age data indicate that a suite of Late Triassic (228-202 Ma) igneous rocks is present within the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif and within the western margin of the Khanka Massif. The Late Triassic igneous rocks within the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif consist of basalts, basaltic andesites, gabbro-diabases, and rhyolites, whereas coeval igneous rocks in the western margin of the Khanka Massif consist of hornblende gabbros and syenogranitic porphyries. These Late Triassic rocks constitute a geochemically bimodal igneous rock association that contains mafic rocks enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE) and large ion lithophile elements (LILE), and depleted in heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and high field strength elements (HFSE) such as Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti. Zircons from these mafic rocks have ?Hf (t) values and TDM1 ages of +2.8 to +9.8 and 477-733 Ma, respectively, suggesting that they formed from a primary magma generated by the partial melting of depleted lithospheric mantle material that had been previously modified by subduction-related fluids. The coeval felsic rocks are characterized by enrichments in LREEs and LILEs, and depletions in HREEs and HFSEs (including Nb, Ta, and Ti), and their zircons have ?Hf (t) values and TDM2 ages of +0.6 to +7.9 and 766 to 1461 Ma, respectively, implying that these rocks were generated during the partial melting of juvenile crustal material. The Late Triassic bimodal igneous rocks in eastern Heilongjiang Province, combined with the regional geologic information, therefore record a post-orogenic extensional environment related to the final late Permian-Early Triassic closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. In addition, the presence of Late Triassic bimodal igneous rocks within the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent suggests that the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasian continent began after the Late Triassic.

  12. Space-time scales of internal waves: A progress report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Garrett; Walter Munk

    1975-01-01

    We present a revised model for the distribution of internal wave energy in wave number frequency space. The model is empirical, guided by the following measurements: moored spectra and moored coherences for horizontal and vertical separations (MS, MHC, MVC as functions of frequency), towed spectra and towed vertical and time-lagged coherences (TS, TVC, TLC as functions of horizontal wave number),

  13. Interpolation of precipitation under topographic influence at different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brdossy, Andrs.; Pegram, Geoffrey

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, new methodologies for interpolating rainfall data in individual time intervals (ranging from a day to a year) using Gaussian copulas and unsymmetrical v-copulas, with a variety of treatments of altitude as an exogenous variable, are described. For shorter time aggregations, zeros were treated as censored variables. For each selected time step, the marginal distributions of precipitation amounts were modeled using nonparametric density estimators, while the spatial dependence structures were estimated using a maximum likelihood methodology. The methodology was compared to other common geostatistical interpolators such as ordinary kriging and external drift kriging. Several measures of bias and error structure have been used to assess the efficacy of the methods in a range of comparative split-sampling studies. The data set chosen for the study comprises daily precipitation time series over 41 years in three regions in Germany measured at more than 1200 locations over a large area (126,144 km2). Among the many findings in the paper, the ones that stand out are: (i) correlation between precipitation and topography increases with the length of time interval and is significantly improved by directional smoothing of topography; (ii) the copula methods are superior to kriging methods in terms of quality of interpolation (bias and uncertainty estimation); (iii) the treatment of zeros as censored variables improves interpolation quality for daily and pentad values (monthly and annual data in this region present no dry periods); (iv) the copula methods yield full conditional distributions of estimates at a target point, in an interval, improving substantially on the simple uncertainty estimates derived from kriging; and (v) the Gauss copula in particular performs best overall in terms of computational efficiency, combined with useful error profiles in the interpolations, and of all methods is the most realistic in its error estimates.

  14. Using Audio Time Scale Modification for Video Browsing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnon Amir; Dulce B. Ponceleon; Brian Blanchard; Dragutin Petkovic; Savitha Srinivasan; G. Cohen

    2000-01-01

    In the IBM CueVideo TM project we study various aspects of fully automated video indexing, browsing and retrieval. The technical aspects include audio processing, speech recognition, image processing and information retrieval. Equally important, however, is exploring user expectations and conducting user studies. We focus on the field of video for Training and Education, including Distributed Learning, Remote Education, and Just-in-Time

  15. Time Dependent Deformations in Concrete: A Multi-scale Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ananth Ramaswamy; Harinadha Reddy

    \\u000a Estimation of creep and shrinkage are critical in order to compute loss of prestress with time in order to compute leak tightness\\u000a and assess safety margins available in containment structures of nuclear power plants. Short-term creep and shrinkage experiments\\u000a have been conducted using in-house test facilities developed specifically for the present research program on 35 and 45 MPa\\u000a normal concrete

  16. Convective Self-Aggregation on Short Time Scales: Cycling Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skyllingstad, E. D.; de Szoeke, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Convective organization over a 500 km periodic domain is examined using a cloud resolving large-eddy simulation model with a full radiative transfer scheme and coupled simple mixed layer ocean. Simulations are conducted with moderate shear over a 8 day period using an initial sounding based on the average conditions observed from the RV Revelle during the DYNAMO experiment. The atmospheric model is coupled to a column ocean simulated with the K-profile parameterization. Simulations show that after 4 days, convection organizes into cloud clusters controlled by a domain-scale internal wave propagating at approximately 25 m/s. Clusters have a lifecycle of about 3-4 hours with new convection forming over different areas of the domain. Overall, convection exhibits a diurnal cycle with a maximum in the early morning before simulated sunrise. The cluster lifecycle appears to be controlled by cold air accumulation in the marine boundary layer, which generates a divergent wind field, cutting off moist static energy. Patterns of fresh water and sea-surface temperature do not have a significant impact on the cluster formation or decay.

  17. Bi-Plasma Interactions on Femtosecond Time-Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-22

    Ultrafast THz radiation has important applications in materials science studies, such as characterizing transport properties, studying the vibrational response of materials, and in recent years, controlling materials and elucidating their response in intense electromagnetic fields. THz fields can be generated in a lab setting using various plasma-based techniques. This study seeks to examine the interaction of two plasmas in order to better understand the fundamental physics associated with femtosecond filamentation processes and to achieve more efficient THz generation in a lab setting. The intensity of fluorescence in the region of overlap was measured as a function of polarization, power, and relative time delay of the two plasma-generating laser beams. Results of time dependent intensity studies indicate strikingly similar behaviors across polarizations and power levels; a sudden intensity spike was observed at time-zero, followed by a secondary maxima and subsequent decay to the initial plasma intensity. Dependence of the intensity on the power through either beam arm was also observed. Spectral studies of the enhanced emission were also carried out. Although this physical phenomenon is still not fully understood, future studies, including further spectral analysis of the fluorescence overlap, could yield new insight into the ultrafast processes occurring at the intersection of femtosecond filaments, and would provide a better understanding of the mechanisms for enhanced THz production.

  18. Ichthyosaurs from the French Rhaetian indicate a severe turnover across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Valentin; Cappetta, Henri; Vincent, Peggy; Garcia, Graldine; Goolaerts, Stijn; Martin, Jeremy E; Roggero, Daniel; Valentin, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Mesozoic marine reptiles went through a severe turnover near the end of the Triassic. Notably, an important extinction event affected ichthyosaurs, sweeping a large part of the group. This crisis is, however, obscured by an extremely poor fossil record and is regarded as protracted over the entire Norian-earliest Jurassic interval, for the lack of a more precise scenario. The iconic whale-sized shastasaurid ichthyosaurs are regarded as early victims of this turnover, disappearing by the middle Norian. Here we evaluate the pattern of this turnover among ichthyosaurs by analysing the faunal record of two Rhaetian localities. One locality is Autun, eastern France; we rediscovered in this material the holotypes or partial 'type' series of Rachitrema pellati, Actiosaurus gaudryi, Ichthyosaurus rheticus, Ichthyosaurus carinatus and Plesiosaurus bibractensis; a revised taxonomic scheme is proposed. The second assemblage comes from a new locality: Cuers, southeastern France. Both these assemblages provide several lines of evidence for the presence of shastasaurid-like ichthyosaurs in the Rhaetian of Europe. These occurrences suggest that both the demise of shastasaurids and the sudden radiation of neoichthyosaurians occurred within a short time window; this turnover appears not only more abrupt but also more complex than previously postulated and adds a new facet of the end-Triassic mass extinction. PMID:25256640

  19. Ichthyosaurs from the French Rhaetian indicate a severe turnover across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Valentin; Cappetta, Henri; Vincent, Peggy; Garcia, Graldine; Goolaerts, Stijn; Martin, Jeremy E.; Roggero, Daniel; Valentin, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Mesozoic marine reptiles went through a severe turnover near the end of the Triassic. Notably, an important extinction event affected ichthyosaurs, sweeping a large part of the group. This crisis is, however, obscured by an extremely poor fossil record and is regarded as protracted over the entire Norian-earliest Jurassic interval, for the lack of a more precise scenario. The iconic whale-sized shastasaurid ichthyosaurs are regarded as early victims of this turnover, disappearing by the middle Norian. Here we evaluate the pattern of this turnover among ichthyosaurs by analysing the faunal record of two Rhaetian localities. One locality is Autun, eastern France; we rediscovered in this material the holotypes or partial `type' series of Rachitrema pellati, Actiosaurus gaudryi, Ichthyosaurus rheticus, Ichthyosaurus carinatus and Plesiosaurus bibractensis; a revised taxonomic scheme is proposed. The second assemblage comes from a new locality: Cuers, southeastern France. Both these assemblages provide several lines of evidence for the presence of shastasaurid-like ichthyosaurs in the Rhaetian of Europe. These occurrences suggest that both the demise of shastasaurids and the sudden radiation of neoichthyosaurians occurred within a short time window; this turnover appears not only more abrupt but also more complex than previously postulated and adds a new facet of the end-Triassic mass extinction.

  20. Fertile structures with in situ spores of a dipterid fern from the Triassic in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongdong; Li, Liqin; Guignard, Gatan; Dilcher, David L; Xie, Xiaoping; Tian, Ning; Zhou, Ning; Wang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    Clathropteris was a typical dipterid fern with well documented fossil record and was widely dispersed during the Mesozoic; however, our knowledge of fertile structures including in situ spores for this genus is still very limited. Here we report well-preserved compression specimens of Clathropteris obovata Oishi from the Late Triassic of Guangyuan, Sichuan Province, China. The specimens show round to oval and exindusiate sori, vertical to oblique annuli in sporangia, and in situ trilete spores with verrucate and baculate sculptures, which are comparable to dispersed spore genera of Converrucosisporites and Conbaculatisporites. Comparisons of relevant fossil taxa suggest that specimens of C. obovata from Triassic of China provide for the first time in Asia the detailed fertile structures with in situ spore characters of dipterid fossil Clathropteris. Unlike living Dipteris, Mesozoic fossils of Dipteridaceae show a high diversity and a range of complex morphology of in situ spores, thus are significant for the evolutionary links between Dipteridaceae and other related fern clade, including Gleicheniaceae and Matoniaceae of the Gleicheniales. PMID:25773305

  1. Hapsidoxylon terpsichorum gen. et sp. nov., a stem with unusual anatomy from the Triassic of Antarctica.

    PubMed

    McManus, Hilary A; Boucher, Lisa; Taylor, Edith L; Taylor, Thomas N

    2002-12-01

    The Middle Triassic flora of the Fremouw Formation in the central Transantarctic Mountains consists of conifers, cycads, ferns, pteridosperms, and sphenophytes. Stems with an unusual anatomy have been discovered within silicified peat from the same locality. The diameters of the stems range from 1.4 to 1.7 cm; the longest specimen is approximately 12 cm. In transverse section the vascular system consists of segments that occur as single traces or are connected in the center and anastomose at varying levels within the stem. Each segment contains a bifacial vascular cambium. Secondary tissues of each segment surround a central area of parenchyma and small tracheids presumed to represent primary xylem. Surrounding the stem is a periderm. Traces are produced near the periphery of the axis and consist of radially arranged secondary xylem and a thick periderm. The absence of leaves and reproductive organs leads to uncertain phylogenetic relationships. We are unaware of any Triassic plants with this type of vascular tissue organization, and those plants with a similar type of arrangement occur only in the Devonian and Carboniferous. Possible phylogenetic affinities with the Cladoxylales and Lycophyta are examined, but the anatomical differences, along with stratigraphic age, preclude formal assignment to any known taxon at this time. Therefore, we have assigned it to a new taxon: Hapsidoxylon terpsichorum gen. et sp. nov. PMID:21665624

  2. Body Size Evolution in Conodonts from the Cambrian through the Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, E. K.; Morgan, D. J.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    The size of an organism exercises tremendous control over its physiology, life history, and ecology, yet the factors that influence body size evolution remain poorly understood. One major limitation is the lack of appropriate datasets spanning long intervals of evolutionary time. Here, we document size trends in conodonts (tooth-like microfossils from marine chordates) because they evolved rapidly and are known to change size during intervals of environmental change. By measuring photographs from the Catalogue of Conodonts (Ziegler 1982), we compiled a database of conodont P1 element measurements for 575 species and subspecies from the Cambrian through Triassic periods. Because tooth size correlates with body size in conodont animals and their extant relatives, conodont element length can serve as a proxy for the size of the conodont animal. We find that mean and maximum size across species increased during the early Paleozoic, peaked during the Devonian-Mississippian, and then generally decreased until conodonts went extinct at the end of the Triassic. We used regression analyses to compare conodont mean size trends to potential environmental predictors, such as changing atmospheric pO2, atmospheric pCO2, and sea level. Conodont size exhibited poor correlation with these environmental factors, suggesting that conodont evolution may have been more strongly influenced by other environmental covariates or ecological variables such as predation and competition.

  3. Proportional hazards regression in epidemiologic follow-up studies: an intuitive consideration of primary time scale.

    PubMed

    Cologne, John; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Abbott, Robert D; Ohishi, Waka; Grant, Eric J; Fujiwara, Saeko; Cullings, Harry M

    2012-07-01

    In epidemiologic cohort studies of chronic diseases, such as heart disease or cancer, confounding by age can bias the estimated effects of risk factors under study. With Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling in such studies, it would generally be recommended that chronological age be handled nonparametrically as the primary time scale. However, studies involving baseline measurements of biomarkers or other factors frequently use follow-up time since measurement as the primary time scale, with no explicit justification. The effects of age are adjusted for by modeling age at entry as a parametric covariate. Parametric adjustment raises the question of model adequacy, in that it assumes a known functional relationship between age and disease, whereas using age as the primary time scale does not. We illustrate this graphically and show intuitively why the parametric approach to age adjustment using follow-up time as the primary time scale provides a poor approximation to age-specific incidence. Adequate parametric adjustment for age could require extensive modeling, which is wasteful, given the simplicity of using age as the primary time scale. Furthermore, the underlying hazard with follow-up time based on arbitrary timing of study initiation may have no inherent meaning in terms of risk. Given the potential for biased risk estimates, age should be considered as the preferred time scale for proportional-hazards regression with epidemiologic follow-up data when confounding by age is a concern. PMID:22517300

  4. Geochronology, geochemistry and Hf isotope of Late Triassic magmatic rocks of Qingchengzi district in Liaodong peninsula, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaoxia; Zeng, Qingdong; Yang, Jinhui; Liu, Jianming; Wang, Yongbin; Zhou, Lingli

    2014-09-01

    The initiation timing and mechanism of lithospheric thinning of the North China Craton (NCC) was still controversial. Late Triassic igneous rocks especially mantle derived mafic rocks would provide constrains on Early Mesozoic lithospheric mantle geodynamics and initiation of lithospheric thinning. This paper reports Late Triassic magmatic rocks, including lamprophyre, diorite dykes and biotite monzogranite cropped out in Qingchengzi district of Liaodong peninsula, northeastern NCC. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating yield ages of 210-227 Ma and 224 Ma for lamprophyres and biotite monzogranite respectively. Lamprophyre is ultrapotassic, strongly enriched in REE and LILEs, depleted in HFSEs, and negative Hf isotopes, which are discriminating signatures of crustal source, but distinguishingly high compatible element contents indicate the primary magma originated from mantle source-a fertile one. Lamprophyre derived from partial melting of an enriched lithospheric mantle, which was modified by slab-derived hydrous fluids/melts associated with deep subduction between the Yangtze Craton and the NCC. The diorite displays distinct features with relatively enriched Nb, Ta, HREE and depleted Th, U, which suggest it derived from a relatively depleted source. The depletion was caused by break-off of the Yangtze slab during deep subduction introducing asthenospheric mantle into the source. The biotite monzogranite shows adakitic affinity, and originated from partial melting of the thickened lower crust with addition of small proportion of mantle material. The recognition of Late Triassic magmatism implies extensional tectonic settings in Liaodong peninsula and suggests initiation of lithospheric thinning of North China Craton in eastern segment might begin early in Late Triassic.

  5. Rock-inhabiting fungi originated during periods of dry climate in the late Devonian and middle Triassic.

    PubMed

    Gueidan, Ccile; Ruibal, Constantino; de Hoog, G S; Schneider, Harald

    2011-10-01

    Non-lichenized rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF) are slow-growing melanized ascomycetes colonizing rock surfaces in arid environments. They possess adaptations, which allow them to tolerate extreme abiotic conditions, such as high UV radiations and extreme temperatures. They belong to two separate lineages, one consisting in the sister classes Dothideomycetes and Arthoniomycetes (Dothideomyceta), and the other consisting in the order Chaetothyriales (Eurotiomycetes). Because RIF often form early diverging groups in Chaetothyriales and Dothideomyceta, the ancestors of these two lineages were suggested to most likely be rock-inhabitants. The lineage of RIF related to the Chaetothyriales shows a much narrower phylogenetic spectrum than the lineage of RIF related to Dothideomyceta, suggesting a much more ancient origin for the latter. Our study aims at investigating the times of origin of RIF using a relaxed clock model and several fossil and secondary calibrations. Our results show that the RIF in Dothideomyceta evolved in the late Devonian, much earlier than the RIF in Chaetothyriales, which originated in the middle Triassic. The origin of the chaetothyrialean RIF correlates well with a period of recovery after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and an expansion of arid landmasses. The period preceding the diversification of the RIF related to Dothideomyceta (Silurian--Devonian) is also characterized by large arid landmasses, but temperatures were much cooler than during the Triassic. The paleoclimate record provides a good explanation for the diversification of fungi subjected to abiotic stresses and adapted to life on rock surfaces in nutrient-poor habitats. PMID:21944211

  6. Behavior of carbonate shelf communities in the Upper Triassic of Nevada: Evidence of impact mediated faunal turnover

    SciTech Connect

    Hogler, J.A. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Museum of Paleontology)

    1993-04-01

    The carbonate shelf sediments of the Luning and Gabbs Formations of Nevada span the last several million years of the Triassic. This richly fossiliferous sequence provides a relatively continuous record of benthic community behavior during a long interval of global biotic turnover. Upper Carnian-Lower Norian and Upper Norian sea floors in this region were inhabited by a variety of invertebrate communities, all of them mollusc-dominated. Across a range of offshore shelf to basinal environments and throughout repeated community replacements, the most abundant and diverse taxa were infaunal and epifaunal bivalves and ammonites. The sequence of Upper Triassic molluscan communities was interrupted by a Lower or Middle Norian interval of brachiopod-dominated faunas. Although preserved in similar offshore carbonate shelf sediments, these communities are nearly devoid of the infaunal bivalves and ammonites that characterize both older and younger assemblages in the section. This pattern, of a temporary replacement of molluscan communities by brachiopod faunas, mimics that reported for some shelf assemblages across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. That brief resurgence of brachiopods is linked to a sharp drop in marine primary productivity, which suggests that a disruption of planktonic food chains may also have occurred early in the Norian. The timing and pattern of Carnian-Norian faunal and physical events and their resemblance to K/T sequences are consistent with the proposal that an asteroid impact played a role in the Upper Triassic faunal transition.

  7. South and North Barents Triassic-Jurassic total petroleum system of the Russian offshore Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    One major gas-prone petroleum system characterizes the sparsely explored South and North Barents Basin Provinces of the Russian Arctic in the eastern Barents Sea. More than 13 billion barrels of oil equivalent (79 trillion cubic feet of gas) known ultimately recoverable gas reserves in seven fields were sourced from Triassic marine and continental shales and stored in Jurassic (97%) and Triassic (3%) marine and continental sandstone reservoir rocks. The basins contain 18-20 kilometers of pre-Upper Permian carbonate and post-Upper Permian siliciclastic sedimentary fill. Late Permian-Triassic(?) rifting and subsidence resulted in the deposition of as much as 9 kilometers of Triassic strata, locally injected with sills. Rapidly buried Lower Triassic source rocks generated hydrocarbons as early as Late Triassic into stratigraphic traps and structural closures that were modified periodically. Thermal cooling and deformation associated with Cenozoic uplift impacted seal integrity and generation processes, modified traps, and caused gas expansion and remigration.

  8. Semiclassical quantization of maps with a variable time scale

    E-print Network

    A. Iomin; S. Fishman; G. M. Zaslavsky

    2002-12-02

    Quantization of energy balance equations, which describe a separatrix -- like motion is presented. The method is based on an exact canonical transformation of the energy--time pair to the action-angle canonical pair, $ (E,t)\\to (I,\\theta) $. Quantum mechanical dynamics can be studied in the framework of the new Hamiltonian. This transformation also establishes a relation between a wide class of the energy balance equations and dynamical localization of classical diffusion by quantum interference, that was studied in the field of quantum chaos. An exact solution for a simple system is presented as well.

  9. Real time control of industrial processes requires that the computations are performed in a time scale that is

    E-print Network

    Bargiela, Andrzej

    valve settings as the state variables. Such state esti- mation problem has been translated onto a setAbstract Real time control of industrial processes requires that the computations are performed in a time scale that is compatible with the dynamics of the physical system. This in turn implies

  10. Ophiuroids Discovered in the Middle Triassic Hypersaline Environment

    PubMed Central

    Salamon, Mariusz A.; Nied?wiedzki, Robert; Lach, Rafa?; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Gorzelak, Przemys?aw

    2012-01-01

    Echinoderms have long been considered to be one of the animal phyla that is strictly marine. However, there is growing evidence that some recent species may live in either brackish or hypersaline environments. Surprisingly, discoveries of fossil echinoderms in non-(open)marine paleoenvironments are lacking. In Wojkowice Quarry (Southern Poland), sediments of lowermost part of the Middle Triassic are exposed. In limestone layer with cellular structures and pseudomorphs after gypsum, two dense accumulations of articulated ophiuroids (Aspiduriella similis (Eck)) were documented. The sediments with ophiuroids were formed in environment of increased salinity waters as suggested by paleontological, sedimentological, petrographical and geochemical data. Discovery of Triassic hypersaline ophiuroids invalidates the paleontological assumption that fossil echinoderms are indicators of fully marine conditions. Thus caution needs to be taken when using fossil echinoderms in paleoenvironmental reconstructions. PMID:23185442

  11. Evolution in time and scales of the stability of heart interbeat rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernndez-Prez, R.; Guzmn-Vargas, L.; Reyes-Ramrez, I.; Angulo-Brown, F.

    2010-12-01

    We approach heart interbeat rate by observing the evolution of its stability on scales and time, using tools for the analysis of frequency standards. In particular, we employ the dynamic Allan variance, which is used to characterize the time-varying stability of an atomic clock, to analyze heart interbeat time series for normal subjects and patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Our stability analysis shows that healthy dynamics is characterized by at least two stability regions along different scales. In contrast, diseased patients exhibit at least three different stability regions; over short scales the fluctuations resembled white-noise behavior whereas for large scales a drift is observed. The inflection points delimiting the first two stability regions for both groups are located around the same scales. Moreover, we find that CHF patients show lower variation of the stability in time than healthy subjects.

  12. Short-Time-Scale Monitoring of Q 2237+0305

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumming, Caroline M.; De Robertis, Michael M.

    1995-05-01

    Photometry in R and I' (similar to I) for the gravitional lens system Q 2237+0305 are presented in order to monitor the light curves of the four quasar components over a period of hours to days; i.e., the time delay over which instrinic brightness variations would be observed according to theoretical models. No variations were found of any kind during a three day period, but comparison of the R data with previously published observations provides new information on the microlensing of component B reported in 1992. This component appears to have increased in brightness by at least 0.5 mag between March and July 1991, and has decreased in brightness from the maximum by at least 0.15 mag by mid-June 1992. Light curves representing the history of the four components are discussed in detail from which the rise time for component B, < 720 days, and the event duration, >4 yr, are estimated. (SECTION: Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei)

  13. A unique geochemical record at the Permian/Triassic boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holser, William T.; Schoenlaub, Hans-Peter; Klein, Peter; Attrep, Moses, Jr.; Boeckelmann, Klaus

    1989-01-01

    A 330-m core drilled through the marine Permian/Triassic boundary in the Austrian Carnic Alps has been used to make closely correlated studies of geochemistry, petrography, and paleontology across that boundary. The isotope shifts and metal concentrations are found to be extended, multiple, and complex, and do not resemble those seen at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Both the carbon isotope shifts and the chemical events, including an iridium anomaly, may have causes related to a major regression of the sea.

  14. A review of selected triassic to Early Cretaceous ferns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Tidwell; Sidney R. Ash

    1994-01-01

    After becoming nearly extinct during the Permian, the ferns began a slow recovery during the Triassic as the climate of the\\u000a earth moderated. As a result, a considerable number and variety were present and widely distributed during the Jurassic and\\u000a Early Cretaceous. However, with the rapid expansion of the angiosperms during the Late Cretaceous, the ferns once again became\\u000a reduced

  15. Metamorphism of Triassic sediments from the Dunbarton Basin, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Snipes, D.S.; Warner, R.D. (Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Earth Sciences Dept.); Price, V. Jr. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Thayer, P. (Univ. of North Carolina, Wilmington, NC (United States). Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Modal analyses and microprobe studies were performed on eight core samples obtained from the US Geological Survey Well A1 324. The well is situated in the southern part of the buried Triassic Dunbarton Basin, about 1 km south of the US Department of Energy's Westinghouse Savannah River Company Site. The samples came from an interval of 407.0--413.4 m beneath the land surface. At the well site, Triassic red beds are overlain by Late Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments which have an aggregate thickness of 408 m. The sample from a depth of 407 m is a weathered, poorly sorted, clayey sandstone from the basal portion of the Late Cretaceous Cape Fear Formation. This specimen is not metamorphosed; whereas, the Triassic specimens taken from an interval of 411.6--413.4 m exhibit evidence of thermal metamorphism as well as hydrothermal alteration. In hand specimen, three of the samples (412.8--413.4 m) resemble hornfelses. These samples exhibit decussate texture. Results of modal analyses of the two deepest specimens follow: plagioclase (43-52%), quartz (9-23%), chlorite (22-29%), epidote (1-6%), hematite (3-4%), and magnetite (2-3%). Relict detrital quartz grains, especially the finer ones, are mostly angular-to-subangular and the grain boundaries show little evidence of rounding. The authors feel that hydrothermal alteration was the principal metamorphic process. This belief is supported by the fact that most of the plagioclase has undergone extensive sericitization. In addition, the presence of abundant chlorite together with a minor amount of epidote supports this interpretation. The alteration halo extends upward for 1.8 m. This interpretation is based on the observation that two Triassic arkose sandstone specimens (411.6 m, 412.2 m) contain clouded, slightly sericitized K-feldspar and plagioclase grains in a matrix of red-colored smectite.

  16. The Paleomagnetism of a Triassic Diabase Dike in Nova Scotia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Larochelle; R. K. Wanless

    1966-01-01

    The paleomagnetism of a 110-km-long diabase dike in the southern part of Nova Scotia has been studied. A potassium-argon whole-rock age determination has confirmed the Triassic age assignment to the dike rocks. The magnetic stability and other magnetic properties of the rocks were examined, and the presence of a stable component was established. An analysis of the palcomagnetic data establishes

  17. Paleomagnetism of Upper Triassic Diabase from Southeastern Pennsylvania: Further Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1972-01-01

    Seventy-eight reliable sites in Upper Triassic diabase from southeastern Pennsylvania yield a pleomagnetic pole at 62.0N, 104.5E, about 0.5 from an earlier pole calculation based on a preliminary study of 20 sites. Site poles have a Fisherian distribution, with an angular standard deviation of 7.4 , considerably less than the dispersion predicted by models based on the present

  18. A Lagrangian subgrid-scale model with dynamic estimation of Lagrangian time scale for large eddy simulation of complex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Aman; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2012-08-01

    The dynamic Lagrangian averaging approach for the dynamic Smagorinsky model for large eddy simulation is extended to an unstructured grid framework and applied to complex flows. The Lagrangian time scale is dynamically computed from the solution and does not need any adjustable parameter. The time scale used in the standard Lagrangian model contains an adjustable parameter ?. The dynamic time scale is computed based on a "surrogate-correlation" of the Germano-identity error (GIE). Also, a simple material derivative relation is used to approximate GIE at different events along a pathline instead of Lagrangian tracking or multi-linear interpolation. Previously, the time scale for homogeneous flows was computed by averaging along directions of homogeneity. The present work proposes modifications for inhomogeneous flows. This development allows the Lagrangian averaged dynamic model to be applied to inhomogeneous flows without any adjustable parameter. The proposed model is applied to LES of turbulent channel flow on unstructured zonal grids at various Reynolds numbers. Improvement is observed when compared to other averaging procedures for the dynamic Smagorinsky model, especially at coarse resolutions. The model is also applied to flow over a cylinder at two Reynolds numbers and good agreement with previous computations and experiments is obtained. Noticeable improvement is obtained using the proposed model over the standard Lagrangian model. The improvement is attributed to a physically consistent Lagrangian time scale. The model also shows good performance when applied to flow past a marine propeller in an off-design condition; it regularizes the eddy viscosity and adjusts locally to the dominant flow features.

  19. Paleomagnetic and Geological Implications of Magnetic Properties of the Triassic Diabase of Southeastern Pennsylvania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Beck

    1965-01-01

    Preliminary measurements of magnetic properties of Triassic diabase in south- eastern Pennsylvania imply a Triassic geomagnetic pole in central Siberia, at 62N, 105E. This pole is virtually identical to that obtained from paleomagnetic studies of rocks of similar age in New Jersey and Arizona. A North American Triassic pole, the mean of six independent determinations, is located at 62N, 101E.

  20. A chemical time scale approach for FPI modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savre, Julien; Bertier, Nicolas; D'Angelo, Yves; Gaffi, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    In most reactive CFD codes, the set of resolved governing equations is not compatible with the original formulation of the "Flame Prolongation of ILDM" (so-called FPI) tabulation technique. In the absence of an explicit continuity equation, the total mass conservation may be expressed implicitly, through the transport of each species. The corresponding reaction rates are then to be evaluated in the FPI database. With this procedure, any chemical source term perturbation often results in very poor predictions of the flame inner structure. In the present work, we propose a chemical-time based formulation aimed at correcting the table interpolated species reaction rates. The very good agreement obtained by this modified approach on an elementary 1D premixed laminar flame bench-mark validates the effective improvement of the FPI model. To cite this article: J. Savre et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  1. Two pulses of extinction during the Permian-Triassic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Haijun; Wignall, Paul B.; Tong, Jinnan; Yin, Hongfu

    2013-01-01

    The Permian-Triassic mass extinction is the most severe biotic crisis identified in Earth history. Over 90% of marine species were eliminated, causing the destruction of the marine ecosystem structure. This biotic crisis is generally interpreted as a single extinction event around 252.3 million years ago, and has been variously attributed to the eruption of the Siberian Traps or possibly a bolide impact. Here we demonstrate that the marine extinction consisted of two pulses, separated by a 180,000-year recovery phase. We evaluated the range of 537 species representing 17 marine groups in seven Chinese sections from a 450,000-year interval spanning the Permian-Triassic boundary. The first stage of extinction occurred during the latest Permian, and was marked by the extinction of 57% of species, namely all plankton and some benthic groups, including algae, rugose corals, and fusulinids. The second phase occurred in the earliest Triassic, and resulted in the extinction of 71% of the remaining species. This second extinction phase fundamentally altered the marine ecosystem structure that had existed for the previous 200 million years. Because the two pulses showed different extinction selectivity, we conclude that they may have had different environmental causes.

  2. The space-time variability and scaling of climate data, climate models and their converge as functions of space-time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; Elias, Lydia

    2014-05-01

    Climate models are evaluated by comparing them with other models and (when possible), with climate data: one attempts to match the data and numerics as closely as possible pixel by pixel, time step by time step- i.e. deterministically. As a consequence very little attention has been paid to understanding the space-time statistical properties of the models and data. There is little understanding of the convergence of the model and data to their 'climates' and to each other. In the time domain, there is no objective definition of the distinction between weather and climate in the spatial domain, there is corresponding lack of understanding of climate regions. In order to overcome this, we systematically study the statistics of fluctuations (primarily of temperature but also precipitation and pressure) as function of space and time. For both data and models, we find that in space, that fluctuations increase up to about 5000 km before starting to decrease; this quantitatively defines the typical size of regional climates. In time, we find that fluctuations decrease out to about 10-30 years in the industrial epoch, out to 50 -100 years in the pre-industrial epoch and then starts to increase; this defines the difference between 'macroweather' and the climate. Applying fluctuation analysis to longer time scales, we examine last millennium simulations from four GCMs, we show that control runs only reproduce macroweather. When various (reconstructed) climate forcings are included, in the recent (industrial) period they show global fluctuations strongly increasing at scales >_10-30 yr, which is quite close to the observations. However, in the preindustrial period we find that the multicentennial variabilities are too weak and by analysing the scale dependence of solar and volcanic forcings, we argue that these forcings are unlikely to be sufficiently strong to account for the multicentennial and longer-scale temperature variability. A likely explanation is that the models lack important slow 'climate' processes such as land ice or various biogeochemical processes. This technique can be used to show that the error in estimating the global temperature is about 0.03K, and this - surprisingly - at any time scale out to over 100 years. Similarly, in space the different surface temperature only start to converge (i.e. to agree with each other) at scales larger than ? 2000 km. The same fluctuation analysis technique can be used to quantify the convergence of the models to the model climates and to the real climate. By comparing different realizations of the NASA GISS model historical simulations (from 1850), we show that in time, they converge to each other (i.e. to the model climate) at the slow rate ?t-0.3; however in space, they diverge up to about 5000km (? ?t0.4) only converging to their climate at larger scales, this 'continental scale' is thus the smallest scale that can be attained by climate models and this likely imposes a fundamental limit on regional skill. By comparing the model to the data (20C reanalysis), we find that the two differ by between 1 and 2K at all space and time scales - beyond about 8 months, temporal averaging does not improve agreement, nor does spatial averaging help much. However, if the long tem averages are know and removed - so that one considers anomalies - space-time statistics of the model and the data are remarkably similar. This indicates that the model produces space-time fields of similar type to the data, but that the model and real climates are significantly different.

  3. Modelling soil carbon movement by erosion over large scales and long time periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, John; Davies, Jessica; Tipping, Ed

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural intensification accelerates physical erosion rates and the transport of carbon within the landscape. In order to improve understanding of how past, present and future anthropogenic land-use change has and will influence carbon and nutrient cycling, it is necessary to develop quantitative tools that can predict soil erosion and carbon movement at large temporal and spatial scales, that are consistent with the time constants of biogeochemical processes and the spatial scales of land-use change and natural resources. However, representing erosion and its impact on the carbon cycle over large spatial scales and long time periods is challenging. Erosion and sediment transport processes operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales with splash erosion dominating at the sub-plot scale and occurring within seconds, up to gully formation operating at field-catchment scales over days to months. In addition, most erosion production observations are made at the experimental plot scale, where fine time scales and detailed processes dominate. This is coupled with complexities associated with carbon detachment, decomposition and uncertainties surrounding carbon burial rates and stability - all of which occur over widely different temporal and spatial scales. As such, these data cannot be simply scaled to inform erosion and carbon representation at the regional scale, where topography, vegetation cover and landscape organisation become more important controls on sediment fluxes. We have developed a simple energy-based regional scale method of soil erosion modelling, which is integration into a hydro-biogeochemical model that will simulate carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus pools and fluxes across the UK from the industrial revolution to the present day. The model is driven by overland flow, dynamic vegetation cover, soil properties, and topographic distributions and produces sediment production and yield at the 5km grid scale. In this paper we will introduce the modelling approach and examine some of the challenges facing attempts to erosion and carbon transport processes at larger spatial and temporal scales.

  4. A multiscale mass scaling approach for explicit time integration using proper orthogonal decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    G. J. de Frias; W. Aquino; K. H. Pierson; M. W. Heinstein; B. W. Spencer

    2014-03-01

    One of the main computational issues with explicit dynamics simulations is the significant reduction of the critical time step as the spatial resolution of the finite element mesh increases. In this work, a selective mass scaling approach is presented that can significantly reduce the computational cost in explicit dynamic simulations, while maintaining accuracy. The proposed method is based on a multiscale decomposition approach that separates the dynamics of the system into low (coarse scales) and high frequencies (fine scales). Here, the critical time step is increased by selectively applying mass scaling on the fine scale component only. In problems where the response is dominated by the coarse (low frequency) scales, significant increases in the stable time step can be realized. In this work, we use the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method to build the coarse scale space. The main idea behind POD is to obtain an optimal low-dimensional orthogonal basis for representing an ensemble of high-dimensional data. In our proposed method, the POD space is generated with snapshots of the solution obtained from early times of the full-scale simulation. The example problems addressed in this work show significant improvements in computational time, without heavily compromising the accuracy of the results.

  5. Using Focused Regression for Accurate Time-Constrained Scaling of Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B; Garren, J; Lowenthal, D; Reeves, J; de Supinski, B; Schulz, M; Rountree, B

    2010-01-28

    Many large-scale clusters now have hundreds of thousands of processors, and processor counts will be over one million within a few years. Computational scientists must scale their applications to exploit these new clusters. Time-constrained scaling, which is often used, tries to hold total execution time constant while increasing the problem size along with the processor count. However, complex interactions between parameters, the processor count, and execution time complicate determining the input parameters that achieve this goal. In this paper we develop a novel gray-box, focused median prediction errors are less than 13%. regression-based approach that assists the computational scientist with maintaining constant run time on increasing processor counts. Combining application-level information from a small set of training runs, our approach allows prediction of the input parameters that result in similar per-processor execution time at larger scales. Our experimental validation across seven applications showed that median prediction errors are less than 13%.

  6. Scaling Behavior of the First Arrival Time of a Random-Walking Magnetic Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Im, M.-Y.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, D.-H.; Fischer, P.; Shin, S.-C.

    2008-02-04

    We report a universal scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a traveling magnetic domain wall into a finite space-time observation window of a magneto-optical microscope enabling direct visualization of a Barkhausen avalanche in real time. The first arrival time of the traveling magnetic domain wall exhibits a nontrivial fluctuation and its statistical distribution is described by universal power-law scaling with scaling exponents of 1.34 {+-} 0.07 for CoCr and CoCrPt films, despite their quite different domain evolution patterns. Numerical simulation of the first arrival time with an assumption that the magnetic domain wall traveled as a random walker well matches our experimentally observed scaling behavior, providing an experimental support for the random-walking model of traveling magnetic domain walls.

  7. Short time-scale periodicity in OJ 287

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihajoki, P.; Valtonen, M.; Ciprini, S.

    2013-10-01

    We have studied short-term variations of the blazar OJ 287, suspected to host a supermassive black hole binary. In this study, we use a two-season optical R-band data set from 2004 to 2006 which consists of 3991 data points from the OJ 287 observation campaign. It has sections of dense time coverage, and is largely independent from previously published data. We find that these data confirm the existence of a 50 d periodic component, presumably related to the half-period of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) of the primary black hole. In addition, we find several pseudo-periodic components in the 1-7 d range, most prominently at 3.5 d, which are likely Lorentz contracted jet re-emission of the 50 d component. The typical 50-d cycle exhibits a slow rise of brightness and a rapid dimming before the start of the new cycle. We explain this as being due to a spiral wave in the accretion disc which feeds the central black hole in this manner.

  8. Updating the planetary time scale: focus on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Quantin-Nataf, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Formal stratigraphic systems have been developed for the surface materials of the Moon, Mars, Mercury, and the Galilean satellite Ganymede. These systems are based on geologic mapping, which establishes relative ages of surfaces delineated by superposition, morphology, impact crater densities, and other relations and features. Referent units selected from the mapping determine time-stratigraphic bases and/or representative materials characteristic of events and periods for definition of chronologic units. Absolute ages of these units in some cases can be estimated using crater size-frequency data. For the Moon, the chronologic units and cratering record are calibrated by radiometric ages measured from samples collected from the lunar surface. Model ages for other cratered planetary surfaces are constructed primarily by estimating cratering rates relative to that of the Moon. Other cratered bodies with estimated surface ages include Venus and the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. New global geologic mapping and crater dating studies of Mars are resulting in more accurate and detailed reconstructions of its geologic history.

  9. On the time scale associated with Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Kristof M.; Neyts, Erik C.

    2014-11-01

    Uniform-acceptance force-bias Monte Carlo (fbMC) methods have been shown to be a powerful technique to access longer timescales in atomistic simulations allowing, for example, phase transitions and growth. Recently, a new fbMC method, the time-stamped force-bias Monte Carlo (tfMC) method, was derived with inclusion of an estimated effective timescale; this timescale, however, does not seem able to explain some of the successes the method. In this contribution, we therefore explicitly quantify the effective timescale tfMC is able to access for a variety of systems, namely a simple single-particle, one-dimensional model system, the Lennard-Jones liquid, an adatom on the Cu(100) surface, a silicon crystal with point defects and a highly defected graphene sheet, in order to gain new insights into the mechanisms by which tfMC operates. It is found that considerable boosts, up to three orders of magnitude compared to molecular dynamics, can be achieved for solid state systems by lowering of the apparent activation barrier of occurring processes, while not requiring any system-specific input or modifications of the method. We furthermore address the pitfalls of using the method as a replacement or complement of molecular dynamics simulations, its ability to explicitly describe correct dynamics and reaction mechanisms, and the association of timescales to MC simulations in general.

  10. Implications from Paleomagnetic Age Constrains and Petrology Analyses on the Reconstruction of the Triassic Paleosurface in Europe - Examples from Catalonia and the Polish Sudetes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcerisa, D.; Franke, C.; Fabrega, C.; Yao, K.; Thiry, M.

    2013-12-01

    The crystalline basement rocks (such as granites and rhyolithes) of European Variscan massifs often show Permo-Triassic paleomagnetic remagnetizations resulting in underestimated age determinations. These rejuvenated ages are attributed to an alteration of the primary paleomagnetic signal recently carried by the neo-formation of secondary hematite. Hematite forms under oxic conditions. Thus, one may deduce that the remagnetization of the Paleozoic crystalline rocks occurs once the basement rocks are exposed at the Permo-Triassic (paleo)surface. Permo-Triassic remagnetizations are ubiquitous, affecting many emerged Paleozoic rocks in Europe (and beyond) and suggesting a major weathering event under oxic conditions. The extent of the altered zone (> 100 m in depth) points to a sodium enriched groundwater environment. The Na+ enrichment is likely related to the Triassic environment characterized by widespread salt deposits, such as leaching of salt, marine aerosols, periodic/episodic contribution of seawater or evaporative solutions. Under these uncommon shallow conditions the basement rocks containing feldspars (mainly granites and gneisses) suffered an ubiquitous process of alteration consisting in the albitization of feldspars (fsp). The most visible feature of this alteration at outcrop scale is the pervasive red staining of the rock due to the presence of associated Fe-oxide inclusions, which are responsible for the penetrative red colour of the rock. Examination by petrographical microscopy shows that the fsp replacement by albite is pseudomorphic and the shape and optical properties of the parent fsp are preserved in the daughter grain. The composition of the albitized fsp is very constant and close to the albite end-member, displaying values of Ab96-97 in all studied massifs. In cathodoluminescence microscopy, the albitized fsp display a noticeable lack of luminescence, whereas the primary fsp usually show luminescence. The SEM images revealed that secondary albite contains widespread ?m and nm pores. Observations under SEM and HRSEM show that this microporosity is hoisting Fe-oxides inclusions responsible for the red colour. Most of the Fe-oxides tends to concentrate in the larger pores and in the majority of the imaged pores these Fe-oxides appears to be arranged in aggregates of nm size botryoids attached to the pore walls. Demonstrating that the albitized facies are of supergenic origin and that they are bound to the Triassic paleosurface deeply renews the ideas about the evolution of basement areas. The recognition of the Triassic paleosurface on widespread basements in Europe will provide spatio-temporal benchmarks to constrain the ablation of these massifs since the Triassic. This will be a major contribution to the geodynamic modelling of these areas.

  11. Climatic-scale space-time variability of tropical precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershunov, Alexander; Michaelsen, Joel

    1996-11-01

    More than 15 years of monthly microwave sounding unit rainfall data over the tropical oceans are analyzed to illustrate rainfall variability on various timescales and delineate its spatial patterns. The annual and semiannual components of the seasonal cycle are modeled with first and second annual harmonics at every 2.5 2.5 grid square. Regions of highest rainfall variability tend to be characterized by a powerful annual cycle. The semiannual cycle is generally a trivial component of the seasonal cycle, except in some regions where either the mean climatological precipitation is low or where the total seasonal cycle is weak. An interesting exception, in this respect, is a band of the southeastern tropical Pacific extending immediately to the south of the eastern equatorial Pacific cold tongue. Regions of highest climatological mean rainfall are characterized by weak seasonality but strong nonseasonal variability. After seasonality is described and removed from the data, nonseasonal variability is considered via principal component analysis in the time domain. The two dominant modes together describe precipitation variability associated with the El Nio-Southern Oscillation: they outline the evolution of warm- and cold-event precipitation anomalies and contrast the intense 1982-1983 warm event with the moderate events of 1986-1987 and 1992-1993. These two modes display oscillations with predominantly quasi-biennial and 5-year periods. Another coherent mode summarizes intraseasonal variability which, although inadequately resolved by the monthly average rainfall data, displays typical signs of the 40- to 50-day oscillation. All coherent modes, despite having much of their energy concentrated around rather different frequencies, show signs of interaction.

  12. Computational Modeling of Semiconductor Dynamics at Femtosecond Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Govind P.; Goorjian, Peter M.

    1998-01-01

    The Interchange No. NCC2-5149 deals with the emerging technology of photonic (or optoelectronic) integrated circuits (PICs or OEICs). In PICs, optical and electronic components are grown together on the same chip. To build such devices and subsystems, one needs to model the entire chip. PICs are useful for building components for integrated optical transmitters, integrated optical receivers, optical data storage systems, optical interconnects, and optical computers. For example, the current commercial rate for optical data transmission is 2.5 gigabits per second, whereas the use of shorter pulses to improve optical transmission rates would yield an increase of 400 to 1000 times. The improved optical data transmitters would be used in telecommunications networks and computer local-area networks. Also, these components can be applied to activities in space, such as satellite to satellite communications, when the data transmissions are made at optical frequencies. The research project consisted of developing accurate computer modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in semiconductors. Such modeling is necessary for the successful development of PICs. More specifically, these computer codes would enable the modeling of such devices, including their subsystems, such as semiconductor lasers and semiconductor amplifiers in which there is femtosecond pulse propagation. Presently, there are no computer codes that could provide this modeling. Current codes do not solve the full vector, nonlinear, Maxwell's equations, which are required for these short pulses and also current codes do not solve the semiconductor Bloch equations, which are required to accurately describe the material's interaction with femtosecond pulses. The research performed under NCC2-5149 solves the combined Maxwell's and Bloch's equations.

  13. Computational Modeling of Semiconductor Dynamics at Femtosecond Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Govind P.; Goorjian, Peter M.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of the Joint-Research Interchange NCC2-5149 was to develop computer codes for accurate simulation of femtosecond pulse propagation in semiconductor lasers and semiconductor amplifiers [I]. The code should take into account all relevant processes such as the interband and intraband carrier relaxation mechanisms and the many-body effects arising from the Coulomb interaction among charge carriers [2]. This objective was fully accomplished. We made use of a previously developed algorithm developed at NASA Ames [3]-[5]. The new algorithm was tested on several problems of practical importance. One such problem was related to the amplification of femtosecond optical pulses in semiconductors. These results were presented in several international conferences over a period of three years. With the help of a postdoctoral fellow, we also investigated the origin of instabilities that can lead to the formation of femtosecond pulses in different kinds of lasers. We analyzed the occurrence of absolute instabilities in lasers that contain a dispersive host material with third-order nonlinearities. Starting from the Maxwell-Bloch equations, we derived general multimode equations to distinguish between convective and absolute instabilities. We find that both self-phase modulation and intensity-dependent absorption can dramatically affect the absolute stability of such lasers. In particular, the self-pulsing threshold (the so-called second laser threshold) can occur at few times the first laser threshold even in good-cavity lasers for which no self-pulsing occurs in the absence of intensity-dependent absorption. These results were presented in an international conference and published in the form of two papers.

  14. Increased Atmospheric SO2 Detected from Changes in Leaf Physiognomy across the TriassicJurassic Boundary Interval of East Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Karen L.; Belcher, Claire M.; Haworth, Matthew; McElwain, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    The TriassicJurassic boundary (TrJ; ?201 Ma) is marked by a doubling in the concentration of atmospheric CO2, rising temperatures, and ecosystem instability. This appears to have been driven by a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle due to massive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. It is hypothesized that this volcanism also likely delivered sulphur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere. The role that SO2 may have played in leading to ecosystem instability at the time has not received much attention. To date, little direct evidence has been presented from the fossil record capable of implicating SO2 as a cause of plant extinctions at this time. In order to address this, we performed a physiognomic leaf analysis on well-preserved fossil leaves, including Ginkgoales, bennettites, and conifers from nine plant beds that span the TrJ boundary at Astarteklft, East Greenland. The physiognomic responses of fossil taxa were compared to the leaf size and shape variations observed in nearest living equivalent taxa exposed to simulated palaeoatmospheric treatments in controlled environment chambers. The modern taxa showed a statistically significant increase in leaf roundness when fumigated with SO2. A similar increase in leaf roundness was also observed in the TrJ fossil taxa immediately prior to a sudden decrease in their relative abundances at Astarteklft. This research reveals that increases in atmospheric SO2 can likely be traced in the fossil record by analyzing physiognomic changes in fossil leaves. A pattern of relative abundance decline following increased leaf roundness for all six fossil taxa investigated supports the hypothesis that SO2 had a significant role in TrJ plant extinctions. This finding highlights that the role of SO2 in plant biodiversity declines across other major geological boundaries coinciding with global scale volcanism should be further explored using leaf physiognomy. PMID:23593262

  15. Time scale defined by the fractal structure of the price fluctuations in foreign exchange markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Yoshiaki

    2010-04-01

    In this contribution, a new time scale named C-fluctuation time is defined by price fluctuations observed at a given resolution. The intraday fractal structures and the relations of the three time scales: real time (physical time), tick time and C-fluctuation time, in foreign exchange markets are analyzed. The data set used is trading prices of foreign exchange rates; US dollar (USD)/Japanese yen (JPY), USD/Euro (EUR), and EUR/JPY. The accuracy of the data is one minute and data within a minute are recorded in order of transaction. The series of instantaneous velocity of C-fluctuation time flowing are exponentially distributed for small C when they are measured by real time and for tiny C when they are measured by tick time. When the market is volatile, for larger C, the series of instantaneous velocity are exponentially distributed.

  16. A novel method to identify the scaling region for chaotic time series correlation dimension calculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CuiCui Ji; Hua Zhu; Wei Jiang

    2011-01-01

    To obtain more accurate correlation dimension estimations for chaotic time series, a novel scaling region identification method\\u000a is developed. First, points that obviously do not belong to the scaling region associated with the whole double logarithm\\u000a correlation integral curve are removed using the K-means algorithm. Second, a point-slope-error algorithm is developed to\\u000a recognize a possible scaling region. Third, the K-means

  17. Accessing ultrashort reaction times in particle formation with SAXS experiments: ZnS precipitation on the microsecond time scale.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Wolfgang; Bussian, Patrick; Lindn, Mika; Amenitsch, Heinz; Agren, Patrik; Tiemann, Michael; Schth, Ferdi

    2010-05-19

    Precipitation of zinc sulfide particles is a very rapid process, and monitoring of the particle growth is experimentally very demanding. Applying a liquid jet flow cell, we were able to follow zinc sulfide particle formation on time scales down to 10(-5) s. The flow cell was designed in such a way that data acquisition on the microsecond time scale was possible under steady-state conditions along a liquid jet (tubular reactor concept), allowing SAXS data accumulation over a time scale of minutes. We were able to monitor the growth of zinc sulfide particles and found experimental evidence for very rapid particle aggregation processes within the liquid jet. Under the experimental conditions the particle growth is controlled by mass transfer: i.e., the diffusion of the hydrogen sulfide into the liquid jet. PMID:20426411

  18. ScaleNet--multiscale neural-network architecture for time series prediction.

    PubMed

    Geva, A B

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of a multiscale neural-network (NN) architecture for the time series prediction of nonlinear dynamic systems has been investigated. The prediction task is simplified by decomposing different scales of past windows into different scales of wavelets (local frequencies), and predicting the coefficients of each scale of wavelets by means of a separate multilayer perceptron NN. The short-term history (short past windows) is decomposed into the lower scales of wavelet coefficients (high frequencies) which are utilized for "detailed" analysis and prediction, while the long-term history (long past window) is decomposed into higher scales of wavelet coefficients (low frequencies) that are used for the analysis and prediction of slow trends in the time series. These coordinated scales of time and frequency provides an interpretation of the series structures, and more information about the history of the series, using fewer coefficients than other methods. The prediction's results concerning all the different scales of time and frequencies are combined by another "expert" perceptron NN which learns the weight of each scale in the goal-prediction of the original time series. Each network is trained by the backpropagation algorithm using the Levenberg-Marquadt method. The weights and biases are initialized by a new clustering algorithm of the temporal patterns of the time series, which improves the prediction results as compared to random initialization. Three main sets of data were analyzed: the sunspots' benchmark, fluctuations in a farinfrared laser and a nonlinear numerically generated series. Taking the ultimate goal to be the accuracy of the prediction, we found that the suggested multiscale architecture outperforms the corresponding single-scale architectures. The employment of improved learning methods for each of the ScaleNet networks can further improve the prediction results. PMID:18255824

  19. Fine-scale variation in the timing of reproduction in titmice and chickadees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott M. Ramsay; Ken A. Otter

    Variation among female songbirds in the timing of clutch initiation has been studied, nearly continu- ously, for at least the last 60 years. Rather than a focus on control of broad timing patterns across sea- sons (Chapter 4), this research has concerned itself with fine-scale adjustment of reproductive timing for strategic breeding purposes. It has benefited from long-term data sets

  20. Time scales of porphyry Cu deposit formation: insights from titanium diffusion in quartz

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, Celestine N.; Reed, Mark H.; Mercer, Cameron M.

    2015-01-01

    Porphyry dikes and hydrothermal veins from the porphyry Cu-Mo deposit at Butte, Montana, contain multiple generations of quartz that are distinct in scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) images and in Ti concentrations. A comparison of microprobe trace element profiles and maps to SEM-CL images shows that the concentration of Ti in quartz correlates positively with CL brightness but Al, K, and Fe do not. After calibrating CL brightness in relation to Ti concentration, we use the brightness gradient between different quartz generations as a proxy for Ti gradients that we model to determine time scales of quartz formation and cooling. Model results indicate that time scales of porphyry magma residence are ~1,000s of years and time scales from porphyry quartz phenocryst rim formation to porphyry dike injection and cooling are ~10s of years. Time scales for the formation and cooling of various generations of hydrothermal vein quartz range from 10s to 10,000s of years. These time scales are considerably shorter than the ~0.6 m.y. overall time frame for each porphyry-style mineralization pulse determined from isotopic studies at Butte, Montana. Simple heat conduction models provide a temporal reference point to compare chemical diffusion time scales, and we find that they support short dike and vein formation time scales. We interpret these relatively short time scales to indicate that the Butte porphyry deposit formed by short-lived episodes of hydrofracturing, dike injection, and vein formation, each with discrete thermal pulses, which repeated over the ~3 m.y. generation of the deposit.

  1. Introductory Invited Paper Gate dielectric breakdown in the time-scale of ESD events

    E-print Network

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    Introductory Invited Paper Gate dielectric breakdown in the time-scale of ESD events Bonnie E. Weir- scale. ESD protection systems can thus be designed to prevent dielectric breakdown. Important concepts in gate dielec- tric breakdown such as the anode­hole injection model and area and statistical effects

  2. Mastering Uncertainty and Risk at Multiple Time Scales in the Future Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bent, Russell W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-10

    Today's electrical grids enjoy a relatively clean separation of spatio-temporal scales yielding a compartmentalization of grid design, optimization, control and risk assessment allowing for the use of conventional mathematical tools within each area. In contrast, the future grid will incorporate time-intermittent renewable generation, operate via faster electrical markets, and tap the latent control capability at finer grid modeling scales; creating a fundamentally new set of couplings across spatiotemporal scales and requiring revolutionary advances in mathematics techniques to bridge these scales. One example is found in decade-scale grid expansion planning in which today's algorithms assume accurate load forecasts and well-controlled generation. Incorporating intermittent renewable generation creates fluctuating network flows at the hourly time scale, inherently linking the ability of a transmission line to deliver electrical power to hourly operational decisions. New operations-based planning algorithms are required, creating new mathematical challenges. Spatio-temporal scales are also crossed when the future grid's minute-scale fluctuations in network flows (due to intermittent generation) create a disordered state upon which second-scale transient grid dynamics propagate effectively invalidating today's on-line dynamic stability analyses. Addressing this challenge requires new on-line algorithms that use large data streams from new grid sensing technologies to physically aggregate across many spatial scales to create responsive, data-driven dynamic models. Here, we sketch the mathematical foundations of these problems and potential solutions.

  3. Mechanistic scaling of ecosystem function and dynamics in space and time: Ecosystem Demography model version 2

    E-print Network

    Moorcroft, Paul R.

    Mechanistic scaling of ecosystem function and dynamics in space and time: Ecosystem Demography] Insights into how terrestrial ecosystems affect the Earth's response to changes in climate and rising contain detailed mechanistic representations of biological processes affecting terrestrial ecosystems

  4. Scaling graphs of heart rate time series in athletes demonstrating the VLF, LF and HF regions.

    PubMed

    Baumert, Mathias; Brechtel, Lars M; Lock, Juergen; Voss, Andreas; Abbott, Derek

    2006-09-01

    Scaling analysis of heart rate time series has emerged as a useful tool for the assessment of autonomic cardiac control. We investigate the heart rate time series of ten athletes (five males and five females), by applying detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). High resolution ECGs are recorded under standardized resting conditions over 30 min and subsequently heart rate time series are extracted and artifacts filtered. We find three distinct regions of scale invariance, which correspond to the well-known VLF, LF and HF bands in the power spectra of heart rate variability. The scaling exponents alpha are alpha(HF): 1.15 [0.96-1.22], alpha(LF): 0.68 [0.57-0.84], alpha(VLF): 0.83[0.82-0.99], p < 10(-5)). In conclusion, DFA scaling exponents of heart rate time series should be fitted to the VLF, LF and HF ranges, respectively. PMID:16868343

  5. Palaeogeographic evolution of the marine Middle Triassic marine Germanic Basin changements - With emphasis on the carbonate tidal flat and shallow marine habitats of reptiles in Central Pangaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2009-01-01

    More than seventy-five vertebrate track-sites have been found in Central Europe in 243-246.5 m.y. old Triassic coastal intertidal to sabkha carbonates. In the western part of the very flat Triassic intracontinental Germanic Basin, the carbonate strata contain at least 22 laterally extensive track horizons (called megatracksites). In contrast, in the eastern part of the basin only six megatracksites extended to near the centre of the Basin during marine low stands. Marine ingression and the development of extensive coastal marine environments began during the Aegean (Anisian) stage. This incursion began in the region of the eastern Carpathian and Silesian gates and spread westward due to the development of a tectonically controlled intracratonic basin. The tectonic origin of this basin made it susceptible to tsunamis and submarine earthquakes, which constituted very dangerous hazards for coastal terrestrial and even marine reptiles. The shallow sea that spread across the Germanic Basin produced extensive tidal flats that at times formed extensive inter-peninsular bridges between the Rhenish and Bohemian Massifs. The presence of these inter-peninsular bridges explains the observed distribution and movement of reptiles along coastal Europe and the northern Tethys Seaway during the Middle Triassic epoch. Two small reptiles, probably Macrocnemus and Hescherleria, left millions of tracks and trackways known as Rhynchosauroides and Procolophonichnium in the Middle Triassic coastal intertidal zone. The great abundance of their tracks indicates that their trackmakers Macrocnemus and Hescherleria were permanent inhabitants of this environment. In sharp contrast, tracks of other large terrestrial reptiles are quite rare along the coastal margins of the Germanic Basin, for example the recently discovered archaeosaur tracks and trackways referable to Isochirotherium, which most probably were made by the carnivore Ticinosuchus. Smaller medium-sized predatory thecodont reptiles, possibly Euparkeria, probably made the Brachychirotherium trackways that have been found across much of Central Europe. Large lepidosaurs such as Tanystrophaeus probably hunted in the tidal ponds and channels, where they locally produced Synaptichnium tracks. Recently discovered tracks made by a basal prosauropod are the world's oldest record of this group of dinosaurs, occurring in beds that have an age of about 243.5 Ma. (Pelsonian substage). This shows that very large prosauropods existed much earlier than was previously believed. These prosauropod tracks, along with tracks of small bipedal dinosaurs found in the Alps and Eastern France, show that by the middle part of the Middle Triassic the radiation and diversification of dinosaurs was already in progress. In the Germanic Basin, aquatic-adapted paraxial swimming sauropterygians are not known to have left tracks, except for occasional subaquatic swimming scratch-mark "trackways" within the coastal tidal flat zone. Marine-adapted aquatic reptiles migrated into the Germanic Basin with increasing frequency in the upper part of the Middle Triassic, when the bathymetry of the Germanic Basin was at its deepest following a strong regression that occurred due to basin uplift in the middle part of the Middle Triassic. These large marine reptiles included Pistosaurus, the ichthyosaurs Cymbospondylus or Mixosaurus, and many placodonts such as Cyamodus, Placodus and Paraplacodus, which fed on macroalgae and seem to have been the Triassic sea cows of their day. The distribution of these reptiles was mainly controlled by tectonics, but eustatic changes in sea level also were important and produced widespread environmental changes across the tidal flats up until their disappearance in the Germanic Basin in the late Middle Triassic. The initial break-up of Pangaea already had started in Middle Triassic time, and this event had begun to drastically change environments all over Central Europe. It is very interesting that dinosaurs began to diversify at exactly this time, and it seems likely that this was a direct

  6. RAP: A Real-Time Communication Architecture for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chenyang Lu; Brian M. Blum; Tarek F. Abdelzaher; John A. Stankovic; Tian He

    2002-01-01

    Large-scale wireless sensor networks represent a new generation of real-time embedded systems with signifi- cantly different communication constraints from tradi- tional networked systems. This paper presents RAP, a new real-time communication architecture for large- scale sensor networks. RAP provides convenient, high- level query and event services for distributed micro- sensing applications. Novel location-addressed com- munication models are supported by a

  7. Return map structure and entrainment in a time-state-scale re-entrant system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukio-Pegio Gunji; Kazuto Sasai; Masashi Aono

    2007-01-01

    From the perspective of a heterarchy, endo-physics, or internal measurement, a time-state-scale re-entrant system has been proposed [Y.-P. Gunji, K. Sasai, S. Wakisaka, BioSystems (submitted for publication)]. However, the dynamical structure of this system has yet to be estimated. Because the return map of the time-space re-entrant system results from the twisted coupling between the temporal and state-scale states, it

  8. Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Masafumi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Nishizawa, Manabu; Isozaki, Yukio; Takai, Ken; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhansheng

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen isotopic compositions of upper Permian to lowermost Triassic rocks were analyzed at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, in order to clarify changes in the oceanic nitrogen cycle around the Permian-Triassic boundary (P-TB) including the entire Changhsingian (Late Late Permian) prior to the extinction. The analyzed ca. 40 m thick interval across the P-TB at Chaotian consists of three stratigraphic units: the upper Wujiaping Formation, the Dalong Formation, and the lowermost Feixianguan Formation, in ascending order. The upper Wujiaping Formation, ca. 10 m thick, is mainly composed of dark gray limestone with diverse shallow-marine fossils such as calcareous algae and brachiopods, deposited on the shallow shelf. In contrast, the overlying Dalong Formation, ca. 25 m thick, is mainly composed of thinly bedded black mudstone and siliceous mudstone containing abundant radiolarians, deposited on the relatively deep slope/basin. Absence of bioturbation, substantially high total organic carbon contents (up to 15%), and abundant occurrence of pyrite framboids in the main part of the Dalong Formation indicate deposition under anoxic condition. The lowermost Feixianguan Formation, ca. 5 m thick, is composed of thinly bedded gray marl and micritic limestone with minor fossils such as ammonoids and conodonts, deposited on the relatively shallow slope. ?15NTN values are in positive values around +1 to +2 in the upper Wujiaping Formation implying denitrification and/or anammox in the ocean. ?15NTN values gradually decrease to -1 in the lower Dalong Formation and are consistently low (around 0) in the middle Dalong to lowermost Feixianguan Formation. No clear ?15NTN shift is recognized across the extinction horizon. The consistently low ?15NTN values suggest the enhanced nitrogen fixation in the ocean during the Changhsingian at Chaotian. Composite profiles based on previous and the present studies demonstrate the substantial ?15N variation on a global scale in the late Permian to earliest Triassic; a systematic ?15N difference by low and high latitudes is particularly clarified. Although the enhanced nitrogen fixation throughout the Changhsingian at Chaotian was likely a regional event in northwestern South China, the composite ?15N profiles imply that the sea area in which fixed nitrogen is depleted has gradually developed worldwide in the Changhsingian, possibly acting as a prolonged stress to shallow-marine biota.

  9. Contrasting Triassic ferroan granitoids from northwestern Liaoning, North China: Magmatic monitor of Mesozoic decratonization and a craton-orogen boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Yuan, Lingling; Xue, Fuhong; Zhang, Yanbin

    2012-07-01

    The diversity exhibited by ferroan granitoids testifies to multiple distinct crustal and mantle processes generally within extensional environments and thus holds the key to monitoring important geodynamic and crustal evolutionary processes and calibrating terrane tectonic affinity. This study documents three Middle to Late Triassic ferroan granitoid suites from northwestern Liaoning, North China, and proposes distinct petrogenetic scenarios for each. The Middle Triassic (ca. 238 Ma) Ping'andi (PAD) granites are mainly calc-alkali and peraluminous. Their radiogenic whole-rock Nd and zircon Hf isotopic signatures argue for an origin consistent with partial melting of a juvenile quartzofeldspathic crust formed by prior mantle-derived magmatic underplating and their differentiations. By contrast, the Late Triassic (ca. 220 Ma) Dashaoleng (DSL) and Sijiazi (SJZ) suites show an evolved character from alkali-calcic to alkali and from metaluminous to peraluminous. Their variably evolved whole-rock Sr-Nd and mixed zircon Hf isotopic compositions suggest that both suites were formed by variable mixing between depleted mantle-derived mafic magma and old crust-derived felsic magma, with distinctively higher input from juvenile components in the DSL suite. These contrasting ferroan granitoid suites not only provide a spatial marker for monitoring juxtaposition of the North China Craton (NCC) and the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) along a lithospheric-scale boundary fault in the region, but also present a temporal snapshot that records a southwardly-progressing crustal growth scenario possibly in response to lithospheric dripping within a post-orogenic extensional regime. The cratonic scale synthesis further indicates that diachronous decratonization pattern of the NCC might record episodic response of the craton to evolved plate tectonic processes with two contrasting Phanerozoic orogenic systems.

  10. Alongshore Shear-Dispersion of Surfzone Drifters: The Effect of a Finite Lagrangian Time-Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spydell, M. S.; Feddersen, F.

    2010-12-01

    GPS-tracked surfzone drifters were used to investigate surfzone dispersion. For the 2006 Huntington Beach (HB06) data, the alongshore diffusivity is related to the magnitude of the mean alongshore current V0 [Spydell et al. JGR 2009]. In particular the asymptotic alongshore diffusivity ?yy was approximately consistent with a "shear dispersion" scaling [e.g., Taylor 1953] ?yy = K V02 ?D, where K is a constant, and ?D=Ls2/?xx is the cross-shore diffusion time for surfzone width Ls and cross-shore diffusivity ?xx. However, the value of the constant K obtained from the in-situ data is more than three times that expected for the classic Taylor shear dispersion model that assumes uncorrelated Lagrangian velocities at all times. Lagrangian velocities in the surfzone are correlated and eventually become decorrelated at times longer than the Lagrangian time-scale ?L. A theory for shear-dispersion that includes the effect of a finite Lagrangian time-scale is presented. The shear-enhanced alongshore diffusivity for this model has a different scaling ?yy C V02(?D?L)1/2 where C is a constant given by the theory. This scaling better explains the HB06 data than the classic shear dispersion scaling. This new theory may have application in other geophysical fluid dynamics settings.

  11. Using time series analysis to study the relationship of precipitation to other climate characteristics across different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z.; Montalto, F. A.

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence, duration and intensity of precipitation are highly related to other climate characteristics, such as air pressure, relative humidity and temperature. At the same time, short-term precipitation variability at a point is nested into trends at much larger temporal (and spatial) scales. Most climate researchers describe regional precipitation either with reference to historical observations or by making generalized forecasts of decadal, annual, or seasonal trends informed by global or regional climate models. Despite its importance in runoff generation, infiltration, erosion, and other processes, trends in short time scale precipitation remain poorly characterized. In this study, hourly historical precipitation in six coastal cities (New York, Philadelphia, Providence, Boston, and Baltimore) is compared to longer (e.g. daily, monthly, annual) precipitation trends, as well as to other hourly climate measurements (e.g. relative humidity and air pressure) using time series analysis. The results describe the dependency of fine scale precipitation patterns on coarser ones, as well as relate micro-scale precipitation patterns to trends in other hourly climate characteristics. Historical observations reveal a positive dependence of cumulative rainfall depth across different temporal scales (e.g. hourly on daily, daily on monthly, monthly on annual) in all locations, while temporal trends were not obvious. The probability of rain is negatively correlated to air pressure throughout the year despite seasonal supply of humidity from the ocean.

  12. Scale relativity and fractal space-time: applications to quantum physics, cosmology and chaotic systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nottale, L.

    1996-06-01

    The theory of scale relativity is a new approach to the problem of the origin of fundamental scales and of scaling laws in physics, that consists of generalizing Einstein's principle of relativity to scale transformations. The author recalls in the present review paper how the development of the theory is intrinsically linked to the concept of fractal space-time, and how it allows one to recover quantum mechanics as mechanics on such a non-differentiable space-time, in which the Schrdinger equation is demonstrated as a geodesics equation. He recalls that the standard quantum behavior is obtained, however, as a manifestation of a "Galilean" version of the theory, while the application of the principle of relativity to linear scale laws leads to the construction of a theory of special scale relativity, in which there appears impassable, minimal and maximal scales, invariant under dilations. The theory is then applied to its preferential domains of applications, namely very small and very large length- and time-scales, i.e. high energy physics, cosmology and chaotic systems.

  13. Time-Scales for Non-Inductive Current Buildup in Low-Aspect-Ratio Toroidal Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    S.C. Jardin

    1999-11-01

    The fundamental differences between inductive and non-inductive current buildup are clarified and the associated time-scales and other implications are discussed. A simulation is presented whereby the plasma current in a low-aspect-ratio torus is increased primarily by the self-generated bootstrap current with only 10% coming from external current drive. The maximum obtainable plasma current by this process is shown to scale with the toroidal field strength. The basic physics setting the time-scales can be obtained from a 1D analysis. Comparisons are made between the timescales found here and those reported in the experimental literature.

  14. Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time

    PubMed Central

    Sahney, Sarda; Benton, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction, 251 million years (Myr) ago, was the most devastating ecological event of all time, and it was exacerbated by two earlier events at the beginning and end of the Guadalupian, 270 and 260?Myr ago. Ecosystems were destroyed worldwide, communities were restructured and organisms were left struggling to recover. Disaster taxa, such as Lystrosaurus, insinuated themselves into almost every corner of the sparsely populated landscape in the earliest Triassic, and a quick taxonomic recovery apparently occurred on a global scale. However, close study of ecosystem evolution shows that true ecological recovery was slower. After the end-Guadalupian event, faunas began rebuilding complex trophic structures and refilling guilds, but were hit again by the end-Permian event. Taxonomic diversity at the alpha (community) level did not recover to pre-extinction levels; it reached only a low plateau after each pulse and continued low into the Late Triassic. Our data showed that though there was an initial rise in cosmopolitanism after the extinction pulses, large drops subsequently occurred and, counter-intuitively, a surprisingly low level of cosmopolitanism was sustained through the Early and Middle Triassic. PMID:18198148

  15. Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time.

    PubMed

    Sahney, Sarda; Benton, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction, 251 million years (Myr) ago, was the most devastating ecological event of all time, and it was exacerbated by two earlier events at the beginning and end of the Guadalupian, 270 and 260 Myr ago. Ecosystems were destroyed worldwide, communities were restructured and organisms were left struggling to recover. Disaster taxa, such as Lystrosaurus, insinuated themselves into almost every corner of the sparsely populated landscape in the earliest Triassic, and a quick taxonomic recovery apparently occurred on a global scale. However, close study of ecosystem evolution shows that true ecological recovery was slower. After the end-Guadalupian event, faunas began rebuilding complex trophic structures and refilling guilds, but were hit again by the end-Permian event. Taxonomic diversity at the alpha (community) level did not recover to pre-extinction levels; it reached only a low plateau after each pulse and continued low into the Late Triassic. Our data showed that though there was an initial rise in cosmopolitanism after the extinction pulses, large drops subsequently occurred and, counter-intuitively, a surprisingly low level of cosmopolitanism was sustained through the Early and Middle Triassic. PMID:18198148

  16. Towards a verifiable real-time, autonomic, fault mitigation framework for large scale real-time systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhishek Dubey; Steven Nordstrom; Turker Keskinpala; Sandeep Neema; Ted Bapty; Gabor Karsai

    2007-01-01

    Designing autonomic fault responses is difficult, particularly in large-scale systems, as there is no single perfect fault\\u000a mitigation response to a given failure. The design of appropriate mitigation actions depend upon the goals and state of the\\u000a application and environment. Strict time deadlines in real-time systems further exacerbate this problem. Any autonomic behavior\\u000a in such systems must not only be

  17. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Lilai, E-mail: llxu@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Gao, Peiqing, E-mail: peiqing15@yahoo.com.cn [Xiamen City Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Management Office, 51 Hexiangxi Road, Xiamen 361004 (China); Cui, Shenghui, E-mail: shcui@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Chun, E-mail: xmhwlc@yahoo.com.cn [Xiamen City Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Management Office, 51 Hexiangxi Road, Xiamen 361004 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ? We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ? The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ? At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ? At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ? At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to develop integrated policies and measures for waste management over the long term.

  18. Feasibility of measuring the Shapiro time delay over meter-scale distances

    E-print Network

    S. Ballmer; S. Mrka; P. Shawhan

    2010-07-13

    The time delay of light as it passes by a massive object, first calculated by Shapiro in 1964, is a hallmark of the curvature of space-time. To date, all measurements of the Shapiro time delay have been made over solar-system distance scales. We show that the new generation of kilometer-scale laser interferometers being constructed as gravitational wave detectors, in particular Advanced LIGO, will in principle be sensitive enough to measure variations in the Shapiro time delay produced by a suitably designed rotating object placed near the laser beam. We show that such an apparatus is feasible (though not easy) to construct, present an example design, and calculate the signal that would be detectable by Advanced LIGO. This offers the first opportunity to measure space-time curvature effects on a laboratory distance scale.

  19. Universality and extremal aging for dynamics of spin glasses on sub-exponential time scales

    E-print Network

    G. Ben Arous; O. Gun

    2010-10-25

    We consider Random Hopping Time (RHT) dynamics of the Sherrington - Kirkpatrick (SK) model and p-spin models of spin glasses. For any of these models and for any inverse temperature we prove that, on time scales that are sub-exponential in the dimension, the properly scaled clock process (time-change process) of the dynamics converges to an extremal process. Moreover, on these time scales, the system exhibits aging like behavior which we called extremal aging. In other words, the dynamics of these models ages as the random energy model (REM) does. Hence, by extension, this confirms Bouchaud's REM-like trap model as a universal aging mechanism for a wide range of systems which, for the first time, includes the SK model.

  20. A Dynamic Voltage Scaling Algorithm for Dynamic-Priority Hard Real-Time Systems Using Slack Time Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woonseok Kim; Jihong Kim; Sang Lyul Min

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS), which adjusts the clockspeed and supply voltage dynamically, is an effective techniquein reducing the energy consumption of embedded real-timesystems. The energy efficiency of a DVS algorithm largelydepends on the performance of the slack estimation methodused in it. In this paper, we propose a novel DVS algorithmfor periodic hard real-time tasks based on an improved slackestimation algorithm.

  1. An efficient implicit-explicit adaptive time stepping scheme for multiple-time scale problems in shear zone development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Byung-Dal; Yuen, David A.; Lee, Sang-Mook

    2013-09-01

    Problems associated with shear zone development in the lithosphere involve features of widely different time scales, since the gradual buildup of stress leads to rapid and localized shear instability. These phenomena have a large stiffness in time domain and cannot be solved efficiently by a single time-integration scheme. This conundrum has forced us to use an adaptive time-stepping scheme, in particular, the adaptive time-stepping scheme (ATS) where the former is adopted for stages of quasi-static deformation and the latter for stages involving short time scale nonlinear feedback. To test the efficiency of this adaptive scheme, we compared it with implicit and explicit schemes for two different cases involving: (1) shear localization around the predefined notched zone and (2) asymmetric shear instability from a sharp elastic heterogeneity. The ATS resulted in a stronger localization of shear zone than the other two schemes. We report that usual implicit time step strategy cannot properly simulate the shear heating due to a large discrepancy between rates of overall deformation and instability propagation around the shear zone. Our comparative study shows that, while the overall patterns of the ATS are similar to those of a single time-stepping method, a finer temperature profile with greater magnitude can be obtained with the ATS. The ability to model an accurate temperature distribution around the shear zone may have important implications for more precise timing of shear rupturing.

  2. Increasing temperature forcing reduces the Greenland Ice Sheet's response time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, Patrick J.; Parizek, Byron R.; Nicholas, Robert E.; Alley, Richard B.; Keller, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Damages from sea level rise, as well as strategies to manage the associated risk, hinge critically on the time scale and eventual magnitude of sea level rise. Satellite observations and paleo-data suggest that the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) loses mass in response to increased temperatures, and may thus contribute substantially to sea level rise as anthropogenic climate change progresses. The time scale of GIS mass loss and sea level rise are deeply uncertain, and are often assumed to be constant. However, previous ice sheet modeling studies have shown that the time scale of GIS response likely decreases strongly with increasing temperature anomaly. Here, we map the relationship between temperature anomaly and the time scale of GIS response, by perturbing a calibrated, three-dimensional model of GIS behavior. Additional simulations with a profile, higher-order, ice sheet model yield time scales that are broadly consistent with those obtained using the three-dimensional model, and shed light on the feedbacks in the ice sheet system that cause the time scale shortening. Semi-empirical modeling studies that assume a constant time scale of sea level adjustment, and are calibrated to small preanthropogenic temperature and sea level changes, may underestimate future sea level rise. Our analysis suggests that the benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, in terms of avoided sea level rise from the GIS, may be greatest if emissions reductions begin before large temperature increases have been realized. Reducing anthropogenic climate change may also allow more time for design and deployment of risk management strategies by slowing sea level contributions from the GIS.

  3. Computational methods for time-scale analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iravanchy, Shawn

    Knowledge of the time-scale structure of a smooth finite dimensional nonlinear dynamical system provides the opportunity for model decomposition, if there are two or more disparate time-scales. A few benefits of such model decomposition are simplified control design and analysis and reduced computational effort in simulation. Singular perturbation theory provides the tools necessary to analyze and decompose a multiple time-scale nonlinear system, provided that it is in standard form. This dissertation contributes to the development of a systematic approach for determining the time-scales and the associated geometric structure in the state-space for a differential equation model in general form. The development began with the Ph.D. research of Bharadwaj[32] and was extended further in the paper by Mease, Bharadwaj, and Iravanchy[31]. The approach proceeds from investigating the behavior of the linear variational dynamics associated with a nonlinear system. By analyzing the propagation of a hyper-sphere of initial conditions which evolves into an hyper-ellipsoid in the tangent space, the time-scale information may be quantified. The time-scale information is characterized by the Lyapunov exponents and vectors, and they are related to the principal axes of the hyper-ellipsoid. The Lyapunov spectrum characterizes the average exponential rates of expansion or decay of nearby trajectories and their associated directions. It is known that the classical eigenspace analysis does not provide the correct information, i.e., eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the linearized dynamics. In this thesis the theory is extended to include dynamical systems that operate in non-Euclidean space, since a state transformation may effectively change the metric. The presentation of the entire theory provides the background for presenting the primary new contributions in this dissertation: the development and application of numerical methods for time-scale analysis. A systematic procedure is developed to diagnose, analyze, and extract the time-scale information for the system under study. The procedure includes the detection of the time-scales and their uniformity, the computation of the time-scale information, and the identification of a slow manifold. The algorithms are analyzed to better understand the error behavior, convergence rates, their geometric representation in state space, and the effect of state transformations. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. Evolution of the elastic moduli of seismogenic Triassic Evaporites subjected to cyclic stressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippetta, F.; Collettini, C.; Meredith, P. G.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2013-04-01

    Seismic cycles lead to variations in rock physical properties. Quantifying these changes is of key importance in building reliable crustal deformation models. Here we report laboratory measurements of the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, both static (Es, ?s) and dynamic (Ed, ?d) of the seismogenic Triassic Evaporites of the Northern Apennines. Triassic Evaporites are composed of dolostones, anhydrites and gypsum. Gypsum was the weakest lithology, with UCS values ranging from 10 to 26 MPa; anhydrite exhibited intermediate values from 52 to 144 MPa; and dolostones were the strongest with a maximum UCS of 228 MPa. During uniaxial cyclic stressing experiments, we observed complex variations in Es and? ?s with: large increases are observed in the early cycles (stage 1), followed by essentially constant values (stage 2), before Es decreases and ?s increases approaching failure (stage 3). Complementary microseismicity (acoustic emission, AE) data show no significant AE during stage 1, then the stress needed to induce AE remained essentially constant (stages 2 and 3). Integration of mechanical data with microstructural observations suggests a first stage dominated by compaction and strengthening, a second stage characterised by quasi-elastic behaviour associated with the development of randomly oriented microfractures, and a third stage of weakening due to the growth of macrofractures parallel to the direction of the load. Laboratory dynamic elastic moduli are, on average, in agreement with dynamic elastic moduli used in crustal modelling. However static values of Young's modulus are about 50% lower than dynamic ones, and static values of Poisson's ratio are about 40% higher with respect to dynamic values. These observations suggest that the frequency effect on the difference between laboratory and crustal scale dynamic moduli values is rather small and that static values of modulus are more appropriate for crustal deformation modelling than seismically derived values.

  5. Early Triassic stromatolites in a siliciclastic nearshore setting in northern Perth Basin, Western Australia: Geobiologic features and implications for post-extinction microbial proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Wang, Yongbiao; Kershaw, Stephen; Luo, Mao; Yang, Hao; Zhao, Laishi; Feng, Yuheng; Chen, Jianbo; Yang, Li; Zhang, Lei

    2014-10-01

    An Early Triassic stromatolite deposit in Gondwana is documented from the Smithian succession of the Lower Triassic Kockatea Shale Formation in the Northampton area, northern Geraldton, Western Australia. Abundant tube-like sheaths of filaments and tiny circular microspherule balls are well preserved in laminae of the Northampton stromatolites, which are characterized by finely laminated domes and digitate high-relief columns. These filament sheaths are superficially analogous to their counterparts of modern stromatolites, and thus are interpreted as putative fossilized filamentous cyanobacteria. Elemental mapping of EDS analysis shows very high contents of both Fe and Si elements as well as common presence of both S and Al elements along the laminae of the stromatolites, suggesting that the stromatolites may have been ferritized or silicified. Both ferritization and silicification may have played a crucial role in the exceptional preservation of the micro-structures in the Northampton stromatolites. The high content of Al along the laminae indicates that the stromatolites may have been influenced by terrigenous fine-grained clastics during their growth. The Northampton stromatolites show several growth modes, initiating on either pebbles/conglomerates or sandy seafloor and building laminar domes and digitate, high-relief columns during an initial transgression period. Steady increase in sea level facilitated the growth of stromatolites. The Early Triassic stromatolites ceased growth due to either rapid rise in sea level or increased clay influx probably sourced from increased weathering on land at that time, or both. The occurrence of the Northampton stromatolites in the siliciclastic succession, in comparison with published records of Early Triassic microbialites, reveals that post-extinction microbialites were widespread in the Smithian. Stromatolites show a broad geographic distribution from low-latitude to southern high-latitude regions of Gondwana and inhabited not only carbonate settings, but also siliciclastic nearshore settings. All features of these Early Triassic stromatolites indicate a microbial bloom in the aftermath of the P-Tr mass extinction.

  6. A new chronology for the end-Triassic mass extinction M.H.L. Deenen a,

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    from the Triassic to Jurassic Period, initiating the `Age of the dinosaurs', approximately 200 Ma. This event closely coincides with a period of extensive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. The TriassicJurassic (TJ) boundary is recently proposed in the marine record at the first occurrence datum

  7. A critical re?evaluation of the Late Triassic dinosaur taxa of North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sterling J. Nesbitt; Randall B. Irmis; William G. Parker

    2007-01-01

    The North American Triassic dinosaur record has been repeatedly cited as one of the most complete early dinosaur assemblages. The discovery of Silesaurus from Poland and the recognition that Herrerasaurus and Eoraptor may not be theropods have forced a re?evaluation of saurischian and theropod synapomorphies. Here, we re?evaluate each purported Triassic dinosaur from North America on a specimen by specimen

  8. Archosaur remains from the Otter Sandstone Formation (Middle Triassic, late Anisian) of Devon, southern UK

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    Archosaur remains from the Otter Sandstone Formation (Middle Triassic, late Anisian) of Devon. Introduction The Middle Triassic Otter Sandstone Formation of the south coast of Devon has been a source and incomplete in the Otter Sandstone Formation, and hitherto have been largely undiagnostic. Benton and Gower

  9. Reservoir characterization of lacustrine sediments from the Late Triassic, Beryl Field, UK North Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bond; J. E. Welton

    1996-01-01

    Located on the western flank of the Viking Graben, the Beryl Field has been producing from the Late Triassic Lewis reservoir since first oil in 1976. The Beryl A Triassic contains an estimated STOIIP of 256 mmstb, with a cumulative production of 31 mmstb (8\\/95) (12% recovery). Low recovery to date, coupled with high remaining reserves potential, necessitated a new

  10. Triassic-Jurassic faunal and floral transition in the Fundy Basin, Nova

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    . The Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction may have cleared ecological space for dinosaurian ascent much as the K-T Considered one of the five great mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic, the Triassic- Jurassic event-Jurassic mass extinction include sea-level change and anoxia (Hallam, 1990), a methane- and CO2- generated super

  11. CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE TRIASSIC-JURASSIC MASS EXTINCTION AS SEEN FROM THE HARTFORD BASIN

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    cleared ecological space for the rise of dinosaur dominance much as the K-T mass extinction preparedB5-1 CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE TRIASSIC-JURASSIC MASS EXTINCTION AS SEEN FROM THE HARTFORD of the most severe mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic, the Triassic-Jurassic event is greater or equal

  12. First Triassic palaeomagnetic constraints from Junggar (NW China) and their implications for the Mesozoic tectonics in Central Asia

    E-print Network

    Cogne, Jean-Pascal

    shows major rotations between the Late Permian and the Late JurassicEarly Cretaceous. These periods of the Mesozoic Tibetan and the Cenozoic Himalayan collisions. Triassic is a crucial period to understand between the Early and the Late Triassic and between the Late Triassic and the Late Jurassic

  13. Triassic arc-derived detritus in the Triassic Karakaya accretionary complex was not derived from either the S Eurasian margin (Istanbul terrane) or the N Gondwana margin (Taurides)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustamer, Timur; Ayda Ustamer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Gerdes, Axel; Zulauf, Gernold

    2014-05-01

    We present new U-Pb zircon source age data for Upper Triassic sandstones of the Istanbul Terrane (S Eurasian margin) and also for Triassic sandstones of the Taurides (N Gondwana margin). The main aim is to detect and quantify the contribution of Triassic magmatism as detritus to either of these crustal blocks. This follows the recent discovery of a Triassic magmatic arc source for the Triassic sandstones of the Palaeotethyan Karakaya subduction-accretion complex (Ustamer et al. 2013; this meeting). Carboniferous (Variscan) zircon grains also form a significant detrital population, plus several more minor populations. Six sandstone samples were studied, two from the ?stanbul Terrane (Bak?rl?k?ran Formation of the Kocaeli Triassic Basin) and four from the Tauride Autochthon (latest Triassic zmdere Formation and Mid-Triassic Kas?mlar Formations; Bey?ehir region). Detrital zircon grains were dated by the laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb method at Goethe University, Frankfurt. Our results do not reveal Triassic detritus in the zmdere Formation. The U-Pb age of the analysed zircon grains ranges from 267 Ma to 3.2 Ga. A small fraction of Palaeozoic zircons are Permian (267 to 296 Ma), whereas the remainder are Early Palaeozoic. Ordovician grains (4%) form two age clusters, one at ca. 450 Ma and the other at ca. 474 Ma. Cambrian-aged grains dominate the zircon population, while the second largest population is Ediacaran (576 to 642 Ma). Smaller populations occur at 909-997 Ma, 827-839 Ma, 1.8-2.0 Ga and 2.4-2.6 Ga. The sandstones of the Kas?mlar Formation have similar zircon age cluster to those of the somewhat younger zmdere Formation, ranging from 239 Ma to 2.9 Ga. A few grains gave Anisian ages. Cambrian zircon grains are less pronounced than in the Kas?mlar Formation compared to the zmdere Formation. The detrital zircon record of Tauride sandstones, therefore, not indicates significant contribution of Triassic or Carboniferous (Variscan) arc sources, in marked contrast to those of the Triassic Karakaya subduction complex. In comparison, the ages of the analysed zircons in the Upper Triassic sandstones of the Istanbul Terrane range from 294 Ma to 3.1 Ga. Triassic zircons are again absent, while Variscan-aged zircons (294 to 339 Ma) dominate the zircon population. Additional zircon populations are dated at 554 to 655 Ma, 0.9 to 1.2 Ga, 1.5 Ga, 1.65 Ga, 2.0 to 2.15 and 2.5 to 2.8 Ga. The Precambrian zircon age spectra are compatible with derivation from an Avalonian/Amazonian/Baltic crustal provenance. In summary, there is no evidence in either the Triassic sandstones of the ?stanbul Terrane or of the Taurides of the Triassic magmatic arc source that dominates the Triassic Karakaya subduction-accretion complex. Where then was the source of the Karakaya arc detritus? A likely option is that the Karakaya subduction-accretion complex is an exotic terrane that was detached from a source magmatic arc and displaced to its present location, probably prior the initial deposition of the Early Jurassic cover sediments. This study was supported by TUBITAK, Project No: 111R015

  14. Pre-, syn-, and postcollisional stratigraphic framework and provenance of upper triassic-upper cretaceous strata in the northwestern talkeetna mountains, alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, B.A.; Ridgway, K.D.; O'Neill, J. M.; Gehrels, G.E.; Schmidt, J.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Mesozoic strata of the northwestern Talkeetna Mountains are located in a regional suture zone between the allochthonous Wrangellia composite terrane and the former Mesozoic continental margin of North America (i.e., the Yukon-Tanana terrane). New geologic mapping, measured stratigraphic sections, and provenance data define a distinct three-part stratigraphy for these strata. The lowermost unit is greater than 290 m thick and consists of Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic mafic lavas, fossiliferous limestone, and a volcaniclastic unit that collectively we informally refer to as the Honolulu Pass formation. The uppermost 75 m of the Honolulu Pass formation represent a condensed stratigraphic interval that records limited sedimentation over a period of up to ca. 25 m.y. during Early Jurassic time. The contact between the Honolulu Pass formation and the overlying Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous clastic marine strata of the Kahiltna assemblage represents a ca. 20 m.y. depositional hiatus that spans the Middle Jurassic and part of Late Jurassic time. The Kahiltna assemblage may to be up to 3000 m thick and contains detrital zircons that have a robust U-Pb peak probability age of 119.2 Ma (i.e., minimum crystallization age/maximum depositional age). These data suggest that the upper age of the Kahiltna assemblage may be a minimum of 10-15 m.y. younger than the previously reported upper age of Valanginian. Sandstone composition (Q-43% F-30% L-27%-Lv-71% Lm-18% Ls-11%) and U-Pb detrital zircon ages suggest that the Kahiltna assemblage received igneous detritus mainly from the active Chisana arc, remnant Chitina and Talkeetna arcs, and Permian-Triassic plutons (Alexander terrane) of the Wrangellia composite terrane. Other sources of detritus for the Kahiltna assemblage were Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic plutons of the Taylor Mountains batholith and Devonian-Mississippian plutons; both of these source areas are part of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. The Kahiltna assemblage is overlain by previously unrecognized nonmarine strata informally referred to here as the Caribou Pass formation. This unit is at least 250 m thick and has been tentatively assigned an Albian-Cenomanian-to-younger age based on limited palynomorphs and fossil leaves. Sandstone composition (Q-65% F-9% L-26%-Lv-28% Lm-52% Ls-20%) from this unit suggests a quartz-rich metamorphic source terrane that we interpret as having been the Yukon-Tanana terrane. Collectively, provenance data indicate that there was a fundamental shift from mainly arc-related sediment derivation from sources located south of the study area during Jurassic-Early Cretaceous (Aptian) time (Kahiltna assemblage) to mainly continental margin-derived sediment from sources located north and east of the study area by Albian-Cenomanian time (Caribou Pass formation). We interpret the threepart stratigraphy defined for the northwestern Talkeetna Mountains to represent pre- (the Honolulu Pass formation), syn- (the Kahiltna assemblage), and post- (the Caribou Pass formation) collision of the Wrangellia composite terrane with the Mesozoic continental margin. A similar Mesozoic stratigraphy appears to exist in other parts of south-central and southwestern Alaska along the suture zone based on previous regional mapping studies. New geologic mapping utilizing the three-part stratigraphy interprets the northwestern Talkeetna Mountains as consisting of two northwest-verging thrust sheets. Our structural interpretation is that of more localized thrust-fault imbrication of the three-part stratigraphy in contrast to previous interpretations of nappe emplacement or terrane translation that require large-scale displacements. Copyright ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  15. Caustic Crossing Microlensing Event by Binary MACHOs and Time Scale Bias

    E-print Network

    Mareki Honma

    1998-11-25

    Caustic crossing microlensing events provide us a unique opportunity to measure the relative proper motion of the lens to the source, and so those caused by binary MACHOs are of great importance for understanding the structure of the Galactic halo and the nature of MACHOs. The microlensing event 98-SMC-01, occurred in June 1998, is the first event for which the proper motion is ever measured through the caustic crossing, and this event may be caused by binary MACHOs as we argue in this Letter. Motivated by the possible existence of binary MACHOs, we have performed the Monte Carlo simulations of caustic crossing events by binary MACHOs and investigated the properties and detectability of the events. Our calculation shows that typical caustic crossing events have the interval between two caustic crossings ($t_{\\rm cc}$) of about 5 days. We argue that with the current strategy of binary event search the proper motions of these typical events are not measurable because of the short time scale. Therefore the proper motion distribution measured from caustic crossing events suffers significantly from {`}time scale bias{'}, which is a bias toward finding long time scale events and hence slowly moving lenses. We predict there are two times more short time scale events ($t_{\\rm cc}\\le 10$ days) than long time scale events ($t_{\\rm cc}\\ge 10$ days), and propose an hourly monitoring observation instead of the nightly monitoring currently undertaken to detect caustic crossing events by binary MACHOs more efficiently.

  16. The Eastern Carpathians ophiolites (Romania): Remnants of a Triassic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeck, Volker; Ionescu, Corina; Balintoni, Ioan; Koller, Friedrich

    2009-03-01

    Mesozoic ophiolitic and related rocks in the Eastern Carpathians occur in three areas, from north to south: Rar?u, H?ghima? and Per?ani Mts. They are found as blocks ranging from few metres to a few kilometers in size and as centimetre-sized in breccias, most likely embedded in the Late Barremian-Early Albian Wildflysch formation. Compositionally, they range from lherzolites and harzburgites to mafics such as FeTi gabbros, dolerites, basalts, and to andesites. The volcanics comprise highly-depleted basalts/andesites to enriched-type mid-ocean ridge basalts; additionally they include ocean island basalts and calc-alkaline basalts/andesites and trachytes. Based on paleontological evidence, their age is Middle to ?Late Triassic. They can be clearly compared with remnants of the Meliata-Hallstatt Ocean in the Western Carpathians, but do not match the Jurassic ophiolites and island arc volcanics in the Mure? Zone of the Southern Apuseni Mts. We propose a Triassic ocean connected with the Meliata-Hallstatt Ocean, between (a) the Bucovinian/Sub-Bucovinian continental crust, (b) the Infrabucovinian and finally (c) the Northern Apuseni microcontinents. This ocean closed in the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic causing close juxtaposition of all three microcontinents. An ophiolite complex together with ocean island basalts and calc-alkaline basalts/andesites remained from this ocean and was subsequently eroded and transported as blocks of different size into the Lower Cretaceous Wildflysch basin, together with blocks and clasts of limestones similar to the Mesozoic sedimentary sequences in the Northern Apuseni realm. The Wildflysch formation was thrust as an independent unit during the Albian over the Bucovinian Nappe in the Eastern Carpathians and the Northern Apuseni continental crust, respectively.

  17. Triassic-Jurassic Mass Extinction: Evidence for Bolide Impact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, R.; Becker, L.; Haggart, J.; Poreda, R.

    2003-04-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic (TJ) mass extinction event is one of the most severe in geologic history and is one of the five largest in the Phanerozoic with as many as 80% of the species lost. It is also one of the most poorly understood. Only a few geologic sections have been identified for the TJ extinction and most of those are not well preserved. Previously, the paucity of suitable stratigraphic sections has prevented corroborative geochemical studies. Recently a well-preserved stratigraphic section spanning the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (200 mya) was identified at Kennecott Point, Queen Charlotte, Islands, British Columbia. Initial studies have shown that the Kennecott Point sequence is one of the best preserved and contains one of the most complete radiolarian microfossil turnovers known. Analyses of stable isotopes have shown that a 13C perturbation exits within the sequence and suggests a decline in organic productivity (Ward et al., 2001). Preliminary results of laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) of selected Queen Charlotte samples suggest that fullerenes (C60 to C200) may be present in the Kennecott Point stratigraphic sequence. Previous studies have shown that fullerenes are present in the mass extinction boundary of the Permian-Triassic (251 mya) as well as the well-known "dinosaur" extinction event of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (65 mya). Therefore, three of the big five extinction events appear to have associated fullerenes. The possible presence of fullerenes along with the productivity collapse (rapid environmental change) suggests that a cometary or asteroidal impact may have occurred. Although no known impact crater exists, we hope to present chemical evidence that an impact or multiple impacts may have been responsible for the TJ mass extinction.

  18. Rapid eruption of the siberian traps flood basalts at the permo-triassic boundary.

    PubMed

    Renne, P R; Basu, A R

    1991-07-12

    The Siberian Traps represent one of the most voluminous flood basalt provinces on Earth. Laser-heating (40)Ar/(39)Ar data indicate that the bulk of these basalts was erupted over an extremely short time interval (900,000 +/- 800,000 years) beginning at about 248 million years ago at mean eruption rates of greater than 1.3 cubic kilometers per year. Such rates are consistent with a mantle plume origin. Magmatism was not associated with significant lithospheric rifting; thus, mantle decompression resulting from rifting was probably not the primary cause of widespread melting. Inception of Siberian Traps volcanism coincided (within uncertainty) with a profound faunal mass extinction at the Permo-Triassic boundary 249 +/- 4 million years ago; these data thus leave open the question of a genetic relation between the two events. PMID:17779134

  19. Paleomagnetism and Magnetostratigraphy of the Upper Triassic Chinle Group in North- Central, Western and Eastern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeigler, K. E.; Geissman, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    The Upper Triassic Chinle Group spans most of the Late Triassic and was deposited by a large scale fluvial system. Chinle Group strata are composed of predominantly red to purple mudstones with lesser orange siltstones and buff to red sandstones. In the Chama Basin, north-central New Mexico, both lower and upper Chinle strata are well-exposed and sections at several localities have been sampled to develop a more complete magnetic reversal chronology for the Late Triassic of the American Southwest. Localities in eastern and west- central New Mexico were also sampled for comparative purposes. Sampling at all sections concentrated on hematitic mudrocks and these materials typically carry a well-defined, well-grouped, dual polarity magnetization dominated by pigmentary hematite with laboratory unblocking temperatures about 660C we interpret as a primary, Late Triassic remanence (e.g., Painted Desert Mbr., corrected grand mean: D = 182.9, I = 4.4, ?95 = 2.9, k = 61.7, N/No = 40/45 sites (14 levels of N polarity, 26 levels of R polarity). The Shinarump Formation (lowest unit of the Chinle Group) failed to yield interpretable magnetizations. The Salitral, Poleo, Petrified Forest and Rock Point formations all yielded magnetizations with either south or north-seeking declinations and shallow inclinations, comparable to those of the Painted Desert Member(e.g.: Poleo Formation grand mean: D = 183.1, I = 0.3deg, ?95 = 5.7, k = 33.9, N/No = 20/30). Although the Chinle Group of New Mexico was sampled at a relatively coarse sampling interval, the composite, yet incomplete,magnetic reversal chronology derived from these sections compares, at a gross scale, to similar age strata from Arizona, eastern North America and the Tethyan region of southern Europe. Chinle Group strata of Carnian age (based on palynostratigraphy) are of mixed polarity. Lower Norian strata are dominantly of reverse polarity and upper Norian strata are of mixed polarity. Paleopoles calculated from averaged VGPs show very little motion along the apparent polar wander path throughout the Carnian (Salitral Fm. Pole: 56.9N, 62.0E, A95 = 4.8) and early Norian (Petrified Forest Fm., Painted Desert Member: 55.3N, 67.3E, A95 = 3.2), followed by a shift in the pole position in the Late Norian (Rock Point Fm.: 58.5N, 42.4E, A95 = 14.8deg).

  20. Change ?S of the entropy in natural time under time reversal: Complexity measures upon change of scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarlis, N. V.; Christopoulos, S.-R. G.; Bemplidaki, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    The entropy S in natural time as well as the entropy in natural time under time reversal S- have already found useful applications in the physics of complex systems, e.g., in the analysis of electrocardiograms (ECGs). Here, we focus on the complexity measures ?l which result upon considering how the statistics of the time series ? S?ft[\\equiv S- S-\\right] changes upon varying the scale l. These scale-specific measures are ratios of the standard deviations ?(? S_l) and hence independent of the mean value and the standard deviation of the data. They focus on the different dynamics that appear on different scales. For this reason, they can be considered complementary to other standard measures of heart rate variability in ECG, like SDNN, as well as other complexity measures already defined in natural time. An application to the analysis of ECG when solely using NN intervals is presented: We show how ?l can be used to separate ECG of healthy individuals from those suffering from congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death.

  1. Disk File Management in a Medium-Scale Time-Sharing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Robert J.; Pethia, Richard D.

    The paper descibes a compact and highly efficient disk file management system responsible for the management and allocation of space on moving head disk drives in a medium-scale time-sharing system. The disk file management system is a major component of the Experimental Time-Sharing System (ETSS) developed at the Learning Research and Development

  2. Short time-scale effects in the pulsed source thermal lens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Bailey; F. R. Cruickshank; R. Guthrie; D. Pugh; I. J. M. Weir

    1983-01-01

    The pressure and density disturbances which develop in a gas after the absorption of a short laser pulse of gaussian radial profile have been analysed in terms of the characteristic times for pressure wave propagation and vibrational-translational energy transfer for the absorber molecules. The relative time scales of other processes affecting the disturbance have also been considered. Experimental results, in

  3. Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series Gandhimohan M. Viswanathan,1

    E-print Network

    . This highly ir- regular behavior has recently motivated investigators 2­7 to apply time-series analysesDeviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series Gandhimohan M. Viswanathan,1 C.-K. Peng,1,2 H. Eugene Stanley,1 and Ary L. Goldberger2 1 Center for Polymer Studies

  4. Comparative Analysis of DNA Replication Timing Reveals Conserved Large-Scale Chromosomal Architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eitan Yaffe; Shlomit Farkash-Amar; Andreas Polten; Zohar Yakhini; Amos Tanay; Itamar Simon

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the timing of DNA replication is coordinated across megabase-scale domains in metazoan genomes, yet the importance of this aspect of genome organization is unclear. Here we show that replication timing is remarkably conserved between human and mouse, uncovering large regions that may have been governed by similar replication dynamics since these species have diverged. This conservation

  5. Fast Similarity Search in the Presence of Noise, Scaling, and Translation in Time-Series Databases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh Agrawal; King-ip Lin; Harpreet S. Sawhney; Kyuseok Shim

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a new model of similarity of time se- quences that captures the intuitive notion that two sequences should be considered similar if they have enough non-overlapping time-ordered pairs of subse- quences thar are similar. The model allows the am- plitude of one of the two sequences to be scaled by any suitable amount and its offset adjusted appropriately.

  6. Just In Time Dynamic Voltage Scaling: Exploiting Inter-Node Slack to Save Energy in MPI

    E-print Network

    Lowenthal, David

    Just In Time Dynamic Voltage Scaling: Exploiting Inter-Node Slack to Save Energy in MPI Programs- duces the frequency on nodes that are assigned less computa- tion and therefore have slack time of energy. Thus, one can dynamically adjust the tradeoffs between performance and energy savings. Previously

  7. Scale effects on headwater catchment runoff timing, flow sources, and groundwater-streamflow relations

    E-print Network

    McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    correlation between riparian zone groundwater levels and runoff for the headwaters, whereas the water tablesScale effects on headwater catchment runoff timing, flow sources, and groundwater on headwater catchment runoff timing, flow sources, and groundwater-streamflow relations, Water Resour. Res

  8. ROBUST CLOSED-LOOP PITCH ESTIMATION FOR HARMONIC CODERS BY TIME SCALE MODIFICATION*

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    ROBUST CLOSED-LOOP PITCH ESTIMATION FOR HARMONIC CODERS BY TIME SCALE MODIFICATION* Chunyan Li for pitch estimation, but is more broadly applicable. For each of a set of pitch candidates generated by a time-domain pitch estimator, the residual is modified to match the pitch contour derived from

  9. Coevolution of strategy-selection time scale and cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Zhihai; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Chen, Guanrong

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate a networked prisoner's dilemma game where individuals' strategy-selection time scale evolves based on their historical learning information. We show that the more times the current strategy of an individual is learnt by his neighbors, the longer time he will stick on the successful behavior by adaptively adjusting the lifetime of the adopted strategy. Through characterizing the extent of success of the individuals with normalized payoffs, we show that properly using the learned information can form a positive feedback mechanism between cooperative behavior and its lifetime, which can boost cooperation on square lattices and scale-free networks.

  10. Can inertial electrostatic confinement work beyond the ion-ion collisional time scale?

    SciTech Connect

    Nevins, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Inertial electrostatic confinement systems are predicated on a non-equilibrium ion distribution function. Coulomb collisions between ions cause this distribution to relax to a Maxwellian on the ion-ion collisional time-scale. The power required to prevent this relaxation and maintain the IEC configuration for times beyond the ion-ion collisional time scale is shown to be at least an order of magnitude greater than the fusion power produced. It is concluded that IEC systems show little promise as a basis for the development of commercial electric power plants.

  11. Can inertial electrostatic confinement work beyond the ion--ion collisional time scale?

    SciTech Connect

    Nevins, W.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) systems are predicated on a nonequilibrium ion distribution function. Coulomb collisions between ions cause this distribution to relax to a Maxwellian on the ion--ion collisional time scale. The power required to prevent this relaxation and maintain the IEC configuration for times beyond the ion--ion collisional time scale is shown to be greater than the fusion power produced. It is concluded that IEC systems show little promise as a basis for the development of commercial electric power plants. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  12. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of the Syracuse Athena Temple: Scale Invariance in the Timing of Ruptures

    SciTech Connect

    Niccolini, G.; Carpinteri, A.; Lacidogna, G.; Manuello, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)] [Department of Structural Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2011-03-11

    We perform a comparative statistical analysis between the acoustic-emission time series from the ancient Greek Athena temple in Syracuse and the sequence of nearby earthquakes. We find an apparent association between acoustic-emission bursts and the earthquake occurrence. The waiting-time distributions for acoustic-emission and earthquake time series are described by a unique scaling law indicating self-similarity over a wide range of magnitude scales. This evidence suggests a correlation between the aging process of the temple and the local seismic activity.

  13. Comparative Analysis of DNA Replication Timing Reveals Conserved Large-Scale Chromosomal Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Polten, Andreas; Yakhini, Zohar; Tanay, Amos; Simon, Itamar

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the timing of DNA replication is coordinated across megabase-scale domains in metazoan genomes, yet the importance of this aspect of genome organization is unclear. Here we show that replication timing is remarkably conserved between human and mouse, uncovering large regions that may have been governed by similar replication dynamics since these species have diverged. This conservation is both tissue-specific and independent of the genomic G+C content conservation. Moreover, we show that time of replication is globally conserved despite numerous large-scale genome rearrangements. We systematically identify rearrangement fusion points and demonstrate that replication time can be locally diverged at these loci. Conversely, rearrangements are shown to be correlated with early replication and physical chromosomal proximity. These results suggest that large chromosomal domains of coordinated replication are shuffled by evolution while conserving the large-scale nuclear architecture of the genome. PMID:20617169

  14. The Late Triassic Central Patagonian Batholith: Magma hybridization, 40Ar/39Ar ages and thermobarometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaffarana, Claudia B.; Somoza, Rubn; Lpez de Luchi, Mnica

    2014-11-01

    The Late Triassic Central Patagonian Batholith is a key element in paleogeographic models of West Gondwana just before to the break-up of the supercontinent. The preexisting classification of units of this batholith was mainly based on isotopic and geochemical data. Here we report the results of field mapping and petrography, backed up by three new 40Ar/39Ar biotite ages, which reveal previously unnoticed relationships of the rocks in the batholith. Based on the new information we present a reorganization of units where the batholith is primarily formed by the Gastre and the Lipetrn superunits. The Gastre Superunit is the oldest magmatic suite and is composed of I-type granites which display evidence of felsic and mafic magma interaction. It is formed by 4 second-order units: 1) equigranular hornblende-biotite granodiorites, 2) porphyritic biotite-hornblende monzogranites, 3) equigranular biotitic monzogranites and 4) hornblende quartz-diorites. Emplacement depth of the Gastre Superunit is bracketed between 6 and 11 km (1.8-3 kbar), and the maximum recorded temperatures of emplacement are comprised between 660 and 800 C. The recalculated Rb/Sr age is 222 3 Ma and the porphyritic biotite-hornblende monzogranites yielded a 40Ar/39Ar age in biotite of 213 5 Ma. On the other hand, the Lipetrn Superunit is made up by fine-grained biotitic monzo- and syenogranites that postdate magma hybridization processes and intrude all the other units. The recalculated Rb/Sr age for this suite is identical to a 40Ar/39Ar age in biotite extracted from one of its monzogranites (206.4 5.3 and 206 4 Ma, respectively). This and the observed textural features suggest very fast cooling related to a subvolcanic emplacement. An independent unit, the Horqueta Granodiorite, which has previously been considered as the record of a Jurassic intrusive stage in the Central Patagonian Batholith, gave a 40Ar/39Ar age in biotite of 214 2 Ma. This and the reexamination of available isotopic data allow propose that this granodiorite unit is part of the Late Paleozoic intrusives in the region. The Late Triassic Central Patagonian Batholith is overlain by 190-185 Ma volcano-sedimentary rocks, suggesting that it was exposed sometime between the latest Triassic and earliest Jurassic times, roughly coeval with a major accretionary episode in the southwestern margin of Gondwana.

  15. The Pangea Problem: Insights from New Permo-Triassic Paleomagnetic Data from Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeier, M. M.; van der Voo, R.; Tomezzoli, R.; Torsvik, T. H.; Tohver, E.; Hendriks, B.; Vizan, H.; Dominguez, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    Assuming the widely accepted Pangea reconstruction, the so called A-fit wherein the eastern margin of North America abuts northwest Africa (e.g. Bullard et al., 1965), Permian and Triassic paleopoles from Gondwana and Laurasia do not statistically coincide, unless heavy filtering is applied to the existing global paleomagnetic database. Forcing a fit of these paleopoles, while maintaining the internal geometry of the supercontinent, results in an unacceptable overlap of continental elements on the order of 10 degrees (~1000 km). To alleviate this problem, alternative paleogeographies and non-dipole field (NDF) models have been invoked. Alternative reconstructions are unfavorable geologically, as they inevitably require large transformative events (i.e. a 3500 km transcontinental megashear) for which there is little structural evidence. NDF arguments lack a causative mechanism, and undermine a central tenet of paleomagnetism, the geocentric axial dipole (GAD) hypothesis. Given the implications of these solutions, it is important to first examine the possibility that the problem could be an artifact of flawed data, arising from erroneous age assignments or directional biases rooted in local block rotations, shallowed inclinations, unrecognized remagnetizations, etc. Experiments with data filtering add credence to this notion, as cratonic overlap is reduced by using only high-quality paleopoles - but at the expense of severely thinning the dataset. In order to test this hypothesis more rigorously, new high-quality Mid-to-Late Permian and Early Triassic paleomagnetic data have been collected from Argentina. Our sampling strategy targeted volcanics to minimize the effects of inclination shallowing, and AMS/AARM was employed to improve structural control. Coupled thermal/AF demagnetization and rock magnetic experiments were utilized to fully characterize the magnetic components and remanence carriers. Age constraints on the volcanics have been improved with new geochronologic work and early/primary magnetic acquisition is demonstrable through stability tests. These new results refute the necessity of alternative reconstructions or NDF models during Late Permian-Early Triassic time, as the paleomagnetic data allow Gondwana and Laurasia to be restored to a tight A-type fit, without producing impossible continental overlap. Thus, alternative reconstructions of Pangea should be restricted to the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian, and the transformative megashearing event must have occurred prior to the Late Permian, if at all.

  16. Evolutionary and Ecological Sequelae of Mass Extinctions: Examples From the Continental Triassic-Jurassic Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, P. E.; Whiteside, J. H.

    2003-12-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic boundary at 200 Ma marks one of the five major mass-extinctions of the Phanerozoic and, depending on the metrics used, was similar in magnitude to the K-T mass extinction. In continental environments about 50% of all tetrapod families are eliminated and although floral diversity change is difficult to gauge, a similar proportion of palynomorph taxa disappear at the boundary. The extinction event appears to have been very abrupt, followed by a roughly 900 ky super-greenhouse period characterized by increased precipitation. We hypothesize a series of biological consequences of the drop in diversity and associated super-greenhouse based on observations of the earliest Jurassic assemblages, largely from eastern North America. 1) The drop in diversity results in a collapse of ecological interactions that tend to stabilize the composition of regional biotas and buffer them from invading forms. Triassic assemblages show considerable biogeographic provinciality despite the existence of Pangea, but the earliest Jurassic assemblages were extraordinarily homogenous with many vertebrate genera being essentially global in distribution. 2) Initially the post-boundary terrestrial assemblages were comprised of eurytopic trophic generalists, with animal communities with few herbivores, but abundant carnivores and detritivores subsisting on aquatic-based food webs. The earliest Jurassic tetrapod footprint record is overwhelmingly dominated by the footprints of ceratosaurian theropod dinosaurs, the latter having skull characteristics usually associated at least in part with piscivory. 3) The dramatic size changes over very short periods of time were likely due to an absence of competition (i.e., ecological release). The maximum size of theropod dinosaur footprints increased by about 25% within 10 ky following the boundary, corresponding to a doubling of mass. 4) Representatives of clades with intrinsically high rates of speciation tend to form species flocks after the boundary. Species flocks of semionotid fishes dominated earliest Jurassic giant rift lakes in eastern North America, but not Triassic or later Early Jurassic lakes in the same basins. Based on footprint data, it is quite possible that there were also species flocks of morphologically similar ceratosaurian theropod dinosaurs in the Early Jurassic.

  17. Synchronous Wildfire Activity Rise and Mire Deforestation at the TriassicJurassic Boundary

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Henrik I.; Lindstrm, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction event (?201.4 million years ago) caused major faunal and floral turnovers in both the marine and terrestrial realms. The biotic changes have been attributed to extreme greenhouse warming across the TriassicJurassic (TJ) boundary caused by massive release of carbon dioxide and/or methane related to extensive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), resulting in a more humid climate with increased storminess and lightning activity. Lightning strikes are considered the primary source of wildfires, producing charcoal, microscopically recognized as inertinite macerals. The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of pyrolytic origin and allochthonous charcoal in siliciclastic TJ boundary strata has suggested widespread wildfire activity at the time. We have investigated largely autochthonous coal and coaly beds across the TJ boundary in Sweden and Denmark. These beds consist of predominantly organic material from the in situ vegetation in the mires, and as the coaly beds represent a substantial period of time they are excellent environmental archives. We document a remarkable increase in inertinite content in the coal and coaly beds across the TJ boundary. We show estimated burning temperatures derived from inertinite reflectance measurements coupled with palynological data and conclude that pre-boundary late Rhaetian mire wildfires included high-temperature crown fires, whereas latest RhaetianSinemurian mire wildfires were more frequent but dominated by lower temperature surface fires. Our results suggest a major change in the mire ecosystems across the TJ boundary from forested, conifer dominated mires to mires with a predominantly herbaceous and shrubby vegetation. Contrary to the overall regional vegetation for which onset of recovery commenced in the early Hettangian, the sensitive mire ecosystem remained affected during the Hettangian and did not start to recover until around the HettangianSinemurian boundary. Decreasing inertinite content through the Lower Jurassic suggests that fire activity gradually resumed to considerable lower levels. PMID:23077574

  18. Synchronous wildfire activity rise and mire deforestation at the triassic-jurassic boundary.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Henrik I; Lindstrm, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction event (?201.4 million years ago) caused major faunal and floral turnovers in both the marine and terrestrial realms. The biotic changes have been attributed to extreme greenhouse warming across the Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary caused by massive release of carbon dioxide and/or methane related to extensive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), resulting in a more humid climate with increased storminess and lightning activity. Lightning strikes are considered the primary source of wildfires, producing charcoal, microscopically recognized as inertinite macerals. The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of pyrolytic origin and allochthonous charcoal in siliciclastic T-J boundary strata has suggested widespread wildfire activity at the time. We have investigated largely autochthonous coal and coaly beds across the T-J boundary in Sweden and Denmark. These beds consist of predominantly organic material from the in situ vegetation in the mires, and as the coaly beds represent a substantial period of time they are excellent environmental archives. We document a remarkable increase in inertinite content in the coal and coaly beds across the T-J boundary. We show estimated burning temperatures derived from inertinite reflectance measurements coupled with palynological data and conclude that pre-boundary late Rhaetian mire wildfires included high-temperature crown fires, whereas latest Rhaetian-Sinemurian mire wildfires were more frequent but dominated by lower temperature surface fires. Our results suggest a major change in the mire ecosystems across the T-J boundary from forested, conifer dominated mires to mires with a predominantly herbaceous and shrubby vegetation. Contrary to the overall regional vegetation for which onset of recovery commenced in the early Hettangian, the sensitive mire ecosystem remained affected during the Hettangian and did not start to recover until around the Hettangian-Sinemurian boundary. Decreasing inertinite content through the Lower Jurassic suggests that fire activity gradually resumed to considerable lower levels. PMID:23077574

  19. Sodium storage in deep paleoweathering profiles beneath the Paleozoic-Triassic unconformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, M.; Parcerisa, D.; Ricordel-Prognon, C.; Schmitt, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    A major sodium accumulation has been recognized for long and by numerous authors in the Permo-Triassic salt deposits (Hay et al., 2006). Beside these basinal deposits, important masses of sodium were stored on the continents within deep palaeoweathering profiles in form of albite. Indeed, wide surfaces and huge volumes of granito-gneissic basements of the Hercynian massifs are albitized from North-Africa up to Scandinavia. These albitized rocks have usually been considered as related to tardi-magmatic metasomatic processes (Cathelineau 1986; Petersson and Eliasson 1997). Geometrical arrangement and dating of these alterations point out that these albitizations, or at least a part of them, developed under low temperature subsurface conditions in relation with the Triassic palaeosurface (Ricordel et al., 2007; Parcerisa et al., 2009). Petrology The albitized igneous rocks show a strong alteration with pseudomorphic replacement of the primary plagioclases into albite, replacement of primary biotite by chlorite and minor precipitation of neogenic minerals like albite, chlorite, apatite, haematite, calcite and titanite. Albitized rocks are characterized by their pink coloration due to the presence of minute haematite inclusions in the albite. The development and distribution of the albitization and related alterations above the unaltered basement occurs in three steps that define a vertical profile, up to 100-150 m depth. 1) In the lower part of the profile, albitization occurs within pink-colored patches in the unaltered rock, giving a pink-spotted aspect to the rock. 2) In the middle part of the profile, rocks have an overall pink coloration due to the albitization of the primary Ca-bearing igneous plagioclases. Usually, this facies develops in a pervasive manner, affecting the whole rock, but it may also be restricted to joints, giving a sharp-pink coloration to the fracture wall. 3) Finally, the top of the profile is defined by the same mineral paragenesis as in the pink stage, with an increase in the amount and size of sericite and hematite inclusions. The latter causes the red coloration of the altered rocks. Regional layout Regional distribution of the alterations which affect the Carboniferous igneous and volcanic formations beneath the Jurassic sedimentary cover lead to associate these alterations to the Triassic unconformity. Besides, albitized facies show generally both topographic and regional arrangements, with more altered facies occurring in the mountain highs and in the external parts of the massifs and unaltered facies occurring in the river valleys and in the central parts of the massifs. Moreover, the haematite associated with these albitized basement rocks has been dated from Early Trias by means of paleomagnetism (Ricordel et al, 2007). From this layout and dating, it is deduced that albitization is related to the development of a deep weathering profile (up to 150 m deep) during a long-lasting exposure of the Triassic erosional unconformity (regolith). Geochemistry and paleoenvironmental setting It has to be highlighted that, this alteration may not behave like an "ordinary" weathering profile and occurred under unusual, or at least very specific, geological settings. The scale of the profiles (over 100 m depth) relates this alteration rather to a groundwater environment. The weak mobility of most chemical elements may point to a groundwater with very low outflows and deep water table. This may occur in very subdued landscape and in arid climatic conditions. It has also to be pointed that this alteration may have lasted for several 10's of Ma. Albite formation at low temperature may be envisioned consequently in alkaline, confined waters with sufficient concentrations of sodium and silica. Early attempts of modeling (Schmitt, 1994) have also indicated that a high Na+/K+ ratio is as well probably required. Petrographic data also indicate an import of sodium by the weathering solutions, without any clear enrichment in potassium. The Na+ enrichment is most likely linked with the peculiar geochemic

  20. The Triassic of the Thakkhola (Nepal). I: stratigraphy and paleoenvironment of a north-east Gondwanan rifted margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rad, U.; Drr, S.; Ogg, J. G.

    1994-03-01

    The Mesozoic sediments of Thakkhola (central Nepal) were deposited on a broad eastern north Gondwanan passive margin at mid-latitudes (28 41 S) facing the Southern Tethys ocean to the north. The facies is strikingly similar over a distance of several thousand kilometres from Ladakh in the west to Tibet and to the paleogeographically adjacent north-west Australian margin (Exmouth Plateau, ODP Legs 122/123) and Timor in the east. Late Paleozoic rifting led to the opening of the Neo-Tethys ocean in Early Triassic times. An almost uninterrupted about 2 km thick sequence of syn-rift sediments was deposited on a slowly subsiding shelf and slope from Early Triassic to late Valanginian times when break-up between Gondwana (north-west Australia) and Greater India formed the proto-Indian Ocean. The sedimentation is controlled by (1) global events (eustasy; climatic/oceanographic changes due to latitudinal drift; plate reorganization leading to rift-type block-faulting) and (2) local factors, such as varying fluvio-deltaic sediment input, especially during Permian and late Norian times. Sea level was extremely low in Permian, high in Carnian and low again during Rhaeto-Liassic times. Third-order sea-level cycles may have occurred in the Early Triassic and late Norian to Rhaeto-Liassic. During the Permian pure quartz sand and gravel were deposited as shallowing upward series of submarine channel or barrier island sands. The high compositional maturity is typical of a stable craton-type hinterland, uplifted during a major rifting episode. During the early Triassic a 20 30 m thick condensed sequence of nodular ammonitico rosso-type marlstone with a pelagic fauna was deposited (Tamba Kurkur Formation). This indicates tectonic subsidence and sediment starvation during the transgression of the Neo-Tethys ocean. During Carnian times a 400 m thick sequence of fining upward, filament-rich wackestone/shale cycles was deposited in a bathyal environment (Mukut Formation). This is overlain by about 300 m of sandy shale and siltstone intercalated with quartz-rich bioclastic grain- to rudstone (Tarap Shale Formation, late Carnian-Norian). The upper Norian to (?lower) Rhaetian Quartzite Formation consists of (sub)arkosic sandstones and pure quartz arenites, indicating different sediment sources. The fluvio-deltaic sandstones are intercalated with silty shale, coal and bioclastic limestone, as well as mixed siliciclastic-bioclastic rocks. The depositional environment was marginal marine to shallow subtidal. The fluvio-deltaic influence decreased towards the overlying carbonates of Rhaeto-Liassic (?) age (Jomosom Formation correlative with the Kioto Limestone), when the region entered tropical paleolatitudes resulting in platform carbonates.

  1. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of the Syracuse Athena Temple: Scale Invariance in the Timing of Ruptures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Niccolini; A. Carpinteri; G. Lacidogna; A. Manuello

    2011-01-01

    We perform a comparative statistical analysis between the acoustic-emission time series from the ancient Greek Athena temple in Syracuse and the sequence of nearby earthquakes. We find an apparent association between acoustic-emission bursts and the earthquake occurrence. The waiting-time distributions for acoustic-emission and earthquake time series are described by a unique scaling law indicating self-similarity over a wide range of

  2. Indirect-Drive Time Dependent Symmetry Diagnosis at NIF-Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Landen, O.L; Bradley, D.K.; Pollaine, S.M.; Amendt, P.A.; Glendinning, S.G.; Suter, L.J.; Turner, R.E.; Wallace, R.J.; Hammel, B.A.; Delameter, N.D.; Wallace, J.; Magelssen, G.; Gobby, P.

    1999-10-27

    The scaling to NIF of current techniques used to infer the time-dependent flux asymmetries for indirectly-driven capsules is reviewed. We calculate that the projected accuracy for detecting the lowest mode asymmetries by a variety of techniques now meet the requirements for symmetry tuning for ignition. The scaling to NIF has also motivated the implementation of new, more efficient and hence less perturbative backlighting techniques which have recently provided high quality symmetry data during validation tests at the Omega facility.

  3. Scale-invariant range features for time-of-flight camera applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Haker; M. Bohme; T. Martinetz; E. Barth

    2008-01-01

    We describe a technique for computing scale-invariant features on range maps produced by a range sensor, such as a time-of-flight camera. Scale invariance is achieved by computing the features on the reconstructed three-dimensional surface of the object. The technique is general and can be applied to a wide range of operators. Features are computed in the frequency domain; the transform

  4. Flow Characteristics of a Pilot-Scale High Temperature, Short Time Pasteurizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Tomasula; M. F. Kozempel

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we present a method for determining the fastest moving particle (FMP) and residence time distribution (RTD) in a pilot-scale high temperature, shorttime(HTST)pasteurizertoensurethatlaboratory or pilot-scale HTST apparatus meets the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance standards for pasteurization of milk andcanbeusedforobtainingthermalinactivationdata. The overall dimensions of the plate in the pasteurizer were 75 115 mm, with a thickness of 0.5 mm

  5. Discovery of a Triassic magmatic arc source for the Permo-Triassic Karakaya subduction complex, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayda Ustamer, Petek; Ustamer, Timur; Gerdes, Axel; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Zulauf, Gernold

    2014-05-01

    The Permo-Triassic Karakaya Complex is well explained by northward subduction of Palaeotethys but until now no corresponding magmatic arc has been identified in the region. With the aim of determining the compositions and ages of the source units, ten sandstone samples were collected from the mappably distinct Ortaoba, Hodul, Kendirli and Orhanlar Units. Zircon grains were extracted from these sandstones and >1300 were dated by the U-Pb method and subsequently analysed for the Lu-Hf isotopic compositions by LA-MC-ICPMS at Goethe University, Frankfurt. The U-Pb-Hf isotope systematics are indicative of two different sediment provenances. The first, represented by the Ortaoba, Hodul and Kendirli Units, is dominated by igneous rocks of Triassic (250-220 Ma), Early Carboniferous-Early Permian (290-340 Ma) and Early to Mid-Devonian (385-400 Ma) ages. The second provenance, represented by the Orhanlar Unit, is indicative of derivation from a peri-Gondwanan terrane. In case of the first provenance, the Devonian and Carboniferous source rocks exibit intermediate eHf(t) values (-11 to -3), consistent with the formation at a continental margin where juvenile mantle-derived magmas mixed with (recycled) old crust having Palaeoproterozoic Hf model ages. In contrast, the Triassic arc magma exhibits higher eHf(t) values (-6 to +6), consistent with the mixing of juvenile mantle-derived melts with (recycled) old crust perhaps somewhat rejuvanated during the Cadomian period. We have therefore identified a Triassic magmatic arc as predicted by the interpretation of the Karakaya Complex as an accretionary complex related to northward subduction (Carboniferous and Devonian granites are already well documented in NW Turkey). Possible explanations for the lack of any outcrop of the source magmatic arc are that it was later subducted or the Karakaya Complex was displaced laterally from its source arc (both post 220 Ma). Strike-slip displacement (driven by oblique subduction?) can also explain the presence of two different sandstone source areas as indicated by the combined U-Pb-Hf isotope and supporting petrographic data. This study was supported by TUBITAK, Project no: 111R015

  6. Spectral Evolution of Short GRBS on sub-millisecond time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernenko, A.

    2013-07-01

    There has been growing consensus that short and long GRBs are associated with two different populations of astrophysical sources: mergers and SN explosions, respectively. While temporal properties of short and long GRBs could be considered with similar depth and accuracy, patterns of spectral variability of the 2 classes of GRBs are much harder to compare. This is due to the fact, that short GRBs exhibit variability on time scales shorter than 1 ms and count rate, measured at such short time scales, is not sufficient for reliable spectroscopy even for the brightest events. In this situation, any new possibility to look at spectral evolution of short GRBs on sub-millisecond time scales in terms of spectral parameters, may provide more solid background for theoretical analysis. In this paper we present analysis of spectral evolution of short GRBs in terms of Band spectral function parameters, using the earlier developed Global Fit approach (GFA).

  7. Possibility of real time scale MHD simulation above an active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorny, A. I.; Podgorny, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    The MHD simulations of preflare situation in the corona above the real active region (AR) are performed without any assumptions about the solar flare mechanism. All conditions for simulation are taken from observations. Such approach is directed to understand the flare mechanism. The observed SOHO MDI magnetic maps are used. The special numerical methods are developed and realized in the PERESVET code for numerical simulation in the real time scale. The first results of real time scale MHD simulation during several first minutes are presented. Initiation of current sheet (CS) creation in the vicinity of the magnetic field X-line is shown. The possibilities of real time scale MHD simulation of preflare situation on modern computers using the developed mathematical methods are discussed.

  8. Predicting Regional Drought on Sub-Seasonal to Decadal Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Suarez, Max; Koster, Randal

    2011-01-01

    Drought occurs on a wide range of time scales, and within a variety of different types of regional climates. It is driven foremost by an extended period of reduced precipitation, but it is the impacts on such quantities as soil moisture, streamflow and crop yields that are often most important from a users perspective. While recognizing that different users have different needs for drought information, it is nevertheless important to understand that progress in predicting drought and satisfying such user needs, largely hinges on our ability to improve predictions of precipitation. This talk reviews our current understanding of the physical mechanisms that drive precipitation variations on subseasonal to decadal time scales, and the implications for predictability and prediction skill. Examples are given highlighting the phenomena and mechanisms controlling precipitation on monthly (e.g., stationary Rossby waves, soil moisture), seasonal (ENSO) and decadal time scales (PD and AMO).

  9. A two-time-scale turbulence model for compressible flows: Turbulence dominated by mean deformation interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grgoire, O.; Souffland, D.; Gauthier, S.; Schiestel, R.

    1999-12-01

    The multiple-time-scale concept is applied to develop a turbulence model for compressible flows. Transport equations for the turbulent kinetic energies and the energy transfer rates are linked to each domain of the turbulent spectrum. The model coefficients are calibrated, with respect to simple flows, by using a new method which takes advantage of the spectral character of the model. One innovation of this method is to use, as a component, the CG model [V. M. Canuto and I. Goldman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 430 (1985)] which gives the large scale spectrum as a function of the instability-generating turbulence. Then, the two-time-scale model, with its complete set of coefficients, has been successfully applied to the simulation of plane mixing layers and homogeneous shear flows. A significant issue of this work is the study of the behavior of the two-time-scale model when a shock wave interacts with a homogeneous turbulence. We first compare model results with experimental data for a 2.8 Mach number interaction [D. Alem, Ph.D. thesis, Universit de Poitiers, 1995]. The decrease of the integral length scale, predicted by the linear analysis, is reproduced with the two-time-scale model, which, moreover, recovered the rate of reduction measured by Alem. The amplification of the turbulence level through the shock wave is also consistent with the measurements. Then, we confront our results with a direct numerical simulation of the shock-turbulence interaction at M=1.2 [S. Lee et al., J. Fluid Mech. 251, 533 (1993)]. The spectrum of the turbulence injected in the inflow region of the direct numerical simulation appeared to be far from the freely decaying state. The two-time-scale model, which accounts for the spectral nonequilibrium effects, is able to recover the spatial decrease of turbulence in the inflow region whereas a single-time-scale model fails. Moreover, the profiles for the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate over all the calculation domain are much better reproduced with the two-time-scale model than with the primary k-? model.

  10. A new time scale based k-epsilon model for near wall turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Z.; Shih, T. H.

    1992-01-01

    A k-epsilon model is proposed for wall bonded turbulent flows. In this model, the eddy viscosity is characterized by a turbulent velocity scale and a turbulent time scale. The time scale is bounded from below by the Kolmogorov time scale. The dissipation equation is reformulated using this time scale and no singularity exists at the wall. The damping function used in the eddy viscosity is chosen to be a function of R(sub y) = (k(sup 1/2)y)/v instead of y(+). Hence, the model could be used for flows with separation. The model constants used are the same as in the high Reynolds number standard k-epsilon model. Thus, the proposed model will be also suitable for flows far from the wall. Turbulent channel flows at different Reynolds numbers and turbulent boundary layer flows with and without pressure gradient are calculated. Results show that the model predictions are in good agreement with direct numerical simulation and experimental data.

  11. Response of vegetation to drought time-scales across global land biomes.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Gouveia, Clia; Camarero, Jess Julio; Beguera, Santiago; Trigo, Ricardo; Lpez-Moreno, Juan I; Azorn-Molina, Csar; Pasho, Edmond; Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Revuelto, Jess; Morn-Tejeda, Enrique; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the response of the Earth land biomes to drought by correlating a drought index with three global indicators of vegetation activity and growth: vegetation indices from satellite imagery, tree-ring growth series, and Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP) records. Arid and humid biomes are both affected by drought, and we suggest that the persistence of the water deficit (i.e., the drought time-scale) could be playing a key role in determining the sensitivity of land biomes to drought. We found that arid biomes respond to drought at short time-scales; that is, there is a rapid vegetation reaction as soon as water deficits below normal conditions occur. This may be due to the fact that plant species of arid regions have mechanisms allowing them to rapidly adapt to changing water availability. Humid biomes also respond to drought at short time-scales, but in this case the physiological mechanisms likely differ from those operating in arid biomes, as plants usually have a poor adaptability to water shortage. On the contrary, semiarid and subhumid biomes respond to drought at long time-scales, probably because plants are able to withstand water deficits, but they lack the rapid response of arid biomes to drought. These results are consistent among three vegetation parameters analyzed and across different land biomes, showing that the response of vegetation to drought depends on characteristic drought time-scales for each biome. Understanding the dominant time-scales at which drought most influences vegetation might help assessing the resistance and resilience of vegetation and improving our knowledge of vegetation vulnerability to climate change. PMID:23248309

  12. A Carapace-Like Bony Body Tube in an Early Triassic Marine Reptile and the Onset of Marine Tetrapod Predation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-hong; Motani, Ryosuke; Cheng, Long; Jiang, Da-yong; Rieppel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Parahupehsuchus longus is a new species of marine reptile from the Lower Triassic of Yuanan County, Hubei Province, China. It is unique among vertebrates for having a body wall that is completely surrounded by a bony tube, about 50 cm long and 6.5 cm deep, comprising overlapping ribs and gastralia. This tube and bony ossicles on the back are best interpreted as anti-predatory features, suggesting that there was predation pressure upon marine tetrapods in the Early Triassic. There is at least one sauropterygian that is sufficiently large to feed on Parahupehsuchus in the Nanzhang-Yuanan fauna, together with six more species of potential prey marine reptiles with various degrees of body protection. Modern predators of marine tetrapods belong to the highest trophic levels in the marine ecosystem but such predators did not always exist through geologic time. The indication of marine-tetrapod feeding in the Nanzhang-Yuanan fauna suggests that such a trophic level emerged for the first time in the Early Triassic. The recovery from the end-Permian extinction probably proceeded faster than traditionally thought for marine predators. Parahupehsuchus has superficially turtle-like features, namely expanded ribs without intercostal space, very short transverse processes, and a dorsal outgrowth from the neural spine. However, these features are structurally different from their turtle counterparts. Phylogeny suggests that they are convergent with the condition in turtles, which has a fundamentally different body plan that involves the folding of the body wall. Expanded ribs without intercostal space evolved at least twice and probably even more among reptiles. PMID:24718682

  13. Calculation of reattaching shear layers in divergent channel with a multiple-time-scale turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.-W.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical calculations of turbulent reattaching shear layers in a divergent channel are presented. The turbulence is described by a multiple-time-scale turbulence model. The turbulent flow equations are solved by a control-volume based finite difference method. The computational results are compared with those obtained using k-epsilon turbulence models and algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence models. It is shown that the multiple-time-scale turbulence model yields significantly improved computational results than the other turbulence models in the region where the turbulence is in a strongly inequilibrium state.

  14. On a scale-invariant Fermi gas in a time-dependent harmonic potential

    E-print Network

    Sergej Moroz

    2012-04-24

    We investigate a scale-invariant two-component Fermi gas in a time-dependent isotropic harmonic potential. The exact time evolution of the density distribution in position space in any spatial dimension is obtained. Two experimentally relevant examples, an abrupt change and a periodic modulation of the trapping frequency are solved. Small deviations from scale invariance and isotropy of the confinement are addressed within first order perturbation theory. We discuss the consequences for experiments with ultracold quantum gases such as the excitation of a tower of undamped breathing modes and a new alternative for measuring the Tan contact.

  15. Cavity-Enhanced Real-Time Monitoring of Single-Charge Jumps at the Microsecond Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C.; Loo, V.; Lematre, A.; Sagnes, I.; Krebs, O.; Voisin, P.; Senellart, P.; Lanco, L.

    2014-04-01

    We use fast coherent reflectivity measurements, in a strongly coupled quantum dot micropillar device, to monitor in real time single-charge jumps at the microsecond time scale. Thanks to the strong enhancement of light-matter interaction inside the cavity, and to a close to shot-noise-limited detection setup, the measurement rate is 5 orders of magnitude faster than with previous optical experiments of direct single-charge sensing with quantum dots. The monitored transitions, identified at any given time with a less than 0.2% error probability, correspond to a carrier being captured and then released by a single material defect. This high-speed technique opens the way for the real-time monitoring of other rapid single quantum events, such as the quantum jumps of a single spin.

  16. FOREWORD: IV International Time-Scale Algorithms Symposium, BIPM, Svres, 18-19 March 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschiutta, Sigfrido

    2003-06-01

    Time-scale formation, along with atomic time/frequency standards and time comparison techniques, is one of the three basic ingredients of Time Metrology. Before summarizing this Symposium and the relevant outcomes, let me make a couple of very general remarks. Clocks and comparison methods have today reached a very high level of accuracy: the nanosecond level. Some applications in the real word are now challenging the capacity of the National Metrological Laboratories. It is therefore essential that the algorithms dealing with clocks and comparison techniques should be such as to make the most of existing technologies. The comfortable margin of accuracy we were used to, between Laboratories and the Field, is gone forever. While clock makers and time-comparison experts meet regularly (FCS, PTTI, EFTF, CPEM, URSI, UIT, etc), the somewhat secluded community of experts in time-scale formation lacks a similar point of contact, with the exception of the CCTF meeting. This venue must consequently be welcomed. Let me recall some highlights from this Symposium: there were about 60 attendees from 15 nations, plus international institutions, such as the host BIPM, and a supranational one, ESA. About 30 papers, prepared in some 20 laboratories, were received: among these papers, four tutorials were offered; descriptions of local time scales including the local algorithms were presented; four papers considered the algorithms applied to the results of time-comparison methods; and six papers covered the special requirements of some specialized time-scale 'users'. The four basic ingredients of time-scale formation: models, noise, filtering and steering, received attention and were also discussed, not just during the sessions. The most demanding applications for time scales now come from Global Navigation Satellite systems; in six papers the progress of some programmes was described and the present and future needs were presented and documented. The lively discussion on future navigation systems led to the following four points: an overall accuracy in timing of one nanosecond is a must; the combined 'clock and orbit' effects on the knowledge of satellite position should be less than one metre; a combined solution for positioning and timing should be pursued; a 'new' time window (2 h to 4 h) emerged, in which the accuracy and stability parameters of the clocks forming a time scale for space application are to be optimized. That interval is linked to some criteria and methods for on-board clock corrections. A revival of interest in the time-proven Kalman filter was noted; in the course of a tutorial on past experience, a number of new approaches were discussed. Some further research is in order, but one should heed the comment: 'do not ask too much of a filter'. The Kalman approach is indeed powerful in combining sets of different data, provided that the possible problems of convergence are suitably addressed. Attention was also focused on the possibility of becoming victims of ever-present 'hidden' correlations. The TAI algorithm, ALGOS, is about 30 years old and the fundamental approach remains unchanged and unchallenged. A number of small refinements, all justified, were introduced in the 'constants' and parameters, but the general philosophy holds. In so far as the BIPM Time Section and the CCTF Working Group on Algorithms are concerned, on the basis of the outcome of this Symposium it is clear that they should follow the evolution of TAI and suggest any appropriate action to the CCTF. This Symposium, which gathered the world experts on T/F algorithms in Paris for two days, offered a wonderful opportunity for cross-fertilization between researchers operating in different and interdependent communities that are loosely connected. Thanks are due to Felicitas Arias, Demetrios Matsakis and Patrizia Tavella and their host organizations for having provided the community with this learning experience. One last comment: please do not wait another 14 years for the next Time Scale Algorithm Symposium.

  17. Variability of Hydroclimate Extremes on Seasonal to Multidecadal Time Scales in the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Gangopadhyay, S.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the variability of flood risk on seasonal to multidecadal time scales is critical for a number of activities - such as infrastructure and water resources management, flood mitigation etc. This need is underscored in the Western US with the confluence of socio-economic growth leading to large potential flood damage and water quality impacts and stressed water resources. In this study we perform a systematic analysis of precipitation and streamflow extremes and their links to large scale climate variables. We perform a joint analysis using time and spectral domain methods between seasonal maximum precipitation and large scale climate variables such as sea surface temperatures and sea level pressures. The leading modes from these analyses will identify dominant patterns of variability in space and time. We also obtain insights into the moisture source and delivery mechanisms to various parts of Western US that produce extreme flooding events. We perform similar analysis on seasonal maximum flow to identify consistent mechanism. Existing methods for estimation of risk of extremes is based on extreme value analysis (EVA) assuming stationarity. Clearly the risk of extremes varies in time and space as a function of the strength of the strength of their drivers. Nonstationary EVA methods are emerging and we will apply these to model seasonal precipitation extremes in space incorporating the physical mechanisms identified from the analysis above. This modeling approach can generate nonstationary precipitation and flood frequency estimates at seasonal to multidecadal time scales for infrastructure operations, design and maintenance decisions.

  18. Re-evaluation of the epicontinental paradigm for genesis of the Triassic succession in southern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamini, Chaim; Korngreen, Dorit; Bialik, Or

    2014-05-01

    The Middle and Late Triassic succession in southern Israel has been regarded as part of the epicontinental marginal marine zone of the Gondwanan margin. This scenario is at odds with field evidence in southern Israel. The clastic-dominated Pelsonian succession and the carbonate-evaporite late Anisian to Carnian successions were largely marine low energy settings below storm wave base. ?13C values occur within a range characteristic of the Triassic open marine environment. Some deeper settings were marked by downslope transport to the deep ramp. Sea level falls are evidenced by shallowing to proximal subtidal zones of wave or storm activity. Subaerial exposure features are absent except in the late Pelsonian, when rate of sedimentation of continental clastics briefly exceeded subsidence, and at the termination of tectonic subsidence in the Carnian, when evaporites were superseded by prograding microbialites. Early Pelsonian mixed siliciclastic/carbonate sediments initially accumulated below storm wave base. Sea level fall and aridization in the hinterland led briefly to reduction of siliciclastic influx, This transition was in the lower --Balatonicus ammonoid zone, correlative to a Bithynian/ Pelsonian humid pulse followed by a Pelsonian semi-arid regime recorded elsewhere in the Tethys. Subsequent increased rainfall and concomitant siliciclastic influx caused delta progradation and inhibition of carbonates. The delta front zone was mostly below or near fair weather wave base, with the proximal subtidal zone reached only at the time of sea level fall. Rising sea level of the later Pelsonian led to flooding of clastic-dominated deltaic lagoons and the increasingly carbonate-dominated, fully marine settings of the Illyrian and Fassanian. The Longobardian stromatolitic and incipient evaporite facies indicate both lowered sea-level and climate change to aridity. Ocean connectivity fluctuated between deep hypersaline waters pooled behind a deep barrier at sea-level highstands, and stromatolite-dominated biofacies during lowstands. The low overall rate of sedimentation was consistent with condensation. In the Longobardian, thin clastic-type evaporite horizons are interbedded with fossiliferous carbonates. Evaporites vs. carbonates formed on the proximal shallow margins of the basin according to whether climate was arid or humid, and were transported downslope. An early Carnian carbonate-free interval indicates a humid pulse, followed by development of thick cycles of shale, dolomite, and laminated gypsarenite, the latter representing resedimented evaporite crystals on the deep ramp and toe of slope of a subsiding basin. Subsidence terminated in aggrading subtidal microbialites beneath a major regional truncation surface. Termination of differential subsidence in the latest Carnian - Norian is coeval across Israel from south to north, but coincides with establishment of a reefal succession on the northwestern Israel coast. The Triassic succession of southern Israel formed within a varied bathymetric shelf-edge depositional setting of variably restricted basins and highs, responding to eustatic sea level changes, remote climate conditions and events, and local and regional tectonic movements. The dominance of deep, open water settings calls into question the extensive ramp- or platform- like nature assumed for epicontinental marine environments of the Triassic in Israel.

  19. The Moenave Formation: Sedimentologic and stratigraphic context of the TriassicJurassic boundary in the Four Corners area, southwestern U.S.A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence H. Tanner; Spencer G. Lucas

    2007-01-01

    The Moenave Formation was deposited during latest Triassic to earliest Jurassic time in a mosaic of fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian subenvironments. Ephemeral streams that flowed north-northwest (relative to modern geographic position) deposited single- and multi-storeyed trough cross-bedded sands on an open floodplain. Sheet flow deposited mainly silt across broad interchannel flats. Perennial lakes, in which mud, silt and carbonate were

  20. A PIC based procedure for the integration of multiple time scale problems in gas discharge physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria-Hoyo, C.; Pontiga, F.; Castellanos, A.

    2009-03-01

    A efficient PIC technique has been implemented to study the development of electrical discharges during long periods of time. Special motivation is provided by electrical pulsations that develop in very short times but whose repetition period is much longer. The method exploits the existence of different time scales in the electrical discharge to implement a long time-step particle pushing technique both at particle and at mesh levels. The development of a train of hundreds of Trichel pulses, which is a prohibitively long computation with a conventional PIC, has been used to test the validity of the method.

  1. Stable carbon isotopes of C3 plant resins and ambers record changes in atmospheric oxygen since the Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappert, Ralf; McKellar, Ryan C.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Tappert, Michelle C.; Ortega-Blanco, Jaime; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2013-11-01

    Estimating the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen (pO2) in the geological past has been challenging because of the lack of reliable proxies. Here we develop a technique to estimate paleo-pO2 using the stable carbon isotope composition (?13C) of plant resins-including amber, copal, and resinite-from a wide range of localities and ages (Triassic to modern). Plant resins are particularly suitable as proxies because their highly cross-linked terpenoid structures allow the preservation of pristine ?13C signatures over geological timescales. The distribution of ?13C values of modern resins (n = 126) indicates that (a) resin-producing plant families generally have a similar fractionation behavior during resin biosynthesis, and (b) the fractionation observed in resins is similar to that of bulk plant matter. Resins exhibit a natural variability in ?13C of around 8 (?13C range: -31 to -23, mean: -27), which is caused by local environmental and ecological factors (e.g., water availability, water composition, light exposure, temperature, nutrient availability). To minimize the effects of local conditions and to determine long-term changes in the ?13C of resins, we used mean ?13C values (?13Cmeanresin) for each geological resin deposit. Fossil resins (n = 412) are generally enriched in 13C compared to their modern counterparts, with shifts in ?13Cmeanresin of up to 6. These isotopic shifts follow distinctive trends through time, which are unrelated to post-depositional processes including polymerization and diagenesis. The most enriched fossil resin samples, with a ?13Cmeanresin between -22 and -21, formed during the Triassic, the mid-Cretaceous, and the early Eocene. Experimental evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that neither change in pCO2 nor in the ?13C of atmospheric CO2 can account for the observed shifts in ?13Cmeanresin. The fractionation of 13C in resin-producing plants (?13C), instead, is primarily influenced by atmospheric pO2, with more fractionation occurring at higher pO2. The enriched ?13Cmeanresin values suggest that atmospheric pO2 during most of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic was considerably lower (pO2 = 10-20%) than today (pO2 = 21%). In addition, a correlation between the ?13Cmeanresin and the marine ?18O record implies that pO2, pCO2, and global temperatures were inversely linked, which suggests that intervals of low pO2 were generally accompanied by high pCO2 and elevated global temperatures. Intervals with the lowest inferred pO2, including the mid-Cretaceous and the early Eocene, were preceded by large-scale volcanism during the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs). This suggests that the influx of mantle-derived volcanic CO2 triggered an initial phase of warming, which led to an increase in oxidative weathering, thereby further increasing greenhouse forcing. This process resulted in the rapid decline of atmospheric pO2 during the mid-Cretaceous and the early Eocene greenhouse periods. After the cessation in LIP volcanism and the decrease in oxidative weathering rates, atmospheric pO2 levels continuously increased over tens of millions of years, whereas CO2 levels and temperatures continuously declined. These findings suggest that atmospheric pO2 had a considerable impact on the evolution of the climate on Earth, and that the ?13C of fossil resins can be used as a novel tool to assess the changes of atmospheric compositions since the emergence of resin-producing plants in the Paleozoic.

  2. Recovery vs. Restructuring: Establishing Ecologic Patterns in Early and Middle Triassic Paleocommunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraiser, M.; Dineen, A.; Sheehan, P.

    2013-12-01

    Published data has been interpreted as indicating that marine ecological devastation following the end-Permian mass extinction was protracted and may have lasted 5 million years into the Middle Triassic (Anisian). However, a review of previous literature shows that understanding of biotic recovery is typically based on only a few components of the ecosystem, such as on taxonomic diversity, a single genus/phylum, or facies. Typically, paleocommunities are considered fully recovered when dominance and diversity are regained and normal ecosystem functioning has resumed. However, in addition to the biodiversity crash at the end of the Permian, taxonomic and ecologic structure also changed,with the extinction marking the faunal shift from brachiopod-rich Paleozoic Evolutionary Fauna (EF) to the mollusc-rich Modern EF. This suggests that the extreme reorganizational nature of the Triassic does not adhere to the standard definition of recovery, which is a return to previous conditions. Thus, we propose the term 'restructuring' to describe this interval, as Early and Middle Triassic communities might not exhibit the typical characteristics of a 'normal' Permian one. To more fully characterize Triassic ecologic restructuring, paleoecologists should take into account functional diversity and redundancy. We quantified functional richness and regularity in four different paleocommunities from classic Permian and Triassic sections. Functional richness was low in paleocommunities after the end-Permian mass extinction, but increased to high levels by the Middle Triassic. In contrast, functional regularity was low in the Middle Permian, but high in all the Triassic paleocommunities. The change from low to high functional regularity/redundancy at the P/T boundary may be a factor of the highly stressful Triassic environmental conditions (i.e. anoxia, hypercapnia), as high regularity in a community can boost survival in harsh environments. Parameters such as these will more accurately establish if the biotic patterns represent either failed biotic restructuring or a fully restructured marine community adapted to harsh Triassic environments.

  3. Spatial and Temporal scales of time-averaged 700 MB height anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutzler, D.

    1981-01-01

    The monthly and seasonal forecasting technique is based to a large extent on the extrapolation of trends in the positions of the centers of time averaged geopotential height anomalies. The complete forecasted height pattern is subsequently drawn around the forecasted anomaly centers. The efficacy of this technique was tested and time series of observed monthly mean and 5 day mean 700 mb geopotential heights were examined. Autocorrelation statistics are generated to document the tendency for persistence of anomalies. These statistics are compared to a red noise hypothesis to check for evidence of possible preferred time scales of persistence. Space-time spectral analyses at middle latitudes are checked for evidence of periodicities which could be associated with predictable month-to-month trends. A local measure of the average spatial scale of anomalies is devised for guidance in the completion of the anomaly pattern around the forecasted centers.

  4. Hierarchical Dynamics of Ecological Communities: Do Scales of Space and Time Match?

    PubMed Central

    Angeler, David G.; Gthe, Emma; Johnson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Theory posits that community dynamics organize at distinct hierarchical scales of space and time, and that the spatial and temporal patterns at each scale are commensurate. Here we use time series modeling to investigate fluctuation frequencies of species groups within invertebrate metacommunities in 26 boreal lakes over a 20-year period, and variance partitioning analysis to study whether species groups with different fluctuation patterns show spatial signals that are commensurate with the scale-specific fluctuation patterns identified. We identified two groups of invertebrates representing hierarchically organized temporal dynamics: one species group showed temporal variability at decadal scales (slow patterns of change), whilst another group showed fluctuations at 3 to 5-year intervals (faster change). This pattern was consistently found across all lakes studied. A spatial signal was evident in the slow but not faster-changing species groups. As expected, the spatial signal for the slow-changing group coincided with broad-scale spatial patterns that could be explained with historical biogeography (ecoregion delineation, and dispersal limitation assessed through a dispersal trait analysis). In addition to spatial factors, the slow-changing groups correlated with environmental variables, supporting the conjecture that boreal lakes are undergoing environmental change. Taken together our results suggest that regionally distinct sets of taxa, separated by biogeographical boundaries, responded similarly to broad-scale environmental change. Not only does our approach allow testing theory about hierarchically structured space-time patterns; more generally, it allows assessing the relative role of the ability of communities to track environmental change and dispersal constraints limiting community structure and biodiversity at macroecological scales. PMID:23874905

  5. Transitions in effective scaling behavior of accelerometric time series across sleep and wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Patrick; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Zinkhan, Melanie; Schumann, Aicko Y.; Penzel, Thomas; Fietze, Ingo; Pillmann, Frank; Stang, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    We study the effective scaling behavior of high-resolution accelerometric time series recorded at the wrists and hips of 100 subjects during sleep and wake. Using spectral analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis we find long-term correlated fluctuations with a spectral exponent \\beta \\approx 1.0 (1/f noise). On short time scales, ? is larger during wake (\\approx 1.4 ) and smaller during sleep (\\approx 0.6 ). In addition, characteristic peaks at 0.2-0.3 Hz (due to respiration) and 4-10 Hz (probably due to physiological tremor) are observed in periods of weak activity. Because of these peaks, spectral analysis is superior in characterizing effective scaling during sleep, while detrending analysis performs well during wake. Our findings can be exploited to detect sleep-wake transitions.

  6. Heterogenous human dynamics in intra- and inter-day time scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Wang; T. Lei; C. H. Yeung; B.-H. Wang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study two large data sets containing the information of two different human behaviors: blog-posting and wiki-revising. In both cases, the interevent time distributions decay as power laws at both individual and population level. Unlike previous studies, we put emphasis on time scales and obtain heterogeneous decay exponents in the intra- and inter-day range for the same

  7. Role of the ITU-R in time scale definition and dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, Ronald L.

    2011-08-01

    The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) is the leading United Nations agency for Radio and Telecommunications coordination worldwide. The process of managing overall frequency spectrum utilization is through Worldwide Radio Conferences, associated radiocommunication conferences and the activities of the Radiocommunication Study Groups. These Study Groups and their Working Parties, devoted to specialized technical areas, provide the mechanism for Member Nations to participate, study and recommend standards and practices to ensure equitable utilization and interference-free operation within the radio spectrum. An important underlying aspect of spectrum utilization is the facilitation of the determination and coordination of the international time scale. The international time scale is an atomic time scale used by broadcast services throughout the world known as Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). UTC is defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) and is maintained by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in cooperation with the International Earth reference and Rotation Service (IERS). Contributed measurements from timing centres around the world are used in the determination of UTC, which is adjusted to within 0.9 s of Earth rotation time (UT1) by IERS-determined values of the Earth rotation. The adjustments, made in one second steps known as leap seconds, were implemented in 1972 to permit UT1 to be recovered from broadcast values of UTC for celestial navigation. Current telecommunications and navigation systems utilize continuous timing for their data transmissions; consequently, deliberations have been ongoing within the ITU-R on the issue of modifying the definition of UTC to a continuous time scale.

  8. Integration of dynamic voltage scaling and soft real-time scheduling for open mobile systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanghong Yuan; Klara Nahrstedt

    2002-01-01

    Battery-powered mobile devices are becoming increasingly important computing platforms, which require low energy consumption while meeting the resource demands of a dynamic application workload. Most proposed dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) algorithms, targeting either best-effort or hard real-time systems, however, cannot be directly applied to such open mobile systems. This paper presents a framework to integrate DVS into soft real-time (SRT)

  9. Long time scale evolution of high-power radio wave ionospheric heating 1. Beam propagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Keskinen; P. K. Chaturvedi; S. L. Ossakow

    1993-01-01

    The long time scale evolution, that is, for times long compared to an electron collision period of high-power radio wave ionospheric heating, is studied. Preliminary studies are made to model high-power radio wave propagation in an ionosphere containing a dynamically produced electron density cavity. We show that high-power radio wave-induced plasma density depletions in the F region ionosphere will convect

  10. Long time scale evolution of high-power radio wave ionospheric heating. 1. Beam propagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Keskinen; P. K. Chaturvedi; S. L. Ossakow

    1993-01-01

    The long time scale evolution, that is, for times long compared to an electron collision period of high-power radio wave ionospheric heating, is studied. Preliminary studies are made to model high-power radio wave propagation in an ionosphere containing a dynamically produced electron density cavity. We show that high-power radio wave-induced plasma density depletions in the F region ionosphere will convect

  11. Time Domain Optical Studies of Dynamics in Supercooled o-Terphenyl: Comparison to Mode Coupling Theory on Fast and Slow Time Scales

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Time Domain Optical Studies of Dynamics in Supercooled o-Terphenyl: Comparison to Mode Coupling Theory on Fast and Slow Time Scales S. D. Gottke, David D. Brace, G. Hinze, and M. D. Fayer* Department of temperatures and time scales using optical heterodyne detected optical Kerr effect techniques. A combination

  12. A ShortTime Scale Colloidal System Reveals Early Bacterial Adhesion Dynamics

    E-print Network

    . PLoS Biol 6(7): e167. doi:10. 1371/journal.pbio.0060167 Introduction Bacterial growth on surfacesA Short­Time Scale Colloidal System Reveals Early Bacterial Adhesion Dynamics Christophe Beloin1 important public health and sanitary consequences. However, despite several decades of study of bacterial

  13. Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motor.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zheng-Ming; Chang, Ching-Ming; Chen, Yen-Sheng

    2006-09-15

    Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motors is studied in this paper. In order to analyse a variety of periodic and chaotic phenomena, we employ several numerical techniques such as phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents. Anti-control of chaos can be achieved by adding an external constant term or an external periodic term. PMID:16893797

  14. Improving Building Performance at Urban Scale with a Framework for Real-time Data Sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Xiufeng; Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-06-03

    This paper describes work in progress toward an urban-scale system aiming to reduce energy use in neighboring buildings by providing three components: a database for accessing past and present weather data from high quality weather stations; a network for communicating energy-saving strategies between building owners; and a set of modeling tools for real-time building energy simulation.

  15. Quasi-Static Voltage Scaling for Energy Minimization with Time Constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandru Andrei; Marcus T. Schmitz; Petru Eles; Zebo Peng; Bashir M. Al Hashimi

    2005-01-01

    Supply voltage scaling and adaptive body-biasing are important techniques that help to reduce the energy dissipation of embedded systems. This is achieved by dynamically adjusting the voltage and performance settings according to the application needs. In order to take full advantage of slack that arises from variations in the execution time, it is important to recalculate the voltage (performance) settings

  16. How Much Energy Is Transferred from the Winds to the Thermocline on ENSO Time Scales?

    E-print Network

    How Much Energy Is Transferred from the Winds to the Thermocline on ENSO Time Scales? JACLYN N the winds (via wind power) and changes in the storage of available potential energy in the tropical ocean~o is characterized by a decrease in wind power that leads to a decrease in available potential energy, and hence

  17. Disease dynamics over very different time-scales: foot-and-mouth disease and

    E-print Network

    Kiss, Istvan Zoltan

    Disease dynamics over very different time-scales: foot-and-mouth disease and scrapie on the network of livestock movements in the UK and the dynamics of two diseases: foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which has conditions, a static network analysis can be an appropriate tool for gaining insights into disease dynamics

  18. Multi-Scale and Hidden Resolution Time Series Models Marco A. R. Ferreira

    E-print Network

    West, Mike

    Multi-Scale and Hidden Resolution Time Series Models Marco A. R. Ferreira Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Mike West Duke University, USA Herbert K. H. Lee University of California, Santa Cruz, USA David Higdon Los Alamos National Laboratories, USA Summary. We introduce a class

  19. ENSO Feedbacks and Associated Time Scales of Variability in a Multimodel Ensemble

    E-print Network

    the effect of the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases on the cli- mate system at global and regional-IL AN Department of Atmospheric Sciences/Global Environment Laboratory, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea and coupled oceanatmosphere pro- cesses at different time scales. Of particular interest, El Nin

  20. Time scale considerations on the relaxation of electronic and vibrational energy distributions in a nitrogen afterglow (+)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    L-251 Time scale considerations on the relaxation of electronic and vibrational energy plus signibcatifs. Les résultats du calcul montrent que les collisions électroniques sur l of the electron energy distribution function (edf) in vibrationally excited N2 post discharges has been analysed

  1. An Efficient Index Structure for Shift and Scale Invariant Search of Multi-attribute Time Sequences

    E-print Network

    Kahveci, Tamer

    An Efficient Index Structure for Shift and Scale Invariant Search of Multi-attribute Time Sequences if the se- quences can be made closer by linear transformations. The most important transformations record body temperature in while a similar sensor in Europe may use . A sensor may also lose

  2. A TIME-SCALE PROBLEM FOR THE FORMATION OF SOOT PRECURSORS IN PREMIXED FLAMES

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    A TIME-SCALE PROBLEM FOR THE FORMATION OF SOOT PRECURSORS IN PREMIXED FLAMES Angela Violi1 for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112 Introduction of the evolution of soot precursors in an ethylene premixed laminar flame.1,3 In this paper the KMC/MD code is used

  3. Regional-Scale Simulations of Wildland Fire Spread Informed by Real-Time Flame Front Observations

    E-print Network

    Regional-Scale Simulations of Wildland Fire Spread Informed by Real-Time Flame Front Observations M tests using synthetically-generated observations; Email addresses: melanie.rochoux@cerfacs.fr (M #12;the prototype capability is then evaluated in a more realistic v alidation test corresponding

  4. Original research article Approximate aggregation of a two time scales periodic multi-strain SIS

    E-print Network

    Bravo de la Parra, Rafael

    Original research article Approximate aggregation of a two time scales periodic multi-strain SIS pursued his approach studying periodic, or more general nonautonomous, SIS or SEIR models, see Schwartz) suggested defining the reproduction numbers of several periodic SIS and SEIR models through the reproduction

  5. Efficient Serial and Parallel Algorithms for Querying Large Scale Multidimensional Time

    E-print Network

    JaJa, Joseph F.

    with time series of multidimensional data. However, such type of data is abundantly available terabytes per day in the next couple of years. This type of spatio-temporal data constitutes large scale the tens of thousands of weather July 6, 2004 DRAFT #12;3 stations around the world which provide hourly

  6. Collaborative Real-Time Control of Active Cameras in Large Scale Surveillance Systems

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Tilt Zoom (PTZ) cameras for operator-based security applica- tions, since PTZ cameras provideCollaborative Real-Time Control of Active Cameras in Large Scale Surveillance Systems Nils that controls a set of Pan Tilt Zoom (PTZ) cameras for ac- quiring close-up imagery of subjects

  7. How Do Young Children's Spatio-Symbolic Skills Change over Short Time scales?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsubota, Yoko; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were designed to examine how experience affects young children's spatio-symbolic skills over short time scales. Spatio-symbolic reasoning refers to the ability to interpret and use spatial relations, such as those encountered on a map, to solve symbolic tasks. We designed three tasks in which the featural and spatial

  8. Terrestrial waters and sea level variations on interannual time scale W. Llovel a,

    E-print Network

    Ribes, Aurlien

    expansion of sea waters and land ice loss are the main contributors to sea level variations. However to multidecadal time scales, thermal expansion of sea waters and land ice loss are the main contributors to sea: Received 25 May 2010 Accepted 18 October 2010 Available online 26 October 2010 Keywords: land water storage

  9. time scale observed in some close binary systems (19), and tidal dissipation (20)

    E-print Network

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    time scale observed in some close binary systems (19), and tidal dissipation (20) may also cause). At this stage, the core of star A undergoes collapse, and the residual nuclear fuel is ignited to power aware that both tidal and general relativistic ef- fects will be important in this system

  10. Durability of innovations: How goal attainment scaling programs fare over time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward M. Glaser; Thomas E. Backer

    1980-01-01

    Why do some implementations in human service settings of goal attainment scaling (GAS), an innovative program evaluation technique, last over time, whereas others die out despite an initially successful period of operation? To provide some tentative answers to this question and to help shed more light generally on differences between sustained and nonsustained innovative programs in service delivery organizations, 10

  11. Network structure of cerebral cortex shapes functional connectivity on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Honey, Christopher J; Ktter, Rolf; Breakspear, Michael; Sporns, Olaf

    2007-06-12

    Neuronal dynamics unfolding within the cerebral cortex exhibit complex spatial and temporal patterns even in the absence of external input. Here we use a computational approach in an attempt to relate these features of spontaneous cortical dynamics to the underlying anatomical connectivity. Simulating nonlinear neuronal dynamics on a network that captures the large-scale interregional connections of macaque neocortex, and applying information theoretic measures to identify functional networks, we find structure-function relations at multiple temporal scales. Functional networks recovered from long windows of neural activity (minutes) largely overlap with the underlying structural network. As a result, hubs in these long-run functional networks correspond to structural hubs. In contrast, significant fluctuations in functional topology are observed across the sequence of networks recovered from consecutive shorter (seconds) time windows. The functional centrality of individual nodes varies across time as interregional couplings shift. Furthermore, the transient couplings between brain regions are coordinated in a manner that reveals the existence of two anticorrelated clusters. These clusters are linked by prefrontal and parietal regions that are hub nodes in the underlying structural network. At an even faster time scale (hundreds of milliseconds) we detect individual episodes of interregional phase-locking and find that slow variations in the statistics of these transient episodes, contingent on the underlying anatomical structure, produce the transfer entropy functional connectivity and simulated blood oxygenation level-dependent correlation patterns observed on slower time scales. PMID:17548818

  12. Classification for a class of second-order singular equations on time scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Zhang; Lianghong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with classification for a class of second-order singular equations on time scales. Firstly, we construct a sequence of circles. These circles are nested and converge to a limiting set. By the different cases of the limiting set, we can obtain the number of linearly independent square delta-integrable solutions of the equations. It follows from this number,

  13. Local exponential stability of competitive neural networks with different time scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anke Meyer-Bse; Sergei Pilyugin; Axel Wismller; Simon Foo

    2004-01-01

    This contribution presents a new method of analyzing the dynamics of a biological relevant neural network with different time scales based on the theory of flow invariance. We are able to show that the resulting stability conditions are less restrictive and more general than with K-monotone theory or singular perturbation theory. The theoretical results are further substantiated by simulation results

  14. images/UMDlog Measuring photoactivity with a potentiostat Our experimental setup Preliminary results Time Scales

    E-print Network

    Ehrman, Sheryl H.

    results Time Scales Cu2O for water splitting RAA Laboratory Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Department Insitute for Systems Research University of Maryland March 28, 2012 Support: NSF CBET wire Platinum coiled wire Cu2 O on Cu 1''x1'' Cu 1''x1'' RAA Lab Electrolysis Experimental setup 150 W

  15. Shadowing Time-Scale Admission and Power Control for Small Cell Networks

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    subscriber line, cable modem, or an available radio frequency channel. With the use of small cells, users canShadowing Time-Scale Admission and Power Control for Small Cell Networks Siew Eng Nai, Tony Q. S, Singapore 138632 SUPELEC, 3 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France Abstract--Small cell networks

  16. Turbulent time scales and the dissipation rate of temperature variance in the thermal mixing layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Elghobashi; B. E. Launder

    1983-01-01

    In a turbulent flow where the mechanisms and\\/or the importance of the generation processes of turbulent kinetic energy k and mean square scalar variance ?(c2) are dissimilar, no simple connection exists between the turnover time scale of the fluctuating velocity and fluctuating scalar fields. To allow the computation of the turbulent scalar field in these situations a means of calculating

  17. Time Scales in Turbulence and Sediment Concentration Over Mobile Sand Dunes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between turbulent fluid motions and sediment particles over mobile sand dunes may be better understood by examining the time scales over which the quantities fluctuate. In laboratory experiments performed at the USDA-ARS-National Sedimentation Laboratory, profiles of acoustic backs...

  18. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Time Management for Exercise Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellsten, Laurie-ann M.; Rogers, W. Todd

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect preliminary validity evidence for a time management scale for exercise. An initial pool of 91 items was developed from existing literature. Ten exercise/health psychologists evaluated each of the items in terms of relevance and representativeness. Forty-nine items met all criteria. Exploratory factor

  19. Optical dating of young coastal dunes on a decadal time scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ballarini; J. Wallinga; A. S. Murray; S. van Heteren; A. P. Oost; A. J. J. Bos; C. W. E. van Eijk

    2003-01-01

    We explore the use of quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating for reconstructing coastal evolution on a time scale of decades to a few hundred years. Samples are taken from the accretionary south-west coast of Texel, a barrier island just offshore of the northern Netherlands. The ages of dune ridges are known from historical sources; an excellent chronology with a

  20. USE OF HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS TO ASSESS PREDICTABILITY ON ANNUAL TO DECADAL TIME SCALES

    E-print Network

    Katz, Richard

    USE OF HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS TO ASSESS PREDICTABILITY ON ANNUAL TO DECADAL TIME SCALES Rick Katz of Overdispersion Phenomenon (4) Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for Climate Regimes (5) Extensions #12;(1) Background. regime shift -- Hidden Markov model Mixture of distributions (hidden states) Markov chain (persistence