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1

Plant Disease Lesson: Rhizoctonia Diseases of Turfgrass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Rhizoctonia diseases of turfgrass (caused by the fungi Rhizoctonia species) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Lane P. Tredway (University of Georgia, Athens;); Lee L. Burpee (University of Georgia, Griffin;)

2001-11-09

2

Transformation of 25-Hydroxycholesterol by Rhizoctonia muneratii  

PubMed Central

Rhizoctonia muneratii ATCC 13247 was capable of catalyzing the conversion of 25-hydroxycholesterol to the 3-oxo-4-ene. Hydroxylation at the 6? and 6? positions with the concomitant 3-oxo-4-ene transformation was also observed. The addition of Triton X-100 to the growth medium immediately before steroid addition selectively prevented the appearance of the respective 6?-hydroxylated products. The observed conversions were indicative of the utility of microbial transformations in preparing hydroxylated steroids which can be useful for further synthetic modification or for study as pharmacological agents.

Wozny, Mary Ellen E.; Smith, Tyrone R.; Angus, Ralph L.; Kaiser, Emil T.

1982-01-01

3

Rhizoctonia disease of potatoes ( Rhizoctonia solani ): Fungicidal efficacy and cultivar susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizoctonia stem canker and black scurf is an economically important disease of potatoes in Alberta and around the world.\\u000a It reduces the quality and yield of potatoes and has become an important impediment for export of seed potatoes, especially\\u000a to Mexico. Seed treatment using fungicides, presently registered in Canada, are not effective in controlling the disease to\\u000a growers’ satisfaction. Field

P. S. Bains; H. S. Bennypaul; D. R. Lynch; L. M. Kawchuk; C. A. Schaupmeyer

2002-01-01

4

Suppression of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 8 in Australia and its biological nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of suppression in a field soil showing a decline in the Rhizoctonia barepatch disease of wheat (causal agent Rhizoctonia solani AG-8), in a minimum tillage system in southern Australia was investigated. The suppressive characteristics of the soil could be transferred to an autoclaved or pasteurised soil by adding 10% (w\\/w) of the unsterilised soil. This resulted in less

Bronwyn M. Wiseman; S. M. Neate; K. Ophel Keller; S. E. Smith

1996-01-01

5

Compatible Biological and Chemical Control Systems for Rhizoctonia solani in Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of chemical and biological control agents were tested for compatibility with the Rhizoctonia-specific biocontrol fungus Verticillium biguttatum aimed at designing novel control strategies for black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani) and other tuber diseases in potato. The efficacy of chemicals, alone and in combination with V. biguttatum was tested in in vitro assays on nutrient agar plates, in bio-assays with

P. H. J. F. van den Boogert; A. J. G. Luttikholt

2004-01-01

6

Proteomic analysis of Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 sclerotia maturation.  

PubMed

Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani), a soil-borne necrotrophic pathogen, causes various plant diseases. Rhizoctonia solani is a mitosporic fungus, the sclerotium of which is the primary inoculum and ensures survival of the fungus during the offseason of the host crop. Since the fungus does not produce any asexual or sexual spores, understanding the biology of sclerotia is important to examine pathogen ecology and develop more efficient methods for crop protection. Here, one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1-DE and 2-DE, respectively) were used to examine protein regulation during the maturation of fungal sclerotia. A total of 75 proteins (20 proteins from 1-DE using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and 55 proteins from 2-DE using MALDI-TOF MS or MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) were differentially expressed during sclerotial maturation. The identified proteins were classified into ten categories based on their biological functions, including genetic information processing, carbohydrate metabolism, cell defense, amino acid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, cellular processes, pathogenicity and mycotoxin production, and hypothetical or unknown functions. Interestingly, two vacuole function-related proteins were highly up-regulated throughout sclerotial maturation, which was confirmed at the transcript level by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. These findings contribute to our understanding of the biology of R. solani sclerotia. PMID:24863472

Kwon, Young Sang; Kim, Sang Gon; Chung, Woo Sik; Bae, Hanhong; Jeong, Sung Woo; Shin, Sung Chul; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Park, Soo-Chul; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Bae, Dong-Won; Lee, Yong Bok

2014-01-01

7

Efficacy of Hypovirulent Binucleate Rhizoctonia sp. to Control Banded Leaf and Sheath Blight in Corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Water agar, artificially infested soil and leaf sheath inoculation methods were used to assess the suitable time of application,\\u000a varietal host response and persistence of Rhv7, a hypovirulent, binucleate Rhizoctonia collected from soil in the Philippines, to effectively control virulent Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA isolate RS35 on corn. With the water agar method, prior inoculation (2 to 3 days) with the

Cecilia B. PASCUAL; Avelino D RAYMUNDO; Mitsuro HYAKUMACHI

2000-01-01

8

Assessment of resistance pathways induced in Arabidopsis thaliana by hypovirulent Rhizoctonia spp. isolates.  

PubMed

Certain hypovirulent Rhizoctonia isolates effectively protect plants against well-known important pathogens among Rhizoctonia isolates as well as against other pathogens. The modes of action involved in this protection include resistance induced in plants by colonization with hypovirulent Rhizoctonia isolates. The qualifications of hypovirulent isolates (efficient protection, rapid growth, effective colonization of the plants, and easy application in the field) provide a significant potential for the development of a commercial microbial preparation for application as biological control agents. Understanding of the modes of action involved in protection is important for improving the various aspects of development and application of such preparations. The hypothesis of the present study is that resistance pathways such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR), induced systemic resistance (ISR), and phytoalexins are induced in plants colonized by the protective hypovirulent Rhizoctonia isolates and are involved in the protection of these plants against pathogenic Rhizoctonia. Changes in protection levels of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants defective in defense-related genes (npr1-1, npr1-2, ndr1-1, npr1-2/ndr1-1, cim6, wrky70.1, snc1, and pbs3-1) and colonized with the hypovirulent Rhizoctonia isolates compared with that of the wild type (wt) plants colonized with the same isolates confirmed the involvement of induced resistance in the protection of the plants against pathogenic Rhizoctonia spp., although protection levels of mutants constantly expressing SAR genes (snc1 and cim6) were lower than that of wt plants. Plant colonization by hypovirulent Rhizoctonia isolates induced elevated expression levels of the following genes: PR5 (SAR), PDF1.2, LOX2, LOX1, CORI3 (ISR), and PAD3 (phytoalexin production), which indicated that all of these pathways were induced in the hypovirulent-colonized plants. When SAR or ISR were induced separately in plants after application of the chemical inducers Bion and methyl jasmonate, respectively, only ISR activation resulted in a higher protection level against the pathogen, although the protection was minor. In conclusion, plant colonization with the protective hypovirulent Rhizoctonia isolates significantly induced genes involved in the SAR, ISR, and phytoalexin production pathways. In the studied system, SAR probably did not play a major role in the mode of protection against pathogenic Rhizoctonia spp.; however, it may play a more significant role in protection against other pathogens. PMID:21385012

Sharon, Michal; Freeman, Stanley; Sneh, Baruch

2011-07-01

9

Influence of the mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus coronatum , and soil phosphorus on infection and disease caused by binucleate Rhizoctonia and Rhizoctonia solani on mung bean ( Vigna radiata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root-infecting fungal pathogens and also parasites, which do not cause major disease symptoms cause problems of contamination in pot cultures of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. We investigated the effect of the AM fungus, Glomus coronatum Giovannetti on disease caused by binucleate Rhizoctonia sp. (BNR) and R. solani in mung bean in the absence (P0) and presence (P1) of added soil

R. S. Kasiamdari; S. E. Smith; F. A. Smith; E. S. Scott

2002-01-01

10

Interactions between cauliflower and Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups with different levels of aggressiveness  

PubMed Central

Background The soil borne fungus Rhizoctonia is one of the most important plant pathogenic fungi, with a wide host range and worldwide distribution. In cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), several anastomosis groups (AGs) including both multinucleate R. solani and binucleate Rhizoctonia species have been identified showing different levels of aggressiveness. The infection and colonization process of Rhizoctonia during pathogenic interactions is well described. In contrast, insights into processes during interactions with weak aggressive or non-pathogenic isolates are limited. In this study the interaction of cauliflower with seven R. solani AGs and one binucleate Rhizoctonia AG differing in aggressiveness, was compared. Using microscopic and histopathological techniques, the early steps of the infection process, the colonization process and several host responses were studied. Results For aggressive Rhizoctonia AGs (R. solani AG 1-1B, AG 1-1C, AG 2-1, AG 2-2 IIIb and AG 4 HGII), a higher developmental rate was detected for several steps of the infection process, including directed growth along anticlinal cell walls and formation of T-shaped branches, infection cushion formation and stomatal penetration. Weak or non-aggressive AGs (R. solani AG 5, AG 3 and binucleate Rhizoctonia AG K) required more time, notwithstanding all AGs were able to penetrate cauliflower hypocotyls. Histopathological observations indicated that Rhizoctonia AGs provoked differential host responses and pectin degradation. We demonstrated the pronounced deposition of phenolic compounds and callose against weak and non-aggressive AGs which resulted in a delay or complete block of the host colonization. Degradation of pectic compounds was observed for all pathogenic AGs, except for AG 2-2 IIIb. Ranking the AGs based on infection rate, level of induced host responses and pectin degradation revealed a strong correlation with the disease severity caused by the AGs. Conclusion The differences in aggressiveness towards cauliflower observed among Rhizoctonia AGs correlated with the infection rate, induction of host defence responses and pectin breakdown. All Rhizoctonia AGs studied penetrated the plant tissue, indicating all constitutive barriers of cauliflower were defeated and differences in aggressiveness were caused by inducible defence responses, including cell wall fortifications with phenolic compounds and callose.

Pannecoucque, Joke; Hofte, Monica

2009-01-01

11

Fungal antagonists of the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani: selection, control efficacy and influence on the indigenous microbial community  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad spectrum of fungal antagonists was evaluated as potential biocontrol agents (BCAs) against the soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani using a new combination of in vitro and in vivo assays. The in vitro characterisation of diverse parameters including the ability to parasitise mycelium and to inhibit the germination of Rhizoctonia sclerotia at different temperatures resulted in the selection of six

Rita Grosch; Katja Scherwinski; Jana Lottmann; Gabriele Berg

2006-01-01

12

Quantification of rice sheath blight progression caused by Rhizoctonia solani.  

PubMed

Rhizoctonia solani has a wide host range, including almost all cultivated crops and its subgroup anastomosis group (AG)-1 IA causes sheath blight in rice. An accurate measurement of pathogen's biomass is a convincing tool for enumeration of this disease. Mycological characteristics and molecular diagnosis simultaneously supported that all six strains in this study were R. solani AG-1 IA. Heterokaryons between strains Rs40104, Rs40105, and Rs45811 were stable and viable, whereas Rs40103 and Rs40106 did not form viable fused cells, except for the combination of Rs40106 and Rs40104. A primer pair was highly specific to RsAROM gene of R. solani strains and the amplified fragment exists as double copies within fungal genome. The relationship between crossing point (CP) values and the amount of fungal DNA was reliable (R (2) >0.99). Based on these results, we determined R. solani's proliferation within infected stems through real time PCR using a primer pair and a Taqman probe specific to the RsAROM gene. The amount of fungal DNA within the 250 ng of tissue DNA from rice cv. Dongjin infected with Rs40104, Rs40105, and Rs45811 were 7.436, 5.830, and 5.085 ng, respectively. In contrast, the fungal DNAs within the stems inoculated with Rs40103 and Rs40106 were 0.091 and 0.842 ng. The sheath blight symptom progression approximately coincided with the amount of fungal DNA within the symptoms. In summary, our quantitative evaluation method provided reliable and objective results reflecting the amount of fungal biomass within the infected tissues and would be useful for evaluation of resistance germplasm or fungicides and estimation of inoculum potential. PMID:23812819

Su'udi, Mukhamad; Park, Jong-Mi; Kang, Woo-Ri; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Kim, Soonok; Ahn, Il-Pyung

2013-06-01

13

Improved extraction of Rhizoctonia and Pythium DNA from wheat roots and soil samples using pressure cycling technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soilborne pathogens are important biotic factors in yield reduction in the dryland cereal production region of the Pacific Northwest. Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, Rhizoctonia oryzae, and Pythium spp. are causal agents of root rot, bare patch, and damping-off of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Although these pathogens can be rapidly and specifically quantified using quantitative real-time PCR, the extraction

Patricia A. Okubara; Kurtis L. Schroeder; Chunqin Li; Richard T. Schumacher; Nathan P. Lawrence

2007-01-01

14

DNA fingerprinting and anastomosis grouping reveal similar genetic diversity in Rhizoctonia species infecting turfgrasses in the transition zone of USA.  

PubMed

Rhizoctonia blight is a common and serious disease of many turfgrass species. The most widespread causal agent, Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph: R. solani), consists of several genetically different subpopulations. In addition, Waitea circinata varieties zeae, oryzae and circinata (anamorph: Rhizoctonia spp.) also can cause the disease. Accurate identification of the causal pathogen is important for effective management of the disease. It is challenging to distinguish the specific causal pathogen based on disease symptoms or macroscopic and microscopic morphology. Traditional methods such as anastomosis reactions with tester isolates are time consuming and sometimes difficult to interpret. In the present study universally primed PCR (UP-PCR) fingerprinting was used to assess genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia spp. infecting turfgrasses. Eighty-four Rhizoctonia isolates were sampled from diseased turfgrass leaves from seven distinct geographic areas in Virginia and Maryland. Rhizoctonia isolates were characterized by ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) region and UP-PCR. The isolates formed seven clusters based on ITS sequences analysis and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering of UP-PCR markers, which corresponded well with anastomosis groups (AGs) of the isolates. Isolates of R. solani AG 1-IB (n = 18), AG 2-2IIIB (n = 30) and AG 5 (n = 1) clustered separately. Waitea circinata var. zeae (n = 9) and var. circinata (n = 4) grouped separately. A cluster of six isolates of Waitea (UWC) did not fall into any known Waitea variety. The binucleate Rhizoctonia-like fungi (BNR) (n = 16) clustered into two groups. Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2IIIB was the most dominant pathogen in this study, followed by AG 1-IB. There was no relationship between the geographic origin of the isolates and clustering of isolates based on the genetic associations. To our knowledge this is the first time UP-PCR was used to characterize Rhizoctonia, Waitea and Ceratobasidium isolates to their infra-species level. PMID:23709576

Amaradasa, B S; Horvath, B J; Lakshman, D K; Warnke, S E

2013-01-01

15

Scarlet-Rz1, an EMS-generated hexaploid wheat with tolerance to the soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG8 and R. oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The necrotrophic root pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and R. oryzae cause Rhizoctonia root rot and damping-off, yield-limiting diseases that pose barriers to the adoption of conservation tillage\\u000a in wheat production systems. Existing control practices are only partially effective, and natural genetic resistance to Rhizoctonia has not been identified in wheat or its close relatives. We report the first genetic resistance\\/tolerance

Patricia Ann Okubara; Camille M. Steber; Victor L. DeMacon; Nathalie L. Walter; Timothy C. Paulitz; Kimberlee K. Kidwell

2009-01-01

16

RFLP analysis of the PCR-amplified 28S rDNA in Rhizoctonia solani  

Microsoft Academic Search

RFLP analyses of a portion of the 28S rDNA gene region were conducted by using four restriction endonucleases for 57 isolates\\u000a of 13 intraspecific groups (ISGs) representing 7 anastomosis groups (AGs) ofRhizoctonia solani. Variations in the PCR-amplified rDNA products and the polymorphisms on digestion with restriction enzymes (BamHI,HaeIII,HhaI andHpaII) were observed among three AGs, AG 1, 2 and 4. These

Masaru Matsumoto; Naruto Furuya; Yoichi Takanami; Nobuaki Matsuyama

1996-01-01

17

Effects of granular nematicides on the infection of potatoes by Rhizoctonia solani  

Microsoft Academic Search

The granular nematicides aldicarb, oxamyl and ethoprophos often are applied to control plant parasitic nematodes. However, the use of these pesticides may have some disadvantages. In field trials, they increased stem infection of potatoes caused by Rhizoctonia solani<\\/u> Kühn and incidence of black scurf (sclerotia of R. solani<\\/u> ) on tubers. This thesis, reports about possible mechanisms involved in the

T. W. Hofman

1988-01-01

18

Identification of defense-related genes in rice responding to challenge by Rhizoctonia solani  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the major diseases of rice. The pathogen infects rice plants directly through stomata or using lobate appressoria\\u000a and hyphal masses called infection cushions. The infection structures were normally found at 36 h post-inoculation. During\\u000a infection, the pathogenesis-related genes, PR1b and PBZ1 were induced in rice plants. To identify rice genes induced

Chang-Jiang Zhao; Ai-Rong Wang; Yu-Jun Shi; Liu-Qing Wang; Wen-De Liu; Zong-Hua Wang; Guo-Dong Lu

2008-01-01

19

Simultaneous raw starch hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation by glucoamylase from Rhizoctonia solani and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Crude glucoamylase preparation from Rhizoctonia solani was used to saccharify raw and cooked starch. Various concentrations of potato starch and wheat flour from 10-40%, w/v were used for mashing but 30% was found to be the optimal and economical. The saccharified mash yielded 5.89%, v/v ethanol in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process using a yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC-39) at 35 degrees C for 4 days. Removal of inhibitory substances from the fermenting broth through dialysis caused considerable increase in ethanol production. PMID:7783000

Singh, D; Dahiya, J S; Nigam, P

1995-01-01

20

Genotypic and phenotypic variation among Lysobacter capsici strains isolated from Rhizoctonia suppressive soils.  

PubMed

Four Gram-negative bacterial strains, recovered from clay soils cultivated with different crops in the Netherland, were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study in order to clarify their taxonomic status. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that they belong to the genus Lysobacter and to be highly related to the type strains of L. antibioticus DSM 2044(T), L. gummosus DSM 6980(T), and L. capsici DSM 19286(T), displaying 99.1-99.3%, 99.2-99.6% and 99.4-100% sequence similarities, respectively, to these species. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization studies unambigiously indicated that the four strains belonged to the species L. capsici. Nevertheless, DNA fingerprinting and phenotypic characterization indicated that there was a considerable diversification and niche differentiation among the strains belonging to L. capsici. The newly identified L. capsici strains strongly inhibit Rhizoctonia solani AG2 and originate from Rhizoctonia-suppressive soils where also populations of L. antibioticus and L. gummosus were present. This is the first report of the presence of combined populations of closely related Lysobacter spp. within agricultural soils. PMID:20399056

Postma, J; Nijhuis, E H; Yassin, A F

2010-06-01

21

Rhizoctonia wilt suppression of brinjal (Solanum melongena L) and plant growth activity by Bacillus BS2.  

PubMed

An antibiotic-producing and hydrogen-cyanide-producing rhizobacteria strain Bacillus BS2 showed a wide range of antifungal activity against many Fusarium sp. and brinjal wilt disease pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Seed bacterization with the strain BS2 promoted seed germination and plant growth in leguminous plants Phaseolus vulgaris and non-leguminous plants Solanum melongena L, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, B. oleraceae var. gongylodes and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill in terms of relative growth rate, shoot height, root length, total biomass production and total chlorophyll content of leaves. Yield of bacterized plants were increased by 10 to 49% compared to uninoculated control plants. Brinjal sapling raised through seed bacterization by the strain BS2 showed a significantly reduced wilt syndrome of brinjal caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Control of wilt disease by the bacterium was clue to the production of antibiotic-like substances, whereas plant growth-promotion was due to the activity of hydrogen cyanide. Root colonization study confirmed that the introduced bacteria colonized the roots and occupied 23-25% of total aerobic bacteria, which was confirmed using dual antibiotic (nalidixic acid and streptomycin sulphate) resistant mutant strain. The results obtained through this investigation suggested the potentiality of the strain BS2 to be used as a plant growth promoter and suppressor of wilt pathogen. PMID:15266911

Boruah, H P Deka; Kumar, B S Dileep

2003-06-01

22

Effects of Rhizoctonia infection and drought on peroxidase and chitinase activity in Norway spruce (Picea abies).  

PubMed

Seedlings of Norway spruce were exposed to fungal infection and drought in order to investigate differences in their stress responses on the enzymatic level. Six-week-old seedlings were infected with the root rot fungus Rhizoctonia, or subjected to drought, respectively. Changes at the enzymatic level were more rapid and significantly higher in infected plants in comparison with drought-stressed spruce plants. Rhizoctonia infection resulted in early local and systemic increase in peroxidase and chitinase activity. The most prominent isoforms responding were highly basic peroxidases and chitinases (pI 9-9.5) and several acidic chitinases (pI3-4). An increased intensity of similar peroxidase isoforms was found in drought-affected plants. Two peroxidase isoforms (with pI < 9) accumulated exclusively in response to drought. These results suggest that at an early stage of infection and drought stress, the two stresses can be distinguished by the temporal appearance and isoform profile of peroxidases and chitinases. Changes in enzyme activity appeared before changes in physiological parameters, thus these isoform profiles could be used as early markers of stress conditions in spruce. PMID:15032844

Nagy, Nina Elisabeth; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar; Dalen, Lars Sandved; Lönneborg, Anders; Heldal, Inger; Johnsen, ØYstein

2004-03-01

23

Effects of aqueous extracts of some plant species against Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani in Phaseolus vulgaris plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activity of aqueous extracts of 22 of plant species, against the linear mycelium of Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani, were tested in vitro test. All plant extracts have an antifungal activity against the two fungi except Basil, Castor beans, Chamomile and Peppermint. Aqueous extracts of Chilli, Lantana, Lemon grass and Onion seeds highly reduced the mycelial growth of

H. Abd-El-Khair; G. El-Gamal Nadia

2011-01-01

24

Role of bacterial communities in the natural suppression of Rhizoctonia solani bare patch disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  

PubMed

Rhizoctonia bare patch and root rot disease of wheat, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, develops as distinct patches of stunted plants and limits the yield of direct-seeded (no-till) wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. At the site of a long-term cropping systems study near Ritzville, WA, a decline in Rhizoctonia patch disease was observed over an 11-year period. Bacterial communities from bulk and rhizosphere soil of plants from inside the patches, outside the patches, and recovered patches were analyzed by using pyrosequencing with primers designed for 16S rRNA. Taxa in the class Acidobacteria and the genus Gemmatimonas were found at higher frequencies in the rhizosphere of healthy plants outside the patches than in that of diseased plants from inside the patches. Dyella and Acidobacteria subgroup Gp7 were found at higher frequencies in recovered patches. Chitinophaga, Pedobacter, Oxalobacteriaceae (Duganella and Massilia), and Chyseobacterium were found at higher frequencies in the rhizosphere of diseased plants from inside the patches. For selected taxa, trends were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and observed shifts of frequencies in the rhizosphere over time were duplicated in cycling experiments in the greenhouse that involved successive plantings of wheat in Rhizoctonia-inoculated soil. Chryseobacterium soldanellicola was isolated from the rhizosphere inside the patches and exhibited significant antagonism against R. solani AG-8 in vitro and in greenhouse tests. In conclusion, we identified novel bacterial taxa that respond to conditions affecting bare patch disease symptoms and that may be involved in suppression of Rhizoctonia root rot and bare batch disease. PMID:24056471

Yin, Chuntao; Hulbert, Scot H; Schroeder, Kurtis L; Mavrodi, Olga; Mavrodi, Dmitri; Dhingra, Amit; Schillinger, William F; Paulitz, Timothy C

2013-12-01

25

Role of Bacterial Communities in the Natural Suppression of Rhizoctonia solani Bare Patch Disease of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

PubMed Central

Rhizoctonia bare patch and root rot disease of wheat, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, develops as distinct patches of stunted plants and limits the yield of direct-seeded (no-till) wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. At the site of a long-term cropping systems study near Ritzville, WA, a decline in Rhizoctonia patch disease was observed over an 11-year period. Bacterial communities from bulk and rhizosphere soil of plants from inside the patches, outside the patches, and recovered patches were analyzed by using pyrosequencing with primers designed for 16S rRNA. Taxa in the class Acidobacteria and the genus Gemmatimonas were found at higher frequencies in the rhizosphere of healthy plants outside the patches than in that of diseased plants from inside the patches. Dyella and Acidobacteria subgroup Gp7 were found at higher frequencies in recovered patches. Chitinophaga, Pedobacter, Oxalobacteriaceae (Duganella and Massilia), and Chyseobacterium were found at higher frequencies in the rhizosphere of diseased plants from inside the patches. For selected taxa, trends were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and observed shifts of frequencies in the rhizosphere over time were duplicated in cycling experiments in the greenhouse that involved successive plantings of wheat in Rhizoctonia-inoculated soil. Chryseobacterium soldanellicola was isolated from the rhizosphere inside the patches and exhibited significant antagonism against R. solani AG-8 in vitro and in greenhouse tests. In conclusion, we identified novel bacterial taxa that respond to conditions affecting bare patch disease symptoms and that may be involved in suppression of Rhizoctonia root rot and bare batch disease.

Yin, Chuntao; Hulbert, Scot H.; Schroeder, Kurtis L.; Mavrodi, Olga; Mavrodi, Dmitri; Dhingra, Amit; Schillinger, William F.

2013-01-01

26

Effect of Trichoderma harzianum biomass and Bradyrhizobium sp. strain NC 92 to control leaf blight disease of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) caused by Rhizoctonia solani in the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sawangsri, P., Pengnoo, A., Suwanprasert, J. and Kanjanamaneesathian, M. Effect of Trichoderma harzianum biomass and Bradyrhizobium sp. strain NC 92 to control leaf blight disease of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) caused by Rhizoctonia solani in the field

Paranee Sawangsri; Ashara Pengnoo; Jira Suwanprasert; Mana Kanjanamaneesathian

27

Wide Variation in Virulence and Genetic Diversity of Binucleate Rhizoctonia Isolates Associated with Root Rot of Strawberry in Western Australia  

PubMed Central

Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) is one of the most important berry crops in the world. Root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, there is no information on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with root rot of strawberry in Australia. To address this, a total of 96 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates recovered from diseased strawberry plants in Western Australia were characterized for their nuclear condition, virulence, genetic diversity and phylogenetic status. All the isolates were found to be binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR). Sixty-five of the 96 BNR isolates were pathogenic on strawberry, but with wide variation in virulence, with 25 isolates having high virulence. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA separated the 65 pathogenic BNR isolates into six distinct clades. The sequence analysis also separated reference BNR isolates from strawberry or other crops across the world into clades that correspond to their respective anastomosis group (AG). Some of the pathogenic BNR isolates from this study were embedded in the clades for AG-A, AG-K and AG-I, while other isolates formed clades that were sister to the clades specific for AG-G, AG-B, AG-I and AG-C. There was no significant association between genetic diversity and virulence of these BNR isolates. This study demonstrates that pathogenic BNR isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia have wide genetic diversity, and highlights new genetic groups not previously found to be associated with root rot of strawberry in the world (e.g., AG-B) or in Australia (e.g., AG-G). The wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity identified in this study will be of high value for strawberry breeding programs in selecting, developing and deploying new cultivars with resistance to these multi-genetic groups of BNR.

Fang, Xiangling; Finnegan, Patrick M.; Barbetti, Martin J.

2013-01-01

28

Induction of enzymatic scavengers of active oxygen species in rice in response to infection by Rhizoctonia solani  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the activities of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase in rice in response to infection\\u000a by Rhizoctonia solani were studied. A significant increase in peroxidase activity was observed in R. solani-inoculated rice leaf sheaths 1 day after inoculation and the maximum enzyme activity was recorded 3 days after inoculation\\u000a at which period a 3-fold increase in peroxidase

V. Paranidharan; A. Palaniswami; P. Vidhyasekaran; R. Velazhahan

2003-01-01

29

Synergistic interactions between Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, Verticillium dahliae Kleb., Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus neglectus (Rensch) Chitwood & Oteifa, in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Samples of a sandy soil and a marine clay soil sterilized by steam were put in 55-1 containers insulated with polystyrene\\u000a and placed outdoors on a brick pavement. Sandy soil was infested singly or in all possible combinations with root-knot nematodes\\u000a (Meloidogyne spp.) and the fungiRhizoctonia solani andVerticillium dahliae, and the marine clay soil was infested with the root-lesion nematodePratylenchus

K. Scholte; J. J. s'Jacob

1989-01-01

30

Anastomosis groups of Rhizoctonia solani on potato in central México and potential for biological and chemical control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anastomosis group (AG) identity ofRhizoctonia solani isolates collected from potato plants growing near Leon, Guanajuato, in central Mexico was determined. In samples from 15\\u000a fields, we found AG-3 and AG-4 with a frequency of 73.5% and 26.5% respectively. AG-4 was found only during the flowering\\u000a stage of plant growth, whereas AG-3 was present on plants at every stage of development.

G. Virgen-Calleros; V. Olalde-Portugal; D. E. Carling

2000-01-01

31

Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease in cucumber with Bacillus pumilus SQR-N43  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological control is an efficient and environmentally friendly way to prevent damping-off disease. Micrographs were used to investigate the ability of Bacillus pumilus (B. pumilus) SQR-N43 to control Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) Q1 in cucumbers. The root colonization ability of B. pumilus SQR-N43 was analyzed in vivo with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag. A pot experiment was performed to

Xinqi Huang; Nan Zhang; Xiaoyu Yong; Xingming Yang; Qirong Shen

32

Biological control of Rhizoctonia root rot on bean by phenazine- and cyclic lipopeptide-producing Pseudomonas CMR12a.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas CMR12a was previously selected as an efficient biocontrol strain producing phenazines and cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs). In this study, biocontrol capacity of Pseudomonas CMR12a against Rhizoctonia root rot of bean and the involvement of phenazines and CLPs in this ability were tested. Two different anastomosis groups (AGs) of Rhizoctonia solani, the intermediately aggressive AG 2-2 and the highly aggressive AG 4 HGI, were included in growth-chamber experiments with bean plants. The wild-type strain CMR12a dramatically reduced disease severity caused by both R. solani AGs. A CLP-deficient and a phenazine-deficient mutant of CMR12a still protected bean plants, albeit to a lesser extent compared with the wild type. Two mutants deficient in both phenazine and CLP production completely lost their biocontrol activity. Disease-suppressive capacity of CMR12a decreased after washing bacteria before application to soil and thereby removing metabolites produced during growth on plate. In addition, microscopic observations revealed pronounced branching of hyphal tips of both R. solani AGs in the presence of CMR12a. More branched and denser mycelium was also observed for the phenazine-deficient mutant; however, neither the CLP-deficient mutant nor the mutants deficient in both CLPs and phenazines influenced hyphal growth. Together, results demonstrate the involvement of phenazines and CLPs during Pseudomonas CMR12a-mediated biocontrol of Rhizoctonia root rot of bean. PMID:21405991

D'aes, Jolien; Hua, Gia Khuong Hoang; De Maeyer, Katrien; Pannecoucque, Joke; Forrez, Ilse; Ongena, Marc; Dietrich, Lars E P; Thomashow, Linda S; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Höfte, Monica

2011-08-01

33

Temperature, moisture, and fungicide effects in managing Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of sugar beet.  

PubMed

Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot in sugar beet; however, recent increases in disease incidence and severity were grounds to reevaluate this pathosystem. To assess the capacity at which other anastomosis groups (AGs) are able to infect sugar beet, 15 AGs and intraspecific groups (ISGs) were tested for pathogenicity on resistant ('FC708 CMS') and susceptible ('Monohikari') seedlings and 10-week-old plants. Several AGs and ISGs were pathogenic on seedlings regardless of host resistance but only AG-2-2 IIIB and AG-2-2 IV caused significant disease on 10-week-old plants. Because fungicides need to be applied prior to infection for effective disease control, temperature and moisture parameters were assessed to identify potential thresholds that limit infection. Root and leaf disease indices were used to evaluate disease progression of AG-2-2 IIIB- and AG-2-2 IV-inoculated plants in controlled climate conditions of 7 to 22 growing degree days (GDDs) per day. Root disease ratings were positively correlated with increasing temperature of both ISGs, with maximum disease symptoms occurring at 22 GDDs/day. No disease symptoms were evident from either ISG at 10 GDDs/day but disease symptoms did occur in plants grown in growth chambers set to 11 GDDs/day. Using growth chambers adjusted to 22 GDDs/day, disease was evaluated at 25, 50, 75, and 100% moisture-holding capacity (MHC). Disease symptoms for each ISG were highest in soils with 75 and 100% MHC but disease still occurred at 25% MHC. Isolates were tested for their ability to cause disease at 1, 4, and 8 cm from the plant hypocotyl. Only AG-2-2 IIIB was able to cause disease symptoms at 8 cm during the evaluation period. In all experiments, isolates of AG-2-2 IIIB were found to be more aggressive than AG-2-2 IV. Using environmental parameters that we identified as the most conducive to disease development, azoxystrobin, prothioconazole, pyraclostrobin, difenoconazole/propiconazole, flutolanil, polyoxin D, and a water control were evaluated for their ability to suppress disease development by AG-2-2 IIIB and AG-2-2 IV 17 days after planting. Flutolanil, polyoxin-D, and azoxystrobin provided the highest level of disease suppression. Because R. solani AG-2-2 IIIB and AG-2-2 IV are affected by temperature and moisture, growers may be able to evaluate environmental parameters for optimization of fungicide application. PMID:20528187

Bolton, Melvin D; Panella, Lee; Campbell, Larry; Khan, Mohamed F R

2010-07-01

34

Isolation and characterization of siderophore producing antagonistic rhizobacteria against Rhizoctonia solani.  

PubMed

Plant protection through siderophore producing rhizobacteria (SPR) has emerged as a sustainable approach for crop health management. In present study, 220 bacteria isolated from tomato rhizosphere were screened for in vitro antagonistic activity against Rhizoctonia solani AG-4. Nine potent antagonistic strains viz., Alcaligenes sp. (MUN1, MB21, and MPF37), Enterobacter sp. (MPM1), Pseudomonas sp. (M10A and MB65), P. aeruginosa (MPF14 and MB123) and P. fluorescens (MPF47) were identified on the basis of physiological characters and 16S rDNA sequencing. These strains were able to produce hydrolytic enzymes, hydrogen cyanide, indole acetic acid, although, only few strains were able to solubilize phosphate. Two strains (MB123 and MPF47) showed significant disease reduction in glasshouse conditions were further evaluated under field conditions using three different application methods. Application of P. fluorescens (MPF47) in nursery as soil mix?+?seedling root treatments prior to transplantation resulted in significant disease reduction compared to control. Total chlorophyll and available iron were significantly higher in the MPF47 treated plants in contrast to infected control. In conclusion, siderophore producing bacteria MPF47 have strong biocontrol abilities and its application as soil mix?+?seedling root treatments provided strong shield to plant roots against R. solani and could be used for effective bio-management of pathogen. PMID:23686438

Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Srivastava, Supriya; Kumar, Sudheer; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Srivastava, Alok K; Arora, Dilip K

2014-06-01

35

Development of artificial conidia for ecological studies of Rhizoctonia solani in soil.  

PubMed

Artificial conidia of Rhizoctonia solani were developed by releasing protoplasts from young mycelia with lytic enzymes and by inducing cell wall formation in stabilizer solution. Conidia produced in this way were spherical with sizes ranging from 10 to 20?m in diameter. Artificial conidia were sensitive to soil fungistasis. Young hyphae originated from artificial conidia were also sensitive to fungistasis and mycolysis in soils. These results demonstrate that the previously reported insensitivity of R. solani to fungistasis and mycolysis in soils is due to special ability of propagules used rather than the inherited nature of the organism. Germination rates of artificial conidia on soils were inversely correlated with the amount of fungicide Flutolanil added. When germination of artificial conidia was used to detect suppressive soils, 3 out of 30 soil samples collected from different parts of Taiwan were suppressive to R. solani and all these suppressive soils were low in pH. Using artificial conidia for assay of fungicide activity in soil and detection of suppressive soils has the advantages of being fast and precise in comparison with relative hyphal growth. However, preparation of artificial conidia at this stage is tedious and time-consuming. PMID:20713193

Liu, Tung-Hsen; Lin, Mei-Ju; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

2011-01-31

36

Chitosan-cinnamon beads enhance suppressive activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita in vitro.  

PubMed

A novel chitosan-cinnamon bead carrier was prepared in this study. Chitosan was mixed with cinnamon powder (CP) and cinnamon extract (CE) to obtain chitosan-cinnamon powder (CCP) beads and chitosan-cinnamon extracted (CCE) beads, respectively. The potential antifungal and nematicidal activities of CCP and CCE were investigated against Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita in vitro. Relative antifungal activity of the CCP (5% CP) bead-treated R. solani was 30.9 and 23.9% after 1 and 2 day incubations, respectively. Relative antifungal activity of the CCE (0.5% CE) bead-treated R. solani was 4.3, 3.0 and 4.2% after 1, 2 and 3 days of incubation. Inhibition of hatch by CCP beads with CP of 5% was 78.8%. Inhibition of hatch by CCE beads with CE of 0.5% was 82.0%. J2 mortality following the CCP (5% CP) and CCE (0.5% CE) bead treatments was 85.0 and 95.8%, respectively against M. incognita after 48 h incubations. PMID:24417978

Seo, Dong-Jun; Nguyen, Dang-Minh-Chanh; Park, Ro-Dong; Jung, Woo-Jin

2014-01-01

37

Efficacy of different fungicides against Rhizoctonia brown patch and Pythium blight on turfgrass in Italy.  

PubMed

Brown patch, incited by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Pythium blight, caused by Pythium spp. are two of the diseases most frequently observed on turfgrass in high maintenance stands, as on golf courses. In such conditions the control strategies, based on chemicals, are particularly difficult due to the scarcity of fungicides registered for turf in Italy. The results obtained in experimental trials carried out to evaluate the efficacy of chemical and biological products against brown patch and Pythium blight are reported. On mature turfgrass, maintained under fairway conditions, azoxystrobin, and trifoxystrobin, not yet registered on turf, were very effective against brown patch. Tebuconazole, applied in three different formulations, was very effective against R. solani, while Trichoderma spp. and azadiractine did not control the pathogen. In greenhouse conditions on Agrostis stolonifera, in the presence of severe disease incidence, due to artificial inoculation, benalaxyl-M satisfactorily controlled Pythium blight; Trichoderma spp. as well as a commercial formulation of T. harzianum, applied one week before the inoculation, were not effective. Among the fungicides not yet registered for use on turfgrass in Italy, metalaxyl-M + mancozeb was effective against Pythium blight. PMID:15151284

Mocioni, M; Titone, P; Garibaldi, A; Gullino, M L

2003-01-01

38

Determination of genetic diversity among Indian isolates of Rhizoctonia bataticola causing dry root rot of chickpea.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity among 27 isolates (23 from chickpea and 4 from other host crops) of Rhizoctonia bataticola representing 11 different states of India was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), internal transcribed spacer restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITSRFLP) and ITS sequencing. The isolates showed variability in virulence test. Unweighted paired group method with arithmetic average cluster analysis was used to group the isolates into distinct clusters. The clusters generated by RAPD grouped all the isolates into six categories at 40% genetic similarity. High level of diversity was observed among the isolates of different as well as same state. Some of the RAPD (OPN 4, OPN 12, and OPN 20) markers clearly distinguished majority of the isolates into the area specific groups. The ITS I, 5.8 rDNA and ITS II regions of 11 isolates representing different RAPD groups were amplified with primers ITS 1 and ITS 4 and digested with seven restriction enzymes. The restriction enzymes DraI, MboI, RsaI, and AluI were found to be suitable for differentiating the isolates into five categories by showing isolate specific ITS-RFLP patterns. The isolates were variable in their nucleotide sequences of the ITS regions. This is the first study on genetic diversity among chickpea isolates of R. bataticola. PMID:19760515

Aghakhani, Maryam; Dubey, Sunil C

2009-11-01

39

Influence of herbicides on root rot of French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Rhizoctonia solani.  

PubMed

The effects of four herbicides, namely bromacil, diuron, nitrofen, and alachlor, at 0.04 and 0.02% concentrations in vitro and nitrofen and alachlor at two concentrations under field conditions, were studied against root rot of French beans, caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Diuron at 0.04% concentration completely checked the growth of R. solani in in vitro incubation up to 72 hours. Alachlor was highly effective at both the concentrations, followed by nitrofen and bromacil. In field trials in 1977 and 1978, pre-inoculation application of both the herbicides was less effective than post-inoculation application. Pre-emergence mortality, following post-inoculation application of nitrofen and alachlor, varied in the two trials from 5.7 to 11.4% and 5.3 to 7.6%. respectively, as compared to 16.6 to 19.3% in untreated plots. Post-emergence mortality in post-inoculation application of nitrofen and alachlor varied from 3.9 to 9.5 and 5.3 to 12.2, respectively, whereas in untreated plots it was 13.8 to 21.9%. Yield of green pods was also significantly higher in post-inoculation application than in untreated control. PMID:6649952

Sharma, S R; Sohi, H S

1983-01-01

40

The identification and characterization of four laccases from the plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani.  

PubMed

Four distinct laccase genes, lcc1, lcc2, lcc3 and lcc4, have been identified in the fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Both cDNA and genomic copies of these genes were isolated and characterized. Hybridization analyses indicate that each of the four laccase genes is present in a single copy in the genome. The R. solani laccases can be divided into two groups based on their protein size, intron/exon organization, and transcriptional regulation. Three of these enzymes have been expressed in the fungus Aspergillus oryzae. Two of the recombinant laccases, r-lcc1 and r-lcc4, as well as the native lcc4 enzyme were purified and characterized. The purified proteins are homodimeric, comprised of two subunits of approximately 66kDa for lcc4 and 50-100kDa for the recombinant lcc1 protein. These laccases have spectral properties that are consistent with other blue copper proteins. With syringaldazine as a substrate, lcc4 has optimal activity at pH7, whereas lcc1 has optimal activity at pH6. PMID:8598061

Wahleithner, J A; Xu, F; Brown, K M; Brown, S H; Golightly, E J; Halkier, T; Kauppinen, S; Pederson, A; Schneider, P

1996-03-01

41

Agroecological factors correlated to soil DNA concentrations of rhizoctonia in dryland wheat production zones of washington state, USA.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The necrotrophic soilborne fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG8 and R. oryzae are principal causal agents of Rhizoctonia root rot and bare patch of wheat in dryland cropping systems of the Pacific Northwest. A 3-year survey of 33 parcels at 11 growers' sites and 60 trial plots at 12 Washington State University cereal variety test locations was undertaken to understand the distribution of these pathogens. Pathogen DNA concentrations in soils, quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction, were correlated with precipitation, temperature maxima and minima, and soil texture factors in a pathogen-specific manner. Specifically, R. solani AG8 DNA concentration was negatively correlated with precipitation and not correlated with temperature minima, whereas R. oryzae concentration was correlated with temperature minima but not with precipitation. However, both pathogens were more abundant in soils with higher sand and lower clay content. Principal component analysis also indicated that unique groups of meteorological and soil factors were associated with each pathogen. Furthermore, tillage did not affect R. oryzae but affected R. solani AG8 at P = 0.06. Lower soil concentrations of R. solani AG8 but not R. oryzae occurred when the previously planted crop was a broadleaf (P < 0.05). Our findings showed that R. solani AG8 concentrations were consistent with the general distribution of bare patch symptoms, based on field observations and surveys of other pathogens, but was present at many sites in which bare patch symptoms were not evident. Management of Rhizoctonia root rot and bare patch should account for the likelihood that each pathogen is affected by a unique group of agroecological variables. PMID:24915426

Okubara, Patricia A; Schroeder, Kurtis L; Abatzoglou, John T; Paulitz, Timothy C

2014-07-01

42

The impact of the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and its beneficial counterpart Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on the indigenous lettuce microbiome  

PubMed Central

Lettuce belongs to the most commonly raw eaten food worldwide and its microbiome plays an important role for both human and plant health. Yet, little is known about the impact of potentially occurring pathogens and beneficial inoculants of the indigenous microorganisms associated with lettuce. To address this question we studied the impact of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani and the biological control agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on the indigenous rhizosphere and phyllosphere community of greenhouse-grown lettuce at two plant stages. The rhizosphere and phyllosphere gammaproteobacterial microbiomes of lettuce plants showed clear differences in their overall and core microbiome composition as well as in corresponding diversity indices. The rhizosphere was dominated by Xanthomonadaceae (48%) and Pseudomonadaceae (37%) with Rhodanobacter, Pseudoxanthomonas, Dokdonella, Luteimonas, Steroidobacter, Thermomonas as core inhabitants, while the dominating taxa associated to phyllosphere were Pseudomonadaceae (54%), Moraxellaceae (16%) and Enterobacteriaceae (25%) with Alkanindiges, Pantoea and a group of Enterobacteriaceae unclassified at genus level. The preferential occurrence of enterics in the phyllosphere was the most significant difference between both habitats. Additional enhancement of enterics on the phyllosphere was observed in bottom rot diseased lettuce plants, while Acinetobacter and Alkanindiges were identified as indicators of healthy plants. Interestingly, the microbial diversity was enhanced by treatment with both the pathogen, and the co-inoculated biological control agent. The highest impact and bacterial diversity was found by Rhizoctonia inoculation, but FZB42 lowered the impact of Rhizoctonia on the microbiome. This study shows that the indigenous microbiome shifts as a consequence to pathogen attack but FZB42 can compensate these effects, which supports their role as biocontrol agent and suggests a novel mode of action.

Erlacher, Armin; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Grosch, Rita; Grube, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

2014-01-01

43

The impact of the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and its beneficial counterpart Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on the indigenous lettuce microbiome.  

PubMed

Lettuce belongs to the most commonly raw eaten food worldwide and its microbiome plays an important role for both human and plant health. Yet, little is known about the impact of potentially occurring pathogens and beneficial inoculants of the indigenous microorganisms associated with lettuce. To address this question we studied the impact of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani and the biological control agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on the indigenous rhizosphere and phyllosphere community of greenhouse-grown lettuce at two plant stages. The rhizosphere and phyllosphere gammaproteobacterial microbiomes of lettuce plants showed clear differences in their overall and core microbiome composition as well as in corresponding diversity indices. The rhizosphere was dominated by Xanthomonadaceae (48%) and Pseudomonadaceae (37%) with Rhodanobacter, Pseudoxanthomonas, Dokdonella, Luteimonas, Steroidobacter, Thermomonas as core inhabitants, while the dominating taxa associated to phyllosphere were Pseudomonadaceae (54%), Moraxellaceae (16%) and Enterobacteriaceae (25%) with Alkanindiges, Pantoea and a group of Enterobacteriaceae unclassified at genus level. The preferential occurrence of enterics in the phyllosphere was the most significant difference between both habitats. Additional enhancement of enterics on the phyllosphere was observed in bottom rot diseased lettuce plants, while Acinetobacter and Alkanindiges were identified as indicators of healthy plants. Interestingly, the microbial diversity was enhanced by treatment with both the pathogen, and the co-inoculated biological control agent. The highest impact and bacterial diversity was found by Rhizoctonia inoculation, but FZB42 lowered the impact of Rhizoctonia on the microbiome. This study shows that the indigenous microbiome shifts as a consequence to pathogen attack but FZB42 can compensate these effects, which supports their role as biocontrol agent and suggests a novel mode of action. PMID:24795707

Erlacher, Armin; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Grosch, Rita; Grube, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

2014-01-01

44

In vitro attachment of phylloplane yeasts to Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotinia homoeocarpa.  

PubMed

The ability of yeasts to attach to hyphae or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi has been speculated to contribute to biocontrol activity on plant surfaces. Attachment of phylloplane yeasts to Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotinia homoeocarpa was determined using in vitro attachment assays. Yeasts were incubated for 2 d on potato dextrose agar (PDA) prior to experimentation. A total of 292 yeasts cultured on PDA were screened for their ability to attach to conidia of B. cinerea; 260 isolates (89.1%) attached to conidia forming large aggregates of cells, and 22 isolates (7.5%) weakly attached to conidia with 1 or 2 yeast cells attached to a few conidia. Ten yeasts (3.4%), including 8 isolates of Cryptococcus laurentii, 1 isolate of Cryptococcus flavescens, and an unidentified species of Cryptococcus, failed to attach to conidia. All non-attaching yeasts produced copious extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) on PDA. Seventeen yeast isolates did not attach to hyphal fragments of B. cinerea, R. solani, and S. homoeocarpa after a 1 h incubation, but attachment was observed after 24 h. Culture medium, but not culture age, significantly affected the attachment of yeast cells to conidia of B. cinerea. The 10 yeast isolates that did not attach to conidia when grown on agar did attach to conidia (20%-57% of conidia with attached yeast cells) when cultured in liquid medium. Attachment of the biocontrol yeast Rhodotorula glutinis PM4 to conidia of B. cinerea was significantly greater at 1 x 10(7) yeast cells x mL(-1) than at lower concentrations of yeast cells. The ability of yeast cells to attach to fungal conidia or hyphae appears to be a common phenotype among phylloplane yeasts. PMID:15714235

Allen, Tom W; Burpee, Leon L; Buck, James W

2004-12-01

45

Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of bean damping-off by fluorescent pseudomonads.  

PubMed

Rhizosphere bacteria belonging to the fluorescent pseudomonads are receiving increasing attention for the protection of plants against soil-borne fungal pathogens. Among these pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of bean damping- off is very important in bean fields of Iran. In this study, the antagonistic activity of 46 isolates of fluorescent pseudomonads (isolated from different area of Iran) and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 investigated against one isolate of R. solani. About 64% of isolates revealed antagonistic activity against R. solani. Production of antifungal metabolites such as HCN, siderophore and protease was evaluated. The results showed that 97.8%, 17% and 78% of isolates produced siderophore, HCN and protease respectively. There was no significant correlation between antagonistic activity and production of these metabolites. Isolates P-5, P-10 and P-32 with strain CHA0 were selected in order to investigate involvement of siderophore, volatile metabolites (HCN), and non-volatile metabolites in reducing mycelial growth of R. olani. Isolate P-5 showed much more inhibitory effect by production of volatile metabolites and siderophore. Non-volatile metabolites in isolates P-32 and P-5 completely inhibited mycelial growth of the fungus. After the primary labrotory tests, isolates P-14, P-35, P-30, P-5 and strain CHA0 were selected for in vivo experiments. These selected isolates with benomyl fungicide were used as seed coating and soil drenching in sterile soil under greenhouse condition. The result indicated that in seed treatment method, isolates P-30 by 66% had the most effect in disease reduction while in soil treatment method, strain CHAO by 60% had the most effect, such that this two isolates showed significant differences in comparison with plants inoculated with R. solani inoculums. PMID:17390854

Afsharmanesh, H; Ahmadzadeh, M; Sharifi-Tehrani, A

2006-01-01

46

Influence of Rotation Crops on the Strawberry Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae.  

PubMed

Field microplot, small plot, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation crops on Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae populations. Extraction of P. penetrans from roots and soil in microplots and field plots planted to rotation crops was highest for Garry oat, lowest for Triple S sorgho-sudangrass and Saia oat, and intermediate for strawberry, buckwheat, and canola. Isolation of R. fragariae from bait roots was highest for strawberry and canola after 2 years of rotation and lowest for Saia oat. Nematode extraction from roots of rotation crops in field soils was generally higher than from roots in microplots. Grasses were nonhosts of M. hapla. Strawberry, canola, and buckwheat supported root-knot populations over time, but there were no differences in nematode numbers regardless of crop after one season of strawberry growth. Garry oat, canola, and, to a lesser extent, buckwheat supported large populations of P. penetrans without visible root symptoms. Strawberry plants supported fewer nematodes due to root damage. Nematode numbers from soil were less than from roots for all crops. While there were similar trends for pathogen recovery after more than 1 year of strawberry growth following rotation, differences in pathogen density and fruit yield were not significant. In the greenhouse, P. penetrans populations in roots and soil in pots were much higher for Garry oat than for Saia oat. Total P. penetrans adult and juvenile numbers per pot ranged from 40 to 880 (mean = 365.6) for Garry oat and 0 to 40 (mean = 8.7) for Saia oat. Production of Saia oat as a rotation crop may be a means of managing strawberry nematodes and black root rot in Connecticut. PMID:19270931

Lamondia, J A

1999-12-01

47

Mechanism of the Generation of New Somatic Compatibility Groups within Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani)  

PubMed Central

Single-basidiospore isolates (SBIs) were obtained from field isolates of Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani) AG-1 IC and AG-2-2 IV. Formation of distinctive tufts, a recognized feature of heterokaryon synthesis, was observed, and isolates derived from hyphal-tipped tuft hyphae were obtained following pairings between various strains. Three distinctive types of tufts were formed: the fibrous type of mating-compatible homokaryon-homokaryon (Hom-Hom) pairings, the sparse type between heterokaryon-homokaryon (Het-Hom) pairings originating from one parent, and the compact type between Het-Hom pairings originating from different parents. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) profile of fingerprints of these tuft isolates verified that they were all heterokaryotic. Because of heterokaryotic vigor, the growth and pathogenicity of the majority of tuft isolates increased compared with their contributing SBIs. New somatic compatibility groups (SCGs) that were different from parental field isolates occurred following heterokaryon formation within T. cucumeris. Tuft isolates produced by Hom-Hom and Het-Hom pairings among isolates of different parents yielded no somatic compatibility with the original parent isolates and a high frequency of new SCGs (62–100%). This was in contrast to those produced by Hom-Hom and Het-Hom pairings among isolates with a common parent that yielded only 12–37% new SCGs. The SCG diversity of R. solani in the field may be attributed to new fitter heterokaryons formed between a heterokaryon of one pair of parents and a homokaryon of another parent pair. This mechanism greatly contributes to genetic diversity in the field and accounts for the failure to recover the expected distribution of SCGs from a field population.

Qu, Ping; Saldajeno, Mary Grace B.; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2013-01-01

48

Diversity of Rhizoctonia solani associated with pulse crops in different agro-ecological regions of India.  

PubMed

Four hundred seventy Rhizoctonia solani isolates from different leguminous hosts originating from 16 agro-ecological regions of India covering 21 states and 72 districts were collected. The disease incidence caused by R. solani varied from 6.8 to 22.2 % in the areas surveyed. Deccan plateau and central highlands, hot sub-humid ecoregion followed by northern plain and central highlands and hot semi-arid ecoregion showed the highest disease incidence. R. solani isolates were highly variable in growth diameter, number, size and pattern of sclerotia formation as well as hyphal width. The isolates obtained from aerial part of the infected plants showing web blight symptoms produced sclerotia of 1-2 mm in size whereas, the isolates obtained from infected root of the plants showing wet root rot symptoms produced microsclerotia (<1 mm). Majority of R. solani isolates showed <8 ?m hyphal diameter. Based on morphological characters the isolates were categorized into 49 groups. Seven anastomosis groups (AGs) were identified among the populations of R. solani associated with the pulse crops. The frequency (25.6 %) of AG3 was the highest followed by AG2-3 (20.9 %) and AG5 (17.4 %). The cropping sequence of rice/sorghum/wheat-chickpea/mungbean/urdbean/cowpea/ricebean influenced the dominance of AG1 (16.3 %). Phylogenetic analysis utilizing ITS-5.8S rDNA gene sequences indicated high level of genetic similarity among isolates representing different AGs, crops and regions. ITS groups did not correspond to the morphological characters. The sequence data from this article has been deposited with NCBI data libraries with JF701707 to JF701795 accession numbers. PMID:24399024

Dubey, Sunil C; Tripathi, Aradhika; Upadhyay, Balendu K; Deka, Utpal K

2014-06-01

49

Mechanism of the generation of new somatic compatibility groups within Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani).  

PubMed

Single-basidiospore isolates (SBIs) were obtained from field isolates of Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani) AG-1 IC and AG-2-2 IV. Formation of distinctive tufts, a recognized feature of heterokaryon synthesis, was observed, and isolates derived from hyphal-tipped tuft hyphae were obtained following pairings between various strains. Three distinctive types of tufts were formed: the fibrous type of mating-compatible homokaryon-homokaryon (Hom-Hom) pairings, the sparse type between heterokaryon-homokaryon (Het-Hom) pairings originating from one parent, and the compact type between Het-Hom pairings originating from different parents. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) profile of fingerprints of these tuft isolates verified that they were all heterokaryotic. Because of heterokaryotic vigor, the growth and pathogenicity of the majority of tuft isolates increased compared with their contributing SBIs. New somatic compatibility groups (SCGs) that were different from parental field isolates occurred following heterokaryon formation within T. cucumeris. Tuft isolates produced by Hom-Hom and Het-Hom pairings among isolates of different parents yielded no somatic compatibility with the original parent isolates and a high frequency of new SCGs (62-100%). This was in contrast to those produced by Hom-Hom and Het-Hom pairings among isolates with a common parent that yielded only 12-37% new SCGs. The SCG diversity of R. solani in the field may be attributed to new fitter heterokaryons formed between a heterokaryon of one pair of parents and a homokaryon of another parent pair. This mechanism greatly contributes to genetic diversity in the field and accounts for the failure to recover the expected distribution of SCGs from a field population. PMID:23995511

Qu, Ping; Saldajeno, Mary Grace B; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2013-01-01

50

Nuclear magnetic resonance: a tool for imaging belowground damage caused by Heterodera schachtii and Rhizoctonia solani on sugar beet  

PubMed Central

Belowground symptoms of sugar beet caused by the beet cyst nematode (BCN) Heterodera schachtii include the development of compensatory secondary roots and beet deformity, which, thus far, could only be assessed by destructively removing the entire root systems from the soil. Similarly, the symptoms of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR) caused by infections of the soil-borne basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani require the same invasive approach for identification. Here nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for the non-invasive detection of belowground symptoms caused by BCN and/or RCRR on sugar beet. Excessive lateral root development and beet deformation of plants infected by BCN was obvious 28 days after inoculation (dai) on MRI images when compared with non-infected plants. Three-dimensional images recorded at 56 dai showed BCN cysts attached to the roots in the soil. RCRR was visualized by a lower intensity of the MRI signal at sites where rotting occurred. The disease complex of both organisms together resulted in RCRR development at the site of nematode penetration. Damage analysis of sugar beet plants inoculated with both pathogens indicated a synergistic relationship, which may result from direct and indirect interactions. Nuclear MRI of plants may provide valuable, new insight into the development of pathogens infecting plants below- and aboveground because of its non-destructive nature and the sufficiently high spatial resolution of the method.

Hillnhutter, C.; Sikora, R. A.; Oerke, E. -C.; van Dusschoten, D.

2012-01-01

51

Nuclear magnetic resonance: a tool for imaging belowground damage caused by Heterodera schachtii and Rhizoctonia solani on sugar beet.  

PubMed

Belowground symptoms of sugar beet caused by the beet cyst nematode (BCN) Heterodera schachtii include the development of compensatory secondary roots and beet deformity, which, thus far, could only be assessed by destructively removing the entire root systems from the soil. Similarly, the symptoms of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR) caused by infections of the soil-borne basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani require the same invasive approach for identification. Here nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for the non-invasive detection of belowground symptoms caused by BCN and/or RCRR on sugar beet. Excessive lateral root development and beet deformation of plants infected by BCN was obvious 28 days after inoculation (dai) on MRI images when compared with non-infected plants. Three-dimensional images recorded at 56 dai showed BCN cysts attached to the roots in the soil. RCRR was visualized by a lower intensity of the MRI signal at sites where rotting occurred. The disease complex of both organisms together resulted in RCRR development at the site of nematode penetration. Damage analysis of sugar beet plants inoculated with both pathogens indicated a synergistic relationship, which may result from direct and indirect interactions. Nuclear MRI of plants may provide valuable, new insight into the development of pathogens infecting plants below- and aboveground because of its non-destructive nature and the sufficiently high spatial resolution of the method. PMID:21948851

Hillnhütter, C; Sikora, R A; Oerke, E-C; van Dusschoten, D

2012-01-01

52

Effect of successive cauliflower plantings and Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 inoculations on disease suppressiveness of a suppressive and a conducive soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 in cauliflower was studied in two marine clay soils with a sandy loam texture. The soils had a different cropping history. One soil had a long-term (40 years) cauliflower history and was suppressive, the other soil was conducive and came from a pear orchard not having a cauliflower crop for at least 40

J. Postma; R. W. A. Scheper; M. T. Schilder

2010-01-01

53

Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis MB73/2, a Soil Isolate Inhibiting the Growth of Plant Pathogens Dickeya spp. and Rhizoctonia solani  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subilis MB73/2 is a Gram-positive bacterium isolated in Poland from a meadow soil sample. When tested in vitro, the strain shows strong antagonism toward plant pathogens—the soft rot-causing bacteria Dickeya spp. and the crown rot fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Here, we present the genome sequence of MB73/2.

Krzyzanowska, Dorota M.; Iwanicki, Adam; Ossowicki, Adam; Obuchowski, Michal

2013-01-01

54

Scarlet-Rz1, an EMS-generated hexaploid wheat with tolerance to the soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and R. oryzae.  

PubMed

The necrotrophic root pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and R. oryzae cause Rhizoctonia root rot and damping-off, yield-limiting diseases that pose barriers to the adoption of conservation tillage in wheat production systems. Existing control practices are only partially effective, and natural genetic resistance to Rhizoctonia has not been identified in wheat or its close relatives. We report the first genetic resistance/tolerance to R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) germplasm 'Scarlet-Rz1'. Scarlet-Rz1 was derived from the allohexaploid spring wheat cultivar Scarlet using EMS mutagenesis. Tolerant seedlings displayed substantial root and shoot growth after 14 days in the presence of 100-400 propagules per gram soil of R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae in greenhouse assays. BC(2)F(4) individuals of Scarlet-Rz1 showed a high and consistent degree of tolerance. Seedling tolerance was transmissible and appeared to be dominant or co-dominant. Scarlet-Rz1 is a promising genetic resource for developing Rhizoctonia-tolerant wheat cultivars because the tolerance trait immediately can be deployed into wheat breeding germplasm through cross-hybridization, thereby avoiding difficulties with transfer from secondary or tertiary relatives as well as constraints associated with genetically modified plants. Our findings also demonstrate the utility of chemical mutagenesis for generating tolerance to necrotrophic pathogens in allohexaploid wheat. PMID:19407984

Okubara, Patricia Ann; Steber, Camille M; Demacon, Victor L; Walter, Nathalie L; Paulitz, Timothy C; Kidwell, Kimberlee K

2009-07-01

55

Antimicrobial activity and induction of systemic resistance in rice by leaf extract of Datura metel against Rhizoctonia solani and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf extracts of Datura metel significantly reduced the in vitro growth of Rhizoctonia solani (RS7, Anastomosis group AG1) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Methanol extract exhibited the best control of the pathogens recording 10–35% more toxicity than aqueous extract. Foliar application of leaf extracts effectively reduced the incidence of sheath blight and bacterial blight diseases of rice under

Sateesh Kagale; T. Marimuthu; B. Thayumanavan; R. Nandakumar; R. Samiyappan

2004-01-01

56

Genome sequencing and comparative genomics of the broad host-range pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG8.  

PubMed

Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne basidiomycete fungus with a necrotrophic lifestyle which is classified into fourteen reproductively incompatible anastomosis groups (AGs). One of these, AG8, is a devastating pathogen causing bare patch of cereals, brassicas and legumes. R. solani is a multinucleate heterokaryon containing significant heterozygosity within a single cell. This complexity posed significant challenges for the assembly of its genome. We present a high quality genome assembly of R. solani AG8 and a manually curated set of 13,964 genes supported by RNA-seq. The AG8 genome assembly used novel methods to produce a haploid representation of its heterokaryotic state. The whole-genomes of AG8, the rice pathogen AG1-IA and the potato pathogen AG3 were observed to be syntenic and co-linear. Genes and functions putatively relevant to pathogenicity were highlighted by comparing AG8 to known pathogenicity genes, orthology databases spanning 197 phytopathogenic taxa and AG1-IA. We also observed SNP-level "hypermutation" of CpG dinucleotides to TpG between AG8 nuclei, with similarities to repeat-induced point mutation (RIP). Interestingly, gene-coding regions were widely affected along with repetitive DNA, which has not been previously observed for RIP in mononuclear fungi of the Pezizomycotina. The rate of heterozygous SNP mutations within this single isolate of AG8 was observed to be higher than SNP mutation rates observed across populations of most fungal species compared. Comparative analyses were combined to predict biological processes relevant to AG8 and 308 proteins with effector-like characteristics, forming a valuable resource for further study of this pathosystem. Predicted effector-like proteins had elevated levels of non-synonymous point mutations relative to synonymous mutations (dN/dS), suggesting that they may be under diversifying selection pressures. In addition, the distant relationship to sequenced necrotrophs of the Ascomycota suggests the R. solani genome sequence may prove to be a useful resource in future comparative analysis of plant pathogens. PMID:24810276

Hane, James K; Anderson, Jonathan P; Williams, Angela H; Sperschneider, Jana; Singh, Karam B

2014-05-01

57

Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genomics of the Broad Host-Range Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG8  

PubMed Central

Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne basidiomycete fungus with a necrotrophic lifestyle which is classified into fourteen reproductively incompatible anastomosis groups (AGs). One of these, AG8, is a devastating pathogen causing bare patch of cereals, brassicas and legumes. R. solani is a multinucleate heterokaryon containing significant heterozygosity within a single cell. This complexity posed significant challenges for the assembly of its genome. We present a high quality genome assembly of R. solani AG8 and a manually curated set of 13,964 genes supported by RNA-seq. The AG8 genome assembly used novel methods to produce a haploid representation of its heterokaryotic state. The whole-genomes of AG8, the rice pathogen AG1-IA and the potato pathogen AG3 were observed to be syntenic and co-linear. Genes and functions putatively relevant to pathogenicity were highlighted by comparing AG8 to known pathogenicity genes, orthology databases spanning 197 phytopathogenic taxa and AG1-IA. We also observed SNP-level “hypermutation” of CpG dinucleotides to TpG between AG8 nuclei, with similarities to repeat-induced point mutation (RIP). Interestingly, gene-coding regions were widely affected along with repetitive DNA, which has not been previously observed for RIP in mononuclear fungi of the Pezizomycotina. The rate of heterozygous SNP mutations within this single isolate of AG8 was observed to be higher than SNP mutation rates observed across populations of most fungal species compared. Comparative analyses were combined to predict biological processes relevant to AG8 and 308 proteins with effector-like characteristics, forming a valuable resource for further study of this pathosystem. Predicted effector-like proteins had elevated levels of non-synonymous point mutations relative to synonymous mutations (dN/dS), suggesting that they may be under diversifying selection pressures. In addition, the distant relationship to sequenced necrotrophs of the Ascomycota suggests the R. solani genome sequence may prove to be a useful resource in future comparative analysis of plant pathogens.

Hane, James K.; Anderson, Jonathan P.; Williams, Angela H.; Sperschneider, Jana; Singh, Karam B.

2014-01-01

58

Mobile elements and mitochondrial genome expansion in the soil fungus and potato pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-3.  

PubMed

The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani is an economically important pathogen of agricultural and forestry crops. Here, we present the complete sequence and analysis of the mitochondrial genome of R. solani, field isolate Rhs1AP. The genome (235 849 bp) is the largest mitochondrial genome of a filamentous fungus sequenced to date and exhibits a rich accumulation of introns, novel repeat sequences, homing endonuclease genes, and hypothetical genes. Stable secondary structures exhibited by repeat sequences suggest that they comprise functional, possibly catalytic RNA elements. RNA-Seq expression profiling confirmed that the majority of homing endonuclease genes and hypothetical genes are transcriptionally active. Comparative analysis suggests that the mitochondrial genome of R. solani is an example of a dynamic history of expansion in filamentous fungi. PMID:24461055

Losada, Liliana; Pakala, Suman B; Fedorova, Natalie D; Joardar, Vinita; Shabalina, Svetlana A; Hostetler, Jessica; Pakala, Suchitra M; Zafar, Nikhat; Thomas, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Carres, Marianela; Dean, Ralph; Vilgalys, Rytas; Nierman, William C; Cubeta, Marc A

2014-03-01

59

Effect of Population Dynamics of Pseudomonas cepacia and Paecilomyces lilacinus on Colonization of Polyfoam Rooting Cubes by Rhizoctonia solani.  

PubMed

Suspensions of Pseudomonas cepacia (strain 5.5B) and Paecilomyces lilacinus (isolate 6.2F) were applied to polyfoam rooting cubes for control of stem rot of poinsettia caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The populations of antagonists and colonization of rooting cubes by R. solani were monitored during a 3-week period. Colonization of cubes by R. solani was reduced in cubes treated with P. cepacia, but the population of P. cepacia decreased by as much as 97% during the test period. Increased colonization by R. solani was correlated with a decline in population of P. cepacia. P. lilacinus was more persistent than P. cepacia in cubes, with only a 21% reduction observed during the 3-week period. Colonization of the P. lilacinus-treated cubes by R. solani was significantly less than colonization of infested controls. No correlation existed between population of P. lilacinus and colonization of cubes by R. solani. PMID:16349353

Cartwright, D K; Benson, D M

1994-08-01

60

Effect of Population Dynamics of Pseudomonas cepacia and Paecilomyces lilacinus on Colonization of Polyfoam Rooting Cubes by Rhizoctonia solani  

PubMed Central

Suspensions of Pseudomonas cepacia (strain 5.5B) and Paecilomyces lilacinus (isolate 6.2F) were applied to polyfoam rooting cubes for control of stem rot of poinsettia caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The populations of antagonists and colonization of rooting cubes by R. solani were monitored during a 3-week period. Colonization of cubes by R. solani was reduced in cubes treated with P. cepacia, but the population of P. cepacia decreased by as much as 97% during the test period. Increased colonization by R. solani was correlated with a decline in population of P. cepacia. P. lilacinus was more persistent than P. cepacia in cubes, with only a 21% reduction observed during the 3-week period. Colonization of the P. lilacinus-treated cubes by R. solani was significantly less than colonization of infested controls. No correlation existed between population of P. lilacinus and colonization of cubes by R. solani.

Cartwright, D. Kelly; Benson, D. M.

1994-01-01

61

Suppression of Rhizoctonia solani on Impatiens by Enhanced Microbial Activity in Composted Swine Waste-Amended Potting Mixes.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Peat moss-based potting mix was amended with either of two composted swine wastes, CSW1 and CSW2, at rates from 4 to 20% (vol/vol) to evaluate suppression of pre-emergence damping-off of impatiens (Impatiens balsamina) caused by Rhizoctonia solani (anastomosis group-4). A cucumber bioassay was used prior to each impatiens experiment to monitor maturity of compost as the compost aged in a curing pile by evaluating disease suppression toward both Pythium ultimum and R. solani. At 16, 24, 32, and 37 weeks after composting, plug trays filled with compost-amended potting mix were seeded with impatiens and infested with R. solani to determine suppression of damping-off. Pre-emergence damping-off was lower for impatiens grown in potting mix amended with 20% CSW1 than in CSW2-amended and nonamended mixes. To identify relationships between disease suppression and microbial parameters, samples of mixes were collected to determine microbial activity, biomass carbon and nitrogen, functional diversity, and population density. Higher rates of microbial activity were observed with increasing rates of CSW1 amendment than with CSW2 amendments. Microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen also were higher in CSW1-amended mixes than in CSW2-amended potting mixes 1 day prior to seeding and 5 weeks after seeding. Principal component analysis of Biolog-GN2 profiles showed different functional diversities between CSW1- and CSW2-amended mixes. Furthermore, mixes amended with CSW1 had higher colony forming units of fungi, endospore-forming bacteria, and oligotrophic bacteria. Our results suggest that enhanced microbial activity, functional and population diversity of stable compost-amended mix were associated with suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia damping-off in impatiens. PMID:18944095

Diab, H G; Hu, S; Benson, D M

2003-09-01

62

Phylogeography of the Solanaceae-infecting Basidiomycota fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG3 based on sequence analysis of two nuclear DNA loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3 (AG-3) is an important pathogen of cultivated plants in the family Solanaceae. Isolates of R. solani AG-3 are taxonomically related based on the composition of cellular fatty acids, phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and beta-tubulin gene sequences, and somatic hyphal interactions. Despite the close genetic relationship among isolates of

Paulo C Ceresini; H David Shew; Timothy Y James; Rytas J Vilgalys; Marc A Cubeta

2007-01-01

63

Rapid detection of Rhizoctonia species, causal agents of rice sheath diseases, by PCR-RFLP analysis using an alkaline DNA extraction method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for DNA products amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)\\u000a was used for the direct detection ofRhizoctonia solani AG 1 IA and AG 2-2 IIIB,R. oryzae, R. oryzae-sativae andR. fumigata from the diseased rice sheaths. A rapid DNA extraction method with a solution of sodium hydroxide was conducted to extract\\u000a parasite DNA from diseased

Masaru Matsumoto; Naruto Furuya; Yoichi Takanami; Nobuaki Matsuyama

1997-01-01

64

Trichoderma harzianum strain SQR-T37 and its bio-organic fertilizer could control Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease in cucumber seedlings mainly by the mycoparasitism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damping-off disease is caused by Rhizoctonia solani and leads to serious loss in many crops. Biological control is an efficient and environmentally friendly way to prevent damping-off\\u000a disease. Optical micrographs, scanning electron micrographs, and the determination of hydrolytic enzymes were used to investigate\\u000a the antagonism of Trichoderma harzianum SQR-T37 (SQR-T37) against R. solani. Experiments were performed in pots to assess

Xinqi Huang; Lihua Chen; Wei Ran; Qirong Shen; Xingming Yang

65

Selection of Chickpea-Rhizosphere-Competent Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI1303 Antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, Rhizoctonia bataticola and Pythium sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A procedure that consumes less screening time was developed for screening chickpea rhizosphere-competent bacteria for suppression\\u000a of the chickpea pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, Rhizoctonia bataticola and Pythium sp. Of the 478 bacteria obtained by random selection of the predominant, morphologically distinct colonies, 386 strains that\\u000a effectively colonize chickpea roots could be divided broadly into three different

Chandra Shekhar Nautiyal

1997-01-01

66

A gene for plant protection: expression of a bean polygalacturonase inhibitor in tobacco confers a strong resistance against Rhizoctonia solani and two oomycetes  

PubMed Central

We have tested whether a gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) protects tobacco against a fungal pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) and two oomycetes (Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae and Peronospora hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina). The trials were performed in greenhouse conditions for R. solani and P. parasitica and in the field for P. hyoscyami. Our results show that expression of PGIP is a powerful way of engineering a broad-spectrum disease resistance.

Borras-Hidalgo, Orlando; Caprari, Claudio; Hernandez-Estevez, Ingrid; Lorenzo, Giulia De; Cervone, Felice

2012-01-01

67

A potent mitogenic lectin from the mycelia of a phytopathogenic fungus, Rhizoctonia bataticola , with complex sugar specificity and cytotoxic effect on human ovarian cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lectin with strong mitogenic activity towards human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and cytotoxic effect on human\\u000a ovarian cancer cells has been purified from the mycelium of a phytopathogenic fungus, Rhizoctonia bataticola, using ion exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography on asialofetuin-Sepharose. The lectin, termed RBL, is a tetramer\\u000a of 11-kDa subunits and has unique amino acid sequence at its

Nagaraja N. Nagre; Vishwanath B. Chachadi; Palaniswamy M. Sundaram; Ramachandra S. Naik; Radha Pujari; Padma Shastry; Bale M. Swamy; Shashikala R. Inamdar

2010-01-01

68

Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani AG-2, the causal agent of damping-off by Muscodor cinnamomi CMU-Cib 461.  

PubMed

Rhizoctonia solani is a damping-off pathogen that causes significant crop loss worldwide. In this study, the potential of Muscodor cinnamomi, a new species of endophytic fungus for controlling R. solani AG-2 damping-off disease of plant seedlings by biological fumigation was investigated. In vitro tests showed that M. cinnamomi volatile compounds inhibited mycelial growth of pathogens. Among nine solid media tested, rye grain was the best grain for inoculum production. An in vivo experiment of four seedlings, bird pepper, bush bean, garden pea and tomato were conducted. The results indicated that treatment with 30 g of M. cinnamomi inoculum was the minimum dose that caused complete control of damping-off symptoms of all seedlings after one month of planting. The R. solani-infested soil showed the lowest percentage of seed germination. In addition, M. cinnamomi did not cause any disease symptoms. From the results it is clear that M. cinnamomi is effective in controlling R. solani AG-2 both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22806753

Suwannarach, Nakarin; Kumla, Jaturong; Bussaban, Boonsom; Lumyong, Saisamorn

2012-11-01

69

Septal Pore Cap Protein SPC18, Isolated from the Basidiomycetous Fungus Rhizoctonia solani, Also Resides in Pore Plugs?  

PubMed Central

The hyphae of filamentous fungi are compartmentalized by septa that have a central pore. The fungal septa and septum-associated structures play an important role in maintaining cellular and intrahyphal homeostasis. The dolipore septa in the higher Basidiomycota (i.e., Agaricomycotina) are associated with septal pore caps. Although the ultrastructure of the septal pore caps has been studied extensively, neither the biochemical composition nor the function of these organelles is known. Here, we report the identification of the glycoprotein SPC18 that was found in the septal pore cap-enriched fraction of the basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Based on its N-terminal sequence, the SPC18 gene was isolated. SPC18 encodes a protein of 158 amino acid residues, which contains a hydrophobic signal peptide for targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum and has an N-glycosylation motif. Immunolocalization showed that SPC18 is present in the septal pore caps. Surprisingly, we also observed SPC18 being localized in some plugs. The data reported here strongly support the hypothesis that septal pore caps are derived from endoplasmic reticulum and are involved in dolipore plugging and, thus, contribute to hyphal homeostasis in basidiomycetous fungi.

van Driel, Kenneth G. A.; van Peer, Arend F.; Grijpstra, Jan; Wosten, Han A. B.; Verkleij, Arie J.; Muller, Wally H.; Boekhout, Teun

2008-01-01

70

FT-ICR/MS and GC-EI/MS metabolomics networking unravels global potato sprout's responses to Rhizoctonia solani infection.  

PubMed

The complexity of plant-pathogen interactions makes their dissection a challenging task for metabolomics studies. Here we are reporting on an integrated metabolomics networking approach combining gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance/mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS) and bioinformatics analyses for the study of interactions in the potato sprout-Rhizoctonia solani pathosystem and the fluctuations in the global metabolome of sprouts. The developed bioanalytical and bioinformatics protocols provided a snapshot of the sprout's global metabolic network and its perturbations as a result of pathogen invasion. Mevalonic acid and deoxy-xylulose pathways were substantially up-regulated leading to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene alkaloids such as the phytoalexins phytuberin, rishitin, and solavetivone, and steroidal alkaloids having solasodine and solanidine as their common aglycons. Additionally, the perturbation of the sprout's metabolism was depicted in fluctuations of the content of their amino acids pool and that of carboxylic and fatty acids. Components of the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and hypersensitive reaction (HR) such as azelaic and oxalic acids were detected in increased levels in infected sprouts and strategies of the pathogen to overcome plant defense were proposed. Our metabolic approach has not only greatly expanded the multitude of metabolites previously reported in potato in response to pathogen invasion, but also enabled the identification of bioactive plant-derived metabolites providing valuable information that could be exploited in biotechnology, biomarker-assisted plant breeding, and crop protection for the development of new crop protection agents. PMID:22880040

Aliferis, Konstantinos A; Jabaji, Suha

2012-01-01

71

Induction of Laccase Activity in Rhizoctonia solani by Antagonistic Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains and a Range of Chemical Treatments  

PubMed Central

Fungi often produce the phenoloxidase enzyme laccase during interactions with other organisms, an observation relevant to the development of biocontrols. By incorporating the laccase substrate 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) into agar, we analyzed laccase induction in the plant-pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani when paired against isolates of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Substantial induction of R. solani laccase was seen only in pairings with strains of P. fluorescens known to produce antifungal metabolites. To study laccase induction further, a range of chemical treatments was applied to R. solani liquid cultures. p-Anisidine, copper(II), manganese(II), calcium ionophore A23187, lithium chloride, calcium chloride, cyclic AMP (cAMP), caffeine, amphotericin B, paraquat, ethanol, and isopropanol were all found to induce laccase; however, the P. fluorescens metabolite viscosinamide did not do so at the concentrations tested. The stress caused by these treatments was assessed by measuring changes in lipid peroxidation levels and dry weight. The results indicated that the laccase induction seen in pairing plate experiments was most likely due to calcium or heat shock signaling in response to the effects of bacterial metabolites, but that heavy metal and cAMP-driven laccase induction was involved in sclerotization.

Crowe, Jonathan D.; Olsson, Stefan

2001-01-01

72

Characterization of the arom gene in Rhizoctonia solani, and transcription patterns under stable and induced hypovirulence conditions.  

PubMed

The quinate pathway is induced by quinate in the wild-type virulent Rhizoctonia solani isolate Rhs 1AP but is constitutive in the hypovirulent, M2 dsRNA-containing isolate Rhs 1A1. Constitutive expression of the quinate pathway results in downregulation of the shikimate pathway, which includes the pentafunctional arom gene in Rhs 1A1. The arom gene has 5,323 bp including five introns as opposed to a single intron found in arom in ascomycetes. A 199-bp upstream sequence has a GC box, no TATAA box, but two GTATTAGA repeats. The largest arom transcript is 5,108 nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A) tail. It contains an open reading frame of 4,857 bases, coding for a putative 1,618-residue pentafunctional AROM protein. A Kozak sequence (GCGCCATGG) is present between +127 and +135. The 5'-end of the arom mRNA includes two nucleotides (UA) that are not found in the genomic sequence, and are probably added post-transcriptionally. Size and sequence heterogeneity were observed at both 5'- and 3'-end of the mRNA. Northern blot and suppression subtractive hybridization analyses showed that presence of a low amount of quinate, inducer of the quinate pathway, resulted in increased levels of arom mRNA, consistent with the compensation effect observed in ascomycetes. PMID:16479402

Lakshman, Dilip K; Liu, Chunyu; Mishra, Prashant K; Tavantzis, Stellos

2006-03-01

73

Evidence from mycelial studies for differences in the sterol biosynthetic pathway of Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora cinnamomi.  

PubMed Central

Phytophthora cinnamomi, a member of the Pythiacease, does not synthesize sterols. Small amounts of squalene, but no squalene epoxide or sterol, were isolated from the dried mycelium of this fungus after growth in sterol-free medium. The dried mycelium of Rhizoctonia solani, a sterol-synthesizing fungus grown under the same conditions, contained small amounts of squalene and squalene epoxide and large amounts of ergosterol. When the two organisms were grown in the presence of [14C]acetate, only labelled geraniol, farnesol and squalene were recovered from the P. cinnamomi mycelium, whereas labelled geraniol, farnesol, squalene, squalene epoxide and ergosterol were recovered from the R. solani mycelium. Similar results were obtained when the organisms were incubated in the presence of [2(-14)C]mevalonate; in this case, labelled lanosterol was also detected in the R. solani mycelium. Both organisms, when incubated in the presence of unlabelled squalene, squalene epoxide or lanosterol, incorporated these compounds into their mycelia; however, only the R. solani mycelium was able to convert these substrates into products further along the sterol pathway. It appears that squalene is the terminal compound in the sterol biosynthetic pathway of P. cinnamomi.

Wood, S G; Gottlieb, D

1978-01-01

74

A novel mycovirus closely related to viruses in the genus Alphapartitivirus confers hypovirulence in the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani.  

PubMed

We report here the biological and molecular attributes of a novel dsRNA mycovirus designated Rhizoctonia solani partitivirus 2 (RsPV2) from strain GD-11 of R. solani AG-1 IA, the causal agent of rice sheath blight. The RsPV2 genome comprises two dsRNAs, each possessing a single ORF. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that this novel virus species RsPV2 showed a high sequence identity with the members of genus Alphapartitivirus in the family Partitiviridae, and formed a distinct clade distantly related to the other genera of Partitiviridae. Introduction of purified RsPV2 virus particles into protoplasts of a virus-free virulent strain GD-118 of R. solani AG-1 IA resulted in a derivative isogenic strain GD-118T with reduced mycelial growth and hypovirulence to rice leaves. Taken together, it is concluded that RsPV2 is a novel dsRNA virus belonging to Alphapartitivirus, with potential role in biological control of R. solani. PMID:24889241

Zheng, Li; Zhang, Meiling; Chen, Qiguang; Zhu, Minghai; Zhou, Erxun

2014-05-01

75

The complete genomic sequence of a novel mycovirus from Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA strain B275.  

PubMed

The complete genome of a novel mycovirus, Rhizoctonia solani dsRNA virus 1 (RsRV1) was sequenced and analyzed. It is composed of two dsRNA genome segments, 2379 bp and 1811 bp in length, which were referred to as RsRV1-1 and RsRV1-2, respectively. RsRV1-1 contains a single open reading frame (ORF1), which has a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain, whereas RsRV1-2 contains a single ORF2, which might encode a multifunctional protein. The genome organization of RsRV1 is similar to that of members of the family Partitiviridae. However, phylogenetic analysis indicated that RsRV1 formed a distinct clade together with three other unclassified viruses, suggesting that RsRV1 may belong to a new family of dsRNA mycoviruses. This is the first report of the full-length nucleotide sequence of a novel dsRNA mycovirus, RsRV1, infecting R. solani AG-1 IA strain B275, the causal agent of rice sheath blight. PMID:23443932

Zheng, Li; Liu, Huiquan; Zhang, Meiling; Cao, Xiong; Zhou, Erxun

2013-07-01

76

Genetic and Genomic Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani Interactions with Arabidopsis; Evidence of Resistance Mediated through NADPH Oxidases  

PubMed Central

Rhizoctonia solani is an important soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogen, with a broad host range and little effective resistance in crop plants. Arabidopsis is resistant to R. solani AG8 but susceptible to R. solani AG2-1. A screen of 36 Arabidopsis ecotypes and mutants affected in the auxin, camalexin, salicylic acid, abscisic acid and ethylene/jasmonic acid pathways did not reveal any variation in response to R. solani and demonstrated that resistance to AG8 was independent of these defense pathways. The Arabidopsis Affymetrix ATH1 Genome array was used to assess global gene expression changes in plants infected with AG8 and AG2-1 at seven days post-infection. While there was considerable overlap in the response, some gene families were differentially affected by AG8 or AG2-1 and included those involved in oxidative stress, cell wall associated proteins, transcription factors and heat shock protein genes. Since a substantial proportion of the gene expression changes were associated with oxidative stress responses, we analysed the role of NADPH oxidases in resistance. While single NADPH oxidase mutants had no effect, a NADPH oxidase double mutant atrbohf atrbohd resulted in an almost complete loss of resistance to AG8, suggesting that reactive oxidative species play an important role in Arabidopsis's resistance to R. solani.

Foley, Rhonda C.; Gleason, Cynthia A.; Anderson, Jonathan P.; Hamann, Thorsten; Singh, Karam B.

2013-01-01

77

Potential for the integration of biological and chemical control of sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani on rice.  

PubMed

Biological control using antagonistic microbes to minimize the use of chemical pesticides has recently become more prevalent. In an attempt to find an integrated control system for sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani in rice, Streptomyces philanthi RM-1-138, commercial formulations of Bacillus subtilis as Larminar® and B. subtilis strain NSRS 89-24+MK-007 as Biobest® and chemical fungicides including carbendazim®, validamycin®, propiconazole® and mancozeb® were applied alone and in combination with S. philanthi RM-1-138. In vitro experiments showed that all treatments tested did provide some control against mycelial growth and sclerotia production by R. solani PTRRS-9. In addition, the four chemical fungicides had no detrimental effects on S. philanthi RM-1-138 even at high concentrations (up to 100 ?g/ml). The efficacy of S. philanthi RM-1-138, the commercial formulations of B. subtilis, chemical fungicides alone or in combination with S. philanthi RM-1-138 was also tested in a greenhouse experiment against sheath blight disease on rice plants. All treatments showed some protection of rice for sheath blight by 47-60 % when carbendazim® was applied alone and up to 74 % when combined with S. philanthi RM-1-138. PMID:23653261

Boukaew, Sawai; Klinmanee, Chanasirin; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

2013-10-01

78

Development of a difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion and its antifungal activities against Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA.  

PubMed

According to its physical and chemical properties, the composition of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was as follows: xylene as solvent, emulsifier HSH as surfactant and methanol as cosurfactant. The optimal formulation of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was oil/SAA/water = 1/2/5 (w/w), in which the SAA consisted of emulsifier HSH and methanol with ratio of 3/2 (w/w). The cloud point of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was 70 degrees C and its effective ingredient content was 2.5% measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Its heat storage stability was studied according to the standards. The decomposition rates of the difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion were merely 2.45%, 2.63% respectively and met the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) standards of pesticide microemulsion. Investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) the particle size of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was 90-140 nm and its antifungal activities against Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA were tested and compared with that of Meiyu. We found that the inhibition rates in the difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion treatment group were significantly higher than that of the emulsion group with the same content of effective ingredients and the study also revealed that its inhibiting ability on the formation and germination of sclerotia was significant. PMID:22822543

Leng, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhiming; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yunsong; Zhao, Maojun; Pan, Guangtang

2012-06-01

79

Induction of systemic resistance in rice by leaf extracts of Zizyphus jujuba and Ipomoea carnea against Rhizoctonia solani  

PubMed Central

Plants accumulate a great diversity of natural products, many of which confer protective effects against phytopathogenic attack. Earlier we had demonstrated that the leaf extracts of Zizyphus jujuba and Ipomoea carnea inhibit the in vitro mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia solani, and effectively reduce the incidence of sheath blight disease in rice.7 Here we demonstrate that foliar application of the aqueous leaf extracts of Z. jujuba and I. carnea followed by challenge inoculation with R. solani induces systemic resistance in rice as evident from significantly increased accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins such as chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase and peroxidase, as well as defense-related compounds such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and phenolic substances. Thin layer chromatographic separation of secondary metabolites revealed presence of alkaloid and terpenoid compounds in the leaf extracts of Z. jujuba that exhibited toxicity against R. solani under in vitro condition. Thus, the enhanced sheath blight resistance in rice seedlings treated with leaf extracts of Z. jujuba or I. carnea can be attributed to the direct inhibitory effects of these leaf extracts as well as their ability to elicit systemic resistance against R. solani.

Marimuthu, Thambiayya; Kagale, Jayashree; Thayumanavan, Balsamy; Samiyappan, Ramasamy

2011-01-01

80

The Interaction Pattern between a Homology Model of 40S Ribosomal S9 Protein of Rhizoctonia solani and 1-Hydroxyphenaize by Docking Study  

PubMed Central

1-Hydroxyphenazine (1-OH-PHZ), a natural product from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SD12, was earlier reported to have potent antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. In the present work, the antifungal activity of 1-OH-PHZ on 40S ribosomal S9 protein was validated by molecular docking approach. 1-OH-PHZ showed interaction with two polar contacts with residues, Arg69 and Phe19, which inhibits the synthesis of fungal protein. Our study reveals that 1-OH-PHZ can be a potent inhibitor of 40S ribosomal S9 protein of R. solani that may be a promising approach for the management of fungal diseases.

Dharni, Seema; Sanchita; Sharma, Ashok; Patra, Dharani Dhar

2014-01-01

81

Characterization of Bacteria That Suppress Rhizoctonia Damping-Off in Bark Compost Media by Analysis of Fatty Acid Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Examination of cucumber roots (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in bark compost media and of the surrounding edaphic substrate showed profiles of polar lipid fatty acids commonly found in bacteria. The composition of fatty acids in these profiles differed significantly between roots grown in a medium naturally suppressive to Rhizoctonia damping-off and roots from a conducive medium. Cucumber roots from the suppressive medium had higher proportions of cis-vaccenic acid (18:1 ? 7c) and the iso-branched monoenoic fatty acid i17:1 ? 8 but lower proportions of several iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids compared with roots from the conducive medium. The concentrations of the bacterial fatty acids were significantly lower in the surrounding media. However, the suppressive and conducive growth substrates had differences in the composition of the bacterial fatty acids similar to those found between the cucumber roots proper. These results suggest major differences in bacterial community composition between suppressive and conducive systems. Fatty acid analyses were also utilized to examine the effects on bacterial community composition of root colonization by Flavobacterium balustinum 299, a biocontrol agent. The concentration of the most prominent fatty acid in this bacterium, i17:1 ? 8, was increased on roots produced from inoculated seeds in a medium rendered suppressive by the treatment. This change was concomitant with a significant increase in the concentration of 18:1 ? 7c, not present in the lipids of the antagonist, indicating a shift in the microflora from a conducive to a suppressive bacterial community.

Tunlid, A.; Hoitink, H. A. J.; Low, C.; White, D. C.

1989-01-01

82

Effects of Pseudomonas aureofaciens 63-28 on defense responses in soybean plants infected by Rhizoctonia solani.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to investigate the ability of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aureofaciens 63-28 to induce plant defense systems, including defense-related enzyme levels and expression of defense-related isoenzymes, and isoflavone production, leading to improved resistance to the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 in soybean seedlings. Seven-dayold soybean seedlings were inoculated with P. aureofaciens 63-28, R. solani AG-4, or P. aureofaciens 63-28 plus R. solani AG-4 (P+R), or not inoculated (control). After 7 days of incubation, roots treated with R. solani AG-4 had obvious damping-off symptoms, but P+R-treated soybean plants had less disease development, indicating suppression of R. solani AG-4 in soybean seedlings. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities of R. solani AG-4-treated roots increased by 24.6% and 54.0%, respectively, compared with control roots. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities of R. solani AG-4-treated roots were increased by 75.1% and 23.6%, respectively. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in soybean roots challenged with P. aureofaciens 63-28 and P+R increased by 25.0% and 11.6%, respectively. Mn-SOD (S1 band on gel) and Fe-SOD (S2) were strongly induced in P+R-treated roots, whereas one CAT (C1) and one APX (A3) were strongly induced in R. solani AG-4- treated roots. The total isoflavone concentration in P+Rtreated shoots was 27.2% greater than the control treatment. The isoflavone yield of R. solani AG-4-treated shoots was 60.9% less than the control. PMID:21532321

Jung, Woo-Jin; Park, Ro-Dong; Mabood, Fazli; Souleimanov, Alfred; L Smith, Donald

2011-04-01

83

Effects of methamidophos on the community structure, antagonism towards Rhizoctonia solani, and phlD diversity of soil Pseudomonas.  

PubMed

A microcosm incubation study using an aquic brown soil from northeast China (a Cambisol in the UN Food and Agriculture Organization FAO Soil Taxonomy) was conducted to examine the effects of different concentrations (0, 50, 150, and 250 mg kg(-1)) of methamidophos (O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioato) on Pseudomonas, one of the most important gram-negative bacteria in soil. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) was performed to study the Pseudomonas community structure, an in vitro assay was made to test the antagonistic activity of isolated Pseudomonas strains against soil-borne Rhizoctonia solani, a major member of the pathogens highly related to soil-borne plant diseases, and special primer amplification and sequencing were performed to investigate the diversity of phlD, an essential gene in the biosynthesis of 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2, 4-DAPG), which has biocontrol activity in phlD(+)isolates. With exposure to increasing methamidophos concentrations, the total number of soil Pseudomonas ARDRA patterns decreased significantly, but with less change in the same treatments over 1, 3, and 5 weeks of incubation. The number of isolated Pseudomonas strains with antagonistic activity against R. solani as well as the diversity and appearance frequency of the strains' phlD gene also decreased with increasing concentrations of methamidophos, especially at high methamidophos concentrations. Applying methamidophos could increase the risk of soil-borne plant diseases by decreasing the diversity of the soil Pseudomonas community and the amount of R. solani antagonists, particularly those with the phlD gene. PMID:20390954

Wu, Minna; Li, Xinyu; Zhang, Huiwen; Cai, Yinghui; Zhang, Chenggang

2010-04-01

84

GalNAc/Gal-Binding Rhizoctonia solani Agglutinin Has Antiproliferative Activity in Drosophila melanogaster S2 Cells via MAPK and JAK/STAT Signaling  

PubMed Central

Rhizoctonia solani agglutinin, further referred to as RSA, is a lectin isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Previously, we reported a high entomotoxic activity of RSA towards the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. To better understand the mechanism of action of RSA, Drosophila melanogaster Schneider S2 cells were treated with different concentrations of the lectin and FITC-labeled RSA binding was examined using confocal fluorescence microscopy. RSA has antiproliferative activity with a median effect concentration (EC50) of 0.35 µM. In addition, the lectin was typically bound to the cell surface but not internalized. In contrast, the N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectin WGA and the galactose-binding lectin PNA, which were both also inhibitory for S2 cell proliferation, were internalized whereas the mannose-binding lectin GNA did not show any activity on these cells, although it was internalized. Extracted DNA and nuclei from S2 cells treated with RSA were not different from untreated cells, confirming inhibition of proliferation without apoptosis. Pre-incubation of RSA with N-acetylgalactosamine clearly inhibited the antiproliferative activity by RSA in S2 cells, demonstrating the importance of carbohydrate binding. Similarly, the use of MEK and JAK inhibitors reduced the activity of RSA. Finally, RSA affinity chromatography of membrane proteins from S2 cells allowed the identification of several cell surface receptors involved in both signaling transduction pathways.

Hamshou, Mohamad; Van Damme, Els J. M.; Vandenborre, Gianni; Ghesquiere, Bart; Trooskens, Geert; Gevaert, Kris; Smagghe, Guy

2012-01-01

85

An immunological approach to quantifying the saprotrophic growth dynamics of Trichoderma species during antagonistic interactions with Rhizoctonia solani in a soil-less mix.  

PubMed

Studies of the saprotrophic growth dynamics of Trichoderma species and their fungal hosts during antagonistic interactions are severely hampered by the absence of methods that allow the unambiguous identification and quantification of individual genera in complex environments such as soil or compost containing mixed populations of fungi. Furthermore, methods are required that allow discrimination between active hyphal growth and other components of fungal biomass such as quiescent spores that are produced in large numbers by Trichoderma species. This study details the use of monoclonal antibodies to quantify the saprotrophic growth dynamics of the soil-borne plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and biological control strains of Trichoderma asperellum and Trichoderma harzianum during antagonistic interactions in peat-based microcosms. Quantification was based on the immunological detection of constitutive, extracellular antigens that are secreted from the growing tip of Rhizoctonia and Trichoderma mycelium and, in the case of Trichoderma harzianum, from quiescent phialoconidia also. The Trichoderma-specific monoclonal antibody (MF2) binds to a protein epitope of the enzyme glucoamylase, which was shown by immunofluorescence and immunogold electron gold microscopy studies of Trichoderma virens in vitro to be produced at the origin of germ tube emergence in phialoconidia and from the growing tip of germ tubes. In addition, a non-destructive immunoblotting technique showed that the enzyme was secreted during active growth of Trichoderma asperellum mycelium in peat. The Rhizoctonia solani-specific monoclonal antibody (EH2) similarly binds to a protein epitope of a glycoprotein that is secreted during active mycelial growth. Extracts derived from lyophilized mycelium were used as a quantifiable and repeatable source of antigens for construction of calibration curves. These curves were used to convert the absorbance values obtained in ELISA tests of peat extracts to biomass equivalents, which allowed comparisons of the saprotrophic growth dynamics of the pathogen and antagonists to be made in single or mixed species microcosms. Trichoderma species were able to compete successfully with R. solani for nutrients and to prevent saprotrophic growth of the pathogen. Specificity of the Trichoderma quantitative assay was tested in non-sterile soil-based microcosms artificially inoculated with T. asperellum. The assay was highly specific and only detected T. asperellum population dynamics. No cross-reactivity was found with extracts from soil samples containing contaminant fungi. PMID:15008811

Thornton, Christopher R

2004-04-01

86

Development of SCAR markers and UP-PCR cross-hybridization method for specific detection of four major subgroups of Rhizoctonia from infected turfgrasses.  

PubMed

A rapid identification assay for Waitea circinata (anamorph: Rhizoctonia spp.) varieties zeae and circinata causing patch diseases on turfgrasses was developed based on the universally primed PCR (UP-PCR) products cross-blot hybridization. Tester isolates belonging to the two varieties of W. circinata were amplified with a single UP primer L21, which generated multiple DNA fragments for each variety. Probes were prepared with UP-PCR products of each tester isolate by labeling with digoxigenin. Fieldcollected W. circinata isolates and representative isolates of different R. solani anastomosis groups (AG) and AG subgroups were amplified with L21, immobilized on nylon membrane and cross hybridized with the two probes. Isolates within a W. circinata variety cross-hybridized strongly, while non-homologous isolates did not cross-hybridize or did so weakly. Closely related W. circinata varieties zeae and circinata were clearly distinguished with this assay. Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers also were developed from UP-PCR products to identify isolates of Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph: R. solani) AG 1-IB and AG 2-2IIIB. These two AGs are commonly isolated from diseased, cool-season turfgrasses. The specific SCAR markers that were developed could differentiate isolates of AG 1-IB or AG 2-2IIIB groups. These SCAR markers did not amplify a product from genomic DNA of nontarget isolates of Rhizoctonia. The specificities and sensitivities of the SCAR primers were tested on total DNA extracted from several field-grown, cool-season turf species having severe brown-patch symptoms. First, the leaf samples from diseased turf species were tested for the anastomosis groups of the causal pathogen, and thereafter the total DNA was amplified with the specific primers. The specific primers were sensitive and unique enough to produce a band from total DNA of diseased turfgrasses infected with either AG 1-IB or AG 2-2IIIB. PMID:24396105

Amaradasa, Bimal S; Lakshman, Dilip; Horvath, Brandon J; Amundsen, Keenan L

2014-01-01

87

A One-Step, Immunochromatographic Lateral Flow Device Specific to Rhizoctonia solani and Certain Related Species, and Its Use to Detect and Quantify R. solani in Soil.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT A murine hybridoma cell line GD2 secreting an immunoglobulin (Ig)M monoclonal antibody (MAb) was produced against surface antigens from an anastomosis group (AG) 4 isolate of Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris). Ascites were produced in mice using GD2 hybridoma cells and used to develop a rapid immunochromatographic lateral flow device (LFD) for the detection of antigens from R. solani and certain related Rhizoctonia spp. The LFD was tested for specificity against surface antigens from related and unrelated soil fungi. Antigens from representative isolates of R. solani AGs 1, 2-1, 2-3, 2-t, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and BI gave a positive response in LFD tests, as did antigens from Thanatephorus orchidicola, T. praticola, R. fragariae (teleomorph: Ceratorhiza fragariae), Ceratorhiza goodyerae-repentis, Ceratobasidium cornigerum, and binucleate AGE. Antigens from R. solani AGs 2-2, 2-2IIIB, and 2-2IV and from the related fungi R. carotae, R. cerealis (teleomorph: Ceratobasium cereale), R. crocorum (teleomorph: Helicobasidium brebissonii), R. oryzae (teleomorph Waitea circinata), and R. zeae gave negative responses, as did antigens from a range of unrelated fungi and oomycetes including Fusarium, Gliocladium, Trichoderma, Pythium, and Phytophthora spp. The usefulness of the LFD to detect R. solani was demonstrated in soils naturally infested with R. solani AG3. There was close agreement between results of LFD tests and conventional plate enrichment tests employing selective medium. The specificity of the technique was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction PCR using R. solani AG3-specific primers and by analyses based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA-encoding regions of unrelated fungi recovered from soil samples. The LFD was used to quantify R. solani AG4 in artificially infested soil samples (chopped potato soil inoculum). Estimates of CFU per gram of soil were derived using a most-probable number technique, which was based on the presence or absence of a detectable signal in the LFD. Estimates of CFU obtained in LFD tests and those obtained in a plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay incorporating MAb GD2 were identical (449 CFU g(-1) of soil). PMID:18943976

Thornton, Christopher R; Groenhof, Andrew C; Forrest, Robert; Lamotte, Richard

2004-03-01

88

Enrichment of perforate septal pore caps from the basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani by combined use of French press, isopycnic centrifugation, and Triton X-100.  

PubMed

Septal pore caps occur in many filamentous basidiomycetes located at both sides of the dolipore septum and are at their base connected to the endoplasmic reticulum. The septal pore cap ultrastructure has been described extensively by the use of electron microscopy, but its composition and function are not yet known. To enable biochemical and functional analyses in the future, we here describe an enrichment method for perforate septal pore caps from Rhizoctonia solani. Our method is based on the combined use of French press and isopycnic centrifugation, using a discontinuous sucrose gradient followed by a treatment with Triton X-100. Enrichment was monitored by the use of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Using the same isolation method, smaller septal pore caps were isolated from two other basidiomycetes as well. Furthermore, we showed pore-occluding material co-purified with the septal pore caps. This observation supports the hypothesis that septal pore caps play a key role in the plugging process of the septal pores in filamentous basidiomycetes. PMID:17949839

van Driel, Kenneth G A; van Peer, Arend F; Wösten, Han A B; Verkleij, Arie J; Boekhout, Teun; Müller, Wally H

2007-12-01

89

A simple method based on laboratory inoculum and field inoculum for evaluating potato resistance to black scurf caused by Rhizoctonia solani.  

PubMed

A two-step method was developed to evaluate potato resistance to black scurf caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Tuber piece inoculum was first conducted in the laboratory, which was also first reported in this study. After inoculation with pathogen discs and culture for 48 h, the necrotic spots on the inoculated potato pieces were generated and measured by the crossing method. Further evaluation was conducted through field experiments using a wheat bran inoculum method. The wheat bran inoculum was placed into the pit dispersedly and surrounded seed tubers. Each cultivar or line was subjected to five treatments of 0-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-g soil inoculum. The results showed that 2-4 g of wheat bran inoculum was the optimum for identifying tuber black scurf resistance. The laboratory scores positively correlated with the incidence and severity of black scurf in the field. According to the results in the laboratory, relatively resistant cultivars could be selected for further estimation of tuber black scurf resistance in field experiments. It is a practical and effective screening method for rapid identification of resistant potato germplasm, which can reduce workload in the field, shorten time required for identification. PMID:24987302

Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Xia; Yu, Zhuo; Xue, Yu-Feng; Qi, Li-Peng

2014-06-01

90

Redox-active pyocyanin secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 triggers systemic resistance to Magnaporthe grisea but enhances Rhizoctonia solani susceptibility in rice.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 induces resistance in dicots through a synergistic interaction of the phenazine pyocyanin and the salicylic acid-derivative pyochelin. Root inoculation of the monocot model rice with 7NSK2 partially protected leaves against blast disease (Magnaporthe grisea) but failed to consistently reduce sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani). Only mutations interfering with pyocyanin production led to a significant decrease in induced systemic resistance (ISR) to M. grisea, and in trans complementation for pyocyanin production restored the ability to elicit ISR. Intriguingly, pyocyanin-deficient mutants, unlike the wild type, triggered ISR against R. solani. Hence, bacterial pyocyanin plays a differential role in 7NSK2-mediated ISR in rice. Application of purified pyocyanin to hydroponically grown rice seedlings increased H202 levels locally on the root surface as well as a biphasic H202 generation pattern in distal leaves. Co-application of pyocyanin and the antioxidant sodium ascorbate alleviated the opposite effects of pyocyanin on rice blast and sheath blight development, suggesting that the differential effectiveness of pyocyanin with respect to 7NSK2-triggered ISR is mediated by transiently elevated H202 levels in planta. The cumulative results suggest that reactive oxygen species act as a double-edged sword in the interaction of rice with the hemibiotroph M. grisea and the necrotroph R. solani. PMID:17153925

De Vleesschauwer, David; Cornelis, Pierre; Höfte, Monica

2006-12-01

91

Characterization of Genes Involved in Biosynthesis of a Novel Antibiotic from Burkholderia cepacia BC11 and Their Role in Biological Control of Rhizoctonia solani  

PubMed Central

Genetic manipulation of fluorescent pseudomonads has provided major insight into their production of antifungal molecules and their role in biological control of plant disease. Burkholderia cepacia also produces antifungal activities, but its biological control activity is much less well characterized, in part due to difficulties in applying genetic tools. Here we report genetic and biochemical characterization of a soil isolate of B. cepacia relating to its production of an unusual antibiotic that is very active against a variety of soil fungi. Purification and preliminary structural analyses suggest that this antibiotic (called AFC-BC11) is a novel lipopeptide associated largely with the cell membrane. Analysis of conditions for optimal production of AFC-BC11 indicated stringent environmental regulation of its synthesis. Furthermore, we show that production of AFC-BC11 is largely responsible for the ability of B. cepacia BC11 to effectively control the damping-off of cotton caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in a gnotobiotic system. Using Tn5 mutagenesis, we identified, cloned, and characterized a region of the genome of strain BC11 that is required for production of this antifungal metabolite. DNA sequence analysis suggested that this region encodes proteins directly involved in the production of a nonribosomally synthesized lipopeptide.

Kang, Yaowei; Carlson, Russell; Tharpe, Wendy; Schell, Mark A.

1998-01-01

92

Co-expression of RCH10 and AGLU1 confers rice resistance to fungal sheath blight Rhizoctonia solani and blast Magnorpathe oryzae and reveals impact on seed germination.  

PubMed

Rice sheath blight and blast caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Magnorpathe oryzae respectively, are the two most destructive fungal diseases in rice. With no genetic natural traits conferring resistance to sheath blight, transgenic manipulation provides an obvious approach. In this study, the rice basic chitinase gene (RCH10) and the alfalfa ?-1,3-glucanase gene (AGLU1) were tandemly inserted into transformation vector pBI101 under the control of 35S promoter with its enhancer sequence to generate a double-defense gene expression cassette pZ100. The pZ100 cassette was transformed into rice (cv. Taipei 309) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. More than 160 independent transformants were obtained and confirmed by PCR. Northern analysis of inheritable progenies revealed similar levels of both RCH10 and AGLU1 transcripts in the same individuals. Disease resistance to both sheath blight and blast was challenged in open field inoculation. Immunogold detection revealed that RCH10 and AGLU1 proteins were initially located mainly in the chloroplasts and were delivered to the vacuole and cell wall upon infection, suggesting that these subcellular compartments act as the gathering and execution site for these anti-fungal proteins. We also observed that transgenic seeds display lower germination rate and seedling vigor, indicating that defense enhancement might be achieved at the expense of development. PMID:24197785

Mao, Bizeng; Liu, Xuehui; Hu, Dongwei; Li, Debao

2014-04-01

93

Distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers for multilocus phylogeography of the soybean- and rice-infecting fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA  

PubMed Central

A series of multilocus sequence-based nuclear DNA markers was developed to infer the phylogeographical history of the Basidiomycetous fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA infecting rice and soybean worldwide. The strategy was based on sequencing of cloned genomic DNA fragments (previously used as RFLP probes) and subsequent screening of fungal isolates to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Ten primer pairs were designed based on these sequences, which resulted in PCR amplification of 200-320 bp size products and polymorphic sequences in all markers analyzed. By direct sequencing we identified both homokaryon and heterokaryon (i.e. dikaryon) isolates at each marker. Cloning the PCR products effectively estimated the allelic phase from heterokaryotic isolates. Information content varied among markers from 0.5 to 5.9 mutations per 100 bp. Thus, the former RFLP codominant probes were successfully converted into six distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers. Rather than discarding low polymorphism loci, the combination of these distinctively variable anonymous nuclear markers would constitute an asset for the unbiased estimate of the phylogeographical parameters such as population sizes and divergent times, providing a more reliable species history that shaped the current population structure of R. solani AG-1 IA.

2009-01-01

94

Characterization of genes involved in biosynthesis of a novel antibiotic from Burkholderia cepacia BC11 and their role in biological control of Rhizoctonia solani  

SciTech Connect

Genetic manipulation of fluorescent pseudomonads has provided major insight into their production of antifungal molecules and their role in biological control of plant disease. Burkholderia cepacia also produces antifungal activities, but its biological control activity is much less well characterized, in part due to difficulties in applying genetic tools. Here the authors report genetic and biochemical characterization of a soil isolate of B. cepacia relating to its production of an unusual antibiotic that is very active against a variety of soil fungi. Purification and preliminary structural analyses suggest that this antibiotic (called AFC-BC11) is a novel lipopeptide associated largely with the cell membrane. Analysis of conditions for optimal production of AFC-BC11 indicated stringent environmental regulation of its synthesis. Furthermore, the authors show that production of AFC-BC11 is largely responsible for the ability of B. cepacia BC11 to effectively control the damping-Off of cotton caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in a gnotobiotic system. Using Tn5 mutagenesis, they identified, cloned, and characterized a region of the genome of strain BC11 that is required for production of this antifungal metabolite. DNA sequence analysis suggested that this region encodes proteins directly involved in the production of a nonribosomally synthesized lipopeptide.

Kang, Y.; Carlson, R.; Tharpe, W.; Schell, M.A. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

1998-10-01

95

Analysis of Phaseolus vulgaris Response to Its Association with Trichoderma harzianum (ALL-42) in the Presence or Absence of the Phytopathogenic Fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to evaluate the ability of Trichoderma harzianum (ALL 42-isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil) to promote common bean growth and to modulate its metabolism and defense response in the presence or absence of the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani using a proteomic approach. T. harzianum was able to promote common bean plants growth as shown by the increase in root/foliar areas and by size in comparison to plants grown in its absence. The interaction was shown to modulate the expression of defense-related genes (Glu1, pod3 and lox1) in roots of P. vulgaris. Proteomic maps constructed using roots and leaves of plants challenged or unchallenged by T. harzianum and phytopathogenic fungi showed differences. Reference gels presented differences in spot distribution (absence/presence) and relative volumes of common spots (up or down-regulation). Differential spots were identified by peptide fingerprinting MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 48 identified spots (19 for leaves and 29 for roots) were grouped into protein functional classes. For leaves, 33%, 22% and 11% of the identified proteins were categorized as pertaining to the groups: metabolism, defense response and oxidative stress response, respectively. For roots, 17.2%, 24.1% and 10.3% of the identified proteins were categorized as pertaining to the groups: metabolism, defense response and oxidative stress response, respectively.

Pereira, Jackeline L.; Queiroz, Rayner M. L.; Charneau, Sebastien O.; Felix, Carlos R.; Ricart, Carlos A. O.; da Silva, Francilene Lopes; Steindorff, Andrei Stecca; Ulhoa, Cirano J.; Noronha, Eliane F.

2014-01-01

96

A simple method based on laboratory inoculum and field inoculum for evaluating potato resistance to black scurf caused by Rhizoctonia solani  

PubMed Central

A two-step method was developed to evaluate potato resistance to black scurf caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Tuber piece inoculum was first conducted in the laboratory, which was also first reported in this study. After inoculation with pathogen discs and culture for 48 h, the necrotic spots on the inoculated potato pieces were generated and measured by the crossing method. Further evaluation was conducted through field experiments using a wheat bran inoculum method. The wheat bran inoculum was placed into the pit dispersedly and surrounded seed tubers. Each cultivar or line was subjected to five treatments of 0-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-g soil inoculum. The results showed that 2–4 g of wheat bran inoculum was the optimum for identifying tuber black scurf resistance. The laboratory scores positively correlated with the incidence and severity of black scurf in the field. According to the results in the laboratory, relatively resistant cultivars could be selected for further estimation of tuber black scurf resistance in field experiments. It is a practical and effective screening method for rapid identification of resistant potato germplasm, which can reduce workload in the field, shorten time required for identification.

Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Xia; Yu, Zhuo; Xue, Yu-Feng; Qi, Li-Peng

2014-01-01

97

Isolation and identification of Rhizoctonia-like fungi from roots of three orchid genera, Paphiopedilum, Dendrobium, and Cymbidium, collected in Chiang Rai and Chiang Mai provinces of Thailand.  

PubMed

Three orchid genera, Paphiopedilum, Cymbidium, and Dendrobium, are among the most heavily traded ornamental plants in Thailand. In this study, 27 isolates of Rhizoctonia-like fungi were isolated from root sections of mature orchids in the three orchid genera, collected from diverse horticultural settings in Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces of Thailand. Fungal identification was done by the morphological characterization, the comparison of the internal transcribed spacer and 5.8S ribosomal DNA sequences, and the phylogenetic analysis. Epulorhiza repens was found to be the most common species found in the roots of various species of all three orchid genera, whereas Epulorhiza calendulina-like isolates were strictly found in the roots of Paphiopedilum species. We have also isolated and described an anamorph of Tulasnella irregularis, four new anamorphic species in the genus Tulasnella, and a new anamorphic species in the family Tulasnellaceae. Our study provides information on diversity of root-associated fungi of the orchid genera and at the sampling sites that were rarely addressed in the previous studies. PMID:20107843

Nontachaiyapoom, Sureeporn; Sasirat, Sawitree; Manoch, Leka

2010-10-01

98

CD45-mediated signaling pathway is involved in Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL)-induced proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion in human PBMC  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL, a potent mitogenic and complex N-glycan specific lectin binds to CD45 on PBMC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL triggers CD45-mediated signaling involved in activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of CD45 PTPase signaling blocks RBL-induced ZAP70 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL-CD45 mediated signaling is crucial for RBL-induced immunodulatory activities. -- Abstract: We earlier reported the mitogenic and immunostimulatory activities of Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), purified from phytopathogenic fungus R. bataticola in human PBMC. The lectin demonstrates specificity towards glycoproteins containing complex N-glycans. Since CD45-protein tyrosine phosphatase that abundantly expresses N-glycans is important in T-cell signaling, the study aimed to investigate the involvement of CD45 in the immunomodulatory activities of RBL. Flowcytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that RBL exhibited binding to PBMC and colocalized with CD45. The binding was comparable in cells expressing different CD45 isoforms-RA, -RB and -RO. CD45 blocking antibody reduced the binding and proliferation of PBMC induced by RBL. CD45-PTPase inhibitor dephostatin inhibited RBL-induced proliferation, expression of CD25 and pZAP-70. RBL-induced secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines were significantly inhibited in presence of dephostatin. Also, dephostatin blocked phosphorylation of p38MAPK and STAT-5 that was crucial for the biological functions of RBL. The study demonstrates the involvement of CD45-mediated signaling in RBL-induced PBMC proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion through activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5.

Pujari, Radha [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)] [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Eligar, Sachin M. [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India)] [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India); Kumar, Natesh [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)] [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Nagre, Nagaraja N.; Inamdar, Shashikala R.; Swamy, Bale M. [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India)] [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India); Shastry, Padma, E-mail: padma@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)] [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

2012-03-23

99

Characterization of a New Subgroup of Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group 1 (AG-1-ID), Causal Agent of a Necrotic Leaf Spot on Coffee.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT A new foliar disease on coffee leaves was observed in Mindanao, Philippines, in 1996. The symptoms appeared as large circular or irregularly shaped necrotic areas with small circular necrotic spots (1 mm or less in diameter) usually found around the periphery of the large necrotic areas. Rhizoctonia solani was consistently isolated from these diseased coffee leaves. Isolates obtained were multinucleate (3 to 12 nuclei per hyphal cell), had an optimum temperature for hyphal growth at 25 degrees C, prototrophic for thiamine, and anastomosed with tester isolates belonging to R. solani anastomosis group 1 (AG-1). Mature cultures on potato dextrose agar (PDA) were light to dark brown. Sclerotia, light brown to brown, were formed on the surface of PDA and covered the whole mature colony culture. Individual sclerotia often aggregated into large clumps (3 to 8 mm in diameter) and their color was brown to dark brown. In pathogenicity tests, isolates from coffee caused necrotic symptoms on coffee leaves, whereas isolates of AG-1-IA (not isolated from coffee), 1-IB, and 1-IC did not. The results of analyses of restriction fragment length polymorphism of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer, random amplified polymorphism DNA, and fatty acid profiles showed that R. solani isolates from coffee are a population of AG-1 different from AG-1-IA, 1-IB, and 1-IC. These results suggest that R. solani isolates from coffee represent a new subgroup distinct from AG-1-IA, 1-IB, and 1-IC. A new subgroup ID (AG-1-ID) is proposed. PMID:18943440

Priyatmojo, A; Escopalao, V E; Tangonan, N G; Pascual, C B; Suga, H; Kageyama, K; Hyakumachi, M

2001-11-01

100

Rhizoctonia Bataticola Lectin (RBL) Induces Caspase-8-Mediated Apoptosis in Human T-Cell Leukemia Cell Lines but Not in Normal CD3 and CD34 Positive Cells  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated immunostimulatory activity of a fungal lectin, Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), towards normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The present study aimed to explore the anticancer activities of RBL using human leukemic T-cell lines, Molt-4, Jurkat and HuT-78. RBL exhibited significant binding (>90%) to the cell membrane that was effectively inhibited by complex glycoproteins such as mucin (97% inhibition) and asialofetuin (94% inhibition) but not simple sugars such as N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, glucose and sucrose. RBL induced a dose and time dependent inhibition of proliferation and induced cytotoxicity in the cell lines. The percentage of apoptotic cells, as determined by hypodiploidy, was 33% and 42% in Molt-4 and Jurkat cells, respectively, compared to 3.11% and 2.92% in controls. This effect was associated with a concomitant decrease in the G0/G1 population. Though initiator caspase-8 and -9 were activated upon exposure to RBL, inhibition of caspase-8 but not caspase-9 rescued cells from RBL-induced apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that RBL induced cleavage of Bid, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-3. The expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X was down regulated without altering the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins- Bad and Bax. In contrast to leukemic cells, RBL did not induce apoptosis in normal PBMC, isolated CD3+ve cells and undifferentiated CD34+ve hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The findings highlight the differential effects of RBL on transformed and normal hematopoietic cells and suggest that RBL may be explored for therapeutic applications in leukemia.

Pujari, Radha; Eligar, Sachin M.; Kumar, Natesh; Barkeer, Srikanth; Reddy, Vishwanath; Swamy, Bale M.; Inamdar, Shashikala R.; Shastry, Padma

2013-01-01

101

The wheat ethylene response factor transcription factor pathogen-induced ERF1 mediates host responses to both the necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia cerealis and freezing stresses.  

PubMed

Sharp eyespot disease (primarily caused by the pathogen Rhizoctonia cerealis) and freezing stress are important yield limitations for the production of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Here, we report new insights into the function and underlying mechanisms of an ethylene response factor (ERF) in wheat, Pathogen-Induced ERF1 (TaPIE1), in host responses to R. cerealis and freezing stresses. TaPIE1-overexpressing transgenic wheat exhibited significantly enhanced resistance to both R. cerealis and freezing stresses, whereas TaPIE1-underexpressing wheat plants were more susceptible to both stresses relative to control plants. Following both stress treatments, electrolyte leakage and hydrogen peroxide content were significantly reduced, and both proline and soluble sugar contents were elevated in TaPIE1-overexpressing wheat, whereas these physiological traits in TaPIE1-underexpressing wheat exhibited the opposite trend. Microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses of TaPIE1-overexpressing and -underexpressing wheat plants indicated that TaPIE1 activated a subset of defense- and stress-related genes. Assays of DNA binding by electrophoretic mobility shift and transient expression in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) showed that the GCC boxes in the promoters of TaPIE1-activated genes were essential for transactivation by TaPIE1. The transactivation activity of TaPIE1 and the expression of TaPIE1-activated defense- and stress-related genes were significantly elevated following R. cerealis, freezing, and exogenous ethylene treatments. TaPIE1-mediated responses to R. cerealis and freezing were positively modulated by ethylene biosynthesis. These data suggest that TaPIE1 positively regulates the defense responses to R. cerealis and freezing stresses by activating defense- and stress-related genes downstream of the ethylene signaling pathway and by modulating related physiological traits in wheat. PMID:24424323

Zhu, Xiuliang; Qi, Lin; Liu, Xin; Cai, Shibin; Xu, Huijun; Huang, Rongfeng; Li, Jiarui; Wei, Xuening; Zhang, Zengyan

2014-03-01

102

Modulation of the phenylacetic acid metabolic complex by quinic acid alters the disease-causing activity of Rhizoctonia solani on tomato.  

PubMed

The metabolic control of plant growth regulator production by the plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (teleomorph=Thanatephorus cucumeris (A.B. Frank) Donk) and consequences associated with the parasitic and saprobic activity of the fungus were investigated. Fourteen genetically distinct isolates of the fungus belonging to anastomosis groups (AG) AG-3, AG-4, and AG-1-IA were grown on Vogel's minimal medium N with and without the addition of a 25 mM quinic acid (QA) source of carbon. The effect of QA on fungal biomass was determined by measuring the dry wt of mycelia produced under each growth condition. QA stimulated growth of 13 of 14 isolates of R. solani examined. The production of phenylacetic acid (PAA) and the chemically related derivatives 2-hydroxy-PAA, 3-hydroxy-PAA, 4-hydroxy-PAA, and 3-methoxy-PAA on the two different media was compared by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The presence of QA in the growth medium of R. solani altered the PAA production profile, limiting the conversion of PAA to derivative forms. The effect of QA on the ability of R. solani to cause disease was examined by inoculating tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants with 11 isolates of R. solani AG-3 grown on media with and without the addition of 25 mM QA. Mean percent survival of tomato plants inoculated with R. solani was significantly higher when the fungal inoculum was generated on growth medium containing QA. The results of this study support the hypotheses that utilization of QA by R. solani leads to reduced production of the plant growth regulators belonging to the PAA metabolic complex which can suppress plant disease development. PMID:23380633

Bartz, Faith E; Glassbrook, Norman J; Danehower, David A; Cubeta, Marc A

2013-05-01

103

Polymorphism of genes coding for nuclear 18S rRNA indicates genetic distinctiveness of anastomosis group 10 from other groups in the Rhizoctonia solani species complex.  

PubMed Central

DNA polymorphism in the 18S nuclear rRNA gene region was investigated by using 11 restriction endonucleases for 161 isolates of 25 intraspecific groups (ISGs) representing 11 reported anastomosis groups (AGs) of Rhizoctonia solani. A PCR-based restriction mapping method in which enzymatically amplified DNA fragments and subfragments were digested with one or two restriction enzymes was employed. Four types of DNA restriction maps of this region were constructed for these 25 ISGs. Map type I of the 18S rDNA region was represented by isolates of a majority of R. solani ISGs. Map types II and III, represented by ISG 2E and 9 isolates and 5C isolates, respectively, differed from map I by the absence of one (map type II) or two (map type III) restriction sites. Map type IV, represented by ISG 10A and B (or AG 10) isolates, showed significant restriction site variations, with five enzymes in this region compared with those of the remaining ISGs or AGs. Ten of the 25 restriction sites in the 18S rRNA gene region were informative and selected for analysis. Previously reported restriction maps of the 5.8S rRNA gene region, including the internal transcribed spacers, were aligned with each other, and 12 informative restriction sites were identified. These data were used alone and in combination to evaluate group relationships. Analyses derived from these data sets by maximum parsimony and likelihood methods showed that AG 10 isolates were distinct and distantly related to the majority isolates of the other AGs of this species complex.

Liu, Z L; Domier, L L; Sinclair, J B

1995-01-01

104

Phylogeography of the Solanaceae-infecting Basidiomycota fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 based on sequence analysis of two nuclear DNA loci  

PubMed Central

Background The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3 (AG-3) is an important pathogen of cultivated plants in the family Solanaceae. Isolates of R. solani AG-3 are taxonomically related based on the composition of cellular fatty acids, phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and beta-tubulin gene sequences, and somatic hyphal interactions. Despite the close genetic relationship among isolates of R. solani AG-3, field populations from potato and tobacco exhibit comparative differences in their disease biology, dispersal ecology, host specialization, genetic diversity and population structure. However, little information is available on how field populations of R. solani AG-3 on potato and tobacco are shaped by population genetic processes. In this study, two field populations of R. solani AG-3 from potato in North Carolina (NC) and the Northern USA; and two field populations from tobacco in NC and Southern Brazil were examined using sequence analysis of two cloned regions of nuclear DNA (pP42F and pP89). Results Populations of R. solani AG-3 from potato were genetically diverse with a high frequency of heterozygosity, while limited or no genetic diversity was observed within the highly homozygous tobacco populations from NC and Brazil. Except for one isolate (TBR24), all NC and Brazilian isolates from tobacco shared the same alleles. No alleles were shared between potato and tobacco populations of R. solani AG-3, indicating no gene flow between them. To infer historical events that influenced current geographical patterns observed for populations of R. solani AG-3 from potato, we performed an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and a nested clade analysis (NCA). Population differentiation was detected for locus pP89 (?ST = 0.257, significant at P < 0.05) but not for locus pP42F (?ST = 0.034, not significant). Results based on NCA of the pP89 locus suggest that historical restricted gene flow is a plausible explanation for the geographical association of clades. Coalescent-based simulations of genealogical relationships between populations of R. solani AG-3 from potato and tobacco were used to estimate the amount and directionality of historical migration patterns in time, and the ages of mutations of populations. Low rates of historical movement of genes were observed between the potato and tobacco populations of R. solani AG-3. Conclusion The two sisters populations of the basidiomycete fungus R. solani AG-3 from potato and tobacco represent two genetically distinct and historically divergent lineages that have probably evolved within the range of their particular related Solanaceae hosts as sympatric species.

Ceresini, Paulo C; Shew, H David; James, Timothy Y; Vilgalys, Rytas J; Cubeta, Marc A

2007-01-01

105

Heterokaryon formation in Thanatephorus cucumeris ( Rhizoctonia solani) AG1 IC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 50 single-basidiospore isolates (SBIs) obtained from each of 16 field isolates of Thanatephorus cucumeris AG-1 IC were examined for heterokaryon formation. All SBIs obtained from each field isolate were divided into two mating groups (SBIs-M1 and SBIs-M2), and tufts of mycelia were formed in the contact zone between colonies of paired SBIs-M1 and -M2 based on 0.5 % charcoal

Ping Qu; Koji Yamashita; Takeshi Toda; Achmadi Priyatmojo; Mayumi Kubota; Mitsuro Hyakumachi

2008-01-01

106

Genotypic and phenotypic variation among Lysobacter capsici strains isolated from Rhizoctonia suppressive soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four Gram-negative bacterial strains, recovered from clay soils cultivated with different crops in the Netherland, were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study in order to clarify their taxonomic status. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that they belong to the genus Lysobacter and to be highly related to the type strains of L. antibioticus DSM 2044T, L.

J. Postma; E. H. Nijhuis; A. F. Yassin

2010-01-01

107

Effects of soil pH on rhizoctonia damping-off of sugar beet and disease suppression induced by soil amendment with crop residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of soil pH on damping-off of sugar beet by R. solani (AG2-2) and soil suppressiveness against the disease were studied by comparing disease incidences in pasteurized versus non-pasteurized,\\u000a infested soils. Soil pH was correlated neither to disease incidence in five soils ranging from pH 4.5 to 7.2 nor to indigenous\\u000a disease suppressiveness, the difference in disease incidences between non-treated soil

Kaori Watanabe; Mariko Matsui; Hitoshi Honjo; J. Ole Becker; Ryo Fukui

108

Transgenic indica rice expressing a bitter melon ( Momordica charantia ) class I chitinase gene ( McCHIT1 ) confers enhanced resistance to Magnaporthe grisea and Rhizoctonia solani  

Microsoft Academic Search

McCHIT1 chitinase (DQ407723), a class I secretory endochitinase from bitter melon (Momordica charantia), had been demonstrated to enhance resistance against Phytophthora nicotianae and Verticillium wilt in transgenic tobacco and cotton. In order to obtain disease-resistant transgenic rice, McCHIT1 was transformed into a restorer line JinHui35 (Oryza sativa subsp. indica) by using the herbicide-resistance gene Bar as the selection marker. Transgenic

Ping Li; Yan Pei; Xianchun Sang; Yinghua Ling; Zhenglin Yang; Guanghua He

2009-01-01

109

Assessment of the bioregulatory activity of the leaf juices of higher plants in Al-Taif, Saudi Arabia against Fusarium solani, Phytophthora spp. and Rhizoctonia solani  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to conventional fungicides causes poor disease control in agriculture. Natural products from plants have great potential as novel fungicide sources for controlling pathogenic fungi. In this study the antipathogenic activity of the leaf juices of 11 plant species (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Pulicaria vulgaris, Lavandula pubescens, Lavandula dentata, Ageratum conyzoides, Ficus retusa, Zizyphus nummularia, Acacia tortilis, Phragmanthera sp. Aff. Rufescens, Lawsonia

Salih A. Bazaid; Nehal S. ElMougy

2010-01-01

110

7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...common in towel and blotter tests. Some pathogens, such as Fusarium, Phomopsis, and Rhizoctonia, can spread through the...common in towel and blotter tests. Some pathogens, such as Fusarium, Phomopsis, and Rhizoctonia, can spread through...

2009-01-01

111

78 FR 76611 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Notice of Receipt of Application; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...request: For use as a seed treatment on corn for efficacy against seedling infections of soilborne plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Pythium and Colletotrichum, and to aid in suppression of late season stalk rot. This is a...

2013-12-18

112

Effect of Herbicides on Susceptibility of Potato Plants (Solanum Sp.) to Infection (Vliyanie Gerbicidov na Vospriimcivost Rastenii Kartofelya Porazeniyu Boleznyani).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is no study or data in the literature concerning the effect of herbicides on susceptibility of potato plants to infection with phytopthora infestans, black leg, rhizoctonia, common scab, and viruses. Experiments were carried out by the author under ...

V. I. Lukin

1975-01-01

113

A study of a series of recombinant fungal laccases and bilirubin oxidase that exhibit significant differences in redox potential, substrate specificity, and stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of fungal laccases (Polyporus pinsitus, Rhizoctonia solani, Myceliophthora hermophila, Scytalidium thermophilum) and one bilirubin oxidase (Myrothecium verrucaria) have been studied to determine their redox potential, specificity, and stability. Polyporus and Rhizoctonia laccases possess potentials near 0.7–0.8 V (vs. NHE), while other oxidases have potentials near 0.5 V. It is observed that higher redox potential correlates with higher activity.

Feng Xu; Woonsup Shin; Stephen H. Brown; Jill A. Wahleithner; Uma M. Sundaram; Edward I. Solomon

1996-01-01

114

Infection of Spathoglottis plicata (Orchidaceae) seeds by mycorrhizal fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spathoglottis plicata seeds were encapsulated in 4-mm-diameter capsules of alginate-chitosan or alginate-gelatin and infected with the mycorrhizal\\u000a fungus Rhizoctonia AM9. The encapsulated seeds were placed directly on Rhizoctonia culture. About 66% of the seeds encapsulated in sucrose-free chitosan-alginate established a symbiotic relationship with\\u000a the mycorrhizal fungus after co-culturing for 2 weeks. The highest percentage of infection observed was about 84%.

T. K. Tan; W. S. Loon; E. Khor; C. S. Loh

1998-01-01

115

Utilisation d'une souche indigène de Trichoderma harzianum contre cinq agents pathogènes chez le concombre et la tomate de serre au Québec  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le potentiel antagoniste du biofongicide à base de Trichoderma harzianum MAUL-20, isolé au Québec, a été testé contre cinq agents telluriques phy- topathogènes (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), Py- thium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum et Verticillium dahliae) du concombre et de la tomate de serre. Le biofongicide a démon- tré une efficacité contre P. ultimum et R. solani

Johanne Caron; Lucie Laverdière; Pierre O. Thibodeau; Richard R. Bélanger

116

Morphogenesis and significance of hyphal coiling by nematode-trapping fungi in mycoparasitic relationships (Mycoparasitism; fluorescence microscopy: ultrastructure; Arthrobotrys oligospora)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. SUMMARY The mycoparasitic behaviour of some nema- tode-trapping fungi was investigated. These organisms interacted with other soil fungi by hy- phal coiling around the host hyphae. A detailed study with Arthrobotrys oligospora revealed that different fungi, representing all taxonomic groups, were attacked. In dual cultures, the interaction between A.oligospora and Rhizoctonia solani occurred soon after hyphal contact, irrespective of

Y. Persson; M. Veenhuis; B. Nordbring-Hertz

117

Genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. strain 916.  

PubMed

Bacillus sp. strain 916, isolated from the soil, showed strong activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Here, we present the high-quality draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain 916. Its 3.9-Mb genome reveals a number of genes whose products are possibly involved in promotion of plant growth or antibiosis. PMID:22965091

Wang, Xiaoyu; Luo, Chuping; Chen, Zhiyi

2012-10-01

118

Effect of chitin on biological control activity of Bacillus spp. and Trichoderma harzianum against root rot disease in pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two bacterial isolates and one strain of Trichoderma harzianum were tested alone and in combination with chitin for efficacy in control of root rot disease caused by Phytophthora capsici and Rhizoctonia solani in pepper plants under greenhouse conditions. These bacteria (Bacillus subtilis HS93 and B. licheniformis LS674) were isolated from repeatedly washed roots of pepper plants. In in vitro assays,

A. Sid Ahmed; M. Ezziyyani; C. Pérez Sánchez; M. E. Candela

2003-01-01

119

Effect of sewage sludge on suppressiveness to soil-borne plant pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge on soil suppressiveness to the pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomato, Sclerotium rolfsii on bean, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on tomato, Rhizoctonia solani on radish, Pythium spp. on cucumber, and Ralstonia solanacearum on tomato. Soil samples were collected from an experimental corn field in which sewage sludge

Raquel Ghini; Flávia Rodrigues Alves Patrício; Wagner Bettiol; Irene Maria Gatti de Almeida; Aline de Holanda Nunes Maia

2007-01-01

120

Effect of mixed and single crops on disease suppressiveness of soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of mixed cropping on disease suppressiveness of soils was tested for two cropping systems, Brussels sprouts¿barley and triticale¿white clover. Disease suppressiveness of field soils was evaluated in bioassays for the soilborne pathogens Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini, and Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. For both cropping systems, mixed cropping did not enhance disease suppressiveness of the soils.

Gerbert A. Hiddink; Aad J. Termorshuizen; Jos M. Raaijmakers; Bruggen van A. H. C

2005-01-01

121

Polymerization of phenolic intermediates of pesticides by a fungal enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The fungusRhizoctonia praticola produces an extracellular phenol oxidase (laccase) which polymerizes phenolic intermediates of various pesticides. The enzyme catalyzes the formation of oligomeric products from halogenated phenolic intermediates of phenoxyalkanoate herbicides and from naphtholic products derived from carbamate insecticides. These findings permit further investigations into the mechanism and role of oxidative coupling leading to the incorporation of xenobiotic compounds

J.-M. Bollag; R. D. Sjoblad; R. D. Minard

1977-01-01

122

Antifungal constituent from Gordonia dassanayakei.  

PubMed

The hexane extract of the stem bark of Gordonia dassanayakei showed high antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi Curvularia sp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Rhizoctonia solani, Corynespora cassiicola, and Fusarium sp. A compound responsible for the antifungal activity was isolated and identified as 3-formyl-2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoic acid 3-hydroxy-4-(methoxycarbonyl)-2,5-dimethylphenyl ester (1). PMID:11429257

Athukoralage, P S; Herath, H M; Deraniyagala, S A; Wijesundera, R L; Weerasinghe, P A

2001-06-01

123

An Evaluation of Soil Colonisation Potential of Selected Fungi and their Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes for Use in Soil Bioremediation Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initially sixteen fungi were screened for potential ligninolytic activity using decolourisation of a polymeric dye Poly R-478. From this, four fungi were selected, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Collybia sp., and an isolate (identified as Rhizoctonia solani) isolated from a grassland soil. Differences in the ligninolytic enzyme profiles of each of the fungi were observed. All of the four fungi tested

Colum McErlean; Roger Marchant; Ibrahim M. Banat

2006-01-01

124

Broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal properties of certain traditionally used Indian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of 22 traditionally used Indian medicinal plants were studied for their antimicrobial activity against seven bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, S. paratyphi, S. typhi, E. coli, Shigella dysenteriae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and five filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Rhizoctonia bataticola and Trichoderma viride) and a yeast Candida albicans of clinical origin. Of these, 16 plant

Farrukh Aqil; Iqbal Ahmad

2003-01-01

125

Antagonistic effect of Pseudomonas spp. on pathogenic fungi and enhancement of growth of green gram (Vigna radiata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas   species were isolated from the rhizosphere of green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] and some of the rhizobacterial isolates were found to have a wide range of antifungal activity inhibiting growth\\u000a of the phytopathogenic fungi Aspergillus sp., Curvularia sp., Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani in culture. These isolates also showed slight inhibition of the growth of a Bradyrhizobium strain

S. S. Sindhu; S. K. Gupta; K. R. Dadarwal

1999-01-01

126

Calcium and temperature effects on seedling exudation and root rot infection of common bean on an acid sandy soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil born fungi such as Phytium ultimum, Fusarium ssp., and Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn) severely restrict stand establishment of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on acid soils of the Tropics. Calcium application is known to alleviate fungal infection in many legumes but the causes are still unclear. To investigate environmental factors and physiological mechanisms involved, growth chamber experiments were conducted with

A. Buerkert; H. Marschner

1992-01-01

127

Antifungal and antibacterial potential of methanol and chloroform extracts of Marchantia polymorpha L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanol and chloroform extracts of Marchantia polymorpha were tested against three Gram-negative bacterial strains, viz. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Salmonella enterica and Pasturella multocida and four fungal strains, viz. Tilletia indica Mitra, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini, Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. by using disc diffusion and micro broth dilution techniques. Both the extracts showed unique activity

Dheeraj Gahtori; Preeti Chaturvedi

2011-01-01

128

Comparisons of virulence of pathogens associated with crown and root diseases of strawberry in Western Australia with special reference to the effect of temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strawberry production in Western Australia (W.A.) is severely compromised by crown and root diseases. A range of fungi and oomycetes, including Fusarium oxysporum, binucleate Rhizoctonia, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Phoma exigua, Gnomonia fructicola, Phytophthora cactorum, Pythium ultimum and Macrophomina phaseolina, are associated with such disease outbreaks. Studies were conducted for the first time to determine and compare the virulence of the fungal

Xiangling Fang; Dennis Phillips; Hua Li; Krishnapillai Sivasithamparam; Martin J. Barbetti

2011-01-01

129

Integrating bioagents with plant extract, oil cake and fungicide in various modes of application for the better management of web blight of urdbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of the integration of treatments based on a bioagent (Trichoderma viride), botanical (leaf extract and cake of Pongamia glabra), fungicide (carboxin) and Rhizobium sp. in various modes of applications for the management of web blight (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) and their influence on grain yield of urdbean (Vigna mungo [L.] Hepper). Modes of

S. C. Dubey

2006-01-01

130

Etiologia da podridão do coleto de Brachiaria brizantha em pastagens da amazônia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Etiology of collar rot of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu in Amazonian pastures Amazonian pastures formed with Brachiaria brizantha Marandu cultivar (also known as 'Braquiarão') have been devastated by a new disease since 1995, whose typical symptoms are diseased plants dispersed in pastures. Four Pythium and one Rhizoctonia isolates were recovered from plants in the early stages of infection and infected

Maria de Lourdes R. Duarte; Fernando C. Albuquerque; Rosa Maria V. Sanhueza; Jaqueline R. Verzignassi; Norio Kondo

2007-01-01

131

Rhizobacterial Volatiles Affect the Growth of Fungi and Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatiles of Stenotrophomonas, Serratia, and Bacillus species inhibited mycelial growth of many fungi and Arabidopsis thaliana (40 to 98%), and volatiles of Pseudomonas species and Burkholderia cepacia retarded the growth to lesser extents. Aspergillus niger and Fusarium species were resistant, and B. cepacia and Staphylococcus epidermidis promoted the growth of Rhizoctonia solani and A. thaliana. Bacterial volatiles provide a new

Anja Vespermann; Marco Kai; Birgit Piechulla

2007-01-01

132

Response of three root rot fungi to strawberry phenolics and the relation of phenolics to disease resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pythium irregulare, Rhizoctonia solani, and Alternaria alternata, usually associated with strawberry root rot diseases, were sensitive in vitro to several phenolics present in strawberry roots, fruits, and leaves, P. irregulare was the most sensitive. Eighteen strawberry cultivars were divided into two types, based on qualitative phenolic content. Five contained an unidentified xanthone and generally less kaempferol-7-glucoside than the remaining thirteen.

S. Nemec

1976-01-01

133

Production of Pseudomonas fluorescens P-5 and P-6 for Bean Damping-off Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and efficacy of two biological control agents, Pseudomonas fluorescens Flügge, P-5 and P-6, were evaluated in combinations of two carbon (sucrose & molasses) and two nitrogen (urea & yeast extract) sources to optimize control of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, which is a causal agent of bean damping-off. Both strains were grown in five liquid media including: sucrose + yeast extract,

SAMIRA PEIGHAMI-ASHNAEI; ABBAS SHARIFI-TEHRANI; MASOOD AHMADZADEH; KEIVAN BEHBOUDI

134

Antifungal properties of essential oils from Thai medical plants against rice pathogenic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This in vitro study was aimed to evaluate the mycelium growth and spore germination inhibition properties of essential oils. Two Thai medicinal plants; Frankincense oil (Boswellia carteri Bird.) and Cassia oil (Acacia farnesiana Linn) were applied against 7 species of economically important rice pathogenic fungi; Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium proliferatum, Pyricularia arisea and Rhizoctonia solani.

Apinya Piyo; Pitipong Thobunluepop

135

Effect of single application of Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth promotion in cotton plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important and economically cultivated cotton plant was selected to test the growth promotion by Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluroescens with and without pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Of these, T. viride was found to be more effective than P. fluroescens on shoot and root length elongation. Seed germination percentage, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight

V. Shanmugaiah; N. Balasubramanian; S. Gomathinayagam; P. T. Manoharan

2009-01-01

136

Induction of defense responses in common bean plants by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.  

PubMed

Interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a bio-agent and Rhizoctonia root rot disease of common bean plant was investigated in this study under natural conditions in pot experiment. A mixture of Egyptian formulated AM (Multi-VAM) in suspension form (1 × 10(6) unit L(-1) in concentration) was used at dilution of 5 ml L(-1) water. The results demonstrated that colonization of bean plants with AM fungi significantly increased growth parameters, yield parameters and mineral nutrient concentrations and reduced the negative effects on these parameters as well as both disease severity and disease incidence. Different physical and biochemical mechanisms have been shown to play a role in enhancement of plant resistance against Rhizoctonia solani, namely, improved plant nutrition, improved plant growth, increase in cell wall thickening, cytoplasmic granulation, and accumulation of some antimicrobial substances (phenolic compounds and defense related enzymes). PMID:20630727

Abdel-Fattah, G M; El-Haddad, S A; Hafez, E E; Rashad, Y M

2011-05-20

137

Antifungal activity of rhizospheric bacteria.  

PubMed

Fluorescent Pseudomonad spp. were isolated from the rhizosphere of potato plants (Algeria) by serial dilutions of rhizosphere soils on Kings B medium and were tested for their antifungal activity. The antifungal activity of the Pseudomonas isolated from Potatoes rhizosphere was tested against Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum in dual culture with bacteria on PDA. The Petri dish was divided into tow, on one the bacteria was spread and on the opposite side fungal plugs were inoculated and incubated for one week. Fourteen bacteria were isolated; only one isolate inhibited the growth of Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani; Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici with inhibition zones of 39.9, 33.7, 30.8, 19.9 and 22.5 mm respectively. PMID:21534477

Mezaache, S; Guechi, A; Zerroug, M M; Strange, R N; Nicklin, J

2010-01-01

138

Biocontrol agents applied individually and in combination for suppression of soilborne diseases of cucumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soilborne pathogens Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium ultimum, and Meloidogyne incognita can cause severe economic losses to field- and greenhouse-grown cucumber. A collection of bacterial isolates and isolates GL3 and GL21 of Trichoderma virens were screened for suppression of diseases caused by these pathogens. T. virens isolates GL3 and GL21 provided the most effective suppression of damping-off caused by R. solani

Daniel P. Roberts; Scott M. Lohrke; Susan L. F. Meyer; Jeffrey S. Buyer; John H. Bowers; C. Jacyn Baker; Wei Li; Jorge T. de Souza; Jack A. Lewis; Soohee Chung

2005-01-01

139

Large-scale production of chlamydospores of Gliocladium virens strain GL21 in submerged culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

  SoilGard™ is a commercial microbial fungicide containing chlamydospores of Gliocladium virens strain GL-21. The formulation is registrated with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by Thermo Trilogy Corporation,\\u000a Columbia, Maryland. The biocontrol agent was developed in cooperation with the Biocontrol of Plant Diseases Laboratory (BPDL),\\u000a US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and is targeted for controlling damping-off diseases caused by Rhizoctonia

J Eyal; C P Baker; J D Reeder; W E Devane; R D Lumsden

1997-01-01

140

Suppression of soil-borne plant diseases with composts: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous container-based studies in greenhouses or growth rooms have consistently demonstrated a suppressive effect of composts on soil-borne diseases such as damping-off and root rots (Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora spp.), and wilts (Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae). Composts have also been shown to suppress several diseases in the field, although the effects have been generally smaller and more variable

R. Noble; E. Coventry

2005-01-01

141

Multi-target and medium-independent fungal antagonism by hydrolytic enzymes in Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus pumilus strains from barley rhizosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucanolytic bacteria from barley rhizosphere soil were isolated by a procedure selecting for isolates with ?-glucosidase activity. Almost all isolates were fast-growing, Gram-positive rods. Sixteen out of 100 isolates showed in vitro fungal antagonism against widely different plant-pathogenic microfungi (Aphanomyces cochleoides, Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani). The 16 isolates shared a characteristic profile of cell-wall-degrading enzymes, comprising glucanolytic (cellulase, mannanase

Preben Nielsen; Jan Sørensen

1997-01-01

142

Laccase-catalyzed oxidation of naphthol in the presence of soluble polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation of 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol was studied in presence of recombinant laccases (benzenediol:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) from Polyporus pinsitus (rPpL), Myceliophthora thermophila (rMtL), Coprinus cinereus (rCcL) and Rhizoctonia solani (rRsL). During 1-naphthol oxidation a violet colored insoluble product was formed. The product of 2-naphthol oxidation was a white insoluble precipitate. Almost two moles of 1-naphthol was oxidized by one

Juozas Kulys; Regina Vidziunaite; Palle Schneider

2003-01-01

143

Biological control of sheath-blight of rice in india with antagonistic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of fluorescent and nonfluorescent bacteria that were isolated from rice rhizospheres of Southern India and showed\\u000a antagonism towardsRhizoctonia solani were evaluated for biological control of rice sheath-blight (ShB). Efficient strains of bacteria inhibited mycelial growth\\u000a ofR. solani, affected sclerotial viabilityin vitro and protected IR 20 and TKM 9 rice seedlings from infection byR. solani in greenhouse tests. Pretreatment of

T. Vasantha Devi; R. Malar Vizhi; N. Sakthivel; S. S. Gnanamanickam

1989-01-01

144

Effects of nematicides on cotton root mycobiota.  

PubMed

Baseline information on the diversity and population densities of fungi collected from soil debris and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) roots was determined. Samples were collected from Tifton, GA, and Starkville, MS containing cotton field soil treated with the nematicides 1,3-dichloroproprene (fumigant) and aldicarb (granules). A total of 10,550 and 13,450 fungal isolates were collected from these two study sites, respectively. Of this total, 34 genera of plant pathogenic or saprophytic species were identified. Pathogenic root fungi included Fusarium spp. (40% of all isolations), Macrophomina, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, and Sclerotium. Fusarium and Rhizoctonia were the most common fungal species identified and included F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides and F. solani, the three Fusarium species pathogenic on cotton plants. Population densities of Fusarium were not significantly different among locations or tissue types sampled. Macrophomina was isolated at greater numbers near the end of the growing seasons. Anastomosis groups of R. solani isolated from roots and soil debris included AG-3, -4, -7, 2-2, and -13 and anastomosis groups of binucleate Rhizoctonia included CAG-2, -3, and -5. Occurrences and frequency of isolations among sampling dates were not consistent. Fluctuations in the frequency of isolation of Rhizoctonia did not correspond with changes in frequency of isolation of the biological control fungus, Trichoderma. When individual or pooled frequencies of the mycobiota were compared to nematicide treatments, no specific trends occurred between treatments, application methods or rates. Results from this study show that use of 1,3-D and aldicarb in cotton fields does not significantly impact plant pathogenic fungi or saprophytic fungal populations. Thus cotton producers need not adjust seedling disease control measures when these two nematicides are used. PMID:15119856

Baird, R E; Carling, D E; Watson, C E; Scruggs, M L; Hightower, P

2004-02-01

145

Sheath-blight resistance QTLS in japonica rice germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheath blight (SB), caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is a serious disease of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) for which genetic resistance is in demand by breeders. With the goal of resistance (SBR)-QTL discovery in U. S. japonica breeding material, 197 doubled-haploid lines from a cross between MCR10277 (resistant) and Cocodrie (susceptible) were evaluated\\u000a in field and greenhouse assays with U.

J. C. Nelson; J. H. Oard; D. Groth; H. S. Utomo; Y. Jia; G. Liu; K. A. K. Moldenhauer; F. J. Correa-Victoria; R. G. Fjellstrom; B. Scheffler; G. A. Prado

146

Effect of essential oils from some higher plants against fungi causing damping-off disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening of leaves of 25 taxa of angiosperms was made for their volatile toxicity against damping-off fungi. The volatile\\u000a substances fromHyptis suaveolens andOcimum canum were toxic againstPythium aphanidermatum, P. debaryanum andRhizoctonia solani. The fungitoxicity of the leaves persisted for 15 d of storage. The volatile substances from the leaves ofO. canum were thermostable, while those fromH. suaveolens were thermolabile.

V. N. Pandey; N. K. Dubey

1992-01-01

147

Antimicrobial activity of some coumarin containing herbal plants growing in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial screening against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, mold, as well as plant pathogenic fungi, with emphasis on method optimization was carried out on methanol extracts prepared from seven plants grown in Finland. Sensitivity to the extracts was found to vary considerably among the micro-organisms, the extract from Petroselinum crispum and Ruta graveolens showing the highest toxicity against Rhizoctonia

Tiina Ojala; Susanna Remes; Pasi Haansuu; Heikki Vuorela; Raimo Hiltunen; Kielo Haahtela; Pia Vuorela

2000-01-01

148

Purification and characterization of a novel anti-fungal protein from Gastrodia elata  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anti-fungal protein GAFP-1 (Gastrodia anti-fungal protein, also called gastrodianin) was purified from Gastrodia elata B1. f. flavida S. Chow (Orchidaceae), a parasitic plant on the fungus Armillaria mellea. It can inhibit the hyphal growth of some phytopathogenic fungi such as Valsa ambiens, Rhizoctonia solani, Gibberella zeae, Ganoderma lucidum and Botrytis cinerea in vitro. GAFP-1 is a monomer with a

Qing Xu; Ying Liu; Xiaochen Wang; Hongya Gu; Zhangliang Chen

1998-01-01

149

QTL mapping of sheath blight resistance in a deep-water rice cultivar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheath blight, caused by the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is one of the most serious diseases of rice and leads to severe yield loss worldwide. A recombinant inbred line (RIL)\\u000a population consisting of 121 lines was constructed from a cross between HH1B and RSB03, the latter of which is a deep-water\\u000a rice variety. Five traits were used to evaluate sheath

Dong Fu; Liang Chen; Guohui Yu; Yi Liu; Qiaojun Lou; Hanwei Mei; Liang Xiong; Mingshou Li; Xiaoyan Xu; Lijun Luo

2011-01-01

150

Indigenous Populations of Three Closely Related Lysobacter spp. in Agricultural Soils Using Real-Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research had shown that three closely related species of Lysobacter, i.e., Lysobacter antibioticus, Lysobacter capsici, and Lysobacter gummosus, were present in different Rhizoctonia-suppressive soils. However, the population dynamics of these three Lysobacter spp. in different habitats remains unknown. Therefore, a specific primer–probe combination was designed for the combined\\u000a quantification of these three Lysobacter spp. using TaqMan. Strains of the

Joeke Postma; Mirjam T. Schilder; Richard A. van Hoof

2011-01-01

151

Molecular identification of mycorrhizal fungi in Dactylorhiza sambucina (Orchidaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We amplified and sequenced internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat from fungi in roots of\\u000a Dactylorhiza sambucina (Orchidaceae) and used the extended database to identify the mycorrhizal fungi. We molecularly identified three ITS recovered\\u000a from D. sambucina roots, one belonging to Rhizoctonia group, and two to ascomycetes, for the first time in Orchidoidae. In many cases,

Giuseppe Pellegrino; Francesca Bellusci

2009-01-01

152

New Insights in Trichoderma harzianum Antagonism of Fungal Plant Pathogens by Secreted Protein Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma harzianum ALL42 were capable of overgrowing and degrading Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina mycelia, coiling around the hyphae with formation of apressoria and hook-like structures. Hyphae of T. harzianum ALL42 did not show any coiling around Fusarium sp. hyphae suggesting that mycoparasitism may be different among the plant pathogens. In this study, a secretome analysis\\u000a was used to identify some

Valdirene Neves Monteiro; Roberto do Nascimento Silva; Andrei Stecca Steindorff; Fabio Teles Costa; Eliane Ferreira Noronha; Carlos André Ornelas Ricart; Marcelo Valle de Sousa; Marilene Henning Vainstein; Cirano José Ulhoa

2010-01-01

153

Laser microdissection of fungal septa as visualised by scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Laser microdissection has been proven a successful technique to isolate single cells or groups of cells from animal and plant tissue. Here, we demonstrate that laser microdissection is suitable to isolate subcellular parts of fungal hyphae. Dolipore septa of Rhizoctonia solani containing septal pore caps were cut by laser microdissection from sections of mycelium and collected by laser pressure catapulting. Subsequently, microdissected septa were visualised using a wheat germ agglutinin labelling of cell walls, septa and septal pore caps and scanning electron microscopy. The use of laser microdissection on fungal cells opens new ways to study subcellular fungal structures and the biochemical composition of hyphal cells. PMID:17157540

van Driel, Kenneth G A; Boekhout, Teun; Wösten, Han A B; Verkleij, Arie J; Müller, Wally H

2007-06-01

154

Penn State: Plant Disease Fact Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This selection of online fact sheets concerned with plant diseases was compiled by Professor Gary W. Moorman, a Professor of Plant Pathology at Penn State. The concise fact sheets address "common diseases of plants frequently grown in greenhouses, interiorscapes, and in outdoor landscapes and nurseries in the northeastern U.S." The sheets are organized under categories for Woody Ornamental, and Floral and Foliage Plants, as well as a General Information category. Factsheets address such diseases as Bacterial Leaf Scorch, Pythium Root Rot, Botrytis Blight, Rhizoctonia, and more. There are sheets for a wide variety of plants and trees including Iris, Tulip, Maple, and Oak, to name a few.

2005-11-05

155

Penn State: Plant Pathology Fact Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This selection of online fact sheets concerned with plant diseases was compiled by Professor Gary W. Moorman, a Professor of Plant Pathology at Penn State. The concise fact sheets address "common diseases of plants frequently grown in greenhouses, interiorscapes, and in outdoor landscapes and nurseries in the northeastern U.S." The sheets are organized under categories for Woody Ornamental, and Floral and Foliage Plants, as well as a General Information category. Factsheets address such diseases as Bacterial Leaf Scorch, Pythium Root Rot, Botrytis Blight, Rhizoctonia, and more. There are sheets for a wide variety of plants and trees including Iris, Tulip, Maple, and Oak, to name a few.

156

Phytophthora tropicalis on Hedera helix and Epipremnum aureum in Polish greenhouses.  

PubMed

Phytophthora tropicalis was isolated from Hedera helix and Epipremnum aureum showing discoloration of leaves, necrosis of shoot base, spread upwards and on roots. The species was detected from 7/8 plants of Hedera and 3/4 of Epipremnum. Additionally Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium avenaceum and Rhizoctonia solani were recovered from some of diseased plants. P. tropicalis caused leaf necrosis of 13 plant species and tomato seedlings. The quickest spread of necrosis was observed on leaves of Peperomia magnoliaefolia, Pelargonium zonale and Phalaenopsis x hybridum. The disease developed at temperature ranged from 10 degrees to 32.5 degrees C with optimum 30 degrees C. PMID:17390874

Orlikowski, L B; Trzewik, A; Wiejacha, K

2006-01-01

157

Screening of high-yielding biocontrol bacterium Bs - 916 mutant by ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus subtilis 916 was an effective biocontrol agent in control rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani. To further improve its antagonistic ability, low-energy ion implantation was applied in Bs-916. We studied the effects of\\u000a different doses of N+ implantation. The optimum dose of ion implantation for the Bs-916 was from 15?×?2.6?×?1014 N+\\/cm2 to 25?×?2.6?×?1014 N+\\/cm2. The mutant strain designated as Bs-H74

Dequan Li; Fengya Nie; Lihui Wei; Benqiang Wei; Zhiyi Chen

2007-01-01

158

Opportunistic invasive fungal pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina prognosis from immunocompromised humans to potential mitogenic RBL with an exceptional and novel antitumor and cytotoxic effect.  

PubMed

With the ever-increasing risk for fungal infections, one can no longer ignore fungi. It is imperative that clinical manifestations "presume fungus" with their epidemiologic and pathogenic features when evaluating a potentially infected patient. In the high-risk patient groups, fungi with intrinsic resistance to antifungal agents already exist, with a tendency to emerge as opportunistic pathogens. One of the smart pathogens is Macrophomina phaseolina, with the potential to disarm plant, animal, and human immunity. The response prophylaxis may vary from antifungal therapy and surgical measures to biochemical (Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin [RBL] with antitumor and cytotoxic nature) and gene therapeutics. PMID:21553299

Arora, P; Dilbaghi, N; Chaudhury, A

2012-02-01

159

Antimicrobial action effect and stability of nanosized silica hybrid Ag complex.  

PubMed

Nanosized silica hybrid silver complex (NSS) showing strong antifungal activity, in which nanosilver (nano-Ag) was bound to silica (SiO2) molecules, was synthesized via gamma-irradiation at room temperature. NSS was characterized via field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FESEM images and EDXS data showed that well-dispersed 3-to-10-nm Ag nanoparticles (core part) were loaded onto the outer parts of 5-to-20 nm SiO2 nanoparticles. The antifungal efficiency of NSS was evaluated against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. In the case of Rhizoctonia solani, the growth rate was decreased typically by more than 90% at a 6 microg/ml concentration of NSS as a medium additive. The antifungal-action mechanism was investigated via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the NSS treatment against Botrytis cinerea. The stability and antimicrobial activity of NSS were determined, using the plate culture method, from several water samples containing NSS after 7-day NSS treatment. Moreover, the NSS solution maintained stable antifungal activity for at least 24 mos. These results suggest that NSS, an environment-friendly nanomaterial, can be used as strongly effective growth inhibitor of various microorganisms, making it applicable to diverse antimicrobial-control systems. PMID:22121607

Kim, Hwa-Jung; Park, Hae-Jun; Choi, Seong-Ho

2011-07-01

160

Tell me again what it is that you do.  

PubMed

My job at Pullman, Washington, starting in 1965, was to control the root diseases of wheat and barley, focusing first on fusarium root and crown rot, then including take-all and pythium and rhizoctonia root rots. In the absence of viable alternatives, the agronomic approaches used were implemented through design of cereal-based cropping systems. Starting in the late 1970s, the mission focused further on cereal-intensive direct-seed (no-till) cropping systems. A team effort demonstrated the role of indigenous antibiotic-producing fluorescent pseudomonads in the widespread decline of take-all in response to monoculture wheat (or barley-wheat sequences). Today, the suppression of take-all by these beneficial rhizobacteria is the centerpiece of an integrated system that augments take-all decline while limiting pythium and rhizoctonia root rots and fusarium root and crown rot in direct-seed systems. In such systems, "crop rotation" takes the form of different sequences of winter and spring wheat, barley and triticale varieties, and market classes, all susceptible to all four root diseases. PMID:17355195

Cook, R James

2007-01-01

161

Coprinellus curtus (Hitoyo-take) prevents diseases of vegetables caused by pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

A strain of Coprinellus curtus (designated GM-21), a basidiomycete that suppressed bottom-rot disease of Chinese cabbage, 'pak-choi' (Brassica campestris), caused by the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani Pak-choi 2 was isolated. The mechanism of plant disease suppression was discovered to be hyphal interference, a combative fungal interaction between strain GM-21 and the pathogen. The antifungal spectrum of strain GM-21 was shown to include R. solani and Fusarium sp., i.e. strain GM-21 showed disease-suppressive ability against bottom-rot disease of lettuce and Rhizoctonia-patch disease of mascarene grass caused by strains of R. solani. In addition, clear evidence of hyphal interference between strain GM-21 and Fusarium pathogens that cause crown (foot) and root-rot disease of tomato and Fusarium wilt of melon, respectively, was demonstrated. It was thus considered that GM-21 is effective for suppressing soil-borne pathogens, and that GM-21 presents new possibilities for biological control of vegetable diseases. PMID:17850327

Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Saito, Miyuki; Suzuki, Nobuaki

2007-10-01

162

Enhancing plant disease suppression by Burkholderia vietnamiensis through chromosomal integration of Bacillus subtilis chitinase gene chi113.  

PubMed

Burkholderia vietnamiensis P418 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. A chitinase gene from Bacillus subtilis was cloned and stably integrated into the chromosome of using the transposon delivery vector, pUTkm1. Chitinase activity was detected in recombinant P418-37 but not in wild type P418. Recombinant P418-37 retained the in vitro growth rate, N(2)-fixation and phosphate and potassium-solubilizing characteristics of the wild type. P418-37 significantly (P < 0.05) increased in vitro inhibition of the plant pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum, Rhizoctonia cerealis, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Verticillium dahliae and Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici compared with P418. In planta disease suppression assays indicated that P418-37 significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced suppression of wheat sheath blight (R. cerealis), cotton Fusarium wilt (F. oxysporium f.sp. vasinfectum) and tomato gray mould (Botrytis cinerea), relative to the wild type. PMID:21972146

Zhang, Xinjian; Huang, Yujie; Harvey, Paul R; Ren, Yan; Zhang, Guangzhi; Zhou, Hongzi; Yang, Hetong

2012-02-01

163

Mechanisms of natural soil suppressiveness to soilborne diseases.  

PubMed

Suppressive soils are characterized by a very low level of disease development even though a virulent pathogen and susceptible host are present. Biotic and abiotic elements of the soil environment contribute to suppressiveness, however most defined systems have identified biological elements as primary factors in disease suppression. Many soils possess similarities with regard to microorganisms involved in disease suppression, while other attributes are unique to specific pathogen-suppressive soil systems. The organisms operative in pathogen suppression do so via diverse mechanisms including competition for nutrients, antibiosis and induction of host resistance. Non-pathogenic Fusarium spp. and fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. play a critical role in naturally occurring soils that are suppressive to Fusarium wilt. Suppression of take-all of wheat, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is induced in soil after continuous wheat monoculture and is attributed, in part, to selection of fluorescent pseudomonads with capacity to produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. Cultivation of orchard soils with specific wheat varieties induces suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia root rot of apple caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 5. Wheat cultivars that stimulate disease suppression enhance populations of specific fluorescent pseudomonad genotypes with antagonistic activity toward this pathogen. Methods that transform resident microbial communities in a manner which induces natural soil suppressiveness have potential as components of environmentally sustainable systems for management of soilborne plant pathogens. PMID:12448751

Mazzola, Mark

2002-08-01

164

Synthesis and antifungal activities of trichodermin derivatives as fungicides on rice.  

PubMed

Twenty new trichodermin derivatives, 2a-5, containing alkoxy, acyloxy, and Br groups in 4-, 8-, 9-, 10- and 16-positions were synthesized and characterized. The antifungal activities of the new compounds against rice false smut (Ustilaginoidea virens), rice sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani), and rice blast (Magnaporthe grisea) were evaluated. The results of bioassays indicated that the antifungal activities were particularly susceptible to changes at 4-, 8-, and 16-positions, but low to changes at 9- and 10-positions. Most of these target compounds exhibited good antifungal activities at the concentration of 50?mg?l(-1) . Compound 4 (9-formyltrichodermin; EC50 0.80?mg?l(-1) ) with an CHO group at 9-position displayed nearly the same level of antifungal activity against Ustilaginoidea virens as the commercial fungicide prochloraz (EC50 0.82?mg?l(-1) ), while compound 3f ((8R)-8-{[(E)-3-phenylprop-2-enoyl]oxy}trichodermin; EC50 3.58 and 0.74?mg?l(-1) ) with a cinnamyloxy group at C(8) exhibited much higher antifungal activities against Rhizoctonia solani and Magnaporthe grisea than the commercial fungicides prochloraz (EC50 0.96?mg?l(-1) ) and propiconazole (EC50 5.92?mg?l(-1) ), respectively. These data reveal that compounds 3f and 4 possess high antifungal activities and may serve as lead compounds for the development of fungicides in the future. PMID:23576346

Xu, Xiaojun; Cheng, Jingli; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Chulong; Ou, Xiaoming; Su, Weike; Zhao, Jinhao; Zhu, Guonian

2013-04-01

165

Synthesis and antifungal activity of 2-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxyaryl ketones as analogues of kakuol.  

PubMed

In a study aiming to determine the structural elements essential to the antifungal activity of kakuol, we synthesized a series of 2-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxyaryl ketones, and we assayed their in vitro antifungal activity. The most sensitive target organisms to the action of these class of compounds were Phytophthora infestans, Phytium ultimum, Cercospora beticola, Cladosporium cucumerinum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Most of the analogs showed a remarkable in vitro activity, and some of them appeared significantly more effective than the natural product. The biological activity was mainly affected by introducing structural modification on the carbonyl moiety of the natural-product molecule. In particular, compound 5a, bearing a C=C bond conjugated to the C=O group, was found active with a MIC value of 10 microg ml(-1) against Cladosporium cucumerinum. The results suggest that 2-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxyaryl ketones can be considered promising candidates in the development of new antifungal compounds. PMID:20397224

Musso, Loana; Dallavalle, Sabrina; Merlini, Lucio; Farina, Gandolfina

2010-04-01

166

Production, purification, and characterization of antifungal metabolite from Pseudomonas aeruginosa SD12, a new strain obtained from tannery waste polluted soil.  

PubMed

A new strain, SD12, was isolated from tannery waste polluted soil and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the basis of phenotypic traits and by comparison of 16S rRNA sequences. This bacterium exhibited broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against phytopathogenic fungi. The strain produced phosphatases, cellulases, proteases, pectinases, and HCN and also retained its ability to produce hydroxamate-type siderophore. A bioactive metabolite was isolated from P. aeruginosa SD12 and was characterized as 1-hydroxyphenazine ((1-OH-PHZ) by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral analysis. The strain was used as a biocontrol agent against root rot and wilt disease of pyrethrum caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The stain is also reported to increase the growth and biomass of Plantago ovata. The purified compound, 1-hydroxyphenazine, also showed broad-spectrum antagonistic activity towards a range of phytopathogenic fungi, which is the first report of its kind. PMID:22561863

Dharni, Seema; Alam, Mansoor; Kalani, Komal; Abdul-Khaliq; Samad, Abdul; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar; Patra, Dharani Dhar

2012-05-01

167

Pathogenicity of some Fusarium species associated with superficial blemishes of potato tubers.  

PubMed

As an organ for reserve and propagation, the tuber grows underground and is in contact with soil-borne microorganisms, making it potentially exposed to blemishes. Therefore, the objective of this study was the possibility of using some modern methods of molecular diagnostics and detection of the presence of fungal contaminants in potato blemishes in Al-Qasim (Saudi Arabia). Polygonal lesions were the most observed blemish type in the collected samples. One hundred and sixty isolates were recovered from different types of blemishes obtained in this study. Fusarium, Penicillium, Ilyonectria, Alternaria and Rhizoctonia were the most common genera collected from different blemish types. Using ITS region sequencing, all collected fungi were identified at the species level. All Fusarium strains collected during this study were used to detect their pathogenicity against potato tubers. This is the first comprehensive report on the identification of major pathogenic fungi isolated from potato tuber blemishes in Saudi Arabia. PMID:23829078

Gashgari, Rukaia M; Gherbawy, Youssuf A

2013-01-01

168

Role of the Trichoderma harzianum Endochitinase Gene, ech42, in Mycoparasitism  

PubMed Central

The role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase (Ech42) in mycoparasitism was studied by genetically manipulating the gene that encodes Ech42, ech42. We constructed several transgenic T. harzianum strains carrying multiple copies of ech42 and the corresponding gene disruptants. The level of extracellular endochitinase activity when T. harzianum was grown under inducing conditions increased up to 42-fold in multicopy strains as compared with the wild type, whereas gene disruptants exhibited practically no activity. The densities of chitin labeling of Rhizoctonia solani cell walls, after interactions with gene disruptants were not statistically significantly different than the density of chitin labeling after interactions with the wild type. Finally, no major differences in the efficacies of the strains generated as biocontrol agents against R. solani or Sclerotium rolfsii were observed in greenhouse experiments.

Carsolio, Carolina; Benhamou, Nicole; Haran, Shoshan; Cortes, Carlos; Gutierrez, Ana; Chet, Ilan; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

1999-01-01

169

Physiological and biochemical characterization of Trichoderma harzianum, a biological control agent against soilborne fungal plant pathogens.  

PubMed Central

Monoconidial cultures of 15 isolates of Trichoderma harzianum were characterized on the basis of 82 morphological, physiological, and biochemical features and 99 isoenzyme bands from seven enzyme systems. The results were subjected to numerical analysis which revealed four distinct groups. Representative sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS 1)-ITS 2 region in the ribosomal DNA gene cluster were compared between groups confirming this distribution. The utility of the groupings generated from the morphological, physiological, and biochemical data was assessed by including an additional environmental isolate in the electrophoretic analysis. The in vitro antibiotic activity of the T. harzianum isolates was assayed against 10 isolates of five different soilborne fungal plant pathogens: Aphanomyces cochlioides, Rhizoctonia solani, Phoma betae, Acremonium cucurbitacearum, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici. Similarities between levels and specificities of biological activity and the numerical characterization groupings are both discussed in relation to antagonist-specific populations in known and potential biocontrol species.

Grondona, I; Hermosa, R; Tejada, M; Gomis, M D; Mateos, P F; Bridge, P D; Monte, E; Garcia-Acha, I

1997-01-01

170

Disease-reducing effect of Chromolaena odorata extract on sheath blight and other rice diseases.  

PubMed

Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems. No economically viable control methods have been developed. We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions. The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C. odorata and rice cultivar. The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity. Under semi-field conditions, extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases, i.e., blast (Pyricularia oryzae) using foliar spray (up to 45%), brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae) using seed treatment (up to 57%), and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) using both application methods (up to 50%). PMID:20839964

Khoa, Nguyen ?ac; Thuy, Phan Thi Hong; Thuy, Tran Thi Thu; Collinge, David B; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

2011-02-01

171

Control and possible applications of a novel carrot-spoilage basidiomycete, Fibulorhizoctonia psychrophila  

PubMed Central

A novel cold-tolerant fungus, Fibulorhizoctonia psychrophila, was isolated from a refrigerated carrot storage facility and identified as an anamorph of Athelia, often classified in Rhizoctonia s.l. Growth of this fungus was observed between 0 and 20°C with an optimum at 9–12°C, while incubation of mycelium grown at 15–32°C resulted in absence of growth even after the fungus was transferred back to 15°C. Growth was inhibited in the presence of the antifungals sorbic acid or natamycin, in particular when the fungus was incubated at 18°C. F. psychrophila produces polysaccharide degrading enzymes that, when compared to enzymes from the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus niger, retain a larger proportion of their activity at lower temperatures. This indicates that F. psychrophila could be used as a source for novel industrial enzymes that are active at 4–15°C.

de Lange, Elvira S.; Wosten, Han A. B.; Stalpers, Joost A.

2008-01-01

172

Fungal communities in herbaceous medicinal plants from the malnad region, southern India.  

PubMed

Fungal communities were isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments of nine ethnopharmaceutically important medicinal herbs collected from the Bhadra River Project Area, the Malnad region, Southern India. A total of 2159 isolates belonging to 55 different fungal species were isolated from 3600 leaf segments collected during the wet and dry seasons. Chaetomium globosum (7.3%), Aureobasidium pullulans (6.1%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (3.9%), Curvularia lunata (1.9%), Nigrospora oryzae (1.7%), Alternaria alternata (1.3%), Botryosphaeria subglobosa (1.1%), Phoma multirostrata (0.9%), Aspergillus niger (0.8%), Fusarium oxysporum (0.7%), Rhizoctonia solani (0.4%), and Sphaeropsis sapenea (0.3%) were the most frequently isolated fungal species. Colonization rates of fungal species varied significantly between the two seasons. Host specificity was observed in some host plants. PMID:21558683

Krishnamurthy, Yelugere L; Naik, Shankar B; Jayaram, Shashikala

2008-01-01

173

Stereoselective synthesis and fungicidal activities of (E)-alpha-(methoxyimino)-benzeneacetate derivatives containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring.  

PubMed

Fifteen novel (E)-alpha-(methoxyimino)-benzeneacetate derivatives, the analogues of strobilurins, which contain two pharmacophoric substructures of (E)-methyl methoxyiminoacetate moiety and 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring were stereoselectively synthesized. It was first found that the coupling reaction could give stereoselectively the key intermediate (E) and (Z)-methyl 2-(hydroxyimino)-2-o-tolylacetate 2 with a ratio of 14:1. The preliminary bioassays indicated that all the compounds 1 showed potent fungicidal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinereapers, Gibberella zeae, Physalospora piricola and Bipolaris mayclis, and all of the tested compounds 1a-1o had more potent fungicidal activities against R. solani than Kresoxim-methyl. PMID:16455246

Li, Yan; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hongquan; Yang, Xiangping; Liu, Zhaojie

2006-04-15

174

Synthesis and fungicidal activity of novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives.  

PubMed

A novel series of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives containing a 5-phenyl-2-furan moiety were synthesized from the intermediates diacylhydrazine 3 and acylhydrazone 5 via an efficient approach under microwave irradiation in good yields. Their structures were characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, and elemental analysis. The antifungal tests indicated that the title compounds showed in vivo fungicidal activity against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solanii at 500 ?g/mL obviously. Some tested compounds even had a superiority effect over the commercial fungicides 40% Pyrimethanil SC and 3% Validamycin AS. The activity between the title compound and their precursors diacylhydrazine 3 and acylhydrazone 5 was also compared and discussed. PMID:23134289

Cui, Zi-Ning; Shi, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Li; Ling, Yun; Li, Bao-Ju; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Yang, Xin-Ling

2012-11-28

175

[Study of the effect of volatile metabolites of Trichoderma hamatum on the growth of phytopathogenic soilborne fungi.].  

PubMed

Volatile compounds produced by Trichoderma hamatum were tested for their capacity to suppress in vitro the growth of Alternaria citri, Bipolaris cynodontis, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Curvularia brachyspora, Curvularia lunata, Curvularia oryzae-sativae, Drechslera tritici-repentis, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia minor and Sclerotium rolfsii. The organisms were cultured in an apparatus made with two Erlenmeyer flasks assembled by their top parts. With the aid of the gas chromatographic technique the variation of carbon dioxide, oxygen and ethylene in the internal system was determined. Acetaldehyde and ethanol were not found. Due to the respiratory metabolism of T. hamatum the carbon dioxide level progressively increased while the oxygen content decreased. Ethylene production was low and after three days remained constant. Excepting C. oryzae-sativae and B. cynodontis the other species showed changes in the growth and development. These results suggest the inhibitory volatiles of T. hamatum as one possible mechanism of biological control. PMID:17655390

Dal Bello, G M; Mónaco, C I; Cháves, A R

1997-09-01

176

Scarabaecin, a novel cysteine-containing antifungal peptide from the rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros.  

PubMed

A novel antifungal peptide, scarabaecin (4080Da), was isolated from the coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros. Scarabaecin cDNA was cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) using a primer based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. The amino acid sequence deduced from scarabaecin cDNA showed no significant similarity to those of reported proteins. Chemically synthesized scarabaecin indicated antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi such as Pyricularia oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, and Botrytis cinerea, but not against phytopathogenic bacteria. It showed weak activity against Bauberia bassiana, an insect pathogenic fungus, and Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogenic bacterium. Scarabaecin showed chitin binding property and its K(d) was 1.315 microM. A comparison of putative chitin-binding domains among scarabaecin, invertebrate, and plant chitin-binding proteins suggests that scarabaecin is a new member of chitin-binding antimicrobial proteins. PMID:12859949

Tomie, Tetsuya; Ishibashi, Jun; Furukawa, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Satoe; Sawahata, Ryoko; Asaoka, Ai; Tagawa, Michito; Yamakawa, Minoru

2003-07-25

177

Mn(II) and Cu(II) complexes of a bidentate Schiff's base ligand: Spectral, thermal, molecular modelling and mycological studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complexes of manganese(II) and copper(II) of general composition M(L)2X2 have been synthesized [L = 2-acetyl thiophene thiosemicarbazone and X = Cl- and NO3-]. The elemental analysis, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, mass, IR, UV, NMR and EPR spectral studies of the compounds led to the conclusion that the ligand acts as a bidentate manner. The Schiff's base ligand forms hexacoordinated complexes having octahedral geometry for Mn(II) and tetragonal geometry for Cu(II) complexes. The thermal studies suggested that the complexes are more stable as compared to ligand. In molecular modelling the geometries of Schiff's base and metal complexes were fully optimized with respect to the energy using the 6-31g(d,p) basis set. The mycological studies of the compounds were examined against the plant pathogenic fungi i.e. Rhizoctonia bataticola, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium odum.

Tyagi, Monika; Chandra, Sulekh; Tyagi, Prateek

2014-01-01

178

Study on Mutagenic Breeding of Bacillus Subtilis and Properties of Its Antifungal Substances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacillus subtitles JA isolated by our laboratory produced a large amount of antifungal substances, which had strong inhibitory activity against various plant pathogenic fungi, such as Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum and so on. Ion beam implantation as a new mutagenic methods was applied in our studay. After B. subtitles JA was implanted by N+ ions, a strain designated as B. subtitles JA-026 was screened and obtained, which had a higher ability to produce those antifungal substances. A series of experiments indicated that the antifungal substances were thermostable and partially sensitive to proteinases K and tryproteinase. When the fermentating broth was fractionated with ammonium sulphate of a final saturation of 70%, the precipitate-enhanced inhibitory activity while the supernatant lost this activity. It appeared that the antifungal substances were likely to be protein.

Liu, Jing; Yao, Jianming

2004-08-01

179

Mn(II) and Cu(II) complexes of a bidentate Schiff's base ligand: spectral, thermal, molecular modelling and mycological studies.  

PubMed

Complexes of manganese(II) and copper(II) of general composition M(L)2X2 have been synthesized [L=2-acetyl thiophene thiosemicarbazone and X=Cl(-) and NO3(-)]. The elemental analysis, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, mass, IR, UV, NMR and EPR spectral studies of the compounds led to the conclusion that the ligand acts as a bidentate manner. The Schiff's base ligand forms hexacoordinated complexes having octahedral geometry for Mn(II) and tetragonal geometry for Cu(II) complexes. The thermal studies suggested that the complexes are more stable as compared to ligand. In molecular modelling the geometries of Schiff's base and metal complexes were fully optimized with respect to the energy using the 6-31g(d,p) basis set. The mycological studies of the compounds were examined against the plant pathogenic fungi i.e. Rhizoctonia bataticola, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium odum. PMID:23978792

Tyagi, Monika; Chandra, Sulekh; Tyagi, Prateek

2014-01-01

180

Physiological and biochemical characterization of Trichoderma harzianum, a biological control agent against soilborne fungal plant pathogens.  

PubMed

Monoconidial cultures of 15 isolates of Trichoderma harzianum were characterized on the basis of 82 morphological, physiological, and biochemical features and 99 isoenzyme bands from seven enzyme systems. The results were subjected to numerical analysis which revealed four distinct groups. Representative sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS 1)-ITS 2 region in the ribosomal DNA gene cluster were compared between groups confirming this distribution. The utility of the groupings generated from the morphological, physiological, and biochemical data was assessed by including an additional environmental isolate in the electrophoretic analysis. The in vitro antibiotic activity of the T. harzianum isolates was assayed against 10 isolates of five different soilborne fungal plant pathogens: Aphanomyces cochlioides, Rhizoctonia solani, Phoma betae, Acremonium cucurbitacearum, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici. Similarities between levels and specificities of biological activity and the numerical characterization groupings are both discussed in relation to antagonist-specific populations in known and potential biocontrol species. PMID:9251205

Grondona, I; Hermosa, R; Tejada, M; Gomis, M D; Mateos, P F; Bridge, P D; Monte, E; Garcia-Acha, I

1997-08-01

181

Violet-Pigmented Pseudomonads With Antifungal Activity From the Rhizosphere of Beans  

PubMed Central

Bean rhizosphere bacteria antagonistic to four root-infecting fungi and an antibiotic produced by these bacteria were studied. The bacteria were violet-pigmented gram-negative rods, probably belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. The antibiotic, which was localized largely in the bacterial cell mass, was easily extracted with acetone. It was selectively active against a wide variety of plant-pathogenic and saprophytic fungi tested in vitro but was relatively inactive against bacteria. The compound, partially purified by chromatography, was soluble in all organic solvents tried, but nearly insoluble in water. It demonstrated no characteristic ultraviolet- or visible-absorption spectrum and was chemically unidentified. The antagonistic bacteria or crude antibiotic applied to buried buckwheat segments suppressed the colonization of this substrate by Rhizoctonia spp. The data suggested that the bacteria or the antibiotic may play a role in the suppression of root-infecting fungi in soil.

Ayers, W. A.; Papavizas, G. C.

1963-01-01

182

The antifungal constituents from the seeds of Itoa orientalis.  

PubMed

Three new phenolic constituents, itolide A (1), itolide B (2), itoside P (3), and 1D-3-deoxy-3-hydroxymethyl-myo-inositol (4), which is described herein for the first time as a natural product, were isolated along with four other known compounds (5 to 8) from the methanol extract of the seeds of Itoa orientalis Hemsl by the activity-guided fractionation. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. Compounds 1 to 8 exhibited antifungal activities against Sclerotium rolfsii with IC?? values ranging from 60.12 to 240.00 ?M and against Rhizoctonia solani with IC?? values ranging from 45.34 to 233.14 ?M, respectively, and compounds 1, 2, 5 exhibited cytotoxic activity against Tn5B1-4 insect cell line with EC?? values of 203.68, 93.41 and 40.37 ?M, respectively. PMID:22233862

Tang, WenWei; Xu, HanHong; Zeng, DongQiang; Yu, LiJia

2012-04-01

183

Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Otanthus maritimus (L.) Hoffmanns. & Link essential oil from Sicily.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the flowers of Otanthus maritimus L., a perennial plant growing wild in maritime sands in the Mediterranean region, was investigated by GC and GC-MS analyses. Totally 66 were identified. The oil was dominated by the high content of monoterpene compounds, especially oxygenated monoterpenes which accounted for 73.1%. The most abundant components were yomogi alcohol (20.8%), camphor (15.8%), artemisyl acetate (15.3%) and artemisia alcohol (13.7%). The oil was tested against two Gram (+) and six Gram (-) bacterial strains, both American Type Culture Collection standard strains and clinically isolated (CI), one potentially pathogenic yeast (Candida albicans CI) and two filamentous phytopathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani). The results show that the oil from O. maritimus exerts strong antibacterial and antifungal activities. PMID:23126552

Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Sorbo, Sergio; Conte, Barbara; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

2013-01-01

184

A new antifungal coumarin from Clausena excavata.  

PubMed

A new ?-lactone coumarin, named as excavarin-A, showing antifungal activity was isolated from the leaves of Clausena excavata by bioassay guided fractionation method. The structure was elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis and identified as 7((2E)-4(4,5-dihydro-3-methylene-2-oxo-5-furanyl)-3-methylbut-2-enyloxy) coumarin. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined against fifteen fungal strains pathogenic against plants and human. The least MIC was recorded against the human pathogen, Candida tropicalis and the plant pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Antifungal activities against the human pathogens, Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucor circinelloides and plant pathogens, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizopus stolonifer were stronger than that of the standard antimicrobials. PMID:22088496

Kumar, Ramashish; Saha, Aniruddha; Saha, Dipanwita

2012-01-01

185

A new furoquinoline alkaloid with antifungal activity from the leaves of Ruta chalepensis L.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided separation with an eye toward antifungal activity led to the isolation of the new alkaloid 5-(1?,1?-dimethylallyl)-8-hydroxyfuro[2-3-b] quinoline (1) and the known biscoumarin daphnoretin (2) as the active constituents of the chloroform extract obtained from the leaves of Ruta chalepensis. The structures of the metabolites were elucidated on the basis of their spectral characteristics (NMR, UV, and MS) and were compared with the literature. The antifungal activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Fusarium solani, which cause root-rot and wilt diseases in several economically important food crops such as potato, sugar beet, and tomato. PMID:22491304

Emam, A; Eweis, M; Elbadry, M

2010-12-01

186

The post-harvest fruit rots of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of the post-harvest fruit rot diseases of tomato was conducted in five states of Nigeria. During severe infections, the diseases could cause 25% loss at harvest and 34% loss of the remaining product in transit, storage and market stalls; thus giving an overall loss of about 50% of the product. Two types of rots, soft and dry were recognised. The soft rot was found to account for about 85% and the dry rot about 15% of the overall loss. Erwinia carotovora, Rhizopus oryzae, R. stolonifer, Fusarium equiseti, F. nivale and F. oxysporum were established as the soft rot pathogens; while Aspergillus aculeatus, A. flavus, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Corynespora cassiicola, Curvularia lunata, Penicillium expansum P. multicolor and Rhizoctonia solani were established as the dry rot pathogens of tomato fruits in Nigeria. PMID:471028

Fajola, A O

1979-01-01

187

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in northern hilly areas of India.  

PubMed

Essential oil extracted from aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Forty-three constituents amounting to 98.16% of the total essential oil contents were identified. The essential oil contained approximately 79.91% monoterpenoids and 18.25% sesquiterpenoids. ?-Thujone (36.35%), ?-thujone (9.37%), germacrene D (6.32%), 4-terpineol (6.31%), ?-caryophyllene (5.43%), camphene (5.47%) and borneol (4.12%) were identified as the major constituents. The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani (ED(50), 85.75?mg?L(-1)), Sclerotium rolfsii (ED(50), 87.63?mg?L(-1)) and Macrophomina phaseolina (ED(50), 93.23?mg?L(-1)). This study indicated that A. nilagirica essential oil can be used to control phytopathogenic fungi infesting agricultural crops and commodities. PMID:22348279

Sati, Sushil Chandra; Sati, Nitin; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Walia, Suresh; Sati, O P

2013-01-01

188

Zoosporicidal metabolites from an endophytic fungus Cryptosporiopsis sp. of Zanthoxylum leprieurii.  

PubMed

Two polyketides, cryptosporiopsin A (1) and hydroxypropan-2',3'-diol orsellinate (3), and a natural cyclic pentapeptide (4), together with two known compounds were isolated from the culture of Cryptosporiopsis sp., an endophytic fungus from leaves and branches of Zanthoxylum leprieurii (Rutaceae). The structures of these metabolites were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic and spectrometric data. Cryptosporiopsin A and the other metabolites exhibited motility inhibitory and lytic activities against zoospores of the grapevine downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola at 10-25?g/mL. In addition, the isolated compounds displayed potent inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of two other peronosporomycete phytopathogens, Pythium ultimum, Aphanomyces cochlioides and a basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Weak cytotoxic activity on brine shrimp larvae was observed. PMID:22883958

Talontsi, Ferdinand Mouafo; Facey, Petrea; Tatong, Michel D Kongue; Tofazzal Islam, M; Frauendorf, Holm; Draeger, Siegfried; Tiedemann, Andreas von; Laatsch, Hartmut

2012-11-01

189

Cuevaenes C-E: Three new triene carboxylic derivatives from Streptomyces sp. LZ35?gdmAI.  

PubMed

Two pairs of geometrical isomers - cuevaenes A (1) and C (3) as well as cuevaenes D (4) and E (5) - and cuevaene B (2) were isolated from gdmAI-disrupted Streptomyces sp. LZ35. The constitution of cuevaene C (3) was found to be identical to cuevaene A (1) by means of NMR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. However, the relative configurations of the triene side chain moieties were determined to be different. It was established on the basis of spectroscopic data that cuevaenes D (4) and E (5) are amides and geometrical isomers. Cuevaenes A-C (1-3) displayed moderate activity against Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC 11060) and modest activity against fungi (e.g., Fusarium verticillioides strain S68 and Rhizoctonia solani strain GXE4). However, cuevaenes D (4) and E (5) showed no inhibitory activity against any of the tested microbes. PMID:24778741

Deng, Jing-Jing; Lu, Chun-Hua; Li, Yao-Yao; Li, Shan-Ren; Shen, Yue-Mao

2014-01-01

190

Bioactive endophytic streptomycetes from the Malay Peninsula.  

PubMed

Three novel endophytic streptomycetes have been isolated and characterized from plants with ethnobotanical uses on the Malay Peninsula including: Thottea grandiflora (family -Aristolochiaceae), Polyalthia spp. (family -Annonaceae), and Mapania sp. (family -Cyperaceae). Each isolate, as studied by scanning electron microscopy, has small hyphae, and produces typical barrel-shaped spores arising by hyphal fragmentation. Interestingly, although none has any detectable antibacterial killing properties, each has demonstrable killing activity against one or more pathogenic fungi including organisms such as Phytophthora erythroseptica, Pythium ultimum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Rhizoctonia solani. Molecular biological studies on the rRNA gene sequence of each isolate revealed that it is distinct from all other genetic accessions of streptomyectes in GenBank, and each bears some genetic similarity to other streptomycetes. The bioactivity of each microbe was extractable in various organic solvents. PMID:17608698

Zin, Noraziah M; Sarmin, Nurul I M; Ghadin, Norazli; Basri, Dayang F; Sidik, Nik M; Hess, W M; Strobel, Gary A

2007-09-01

191

Fabin, a novel calcyon-like and glucanase-like protein with mitogenic, antifungal and translation-inhibitory activities from broad beans.  

PubMed

A protein with an N-terminal sequence displaying similarities to N-terminal sequences of human calcyon and barley endo-1,4-glucanase, and to C-terminal sequences of human translation initiation factor 4 gamma and yeast superkiller viralicidic activity, was isolated from the broad bean Vicia faba. The protein, termed fabin, has a molecular mass of 34 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Antifungal activity of the protein was observed against several fungal species including Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. Fabin inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 34 microM and translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate with an IC50 of 2.4 microM. At a concentration of about 1.5 microM fabin is able to elicit a 9-fold increase in the mitogenic response of murine splenocytes. PMID:12817478

Ng, T B; Ye, X Y

2003-05-01

192

Introduction of the Serratia marcescens chiA gene into an endophytic Pseudomonas fluorescens for the biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

An endophytic strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens was isolated from micropropagated apple plantlets and introduced into beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) via their root tips. It was shown to be present as an endophyte in the roots at a level of 1.2 x 10(5) CFU/g fresh weight. The gene coding for the major chitinase of Serratia marcescens, chiA, was cloned under the control of the tac promoter into the broad-host-range plasmid pKT240 and the integration vector pJFF350. Pseudomonas fluorescens carrying tacchiA either on the plasmid or integrated into the chromosome is an effective biocontrol agent of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani on bean seedlings under plant growth chamber conditions. PMID:10779873

Downing, K J; Thomson, J A

2000-04-01

193

Mapping and validation of QTLs for rice sheath blight resistance  

PubMed Central

Sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most serious diseases of rice. Among 33 rice accessions, mainly from National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (NIAS) Core Collection, we found three landraces from the Himalayas—Jarjan, Nepal 555 and Nepal 8—with resistance to sheath blight in 3 years’ field testing. Backcrossed inbred lines (BILs) derived from a cross between Jarjan and the leading Japanese cultivar Koshihikari were used in QTL analyses. Since later-heading lines show fewer lesions, we used only earlier-heading BILs to avoid association with heading date. We detected eight QTLs; the Jarjan allele of three of these increased resistance. Only one QTL, on chromosome 9 (between markers Nag08KK18184 and Nag08KK18871), was detected in all 3 years. Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) carrying it showed resistance in field tests. Thirty F2 lines derived from a cross between Koshihikari and one CSSL supported the QTL.

Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Ozaki, Hidenobu; Sato, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Hiroaki; Kojima, Yoichiro; Ebitani, Takeshi; Yano, Masahiro

2013-01-01

194

Fungal community structure in disease suppressive soils assessed by 28S LSU gene sequencing.  

PubMed

Natural biological suppression of soil-borne diseases is a function of the activity and composition of soil microbial communities. Soil microbe and phytopathogen interactions can occur prior to crop sowing and/or in the rhizosphere, subsequently influencing both plant growth and productivity. Research on suppressive microbial communities has concentrated on bacteria although fungi can also influence soil-borne disease. Fungi were analyzed in co-located soils 'suppressive' or 'non-suppressive' for disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8 at two sites in South Australia using 454 pyrosequencing targeting the fungal 28S LSU rRNA gene. DNA was extracted from a minimum of 125 g of soil per replicate to reduce the micro-scale community variability, and from soil samples taken at sowing and from the rhizosphere at 7 weeks to cover the peak Rhizoctonia infection period. A total of ? 994,000 reads were classified into 917 genera covering 54% of the RDP Fungal Classifier database, a high diversity for an alkaline, low organic matter soil. Statistical analyses and community ordinations revealed significant differences in fungal community composition between suppressive and non-suppressive soil and between soil type/location. The majority of differences associated with suppressive soils were attributed to less than 40 genera including a number of endophytic species with plant pathogen suppression potentials and mycoparasites such as Xylaria spp. Non-suppressive soils were dominated by Alternaria, Gibberella and Penicillum. Pyrosequencing generated a detailed description of fungal community structure and identified candidate taxa that may influence pathogen-plant interactions in stable disease suppression. PMID:24699870

Penton, C Ryan; Gupta, V V S R; Tiedje, James M; Neate, Stephen M; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Gillings, Michael; Harvey, Paul; Pham, Amanda; Roget, David K

2014-01-01

195

Detection of phlD gene in some fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from Iran and its relative with antifungal activities.  

PubMed

Fluorescent pseudomonads that produce antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglocinol (2,4-DAPG) are important group of PGRP that inhibit a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi. Studying on genetic diversity of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing fluorescent pseudomonads has been shown with special importance. The first step to investigate the genetic diversity of these bacteria is detecting of the genes required for the biosynthesis of this antibiotic. The objectives of the current study were detection of phlD gene within fluorescent pseudomonads by a PCR-based assay, and comparison of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of fluorescent pseudomonads with proven biocontrol potential against some soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi. We used a collection of 47 fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. some with known biological control activity against Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica, Pythium sp. and Fusarium sp. in vitro and the potential to produce known secondary metabolites such as, siderophore, HCN and protease. The results indicated that 66, 40.42, 63.82,48.94 and 27.65% of strains revealed antagonistic activity against R. solani, M. phaseolina, Pythium sp., P. nicotianae and Fusarium sp., respectively. Rhizoctonia solani recognized as the most vulnerable fungus. Among 47 strains, 76.59, 97.87 and 17% of strains produced protease, siderophore and HCN, respectively. We could detect phlD gene in strains P-5, P-32, P-47. Strain CHA0 was used as positive control for the detection this gene. Overall, there was no obvious link between the existence of phlD gene and inhibition of fungal growth or production of the antifungal metabolites in vitro. But in some strains such as CHA0 and P-5, we saw a link between the existence of phlD and antifungal activities. Studying on detection and diversity of phlD provides a fundamental knowledge for developing a rapid genetic screening system to identify a potential biocontrol strains. PMID:18396832

Afsharmanesh, Hamideh; Ahmadzadeh, Masoud; Sharifi-Tehrani, Abbas; Javan-Nikkhah, Mohammad; Ghazanfari, Keyvan

2007-01-01

196

Fungal Community Structure in Disease Suppressive Soils Assessed by 28S LSU Gene Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Natural biological suppression of soil-borne diseases is a function of the activity and composition of soil microbial communities. Soil microbe and phytopathogen interactions can occur prior to crop sowing and/or in the rhizosphere, subsequently influencing both plant growth and productivity. Research on suppressive microbial communities has concentrated on bacteria although fungi can also influence soil-borne disease. Fungi were analyzed in co-located soils ‘suppressive’ or ‘non-suppressive’ for disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8 at two sites in South Australia using 454 pyrosequencing targeting the fungal 28S LSU rRNA gene. DNA was extracted from a minimum of 125 g of soil per replicate to reduce the micro-scale community variability, and from soil samples taken at sowing and from the rhizosphere at 7 weeks to cover the peak Rhizoctonia infection period. A total of ?994,000 reads were classified into 917 genera covering 54% of the RDP Fungal Classifier database, a high diversity for an alkaline, low organic matter soil. Statistical analyses and community ordinations revealed significant differences in fungal community composition between suppressive and non-suppressive soil and between soil type/location. The majority of differences associated with suppressive soils were attributed to less than 40 genera including a number of endophytic species with plant pathogen suppression potentials and mycoparasites such as Xylaria spp. Non-suppressive soils were dominated by Alternaria, Gibberella and Penicillum. Pyrosequencing generated a detailed description of fungal community structure and identified candidate taxa that may influence pathogen-plant interactions in stable disease suppression.

Penton, C. Ryan; Gupta, V. V. S. R.; Tiedje, James M.; Neate, Stephen M.; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Gillings, Michael; Harvey, Paul; Pham, Amanda; Roget, David K.

2014-01-01

197

Interactions between nematophagous fungi and consequences for their potential as biological agents for the control of potato cyst nematodes.  

PubMed

The efficacies of three nematophagous fungi, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Plectosphaerella cucumerina and Pochonia chlamydosporia, for controlling potato cyst nematodes (PCN) as part of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) regime were studied. The compatibility of the nematophagous fungi with commonly used chemical pesticides and their ability to compete with the soil fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium bilaii and Trichoderma harzianum were tested in vitro. Paecilomyces lilacinus was the most successful competitor when the ability to grow and inhibit growth of an opposing colony at both 10 and 20 degrees C was considered. P. lilacinus also showed potential for control of the soil-borne fungal pathogen R. solani, releasing a diffusable substance in vitro which inhibited its growth and caused morphological abnormalities in its hyphae. Pochonia chlamydosporia was least susceptible to growth inhibition by other fungi at 20 degrees in vitro, but the isolate tested did not grow at 10 degrees. Plectosphaerella cucumerina was a poor saprophytic competitor. Radial growth of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Plectosphaerella cucumerina was slowed, but not prevented, when grown on potato dextrose agar incorporating the fungicides fenpiclonil and tolclofos-methyl, and was not inhibited by the addition of pencycuron or the nematicide oxamyl. Radial growth of Pochonia chlamydosporia was partially inhibited by all the chemical pesticides tested. The efficacy of Paecilomyces lilacinus as a control agent for R. solani was further investigated in situ. Treatment with P. lilacinus significantly reduced the symptoms of Rhizoctonia disease on potato stems in a pot trial. The effectiveness of P. lilacinus and P. cucumerina against PCN was also tested in situ. Three application methods were compared; incorporating the fungi into alginate pellets, Terra-Green inoculated with the fungi and applying conidia directly to the tubers. Both formulations containing P. lilacinus and formulation mixtures alone, particularly alginate pellets, significantly reduced multiplication of PCN in soil. We conclude that P. lilacinus showed the greatest potential for use in combination with selected fungicides and nematicides as part of an IPM programme for the control of PCN, but further work is required to confirm whether it is effective against PCN in soil. PMID:12735243

Jacobs, Helen; Gray, Simon N; Crump, David H

2003-01-01

198

Manipulation of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities to Induce Suppressive Soils  

PubMed Central

Naturally occurring disease-suppressive soils have been documented in a variety of cropping systems, and in many instances the biological attributes contributing to suppressiveness have been identified. While these studies have often yielded an understanding of operative mechanisms leading to the suppressive state, significant difficulty has been realized in the transfer of this knowledge into achieving effective field-level disease control. Early efforts focused on the inundative application of individual or mixtures of microbial strains recovered from these systems and known to function in specific soil suppressiveness. However, the introduction of biological agents into non-native soil ecosystems typically yielded inconsistent levels of disease control. Of late, greater emphasis has been placed on manipulation of the cropping system to manage resident beneficial rhizosphere microorganisms as a means to suppress soilborne plant pathogens. One such strategy is the cropping of specific plant species or genotypes or the application of soil amendments with the goal of selectively enhancing disease-suppressive rhizobacteria communities. This approach has been utilized in a system attempting to employ biological elements resident to orchard ecosystems as a means to control the biologically complex phenomenon termed apple replant disease. Cropping of wheat in apple orchard soils prior to re-planting the site to apple provided control of the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-5. Disease control was elicited in a wheat cultivar-specific manner and functioned through transformation of the fluorescent pseudomonad population colonizing the rhizosphere of apple. Wheat cultivars that induced disease suppression enhanced populations of specific fluorescent pseudomonad genotypes with antagonistic activity toward R. solani AG-5, but cultivars that did not elicit a disease-suppressive soil did not modify the antagonistic capacity of this bacterial community. Alternatively, brassicaceae seed meal amendments were utilized to develop soil suppressiveness toward R. solani. Suppression of Rhizoctonia root rot in response to seed meal amendment required the activity of the resident soil microbiota and was associated with elevated populations of Streptomyces spp. recovered from the apple rhizosphere. Application of individual Streptomyces spp. to soil systems provided control of R. solani to a level and in a manner equivalent to that obtained with the seed meal amendment. These and other examples suggest that management of resident plant-beneficial rhizobacteria may be a viable method for control of specific soilborne plant pathogens.

Mazzola, Mark

2007-01-01

199

Efficacy of microorganisms selected from compost to control soil-borne pathogens.  

PubMed

Suppression of soil-borne plant pathogens with compost has been widely studied. Compost has been found to be suppressive against several soil-borne pathogens in various cropping systems. However, an increase of some diseases due to compost usage has also been observed, since compost is a product that varies considerably in chemical, physical and biotic composition, and, consequently, also in ability to suppress soil borne diseases. New opportunities in disease management can be obtained by the selection of antagonists from suppressive composts. The objective of the present work was to isolate microorganisms from a suppressive compost and to test them for their activity against soil-borne pathogens. A compost from green wastes, organic domestic wastes and urban sludge's that showed a good suppressive activity in previous trials was used as source of microorganisms. Serial diluted suspensions of compost samples were plated on five different media: selective for Fusarium sp., selective for Trichoderma sp., selective for oomycetes, potato dextrose agar (PDA) for isolation of fungi, lysogeny broth (LB) for isolation of bacteria. In total, 101 colonies were isolated from plates and tested under laboratory conditions on tomato seedlings growing on perlite medium in Petri plates infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici and compared to a commercial antagonist (Streptomyces griserovidis, Mycostop, Bioplanet). Among them, 28 showed a significant disease reduction and were assessed under greenhouse condition on three pathosystems: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilica/basil, Phytophthora nicotianae/tomato and Rhizoctonia solani/bean. Fusarium spp. selected from compost generally showed a good disease control against Fusarium wilts, while only bacteria significantly controlled P. nicotianae on tomato under greenhouse conditions. None of the microorganisms was able to control the three soil-borne pathogens together, in particular Rhizoctonia solani. Results confirmed the good suppressive activity of the compost under study against soil-borne pathogens. The selection of antagonists from compost is a promising strategy for the development of new biological control agents against soil-borne pathogens. PMID:21534476

Pugliese, M; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

2010-01-01

200

Manipulation of rhizosphere bacterial communities to induce suppressive soils.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring disease-suppressive soils have been documented in a variety of cropping systems, and in many instances the biological attributes contributing to suppressiveness have been identified. While these studies have often yielded an understanding of operative mechanisms leading to the suppressive state, significant difficulty has been realized in the transfer of this knowledge into achieving effective field-level disease control. Early efforts focused on the inundative application of individual or mixtures of microbial strains recovered from these systems and known to function in specific soil suppressiveness. However, the introduction of biological agents into non-native soil ecosystems typically yielded inconsistent levels of disease control. Of late, greater emphasis has been placed on manipulation of the cropping system to manage resident beneficial rhizosphere microorganisms as a means to suppress soilborne plant pathogens. One such strategy is the cropping of specific plant species or genotypes or the application of soil amendments with the goal of selectively enhancing disease-suppressive rhizobacteria communities. This approach has been utilized in a system attempting to employ biological elements resident to orchard ecosystems as a means to control the biologically complex phenomenon termed apple replant disease. Cropping of wheat in apple orchard soils prior to re-planting the site to apple provided control of the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-5. Disease control was elicited in a wheat cultivar-specific manner and functioned through transformation of the fluorescent pseudomonad population colonizing the rhizosphere of apple. Wheat cultivars that induced disease suppression enhanced populations of specific fluorescent pseudomonad genotypes with antagonistic activity toward R. solani AG-5, but cultivars that did not elicit a disease-suppressive soil did not modify the antagonistic capacity of this bacterial community. Alternatively, brassicaceae seed meal amendments were utilized to develop soil suppressiveness toward R. solani. Suppression of Rhizoctonia root rot in response to seed meal amendment required the activity of the resident soil microbiota and was associated with elevated populations of Streptomyces spp. recovered from the apple rhizosphere. Application of individual Streptomyces spp. to soil systems provided control of R. solani to a level and in a manner equivalent to that obtained with the seed meal amendment. These and other examples suggest that management of resident plant-beneficial rhizobacteria may be a viable method for control of specific soilborne plant pathogens. PMID:19259490

Mazzola, Mark

2007-09-01

201

Introduction of some important antagonistic bacteria affecting on damping-off of canola.  

PubMed

Three hundred ninety five bacterial isolates were collected from canola Root and Rhizosphere in Golestan, Mazandaran, Guilan and Tehran provinces. At first, antagonistic effect of bacterial isolates on Rhizoctonia solani was studied using dual culture test assay. The results showed that 60 isolates had the ability to inhibit the growth of fungi on PDA medium. On the basis of the biochemical, physiological and morphological tests, isolates Pf41, Pf51, Pf411 and Pf412 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, isolate Bu1 as Burkholderia cepacia, the isolates B1, B2, Bs44 and B6 were as Bacillus subtilis and S44, str45 as Streptomyces sp. Results of the studies on biocontrol mechanism showed that Isolates produced antibiotics and volatile metabolites that prevented the mycelial growth of the fungus. Also the isolates produced some of antimicrobial metabolites including hydrogen cyanide, protease and siderophore. Isolates effect inhibition of in vitro growth of the fungus. The effect of isolates on disease reduction in compare with control have significantly differentiated. None of the isolates were able completely to prevent disease occurrence. Isolates applied as soil treatment had a significantly higher disease control as compared to seed treatment. Isolates had considerable effect on reduction disease under the greenhouse conditions. PMID:23878984

Sarani, S

2012-01-01

202

Biological Control of Soil Pests by Mixed Application of Entomopathogenic and Fungivorous Nematodes  

PubMed Central

In greenhouse experiments, massive application of the fungivorous nematode, Aphelenchus avenae, in summer at 26-33 C (1 x l0? nematodes/500 cm³ autoclaved soil) or in autumn at 18-23 C (5 x 10? nematodes/500 cm³ autoclaved soil) suppressed pre-emergence damping-off of cucumber seedlings due to Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 by 67% or 87%, respectively. Application of 2 x l0? A. avenae to sterilized soil infested with R. solani caused leafminer-like symptom on the cotyledons, which did not occur in mixed inoculations with the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae. When 1 x 10? A. avenae were applied 3 days before inoculation with 100 Meloidogyne incognita juveniles, gall numbers on tomato roots were reduced to 50% of controls. Gall numbers also were suppressed by S. carpocapsae (str. All). Reduction in gall numbers was no greater with mixed application of A. avenae and S. carpocapsae than with application of single species, even though twice the number of nematodes were added in the former case. These nematodes were positively attracted to tomato root tips. Aphelenchus avenae suppressed infection of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum, but not the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, by S. carpocapsae.

Ishibashi, N.; Choi, D-R.

1991-01-01

203

Biological control of soil pests by mixed application of entomopathogenic and fungivorous nematodes.  

PubMed

In greenhouse experiments, massive application of the fungivorous nematode, Aphelenchus avenae, in summer at 26-33 C (1 x l0 nematodes/500 cm(3) autoclaved soil) or in autumn at 18-23 C (5 x 10 nematodes/500 cm(3) autoclaved soil) suppressed pre-emergence damping-off of cucumber seedlings due to Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 by 67% or 87%, respectively. Application of 2 x l0 A. avenae to sterilized soil infested with R. solani caused leafminer-like symptom on the cotyledons, which did not occur in mixed inoculations with the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae. When 1 x 10 A. avenae were applied 3 days before inoculation with 100 Meloidogyne incognita juveniles, gall numbers on tomato roots were reduced to 50% of controls. Gall numbers also were suppressed by S. carpocapsae (str. All). Reduction in gall numbers was no greater with mixed application of A. avenae and S. carpocapsae than with application of single species, even though twice the number of nematodes were added in the former case. These nematodes were positively attracted to tomato root tips. Aphelenchus avenae suppressed infection of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum, but not the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, by S. carpocapsae. PMID:19283109

Ishibashi, N; Choi, D R

1991-04-01

204

Secondary Metabolite- and Endochitinase-Dependent Antagonism toward Plant-Pathogenic Microfungi of Pseudomonas fluorescens Isolates from Sugar Beet Rhizosphere  

PubMed Central

Forty-seven isolates representing all biovars of Pseudomonas fluorescens (biovars I to VI) were collected from the rhizosphere of field-grown sugar beet plants to select candidate strains for biological control of preemergence damping-off disease. The isolates were tested for in vitro antagonism toward the plant-pathogenic microfungi Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani in three different plate test media. Mechanisms of fungal inhibition were elucidated by tracing secondary-metabolite production and cell wall-degrading enzyme activity in the same media. Most biovars expressed a specific mechanism of antagonism, as represented by a unique antibiotic or enzyme production in the media. A lipopeptide antibiotic, viscosinamide, was produced independently of medium composition by P. fluorescens bv. I, whereas the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol was observed only in glucose-rich medium and only in P. fluorescens bv. II/IV. Both pathogens were inhibited by the two antibiotics. Finally, in low-glucose medium, a cell wall-degrading endochitinase activity in P. fluorescens bv. I, III, and VI was the apparent mechanism of antagonism toward R. solani. The viscosinamide-producing DR54 isolate (bv. I) was shown to be an effective candidate for biological control, as tested in a pot experiment with sugar beet seedlings infested with Pythium ultimum. The assignment of different patterns of fungal antagonism to the biovars of P. fluorescens is discussed in relation to an improved selection protocol for candidate strains to be used in biological control.

Nielsen, Mette Neiendam; S?rensen, Jan; Fels, Johannes; Pedersen, Hans Christian

1998-01-01

205

Isolation of two aspartyl proteases from Trichoderma asperellum expressed during colonization of cucumber roots.  

PubMed

Trichoderma asperellum and cucumber seedlings were used as a model to study the modulation of Trichoderma gene expression during plant root colonization. Seedlings were grown in an aseptic hydroponics medium and inoculated with Trichoderma spore suspension. Proteins differentially secreted into the medium were isolated. Three major proteins of fungal origin were identified: two arabinofuranosidases (Abf1 and Abf2) and an aspartyl protease. Differential mRNA display was conducted on Trichoderma mycelia interacting and non-interacting, with the plant roots. Among the differentially regulated clones another aspartyl protease was identified. Sequencing of the genes revealed that the first aspartyl protease is a close homologue of PapA from T. harzianum and the other, of AP1 from Botryotinia fuckeliana. RT-PCR analysis confirms that the proteases are induced in response to plant roots attachment and are expressed in planta. papA, but not papB, is also induced in plate confrontation assays with the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. These data suggest that the identified proteases play a role in Trichoderma both as a mycoparasite and as a plant opportunistic symbiont. PMID:15336416

Viterbo, Ada; Harel, Michal; Chet, Ilan

2004-09-01

206

Mechanism of Action of the Fungicide Thiabendazole, 2-(4?-Thiazolyl) Benzimidazole  

PubMed Central

Thiabendazole, 2-(4?-thiazolyl) benzimidazole (TBZ) inhibited the growth of Penicillium atrovenetum at 8 to 10 ?g/ml. Oxygen consumption with exogenous glucose was inhibited at 20 ?g/ml, but endogenous respiration required more than 100 ?g/ml. TBZ inhibited completely the following systems of isolated heart or fungus mitochondria: reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase, succinic oxidase, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-cytochrome c reductase, and succinic-cytochrome c reductase at concentrations of 10, 167, 10, and 0.5 ?g/ml, respectively. Cytochrome c oxidase was not inhibited. Antimycin A and sodium azide caused the usual inhibition patterns for both fungus and heart terminal electron transport systems. In the presence of antimycin, the fungicide inhibited completely succinate-dichloro-phenolindophenol reductase and succinate-2, 2-di-p-nitrophenyl-(3, 3-dimethoxy-4, 4-biphenylene-5, 5-diphenylditetrazolium)-reductase at 2 and 4 ?g of TBZ per ml, respectively. Coenzyme Q reductase required 15 ?g/ml. TBZ reduced the uptake by P. atrovenetum of glucose and amino acids and decreased the synthesis of various cell components. At 120 ?g/ml, the incorporation of labeled carbon from amino acids-U-14C was decreased: lipid, 73%; nucleic acids, 80%; protein, 80%; and a residual fraction, 89%. TBZ did not inhibit peptide synthesis in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system from Rhizoctonia solani. Probably the primary site of inhibition is the terminal electron transport system and other effects are secondary.

Allen, Paris M.; Gottlieb, David

1970-01-01

207

Cordymin, an antifungal peptide from the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris.  

PubMed

Cordymin, an antifungal peptide with a molecular mass of 10,906 Da and an N-terminal amino acid sequence distinct from those of previously reported proteins, was purified from the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris. The isolation protocol comprised ion exchange chromatography of the aqueous extract on SP-Sepharose and Mono S and gel filtration on Superdex 75 by a fast protein liquid chromatography system. Cordymin was adsorbed on both cation exchangers. The peptide inhibited mycelial growth in Bipolaris maydis, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Rhizoctonia solani and Candida albicans with an IC(50) of 50 ?M, 10 ?M, 80 ?M, and 0.75 mM, respectively. However, there was no effect on Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium oxysporum and Valsa mali when tested up to 2 mM. The antifungal activity of the peptide was stable up to 100°C and in the pH range 6-13, and unaffected by 10 mM Zn(2+) and 10 mM Mg(2+). Cordymin inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 55 ?M. Cordymin displayed antiproliferative activity toward breast cancer cells (MCF-7) but there was no effect on colon cancer cells (HT-29). There was no mitogenic activity toward mouse spleen cells and no nitric oxide inducing activity toward mouse macrophages when tested up to 1 mM. PMID:20739167

Wong, Jack H; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wang, Hexiang; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing; Zhang, Kalin Yanbo; Li, Qi; Lu, Xiaoxu

2011-03-15

208

A novel fungal metabolite with beneficial properties for agricultural applications.  

PubMed

Trichoderma are ubiquitous soil fungi that include species widely used as biocontrol agents in agriculture. Many isolates are known to secrete several secondary metabolites with different biological activities towards plants and other microbes. Harzianic acid (HA) is a T. harzianum metabolite able to promote plant growth and strongly bind iron. In this work, we isolated from the culture filtrate of a T. harzianum strain a new metabolite, named isoharzianic acid (iso-HA), a stereoisomer of HA. The structure and absolute configuration of this compound has been determined by spectroscopic methods, including UV-Vis, MS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses. In vitro applications of iso-HA inhibited the mycelium radial growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Rhizoctonia solani. Moreover, iso HA improved the germination of tomato seeds and induced disease resistance. HPLC-DAD experiments showed that the production of HA and iso HA was affected by the presence of plant tissue in the liquid medium. In particular, tomato tissue elicited the production of HA but negatively modulated the biosynthesis of its analogue iso-HA, suggesting that different forms of the same Trichoderma secondary metabolite have specific roles in the molecular mechanism regulating the Trichoderma plant interaction. PMID:25006784

Vinale, Francesco; Manganiello, Gelsomina; Nigro, Marco; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Piccolo, Alessandro; Pascale, Alberto; Ruocco, Michelina; Marra, Roberta; Lombardi, Nadia; Lanzuise, Stefania; Varlese, Rosaria; Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Lorito, Matteo; Woo, Sheridan L

2014-01-01

209

A procedure for the metagenomics exploration of disease-suppressive soils.  

PubMed

The microbiota of, in particular, disease-suppressive soils contains a wealth of antibiotic biosynthetic loci that are inaccessible by traditional cultivation-based techniques. Hence, we developed a methodology based on soil microbial DNA, which allowed the metagenomics-based unlocking of the relevant genes. Here, a streamlined soil metagenomics protocol is presented. The protocol consists of an optimized method to extract bacterial cells from a Rhizoctonia solani AG3 suppressive loamy sand soil followed by DNA extraction and purification, and the preparation of a clone library in an efficient host/vector system. Methods for the functional and genetic screening of the library for antibiotic production loci are also described. Using the suppressive soil, we thus produced, screened and tested an approximate 15,000-membered metagenomic library of fosmids in an Escherichia coli host. Functional screens, based on dual culturing of clone arrays with R. solani AG3 and Bacillus subtilis 168, were largely negative. Genetic screens, based on hybridizations with soil-generated probes for polyketide biosynthesis, non-ribosomal protein synthesis and gacA, revealed several inserts, of around 40-kb in size, with potential antibiotic production capacity. We present the full sequences of three selected clones. We further examine the challenges that still impinge on the metagenomic exploration of disease-suppressive soil. PMID:18778739

van Elsas, J D; Speksnijder, A J; van Overbeek, L S

2008-12-01

210

Indigenous populations of three closely related Lysobacter spp. in agricultural soils using real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Previous research had shown that three closely related species of Lysobacter, i.e., Lysobacter antibioticus, Lysobacter capsici, and Lysobacter gummosus, were present in different Rhizoctonia-suppressive soils. However, the population dynamics of these three Lysobacter spp. in different habitats remains unknown. Therefore, a specific primer-probe combination was designed for the combined quantification of these three Lysobacter spp. using TaqMan. Strains of the three target species were efficiently detected with TaqMan, whereas related non-target strains of Lysobacter enzymogenes and Xanthomonas campestris were not or only weakly amplified. Indigenous Lysobacter populations were analyzed in soils of 10 organic farms in the Netherlands during three subsequent years with TaqMan. These soils differed in soil characteristics and crop rotation. Additionally, Lysobacter populations in rhizosphere and bulk soil of different crops on one of these farms were studied. In acid sandy soils low Lysobacter populations were present, whereas pH neutral clay soils contained high populations (respectively, <4.0-5.87 and 6.22-6.95 log gene copy numbers g(-1) soil). Clay content, pH and C/N ratio, but not organic matter content in soil, correlated with higher Lysobacter populations. Unexpectedly, different crops did not significantly influence population size of the three Lysobacter spp. and their populations were barely higher in rhizosphere than in bulk soil. PMID:21448673

Postma, Joeke; Schilder, Mirjam T; van Hoof, Richard A

2011-11-01

211

Chiral triazole fungicide difenoconazole: absolute stereochemistry, stereoselective bioactivity, aquatic toxicity, and environmental behavior in vegetables and soil.  

PubMed

In this study, the systemic assessments of the stereoisomers of triazole fungicide difenoconazole are reported for the first time, including absolute stereochemistry, stereoselective bioactivity toward pathogens (Alternaria sonali, Fulvia fulva, Botrytis cinerea, and Rhizoctonia solani), and toxicity toward aquatic organisms (Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Danio rerio). Moreover, the stereoselective degradation of difenoconazole in vegetables (cucumber, Cucumis sativus and tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum) under field conditions and in soil under laboratory-controlled conditions (aerobic and anaerobic) was investigated. There were 1.33-24.2-fold and 1.04-6.78-fold differences in bioactivity and toxicity, respectively. Investigations on the stereoselective degradation of difenoconazole in vegetables showed that the highest-toxic and lowest-bioactive (2S,4S)-stereoisomer displays a different enrichment behavior in different plant species. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, (2R,4R)- and (2R,4S)-difenoconazole were preferentially degraded in the soil. Moreover, difenoconazole was configurationally stable in the test soil matrices. On the basis of biological activity, ecotoxicity, and environmental behavior, it is likely that the use of pure (2R,4S)-difenoconazole instead of the commercial stereoisomer mix may help to increase the bioactivity and reduce environmental pollution. PMID:23451708

Dong, Fengshou; Li, Jing; Chankvetadze, Bezhan; Cheng, Yongpu; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Li, Yuanbo; Chen, Xiu; Bertucci, Carlo; Tedesco, Daniele; Zanasi, Riccardo; Zheng, Yongquan

2013-04-01

212

Comparative Studies of Extracellular Fungal Laccases  

PubMed Central

Various basidiomycetes, ascomycetes, and deuteromycetes, grown in a sugar-rich liquid medium, were compared for laccase-producing ability and for the inducing effect of 2,5-xylidine on laccase production. Clear stimulation of the extracellular enzyme formation by xylidine was obtained in the cultures of Fomes annosus, Pholiota mutabilis, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Trametes versicolor, whereas Rhizoctonia praticola and Botrytis cinerea were not affected by the xylidine, and in the case of Podospora anserina a decrease in laccase activity was observed. The laccases were purified, and electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels indicated a particular pattern for each laccase. The bands of the induced forms appeared only with basidiomycetes. The optimal pH of R. praticola laccase was in the neutral region, whereas the optima of all the other exolaccases were significantly lower (between pH 3.0 and 5.7). All laccases oxidized the methoxyphenolic acids under investigation, but there existed quantitative differences in oxidation efficiencies which depended on pH and on the nature (noninduced or induced) of the enzyme. The sensitivity of all enzymes to inhibitors did not differ considerably.

Bollag, Jean-Marc; Leonowicz, Andrzej

1984-01-01

213

Production of lipopeptides by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XZ-173 in solid state fermentation using soybean flour and rice straw as the substrate.  

PubMed

This work was aimed to produce lipopeptides by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XZ-173 in solid state fermentation using agro-industrial byproducts. A central composite design was used to get the highest lipopeptides production. Results revealed that the optimal conditions for maximum lipopeptides production were 1.79% starch and 1.91% yeast extract by employing 5.58 g soybean flour and 3.67 g rice straw as the solid substrate with initial pH 7.5, moisture content 55% and a 10% inoculum level at 30°C for 2 days. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of lipopeptides reached 50.01 mg/gds, which was very close to the predicted value (49.91 mg/gds). At high concentration, the lipopeptides extracted from fermented substrates showed strong antibiotic activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Ralstonia solanacearum and certain emulsification but good emulsion stability. This is the first report on lipopeptides production that uses rice straw as a major substrate. PMID:22418084

Zhu, Zhen; Zhang, Guoyi; Luo, Yi; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

2012-05-01

214

Effect of different chemical and mechanical defolation methods on the skin quality of potatoes.  

PubMed

Without foliage destruction an efficient harvest is impossible. Potatoes for the fresh market are often harvested when the foliage is still heavy green due to tuber size and starch content that must be limited. Tubers from immature vines are typically very susceptible to skinning and mechanical injury during harvest. Young tubers from immature vines need more time after foliage destruction to set periderm than tubers from senescent vines where the formation of periderm is already started. Spray schemes based on metoxuron, carfentrazone-ethyl and diquat at a dose of 300 g/ha caused slower leaf and stem desiccation. Over the 3 growing seasons it could be concluded that mechanical foliage destruction in combination with carfentrazone-ethyl + mineral oil promoted periderm formation better than the other desiccation schemes tested. A split treatment with diquat at 300 g/ha or carfentrazone-ehtyl + mineral oil followed by a second application of diquat or carfentrazone-ethyl can led to a slower periderm formation and even give secondary growth. A double treatment of diquat (300 g/ha) or carfentrazone-ethyl + mineral oil followed by diquat (600 g/ha) after 3 days gave satisfactory results. Rhizoctonia tuber infection increased with a longer field period after treatment. In general the increase was more pronounced for the spray schemes where skin set of the tubers was less fast. PMID:15756866

Haesaert, G; Derycke, V; Deroo, B; Latré, J

2004-01-01

215

Global protein-protein interaction network of rice sheath blight pathogen.  

PubMed

Rhizoctonia solani is the major pathogenic fungi of rice sheath blight. It is responsible for the most serious disease of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and causes significant yield losses in rice-growing countries. Identifying the protein-protein interaction (PPI) maps of R. solani can provide insights into the potential pathogenic mechanisms and assign putative functions to unknown genes. Here, we exploited a PPI map of R. solani anastomosis group 1 IA (AG-1 IA) based on the interolog and domain-domain interaction methods. We constructed a core subset of high-confidence protein networks consisting of 6705 interactions among 1773 proteins. The high quality of the network was revealed by comprehensive methods, including yeast two-hybrid experiments. Pathogenic interaction subnetwork, secreted proteins subnetwork, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade subnetwork and their interacting partners were constructed and analyzed. Moreover, to exactly predict the pathogenic factors, the expression levels of the interaction proteins were investigated by analyzing RNA sequences that consisted of samples from the entire infection progress. The PPIs offer an exceptionally rich source of data that can be used to understand the gene functions and biological processes of this serious disease at the system level. PMID:24894516

Lei, Ding; Lin, Runmao; Yin, Chuanchun; Li, Ping; Zheng, Aiping

2014-07-01

216

Regulation of plant immunity through modulation of phytoalexin synthesis.  

PubMed

Soybean hairy roots transformed with the resveratrol synthase and resveratrol oxymethyl transferase genes driven by constitutive Arabidopsis actin and CsVMV promoters were characterized. Transformed hairy roots accumulated glycoside conjugates of the stilbenic compound resveratrol and the related compound pterostilbene, which are normally not synthesized by soybean plants. Expression of the non-native stilbenic phytoalexin synthesis in soybean hairy roots increased their resistance to the soybean pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. The expression of the AhRS3 gene resulted in 20% to 50% decreased root necrosis compared to that of untransformed hairy roots. The expression of two genes, the AhRS3 and ROMT, required for pterostilbene synthesis in soybean, resulted in significantly lower root necrosis (ranging from 0% to 7%) in transgenic roots than in untransformed hairy roots that had about 84% necrosis. Overexpression of the soybean prenyltransferase (dimethylallyltransferase) G4DT gene in soybean hairy roots increased accumulation of the native phytoalexin glyceollin resulting in decreased root necrosis. PMID:24914895

Zernova, Olga V; Lygin, Anatoli V; Pawlowski, Michelle L; Hill, Curtis B; Hartman, Glen L; Widholm, Jack M; Lozovaya, Vera V

2014-01-01

217

Ocatin. A Novel Tuber Storage Protein from the Andean Tuber Crop Oca with Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities1  

PubMed Central

The most abundant soluble tuber protein from the Andean crop oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.), named ocatin, has been purified and characterized. Ocatin accounts for 40% to 60% of the total soluble oca tuber proteins, has an apparent molecular mass of 18 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.8. This protein appears to be found only in tubers and is accumulated only within the cells of the pith and peridermis layers (peel) of the tuber as it develops. Ocatin inhibits the growth of several phytopathogenic bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aureofaciens) and fungi (Phytophthora cinnamomi, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Nectria hematococcus). Ocatin displays substantial amino acid sequence similarity with a widely distributed group of intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins with a hitherto unknown biological function. Our results showed that ocatin serves as a storage protein, has antimicrobial properties, and belongs to the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP protein family. Our findings suggest that an ancient scaffolding protein was recruited in the oca tuber to serve a storage function and that proteins from the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP family might play a role in natural resistance to pathogens.

Flores, Teresita; Alape-Giron, Alberto; Flores-Diaz, Marietta; Flores, Hector E.

2002-01-01

218

Effect of Compost on Rhizosphere Microflora of the Tomato and on the Incidence of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria  

PubMed Central

Four commercial composts were added to soil to study their effect on plant growth, total rhizosphere microflora, and incidence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere of tomato plants. Three of the compost treatments significantly improved plant growth, while one compost treatment significantly depressed it. Compost amendments caused only small variations in the total numbers of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in the rhizosphere of tomato plants. A total of 709 bacteria were isolated from the four compost treatments and the soil control to determine the percentage of PGPR in each treatment. The PGPR tests measured antagonism to soilborne root pathogens, production of indoleacetic acid, cyanide, and siderophores, phosphate solubilization, and intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. Our results show that the addition of some composts to soil increased the incidence in the tomato rhizosphere of bacteria exhibiting antagonism towards Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, Pyrenochaeta lycopersici, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The antagonistic effects observed were associated with marked increases in the percentage of siderophore producers. No significant differences were observed in the percentage of cyanogens, whereas the percentages of phosphate solubilizers and indoleacetic acid producers were affected, respectively, by one and two compost treatments. Intrinsic resistance to antibiotics was only marginally different among the rhizobacterial populations. Our results suggest that compost may stimulate the proliferation of antagonists in the rhizosphere and confirm previous reports indicating that the use of composts in container media has the potential to protect plants from soilborne root pathogens.

de Brito, Alvarez M. A.; Gagne, S.; Antoun, H.

1995-01-01

219

DNA binding mode of novel tetradentate amino acid based 2-hydroxybenzylidene-4-aminoantipyrine complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few transition metal complexes of tetradentate N2O2 donor Schiff base ligands containing 2-hydroxybenzylidene-4-aminoantipyrine and amino acids (alanine/valine) abbreviated to KHL1/KHL2 have been synthesized. All the metal complexes have been fully characterized with the help of elemental analyses, molecular weights, molar conductance values, magnetic moments and spectroscopic data. The Schiff bases KHL1/KHL2 are found to act as tetradentate ligands using N2O2 donor set of atoms leading to a square-planar geometry for the complexes around the metal ions. The binding behaviors of the complexes to calf thymus DNA have been investigated by absorption spectra, viscosity measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The DNA binding constants reveal that all these complexes interact with DNA through minor groove binding mode. The studies on mechanism of photocleavage reveal that singlet oxygen (1O2) and superoxide anion radical (O2rad -) may play an important role in the photocleavage. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani, Culvularia lunata, Rhizoctonia bataicola and Candida albicans by MIC method.

Raman, N.; Sobha, S.; Selvaganapathy, M.; Mahalakshmi, R.

2012-10-01

220

Antibacterial and Antifungal Studies on Some Schiff Base Complexes of Zinc(II)  

PubMed Central

Two Schiff base ligands L1 and L2 were obtained by the condensation of glycylglycine respectively with imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde and indole-3-carboxaldehyde and their complexes with Zn(II) were prepared and characterized by microanalytical, conductivity measurement, IR, UV-Vis., XRD and SEM. The molar conductance measurement indicates that the Zn(II) complexes are 1 : 1 electrolytes. The IR data demonstrate the tetradentate binding of L1 and tridentate binding of L2. The XRD data show that Zn(II) complexes with L1 and L2 have the crystallite sizes of 53 and 61 nm respectively. The surface morphology of the complexes was studied using SEM. The in vitro biological screening effects of the investigated compounds were tested against the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumaniae, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal species Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizoctonia bataicola and Candida albicans by the disc diffusion method. A comparative study of inhibition values of the Schiff base ligands and their complexes indicates that the complexes exhibit higher antimicrobial activity than the free ligands. Zinc ions are proven to be essential for the growth-inhibitor effect. The extent of inhibition appeared to be strongly dependent on the initial cell density and on the growth medium.

Joseyphus, R. Selwin

2008-01-01

221

Antibacterial and Antifungal Studies on Some Schiff Base Complexes of Zinc(II).  

PubMed

Two Schiff base ligands L1and L2 were obtained by the condensation of glycylglycine respectively with imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde and indole-3-carboxaldehyde and their complexes with Zn(II) were prepared and characterized by microanalytical, conductivity measurement, IR, UV-Vis., XRD and SEM. The molar conductance measurement indicates that the Zn(II) complexes are 1: 1electrolytes. The IR data demonstrate the tetradentate binding of L1and tridentate binding of L2. The XRD data show that Zn(II) complexes with L1and L2 have the crystallite sizes of 53 and 61nm respectively. The surface morphology of the complexes was studied using SEM. The in vitro biological screening effects of the investigated compounds were tested against the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumaniae, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal species Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizoctonia bataicola and Candida albicans by the disc diffusion method. A comparative study of inhibition values of the Schiff base ligands and their complexes indicates that the complexes exhibit higher antimicrobial activity than the free ligands. Zinc ions are proven to be essential for the growth-inhibitor effect. The extent of inhibition appeared to be strongly dependent on the initial cell density and on the growth medium. PMID:23990740

Joseyphus, R Selwin; Nair, M Sivasankaran

2008-06-01

222

Preparation and evaluation of Bacillus megaterium-alginate microcapsules for control of rice sheath blight disease.  

PubMed

Bacillus megaterium encapsulated in calcium alginate microcapsules was prepared and tested for its efficacy against sheath blight disease of rice. In laboratory conditions, the aqueous suspension (1:100, v/v in potato dextrose agar) of the bacterial microcapsules (10(10) spores/ml) inhibited mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia solani (>99 %) after the microcapsules were produced and stored for 12 months at room temperature (28 ± 2 °C). The survival of the bacterium in the microcapsules in response to ultraviolet (u.v.) irradiation and high temperature was investigated. The survivability of the bacterium in the encapsulated form was greater than that of the fresh cells when it was subjected to u.v. (20-W General electric u.v. lamp from a 25 cm distance for 48 h) and a high temperature treatment (80 °C for 48 h). Cells of the bacterium were detected by scanning electron microscope on both the leaf sheath and the leaf blade (in pot tests in a greenhouse) after spraying encapsulated product. The number of bacteria on the surface of both rice tissues (5 Log. number/g of plant) after spraying with encapsulated product was not significantly different from that after spraying with fresh cells onto the rice seedlings. Spraying the encapsulated B. megaterium on rice plants in the greenhouse was as effective as spraying a chemical fungicide for suppressing rice sheath blight disease. PMID:23508397

Wiwattanapatapee, R; Chumthong, A; Pengnoo, A; Kanjanamaneesathian, M

2013-08-01

223

Suppression of Meloidogyne javanica by antagonistic and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

Four rhizobacteria selected out of over 500 isolates from rhizosphere of the vegetables in China were further studied for suppression of the root-knot nematode and soil-borne fungal pathogens in laboratory and greenhouse in Belgium. They were identified as Brevibacillus brevis or Bacillus subtilis by Biolog test and partial 16s rDNA sequence comparison. They not only inhibited the radial growth of the root-infecting fungi Rhizoctonia solani SX-6, Pythium aphanidermatum ZJP-1 and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum ZJF-2 in vitro, but also exhibited strong nematicidal activity by killing the second stage larvae of Meloidogyne javanica to varying degrees in the greenhouse. The toxic principles of bacterium B7 that showed the highest juvenile mortality were partially characterized. The active factors were heat stability and resistance to extreme pH values. B7 used either as seed dressing or soil drench significantly reduced the nematode populations in the rhizosphere and enhanced the growth of mungbean plants over the controls in the presence or absence of R. solani. PMID:15909333

Li, Bin; Xie, Guan-lin; Soad, A; Coosemans, J

2005-06-01

224

Antagonistic and antimicrobial activities of some bacterial isolates collected from soil samples.  

PubMed

Thirty seven bacterial cultures isolated from soil samples obtained from different locations were tested for their antagonistic activity against some fungal pathogens, viz., Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani, causal agents of collar rot of sunflower, wilts and root rots, respectively. Among them, 5 bacterial strains, viz., A1 6 (Bacillus sphaericus), K1 24 (Pseudomonas fluorescens), M1 42 (Bacillus circulans), M1 66 (Bacillus brevis) and T1 22 (Bacillus brevis) showed positive antagonistic activity. M1 66 was the most effective in inhibiting mycelial growth of S. rolfsii in vitro followed by M1 42, T1 22, K1 24 and A1 6. Only one bacterial strain i.e. M1 42 exhibited antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum, and none of the bacterial strains gave positive activity against R. solani. Furthermore, antimicrobial activities of all the 5 strains were checked against different test organisms. These strains showed their extensive inhibition effect particularly against gram-positive test bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and the test fungal strain (Candida albicans). On the other hand, B. brevis M1 66 and B. brevis T1 22 strains had an inhibitory effect against gram positive and gram-negative test bacteria (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) as well as the test fungal strain. PMID:23100644

Ghai, S; Sood, S S; Jain, R K

2007-03-01

225

Synthesis, fungicidal activity, and structure-activity relationship of spiro-compounds containing macrolactam (macrolactone) and thiadiazoline rings.  

PubMed

Two series of novel spiro-compounds containing macrolactam or macrolactone and thiadiazoline rings, 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4,9-triaza-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4F) and 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4-diaza-9-oxa-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4G), were synthesized from 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactam and 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactone, respectively. Their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. The conformation of compounds 4F was determined via the crystal structure of a representative compound (4F(6)). The bioassay showed that compounds 4F have much better fungicidal activity against five fungi ( Botrytis cinerea Pers., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., Phomopsis asparagi Sacc., and Pyricularia oryzae Cav.) than compounds 4G. The fact above showed that the presence of a hydrogen-bonding donor for the fungicidal activity of macrocyclic compounds is very important. 4F(6) showed excellent fungicidal activity against P. oryzae, which is much better than the commercial fungicide isoprothiolane, and 4F(13) showed excellent fungicidal activity against P. oryzae and good fungicidal activity against P. asparagi. PMID:20041703

Li, Jian-Jun; Liang, Xiao-Mei; Jin, Shu-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Yuan, Hui-Zhu; Qi, Shu-Hua; Chen, Fu-Heng; Wang, Dao-Quan

2010-03-10

226

Comparative Analyses of Exoproteinases Produced by Three Phytopathogenic Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

Proteinases secreted by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium culmorum belonging to different families of fungi have been studied to determine if the exoenzyme secretion depends on the environmental conditions and the phylogenetic position of the pathogen. The substrate specificity of the extracellular proteinases of F. culmorum, R. solani, and P. infestans and their sensitivity to the action of synthetic and protein inhibitors suggest that they contain trypsin-like and subtilisin-like enzymes regardless of culture medium composition. The relation of trypsin-like and subtilisin-like enzymes is dependent on the culture medium composition, especially on the form of nitrogen nutrition, particularly in the case of the exoenzymes secreted by R. solani. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the exoproteinase set of ascomycetes and oomycetes has more similarities than basidiomycetes although they are more distant relatives. Our data suggests that the multiple proteinases secreted by pathogenic fungi could play different roles in pathogenesis, increasing the adaptability and host range, or could have different functions in survival in various ecological habitats outside the host.

Valueva, Tatiana A.; Kudryavtseva, Natalia N.; Sof'in, Alexis V.; Revina, Tatiana A.; Gvozdeva, Ekaterina L.; Ievleva, Elena V.

2011-01-01

227

Transformation of Halogen-, Alkyl-, and Alkoxy-Substituted Anilines by a Laccase of Trametes versicolor†  

PubMed Central

The laccase of the fungus Trametes versicolor was able to polymerize various halogen-, alkyl-, and alkoxy-substituted anilines, showing substrate specificity similar to that of horseradish peroxidase, whereas the laccase of Rhizoctonia praticola was active only with p-methoxyaniline. The substrate specificities of the enzymes were determined by using gas chromatography to measure the decrease in substrate concentration during incubation. With p-chloroaniline as the substrate, the peroxidase and the Trametes laccase showed maximum activity near pH 4.2. The transformation of this substrate gave rise to a number of oligomers, ranging from dimers to pentamers, as determined by mass spectrometry. The product profiles obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography were similar for the two enzymes. A chemical reaction was observed between p-chloroaniline and an enzymatically formed dimer, resulting in the formation of a trimer. All three enzymes oxidized p-methoxyaniline to 2-amino-5-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine, but only the T. versicolor laccase and the peroxidase caused the formation of a pentamer (2,5-di-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine). Our results demonstrate that in addition to horseradish peroxidase, a T. versicolor laccase can also polymerize aniline derivatives.

Hoff, Thomas; Liu, Shu-Yen; Bollag, Jean-Marc

1985-01-01

228

The effects of some polyamine biosynthetic inhibitors on growth and morphology of phytopathogenic fungi  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have studied the effects of two polyamine biosynthetic inhibitors, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), and of polyamines (PAs), alone and in combination, on mycelial growth and morphology of four phytopathogenic fungi: Botrytis sp, B. cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani and Monilinia fructicola. The inhibitors were added to a Czapek agar medium to get final concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mM. DFMO and DFMA, suicide inhibitors of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and arginine decarboxylase (ADC) respectively, inhibited mycelial growth strongly; the effect was generally more pronounced with DFMA than with DFMO, but each fungus had its own response pattern. The addition of the PAs putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) to the culture medium resulted in a promotion of growth. In Botrytis sp and Monilinia fructicola exposed to inhibitors plus PAs, mycelial growth was actually increased above control values. Mycelial morphology was altered and cell size dramatically reduced in plates containing inhibitors alone, whereas with PAs alone, or in combination with inhibitors, morphology was normal, but cell length and diameters increased considerably. These results suggest that PAs are essential for growth in fungal mycelia. The inhibition caused by DFMA may be due to its arginase-mediated conversion to DFMO.

Rajam, M. V.; Galston, A. W.

1985-01-01

229

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores host bacteria that affect nutrient biodynamics and biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens  

PubMed Central

Summary The aim of this research was to isolate and characterize bacteria from spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We designated these bacteria ‘probable endobacteria’ (PE). Three bacterial strains were isolated from approximately 500 spores of Gigaspora margarita (Becker and Hall) using a hypodermic needle (diameter, 200??m). The bacteria were identified by morphological methods and on the basis of ribosomal gene sequences as Bacillus sp. (KTCIGM01), Bacillus thuringiensis (KTCIGM02), and Paenibacillus rhizospherae (KTCIGM03). We evaluated the effect of these probable endobacteria on antagonistic activity to the soil-borne plant pathogens (SBPPs) Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae MAFF 744088, Rosellinia necatrix, Rhizoctonia solani MAFF 237426, and Pythium ultimum NBRC 100123. We also tested whether these probable endobacteria affected phosphorus solubilization, ethylene production, nitrogenase activity (NA), and stimulation of AMF hyphal growth. In addition, fresh samples of spores and hyphae were photographed using an in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) (Quanta 250FEG; FEI Co., Japan). Bacterial aggregates (BAs), structures similar to biofilms, could be detected on the surface of hyphae and spores. We demonstrate that using extraction with an ultrathin needle, it is possible to isolate AMF-associated bacterial species that are likely derived from inside the fungal spores.

Cruz, Andre Freire; Ishii, Takaaki

2012-01-01

230

Influence of external factors on the production and morphology of biogenic silver nanocrystallites.  

PubMed

Naturally existing biological materials have been garning considerable attention as environmentally benign green-nanofactories for the fabrication of diverse nanomaterials, and with desired size and shape distributions. In the present investigation, we report the size and shape controllable biofabrication of silver nanocrystallites using the growth extract of the fungus, Rhizoctonia solani. Influence of various factors such as growth medium; radiation, in the form of sun light; and seeding duration on the production of silver nanoparticles using aqueous 1 mm silver nitrate solution under ambient conditions is presented. Our results demonstrate that these factors can significantly influence the production, size and shape transformation, and the rate of nanoparticles formation. Multiple characterization techniques involving UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements confirmed the production, surface and structural characteristics, purity and crystalline nature of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles. Our biogenic synthesis process provides a simple, ecologically friendly, cost-effective synthesis route, and most importantly the ability to have control over the size and shape distributions that lends itself for various biomedical and opto-electronic applications. PMID:23755682

Ashrafi, Seyed J; Rastegar, Mahrokh F; Ashrafi, Motahare; Yazdian, Fatemeh; Pourrahim, Reza; Suresh, Anil K

2013-03-01

231

Isolation of proline-based cyclic dipeptides from Bacillus sp. N strain associated with rhabditid [corrected] entomopathogenic nematode and its antimicrobial properties.  

PubMed

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are well-known as biological control agents and are found to have associated bacteria which can produce a wide range of bioactive secondary metabolites. We report herewith isolation of six proline containing cyclic dipeptides cyclo(D-Pro-L-Leu), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Met), cyclo(D-Pro-L-Phe), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Phe), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo(L-Pro-D-Tyr) from ethyl acetate extract of the Luria Broth (LB) cell free culture filtrate of Bacillus sp. strain N associated with a new EPN Rhabditis sp. from sweet potato weevil grubs collected from Central Tuber Crops Research Institute farm. Antimicrobial studies of these 2,5-diketopiperazines (DKPs) against both medicinally and agriculturally important bacterium and fungi showed potent inhibitory values in the range of ?g/mL. Cyclic dipeptides showed significantly higher activity than the commercial fungicide bavistin against agriculturally important fungi, viz., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Pencillium expansum. The highest activity of 2 ?g/mL by cyclo(L-Pro-L-Phe) was recorded against P. expansum, a plant pathogen responsible for causing post harvest decay of stored apples and oranges. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of these DKPs from Rhabditis EPN bacterial strain Bacillus sp. PMID:23065379

Kumar, Nishanth; Mohandas, C; Nambisan, Bala; Kumar, D R Soban; Lankalapalli, Ravi S

2013-02-01

232

In vitro antagonism of cotton seedlings fungi and characterization of chitinase isozyme activities in Trichoderma harzianum.  

PubMed

The antagonistic fungus Trichoderma harzianum is widely recognized as a potential biocontrol agent against several soil-borne plant pathogens. T. harzinum is rich source of chitinoltic enzymes. In vitro screening of 5 isolates of T. harzinum, one isolate of Chaetomium globosum and one isolate of Conetherium mentance, revealed that all of them had reduced growth area of Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani on PDA medium, significantly. The inhibition percentage ranged from 77.9 % to 55.9% for M. phaseolina and 59.2% to 40.4% for R. solani by T. harzinum and C. mentance, respectively. Inhibition for F. solani ranged from 76.5% to 55.7% by T. harzinum and C. globosum, respectively. Isozyme gel electrophoresis was used to assess chitinase activity secreted by selected isolates of T. harzinum under different pH degrees and temperatures. Obtained results indicated that activity of chitinase isozyme produced at 30 °C was higher than 15-20 °C for all tested isolates and activity of chitinase produced by isolates No. 4 and 5 of T. harzinum at pH (7-7.5) was higher than at pH 6, respectively. PMID:23961072

Asran-Amal, A; Moustafa-Mahmoud, S M; Sabet, K K; El Banna, O H

2010-04-01

233

Cloning and characterization of a novel chitinase gene (chi46) from Chaetomium globosum and identification of its biological activity.  

PubMed

Chitinases play a major role in the defensive strategies of plants against fungal pathogens. In the current study, the gene for a 46-kDa endochitinase (chi46) was cloned from Chaetomium globosum, an important biocontrol fungus. The corresponding complementary deoxyribonucleic acid sequence was 1,350 bp in length, encoding 449 amino acid residues. The temporal expression of chi46, in response to the treatments of cell walls of six pathogens and confrontation against two fungal pathogens, was measured in C. globosum using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The expression of chi46 can be highly induced by exposure to the cell walls of plant pathogens and living pathogens, suggesting a role in plant disease resistance. The chi46 gene was inserted into the pPIC9 vector and transferred into the cells of Pichia pastoris GS115 for heterologous expression. The optimal reaction conditions for chitinase CHI46 activity were: 45 degrees C, pH of 5.0, and 5 mmol l(-1) of Cu2+. The maximum enzyme activity was 1.42 U ml(-1) following exposure to the cell wall chitin of Septoria tritici. The CHI46 enzyme can efficiently degrade cell walls of the phytopathogenic Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Valsa sordida, S. tritici, and Phytophthora sojae, demonstrating that it may be involved in the biocontrol mechanism of C. globosum. PMID:18563407

Liu, Z H; Yang, Q; Hu, S; Zhang, J D; Ma, J

2008-08-01

234

Trichoderma Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Is Involved in Induction of Plant Systemic Resistance  

PubMed Central

The role of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) TmkA in inducing systemic resistance in cucumber against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. lacrymans was investigated by using tmkA loss-of-function mutants of Trichoderma virens. In an assay where Trichoderma spores were germinated in proximity to cucumber roots, the mutants were able to colonize the plant roots as effectively as the wild-type strain but failed to induce full systemic resistance against the leaf pathogen. Interactions with the plant roots enhanced the level of tmkA transcript in T. virens and its homologue in Trichoderma asperellum. At the protein level, we could detect the activation of two forms reacting to the phospho-p44/42 MAPK antibody. Biocontrol experiments demonstrated that the tmkA mutants retain their biocontrol potential against Rhizoctonia solani in soil but are not effective against Sclerotium rolfsii in reducing disease incidence. Our results show that, unlike in many plant-pathogen interactions, Trichoderma TmkA MAPK is not involved in limited root colonization. Trichoderma, however, needs MAPK signaling in order to induce full systemic resistance in the plant.

Viterbo, Ada; Harel, Michal; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Chet, Ilan; Mukherjee, Prasun K.

2005-01-01

235

Isolation and identification of 5-hydroxyl-5-methyl-2-hexenoic acid from Actinoplanes sp. HBDN08 with antifungal activity.  

PubMed

A bioactivity-guided approach was employed to isolate and determine the chemical identity of bioactive constituents with antifungal activity from Actinoplanes sp. HBDN08. The structure of the antifungal metabolite was elucidated as 5-hydroxyl-5-methyl-2-hexenoic acid on the basis of spectral analysis. This compound showed strong in vitro antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cucumerinum and Corynespora cassiicola, with an IC(50) of 32.45, 27.17, and 30.66 mg/L, respectively; however, it only moderately inhibited hyphal growth of Rhizoctonia solani with an IC(50) of 61.64 mg/L. The in vivo antifungal activity under greenhouse conditions demonstrated that 5-hydroxyl-5-methyl-2-hexenoic acid could effectively control the diseases caused by B. cinerea, C. cucumerinum and C. cassiicola with 71.42%, 78.63% and 65.13% control values at 350 mg/L, respectively. This strong antifungal activity suggests that 5-hydroxyl-5-methyl-2-hexenoic acid might be a promising candidate for new antifungal agents. PMID:20584599

Zhang, Ji; Wang, Xiang-Jing; Yan, Yi-Jun; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Ji-Dong; Li, Bao-Ju; Xiang, Wen-Sheng

2010-11-01

236

Characterization of Bacillus isolates of potato rhizosphere from andean soils of Peru and their potential PGPR characteristics  

PubMed Central

Bacillus spp. are well known rhizosphere residents of many crops and usually show plant growth promoting (PGP) activities that include biocontrol capacity against some phytopatogenic fungi. Potato crops in the Andean Highlands of Peru face many nutritional and phytophatogenic problems that have a significant impact on production. In this context is important to investigate the natural presence of these microorganisms in the potato rhizosphere and propose a selective screening to find promising PGP strains. In this study, sixty three Bacillus strains isolated from the rhizosphere of native potato varieties growing in the Andean highlands of Peru were screened for in vitro antagonism against Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani. A high prevalence (68%) of antagonists against R. solani was found. Ninety one percent of those strains also inhibited the growth of F. solani. The antagonistic strains were also tested for other plant growth promotion activities. Eighty one percent produced some level of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, and 58% solubilized tricalcium phosphate. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the strains belonged to the B. amyloliquefaciens species, while strains Bac17M11, Bac20M1 and Bac20M2 may correspond to a putative new Bacillus species. The results suggested that the rhizosphere of native potatoes growing in their natural habitat in the Andes is a rich source of Bacillus fungal antagonists, which have a potential to be used in the future as PGP inoculants to improve potato crop.

Calvo, Pamela; Ormeno-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martinez-Romero, Esperanza; Zuniga, Doris

2010-01-01

237

Molecular screening of Streptomyces isolates for antifungal activity and family 19 chitinase enzymes.  

PubMed

Thirty soil-isolates of Streptomyces were analyzed to determine their antagonism against plant-pathogenic fungi including Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aristosporum, Colletotrichum gossypii, and Rhizoctonia solani. Seven isolates showed antifungal activity against one or more strain of the tested fungi. Based on the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, these isolates were identified as Streptomyces tendae (YH3), S. griseus (YH8), S. variabilis (YH21), S. endus (YH24), S. violaceusniger (YH27A), S. endus (YH27B), and S. griseus (YH27C). The identity percentages ranged from 98 to 100%. Although some isolates belonged to the same species, there were many differences in their cultural and morphological characteristics. Six isolates out of seven showed chitinase activity according to a chitinolytic activity test and on colloidal chitin agar plates. Based on the conserved regions among the family 19 chitinase genes of Streptomyces sp. two primers were used for detection of the chitinase (chiC) gene in the six isolates. A DNA fragment of 1.4 kb was observed only for the isolates YH8, YH27A, and YH27C. In conclusion, six Streptomyces strains with potential chitinolytic activity were identified from the local environment in Taif City, Saudi Arabia. Of these isolates, three belong to family 19 chitinases. To our knowledge, this is the first reported presence of a chiC gene in S. violaceusniger YH27A. PMID:22752910

Gherbawy, Youssuf; Elhariry, Hesham; Altalhi, Abdulla; El-Deeb, Bahig; Khiralla, Ghada

2012-06-01

238

Spoilage of vegetable crops by bacteria and fungi and related health hazards.  

PubMed

After harvest, vegetables are often spoiled by a wide variety of microorganisms including many bacterial and fungal species. The most common bacterial agents are Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas spp., Corynebacterium, Xanthomonas campestris, and lactic acid bacteria with E. carotovora being the most common, attacking virtually every vegetable type. Fungi commonly causing spoilage of fresh vegetables are Botrytis cinerea, various species of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Phomopsis, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phoma, Phytophthora, Pythium and Rhizopus spp., Botrytis cinerea, Ceratocystis fimbriata, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and some mildews. A few of these organisms show a substrate preference whereas others such as Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Phytophthora, and Rhizopus spp., affect a wide variety of vegetables causing devastating losses. Many of these agents enter the plant tissue through mechanical or chilling injuries, or after the skin barrier has been broken down by other organisms. Besides causing huge economic losses, some fungal species could produce toxic metabolites in the affected sites, constituting a potential health hazard for humans. Additionally, vegetables have often served as vehicles for pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and parasites and were implicated in many food borne illness outbreaks. In order to slow down vegetable spoilage and minimize the associated adverse health effects, great caution should be taken to follow strict hygiene, good agricultural practices (GAPs) and good manufacturing practices (GMPs) during cultivation, harvest, storage, transport, and marketing. PMID:15839403

Tournas, V H

2005-01-01

239

Biologically active endophytic streptomycetes from Nothofagus spp. and other plants in Patagonia.  

PubMed

Endophytic streptomycetes have been isolated and characterized from several species of Nothofagus and other plants growing in the southern reaches of Patagonia. No endophytic streptomycete was obtained from any plant species studied in Northern Patagonia. However, from Southern Patagonia, biologically active Streptomyces spp. from several plant species were isolated. Each isolate, as studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), has small hyphae, some produce typical barrel-shaped spores in culture and each has some unique hyphal surface structures. Interestingly, although none has any detectable antibacterial killing properties, each has demonstrable killing activity against one or more pathogenic fungi including representative plant pathogenic organisms such as Phytophthora erythroseptica, Pythium ultimum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, and Rhizoctonia solani. The 16S rDNA sequences of the isolates were distinct from all other genetic accessions of Streptomyces in GenBank. However, isolate C-2 from Chiliotrichum diffusum (Compositae) is identical, in all respects, to isolate C-4 obtained from Misodendrum punctulatum (Loranthaceae). These results confirm that endophytic streptomycetes represent a novel source of biologically active microorganisms. PMID:16944339

Castillo, Uvidello F; Browne, Lindsey; Strobel, Gary; Hess, W M; Ezra, Sigal; Pacheco, Gladys; Ezra, David

2007-01-01

240

Functional analysis of the Trichoderma harzianum nox1 gene, encoding an NADPH oxidase, relates production of reactive oxygen species to specific biocontrol activity against Pythium ultimum.  

PubMed

The synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the first events following pathogenic interactions in eukaryotic cells, and NADPH oxidases are involved in the formation of such ROS. The nox1 gene of Trichoderma harzianum was cloned, and its role in antagonism against phytopathogens was analyzed in nox1-overexpressed transformants. The increased levels of nox1 expression in these transformants were accompanied by an increase in ROS production during their direct confrontation with Pythium ultimum. The transformants displayed an increased hydrolytic pattern, as determined by comparing protease, cellulase, and chitinase activities with those for the wild type. In confrontation assays against P. ultimum the nox1-overexpressed transformants were more effective than the wild type, but not in assays against Botrytis cinerea or Rhizoctonia solani. A transcriptomic analysis using a Trichoderma high-density oligonucleotide (HDO) microarray also showed that, compared to gene expression for the interaction of wild-type T. harzianum and P. ultimum, genes related to protease, cellulase, and chitinase activities were differentially upregulated in the interaction of a nox1-overexpressed transformant with this pathogen. Our results show that nox1 is involved in T. harzianum ROS production and antagonism against P. ultimum. PMID:21421791

Montero-Barrientos, M; Hermosa, R; Cardoza, R E; Gutiérrez, S; Monte, E

2011-05-01

241

Antifungal saponins from bulbs of white onion, Allium cepa L.  

PubMed

Three saponins, named ceposide A, ceposide B, and ceposide C were isolated from the bulbs of white onion, Allium cepa L. Elucidation of their structure was carried out by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, and chemical evidences. The structures of the compounds were identified as (25R)-furost-5(6)-en-1?,3?,22?,26-tetraol 1-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl 26-O-?-D-rhamnoyranosyl-(1?2)-O-?-D-galactopyranoside (ceposide A), (25R)-furost-5(6)-en-1?,3?,22?,26-tetraol 1-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl 26-O-?-D-rhamnoyranosyl-(1?2)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (ceposide B), and (25R)-furost-5(6)-en-1?,3?,22?,26-tetraol 1-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl 26-O-?-D-rhamnoyranosyl-(1?2)-O-?-D-galactopyranoside (ceposide C). The isolated compounds, alone and in combinations, were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity on ten fungal species. Antifungal activity of all three saponins increased with their concentration and varied with the following rank: ceposide B>ceposide A-ceposide C. We found a significant synergism in the antifungal activity of the three ceposides against Botrytis cinerea and Trichoderma atroviride, because growth of these fungi was strongly inhibited when the three saponins were applied in combination. In contrast, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Sclerotium cepivorum and Rhizoctonia solani were very little affected by saponins. PMID:22169018

Lanzotti, Virginia; Romano, Adriana; Lanzuise, Stefania; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Scala, Felice

2012-02-01

242

Increased virulence of transgenic Trichoderma koningi strains to the Asian corn borer larvae by overexpressing heterologous chit42 gene with chitin-binding domains.  

PubMed

The chit42 gene cloned from Metarhizium anisopliae lacks chitin-binding domain (chBD), which plays important roles in binding insoluble chitin. Five kinds of hybrid chitinase Trichoderma transformants were constructed in this study, where the chit42 gene was fused to chBDs derived from plant, bacterial, and insect sources. The transformant Mc4 harboring chBDs from bitter melon (Momordica charantia) displayed the highest chitinase activity among all chBDs. The chitinase activities of Mc4, chit42 Trichoderma transformant Mchit3, and wild-type strain T30 were 44.94, 32.48, and 12.38 U/mL, respectively. The mortality rate of corn borer larvae in Mc4 fermentation liquid treatment increased by 10% and 30% compared with Mchit3 and T30, respectively. The midgut microvilli and goblet cell microvilli of the corn borer larvae exhibited distinct pathological changes after 48 h of feeding in Mc4 treatment. Mc4 also exhibited the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Rhizoctonia solani. PMID:23431975

Li, Yingying; Fu, Kehe; Gao, Shigang; Wu, Qiong; Fan, Lili; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie

2013-01-01

243

Diversities in Virulence, Antifungal Activity, Pigmentation and DNA Fingerprint among Strains of Burkholderia glumae  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia glumae is the primary causal agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice. In this study, 11 naturally avirulent and nine virulent strains of B. glumae native to the southern United States were characterized in terms of virulence in rice and onion, toxofalvin production, antifungal activity, pigmentation and genomic structure. Virulence of B. glumae strains on rice panicles was highly correlated to virulence on onion bulb scales, suggesting that onion bulb can be a convenient alternative host system to efficiently determine the virulence of B. glumae strains. Production of toxoflavin, the phytotoxin that functions as a major virulence factor, was closely associated with the virulence phenotypes of B. glumae strains in rice. Some strains of B. glumae showed various levels of antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of sheath blight, and pigmentation phenotypes on casamino acid-peptone-glucose (CPG) agar plates regardless of their virulence traits. Purple and yellow-green pigments were partially purified from a pigmenting strain of B. glumae, 411gr-6, and the purple pigment fraction showed a strong antifungal activity against Collectotrichum orbiculare. Genetic variations were detected among the B. glumae strains from DNA fingerprinting analyses by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) for BOX-A1R-based repetitive extragenic palindromic (BOX) or enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequences of bacteria; and close genetic relatedness among virulent but pigment-deficient strains were revealed by clustering analyses of DNA fingerprints from BOX-and ERIC-PCR.

Karki, Hari S.; Shrestha, Bishnu K.; Han, Jae Woo; Groth, Donald E.; Barphagha, Inderjit K.; Rush, Milton C.; Melanson, Rebecca A.; Kim, Beom Seok; Ham, Jong Hyun

2012-01-01

244

Antimicrobial activity of pyrrocidines from Acremonium zeae against endophytes and pathogens of maize.  

PubMed

Acremonium zeae produces pyrrocidines A and B, which are polyketide-amino acid-derived antibiotics, and is recognized as a seedborne protective endophyte of maize which augments host defenses against microbial pathogens causing seedling blights and stalk rots. Pyrrocidine A displayed significant in vitro activity against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides in assays performed using conidia as inoculum, with pyrrocidine A being more active than B. In equivalent assays performed with conidia or hyphal cells as inoculum, pyrrocidine A revealed potent activity against major stalk and ear rot pathogens of maize, including F. graminearum, Nigrospora oryzae, Stenocarpella (Diplodia) maydis, and Rhizoctonia zeae. Pyrrocidine A displayed significant activity against seed-rotting saprophytes A. flavus and Eupenicillium ochrosalmoneum, as well as seed-infecting colonists of the phylloplane Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Curvularia lunata, which produces a damaging leaf spot disease. Protective endophytes, including mycoparasites which grow asymptomatically within healthy maize tissues, show little sensitivity to pyrrocidines. Pyrrocidine A also exhibited potent activity against Clavibacter michiganense subsp. nebraskense, causal agent of Goss's bacterial wilt of maize, and Bacillus mojaviense and Pseudomonas fluorescens, maize endophytes applied as biocontrol agents, but were ineffective against the wilt-producing bacterium Pantoea stewartii. PMID:19055442

Wicklow, Donald T; Poling, Stephen M

2009-01-01

245

A novel homodimeric lectin from Astragalus mongholicus with antifungal activity.  

PubMed

A novel lectin (AMML) was isolated from a Chinese herb, i.e., the roots of Astragalus mongholicus, using a combination of ammonium sulfate fraction and ion exchange chromatographies. The molecular mass of intact AMML was determined to be 66,396 Da by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 61.8 kDa by gel filtration, respectively. AMML was a dimeric protein composed of two identical subunits each with a molecular mass of 29.6 kDa. The lectin was a glycoprotein with a neutral carbohydrate content of 19.6%. The purified lectin hemagglutinated both rabbit and human erythrocytes, and showed preference for blood types O (native) and AB (trypsin-treated). Among various carbohydrates tested, the lectin was best inhibited by D-galactose and its derivatives with pronounced preference for lactose (3.13 mM). N-terminal amino acid sequence of AMML was determined as ESGINLQGDATLANN. The optimal pH range for lectin activity was between pH 4.5 and 7.5, and the lectin was active up to 65 degrees C. It also exerted antifungal activity against Botrytis cincerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Colletorichum sp., and Drechslera turcia but not against Rhizoctonia solani and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. PMID:16140255

Yan, Qiaojuan; Jiang, Zhengqiang; Yang, Shaoqing; Deng, Wei; Han, Lujia

2005-10-01

246

Screening of Rhizobacteria for Their Plant Growth Promotion Ability and Antagonism Against Damping off and Root Rot Diseases of Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.).  

PubMed

Development of microbial inoculants from rhizobacterial isolates with potential for plant growth promotion and root disease suppression require rigorous screening. Fifty-four (54) fluorescent pseudomonads, out of a large collection of rhizobacteria from broad bean fields of 20 different locations within Imphal valley of Manipur, were initially screened for antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani, of diseased roots of broad bean and also three other reference fungal pathogens of plant roots. Fifteen fluorescent pseudomonas isolates produced inhibition zone (8-29 mm) of the fungal growth in dual plate assay and IAA like substances (24.1-66.7 ?g/ml) and soluble P (12.7-56.80 ?g/ml) in broth culture. Among the isolates, RFP 36 caused a marked increase in seed germination, seedling biomass and control of the root borne pathogens of broad bean. PCR-RAPD analysis of these isolates along with five MTCC reference fluorescent pseudomonas strains indicated that the RFP-36 belonged to a distinct cluster and the PCR of its genomic DNA with antibiotic specific primers Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and 2, 4-diacetyl phloroglucinol suggested possible occurrence of gene for the potent antibiotics. Overall, the result of the study indicated the potential of the isolate RFP 36 as a microbial inoculant with multiple functions for broad bean. PMID:22282623

Indira Devi, S; Talukdar, N C; Chandradev Sharma, K; Jeyaram, K; Rohinikumar, M

2011-01-01

247

Isolation and identification of endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi from seeds and roots of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae).  

PubMed

The seed germination of orchids under natural conditions requires association with mycorrhizal fungi. Dendrobium nobile and Dendrobium chrysanthum are threatened orchid species in China where they are considered medicinal plants. For conservation and application of Dendrobium using symbiosis technology, we isolated culturable endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi colonized in the protocorms and adult roots of two species plants and identified them by morphological and molecular analyses (5.8S and nrLSU). Of the 127 endophytic fungi isolated, 11 Rhizoctonia-like strains were identified as Tulasnellales (three strains from protocorms of D. nobile), Sebacinales (three strains from roots of D. nobile and two strains from protocorms of D. chrysanthum) and Cantharellales (three strains from roots of D. nobile), respectively. In addition, species of Xylaria, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Colletotrichum, Pestalotiopsis, and Phomopsis were the predominant non-mycorrhizal fungi isolated, and their probable ecological roles in the Dendrobium plants are discussed. These fungal resources will be of great importance for the large-scale cultivation of Dendrobium plants using symbiotic germination technology and for the screening of bioactive metabolites from them in the future. PMID:21779810

Chen, Juan; Wang, Hui; Guo, Shun-Xing

2012-05-01

248

Synthesis, fungicidal, and insecticidal activities of beta-Methoxyacrylate-containing N-acetyl pyrazoline derivatives.  

PubMed

1-Acetyl-3,-5-diarylpyrazolines have received considerable interests from the fields of medicinal and agricultural chemistry due to their broad spectrum of biological activities. To discover new lead compounds exhibiting both fungicidal and insecticidal activities, a series of pyrazoline derivatives were designed and synthesized by introducing the beta-methoxyacrylate pharmacophore into the scaffold of 1-acetyl-3,5-diarylpyrazoline. The fungicidal activities against Pseudoperoniospora cubensis, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Botrytis cinerea, and Rhizoctonia solani and the insecticidal activities against Aphis medicagini, Nilaparvata legen, Mythima separata, and Tetranychus cinnabarnus were screened. The most potent compound 13, 1-aceto-3-[m-[o-(E-1-methoxycarboxyl-2-methoxy)-1-yl]benzyloxy]phenyl-5-(benzo-[1,3]-dioxolyl)-4,5-dihydro- pyrazoline, was identified. Its fungicidal IC(50) values against P. cubensis and S. fuliginea are 26.6 and 57.6 microg mL(-1), respectively, while its insecticidal LC(50) value against M. separata is 26.6 microg mL(-1). These results indicated that compound 13 could be used as a lead for further developing new pyrazoline type products exhibiting both fungicidal and insecticidal activities. PMID:18973342

Zhao, Pei-Liang; Wang, Fu; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Liu, Zu-Ming; Huang, Wei; Yang, Guang-Fu

2008-11-26

249

Production of antifungal chitinase by Aspergillus niger LOCK 62 and its potential role in the biological control.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger LOCK 62 produces an antifungal chitinase. Different sources of chitin in the medium were used to test the production of the chitinase. Chitinase production was most effective when colloidal chitin and shrimp shell were used as substrates. The optimum incubation period for chitinase production by Aspergillus niger LOCK 62 was 6 days. The chitinase was purified from the culture medium by fractionation with ammonium sulfate and affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was 43 kDa. The highest activity was obtained at 40 °C for both crude and purified enzymes. The crude chitinase activity was stable during 180 min incubation at 40 °C, but purified chitinase lost about 25 % of its activity under these conditions. Optimal pH for chitinase activity was pH 6-6.5. The activity of crude and purified enzyme was stabilized by Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) ions, but inhibited by Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) ions. Chitinase isolated from Aspergillus niger LOCK 62 inhibited the growth of the fungal phytopathogens: Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani. The growth of Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria alternata, and Fusarium oxysporum was not affected. PMID:22922773

Brzezinska, Maria Swiontek; Jankiewicz, Urszula

2012-12-01

250

Synthesis, spectral, thermal and anti-fungal studies of organotin(IV) thiohydrazone complexes.  

PubMed

The reaction of tribenzyltin(IV) chloride and di(para-chlorobenzyl)tin(IV) dichloride with thiohydrazones derived by condensation of 2-phenylethyl N-thiohydrazide with benzaldehyde, salicaldehyde, p-methylacetophenone and cinnamaldehyde have been investigated in 1:1 molar ratio. These ligands act as neutral, bidentate species and coordinate to the central tin (IV) atom through the thiosulphur and azomethine nitrogen. The newly synthesized complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis and molecular weight determination. The mode of bonding of the complexes has been suggested on the basis of infrared, electronic and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and probable structures have been assigned to these complexes. Phenomenological and kinetic parameters have been calculated using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analytical (DTA) curves and their variations have been correlated with some structural parameters of the complexes. The ligands and their tin(IV) complexes have been screened in vitro for their fungicidal activity against Rhizoctonia solanii and Sclerotium rolfsii and found to be quite active in this respect. PMID:19162535

Singh, Rajeev; Kaushik, N K

2009-05-01

251

Fungal degradation of fluorene.  

PubMed

A selection of 30 strains of micromycetes known as good degraders of polychlorinated aromatic compounds, mostly isolated from soil and belonging to various taxonomic groups, have been investigated to degrade fluorene. Toxicity assays, first evaluated on solid media, have shown high growth inhibition at concentrations above 0.001 g l-1 only towards 23% of strains. Degradation of fluorene (0.005 g l-1) was then investigated in liquid synthetic medium for 2 days and evaluated by HPLC. Among the 30 strains tested, 12 could be considered as best degraders because of a rate of degradation at 60% or over. 3 strains of Cunninghamella genus were very efficient (mean of degradation: 96%) but different strains from Ascomycetes. Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes were also efficient 11 strains are not yet reported in the literature: Aspergillus terreus, Bjerkandera adusta, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Colletotrichum dematium, Cryphonectria parasitica, Cunninghamella blakesleeana, C. echinulata, Drechslera spicifera, Embellisia annulata, Rhizoctonia solani and Sporormiella australis. A metabolic approach with standard compounds (9-fluorenol and 9-fluorenone) indicated the presence of these monooxygenated derivatives for most of the strains. PMID:10665449

Garon, D; Krivobok, S; Seigle-Murandi, F

2000-01-01

252

Breeding for disease resistance in the major cool-season turfgrasses.  

PubMed

Over the past several decades, breeding cool-season turfgrasses for improved disease resistance has been the focus of many turfgrass breeding programs. This review article discusses the dramatic improvements made in breeding Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) for resistance to leaf spot (caused by Drechslera poae), stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis), and stripe smut (caused by Ustilago striiformis); perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) for resistance to gray leaf spot (caused by Pyricularia grisea), stem rust and crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata); tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) for resistance to brown patch (Rhizoctonia solani) and stem rust; creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) for resistance to dollar spot (caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa); and fine fescues (Festuca spp.) for improved disease resistance. Historically, the dramatic improvements in disease resistance of the cool-season grasses have been attributed to traditional/conventional breeding techniques; however, it is likely that functional genomics and molecular techniques will play a more significant role in the development of cultivated turfgrasses as the specific genes and mechanisms for disease resistance are identified in the future. PMID:17061916

Bonos, Stacy A; Clarke, Bruce B; Meyer, William A

2006-01-01

253

Production of lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A using soybean curd residue cultivated with Bacillus subtilis in solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

Bacillus subtilis RB14-CS, which suppresses the growth of various plant pathogens in vitro by producing the lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A, was cultured using soybean curd residue, okara, a by-product of tofu manufacture in solid-state fermentation. After 4 days incubation, iturin A production reached 3,300 mg/kg wet solid material (14 g/kg dry solid material), which is approximately tenfold higher than that in submerged fermentation. When the okara product cultured with RB14-CS was introduced into soil infested with Rhizoctonia solani, which is a causal agent of damping-off of tomato, the disease occurrence was significantly suppressed. After 14 days, the number of RB14-CS cells remained in soil at the initial level, whereas almost no iturin A was detected in soil. As the okara cultured with RB14-CS exhibited functions of both plant disease suppression and nutritional effect on tomato seedlings, this product is expected to contribute to the recycling of the soybean curd residue. PMID:16575567

Mizumoto, S; Hirai, M; Shoda, M

2006-10-01

254

Medium optimization of antifungal lipopeptide, iturin A, production by Bacillus subtilis in solid-state fermentation by response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Iturin A, a lipopeptide antibiotic produced by Bacillus subtilis RB14-CS, suppresses the growth of various plant pathogens. Here, enhancement of iturin A production in solid-state fermentation (SSF) on okara, a soybean curd residue produced during tofu manufacturing, was accomplished using statistical experimental design. Primary experiments showed that the concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources were the main factors capable of enhancing iturin A production, whereas initial pH, initial water content, temperature, relative humidity, and volume of inoculum were only minor factors. Glucose and soybean meal were the most effective among tested carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Based on these preliminary findings, response surface methodology was applied to predict the optimum amounts of the carbon and nitrogen sources in the medium. The maximum iturin A concentration was 5,591 mug/g initial wet okara under optimized condition. Subsequent experiments confirmed that iturin A production was significantly improved under the predicted optimal medium conditions. The SSF product generated under the optimized conditions exhibited significantly higher suppressive effect on the damping-off of tomato caused by Rhizoctonia solani K-1 compared with the product generated under the non-optimized conditions. PMID:17476498

Mizumoto, Shinji; Shoda, Makoto

2007-08-01

255

Insect growth inhibition, antifeedant and antifungal activity of compounds isolated/derived from Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) rhizomes.  

PubMed

Fresh rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger), when subjected to steam distillation, yielded ginger oil in which curcumene was found to be the major constituent. The thermally labile zingiberene-rich fraction was obtained from its diethyl ether extract. Column chromatography of ginger oleoresin furnished a fraction from which [6]-gingerol was obtained by preparative TLC. Naturally occurring [6]-dehydroshogaol was synthesised following condensation of dehydrozingerone with hexanal, whereas zingerone and 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)butane were obtained by hydrogenation of dehydrozingerone with 10% Pd/C. The structures of the compounds were established by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass (EI-MS and ES-MS) spectral analysis. The test compounds exhibited moderate insect growth regulatory (IGR) and antifeedant activity against Spilosoma obliqua, and significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Among the various compounds, [6]-dehydroshogaol exhibited maximum IGR activity (EC50 3.55 mg ml-1), while dehydrozingerone imparted maximum antifungal activity (EC50 86.49 mg litre-1). PMID:11455660

Agarwal, M; Walia, S; Dhingra, S; Khambay, B P

2001-03-01

256

Evidence for specificity of cultivable bacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores.  

PubMed

Bacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal spores may play functional roles in interactions between AM fungi, plant hosts and defence against plant pathogens. To study AM fungal spore-associated bacteria (AMB) with regard to diversity, source effects (AM fungal species, plant host) and antagonistic properties, we isolated AMB from surface-decontaminated spores of Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae extracted from field rhizospheres of Festuca ovina and Leucanthemum vulgare. Analysis of 385 AMB was carried out by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile analysis, and some also identified using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The AMB were tested for capacity to inhibit growth in vitro of Rhizoctonia solani and production of fluorescent siderophores. Half of the AMB isolates could be identified to species (similarity index 0.6) within 16 genera and 36 species. AMB were most abundant in the genera Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas and in a cluster of unidentified isolates related to Stenotrophomonas. The AMB composition was affected by AM fungal species and to some extent by plant species. The occurrence of antagonistic isolates depended on AM fungal species, but not plant host, and originated from G. intraradices spores. AM fungal spores appear to host certain sets of AMB, of which some can contribute to resistance by AM fungi against plant pathogens. PMID:18631178

Bharadwaj, Dharam Parkash; Lundquist, Per-Olof; Persson, Paula; Alström, Sadhna

2008-08-01

257

Effect of Biocontrol Agent Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24 on Soil Fungal Community in Cucumber Rhizosphere Using T-RFLP and DGGE  

PubMed Central

Fungi and fungal community play important roles in the soil ecosystem, and the diversity of fungal community could act as natural antagonists of various plant pathogens. Biological control is a promising method to protect plants as chemical pesticides may cause environment pollution. Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24 had strong inhibitory on Rastonia solanacearum, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani, etc., and was isolated from the wheat rhizosphere take-all decline soils in Shandong province, China. However, its potential effect on soil fungal community was still unknown. In this study, the gfp-labeled P. fluorescens 2P24 was inoculated into cucumber rhizosphere, and the survival of 2P24 was monitored weekly. The amount decreased from 108 to 105 CFU/g dry soils. The effect of 2P24 on soil fungal community in cucumber rhizosphere was investigated using T-RFLP and DGGE. In T-RFLP analysis, principle component analysis showed that the soil fungal community was greatly influenced at first, digested with restriction enzyme Hinf I and Taq I. However, there was little difference as digested by different enzymes. DGGE results demonstrated that the soil fungal community was greatly shocked at the beginning, but it recovered slowly with the decline of P. fluorescens 2P24. Four weeks later, there was little difference between the treatment and control. Generally speaking, the effect of P. fluorescens 2P24 on soil fungal community in cucumber rhizosphere was just transient.

Gao, Guanpeng; Yin, Danhan; Chen, Shengju; Xia, Fei; Yang, Jie; Li, Qing; Wang, Wei

2012-01-01

258

Humus bacteria of Norway spruce stands: plant growth promoting properties and birch, red fescue and alder colonizing capacity.  

PubMed

We studied the potential of the humus layer of the Norway spruce stands to supply beneficial rhizobacteria to birch (Betula pendula), alder (Alnus incana) and fescue grass (Festuca rubra), representatives of pioneer vegetation after clear-cutting of the coniferous forest. Axenically grown seedlings of these species were inoculated with the acid spruce humus, pH 3.7-5.3. Actinorhizal propagules, capable of nodulating alder, were present in high density (10(3) g(-1)) in humus of long-term limed plots, whereas plots with nitrogen fertilization contained almost none (Rhizoctonia sp., Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium culmorum. The antagonistic isolates also commonly produced siderophores and/or cell wall degrading enzymes. PMID:10640667

Elo; Maunuksela; Salkinoja-Salonen; Smolander; Haahtela

2000-02-01

259

Biological Role of Trichoderma harzianum-Derived Platelet-Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) on Stress Response and Antagonism  

PubMed Central

We investigated the properties of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) derived from Trichoderma harzianum. The enzyme, comprised of 572 amino acids, shares high homology with PAF-AH proteins from T. koningii and other microbial species. The optimum enzymatic activity of PAF-AH occurred at pH 6 in the absence of Ca2+ and it localized in the cytoplasm, and we observed the upregulation of PAF-AH expression in response to carbon starvation and strong heat shock. Furthermore, PAF-AH knockout transformant growth occurred more slowly than wild type cells and over-expression strains grown in SM medium at 37°C and 42°C. In addition, PAF-AH expression significantly increased under a series of maize root induction assay. Eicosanoic acid and ergosterol levels decreased in the PAF-AH knockouts compared to wild type cells, as revealed by GC/MS analysis. We also determined stress responses mediated by PAF-AH were related to proteins HEX1, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, and cytochrome c. Finally, PAF-AH exhibited antagonistic activity against Rhizoctonia solani in plate confrontation assays. Our results indicate PAF-AH may play an important role in T. harzianum stress response and antagonism under diverse environmental conditions.

Yu, Chuanjin; Fan, Lili; Wu, Qiong; Fu, Kehe; Gao, Shigang; Wang, Meng; Gao, Jinxin; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie

2014-01-01

260

Bioassays guided isolation of compounds from Chaetomium globosum.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate different biological activities of the fungus Chaetomium globosum (family Chaetomiaceae). The evaluation was done through testing its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer effects. C. globosum was isolated from the Cucumber soil (rhizosphere) and caused inhibition of the mycelial growth of Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii in the biculture test. Petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the liquid culture of C. globosum showed potent in vitro antioxidant activity. C. globosum proved potent antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens. It also recorded significant antifungal activity against Candida albicans, F. solani, Fusarium oxysporum, R. solani and Pythium ultimum. It exerted cytotoxic effect on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). Unsaponifiable and saponifiable matters of the petroleum ether extract showed the presence of hydrocarbons, sterols and fatty acids. The ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of prenisatin, chrysophanol, chrysazin, chaetoviridin A and B. The isolated secondary metabolites proved significant antioxidant and antimicrobial activity on B. subtilis, E. coli and R. solani. In conclusion, this fungus showed different biological activities. Further studies must be done to apply its use in the agricultural and medicinal field. PMID:24361402

Awad, N E; Kassem, H A; Hamed, M A; El-Naggar, M A A; El-Feky, A M M

2014-06-01

261

Rhizobacteria of cotton and their repression of seedling disease pathogens.  

PubMed

During the 1983 field season, the rhizobacteria (including organisms from rhizosphere soil and the root rhizoplane) of cotton plants at one location in Mississippi were inventoried at different plant growth stages. Isolates (1,000) were identified to the genus level and characterized for repression of Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani. Cotton seedlings were initially colonized by bacteria of many different genera, and populations quickly reached 10 CFU/g of root tissue. As the season progressed, the bacterial populations declined as root mass increased and the roots became more woodlike in consistency. Fluorescent pseudomonads were the most numerous gram-negative rhizobacterial isolates of those that were randomly collected and identified, and they provided the largest number of isolates with fungal repressive activity. Several other gram-negative bacterial genera were recovered throughout the growing season, and some gram-positive bacteria were also isolated routinely, but at lower numbers. There was no correlation between the proportion of rhizobacterial isolates that possessed fungal repressive activity and the plant growth stage from which the isolates were obtained. Approximately twice as many bacterial isolates demonstrated fungal repression in the agar assay compared with the inplanta assay, and isolates were found more frequently with fungal repressive activity against P. ultimum than against R. solai. PMID:16348043

Hagedorn, C; Gould, W D; Bardinelli, T R

1989-11-01

262

Rhizobacteria of Cotton and Their Repression of Seedling Disease Pathogens  

PubMed Central

During the 1983 field season, the rhizobacteria (including organisms from rhizosphere soil and the root rhizoplane) of cotton plants at one location in Mississippi were inventoried at different plant growth stages. Isolates (1,000) were identified to the genus level and characterized for repression of Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani. Cotton seedlings were initially colonized by bacteria of many different genera, and populations quickly reached 108 CFU/g of root tissue. As the season progressed, the bacterial populations declined as root mass increased and the roots became more woodlike in consistency. Fluorescent pseudomonads were the most numerous gram-negative rhizobacterial isolates of those that were randomly collected and identified, and they provided the largest number of isolates with fungal repressive activity. Several other gram-negative bacterial genera were recovered throughout the growing season, and some gram-positive bacteria were also isolated routinely, but at lower numbers. There was no correlation between the proportion of rhizobacterial isolates that possessed fungal repressive activity and the plant growth stage from which the isolates were obtained. Approximately twice as many bacterial isolates demonstrated fungal repression in the agar assay compared with the inplanta assay, and isolates were found more frequently with fungal repressive activity against P. ultimum than against R. solai.

Hagedorn, C.; Gould, W. D.; Bardinelli, T. R.

1989-01-01

263

Elicitor-induced defence reactions in cell suspension cultures of soybean cultivars.  

PubMed

Suspension cultured soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) cells of four cultivars (Wilis, Lumut, Kalmit, Doko RC) were compared for their response to different fungal and bacterial elicitors. Cells were treated either with crude cell wall extracts of the fungal pathogens Phytophthora sojae (Pmg-elicitor) and Rhizoctonia solani (Riso-elicitor) or with two isolates of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea (Psg01/02) and a broad spectrum of antimicrobial defence reactions was measured. Cells of all four cultivars showed the same elicitor-induced rapid (H2O2 accumulation, alkalinization of the culture medium, peroxidative cross-linking of cell wall proteins) and slow (activation of phenylpropanoid metabolism, accumulation of phenolic compounds, induction of PR-proteins) defence responses. However, the reactivity of the cultivars was not identical in terms of time courses and intensities. Furthermore, the ability of the various elicitors to induce defence responses varied markedly. These differences indicate that (1) cells of the same species but of different cultivars are equipped with the same array of perception systems to recognise various stimuli but (2) the sensitivity of these perception systems or later steps in the signal transduction seem to be stimulated to a different extent in the analysed cultivars. PMID:11098822

Groten, K; Barz, W

2000-01-01

264

Effect of compost on rhizosphere microflora of the tomato and on the incidence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

Four commercial composts were added to soil to study their effect on plant growth, total rhizosphere microflora, and incidence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere of tomato plants. Three of the compost treatments significantly improved plant growth, while one compost treatment significantly depressed it. Compost amendments caused only small variations in the total numbers of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in the rhizosphere of tomato plants. A total of 709 bacteria were isolated from the four compost treatments and the soil control to determine the percentage of PGPR in each treatment. The PGPR tests measured antagonism to soilborne root pathogens, production of indoleacetic acid, cyanide, and siderophores, phosphate solubilization, and intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. Our results show that the addition of some composts to soil increased the incidence in the tomato rhizosphere of bacteria exhibiting antagonism towards Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, Pyrenochaeta lycopersici, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The antagonistic effects observed were associated with marked increases in the percentage of siderophore producers. No significant differences were observed in the percentage of cyanogens, whereas the percentages of phosphate solubilizers and indoleacetic acid producers were affected, respectively, by one and two compost treatments. Intrinsic resistance to antibiotics was only marginally different among the rhizobacterial populations. Our results suggest that compost may stimulate the proliferation of antagonists in the rhizosphere and confirm previous reports indicating that the use of composts in container media has the potential to protect plants from soilborne root pathogens. PMID:16534902

de Brito, A M; Gagne, S; Antoun, H

1995-01-01

265

Identification of antifungal niphimycin from Streptomyces sp. KP6107 by screening based on adenylate kinase assay.  

PubMed

Microbial culture extracts are used for natural product screening to find antifungal lead compounds. A microbial culture extract library was constructed using 343 actinomycete isolates to examine the value of the adenylate kinase (AK) assay for screening to identify antifungal metabolites that disrupt cell integrity in plant pathogenic fungi. A culture extract of Streptomyces sp. strain KP6107 lysed cells of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici which resulted in high AK activity. The active ingredient N-1 was purified from the culture extract using various chromatographic procedures and identified to be the guanidyl-polyol macrolide antibiotic, niphimycin, which is a potent fungal cell membrane disruptor. Niphimycin showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Alternaria mali, Aspergillus oryzae, Colletotrichum coccodes, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Cercospora canescens, Cylindrocarpon destructans, F. oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum, F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and Rhizoctonia solani at concentrations of 8-64?µg?ml(-1). Anthracnose development in pepper plants was completely inhibited by treatment with 50 µg?ml(-1) niphimycin, which was as effective as chlorothalonil. These results show that the AK assay is an efficient and selective tool in screening for cell membrane/wall disruptors of plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:22915202

Kim, Hye Yoon; Kim, Jeong Do; Hong, Jin Sung; Ham, Jong Hyun; Kim, Beom Seok

2013-07-01

266

Bioefficacy of novel cyanobacteria-amended formulations in suppressing damping off disease in tomato seedlings.  

PubMed

Biological control of plant pathogens is receiving increasing relevance, as compared to chemical methods, as they are eco-friendly, economical and indirectly improve plant quality and yield attributes. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the potential of antagonistic cyanobacteria (Anabaena variabilis RPAN59 and A. oscillarioides RPAN69) fortified formulations for suppressing damping off disease in tomato seedlings challenged by the inoculation of a fungal consortium (Pythium debaryanum, Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici, Fusarium moniliforme and Rhizoctonia solani). Treatment with A. variabilis amended formulations recorded significantly higher plant growth parameters, than other treatments, including biological control (Trichoderma formulation) and chemical control (Thiram-Carbendazim). The A. variabilis amended compost-vermiculite and compost formulations exhibited 10-15 % lower disease severity and 40-50 % higher values than chemical and biological control treatments in terms of fresh weight and height of the plants. In future, in depth analyses regarding the mechanism involved in biocontrol by cyanobacteria and evaluation of these formulations under field conditions are proposed to be undertaken. PMID:22869418

Chaudhary, Vidhi; Prasanna, Radha; Nain, Lata; Dubey, S C; Gupta, Vishal; Singh, Rajendra; Jaggi, Seema; Bhatnagar, Ashok Kumar

2012-12-01

267

Biological control of potato black scurf by rhizosphere associated bacteria  

PubMed Central

The present work was carried out to study the potential of plant rhizosphere associated bacteria for the biocontrol of potato black scurf disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Khun AG-3. A total of twenty-eight bacteria isolated from diseased and healthy potato plants grown in the soil of Naran and Faisalabad, Pakistan were evaluated for their antagonistic potential. Nine bacterial strains were found to be antagonistic in vitro, reduced the fungal growth and caused the lysis of sclerotia of R. solani in dual culture assay as well as in extracellular metabolite efficacy test. The selected antagonistic strains were further tested for the production and efficacy of volatile and diffusible antibiotics, lytic enzymes and siderophores against R. solani. Selected antagonistic bacteria were also characterized for growth promoting attributes i.e., phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation and indole acetic acid production. Biocontrol efficacy and percent yield increase by these antagonists was estimated in greenhouse experiment. Statistical analysis showed that two Pseudomonas spp. StT2 and StS3 were the most effective with 65.1 and 73.9 percent biocontrol efficacy, as well as 87.3 and 98.3 percent yield increase, respectively. Potential antagonistic bacterial strain StS3 showed maximum homology to Pseudomonas sp. as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These results suggest that bacterial isolates StS3 and StT2 have excellent potential to be used as effective biocontrol agents promoting plant growth with reduced disease incidence.

Tariq, Mohsin; Yasmin, Sumera; Hafeez, Fauzia Y.

2010-01-01

268

Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in bromeliad species from the tropical Atlantic forest biome in Brazil.  

PubMed

The mycorrhizal status of epiphytic, rupicolous, and terrestrial bromeliad species from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest has been examined. Roots of 13 species of bromeliads were analyzed for the presence of mycorrhizal structures such as arbuscules, hyphae, and vesicles as well as other fungal structures. Rhizosphere soil was sampled to identify arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) species associated only with terrestrial bromeliad species. Most specimens collected were epiphytic bromeliads in the genera Aechmea, Bilbergia, Nidularium, Tillandsia, and Vriesea. Differentiating structures of AMF were found in only three species of bromeliads. The pattern of mycorrhizal colonization was mainly internal, and external mycelium and arbuscules were observed only in the terrestrial Nidularium procerum. Root endophytes with dark brown septate mycelium, thin external hyphae, and Rhizoctonia-like sclerotia were also detected in some root segments. A total of ten spore morphotypes were recovered from the rhizosphere of N. procerum, with Acaulospora mellea, A. foveata, and Glomus sp. being the most common species recovered. Our study demonstrated that most of the epiphytic species are not associated with AMF. We attribute this mainly to the exposed bare root conditions found in epiphytic bromeliads. PMID:17151876

Grippa, Carlos Roberto; Hoeltgebaum, Marcia Patricia; Stürmer, Sidney Luiz

2007-05-01

269

Antifungal activity of metabolites of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma brevicompactum from garlic  

PubMed Central

The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8S- ITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 4?-acetoxy-12,13- epoxy-?9-trichothecene (trichodermin) by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia solani, with an EC50 of 0.25 ?gmL?1. Strong inhibition by trichodermin was also found for Botrytis cinerea, with an EC50 of 2.02 ?gmL?1. However, a relatively poor inhibitory effect was observed for trichodermin against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (EC50 = 25.60 ?gmL?1). Compared with the positive control Carbendazim, trichodermin showed a strong antifungal activity on the above phytopathogens. There is little known about endophytes from garlic. This paper studied in detail the identification of endophytic T. brevicompactum from garlic and the characterization of its active metabolite trichodermin.

Shentu, Xuping; Zhan, Xiaohuan; Ma, Zheng; Yu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Chuanxi

2014-01-01

270

Detection and assessment of chemical hormesis on the radial growth in vitro of oomycetes and fungal plant pathogens.  

PubMed

Although plant diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, and protists, most are caused by fungi and fungus-like oomycetes. Intensive use of fungicides with the same mode of action can lead to selection of resistant strains increasing the risk of unmanageable epidemics. In spite of the integrated use of nonchemical plant disease management strategies, agricultural productivity relies heavily on the use of chemical pesticides and biocides for disease prevention and treatment and sanitation of tools and substrates. Despite the prominent use of fungi in early hormesis studies and the continuous use of yeast as a research model, the relevance of hormesis in agricultural systems has not been investigated by plant pathologists, until recently. A protocol was standardized for detection and assessment of chemical hormesis in fungi and oomycetes using radial growth as endpoint. Biphasic dose-responses were observed in Pythium aphanidermatum exposed to sub-inhibitory doses of ethanol, cyazofamid, and propamocarb, and in Rhizoctonia zeae exposed to ethanol. This report provides an update on chemical hormesis in fungal plant pathogens and a perspective on the potential risks it poses to crop productivity and global food supply. PMID:23983664

Flores, Francisco J; Garzon, Carla D

2012-01-01

271

Protozoa Drive the Dynamics of Culturable Biocontrol Bacterial Communities  

PubMed Central

Some soil bacteria protect plants against soil-borne diseases by producing toxic secondary metabolites. Such beneficial biocontrol bacteria can be used in agricultural systems as alternative to agrochemicals. The broad spectrum toxins responsible for plant protection also inhibit predation by protozoa and nematodes, the main consumers of bacteria in soil. Therefore, predation pressure may favour biocontrol bacteria and contribute to plant health. We analyzed the effect of Acanthamoeba castellanii on semi-natural soil bacterial communities in a microcosm experiment. We determined the frequency of culturable bacteria carrying genes responsible for the production of the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), pyrrolnitrin (PRN) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in presence and absence of A. castellanii. We then measured if amoebae affected soil suppressiveness in a bioassay with sugar beet seedlings confronted to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Amoebae increased the frequency of both DAPG and HCN positive bacteria in later plant growth phases (2 and 3 weeks), as well as the average number of biocontrol genes per bacterium. The abundance of DAPG positive bacteria correlated with disease suppression, suggesting that their promotion by amoebae may enhance soil health. However, the net effect of amoebae on soil suppressiveness was neutral to slightly negative, possibly because amoebae slow down the establishment of biocontrol bacteria on the recently emerged seedlings used in the assay. The results indicate that microfaunal predators foster biocontrol bacterial communities. Understanding interactions between biocontrol bacteria and their predators may thus help developing environmentally friendly management practices of agricultural systems.

Muller, Maren Stella; Scheu, Stefan; Jousset, Alexandre

2013-01-01

272

Antimicrobial and insecticidal protein isolated from seeds of Clitoria ternatea, a tropical forage legume.  

PubMed

The tropical forage legume Clitoria ternatea (L.) has important agronomic traits such as adaptation to a wide range of soil conditions and resistance to drought. It is resistant to a number of pathogens and pests. These important traits gave us reasons to look more closely at the plant. A highly basic small protein was purified from seeds of C. ternatea to homogeneity by using ultrafiltration with Centricon-3 membrane tubes and preparative granulated-bed isoelectric focusing (IEF). A single protein band was obtained on both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IEF gels. The protein, designated 'finotin', has broad and potent inhibitory effect on the growth of various important fungal pathogens of plants, namely Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Pyricularia grisea, Bipolaris oryzae and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. It also inhibits the common bean bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli. Moreover, finotin has powerful inhibitory properties against the bean bruchids Zabrotes subfasciatus and Acanthoscelides obtectus. PMID:15694280

Kelemu, Segenet; Cardona, César; Segura, Gustavo

2004-12-01

273

Genetic modification of potato against microbial diseases: in vitro and in planta activity of a dermaseptin B1 derivative, MsrA2.  

PubMed

Dermaseptin B1 is a potent cationic antimicrobial peptide found in skin secretions of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. A synthetic derivative of dermaseptin B1, MsrA2 (N-Met-dermaseptin B1), elicited strong antimicrobial activities against various phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria in vitro. To assess its potential for plant protection, MsrA2 was expressed at low levels (1-5 microg/g of fresh tissue) in the transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Desiree. Stringent challenges of these transgenic potato plants with a variety of highly virulent fungal phytopathogens--Alternaria, Cercospora, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Verticillium species--and with the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora demonstrated that the plants had an unusually broad-spectrum and powerful resistance to infection. MsrA2 profoundly protected both plants and tubers from diseases such as late blight, dry rot and pink rot and markedly extended the storage life of tubers. Due to these properties in planta, MsrA2 is proposed as an ideal antimicrobial peptide candidate to significantly increase resistance to phytopathogens and improve quality in a variety of crops worldwide with the potential to obviate fungicides and facilitate storage under difficult conditions. PMID:15947906

Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Kay, William; Misra, Santosh

2005-08-01

274

Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds and organic extracts from Muscodor yucatanensis, a tropical endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba.  

PubMed

Muscodor yucatanensis, an endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) in a dry, semideciduous tropical forest in the Ecological Reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico. We tested the mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by M. yucatanensis for allelochemical effects against other endophytic fungi, phytopathogenic fungi and fungoids, and plants. VOCs were lethal to Guignardia mangifera, Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia sp., Phytophthora capsici, and P. parasitica, but had no effect on Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., the endophytic isolate 120, or M. yucatanensis. VOCs inhibited root elongation in amaranth, tomato, and barnyard grass, particularly those produced during the first 15 days of fungal growth. VOCs were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and included compounds not previously reported from other Muscodor species and the previously reported compounds octane, 2-methyl butyl acetate, 2-pentyl furan, caryophyllene, and aromadendrene. We also evaluated organic extracts from the culture medium and mycelium of M. yucatanensis on the same endophytes, phytopathogens, and plants. In general, extracts inhibited plants more than endophytic or phytopathogens fungi. G. mangifera was the only organism that was significantly stimulated by both extracts regardless of concentration. Compounds in both organic extracts were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We discuss the possible allelopathic role that metabolites of M. yucatanensis play in its ecological interactions with its host plant and other organisms. PMID:20809145

Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Hernández-Bautista, Blanca E; Oropeza, Fabiola; Duarte, Georgina; González, María C; Glenn, Anthony E; Hanlin, Richard T; Anaya, Ana Luisa

2010-10-01

275

Evaluation of Nostoc strain ATCC 53789 as a potential source of natural pesticides.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterium Nostoc strain ATCC 53789, a known cryptophycin producer, was tested for its potential as a source of natural pesticides. The antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, nematocidal, and cytotoxic activities of methanolic extracts of the cyanobacterium were evaluated. Among the target organisms, nine fungi (Armillaria sp., Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, Penicillium expansum, Phytophthora cambivora, P. cinnamomi, Rhizoctonia solani, Rosellinia, sp., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Verticillium albo-atrum) were growth inhibited and one insect (Helicoverpa armigera) was killed by the extract, as well as the two model organisms for nematocidal (Caenorhabditis elegans) and cytotoxic (Artemia salina) activity. No antibacterial activity was detected. The antifungal activity against S. sclerotiorum was further studied with both extracts and biomass of the cyanobacterium in a system involving tomato as a host plant. Finally, the herbicidal activity of Nostoc strain ATCC 53789 was evaluated against a grass mixture. To fully exploit the potential of this cyanobacterium in agriculture as a source of pesticides, suitable application methods to overcome its toxicity toward plants and nontarget organisms must be developed. PMID:15184126

Biondi, Natascia; Piccardi, Raffaella; Margheri, M Cristina; Rodolfi, Liliana; Smith, Geoffrey D; Tredici, Mario R

2004-06-01

276

Involvement of Trichoderma trichothecenes in the biocontrol activity and induction of plant defense-related genes.  

PubMed

Trichoderma species produce trichothecenes, most notably trichodermin and harzianum A (HA), by a biosynthetic pathway in which several of the involved proteins have significant differences in functionality compared to their Fusarium orthologues. In addition, the genes encoding these proteins show a genomic organization differing from that of the Fusarium tri clusters. Here we describe the isolation of Trichoderma arundinaceum IBT 40837 transformants which have a disrupted or silenced tri4 gene, a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that oxygenates trichodiene to give rise to isotrichodiol, and the effect of tri4 gene disruption and silencing on the expression of other tri genes. Our results indicate that the tri4 gene disruption resulted in a reduced antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani and also in a reduced ability to induce the expression of tomato plant defense-related genes belonging to the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonate (JA) pathways against B. cinerea, in comparison to the wild-type strain, indicating that HA plays an important function in the sensitization of Trichoderma-pretreated plants against this fungal pathogen. Additionally, the effect of the interaction of T. arundinaceum with B. cinerea or R. solani and with tomato seedlings on the expressions of the tri genes was studied. PMID:22562989

Malmierca, M G; Cardoza, R E; Alexander, N J; McCormick, S P; Hermosa, R; Monte, E; Gutiérrez, S

2012-07-01

277

Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on Lettuce Growth and Health under Pathogen Pressure and Its Impact on the Rhizosphere Bacterial Community  

PubMed Central

The soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is responsible for crop losses on a wide range of important crops worldwide. The lack of effective control strategies and the increasing demand for organically grown food has stimulated research on biological control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the rhizosphere competence of the commercially available inoculant Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on lettuce growth and health together with its impact on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial community in field and pot experiments. Results of both experiments demonstrated that FZB42 is able to effectively colonize the rhizosphere (7.45 to 6.61 Log 10 CFU g?1 root dry mass) within the growth period of lettuce in the field. The disease severity (DS) of bottom rot on lettuce was significantly reduced from severe symptoms with DS category 5 to slight symptom expression with DS category 3 on average through treatment of young plants with FZB42 before and after planting. The 16S rRNA gene based fingerprinting method terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) showed that the treatment with FZB42 did not have a major impact on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial community. However, the bacterial community showed a clear temporal shift. The results also indicated that the pathogen R. solani AG1-IB affects the rhizosphere microbial community after inoculation. Thus, we revealed that the inoculant FZB42 could establish itself successfully in the rhizosphere without showing any durable effect on the rhizosphere bacterial community.

Randler, Manuela; Schmid, Michael; Junge, Helmut; Borriss, Rainer; Hartmann, Anton; Grosch, Rita

2013-01-01

278

Quantitative assessment of phytopathogenic fungi in various substrates using a DNA macroarray.  

PubMed

Detection, identification and quantification of plant pathogens are the cornerstones of preventive plant disease management. To detect multiple pathogens in a single assay, DNA array technology currently is the most suitable technique. However, for sensitive detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification before array hybridization is required. To evaluate whether DNA array technology can be used to simultaneously detect and quantify multiple pathogens, a DNA macroarray was designed and optimized for accurate quantification over at least three orders of magnitude of the economically important vascular wilt pathogens Verticillium albo-atrum and Verticillium dahliae. A strong correlation was observed between hybridization signals and pathogen concentrations for standard DNA added to DNA from different origins and for infested samples. While accounting for specific criteria like amount of immobilized detector oligonucleotide and controls for PCR kinetics, accurate quantification of pathogens was achieved in concentration ranges typically encountered in horticultural practice. Subsequently, quantitative assessment of other tomato pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani) in environmental samples was performed using DNA array technology and correlated to measurements obtained using real-time PCR. As both methods of quantification showed a very high degree of correlation, the reliability and robustness of the DNA array technology is shown. PMID:16232285

Lievens, Bart; Brouwer, Margreet; Vanachter, Alfons C R C; Lévesque, C André; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thomma, Bart P H J

2005-11-01

279

Lactoferrin-derived resistance against plant pathogens in transgenic plants.  

PubMed

Lactoferrin (LF) is a ubiquitous cationic iron-binding milk glycoprotein that contributes to nutrition and exerts a broad-spectrum primary defense against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses in mammals. These qualities make lactoferrin protein and its antimicrobial motifs highly desirable candidates to be incorporated in plants to impart broad-based resistance against plant pathogens or to economically produce them in bulk quantities for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. This study introduced bovine LF (BLF) gene into tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi), Arabidopsis ( A. thaliana ) and wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) via Agrobacterium -mediated plant transformation. Transgenic plants or detached leaves exhibited high levels of resistance against the damping-off causing fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and the head blight causing fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum . LF also imparted resistance to tomato plants against a bacterial pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum . Similarly, other researchers demonstrated expression of LF and LF-mediated high-quality resistance to several other aggressive fungal and bacterial plant pathogens in transgenic plants and against viral pathogens by foliar applications of LF or its derivatives. Taken together, these studies demonstrated the effectiveness of LF for improving crop quality and its biopharming potentials for pharmaceautical and nutritional applications. PMID:23889215

Lakshman, Dilip K; Natarajan, Savithiry; Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mitra, Amitava

2013-12-01

280

Chemical composition, seasonal variability, and antifungal activity of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas essential oils from stem/leaves and flowers.  

PubMed

Essential oils from the stems/leaves (L) and flowers (F) of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in southern Sardinia (Italy) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector and ion trap mass spectrometry. The major compound was fenchone, accounting for, on average, 52.60% in L and 66.20% in F, followed by camphor (13.13% versus 27.08%, in L and F, respectively). F essential oil yields (volume per dry weight) decreased from the beginning to the end of the flowering stage, whereas L yields remained constant during the year. The nine main compounds derived from two different subpathways, A and B. The compounds that belong to the same subpathway showed a similar behavior during the year. The essential oils were tested for their antifungal activity using the paper disk diffusion method. The essential oils tested were effective on the inactivation of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum and less effective against Aspergillus flavus. Among the single compounds tested, fenchone, limonene, and myrtenal appeared to be the more effective on the inhibition of R. solani growth. PMID:16756368

Angioni, Alberto; Barra, Andrea; Coroneo, Valentina; Dessi, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo

2006-06-14

281

Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main identified components of the flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils were estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%), fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%), and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%), respectively. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds of essential oils were determined with respect to the different parts of F. vulgare. The oils exerted varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The 40 ppm concentrations of fennel oils showed inhibitory effect against mycelial growth of A. alternaria, whereas 10 ppm levels were ineffective. The analyses show that fennel oils exhibited different degrees of fungistatic activity depending on the doses. PMID:17201644

Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Arslan, Derya; Ate?, Ay?e; Unver, Ahmet

2006-01-01

282

In vitro antagonism of cotton seedlings fungi and characterization of chitinase isozyme activities in Trichoderma harzianum  

PubMed Central

The antagonistic fungus Trichoderma harzianum is widely recognized as a potential biocontrol agent against several soil-borne plant pathogens. T. harzinum is rich source of chitinoltic enzymes. In vitro screening of 5 isolates of T. harzinum, one isolate of Chaetomium globosum and one isolate of Conetherium mentance, revealed that all of them had reduced growth area of Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solaniand Rhizoctonia solani on PDA medium, significantly. The inhibition percentage ranged from 77.9 % to 55.9% for M. phaseolina and 59.2% to 40.4% for R. solani by T. harzinum and C. mentance, respectively. Inhibition for F. solani ranged from 76.5% to 55.7% by T. harzinum and C. globosum, respectively. Isozyme gel electrophoresis was used to assess chitinase activity secreted by selected isolates of T. harzinum under different pH degrees and temperatures. Obtained results indicated that activity of chitinase isozyme produced at 30 °C was higher than 15–20 °C for all tested isolates and activity of chitinase produced by isolates No. 4 and 5 of T. harzinum at pH (7–7.5) was higher than at pH 6, respectively.

Asran-Amal, A.; Moustafa-Mahmoud, S.M.; Sabet, K.K.; El Banna, O.H.

2010-01-01

283

Isolation and partial characterization of antibacterial lipopeptide produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa HKA-15 against phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli M-5.  

PubMed

An antibacterial metabolite was isolated from Paenibacillus polymyxa HKA-15, a soybean bacterial endophyte. The purification of the crude metabolite from Paenibacillus polymyxa HKA-15 was done by column chromatography. In TLC, a spot with an R ( f ) value of 0.86 (±0.02) from the purified fraction showed bioactivity against Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli M-5. In SDS-PAGE, the purified antibiotic was separated in the molecular weight range of 3.5 kDa. The exact molecular weight of the active compound was identified as 1,347.7 Da using MS-MS analysis. Infra red spectrum and (1)H NMR analysis showed the presence of amino acids and fatty acids in the active compound. The characterization of the antibacterial compound revealed its lipopeptide nature. In an agar diffusion assay, the crude metabolite showed a broad spectrum of activity, being able to inhibit the growth of the fungal pathogen, Rhizoctonia bataticola, Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium udum. A stronger inhibition was observed against bacterial pathogens viz., X. campestris pv.phaseoli M-5, X. campestris pv. phaseoli CP-1-1, Xanthomonas oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum and Micrococcus luteus. PMID:22805811

Mageshwaran, Vellaichamy; Walia, Suresh; Annapurna, Kannepalli

2012-03-01

284

Antimicrobial activity studies on a trypsin-chymotrypsin protease inhibitor obtained from potato.  

PubMed

A 5.6 kDa trypsin-chymotrypsin protease inhibitor was isolated from the tubers of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Gogu) by extraction of the water-soluble fraction, dialysis, ultrafiltration, and C18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. This inhibitor, which we named potamin-1 (PT-1), was thermostable and possessed antimicrobial activity but lacked hemolytic activity. PT-1 strongly inhibited pathogenic microbial strains, including Candida albicans, Rhizoctonia solani, and Clavibacter michiganense subsp. michiganinse. Automated Edman degradation showed that the N-terminal sequence of PT-1 was NH2-DICTCCAGTKGCNTTSANGAFICEGQSDPKKPKACPLNCDPHIAYA-. The sequence had 62% homology with a serine protease inhibitor belonging to the Kunitz family, and the peptide inhibited chymotrypsin, trypsin, and papain. This protease inhibitor, PT-1, was composed of polypeptide chains joined by disulfide bridge(s). Reduced PT-1 almost completely lost its activity against fungi and proteases indicating that disulfide bridge is essential for its protease inhibitory and antifungal activity. These results suggest that PT-1 is an excellent candidate as a lead compound for the development of novel oral or other anti-infective agents. PMID:15809084

Kim, Jin-Young; Park, Seong-Cheol; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Lim, Hak-Tae; Park, Yoonkyung; Hahm, Kyung-Soo

2005-05-13

285

Purification and characterization of a heat-stable serine protease inhibitor from the tubers of new potato variety "Golden Valley".  

PubMed

Potide-G, a small (5578.9 Da) antimicrobial peptide, was isolated from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Golden Valley) through extraction of the water-soluble fraction, dialysis, ultrafiltration and DEAE-cellulose and C18 reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. This antimicrobial peptide was heat-stable and almost completely suppressed the proteolytic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin and papain, with no hemolytic activity. In addition, potide-G potently inhibited growth of a variety of bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Clavibacter michiganense subsp. michiganinse) and fungal (Candida albicans and Rhizoctonia solani) strains. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry revealed that the N-terminal sequence (residues from 1 to 11) of the protein is identical to that of potato proteinase inhibitor, a member of the Kunitz superfamily. And like other members of this class of protease inhibitor, potide-G may have a number of beneficial and therapeutic uses. PMID:16777063

Kim, Mi-Hyun; Park, Seong-Cheol; Kim, Jin-Young; Lee, Sun Young; Lim, Hak-Tae; Cheong, Hyeonsook; Hahm, Kyung-Soo; Park, Yoonkyung

2006-08-01

286

Benzofurazan derivatives as antifungal agents against phytopathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

A series of benzofurazan derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their biological activities against four important phytopathogenic fungi, namely, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium graminearum and Phytophthora capsici, using the mycelium growth inhibition method. The structures of these compounds were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and HRMS. N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-nitrobenzo[c][1,2,5]oxadiazol-4-amine (A3) displayed the maximum antifungal activity against R. solani (IC50 = 1.91 ?g/mL), which is close to that of the positive control Carbendazim (IC50 = 1.42 ?g/mL). For other benzofurazan derivatives with nitro group at R(4) position (A series), 9 out of 30 compounds exhibited high antifungal effect against strain R. solani, with IC50 values less than 5 ?g/mL. Most of the derivatives with substituents at R(2) and R(3) positions (B series) displayed moderate growth inhibition against S. sclerotiorum (IC50 < 25 ?g/mL). Also, several benzofuran derivatives with nitro group at R(4) position and another conjugated aromatic ring at the R(1) position of the phenyl ring displayed high antifungal capability against strain R. solani. Compounds with substituents at R(2) and R(3) position had moderate efficacy against strain S. sclerotiorum. PMID:24813881

Wang, Lili; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Lei; Liu, Feng-You; Cao, Ling-Ling; Yang, Jing; Qiao, Chunhua; Ye, Yonghao

2014-06-10

287

The Elicitation Effect of Pathogenic Fungi on Trichodermin Production by Trichoderma brevicompactum  

PubMed Central

The effects of six species of phytopathogenic fungi mycelia as elicitors on trichodermin yield by Trichoderma brevicompactum were investigated. Neither nonviable nor viable mycelia of Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and Thanatephorus cucumeris demonstrated any elicitation on the accumulation of trichodermin. However, the production of trichodermin was increased by the presence of viable/nonviable Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum mycelia. The strongest elicitation effect was found at the presence of nonviable R. solani. At the presence of nonviable R. solani, the maximum yield of trichodermin (144.55?mg/L) was significantly higher than the Control (67.8?mg/L), and the cultivation time to obtain the maximum yield of trichodermin decreased from 72?h to 60?h. No difference of trichodermin accumulation was observed by changing the concentration of nonviable R. solani from 0.1 to 1.6?g/L. It was observed that the optimum time for adding nonviable R. solani is immediately after inoculation. The diameter of T. brevicompactum mycelial globule after 72?h cultivation with nonviable R. solani elicitor was smaller than that of the Control.

Shentu, Xu-Ping; Liu, Wei-Ping; Zhan, Xiao-Huan; Yu, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

2013-01-01

288

Bacterial populations associated with rice seed in the tropical environment.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT During the 1995 wet season, harvested rice seed was collected from farmers' fields at different locations in Iloilo, Philippines. Bacterial isolations from crushed seed yielded 428 isolates. The isolates were characterized by BOX-polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting of total genomic DNA and represented 151 fingerprint types (FPT). Most FPTs were found on a single occasion, although matching fingerprints for isolates from different samples also were found. Identifications were made by cellular fatty acid methyl ester analysis and additional use of Biolog GN/GP MicroPlates and API 20E/50CHE systems. The predominant bacteria were Enterobacteriaceae (25%), Bacillus spp. (22%), and Pseu-domonas spp. (14%). Other bacteria regularly present were identified as Xanthomonas spp., Cellulomonas flavigena, and Clavibacter michiganense. Of the total number of isolated bacteria, 4% exhibited in vitro antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani or Pyricularia grisea. Two percent of isolates were pathogens identified as Burkholderia glumae and Burkholderia gladioli. Five percent of isolates induced sheath necrosis on only 50 to 90% of inoculated plants and were related to Bacillus pumilus, Paenibacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Pantoea spp. PMID:18943348

Cottyn, B; Regalado, E; Lanoot, B; De Cleene, M; Mew, T W; Swings, J

2001-03-01

289

Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.  

PubMed

In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

2013-11-01

290

Characterization of a newly identified rice chitinase-like protein (OsCLP) homologous to xylanase inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Background During rice blast fungal attack, plant xylanase inhibitor proteins (XIPs) that inhibit fungal xylanase activity are believed to act as a defensive barrier against fungal pathogens. To understand the role of XIPs in rice, a xylanase inhibitor was cloned from rice. The expression of this gene was examined at the transcriptional/translational levels during compatible and incompatible interactions, and the biochemical activity of this protein was also examined. Results Sequence alignment revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of OsCLP shares a high degree of similarity with that of other plant TAXI-type XIPs. However, recombinant OsCLP did not display inhibitory activity against endo-1,4-?-xylanase enzymes from Aureobasidium pullulans (A. pullulans) or Trichoderma viride (T. viride). Instead, an in-gel activity assay revealed strong chitinase activity. The transcription and translation of OsCLP were highly induced when rice was exposed to pathogens in an incompatible interaction. In addition, exogenous treatment with OsCLP affected the growth of the basidiomycete fungus Rhizoctonia solani through degradation of the hyphal cell wall. These data suggest that OsCLP, which has chitinase activity, may play an important role in plant defenses against pathogens. Conclusions Taken together, our results demonstrate that OsCLP may have antifungal activity. This protein may directly inhibit pathogen growth by degrading fungal cell wall components through chitinase activity.

2013-01-01

291

Tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of plant pathogenic fungi and the effects of database composition on protein inferences  

PubMed Central

LC-MS/MS has demonstrated potential for detecting plant pathogens. Unlike PCR or ELISA, LC-MS/MS does not require pathogen-specific reagents for the detection of pathogen-specific proteins and peptides. However, the MS/MS approach we and others have explored does require a protein sequence reference database and database-search software to interpret tandem mass spectra. To evaluate the limitations of database composition on pathogen identification, we analyzed proteins from cultured Ustilago maydis, Phytophthora sojae, Fusarium graminearum, and Rhizoctonia solani by LC-MS/MS. When the search database did not contain sequences for a target pathogen, or contained sequences to related pathogens, target pathogen spectra were reliably matched to protein sequences from nontarget organisms, giving an illusion that proteins from nontarget organisms were identified. Our analysis demonstrates that when database-search software is used as part of the identification process, a paradox exists whereby additional sequences needed to detect a wide variety of possible organisms may lead to more cross-species protein matches and misidentification of pathogens.

Padliya, Neerav D.; Garrett, Wesley M.; Campbell, Kimberly B.; Tabb, David L.; Cooper, Bret

2010-01-01

292

The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology.  

PubMed

The aim of this review was to survey all fungal pathologists with an association with the journal Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which fungal pathogens they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated 495 votes from the international community, and resulted in the generation of a Top 10 fungal plant pathogen list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Magnaporthe oryzae; (2) Botrytis cinerea; (3) Puccinia spp.; (4) Fusarium graminearum; (5) Fusarium oxysporum; (6) Blumeria graminis; (7) Mycosphaerella graminicola; (8) Colletotrichum spp.; (9) Ustilago maydis; (10) Melampsora lini, with honourable mentions for fungi just missing out on the Top 10, including Phakopsora pachyrhizi and Rhizoctonia solani. This article presents a short resumé of each fungus in the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant mycology community, as well as laying down a bench-mark. It will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and what fungi will comprise any future Top 10. PMID:22471698

Dean, Ralph; Van Kan, Jan A L; Pretorius, Zacharias A; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Di Pietro, Antonio; Spanu, Pietro D; Rudd, Jason J; Dickman, Marty; Kahmann, Regine; Ellis, Jeff; Foster, Gary D

2012-05-01

293

Novel copper-based therapeutic agent for anti-inflammatory: synthesis, characterization, and biochemical activities of copper(II) complexes of hydroxyflavone Schiff bases.  

PubMed

Four hydroxyflavone derivatives have been synthesized with the aim of obtaining a good model of superoxide dismutase. Better to mimic the natural metalloenzyme, copper complexes have been designed. The Cu(II) complexes of general formulae, [CuL] where L?=?5-hydroxyflavone-o-phenylenediamine (L¹H?)/m-phenylenediamine (L²H?) and 3-hydroxyflavone-o-phenylenediamine (L³H?)/m-phenylenediamine (L?H?) have been synthesized. The structural features have been determined from their analytical and spectral data. All the Cu(II) complexes exhibit square planar geometry. Redox behavior of copper complexes was studied and the present ligand systems stabilize the unusual oxidation state of the copper ion during electrolysis. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the investigated compounds were tested against the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal species Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizoctonia bataicola, and Candida albicans. Superoxide dismutase and anti-inflammatory activities of the copper complexes have also been measured and discussed. PMID:22238015

Joseph, J; Nagashri, K

2012-07-01

294

Influence of host plant genotype, presence of a pathogen, and coinoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens strains on the rhizosphere expression of hydrogen cyanide- and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthetic genes in P. fluorescens biocontrol strain CHA0.  

PubMed

The production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) is a major factor in the control of soil-borne diseases by Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. We investigated the impact of different biotic factors on the expression of HCN-in comparison to DAPG biosynthetic genes in the rhizosphere. To this end, the influence of plant cultivar, pathogen infection, and coinoculation with other biocontrol strains on the expression of hcnA-lacZ and phlA-lacZ fusion in strain CHA0 was monitored on the roots of bean. Interestingly, all the tested factors influenced the expression of the two biocontrol traits in a similar way. For both genes, we observed a several-fold higher expression in the rhizosphere of cv. Derakhshan compared with cvs. Goli and Naz, although bacterial rhizosphere colonization levels were similar on all cultivars tested. Root infection by Rhizoctonia solani stimulated total phlA and hcnA gene expression in the bean rhizosphere. Coinoculation of strain CHA0 with DAPG-producing P. fluorescens biocontrol strains Pf-68 and Pf-100 did neither result in a substantial alteration of hcnA nor of phlA expression in CHA0 on bean roots. To our best knowledge, this is the first study investigating the impact of biotic factors on HCN production by a bacterial biocontrol strain in the rhizosphere. PMID:19030916

Jamali, Fatemeh; Sharifi-Tehrani, Abbas; Lutz, Matthias P; Maurhofer, Monika

2009-02-01

295

A mannose-specific tetrameric lectin with mitogenic and antibacterial activities from the ovary of a teleost, the cobia (Rachycentron canadum).  

PubMed

A tetrameric lectin, with hemagglutinating activity toward rabbit erythrocytes and with specificity toward D-mannosamine and D(+)-mannose, was isolated from the ovaries of a teleost, the cobia Rachycentron canadum. The isolation protocol comprised ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose and Q-Sepharose, ion exchange chromatography by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on Mono Q, and finally gel filtration by FPLC on Superose 12. The lectin was adsorbed on all ion exchangers used. It exhibited a molecular mass of 180 kDa in gel filtration on Superose 12 and a single 45-kDa band in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that it is a tetrameric protein. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was stable up to 40 degrees C and between pH 4 and pH 10. All hemagglutinating activity disappeared at 60 degrees C and at pH 1 and pH 13. The hemagglutinating activity was doubled in the presence of 0.1 microM FeCl3. The lectin exerted antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with 50% inhibition at 250 microg. There was no antifungal activity toward Coprinus comatus, Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Rhizoctonia solani at a dose of 300 microg. The lectin exhibited maximal mitogenic response from mouse splenocytes at a concentration of 14 microM. PMID:17109173

Ngai, Patrick H K; Ng, T B

2007-02-01

296

Chitinolytic Enterobacter agglomerans Antagonistic to Fungal Plant Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Three Enterobacter agglomerans strains which produce and excrete proteins with chitinolytic activity were found while screening soil-borne bacteria antagonistic to fungal plant pathogens. The chitinolytic activity was induced when the strains were grown in the presence of colloidal chitin as the sole carbon source. It was quantitated by using assays with chromogenic p-nitrophenyl analogs of disaccharide, trisaccharide, and tetrasaccharide derivatives of N-acetylglucosamine. A set of three fluorescent substrates with a 4-methylumbelliferyl group linked by (beta)-1,4 linkage to N-acetylglucosamine mono- or oligosaccharides were used to identify the chitinolytic activities of proteins which had been renatured following their separation by electrophoresis. This study provides the most complete evidence for the presence of a complex of chitinolytic enzymes in Enterobacter strains. Four enzymes were detected: two N-acetyl-(beta)-d-glucosaminidases of 89 and 67 kDa, an endochitinase with an apparent molecular mass of 59 kDa, and a chitobiosidase of 50 kDa. The biocontrol ability of the chitinolytic strains was demonstrated under greenhouse conditions. The bacteria decreased the incidence of disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani in cotton by 64 to 86%. Two Tn5 mutants of one of the isolates, which were deficient in chitinolytic activity, were unable to protect plants against the disease.

Chernin, L.; Ismailov, Z.; Haran, S.; Chet, I.

1995-01-01

297

Resistance to Multiple Tuber Diseases Expressed in Somaclonal Variants of the Potato Cultivar Russet Burbank  

PubMed Central

Multiple disease resistance is an aim of many plant breeding programs. Previously, novel somatic cell selection was used to generate potato variants of “Russet Burbank” with resistance to common scab caused by infection with an actinomycete pathogen. Coexpression of resistance to powdery scab caused by a protozoan pathogen was subsequently shown. This study sought to define whether this resistance was effective against additional potato tuber diseases, black scurf, and tuber soft rot induced by fungal and bacterial pathogens. Pot trials and in vitro assays with multiple pathogenic strains identified significant resistance to both tuber diseases across the potato variants examined; the best clone A380 showed 51% and 65% reductions in disease severity to tuber soft rot and black scurf, respectively, when compared with the parent line. The resistance appeared to be tuber specific as no enhanced resistance was recorded in stolons or stem material when challenged Rhizoctonia solani that induces stolon pruning and stem canker. The work presented here suggests that morphological characteristics associated with tuber resistance may be the predominant change that has resulted from the somaclonal cell selection process, potentially underpinning the demonstrated broad spectrum of resistance to tuber invading pathogens.

Thangavel, Tamilarasan; Steven Tegg, Robert; Wilson, Calum Rae

2014-01-01

298

Four genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens that encode the biosynthesis of pyrrolnitrin.  

PubMed Central

Pyrrolnitrin is a secondary metabolite of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia sp. strains with strong antifungal activity. Production of pyrrolnitrin has been correlated with the ability of some bacteria to control plant diseases caused by fungal pathogens, including the damping-off pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Pseudomonas fluorescens BL915 has been reported to produce pyrrolnitrin and to be an effective biocontrol agent for this pathogen. We have isolated a 32-kb genomic DNA fragment from this strain that contains genes involved in the biosynthesis of pyrrolnitrin. Marker-exchange mutagenesis of this DNA with Tn5 revealed the presence of a 6.2-kb region that contains genes required for the synthesis of pyrrolnitrin. The nucleotide sequence of the 6.2-kb region was determined and found to contain a cluster of four genes that are required for the production of pyrrolnitrin. Deletion mutations in any of the four genes resulted in a pyrrolnitrin-nonproducing phenotype. The putative coding sequences of the four individual genes were cloned by PCR and fused to the tac promoter from Escherichia coli. In each case, the appropriate tac promoter-pyrrolnitrin gene fusion was shown to complement the pyrrolnitrin-negative phenotype of the corresponding deletion mutant. Transfer of the four gene cluster to E. coli resulted in the production of pyrrolnitrin by this organism, thereby demonstrating that the four genes are sufficient for the production of this metabolite and represent all of the genes required to encode the pathway for pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis.

Hammer, P E; Hill, D S; Lam, S T; Van Pee, K H; Ligon, J M

1997-01-01

299

Isolation, selection, and characterization of beneficial rhizobacteria from pea, lentil, and chickpea grown in western Canada.  

PubMed

The use of beneficial soil microorganisms as agricultural inputs for improved crop production requires selection of rhizosphere-competent microorganisms with plant growth-promoting attributes. A collection of 563 bacteria originating from the roots of pea, lentil, and chickpea grown in Saskatchewan was screened for several plant growth-promoting traits, for suppression of legume fungal pathogens, and for plant growth promotion. Siderophore production was detected in 427 isolates (76%), amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity in 29 isolates (5%), and indole production in 38 isolates (7%). Twenty-six isolates (5%) suppressed the growth of Pythium sp. strain p88-p3, 40 isolates (7%) suppressed the growth of Fusarium avenaceum, and 53 isolates (9%) suppressed the growth of Rhizoctonia solani CKP7. Seventeen isolates (3%) promoted canola root elongation in a growth pouch assay, and of these, 4 isolates promoted the growth of lentil and one isolate promoted the growth of pea. Fatty acid profile analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing of smaller subsets of the isolates that were positive for the plant growth-promotion traits tested showed that 39%-42% were members of the Pseudomonadaceae and 36%-42% of the Enterobacteriaceae families. Several of these isolates may have potential for development as biofertilizers or biopesticides for western Canadian legume crops. PMID:18388997

Hynes, Russell K; Leung, Grant C Y; Hirkala, Danielle L M; Nelson, Louise M

2008-04-01

300

Marine isolates of Trichoderma spp. as potential halotolerant agents of biological control for arid-zone agriculture.  

PubMed

The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents. PMID:21666030

Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded

2011-08-01

301

First report of a bifunctional chitinase/lysozyme produced by Bacillus pumilus SG2.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus SG2 isolated from high salinity ecosystem in Iran produces two chitinases (ChiS and ChiL) and secretes them into the medium. In this study, chiS and chiL genes were cloned in pQE-30 expression vector and were expressed in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli strain M15. The recombinant proteins were purified using Ni-NTA column. The optimum pH and optimum temperature for enzyme activity of ChiS were pH 6, 50°C; those of ChiL were pH 6.5, 40°C. The purified chitinases showed antifungal activity against Fusarium graminearum, Rhizoctonia solani, Magnaporthe grisea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Trichoderma reesei, Botrytis cinerea and Bipolaris sp. Moreover, purified ChiS was identified as chitinase/lysozyme, which are capable of degrading the chitin component of fungal cell walls and the peptidoglycan component of cell walls with many kinds of bacteria (Xanthomonas translucens pv. hordei, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, Bacillus licheniformis, E. coli C600, E. coli TOP10, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida). Strong homology was found between the three-dimensional structures of ChiS and a chitinase/lysozyme from Bacillus circulans WL-12. This is the first report of a bifunctional chitinase/lysozyme from B. pumilus. PMID:22112904

Ghasemi, Seyedhadi; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Zeigler, Daniel R; Rahimian, Heshmatollah; Ghandili, Soheila; Naghibzadeh, Neda; Dehestani, Ali

2011-03-01

302

A pathogenesis related protein, AhPR10 from peanut: an insight of its mode of antifungal activity.  

PubMed

A pathogenesis related protein (AhPR10) is identified from a clone of 6-day old Arachis hypogaea L. (peanut) cDNA library. The clone expressed as a approximately 20 kDa protein in E. coli. Nucleotide sequence derived amino acid sequence of the coding region shows its homology with PR10 proteins having Betv1 domain and P loop motif. Recombinant AhPR10 has ribonuclease activity, and antifungal activity against the peanut pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. Mutant protein AhPR10-K54N where lys54 is mutated to asn54 loses its ribonuclease and antifungal activities. FITC labeled AhPR10 and AhPR10-K54N are internalized by hyphae of F. oxysporum and R. solani but the later protein does not inhibit the fungal growth. This suggests that the ribonuclease function of AhPR10 is essential for its antifungal activity. Energy and temperature dependent internalization of AhPR10 into sensitive fungal hyphae indicate that internalization of the protein occurs through active uptake. PMID:16832688

Chadha, Pooja; Das, Rakha H

2006-12-01

303

[Antagonistic interactions between saprotrophic fungi and geohelminths. 1. Saprotrophic fungi in the biological control of phytopathogenic geohelminths].  

PubMed

The state of knowledge on the possible antagonism between soil saprotrophic fungi and phytopathogenic nematodes of the genera Meloidogyne, Heterodera, and Globodera is reviewed basing on the literature and our own research. Mycelial colonisation of various developmental stages of these geohelminths is the most common factor thought to reduce their populations in nature. The following parasitic fungi can be found on the cysts, eggs, as well as the larvae of the nematodes: Paecilomyces lilacinus, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp. The fungi invade the nematodes, such as Heterodera, Globodera, or Meloidogyne, "passively" penetrating through the natural orifices of the cysts, eggs, and larvae of the host. Equally frequent, however, is a biochemical action of the fungi prior to colonisation, which is linked with production of mycotoxirls or hydrolytic enzymes. Such an active way of fungal penetration of various stages of the phytopathogenic nematodes has been observed in Pochonia chlamydosporia, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, P. frequentans, Sclerotinia rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium spp. Triacylglycerols (TAG), phenols, as well as trichothecene, T-2, have been found in the metabolites extracted from mycelia of these species. Predation by fungi is also a factor that may reduce a population of phytopathogenic nematodes. This form of antagonism is characteristic for nematicidal fungi of the genera Arthrobotrys and Dactylella. These fungi form shrinking rings and hooks in their mycelia by which the fungus entangles and paralyses a migrating form of nematode. Despite the fact that the antagonism between fungi and nematodes is a commonly occurring phenomenon observed in the soil, the nematicidal and nematotoxic properties of fungi have not a wide application in biological plant protection. Up till now, only the bionematicides based on Arthrobotrys robusta (Royal 300 and Royal 350) as well as Paecilomyces lilacinus (Biocon and PL Plus) have found its commercial application. PMID:19579778

Mazurkiewicz-Zapa?owicz, Kinga; Ko?odziejczyk, Lidia

2009-01-01

304

Rice WRKY45 plays important roles in fungal and bacterial disease resistance.  

PubMed

Plant 'activators', such as benzothiadiazole (BTH), protect plants from various diseases by priming the plant salicylic acid (SA) signalling pathway. We have reported previously that a transcription factor identified in rice, WRKY45 (OsWRKY45), plays a pivotal role in BTH-induced disease resistance by mediating SA signalling. Here, we report further functional characterization of WRKY45. Different plant activators vary in their action points, either downstream (BTH and tiadinil) or upstream (probenazole) of SA. Rice resistance to Magnaporthe grisea, induced by both types of plant activator, was markedly reduced in WRKY45-knockdown (WRKY45-kd) rice, indicating a universal role for WRKY45 in chemical-induced resistance. Fungal invasion into rice cells was blocked at most attempted invasion sites (pre-invasive defence) in WRKY45-overexpressing (WRKY45-ox) rice. Hydrogen peroxide accumulated within the cell wall underneath invading fungus appressoria or between the cell wall and the cytoplasm, implying a possible role for H(2)O(2) in pre-invasive defence. Moreover, a hypersensitive reaction-like reaction was observed in rice cells, in which fungal growth was inhibited after invasion (post-invasive defence). The two levels of defence mechanism appear to correspond to Type I and II nonhost resistances. The leaf blast resistance of WRKY45-ox rice plants was much higher than that of other known blast-resistant varieties. WRKY45-ox plants also showed strong panicle blast resistance. BTH-induced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae was compromised in WRKY45-kd rice, whereas WRKY45-ox plants were highly resistant to this pathogen. However, WRKY45-ox plants were susceptible to Rhizoctonia solani. These results indicate the versatility and limitations of the application of this gene. PMID:21726399

Shimono, Masaki; Koga, Hironori; Akagi, Aya; Hayashi, Nagao; Goto, Shingo; Sawada, Miyuki; Kurihara, Takayuki; Matsushita, Akane; Sugano, Shoji; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Kaku, Hisatoshi; Inoue, Haruhiko; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

305

Synthesis and biological evaluation of benzofuroxan derivatives as fungicides against phytopathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Forty-four benzofuroxan derivatives were designed and prepared as antifungal agents. Their structures were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and HRMS. Their antifungal activities were tested in vitro with four important phytopathogenic fungi, namely, Rhizoctonia solani , Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , Fusarium graminearum and Phytophthora capsici , using the mycelium growth inhibition method. Compound A5 displayed the maximum antifungal activity against F. graminearum (IC50 = 1.1 ?g/mL, which is about 2-fold higher than that of the well-known positive control carbendazim (IC50 = 0.5 ?g/mL). A14 exhibited high antifungal effect against both S. sclerotiorum and F. graminearum Sehw., with IC50 values of 2.52 and 3.42 ?g/mL, respectively. Among 14 benzofuroxan derivatives with substitutions at the R(2) and R(3) positions of the phenyl ring (B series), 7 compounds displayed strong growth inhibition against R. solani (IC50 ? 3.0 ?g/mL). Analysis of the structure-activity relationship data of these compounds revealed that (1) introduction of an electron-donating amino group to the R(2) position of the phenyl ring favors antifungal activity against R. solani and (2) the presence of a nitro group at the R(4) position and substituent variation at the R(1) position of the phenyl ring can result in good antifungal candidates against F. graminearum Sehw. Overall, the benzofuroxan was discovered as a novel scaffold for the development of fungicides. Significantly, A14 was demonstrated to successfully suppress disease development in S. sclerotiorum infected cole in vivo. PMID:23937418

Wang, Lili; Li, Cong; Zhang, Yingying; Qiao, Chunhua; Ye, Yonghao

2013-09-11

306

A global regulator of secondary metabolite production in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the apdA (for antibiotic production) gene of the plant root-colonizing bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 pleiotropically abolish the production of an array of antibiotics, including pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin, and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, as well as the production of tryptophan side chain oxidase, hydrogen cyanide, and an extracellular protease. The lack of production of secondary metabolites by ApdA- mutants was correlated with the loss of inhibition of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani in culture. Sequencing of the apdA region identified an open reading frame of 2,751 bp. The predicted amino acid sequence of the apdA gene contains conserved domains of the histidine kinases that serve as sensor components of prokaryotic two-component regulatory systems. The apdA nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences are strikingly similar to the sequences of lemA and repA, genes encoding putative sensor kinases that are required for the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Pseudomonas viridiflava, respectively. Introduction of the cloned apdA+ gene restored the wild-type phenotype to both LemA- mutants of P. syringae and ApdA- mutants of Pf-5. The 101-kDa ApdA protein reacted with an anti-LemA antiserum, further demonstrating the similarity of ApdA to LemA. These results show that apdA encodes a putative sensor kinase component of a classical two-component regulatory system that is required for secondary-metabolite production by P. fluorescens Pf-5.

Corbell, N; Loper, J E

1995-01-01

307

Potential of olive mill waste and compost as biobased pesticides against weeds, fungi, and nematodes.  

PubMed

The phytotoxic and antimicrobial properties of olive mill wastes have been widely investigated and demonstrated over the past decade. However, their potential utilization as biodegradable pesticides against plant pathogens is still poorly understood. In this study, a series of laboratory bioassays was designed to test the inhibitory effects of sterile water extracts of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) and TPOMW composts with different degrees of stabilization on several different plant pathogens. Fungicidal properties of TPOMW extracts, assayed in a microwell assay format, showed that the growth of Phytophthora capsici was consistently and strongly inhibited by all TPOMW extracts diluted 1:10 (w:v). In contrast, suppression of Pythium ultimum and Botrytis cinerea by the extracts was not as strong and depended on the specific TPOMW sample. Mature compost inhibited P. capsici and B. cinerea at dilutions as great as 1:50, w:v. Neither TPOMW nor TPOMW compost extracts were able to inhibit the growth of the basidiomycete root rot agent Rhizoctonia solani. In addition, studies were conducted on the allelopathic effects of TPOMW extracts on seed germination of four highly invasive and globally distributed weeds (Amaranthus retroflexus, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album and Sorghum halepense). Both the TPOMW and immature TPOMW compost extracts substantially inhibited germination of A. retroflexus and S. nigrum, whereas mature composts extracts only partially reduced the germination of S. nigrum. Finally, TPOMW extracts strongly inhibited egg hatch and second-stage juvenile (J2) motility of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. However, only higher concentrations of stage-one and stage-two TPOMW compost extracts exerted a suppressive effect on both J2 motility and on egg hatch. The study shows the high potential of naturally occurring chemicals present in TPOMW and TPOMW composts that should be further investigated as bio-pesticides for their use in sustainable agricultural systems. PMID:18471866

Cayuela, M L; Millner, P D; Meyer, S L F; Roig, A

2008-07-25

308

Effect of agricultural management regime on Burkholderia community structure in soil.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to determine the Burkholderia community structure associated with areas under different agricultural management and to evaluate to which extent this community structure is affected by changes in agricultural management. Two fields with distinct soil history (arable land and permanent grassland) were exposed to three agricultural management regimes (crop rotation, maize monoculture, and grassland). By using a culture-independent approach, based on a Burkholderia-specific polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis system, it was possible to observe the conversion of Burkholderia communities typical for permanent grassland to those of arable land after four consecutive years. However, the time needed to achieve the reverse transition, i.e., converting the Burkholderia community associated with arable land to that of grassland, was beyond the duration of the field experiment. In addition, by applying principal response curves, the direction and extent of the conversion from grassland to arable land (maize monoculture and to crop rotation) were determined. Hence, the results suggested that agricultural practices, such as fertilization and tillage, were more effective in changing the Burkholderia community structure than agricultural management regime. To determine the effect of agricultural management on the Burkholderia population with biocontrol abilities, the culturable fraction of the Burkholderia community was assessed. The areas under permanent grassland and grassland converted to maize monoculture had the highest percentages of Burkholderia strains with antagonistic activity against Rhizoctonia solani AG-3, mainly Burkholderia pyrrocinia and Burkholderia sp. LMG 22929. The isolation frequency of antagonistic isolates from arable land was extremely low. Our results indicate that (changes in) agricultural management, mainly crop rotation, affect the frequency of isolation of antagonistic Burkholderia strains and that grassland represents a reservoir of Burkholderia species with great potential for agricultural applications. PMID:16897309

Salles, J F; van Elsas, J D; van Veen, J A

2006-08-01

309

Purification and Characterization of a CkTLP Protein from Cynanchum komarovii Seeds that Confers Antifungal Activity  

PubMed Central

Background Cynanchum komarovii Al Iljinski is a desert plant that has been used as analgesic, anthelminthic and antidiarrheal, but also as a herbal medicine to treat cholecystitis in people. We have found that the protein extractions from C. komarovii seeds have strong antifungal activity. There is strong interest to develop protein medication and antifungal pesticides from C. komarovii for pharmacological or other uses. Methodology/Principal Findings An antifungal protein with sequence homology to thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) was isolated from C. komarovii seeds and named CkTLP. The three-dimensional structure prediction of CkTLP indicated the protein has an acid cleft and a hydrophobic patch. The protein showed antifungal activity against fungal growth of Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Valsa mali. The full-length cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE-PCR according to the partial protein sequences obtained by nanoESI-MS/MS. The real-time PCR showed the transcription level of CkTLP had a significant increase under the stress of abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), NaCl and drought, which indicates that CkTLP may play an important role in response to abiotic stresses. Histochemical staining showed GUS activity in almost the whole plant, especially in cotyledons, trichomes and vascular tissues of primary root and inflorescences. The CkTLP protein was located in the extracellular space/cell wall by CkTLP::GFP fusion protein in transgenic Arabidopsis. Furthermore, over-expression of CkTLP significantly enhanced the resistance of Arabidopsis against V. dahliae. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that the CkTLP is a good candidate protein or gene for contributing to the development of disease-resistant crops.

Wang, Qinghua; Li, Fuguang; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Yongan; Hou, Yuxia; Zhang, Shengrui; Wu, Zhixia

2011-01-01

310

Distinction of Fusarium oxysporum fungal isolates (strains) using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and advanced statistical methods.  

PubMed

Fusarium is a large fungi genus of a large variety of species and strains which inhabits soil and vegetation. It is distributed worldwide and affiliated to both warm and cold weather. Fusarium oxysporum species, for instance, cause the Fusarium wilt disease of plants, which appears as a leaf wilting, yellowing and eventually plant death. Early detection and identification of these pathogens are very important and might be critical for their control. Previously, we have managed to differentiate among different fungi genera (Rhizoctonia, Colletotrichum, Verticillium and Fusarium) using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy methods and cluster analysis. In this study, we used Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to discriminate and differentiate between different strains of F. oxysporum. The result obtained was of spectral patterns distinct to each of the various examined strains, which belong to the same species. These differences were not as significant as those found between the different genera species. We applied advanced statistical techniques: principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) on the FTIR-ATR spectra in order to examine the feasibility of distinction between these fungi strains. The results are encouraging and indicate that the FTIR-ATR methodology can differentiate between the different examined strains of F. oxysporum with a high success rate. Based on our PCA and LDA calculations performed in the regions [900-1775 cm(-1), 2800-2990 cm(-1), with 9 PCs], we were able to classify the different strains with high success rates: Foxy1 90%, Foxy2 100%, Foxy3 100%, Foxy4 92.3%, Foxy5 83.3% and Foxy6 100%. PMID:21258677

Salman, A; Pomerantz, A; Tsror, L; Lapidot, I; Zwielly, A; Moreh, R; Mordechai, S; Huleihel, M

2011-03-01

311

Fatty acid composition and dynamics of selected fungal-feeding nematodes and fungi.  

PubMed

Fatty acid profiles of fungal-feeding nematodes, Aphelenchus avenae and Aphelenchoides composticola, and selected fungi were determined in microcosm cultures of agar, broth, or sand amended with organic matter. Fatty acids of A. avenae and A. composticola included 16:0 18:0, 18:1omega7, 18:1omega9, 18:2, 20:0, 20:1, 20:2, 20:3 and 20:4 phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and neutral lipid fatty acids (NLFAs). The nematodes differed in relative amounts of saturated and C(18) fatty acids. Similar C(16) and C(18) PLFAs and whole-cell fatty acids were found in Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma sp. with 18:2omega6 as the major component. The C(20) fatty acids were not found in these fungi. Although only present in the nematodes, C(20) PLFAs were only detected when nematode population levels were > or =22 per gram of sand, suggesting that there is a detection threshold that might limit their use as biomarkers in the soil community. After removal of nematodes from a food source, the relative amount of C(20) PLFAs (structural components of nematode cell membranes) decreased more slowly than the C(16) and C(18) PLFAs, which may have reflected ingested fungal cytoplasm in the nematode intestine. In the early stage of organic matter decomposition, total and fungal PLFAs were lower in the presence of A. composticola then in its absence at C:N ratios > or =30:1. PMID:11544084

Chen, J; Ferris, H; Scow, K M; Graham, K J

2001-09-01

312

The Burkholderia cenocepacia LysR-Type Transcriptional Regulator ShvR Influences Expression of Quorum-Sensing, Protease, Type II Secretion, and afc Genes?  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia cenocepacia is a significant opportunistic pathogen in individuals with cystic fibrosis. ShvR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, has previously been shown to influence colony morphology, biofilm formation, virulence in plant and animal infection models, and some quorum-sensing-dependent phenotypes. In the present study, it was shown that ShvR negatively regulates its own expression, as is typical for LysR-type regulators. The production of quorum-sensing signal molecules was detected earlier in growth in the shvR mutant than in the wild type, and ShvR repressed expression of the quorum-sensing regulatory genes cepIR and cciIR. Microarray analysis and transcriptional fusions revealed that ShvR regulated over 1,000 genes, including the zinc metalloproteases zmpA and zmpB. The shvR mutant displayed increased gene expression of the type II secretion system and significantly increased protease and lipase activities. Both ShvR and CepR influence expression of a 24-kb genomic region adjacent to shvR that includes the afcA and afcC operons, required for the production of an antifungal agent; however, the reduction in expression was substantially greater in the shvR mutant than in the cepR mutant. Only the shvR mutation resulted in reduced antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. ShvR, but not CepR, was shown to directly regulate expression of the afcA and afcC promoters. In summary, ShvR was determined to have a significant influence on the expression of quorum-sensing, protease, lipase, type II secretion, and afc genes.

O'Grady, Eoin P.; Nguyen, David T.; Weisskopf, Laure; Eberl, Leo; Sokol, Pamela A.

2011-01-01

313

Transgene stacking and marker elimination in transgenic rice by sequential Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation with the same selectable marker gene.  

PubMed

Rice chitinase (chi11) and tobacco osmotin (ap24) genes, which cause disruption of fungal cell wall and cell membrane, respectively, were stacked in transgenic rice to develop resistance against the sheath blight disease. The homozygous marker-free transgenic rice line CoT23 which harboured the rice chi11 transgene was sequentially re-transformed with a second transgene ap24 by co-transformation using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harbouring a single-copy cointegrate vector pGV2260::pSSJ1 and a multi-copy binary vector pBin19?nptII-ap24 in the same cell. pGV2260::pSSJ1 T-DNA carried the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) and ?-glucuronidase (gus) genes. pBin19?nptII-ap24 T-DNA harboured the tobacco osmotin (ap24) gene. Co-transformation of the gene of interest (ap24) with the selectable marker gene (SMG, hph) occurred in 12 out of 18 T(0) plants (67%). Segregation of hph from ap24 was accomplished in the T(1) generation in one (line 11) of the four analysed co-transformed plants. The presence of ap24 and chi11 transgenes and the absence of the hph gene in the SMG-eliminated T(1) plants of the line 11 were confirmed by DNA blot analyses. The SMG-free transgenic plants of the line 11 harboured a single copy of the ap24 gene. Homozygous, SMG-free T(2) plants of the transgenic line 11 harboured stacked transgenes, chi11 and ap24. Northern blot analysis of the SMG-free plants revealed constitutive expression of chi11 and ap24. The transgenic plants with stacked transgenes displayed high levels of resistance against Rhizoctonia solani. Thus, we demonstrate the development of transgene-stacked and marker-free transgenic rice by sequential Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation with the same SMG. PMID:21327387

Ramana Rao, Mangu Venkata; Parameswari, Chidambaram; Sripriya, Rajasekaran; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

2011-07-01

314

Design, synthesis, and fungicidal activity of macrolactones and macrolactams with a sulfonamide side chain.  

PubMed

Four series of novel macrolactones and macrolactams12-alkylsulfonamido-1,15-pentadecanlactones ( 5), 12-alkylsulfonamido-15-methyl-1,15-pentadecanlactones ( 6), 12-alkylsulfonamido-1,15-pentadecanlactams ( 7), and N-(alkylsulfonamidoethyl)-1,12-dodecanlactams ( 8)were designed and synthesized from readily available 2-nitrocyclododecanone or cyclododecanone. Their structures were confirmed by (1)H NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. The bioassay showed that these compounds displayed fair to excellent fungicidal activity against Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and have a gradual increase of fungicidal activity in the order of 6, 7, 8, and 5. Among them, compounds 5a, 5b, and 5c displayed excellent fungicidal activity against R. solani comparable with the commercial fungicide carbendazim. Above results illustrated that the rule on the relationship between the activity and hydrogen-bonding, namely the macrocyclic compounds with a hydrogen-bonding acceptor and a hydrogen-bonding donor on the ring and having a three methylenes distance between two polarizable groups have the best fungicidal activity against R. solani, has a general suitability to the macrocyclic compounds, and pesticide molecules may combine with a target enzyme by hydrogen-bonding. The facts, which compound 6 has a much lower fungicidal activity against R. solani than compound 5 but their difference in chemical structure is only that there is a methyl group on the C15 for compound 6 and none but hydrogen atom on the C15 for compound 5, indicated that a methyl group plays an inhibitory role to the fungicidal activity. It suggests that the existence of a methyl group with a great volume between two polarizable groups would interfere in the interaction of pesticide molecules and the target enzyme. PMID:18616265

Zhu, Wei-Juan; Wu, Peng; Liang, Xiao-Mei; Dong, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Yuan, Hui-Zu; Qi, Shu-Hua; Meng, Xiang-Qing; Wu, Jin-Ping; Chen, Fu-Heng; Wang, Dao-Quan

2008-08-13

315

Collophora aceris, a novel antimycotic producing endophyte associated with Douglas Maple.  

PubMed

A novel endophyte designated Collophora aceris, was obtained from stem tissues of Douglas Maple (Acer glabrum var. douglasii) in a Pacific Northwest temperate rainforest. Colonies were slow growing, white, creamy, moist, and translucent to opaque on potato dextrose agar and other media with few aerial hyphae. It also produced solid, dark sclerotia (200-400 ?m) on oatmeal agar and no evidence of pseudopycnidia as per other Collophora spp. Conidia were rod-like in the size ranging from 2.2-8.4?×?0.8-1.8 ?m and produced holoblastically on conidiogenous cells by budding with no collarette at the budding site. Phylogenetic analyses, based on 18S rDNA sequence data, showed that C. aceris possessed 99 % similarity to other Collophora spp. However, ITS-5.8S rDNA sequence data indicated that the organism was potentially related to Allantophomopsis spp. Finally, combined morphological, physiological, and molecular genetics data indicated that this organism is most like Collophora spp. but it is distinctly unique when compared to all other fungi in this group. It is to be noted that this is the first report of any member of this genus existing as an endophyte. This fungus makes a wide spectrum antimycotic agent (Collophorin) with biological activity against such pathogenic fungi as Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Phytophthora palmivora, and Rhizoctonia solani. Collophorin was purified to homogeneity and shown to have a unique mass of 120.0639, an empirical formula of C8H8O1, and UV absorption bands at 260 and 378 nm. This work also indicates that C. aceris possesses the biological potential to provide protection of its host against an array of common plant pathogens. PMID:23996143

Xie, Jie; Strobel, Gary A; Mends, Morgan T; Hilmer, Jonathan; Nigg, Jared; Geary, Brad

2013-11-01

316

Overexpression of TiERF1 enhances resistance to sharp eyespot in transgenic wheat  

PubMed Central

Wheat sharp eyespot, primarily caused by a soil-borne fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, has become one of the most serious diseases of wheat in China. In this study, an ethylene response factor (ERF) gene from a wheat relative Thinopyrum intermedium, TiERF1, was characterized further, transgenic wheat lines expressing TiERF1 were developed, and the resistance of the transgenic wheat lines against R. cerealis was investigated. Southern blotting analysis indicated that at least two copies of the TiERF1 gene exist in the T. intermedium genome. Yeast one-hybrid assay indicated that the activation domain of TiERF1 is essential for activating the transcript of the reporter gene with the GCC-box cis-element. The TiERF1 gene was introduced into a Chinese wheat cultivar, Yangmai12, by biolistic bombardment. Results of PCR and Southern blotting analyses indicated that TiERF1 was successfully integrated into the genome of the transgenic wheat, where it can be passed down from the T0 to T4 generations. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis demonstrated that TiERF1 could be overexpressed in the stable transgenic plants, in which the expression levels of wheat pathogenesis-related (PR) genes primarily in the ethylene-dependent signal pathway, such as a chitinase gene and a ?-1,3-glucanase gene, were increased dramatically. Disease tests indicated that the overexpression of TiERF1 conferred enhanced resistance to sharp eyespot in the transgenic wheat lines compared with the wild-type and silenced TiERF1 plants. These results suggested that the overexpression of TiERF1 enhances resistance to sharp eyespot in transgenic wheat lines by activating PR genes primarily in the ethylene-dependent pathway.

Chen, Liang; Zhang, ZengYan; Liang, HongXia; Liu, HongXia; Du, LiPu; Xu, Huijun; Xin, Zhiyong

2008-01-01

317

Comparative transcriptomics reveals different strategies of Trichoderma mycoparasitism  

PubMed Central

Background Trichoderma is a genus of mycotrophic filamentous fungi (teleomorph Hypocrea) which possess a bright variety of biotrophic and saprotrophic lifestyles. The ability to parasitize and/or kill other fungi (mycoparasitism) is used in plant protection against soil-borne fungal diseases (biological control, or biocontrol). To investigate mechanisms of mycoparasitism, we compared the transcriptional responses of cosmopolitan opportunistic species and powerful biocontrol agents Trichoderma atroviride and T. virens with tropical ecologically restricted species T. reesei during confrontations with a plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Results The three Trichoderma spp. exhibited a strikingly different transcriptomic response already before physical contact with alien hyphae. T. atroviride expressed an array of genes involved in production of secondary metabolites, GH16 ß-glucanases, various proteases and small secreted cysteine rich proteins. T. virens, on the other hand, expressed mainly the genes for biosynthesis of gliotoxin, respective precursors and also glutathione, which is necessary for gliotoxin biosynthesis. In contrast, T. reesei increased the expression of genes encoding cellulases and hemicellulases, and of the genes involved in solute transport. The majority of differentially regulated genes were orthologues present in all three species or both in T. atroviride and T. virens, indicating that the regulation of expression of these genes is different in the three Trichoderma spp. The genes expressed in all three fungi exhibited a nonrandom genomic distribution, indicating a possibility for their regulation via chromatin modification. Conclusion This genome-wide expression study demonstrates that the initial Trichoderma mycotrophy has differentiated into several alternative ecological strategies ranging from parasitism to predation and saprotrophy. It provides first insights into the mechanisms of interactions between Trichoderma and other fungi that may be exploited for further development of biofungicides.

2013-01-01

318

Tandem combination of Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein (RsAFP2) generates a more potent antifungal protein.  

PubMed

Plant defensins are small (45 to 54 amino acids) positively charged antimicrobial peptides produced by the plant species, which can inhibit the growth of a broad range of fungi at micro-molar concentrations. These basic peptides share a common characteristic three-dimensional folding pattern with one ?-helix and three ?-sheets that are stabilized by eight disulfide-linked cysteine residues. Instead of using two single-gene constructs, it is beneficial when two effective genes are made into a single fusion gene with one promoter and terminator. In this approach, we have linked two plant defensins namely Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin 2 (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein 2 (RsAFP2) genes by a linker peptide sequence (occurring in the seeds of Impatiens balsamina) and made into a single-fusion gene construct. We used pET-32a+ vector system to express Tfgd2-RsAFP2 fusion gene with hexahistidine tag in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells. Induction of these cells with 1 mM IPTG achieved expression of the fusion protein. The solubilized His6-tagged recombinant fusion protein was purified by immobilized-metal (Ni2+) affinity column chromatography. The final yield of the fusion protein was 500 ng/?L. This method produced biologically active recombinant His6-tagged fusion protein, which exhibited potent antifungal action towards the plant pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Phaeoisariopsis personata and Rhizoctonia solani along with an oomycete pathogen Phytophthora parasitica var nicotianae) at lower concentrations under in vitro conditions. This strategy of combining activity of two defensin genes into a single-fusion gene will definitely be a promising utility for biotechnological applications. PMID:24022215

Karri, Vasavirama; Bharadwaja, Kirti Pulugurtha

2013-11-01

319

Mechanism of Action of the Antifungal Antibiotic Pyrrolnitrin  

PubMed Central

Pyrrolnitrin at 10 ?g/ml inhibited the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Penicillium atrovenetum, and P. oxalicum. The primary site of action of pyrrolnitrin on S. cerevisiae was the terminal electron transport system between succinate or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and coenzyme Q. At growth inhibitory concentrations, pyrrolnitrin inhibited endogenous and exogenous respiration immediately after its addition to the system. In mitochondrial preparations, the antibiotic inhibited succinate oxidase, NADH oxidase, succinate-cytochrome c reductase, NADH-cytochrome c reductase, and succinate-coenzyme Q6 reductase. In addition, pyrrolnitrin inhibited the antimycin-insensitive reduction of dichlorophenolindophenol and of the tetrazolium dye 2,2?-di-p-nitrophenyl-(3,3?-dimethoxy-4,4?-bi-phenylene)5,5?-diphenylditetrazolium. The reduction of another tetrazolium dye, 2-p-iodophenyl-3-p-nitrophenyl-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride, that was antimycin-sensitive, was also inhibited by pyrrolnitrin. The antibiotic had no effect on the activity of cytochrome oxidase, and it did not appear to bind with flavine adenine dinucleotide, the coenzyme of succinic dehydrogenase. In whole cells of S. cerevisiae, pyrrolnitrin inhibited the incorporation of 14C-glucose into nucleic acids and proteins. It also inhibited the incorporation of 14C-uracil, 3H-thymidine, and 14C-amino acids into ribonucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, and protein, respectively. The in vitro protein synthesis in Rhizoctonia solani and Escherichia coli was not affected by pyrrolnitrin. Pyrrolnitrin also inhibited the uptake of radioactive tracers, but there was no general damage to the cell membranes that would result in an increased leakage of cell metabolites. Apparently, pyrrolnitrin inhibits fungal growth by inhibiting the respiratory electron transport system.

Tripathi, R. K.; Gottlieb, David

1969-01-01

320

Transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey  

PubMed Central

Background Combating the action of plant pathogenic microorganisms by mycoparasitic fungi has been announced as an attractive biological alternative to the use of chemical fungicides since two decades. The fungal genus Trichoderma includes a high number of taxa which are able to recognize, combat and finally besiege and kill their prey. Only fragments of the biochemical processes related to this ability have been uncovered so far, however. Results We analyzed genome-wide gene expression changes during the begin of physical contact between Trichoderma atroviride and two plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, and compared with gene expression patterns of mycelial and conidiating cultures, respectively. About 3000 ESTs, representing about 900 genes, were obtained from each of these three growth conditions. 66 genes, represented by 442 ESTs, were specifically and significantly overexpressed during onset of mycoparasitism, and the expression of a subset thereof was verified by expression analysis. The upregulated genes comprised 18 KOG groups, but were most abundant from the groups representing posttranslational processing, and amino acid metabolism, and included components of the stress response, reaction to nitrogen shortage, signal transduction and lipid catabolism. Metabolic network analysis confirmed the upregulation of the genes for amino acid biosynthesis and of those involved in the catabolism of lipids and aminosugars. Conclusion The analysis of the genes overexpressed during the onset of mycoparasitism in T. atroviride has revealed that the fungus reacts to this condition with several previously undetected physiological reactions. These data enable a new and more comprehensive interpretation of the physiology of mycoparasitism, and will aid in the selection of traits for improvement of biocontrol strains by recombinant techniques.

2009-01-01

321

Isolation and Identification of Antifungal Compounds from Bacillus subtilis C9 Inhibiting the Growth of Plant Pathogenic Fungi  

PubMed Central

Antagonistic microorganisms against Rhizoctonia solani were isolated and their antifungal activities were investigated. Two hundred sixteen bacterial isolates were isolated from various soil samples and 19 isolates were found to antagonize the selected plant pathogenic fungi with varying degrees. Among them, isolate C9 was selected as an antagonistic microorganism with potential for use in further studies. Treatment with the selected isolate C9 resulted in significantly reduced incidence of stem-segment colonization by R. solani AG2-2(IV) in Zoysia grass and enhanced growth of grass. Through its biochemical, physiological, and 16S rDNA characteristics, the selected bacterium was identified as Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis. Mannitol (1%) and soytone (1%) were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, for use in antibiotic production. An antibiotic compound, designated as DG4, was separated and purified from ethyl acetate extract of the culture broth of isolate C9. On the basis of spectral data, including proton nuclear magneric resonance (1H NMR), carbon nuclear magneric resonance (13C NMR), and mass analyses, its chemical structure was established as a stereoisomer of acetylbutanediol. Application of the ethyl acetate extract of isolate C9 to several plant pathogens resulted in dose-dependent inhibition. Treatment with the purified compound (an isomer of acetylbuanediol) resulted in significantly inhibited growth of tested pathogens. The cell free culture supernatant of isolate C9 showed a chitinase effect on chitin medium. Results from the present study demonstrated the significant potential of the purified compound from isolate C9 for use as a biocontrol agent as well as a plant growth promoter with the ability to trigger induced systemic resistance of plants.

Islam, Md. Rezuanul; Jeong, Yong Tae; Lee, Yong Se

2012-01-01

322

Plantago lanceolata and Plantago rugelii Extracts are Toxic to Meloidogyne incognita but not to Certain Microbes.  

PubMed

Extracts from the plants Plantago lanceolata and P. rugelii were evaluated for toxicity to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the beneficial microbes Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma virens, and the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Wild plants were collected, roots were excised from shoots, and the plant parts were dried and ground to a powder. One set of extracts (10% w/v) was prepared in water and another in methanol. Treatments included extract concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, and water controls. Meloidogyne incognita egg hatch was recorded after 7-day exposure to the treatments, and second-stage juvenile (J2) activity after 48 hours. All extracts were toxic to eggs and J2, with P. lanceolata shoot extract tending to have the most activity against M. incognita. Numbers of active J2 remained the same or decreased in a 24-hour water rinse following the 48-hour extract treatment, indicating that the extracts were lethal. When data from water- and methanol-extracted roots and shoots of both plant species were combined for analysis, J2 tended to be more sensitive than eggs to the toxic compounds at lower concentrations, while the higher concentrations (75% and 100%) were equally toxic to both life stages. The effective concentrations causing 50% reduction (EC(50)) in egg hatch and in J2 viability were 44.4% and 43.7%, respectively. No extract was toxic to any of the bacteria or fungi in our assays. PMID:19259537

Meyer, Susan L F; Zasada, Inga A; Roberts, Daniel P; Vinyard, Bryan T; Lakshman, Dilip K; Lee, Jae-Kook; Chitwood, David J; Carta, Lynn K

2006-09-01

323

Plantago lanceolata and Plantago rugelii Extracts are Toxic to Meloidogyne incognita but not to Certain Microbes  

PubMed Central

Extracts from the plants Plantago lanceolata and P. rugelii were evaluated for toxicity to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the beneficial microbes Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma virens, and the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Wild plants were collected, roots were excised from shoots, and the plant parts were dried and ground to a powder. One set of extracts (10% w/v) was prepared in water and another in methanol. Treatments included extract concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, and water controls. Meloidogyne incognita egg hatch was recorded after 7-day exposure to the treatments, and second-stage juvenile (J2) activity after 48 hours. All extracts were toxic to eggs and J2, with P. lanceolata shoot extract tending to have the most activity against M. incognita. Numbers of active J2 remained the same or decreased in a 24-hour water rinse following the 48-hour extract treatment, indicating that the extracts were lethal. When data from water- and methanol-extracted roots and shoots of both plant species were combined for analysis, J2 tended to be more sensitive than eggs to the toxic compounds at lower concentrations, while the higher concentrations (75% and 100%) were equally toxic to both life stages. The effective concentrations causing 50% reduction (EC50) in egg hatch and in J2 viability were 44.4% and 43.7%, respectively. No extract was toxic to any of the bacteria or fungi in our assays.

Meyer, Susan L. F.; Zasada, Inga A.; Roberts, Daniel P.; Vinyard, Bryan T.; Lakshman, Dilip K.; Lee, Jae-Kook; Chitwood, David J.; Carta, Lynn K.

2006-01-01

324

The colonization patterns of different fungi on roots of Cymbidium hybridum plantlets and their respective inoculation effects on growth and nutrient uptake of orchid plantlets.  

PubMed

Cymbidium hybridum is one of the most popular pot orchids and cut flowers worldwide. However, the long vegetative growth period and the discordant blooming retarded its mass production. The mixotrophic nutritional mode of some chlorophyllous Cymbidium suggested the essential role of mycorrhizal fungi in the growth of adult green orchids. Here 34 root-associated endophytes were obtained from wild and cultivated Cymbidium and eight strains exhibited obvious growth-promoting effects on the C. hybridum plantlets with increasing root number, root diameter or new bud initiation. Among these, three isolates CL01, ZH3A-3 and CY5-1 with distinct cultural traits and colonization patterns showed better growth-promoting effects. Internal transcribed spacer sequence analyses and morphological observation revealed isolate CL01 belonged to Tulasnella-like Rhizoctonia, ZH3A-3, Umbelopsis nana and CY5-1, Scytalidium lignicola. Microscopic study showed isolate CL01 formed typical orchid mycorrhiza and isolate CY5-1 formed pseudo-mycorrhiza with orchid, whereas hyphae of isolate ZH3A-3 aggregated in the host velamen cells at regular intervals and caused the hypertrophied nucleus and aggregated cytoplasm of neighboring host cell. These three isolates significantly enhanced the increased percentage of total fresh weight of plantlets compared with un-inoculated control (83, 99 and 75 %, respectively). In addition, isolate CL01 increased the N, P, Zn, Cu, Fe contents and ZH3A-3 significantly improved K, Ca, Cu, Mn contents of the symbiotic plantlets compared with control. These results suggested that the mass production of C. hybridum and related orchids could be improved by different beneficial fungi from its parents. PMID:24532077

Zhao, Xiao-Lan; Yang, Jing-Ze; Liu, Shu; Chen, Chun-Li; Zhu, Hai-Yan; Cao, Jun-Xi

2014-07-01

325

Bioprospecting in potato fields in the Central Andean Highlands: screening of rhizobacteria for plant growth-promoting properties.  

PubMed

The Central Andean Highlands are the center of origin of the potato plant (Solanum tuberosum). Ages of mutualism between potato plants and soil bacteria in this region support the hypothesis that Andean soils harbor interesting plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate rhizobacteria from Andean ecosystems, and to identify those with PGP properties. A total of 585 bacterial isolates were obtained from eight potato fields in the Andes and they were screened for suppression of Phytophthora infestans and Rhizoctonia solani. Antagonistic mechanisms were determined and antagonistic isolates were further tested for phosphate solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, and production of NH3- and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). PGP was studied in healthy and R. solani diseased plantlets under growth room conditions. Performance was compared to the commercial strain B. subtilis FZB24(®) WG. Isolates were dereplicated with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and identified with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multi locus sequence analysis (MLSA). A total of 10% of the isolates were effective antagonists, of which many were able to solubilize phosphate, and produce IAA, ACC deaminase, NH3 and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). During growth room experiments, 23 antagonistic isolates were associated with plant growth-promotion and/or disease suppression. Ten isolates had a statistically significant impact on test parameters compared to the uninoculated control. Three isolates significantly promoted plant growth in healthy plantlets compared to the commercial strain, and seven isolates outperformed the commercial strain in in vitro R. solani diseased plantlets. PMID:23333025

Ghyselinck, Jonas; Velivelli, Siva L S; Heylen, Kim; O'Herlihy, Eileen; Franco, Javier; Rojas, Mercy; De Vos, Paul; Prestwich, Barbara Doyle

2013-03-01

326

Expression of a Novel Antimicrobial Peptide Penaeidin4-1 in Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) Enhances Plant Fungal Disease Resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Turfgrass species are agriculturally and economically important perennial crops. Turfgrass species are highly susceptible to a wide range of fungal pathogens. Dollar spot and brown patch, two important diseases caused by fungal pathogens Sclerotinia homoecarpa and Rhizoctonia solani, respectively, are among the most severe turfgrass diseases. Currently, turf fungal disease control mainly relies on fungicide treatments, which raises many concerns for human health and the environment. Antimicrobial peptides found in various organisms play an important role in innate immune response. Methodology/Principal Findings The antimicrobial peptide - Penaeidin4-1 (Pen4-1) from the shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus has been reported to possess in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activities against various economically important fungal and bacterial pathogens. In this study, we have studied the feasibility of using this novel peptide for engineering enhanced disease resistance into creeping bentgrass plants (Agrostis stolonifera L., cv. Penn A-4). Two DNA constructs were prepared containing either the coding sequence of a single peptide, Pen4-1 or the DNA sequence coding for the transit signal peptide of the secreted tobacco AP24 protein translationally fused to the Pen4-1 coding sequence. A maize ubiquitin promoter was used in both constructs to drive gene expression. Transgenic turfgrass plants containing different DNA constructs were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and analyzed for transgene insertion and expression. In replicated in vitro and in vivo experiments under controlled environments, transgenic plants exhibited significantly enhanced resistance to dollar spot and brown patch, the two major fungal diseases in turfgrass. The targeting of Pen4-1 to endoplasmic reticulum by the transit peptide of AP24 protein did not significantly impact disease resistance in transgenic plants. Conclusion/Significance Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of Pen4-1 in a perennial species against fungal pathogens and suggest a potential strategy for engineering broad-spectrum fungal disease resistance in crop species.

Zhou, Man; Hu, Qian; Li, Zhigang; Li, Dayong; Chen, Chin-Fu; Luo, Hong

2011-01-01

327

Isolate Identity Determines Plant Tolerance to Pathogen Attack in Assembled Mycorrhizal Communities  

PubMed Central

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread soil microorganisms that associate mutualistically with plant hosts. AMF receive photosynthates from the host in return for various benefits. One of such benefits is in the form of enhanced pathogen tolerance. However, this aspect of the symbiosis has been understudied compared to effects on plant growth and its ability to acquire nutrients. While it is known that increased AMF species richness positively correlates with plant productivity, the relationship between AMF diversity and host responses to pathogen attack remains obscure. The objective of this study was to test whether AMF isolates can differentially attenuate the deleterious effects of a root pathogen on plant growth, whether the richest assemblage of AMF isolates provides the most tolerance against the pathogen, and whether AMF-induced changes to root architecture serve as a mechanism for improved plant disease tolerance. In a growth chamber study, we exposed the plant oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) to all combinations of three AMF isolates and to the plant root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. We found that the pathogen caused an 81% reduction in shoot and a 70% reduction in root biomass. AMF significantly reduced the highly deleterious effect of the pathogen. Mycorrhizal plants infected with the pathogen produced 91% more dry shoot biomass and 72% more dry root biomass relative to plants solely infected with R. solani. AMF isolate identity was a better predictor of AMF-mediated host tolerance to the pathogen than AMF richness. However, the enhanced tolerance response did not result from AMF-mediated changes to root architecture. Our data indicate that AMF communities can play a major role in alleviating host pathogen attack but this depends primarily on the capacity of individual AMF isolates to provide this benefit.

Lewandowski, Thaddeus J.; Dunfield, Kari E.; Antunes, Pedro M.

2013-01-01

328

Effect of the strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on the microbial community in the rhizosphere of lettuce under field conditions analyzed by whole metagenome sequencing.  

PubMed

Application of the plant associated bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) confirmed its capability to promote plant growth and health by reducing disease severity (DS) caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Therefore this strain is commercially applied as an eco-friendly plant protective agent. It is able to produce cyclic lipopeptides (CLP) and polyketides featuring antifungal and antibacterial properties. Production of these secondary metabolites led to the question of a possible impact of strain FZB42 on the composition of microbial rhizosphere communities after its application. Rating of DS and lettuce growth during a field trial confirmed the positive impact of strain FZB42 on the health of the host plant. To verify B. amyloliquefaciens as an environmentally compatible plant protective agent, its effect on the indigenous rhizosphere community was analyzed by metagenome sequencing. Rhizosphere microbial communities of lettuce treated with B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and non-treated plants were profiled by high-throughput metagenome sequencing of whole community DNA. Fragment recruitments of metagenome sequence reads on the genome sequence of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 proved the presence of the strain in the rhizosphere over 5 weeks of the field trial. Comparison of taxonomic community profiles only revealed marginal changes after application of strain FZB42. The orders Burkholderiales, Actinomycetales and Rhizobiales were most abundant in all samples. Depending on plant age a general shift within the composition of the microbial communities that was independent of the application of strain FZB42 was observed. In addition to the taxonomic profiling, functional analysis of annotated sequences revealed no major differences between samples regarding application of the inoculant strain. PMID:24904564

Kröber, Magdalena; Wibberg, Daniel; Grosch, Rita; Eikmeyer, Felix; Verwaaijen, Bart; Chowdhury, Soumitra P; Hartmann, Anton; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

2014-01-01

329

Fungal diversity, dominance, and community structure in the rhizosphere of clonal Picea mariana plants throughout nursery production chronosequences.  

PubMed

Fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of healthy and diseased clonal black spruce (Picea mariana) plants was analyzed with regard to nursery production chronosequences. The four key production stages were sampled: mother plants (MP), 8-week-old cuttings (B + 0), second-year cuttings (B + 1), and third-year cuttings (B + 2). A total of 45 fungal taxa were isolated and identified based on cultural, phenotypic, and molecular characters. Members of phylum Ascomycota dominated, followed by Basidiomycota and Zygomycota. Diagnosis characters and distance analysis of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences allowed the identification of 39 ascomycetous taxa. Many belong to the order Hypocreales, families Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae, which contain many clusters of potentially pathogenic taxa (Cylindrocladium, Fusarium, and Neonectria) and are also ecologically associated with antagonistic taxa (Chaetomium, Hypocrea, Microsphaeropsis, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Verticillium, Trichoderma, and Sporothrix). This is also the first report of a Cylindrocladium canadense association with disease symptoms and relation with Pestalotiopsis, Fusarium, Exserochilum, Rhizoctonia, and Xenochalara fungal consortia. Both production chronosequence and plant health considerably influenced fungal taxa assemblages. Unweighted pair-group arithmetic average clustering showed that isolates from MP, B + 0, and B + 1 plant rhizospheres clustered together within healthy or diseased health classes, whereas isolates from healthy and diseased B + 2 plants clustered together. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed substantial alteration in community assemblages with regard to plant health and yielded a principal axis direction that regrouped taxa associated with diseased plant rhizosphere soil, whereas the opposite axis direction was associated with healthy plants. Two diversity indices were defined and applied to assess the fungal taxa contribution (Tc) and persistence (Pi) throughout the production. PMID:17347891

Vujanovic, V; Hamelin, R C; Bernier, L; Vujanovic, G; St-Arnaud, M

2007-11-01

330

Characterization of a Pathogen Induced Thaumatin-Like Protein Gene AdTLP from Arachis diogoi, a Wild Peanut  

PubMed Central

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) is one of the widely cultivated and leading oilseed crops of the world and its yields are greatly affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Arachis diogoi, a wild relative of peanut, is an important source of genes for resistance against various stresses that affect peanut. In our previous study a thaumatin-like protein gene was found to be upregulated in a differential expression reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR) study using the conidial spray of the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. In the present study, the corresponding full length cDNA was cloned using RACE-PCR and has been designated as AdTLP. It carried an open reading frame of 726 bp potentially capable of encoding a polypeptide of 241 amino acids with 16 conserved cysteine residues. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript level of AdTLP increased upon treatment with the late leaf spot pathogen of peanut, P. personata and various hormone treatments indicating its involvement in both, biotic and abiotic stresses. The antifungal activity of the purified recombinant protein was checked against different fungal pathogens, which showed enhanced anti-fungal activity compared to many other reported TLP proteins. The recombinant AdTLP-GFP fusion protein was found to be predominantly localized to extracellular spaces. Transgenic tobacco plants ectopically expressing AdTLP showed enhanced resistance to fungal pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani. The seedling assays showed enhanced tolerance of AdTLP transgenic plants against salt and oxidative stress. The transcript analysis of various defense related genes highlighted constitutively higher level expression of PR1a, PI-I and PI-II genes in transgenic plants. These results suggest that the AdTLP is a good candidate gene for enhancing stress resistance in crop plants.

Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Koppolu Raja Rajesh; Kumar, Dilip; Shukla, Pawan; Kirti, P. B.

2013-01-01

331

Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants silenced for the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene NpPDR1 show increased susceptibility to a group of fungal and oomycete pathogens.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The behaviour of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants silenced for the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene NpPDR1 was investigated in response to fungal and oomycete infections. The importance of NpPDR1 in plant defence was demonstrated for two organs in which NpPDR1 is constitutively expressed: the roots and the petal epidermis. The roots of the plantlets of two lines silenced for NpPDR1 expression were clearly more sensitive than those of controls to the fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum sp., F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae, F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis and Rhizoctonia solani, as well as to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora nicotianae race 0. The Ph gene-linked resistance of N. plumbaginifolia to P. nicotianae race 0 was totally ineffective in NpPDR1-silenced lines. In addition, the petals of the NpPDR1-silenced lines were spotted 15%-20% more rapidly by B. cinerea than were the controls. The rapid induction (after 2-4 days) of NpPDR1 expression in N. plumbaginifolia and N. tabacum mature leaves in response to pathogen presence was demonstrated for the first time with fungi and one oomycete: R. solani, F. oxysporum and P. nicotianae. With B. cinerea, such rapid expression was not observed in healthy mature leaves. NpPDR1 expression was not observed during latent infections of B. cinerea in N. plumbaginifolia and N. tabacum, but was induced when conditions facilitated B. cinerea development in leaves, such as leaf ageing or an initial root infection. This work demonstrates the increased sensitivity of NpPDR1-silenced N. plumbaginifolia plants to all of the fungal and oomycete pathogens investigated. PMID:19694955

Bultreys, Alain; Trombik, Tomasz; Drozak, Anna; Boutry, Marc

2009-09-01

332

Chemical composition of the volatile oil from Zanthoxylum avicennae and antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background: Through literature retrieval, there has been no report on the research of the chemical components in Zanthoxylum avicennae (Lam.) DC. This paper extracted and determined the chemical components of the volatile oil in Z. avicennae, and at the same time, measured and evaluated the bioactivity of the volatile oil in Z. avicennae. Materials and Methods: We extract the volatile oil in Z. avicennae by steam distillation method, determined the chemical composition of the volatile oil by GC-MS coupling technique, and adopt the peak area normalization method to measured the relative percentage of each chemical composition in the volatile oil. Meanwhile, we use the Lethal-to-prawn larva bioactivity experiment to screen the cytotoxicity activities of the volatile oil in Z. avicennae, and using the slanting test-tube experiment to determine and evaluate its antibacterial activities in vitro for the eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi in the volatile oil of the Z. avicennae. Results: The results show that 68 kinds of compounds are determined from the volatile oil of Z. avicennae. The determined part takes up 97.89% of the total peak area. The main ingredients in the volatile oil of Z. avicennae are sesquiterpenoids and monoterpene. The test results show that the volatile oil in Z. avicennae has strong antibacterial activities and cytotoxicity, with the strongest antibacterial activity against the Rhizoctonia solani AG1-1A. Conclusion: This research results will provide reference data for understanding the chemical composition of the volatile oil in the aromatic plant of Z. avicennae and its bioactivity, and for its further development and application.

Lin, Yin; Han, Wei; Ge, Wei-chen; Yuan, Ke

2014-01-01

333

Effect of plant age on endophytic bacterial diversity of balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) root and their antimicrobial activities.  

PubMed

Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) is widely cultivated vegetable and used as a remedy for asthma in East Asia. Experiments were conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria from 1-, 3-, and 6-year-old balloon flower roots and to analyze the enzymatic, antifungal, and anti-human pathogenic activities of the potential endophytic biocontrol agents obtained. Total 120 bacterial colonies were isolated from the interior of all balloon flower roots samples. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the population of 'low G + C gram-positive bacteria' (LGCGPB) gradually increased 60.0-80.0% from 1 to 6 years balloon flower sample. On the other hand, maximum hydrolytic enzyme activity showing endophytic bacteria was under LGCGPB, among the bacterial strains, Bacillus sp. (BF1-1 and BF3-8), Bacillus sp. (BF1-2 and BF3-5), and Bacillus sp. (BF1-3, BF3-6, and BF6-4) showed maximum enzyme activities. Besides, Bacillus licheniformis (BF3-5 and BF6-6) and Bacillus pumilus (BF6-1) showed maximum antifungal activity against Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Pythium ultimum. Moreover, Bacillus licheniformis was found in 3 and 6 years balloon flower roots, but Bacillus pumilus was found only in 6 years sample. It is presumed that older balloon flower plants invite more potential antifungal endophytes for there protection from plant diseases. In addition, Bacillus sp. (BF1-2 and BF3-5) showed maximum anti-human pathogenic activity. So, plant age is presumed to influence diversity of balloon flower endophytic bacteria. PMID:20221603

Asraful Islam, Shah Md; Math, Renukaradhya K; Kim, Jong Min; Yun, Myoung Geun; Cho, Ji Joong; Kim, Eun Jin; Lee, Young Han; Yun, Han Dae

2010-10-01

334

A novel antimicrobial protein isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) shares homology with an acid phosphatase.  

PubMed Central

The nucleotide and amino acids sequences for AP(1) will appear in the GenBank(R) and NCBI databases under accession number AY297449. A novel antimicrobial protein (AP(1)) was purified from leaves of the potato ( Solanum tuberosum, variety MS-42.3) with a procedure involving ammonium sulphate fractionation, molecular sieve chromatography with Sephacryl S-200 and hydrophobic chromatography with Butyl-Sepharose using a FPLC system. The inhibition spectrum investigation showed that AP(1) had good inhibition activity against five different strains of Ralstonia solanacearum from potato or other crops, and two fungal pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria solani from potato. The full-length cDNA encoding AP(1) has been successfully cloned by screening a cDNA expression library of potato with an anti-AP(1) antibody and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) PCR. Determination of the nucleotide sequences revealed the presence of an open reading frame encoding 343 amino acids. At the C-terminus of AP(1) there is an ATP-binding domain, and the N-terminus exhibits 58% identity with an/the acid phosphatase from Mesorhizobium loti. SDS/PAGE and Western blotting analysis suggested that the AP(1) gene can be successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and recognized by an antibody against AP(1). Also the expressed protein showed an inhibition activity the same as original AP(1) protein isolated from potato. We suggest that AP(1) most likely belongs to a new group of proteins with antimicrobial characteristics in vitro and functions in relation to phosphorylation and energy metabolism of plants.

Feng, Jie; Yuan, Fenghua; Gao, Yin; Liang, Chenggang; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Changling; He, Liyuan

2003-01-01

335

Evaluation of transgenic cotton varieties and a glyphosate application on seedling disease incidence.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine whether stand densities of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) varieties, with or without glyphosate, were similar to conventional varieties of the same lineage group in Georgia and Mississippi. Transgenic and conventional cotton varieties were placed into five lineage groups of related varieties and seedling disease was evaluated in three greenhouse tests and a field trial using Rhizoctonia solani AG-4. Seed vigor was determined by standard germination studies were conducted evaluating conventional and transgenic varieties of similar lineage. Results showed that no interactions occurred for the heights and dry weight data across treatments within the lineage groups in any of the experiments. No interactions were shown between stand densities at different inoculum rates and inoculated versus uninoculated pots (plots). Across all greenhouse studies, stand counts of PM 1220 were similar to the transgenic varieties PM 1220 RR and PM 1220 B/RR with or without a glyphosate application. In the field trial, PM 1220 B/RR + glyphosate had significantly lower stands than all other treatments expect PM 1220 RR (no glyphosate treatment) prior to and after glyphosate application. Stand densities for varieties within the lineage group DPL 5415 were also inconsistent when compared between the greenhouse and field trials with no apparent trends occurring. However, the Coker 312 varieties containing glyphosate tolerance had consistently lower stand counts compared to the conventional variety of Coker 312 but only during the greenhouse studies. Seed germination of Coker 312 could not be correlated with either the greenhouse or field trial data. In general, the commercially available varieties such as PM 1220, DPL 5690, DPL 5415, and DPL 50 with glyphosate tolerance had similar stand count, height, and dry weight data when compared to the conventional varieties from the same lineage group regardless of a glyphosate application. When differences did occur, no consistent trends could be determined within these four lineage groups. PMID:15973787

Baird, R; Batson, W; Watson, C; Hightower, P

2005-04-01

336

Heterologous expression of new antifungal chitinase from wheat.  

PubMed

Chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) have been grouped into seven classes (class I-VII) on the basis of their structural properties. Chitinases expressed during plant-microbe interaction are involved in defense responses of host plant against pathogens. In the present investigation, chitinase gene from wheat has been subcloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL-21 (DE3). Molecular phylogeny analyses of wheat chitinase indicated that it belongs to an acidic form of class VII chitinase (glycosyl hydrolase family 19) and shows 77% identity with other wheat chitinase of class IV and low level identity to other plant chitinases. The three-dimensional structural model of wheat chitinase showed the presence of 10 alpha-helices, 3 beta-strands, 21 loop turns and the presence of 6 cysteine residues that are responsible for the formation of 3 disulphide bridges. The active site residues (Glu94 and Glu103) may be suggested for its antifungal activity. Expression of chitinase (33 kDa) was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western hybridization analyses. The yield of purified chitinase was 20 mg/L with chitinase activity of 1.9 U/mg. Purified chitinase exerted a broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Colletotrichum falcatum (red rot of sugarcane) Pestalotia theae (leaf spot of tea), Rhizoctonia solani (sheath blight of rice), Sarocladium oryzae (sheath rot of rice) Alternaria sp. (grain discoloration of rice) and Fusarium sp. (scab of rye). Due to its innate antifungal potential wheat chitinase can be used to enhance fungal-resistance in crop plants. PMID:17697785

Singh, Arpita; Kirubakaran, S Isaac; Sakthivel, N

2007-11-01

337

Ubiquitous urease affects soybean susceptibility to fungi.  

PubMed

The soybean ubiquitous urease (encoded by GmEu4) is responsible for recycling metabolically derived urea. Additional biological roles have been demonstrated for plant ureases, notably in toxicity to other organisms. However, urease enzymatic activity is not related to its toxicity. The role of GmEu4 in soybean susceptibility to fungi was investigated in this study. A differential expression pattern of GmEu4 was observed in susceptible and resistant genotypes of soybeans over the course of a Phakopsora pachyrhizi infection, especially 24 h after infection. Twenty-nine adult, transgenic soybean plants, representing six independently transformed lines, were obtained. Although the initial aim of this study was to overexpress GmEu4, the transgenic plants exhibited GmEu4 co-suppression and decreased ureolytic activity. The growth of Rhizoctonia solani, Phomopsis sp., and Penicillium herguei in media containing a crude protein extract from either transgenic or non-transgenic leaves was evaluated. The fungal growth was higher in the protein extracts from transgenic urease-deprived plants than in extracts from non-transgenic controls. When infected by P. pachyrhizi uredospores, detached leaves of urease-deprived plants developed a significantly higher number of lesions, pustules and erupted pustules than leaves of non-transgenic plants containing normal levels of the enzyme. The results of the present work show that the soybean plants were more susceptible to fungi in the absence of urease. It was not possible to overexpress active GmEu4. For future work, overexpression of urease fungitoxic peptides could be attempted as an alternative approach. PMID:22382992

Wiebke-Strohm, Beatriz; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Bencke, Marta; Bücker-Neto, Lauro; Becker-Ritt, Arlete B; Martinelli, Anne H S; Rechenmacher, Ciliana; Polacco, Joseph C; Stolf, Renata; Marcelino, Francismar C; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V; Homrich, Milena S; Del Ponte, Emerson M; Carlini, Celia R; De Carvalho, Mayra C C G; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

2012-05-01

338

Transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey  

SciTech Connect

Background: Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are effective mycoparasites an for this reason used as biocontrol agents agents plant pathogenic fungi. The ability to recognize, combat and finally besiege and kill the prey are essential skills for this process. Only fragments of the biochemical processes related to this ability have been uncovered so far, however. This study aims at uncovering transcriptional responses occurring in the mycoparasite Trichoderma atroviride when being confronted with a potential prey. Results: T. atroviride was confronted with two fungal preys, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, and cDNAs prepared from mycelia immediately before getting into physical contact with them (“onset of mycoparasitism”), and compared with such prepared from mycelial and conidiating cultures, respectively. About 3000 ESTs, representing about 900 genes each, were obtained from each of these three conditions. 65 genes, represented by 439 ESTs, were specifically and significantly overexpressed during onset of mycoparasitism, and the expression of a subset thereof verified by expression analysis. They comprised 18 KOG groups, but were most abundant from those including posttranslational processing (159 from 183 ESTs), and amino acid metabolism (70 of 84 ESTs), respectively. Several heat shock factors and tRNA synthases were particularly abundant. Metabolic network analysis confirmed the upregulation of the amino acid biosynthesic and the lipid catabolic capacity. Conclusion: Analysis of the genes overexpressed during the onset of mycoparasitism in T. atroviride has revealed that the fungus reacts to this condition with several previously undetected physiological reactions including strong stress response, sensing of nitrogen shortage and lipid catabolism. The data enable a new and more comprehensive interpretation of the physiology of mycoparasitism, and will aid in the selection of traits for breeding of biocontrol strains by recombinant techniques.

Seidl, Verena; Song, Lifu; Lindquist, Erika; Gruber, Sabine; Koptchinskiy, Alexeji; Zeilinger, Susanne; Schmoll, Monika; Martinez, Pedro; Sun, Jibin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Baker, Scott E.; Kubicek, Christian P.

2009-11-30

339

Estimating the Delay between Host Infection and Disease (Incubation Period) and Assessing Its Significance to the Epidemiology of Plant Diseases  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the incubation period of infectious diseases (time between host infection and expression of disease symptoms) is crucial to our epidemiological understanding and the design of appropriate prevention and control policies. Plant diseases cause substantial damage to agricultural and arboricultural systems, but there is still very little information about how the incubation period varies within host populations. In this paper, we focus on the incubation period of soilborne plant pathogens, which are difficult to detect as they spread and infect the hosts underground and above-ground symptoms occur considerably later. We conducted experiments on Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet, as an example patho-system, and used modelling approaches to estimate the incubation period distribution and demonstrate the impact of differing estimations on our epidemiological understanding of plant diseases. We present measurements of the incubation period obtained in field conditions, fit alternative probability models to the data, and show that the incubation period distribution changes with host age. By simulating spatially-explicit epidemiological models with different incubation-period distributions, we study the conditions for a significant time lag between epidemics of cryptic infection and the associated epidemics of symptomatic disease. We examine the sensitivity of this lag to differing distributional assumptions about the incubation period (i.e. exponential versus Gamma). We demonstrate that accurate information about the incubation period distribution of a pathosystem can be critical in assessing the true scale of pathogen invasion behind early disease symptoms in the field; likewise, it can be central to model-based prediction of epidemic risk and evaluation of disease management strategies. Our results highlight that reliance on observation of disease symptoms can cause significant delay in detection of soil-borne pathogen epidemics and mislead practitioners and epidemiologists about the timing, extent, and viability of disease control measures for limiting economic loss.

Leclerc, Melen; Dore, Thierry; Gilligan, Christopher A.; Lucas, Philippe; Filipe, Joao A. N.

2014-01-01

340

Effect of the strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on the microbial community in the rhizosphere of lettuce under field conditions analyzed by whole metagenome sequencing  

PubMed Central

Application of the plant associated bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) confirmed its capability to promote plant growth and health by reducing disease severity (DS) caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Therefore this strain is commercially applied as an eco-friendly plant protective agent. It is able to produce cyclic lipopeptides (CLP) and polyketides featuring antifungal and antibacterial properties. Production of these secondary metabolites led to the question of a possible impact of strain FZB42 on the composition of microbial rhizosphere communities after its application. Rating of DS and lettuce growth during a field trial confirmed the positive impact of strain FZB42 on the health of the host plant. To verify B. amyloliquefaciens as an environmentally compatible plant protective agent, its effect on the indigenous rhizosphere community was analyzed by metagenome sequencing. Rhizosphere microbial communities of lettuce treated with B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and non-treated plants were profiled by high-throughput metagenome sequencing of whole community DNA. Fragment recruitments of metagenome sequence reads on the genome sequence of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 proved the presence of the strain in the rhizosphere over 5 weeks of the field trial. Comparison of taxonomic community profiles only revealed marginal changes after application of strain FZB42. The orders Burkholderiales, Actinomycetales and Rhizobiales were most abundant in all samples. Depending on plant age a general shift within the composition of the microbial communities that was independent of the application of strain FZB42 was observed. In addition to the taxonomic profiling, functional analysis of annotated sequences revealed no major differences between samples regarding application of the inoculant strain.

Krober, Magdalena; Wibberg, Daniel; Grosch, Rita; Eikmeyer, Felix; Verwaaijen, Bart; Chowdhury, Soumitra P.; Hartmann, Anton; Puhler, Alfred; Schluter, Andreas

2014-01-01

341

The B-3 Ethylene Response Factor MtERF1-1 Mediates Resistance to a Subset of Root Pathogens in Medicago truncatula without Adversely Affecting Symbiosis with Rhizobia1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The fungal necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is a significant constraint to a range of crops as diverse as cereals, canola, and legumes. Despite wide-ranging germplasm screens in many of these crops, no strong genetic resistance has been identified, suggesting that alternative strategies to improve resistance are required. In this study, we characterize moderate resistance to R. solani anastomosis group 8 identified in Medicago truncatula. The activity of the ethylene- and jasmonate-responsive GCC box promoter element was associated with moderate resistance, as was the induction of the B-3 subgroup of ethylene response transcription factors (ERFs). Genes of the B-1 subgroup showed no significant response to R. solani infection. Overexpression of a B-3 ERF, MtERF1-1, in Medicago roots increased resistance to R. solani as well as an oomycete root pathogen, Phytophthora medicaginis, but not root knot nematode. These results indicate that targeting specific regulators of ethylene defense may enhance resistance to an important subset of root pathogens. We also demonstrate that overexpression of MtERF1-1 enhances disease resistance without apparent impact on nodulation in the A17 background, while overexpression in sickle reduced the hypernodulation phenotype. This suggests that under normal regulation of nodulation, enhanced resistance to root diseases can be uncoupled from symbiotic plant-microbe interactions in the same tissue and that ethylene/ERF regulation of nodule number is distinct from the defenses regulated by B-3 ERFs. Furthermore, unlike the stunted phenotype previously described for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ubiquitously overexpressing B-3 ERFs, overexpression of MtERF1-1 in M. truncatula roots did not show adverse effects on plant development.

Anderson, Jonathan P.; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Gleason, Cynthia; Oliver, Richard P.; Singh, Karam B.

2010-01-01

342

Contribution of phlA and some metabolites of fluorescent pseudomonads to antifungal activity.  

PubMed

Fluorescent Pseudomonas species are an important group of PGPR that suppress fungal root and seedling disease by production of antifungal metabolites such as 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), pyoluteorin, pyrolinitrin, siderophores and HCN. The compound 2,4-DAPG is a major determinant in biocontrol of plant pathogens. A 7.2 kbp chromosomal DNA region, carrying DAPG biosynthetic genes (phlA, phlC, phlB, phlD, phIE and phlF). Detecting the ph1 genes make them an ideal marker gene for 2,4-DAPG-producing fluorescent pseudomonad's. In this study we detected ph1A gene (that convert MAPG to 2,4-DAPG) using PCR assay with primers phlA-1r and phlA- f that enabled amplification of phlA sequences from fluorescent pseudomonad's from ARDRA group 1 and 3. We could detect phlA gene in P. fluorescens strains CHAO, Pf-44, Pf-1, Pf-2, Pf-3, Pf-17, Pf-62 and Pf-64, native isolates of Iran. The efficacy of this method for rapid assay characterizing rhizosphere population of 2,4-DAPG producing bacteria from soil of different area of Iran is in progress. We used a collection of 48 fluorescent pseudomonas strains in vitro, with known biological control activity against some soil born phytopathogenic fungi such as, Macrophomina phaseoli, Rhizoctonia solani Vericillium dahlia, Phytophthora nicotiana, Pythium spp. and Fusarium spp. and the potential to produce known secondary metabolites such as protease. Strains Pf-1, Pf-2, Pf-3, Pf-17, Pf-33 and Pf-44 showed the best antifungal activity against all fungi used in this study. Thirty-eight of 48 strains produced protease. The ability to rapidly characterize populations of 2,4-DAPG producers will greatly enhance our understanding of their role in the suppression of root disease. PMID:16637170

Afsharmanesh, H; Ahmadzadeh, M; Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Javan-Nikkhah, M; Ghazanfari, K

2005-01-01

343

Genetic and functional diversity among the antagonistic potential fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from tea rhizosphere.  

PubMed

Twenty-five fluorescent pseudomonads from rhizospheric soil of six tea gardens in four district of Upper Assam, India were isolated and screened for antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani (For), Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (Foc), Fusarium semitectum (Fs), and Rhizoctonia solani (Rs); and bacterial pathogens-Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Escherichia coli (Ec), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp). Most of the isolates exhibited strong antagonistic activity against the fungal pathogens and gram-positive bacterium i.e. Staphylococcus aureus. Productions of siderophore, salicylic acid (SA), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and cell wall-degrading enzyme (chitinase) were studied to observe the possible mechanisms of antagonistic activity of the isolates. Correlation between the antagonistic potentiality of some isolates and their levels of production of siderophore, salicylic acid, and hydrogen cyanide was observed. Out of the 25 isolates, antibiotic-coding genes, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) and pyoluteorin (PLT) were detected in the isolates, Pf12 and Pf373, respectively. Genetic diversity of these fluorescent pseudomonads were analyzed with reference to four strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens NICM 2099(T), P. aeruginosa MTCC 2582(T), P. aureofaciens NICM 2026(T), and P. syringae MTCC 673(T). 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis of these isolates using three tetra cutter restriction enzymes (HaeIII, AluI and MspI) revealed two distinct clusters. Cluster A comprised only two isolates Pf141 and 24-PfM3, and cluster B comprised 23 isolates along with four reference strains. PMID:20689953

Saikia, Ratul; Sarma, Rupak K; Yadav, Archana; Bora, Tarun C

2011-02-01

344

Fengycin produced by Bacillus subtilis NCD-2 plays a major role in biocontrol of cotton seedling damping-off disease.  

PubMed

Bacillus subtilis strain NCD-2 is strongly antagonistic toward phytopathogenic fungi, and functions as an excellent biocontrol agent for cotton soil-borne diseases. The aims of this study were to characterize the main active antifungal compound from strain NCD-2 and clarify its role in suppressing cotton damping-off disease. Strain NCD-2 and lipopeptide extract prepared from an NCD-2 culture strongly inhibited the growth of Rhizoctonia solani in vitro. The lipopeptides of strain NCD-2 were separated by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) and the antifungal compound was identified as a cluster of fengycin homologs analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A fengycin-deficient mutant was obtained by in-frame deletion of the fengycin synthetase gene in B. subtilis NCD-2. Compared with the wild-type strain, this mutant showed decreased abilities to inhibit the growth of R. solani in vitro and to suppress cotton damping-off disease in vivo. Studies showed that the population of fengycin-deficient mutant was almost same as that of the wild-type NCD-2 strain in the cotton rhizosphere. However, the population of R. solani in the cotton rhizosphere colonized by the fengycin-deficient mutant was twice that in the cotton rhizosphere colonized by the NCD-2 wild-type strain. This study demonstrated that fengycin-type lipopeptides are the main antifungal active compounds produced by B. subtilis NCD-2. These compounds play a major role in restricting the population of R. solani in the cotton rhizosphere and in suppressing cotton damping-off disease. PMID:24380713

Guo, Qinggang; Dong, Weixin; Li, Shezeng; Lu, Xiuyun; Wang, Peipei; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Ye; Ma, Ping

2014-01-01

345

An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in intracellular calcium elevation is sensitive to biotic and abiotic stress  

PubMed Central

Background Ca2+, a versatile intracellular second messenger in various signaling pathways, initiates many responses involved in growth, defense and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. Endogenous and exogenous signals induce cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) elevation, which are responsible for the appropriate downstream responses. Results Here we report on an ethyl-methane sulfonate-mediated Arabidopsis mutant that fails to induce [Ca2+]cyt elevation in response to exudate preparations from the pathogenic mibrobes Alternaria brassicae, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The cytoplasmic Ca2+elevation mutant1 (cycam1) is susceptible to infections by A. brassicae, its toxin preparation and sensitive to abiotic stress such as drought and salt. It accumulates high levels of reactive oxygen species and contains elevated salicylic acid, abscisic acid and bioactive jasmonic acid iso-leucine levels. Reactive oxygen species- and phytohormone-related genes are higher in A. brassicae-treated wild-type and mutant seedlings. Depending on the analysed response, the elevated levels of defense-related compounds are either caused by the cycam mutation and are promoted by the pathogen, or they are mainly due to the pathogen infection or application of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Furthermore, cycam1 shows altered responses to abscisic acid treatments: the hormone inhibits germination and growth of the mutant. Conclusions We isolated an Arabidopsis mutant which fails to induce [Ca2+]cyt elevation in response to exudate preparations from various microbes. The higher susceptibility of the mutant to pathogen infections correlates with the higher accumulation of defense-related compounds, such as phytohormones, reactive oxygen-species, defense-related mRNA levels and secondary metabolites. Therefore, CYCAM1 couples [Ca2+]cyt elevation to biotic, abiotic and oxidative stress responses.

2014-01-01

346

Allelic analysis of sheath blight resistance with association mapping in rice.  

PubMed

Sheath blight (ShB) caused by the soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most devastating diseases in rice world-wide. Global attention has focused on examining individual mapping populations for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for ShB resistance, but to date no study has taken advantage of association mapping to examine hundreds of lines for potentially novel QTLs. Our objective was to identify ShB QTLs via association mapping in rice using 217 sub-core entries from the USDA rice core collection, which were phenotyped with a micro-chamber screening method and genotyped with 155 genome-wide markers. Structure analysis divided the mapping panel into five groups, and model comparison revealed that PCA5 with genomic control was the best model for association mapping of ShB. Ten marker loci on seven chromosomes were significantly associated with response to the ShB pathogen. Among multiple alleles in each identified loci, the allele contributing the greatest effect to ShB resistance was named the putative resistant allele. Among 217 entries, entry GSOR 310389 contained the most putative resistant alleles, eight out of ten. The number of putative resistant alleles presented in an entry was highly and significantly correlated with the decrease of ShB rating (r?=?-0.535) or the increase of ShB resistance. Majority of the resistant entries that contained a large number of the putative resistant alleles belonged to indica, which is consistent with a general observation that most ShB resistant accessions are of indica origin. These findings demonstrate the potential to improve breeding efficiency by using marker-assisted selection to pyramid putative resistant alleles from various loci in a cultivar for enhanced ShB resistance in rice. PMID:22427867

Jia, Limeng; Yan, Wengui; Zhu, Chengsong; Agrama, Hesham A; Jackson, Aaron; Yeater, Kathleen; Li, Xiaobai; Huang, Bihu; Hu, Biaolin; McClung, Anna; Wu, Dianxing

2012-01-01

347

Transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey  

SciTech Connect

BACKGROUND: Combating the action of plant pathogenic microorganisms by mycoparasitic fungi has been announced as an attractive biological alternative to the use of chemical fungicides since two decades. The fungal genus Trichoderma includes a high number of taxa which are able to recognize, combat and finally besiege and kill their prey. Only fragments of the biochemical processes related to this ability have been uncovered so far, however. RESULTS: We analyzed genome-wide gene expression changes during the begin of physical contact between Trichoderma atroviride and two plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, and compared with gene expression patterns of mycelial and conidiating cultures, respectively. About 3000 ESTs, representing about 900 genes, were obtained from each of these three growth conditions. 66 genes, represented by 442 ESTs, were specifically and significantly overexpressed during onset of mycoparasitism, and the expression of a subset thereof was verified by expression analysis. The upregulated genes comprised 18 KOG groups, but were most abundant from the groups representing posttranslational processing, and amino acid metabolism, and included components of the stress response, reaction to nitrogen shortage, signal transduction and lipid catabolism. Metabolic network analysis confirmed the upregulation of the genes for amino acid biosynthesis and of those involved in the catabolism of lipids and aminosugars. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the genes overexpressed during the onset of mycoparasitism in T. atroviride has revealed that the fungus reacts to this condition with several previously undetected physiological reactions. These data enable a new and more comprehensive interpretation of the physiology of mycoparasitism, and will aid in the selection of traits for improvement of biocontrol strains by recombinant techniques.

Seidl, Verena; Song, Lifu; Lindquist, Erika; Gruber, Sabine; Koptchinskiy, Alexeji; Zeilinger, Susanne; Schmoll, Monika; Martinez, Pedro; Sun, Jibin; Grigoriev, Igor; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Baker, Scott E; Kubicek, Christian P.

2010-07-23

348

Effect of abiotic stress on phosphate solubilization by biocontrol fungus Trichoderma sp.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to explore the role of Trichoderma sp. in phosphate (P) solubilization and antagonism against fungal phytopathogens. All fungal isolates (SE(6), KT(6), KT(28), and BRT(11)) and a standard culture of T. harzianum (Th-std) were able to antagonize two fungal phytopathogens (Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani) of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) wilt complex. Transmission electron microscopic studies (TEM) further confirmed ultra-cytological changes in the sclerotia of S. rolfsii parasitized by Trichoderma sp. All fungal cultures exhibited production of NH(3) and siderophore, but only BRT(11), SE(6), and Th-std could produce HCN. Among all the cultures tested, isolate KT(6) was found to be most effective for solubilization of ferric phosphate releasing 398.4 ?g ml(-1) phosphate while isolates BRT(11) and SE(6) showed more potential for tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilization releasing 449.05 and 412.64 ?g ml(-1) phosphate, respectively, in their culture filtrates. Part of this study focused on the influence of abiotic stress conditions such as pH, temperature, and heavy metal (cadmium) on phosphate (TCP) solubilizing efficiency. Two selected cultures KT(6) and T. harzianum retained their P solubilizing potential at varying concentrations of cadmium (0-1000 ?g ml(-1)). Isolate KT(6) and standard culture of T. harzianum released 278.4 and 287.6 ?g ml(-1) phosphate, respectively, at 1000 ?g ml(-1)cadmium. Maximum solubilization of TCP was obtained at alkaline pH and at 28°C temperature. Isolate BRT(11) was found most alkalo-tolerant releasing 448.0 ?g ml(-1) phosphate at pH 9. PMID:21327557

Rawat, Rekha; Tewari, Lakshmi

2011-05-01

349

Combinative effects of a bacterial type-III effector and a biocontrol bacterium on rice growth and disease resistance.  

PubMed

Expression of HpaG(Xoo), a bacterial type-III effector, in transgenic plants induces disease resistance. Resistance also can be elicited by biocontrol bacteria. In both cases, plant growth is often promoted. Here we address whether biocontrol bacteria and HpaG(Xoo) can act together to provide better results in crop improvement. We studied effects of Pseudomonas cepacia on the rice variety R109 and the hpaG(Xoo)-expressing rice line HER1. Compared to R109, HER1 showed increased growth, grain yield, and defense responses toward diseases and salinity stress. Colonization of roots by P. cepacia caused 20% and 13% increase, in contrast to controls, in root growth of R109 and HER1. Growth of leaves and stems also increased in R109 but that of HER1 was inhibited. When P. cepacia colonization was subsequent to plant inoculation with Rhizoctonia solani, a pathogen that causes sheath blight, the disease was less severe than controls in both R109 and HER1; HER1, nevertheless, was more resistant, suggesting that P. cepacia and HpaG(Xoo) cooperate in inducing disease resistance. Several genes that critically regulate growth and defense behaved differentially in HER1 and R109 while responding to P. cepacia. In R109 leaves, the OsARF1 gene, which regulates plant growth, was expressed in consistence with growth promotion by P. cepacia. Inversely, OsARF1 expression was coincident with inhibition in growth of HER1 leaves. In both plants, the expression of OsEXP1, which encodes an expansin protein involved in plant growth,was concomitant with growth promotion in leaves instead of roots,in response to P. cepacia . We also studied OsMAPK, a gene that encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase and controls defense responses toward salinity and infection by pathogens in rice. In response to P. cepacia, an early expression of OsMAPK was coincident with R109 resistance to the disease, while HER1 expressed the gene similarly whether P. cepacia was present or not. Evidently, P. cepacia and G(Xoo)-gene mediated resistance may act differently in rice growth and resistance. Whereas combinative effects of P. cepacia and HpaG(Xoo) in disease resistance have a great potential in agricultural use, it is interesting to study mechanisms that underlie interactions involving biocontrol bacteria, type-III effectors and pathogens. PMID:17301500

Ren, Haiying; Gu, Ganyu; Long, Juying; Yin, Qian; Wu, Tingquan; Song, Tao; Zhang, Shujian; Chen, Zhiyi; Dong, Hansong

2006-12-01

350

Functional Alteration of a Dimeric Insecticidal Lectin to a Monomeric Antifungal Protein Correlated to Its Oligomeric Status  

PubMed Central

Background Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) is a 25-kDa homodimeric, insecticidal, mannose binding lectin whose subunits are assembled by the C-terminal exchange process. An attempt was made to convert dimeric ASAL into a monomeric form to correlate the relevance of quaternary association of subunits and their functional specificity. Using SWISS-MODEL program a stable monomer was designed by altering five amino acid residues near the C-terminus of ASAL. Methodology/Principal Findings By introduction of 5 site-specific mutations (-DNSNN-), a ? turn was incorporated between the 11th and 12th ? strands of subunits of ASAL, resulting in a stable monomeric mutant ASAL (mASAL). mASAL was cloned and subsequently purified from a pMAL-c2X system. CD spectroscopic analysis confirmed the conservation of secondary structure in mASAL. Mannose binding assay confirmed that molecular mannose binds efficiently to both mASAL and ASAL. In contrast to ASAL, the hemagglutination activity of purified mASAL against rabbit erythrocytes was lost. An artificial diet bioassay of Lipaphis erysimi with mASAL displayed an insignificant level of insecticidal activity compared to ASAL. Fascinatingly, mASAL exhibited strong antifungal activity against the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria brassicicola in a disc diffusion assay. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of mASAL might be associated with the alteration of the membrane permeability of the fungus. Furthermore, a ligand blot assay of the membrane subproteome of R. solani with mASAL detected a glycoprotein receptor having interaction with mASAL. Conclusions/Significance Conversion of ASAL into a stable monomer resulted in antifungal activity. From an evolutionary aspect, these data implied that variable quaternary organization of lectins might be the outcome of defense-related adaptations to diverse situations in plants. Incorporation of mASAL into agronomically-important crops could be an alternative method to protect them from dramatic yield losses from pathogenic fungi in an effective manner.

Banerjee, Nilanjana; Ghosh, Prithwi; Das, Kalipada; Das, Sampa

2011-01-01

351

Characterization of streptomyces lydicus WYEC108 as a potential biocontrol agent against fungal root and seed rots.  

PubMed Central

The actinomycete Streptomyces lydicus WYEC108 showed strong in vitro antagonism against various fungal plant pathogens in plate assays by producing extracellular antifungal metabolites. When Pythium ultimum or Rhizoctonia solani was grown in liquid medium with S. lydicus WYEC108, inhibition of growth of the fungi was observed. When WYEC108 spores or mycelia were used to coat pea seeds, the seeds were protected from invasion by P. ultimum in an oospore-enriched soil. While 100% of uncoated control seeds were infected by P. ultimum within 48 h after planting, less than 40% of coated seeds were infected. When the coated seeds were planted in soil 24 h prior to introduction of the pathogen, 96 h later, less than 30% of the germinating seeds were infected. Plant growth chamber studies were also carried out to test for plant growth effects and for suppression by S. lydicus WYEC108 of Pythium seed rot and root rot. When WYEC108 was applied as a spore-peat moss-sand formulation (10(8) CFU/g) to P. ultimum-infested sterile or nonsterile soil planted with pea and cotton seeds, significant increases in average plant stand, plant length, and plant weight were observed in both cases compared with untreated control plants grown in similar soils. WYEC108 hyphae colonized and were able to migrate downward with the root as it elongated. Over a period of 30 days, the population of WYEC108 colonized emerging roots of germinating seeds and remained stable (10(5) CFU/g) in the rhizosphere, whereas the nonrhizosphere population of WYEC108 declined at least 100-fold (from 10(5) to 10(3) or fewer CFU/g). The stability of the WYEC108 population incubated at 25 degrees C in the formulation, in sterile soil, and in nonsterile soil was also evaluated. In all three environments, the population of WYEC108 maintained its size for 90 days or more. When pea, cotton, and sweet corn seeds were placed into sterile and nonsterile soils containing 10(6) or more CFU of WYEC108 per g, it colonized the emerging roots. After a 1-week growing period, WYEC108 populations of 10(5) CFU/g (wet weight) of root were found on pea roots in the amended sterile soil environment versus 10(4) CFU/g in amended nonsterile soil. To further study the in vitro interaction between the streptomycete and P. ultimum, mycelia of WYEC108 were mixed with oospores of P. ultimum in agar, which was then used as a film to coat slide coverslips.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Yuan, W M; Crawford, D L

1995-01-01

352

Spectroscopic studies and biological evaluation of some transition metal complexes of azo Schiff-base ligand derived from (1-phenyl-2,3-dimethyl-4-aminopyrazol-5-one) and 5-((4-chlorophenyl)diazenyl)-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of metal(II) complexes of VO(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) have been synthesized from the azo Schiff base ligand 4-((E)-4-((E)-(4-chlorophenyl)diazenyl)-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-one (CDHBAP) and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, ESR and EI-mass), magnetic moment measurements, molar conductance, DNA, SEM, X-ray crystallography and fluorescence studies. The electronic absorption spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements of the complexes indicate square pyramidal geometry for VO(II) and octahedral geometry for all the other complexes. The important infrared (IR) spectral bands corresponding to the active groups in the ligand and the solid complexes under investigation were studied and implies that CDHBAP is coordinated to the metal ions in a neutral tridentate manner. The redox behavior of copper(II) and vanadyl(II) complexes have been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The nuclease activity of the above metal(II) complexes shows that the complexes cleave DNA. All the synthesized complexes can serve as potential photoactive materials as indicated from their characteristic fluorescence properties. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized ligand and its metal complexes were screened against bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Shigella sonnie) and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia bataicola). Amikacin and Ketoconozole were used as references for antibacterial and antifungal studies. The activity data show that the metal complexes have a promising biological activity comparable with the parent Schiff base ligand against bacterial and fungal species. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the ligand was measured and the NLO (non-linear optical) properties of the ligand are expected to result in the realization of advanced optical devices in optical fiber communication (OFC) and optical computing. The SEM image of the copper(II) complex implies that the size of the particles is 1 ?m.

Anitha, C.; Sheela, C. D.; Tharmaraj, P.; Sumathi, S.

2012-10-01

353

Differential effectiveness of Serratia plymuthica IC1270-induced systemic resistance against hemibiotrophic and necrotrophic leaf pathogens in rice  

PubMed Central

Background Induced resistance is a state of enhanced defensive capacity developed by a plant reacting to specific biotic or chemical stimuli. Over the years, several forms of induced resistance have been characterized, including systemic acquired resistance, which is induced upon localized infection by an avirulent necrotizing pathogen, and induced systemic resistance (ISR), which is elicited by selected strains of nonpathogenic rhizobacteria. However, contrary to the relative wealth of information on inducible defense responses in dicotyledoneous plants, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying induced resistance phenomena in cereal crops is still in its infancy. Using a combined cytomolecular and pharmacological approach, we analyzed the host defense mechanisms associated with the establishment of ISR in rice by the rhizobacterium Serratia plymuthica IC1270. Results In a standardized soil-based assay, root treatment with IC1270 rendered foliar tissues more resistant to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, causal agent of the devastating rice blast disease. Analysis of the cytological and biochemical alterations associated with restriction of fungal growth in IC1270-induced plants revealed that IC1270 primes rice for enhanced attacker-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autofluorescent phenolic compounds in and near epidermal cells displaying dense cytoplasmic granulation. Similar, yet more abundant, phenotypes of hypersensitively dying cells in the vicinity of fungal hyphae were evident in a gene-for-gene interaction with an avirulent M. oryzae strain, suggesting that IC1270-inducible ISR and R protein conditioned effector-triggered immunity (ETI) target similar defense mechanisms. Yet, this IC1270-inducible ISR response seems to act as a double-edged sword within the rice defense network as induced plants displayed an increased vulnerability to the necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Cochliobolus miyabeanus. Artificial enhancement of ROS levels in inoculated leaves faithfully mimicked the opposite effects of IC1270 bacteria on aforementioned pathogens, suggesting a central role for oxidative events in the IC1270-induced resistance mechanism. Conclusion Besides identifying ROS as modulators of antagonistic defense mechanisms in rice, this work reveals the mechanistic similarities between S. plymuthica-mediated ISR and R protein-dictated ETI and underscores the importance of using appropriate innate defense mechanisms when breeding for broad-spectrum rice disease resistance.

De Vleesschauwer, David; Chernin, Leonid; Hofte, Monica M

2009-01-01

354

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of three species of Artemisia on some soil-borne phytopathogens.  

PubMed

Various species of the genus Artemisia are used for their pharmacological, antimicrobial, antioxidant activity. Three species of this genus, Artemisia scoparia, A. sieberi and A. aucheri are widely distributed in desert area of Iran. In order to identify the chemical composition, aerial parts of A. scoparia, A. sieberi and A. aucheri were collected from Bajestan (Khorasan province) at flowering stage. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation of air-dried samples and their chemical composition identified by GC-MS. Oxygenated monoterpens were the major components of the oils of three species. alpha-thujone (81.7%), beta-thujone (14.5%) and 1,8-cineol (1.9%) were the major compounds in the essential oil of A. scoparia. The essential oil of A. aucheri was rich in linalool (44.1%), gernyl acetate (10.7%), (E)-citral (9.7%) and (Z)-citral (7.7%), and the essential oil of A. sieberi was rich in beta-thujone (19.8%), alpha-thujone (10.5%), camphor (19.5%), verbenol (9.7%), p-mentha-1,5-dien-8-ol (6.4) and davanone (5.8%). The essential oils of the three species were tested for their antifungal activity against some soil-borne pathogenic fungi. Results of bioassay showed that the oils of A. aucheri and A. sieberi has stronger antifungal activity. Minimum EC50 (41.406 microL/L), resulted from A. aucheri on Rhizoctonia solani. The oil of A. sieberi showed fungistatic activity against, Tiarosporella phaseolina (MIC = 1000 microL/L, EC50 = 203.419 microL/L), Fusarium moniliforme (MIC=750 microL/L, EC50 = 211.072 microL/L), Fusarium solani (MIC = 750 microL/L, EC50 = 188.134 microL/L) whereas against R. solani (MIC = 250 microL/L, EC50 = 121.798 microL/L) exhibited high fungicidal activity. PMID:17390897

Farzaneh, M; Ahmadzadeh, M; Hadian, J; Tehrani, A Sharifi

2006-01-01

355

Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Mexican tarragon (Tagetes lucida).  

PubMed

Mexican tarragon (Tagetes lucida Cv. Asteraceae: Campanulatae) is an important, nutritious plant and an effective herbal medicine. Seven coumarins, 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin (4), umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin) (5), scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) (7), esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) (11), 6-hydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin (12), herniarin (7-methoxycoumarin) (13), and scopoletin (6-methoxy-7-hydroxycoumarin) (14), and three flavonoids, patuletin (18), quercetin (19), and quercetagetin (20), were isolated from CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts from aerial parts of T. lucida. In addition, 6,7-diacetoxy coumarin (15), 6-methoxy-7-acetylcoumarin (16), and 6-acetoxy-7-methoxycoumarin (17) derivatives were synthesized. 8-Methoxypsoralen (1), 8-acetyl-7-hydroxycoumarin (2), 7,8-dihydroxy-6-meth-oxycoumarin (3), 6,7-dimethoxy-4-methylcoumarin (6), 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (8), 4-hydroxycoumarin (9), 4-hydroxy-6,7-dimethylcoumarin (10), naringenin (21), glycoside-7-rhamnonaringin (22), and rutin (23) were commercially obtained (Sigma-Aldrich). All of these compounds and extracts (M1 and M2) were assayed against bacteria and fungi. The antibacterial activity was determined on Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella sp., Shigella boydii, Shigella sp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter agglomerans, Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterolitica, Vibrio cholerae (three El Tor strains, CDC-V12, clinic case, and INDRE-206, were obtained from contaminated water), and V. cholerae (NO-O1). The evaluated fungi were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium notatum, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium sporotrichum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The most active compounds against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria were the dihydroxylated coumarins 3 and 4. In addition, 2-4, 6, 7, and 11 showed an interesting activity against V. cholerae, a key bacterium in the contaminated water; 2-4 were the most active. Coumarins were the most effective compounds against Gram-negative bacteria. The extract MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1: 4) M2 at 0.4 microg/disk inhibited the growth of E. coli and P. mirabilis (40%), K. pneumoniae (31.1%), Salmonella sp. (35.5%), and Shigella sp. (0%) at 72 h of culture. The dimethoxy compounds 6 and 7 showed a strong activity against fungal strains, especially T. mentagrophytes and R. solani (100% of inhibition at 125.0 and 250.0 microg/mL, respectively). PMID:19127719

Céspedes, Carlos L; Avila, J Guillermo; Martínez, Andrés; Serrato, Blanca; Calderón-Mugica, José C; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael

2006-05-17

356

The causal agents of damping-off disease of buglosse from Iran.  

PubMed

Iran is considered a major genetic for medicinal plant in the world. Because of this significant diversity and historical background in identification and utilization to remedy human and animal diseases, export of medicinal plant can help to strengthen local as well as natural economy. Buglosse (Fig. 1) is one of the most important and common medicinal plants in Iran and exist as Echium amoneum and Borago officinalis. This work was conducted in order to identify the causal agent(s) of damping off disease in buglosse. Plant disease samples were taken from Esfahan and Tehran provinces. Symptoms on original plant including root, crown rot, dark tissue, pith and hallow root were collected in order to isolate disease agent(s). Symptomatic root and crown tissues after surface sterilization with 96% ethanol were transferred on to PDA and WA media and also on moist filter paper in petri dishes. Two fungal colonies grew from tissue segments and spore culture was subsequently purified. The fungal isolate identified as Rhizoctonia solani based on the following test. Hyphal tip was removed from colony margin placed on PDA and PSA media and incubated in dark. Colony diameter of one hundred hyphae measured and nucleus was stained according to Bandoni (1979), Kronland and Stanghellini (1988). It was observed that in each cell of hyphae there are more than two nuclei. Single spore culture were obtained from macroconidia of Fusarium isolate. After 24 hr of incubation, growing single spore were transferred to KCL medium to detect spore chains. Fungal isolates transferred to PSA and PDA media for sporulation. After 7 days colonies appeared as white cream to pinkish on top and cream to dark pink at the bottom of petri dish with abundant micro and macro conidia. Colonies were snow white, felting shape, with ample causal hyphae on PSA medium. On KCL medium, fungal growth was superficial and colonies were colorless with long macroconidia and individual sausage-shape macroconidia being thinner one side and having maximum four septa. Microconidia were long double compartment round on both side, straight to slightly curved. Base on morphology and dimension of conidia and production of chlamidospore the funguses identify as Fusarium solani. PMID:16637194

Okhovvat, S M; Zakeri, Z; Moshashai, R

2005-01-01

357

Survival of the rhizosphere-competent biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI2650 in the soil and phytosphere.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI2650 was isolated after screening 360 bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) grown in fungal-disease-suppressive field soil. The strain was selected because of its high rhizosphere competence and ability to inhibit the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri, Rhizoctonia bataticola, and Pythium sp. under in vitro conditions. Survival and colonization of NBRI2650 in the phytosphere of chickpea, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and tomato (Lycopersicon seculentum Mill.) were monitored using a chromosomally located rifampicin-marked mutant P. fluorescens NBRI2650R. The strain showed variable ability to invade and survive in the phytosphere of different plants. Chickpea was used as a tester plant for further work, as it was not invaded by NBRI2650R. The interaction between NBRI2650R and F oxysporum fsp. ciceri was studied by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The lysis of the fungal cell wall by NBRI2650R was clearly demonstrated. Treatment of the chickpea seeds with NBRI2650R in prerelease experiments in the greenhouse using disease-conducive field soils from Jhansi and Kanpur resulted in increased plant growth and did not result in any perturbation of the indigenous microbial community that inhabited the rhizosphere of chickpea compared with nonbacterized seeds. Direct fermentation of diluted NBRI2650R on vermiculite without the need of expensive fermentors offers a reliable process for manufacturing bacterial inoculants in developing countries. Under field conditions, the horizontal and vertical movement of NBRI2650R was restricted to 30 and 60 cm, respectively, and the strain could not survive in the field during the 7 months before the chickpea could be planted for next cropping season. Field trials conducted at Jhansi, Kanpur, and Pantnagar resulted in higher grain yield increase in the bacteria-treated seed compared with the nonbacterized control. Seed and furrow treatment of the two chickpeas ('Radhey' and 'H-208') at Pantnagar resulted in significantly (P = 0.05) greater seedling mortality in nonbacterized seedlings compared with bacterized ones. The seed dry weight and yield for each variety were also significantly higher in bacterized seedlings than in nonbacterized ones. The population of NBRI2650R persisted throughout the growing season of chickpea in the range of 5.4-6.4 log10 CFU/g root. PMID:12224558

Nautlyal, C Shekhar; Johri, J K; Singh, H B

2002-07-01

358

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

359

PacC and pH-dependent transcriptome of the mycotrophic fungus Trichoderma virens  

PubMed Central

Background In fungi, environmental pH is an important signal for development, and successful host colonization depends on homeostasis. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the role of pH in fungal-fungal interactions. Species of Trichoderma grow as soil saprobes but many are primarily mycotrophic, using other fungi as hosts. Therefore, Trichoderma spp. are studied for their potential in biocontrol of plant diseases. Particularly in alkaline soil, pH is a critical limiting factor for these biofungicides, whose optimal growth pH is 4–6. Gaining an understanding of pH adaptability is an important step in broadening the activity spectrum of these economically important fungi. Results We studied the pH-responsive transcription factor PacC by gene knockout and by introduction of a constitutively active allele (pacCc). ?pacC mutants exhibited reduced growth at alkaline pH, while pacCc strains grew poorly at acidic pH. In plate confrontation assays ?pacC mutants showed decreased ability to compete with the plant pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. The pacCc strain exhibited an overgrowth of R. solani that was comparable to the wild type, but was unable to overgrow S. rolfsii. To identify genes whose expression is dependent on pH and pacC, we designed oligonucleotide microarrays from the transcript models of the T. virens genome, and compared the transcriptomes of wild type and mutant cultures exposed to high or low pH. Transcript levels from several functional classes were dependent on pacC, on pH, or on both. Furthermore, the expression of a set of pacC-dependent genes was increased in the constitutively-active pacCc strain, and was pH-independent in some, but not all cases. Conclusions PacC is important for biocontrol-related antagonism of other fungi by T. virens. As much as 5% of the transcriptome is pH-dependent, and of these genes, some 25% depend on pacC. Secondary metabolite biosynthesis and ion transport are among the relevant gene classes. We suggest that ?pacC mutants may have lost their full biocontrol potential due to their inability to adapt to alkaline pH, to perceive ambient pH, or both. The results raise the novel possibility of genetically manipulating Trichoderma in order to improve adaptability and biocontrol at alkaline pH.

2013-01-01

360

A defensin with highly potent antipathogenic activities from the seeds of purple pole bean.  

PubMed

A 5443 Da peptide with sequence homology to defensins was purified from purple pole beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'Extra-long Purple Pole bean'). This peptide was isolated by adsorption on an affinity chromatographic medium Affi-Gel Blue gel and ion-exchange chromatographic media SP-Sepharose (sulfopropyl-Sepharose) and Mono S and by gel filtration on Superdex peptide. The peptide inhibited mycelial growth in Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Helminthosporium maydis, Fusarium oxysporum, Verticillium dahliae, Rhizoctonia solani, Candida albicans and Setosphaeria turcica with an IC50 of 0.8, 0.9, 2.3, 3.2, 4.3, 4.8 and 9.8 microM respectively. Its antifungal potency was higher than that of the plant defensin coccinin (IC50>50 microM). It induced membrane permeabilization in C. albicans as evidenced by SYTOX Green uptake, but did not affect erythrocyte membrane permeability. It inhibited growth in M. arachidicola by inducing chitin accumulation at hyphal tips as was shown by Congo Red staining. The antifungal activity was pH stable and thermostable. The peptide inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma (HepG2), breast cancer (MCF7), colon cancer (HT29) and cervical cancer (SiHa) cells but not that of human embryonic liver (WRL68) cells. Its anti-HepG2 activity (IC50=4.1+/-0.8 microM, n=3) was higher than that of another plant defensin, gymnin (IC50>50 microM). Its anti-MCF7 activity (IC50=8.3+/-0.3 microM, n=3) was similar to that of other plant defensins. It reduced the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 0.5+/-0.1 microM, n=3, much more potently than other plant defensins (IC50>40 microM). There is the possibility of using the purple pole bean defensin for producing antifungal drugs and/or transgenic plants with fungal resistance. PMID:19335335

Lin, Peng; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

2010-04-01

361

Ecological Studies of Transformed Trichoderma harzianum Strain 1295-22 in the Rhizosphere and on the Phylloplane of Creeping Bentgrass.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT A beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and a hygromycin B (hygB) phosphotransferase gene were integrated separately into the Trichoderma harzianum strain 1295-22 genome, using biolistic transformation. The mycelial growth and biocontrol ability of the transformed strains did not differ from that of the original strain. The transformed Gus(+)-kanamycin-resistant (Gus(+)Kan(R)) strains were used to monitor growth and interactions with Rhizoctonia solani on creeping bentgrass plants. The hygB-resistant (hygB(R)) strains were used to selectively recover strain 1295-22 from the rhizosphere soil and phylloplane of creeping bentgrass after spray applications. The population levels of two hygB(R) strains and the original strain were very similar for all treatments. All three strains persisted for the duration of the experiment (28 days) in both the rhizosphere soil and on leaves, although population levels declined somewhat over the course of the experiment in unautoclaved soils. In this study, the results demonstrated that hygB(R) strains remained dominant over time when assayed on Trichoderma-selective medium containing hygB. The hygB(R) strains were not displaced by strains that colonized untreated plants. Microscopic observation showed that the Gus(+)Kan(R) strains colonized the rhizoplane, seed coat, and phylloplane of creeping bentgrass. These results supported our earlier observation that strain 1295-22 was rhizosphere and phyllo-plane competent. Interactions between T. harzianum and R. solani were readily observed in situ and changed over time. Two types of reactions were found in these experiments. In the first type, sections of hyphae of R. solani near the hyphae of T. harzianum appeared damaged, and the pathogen appeared necrotic when viewed with a microscope. The second type, observed less frequently than the first type, was typical of myco-parasitism. The findings in this study provide new insight into the interactions between R. solani and T. harzianum, providing a basis for future research. PMID:18944981

Lo, C T; Nelson, E B; Hayes, C K; Harman, G E

1998-02-01

362

Fine mapping of qSB-11(LE), the QTL that confers partial resistance to rice sheath blight.  

PubMed

Sheath blight (SB), caused by Rhizoctonia solani kühn, is one of the most serious global rice diseases. No major resistance genes to SB have been identified so far. All discovered loci are quantitative resistance to rice SB. The qSB-11(LE) resistance quantitative trait locus (QTL) has been previously reported on chromosome 11 of Lemont (LE). In this study, we report the precise location of qSB-11 (LE) . We developed a near isogenic line, NIL-qSB11(TQ), by marker-assisted selection that contains susceptible allele(s) from Teqing (TQ) at the qSB-11 locus in the LE genetic background. NIL-qSB11(TQ) shows higher susceptibility to SB than LE in both field and greenhouse tests, suggesting that this region of LE contains a QTL contributing to SB resistance. In order to eliminate the genetic background effects and increase the accuracy of phenotypic evaluation, a total of 112 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) with the substituted segment specific to the qSB-11 (LE) region were produced as the fine mapping population. The genetic backgrounds and morphological characteristics of these CSSLs are similar to those of the recurrent parent LE. The donor TQ chromosomal segments in these CSSL lines contiguously overlap to bridge the qSB-11 (LE) region. Through artificial inoculation, all CSSLs were evaluated for resistance to SB in the field in 2005. For the recombinant lines, their phenotypes were evaluated in the field for another 3 years and during the final year were also evaluated in a controlled greenhouse environment, showing a consistent phenotype in SB resistance across years and conditions. After comparing the genotypic profile of each CSSL with its phenotype, we are able to localize qSB-11 (LE) to the region defined by two cleaved-amplified polymorphic sequence markers, Z22-27C and Z23-33C covering 78.871 kb, based on the rice reference genome. Eleven putative genes were annotated within this region and three of them were considered the most likely candidates. The results of this study will greatly facilitate the cloning of the genes responsible for qSB-11 (LE) and marker-assisted breeding to incorporate qSB-11 (LE) into other rice cultivars. PMID:23423653

Zuo, Shimin; Yin, Yuejun; Pan, Cunhong; Chen, Zongxiang; Zhang, Yafang; Gu, Shiliang; Zhu, Lihuang; Pan, Xuebiao

2013-05-01

363

Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide  

PubMed Central

Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride and Bacillus megaterium) and chemical inducers (salicylic acid [SA] and hydrogen peroxide) individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promoting of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi. Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/wilt severity and increased of survival plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and weights of the survival plants in pots compared with control. The combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than used of them individually and SA + T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Also, under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and number of branches per plant) and yield components (number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds and total yield per feddan) and protein content in both seasons (2010~2011 and 2011~2012). Faba bean seeds soaked in SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers recorded the best results for controlling damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in greenhouse and field with addition improved plant growth and increased yield components in field.

2013-01-01

364

Inhibitory effects of stilbenes on the growth of three soybean pathogens in culture.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The effects of resveratrol and pterostilbene on in vitro growth of three soybean pathogens were tested to determine whether these stilbenic compounds could potentially be targets to increase innate resistance in transgenic soybean plants. Growth of Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was measured on solid and in liquid media amended with resveratrol and pterostilbene (concentration in the media of resveratrol at 100 ?g/ml and pterostilbene at 25 ?g/ml). All three fungi were very sensitive to pterostilbene in potato dextrose agar (PDA), which reduced colony area of each of the three pathogens to less than half of the control 3 days after incubation. The three fungal pathogens were less sensitive to resveratrol compared with pterostilbene; however, area under the curve (AUC) calculated from colony areas measured over 3 days was significantly (P < 0.05) less than the control for S. sclerotiorum and R. solani on PDA with resveratrol or pterostilbene. AUC for M. phaseolina on PDA with pterostilbene was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the control whereas, on PDA with resveratrol, AUC for M. phaseolina was lower than the control but the difference was nonsignificant (P > 0.05). AUC for all three fungi was significantly lower (P < 0.05) on PDA with pterostilbene than with resveratrol. In potato dextrose broth (PDB) shake cultures, AUC for all three fungi was significantly (P < 0.01) lower in pterostilbene than in the control. AUC for R. solani and S. sclerotiorum was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in resveratrol than the control, whereas AUC for M. phaseolina in resveratrol was lower, but not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control. AUC in pterostilbene was highly significantly (P < 0.01) lower than in resveratrol for M. phaseolina and significantly (P < 0.05) lower for R. solani but the difference for S. sclerotiorum was nonsignificant (P > 0.05). There was a trend for lower mass accumulation of all three fungi in either pterostilbene or resveratrol compared with the control during the course of the experiment; however, S. sclerotiorum appeared to recover from the effects of pterostilbene between days 2 and 4. Results of biochemical analyses of the PDB over time indicated that the three fungi degraded resveratrol, with nearly 75% reduction in concentration in M. phaseolina, 80% in S. sclerotiorum, and 60% in R. solani PDB cultures by day 4 of fungal growth. M. phaseolina and S. sclerotiorum were able to resume growth after early inhibition by resveratrol after its concentration was reduced in the cultures through degradation, whereas R. solani was less efficient in resveratrol degradation and was not able to overcome its inhibitory effects on growth. The capacity to degrade pterostilbene was lowest in M. phaseolina compared with S. sclerotiorum and R. solani and the recovery of M. phaseolina cultures after initial growth inhibition by pterostilbene was minimal. The potential products of resveratrol and pterostilbene degradation by fungi were identified to be dimers and various oxidation products. PMID:24502206

Lygin, Anatoliy V; Hill, Curtis B; Pawlowski, Michelle; Zernova, Olga V; Widholm, Jack M; Hartman, Glen L; Lozovaya, Vera V

2014-08-01

365

Biopesticides from plants: Calceolaria integrifolia s.l.  

PubMed

The effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on humans and biodiversity are multiple and varied. Nowadays environmentally-friendly pesticides are strongly preferred to POPs. It is noteworthy that the crop protection role of pesticides and other techniques, i.e. biopesticides, plant extracts, prevention methods, organic methods, evaluation of plant resistance to certain pests under an integrated pest management (IPM), could improve the risks and benefits which must be assessed on a sound scientific basis. For this directive it is crucial to bring about a significant reduction in the use of chemical pesticides, not least through the promotion of sustainable alternative solutions such as organic farming and IPM. Biopesticides are derived from natural materials such as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. Most of them are biodegradable in relatively short periods of time. On this regard, substances from Calceolaria species emerge as a strong alternative to the use of POPs. The American genus Calceolaria species are regarded both as a notorious weeds and popular ornamental garden plants. Some have medicinal applications. Other taxa of Calceolaria are toxic to insects and resistant to microbial attack. These properties are probably associated with the presence of terpenes, iridoids, flavonoids, naphthoquinones and phenylpropanoids previously demonstrated to have interesting biological activities. In this article a comprehensive evaluation of the potential utilization of Calceolaria species as a source of biopesticides is made. The chemical profile of selected members of the Chilean Calceolaria integrifolia sensu lato complex represents a significant addition to previous studies. New secondary metabolites were isolated, identified and tested for their antifeedant, insect growth regulation and insecticidal activities against Spodoptera frugiperda and Drosophila melanogaster. These species serve as a model of insect pests using conventional procedures. Additionally, bactericidal and fungicidal activity were determined. Dunnione mixed with gallic acid was the most active fungistatic and fungicidal combination encountered. Several compounds as isorhamnetin, combined with ferulic and gallic acid quickly reduced cell viability, but cell viability was recovered quickly and did not differ from that of the control. The effect of these mixtures on cultures of Aspergillus niger, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium sporotrichum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, was sublethal. However, when fungistatic isorhamnetin and dunnione were combined with sublethal amounts of both ferulic and gallic acid, respectively, strong fungicidal activity against theses strains was observed. Thus, dunnione combined with gallic acid completely restricted the recovery of cell viability. This apparent synergistic effect was probably due to the blockade of the recovery process from induced-stress. The same series of phenolics (iridoids, flavonoids, naphthoquinones and phenylpropanoids) were also tested against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Enterobacter agglomerans, and Salmonella typhi, and agaisnt the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Sarcinia lutea, and Staphyllococcus aureus and their effects compared with those that of kanamycin. Mixtures of isorhamnetin/dunnione/kaempferol/ferulic/gallic acid in various combinations were found to have the most potent bactericidal and fungicidal activity with MFC between 10 and 50?g/ml. Quercetin was found to be the most potent fungistatic single compound with an MIC of 15µg/ml. A time-kill curve study showed that quercetin was fungicidal against fungi assayed at any growth stage. This antifungal activity was slightly enhanced by combination with gallic acid. The primary antifungal action of the mixtures assayed likely comes from their ability to act as nonionic surfactants that disrupt the function of native membrane-associated proteins. Hence, the antifungal activity of isorhamnetin and other O-methyl flavonols appears to be mediated by biophysical processes. Maximu

Céspedes, Carlos L; Salazar, Juan R; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Yamaguchi, Lydia; Avila, José G; Aqueveque, Pedro; Kubo, Isao; Alarcón, Julio

2014-07-01

366

How do microorganisms influence trace element uptake by plants? Screening in an agar model rhizosphere.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace elements (TE) are essential for humans and plants, but they may be toxic if their concentration is too high. For this reason, the management of TE in soils is very important. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the uptake of nutrients or TE by plants, for example in a biofortification perspective. Conversely, in some other cases TE uptake by plants should be decreased, for instance to avoid heavy metals entering the food chain via edible crops. Microorganisms living in the rhizosphere affect trace element (TE) uptake by plants. However, due to the complexity of this space and the variety of microorganisms that occur there, it is difficult to isolate the effect of any particular strain. To overcome this hurdle, we developed a system in which we grew plants under sterile conditions in agar and inoculated their rhizosphere with a single, well-defined microbial strain. For many years, agar has been used as a growth substrate for microorganisms and plant tissues. It is cheap, easy to use, and can be autoclaved to ensure its sterility. Because of its widespread use, an experiment conducted using this substrate can be reproduced under the same conditions in any laboratory. In contrast to soil, there is little interaction between the trace elements and the agar matrix. There are many studies investigating the influence of microorganisms on TE uptake by plants. However, so far only a small variety of microorganisms has been tested on few plant species. Therefore, the first objective of our research was to develop a method to rapidly screen a large variety of microorganisms on various plant species. Once this goal was achieved, we sought to study the effect of single, well-defined microbial strains on TE uptake by sunflower and wheat. The substrate for plants growth was a 10% agar solution prepared with modified Hoagland's solution and a TE solution containing 1 mg/kg Pb and molar equivalents of Cu, Ni and Zn. The agar solution was autoclaved and poured into sterile, transparent plastic boxes, whose lid was equipped with a filter allowing gas exchanges without contamination by external microorganisms. The seed surface was sterilised and the plants grew one week in agar before their rhizosphere was inoculated with LB broth containing a pure bacterial strain or agar plugs colonized by fungal hyphae. We tested 14 strains, with 5 replicates per treatment and a control where the system was inoculated with sterile LB broth. The plants grew for 2 weeks in a climate chamber and their shoots were analysed for their TEs by ICP-OES. Samples of agar and roots were collected to confirm microbial colonization of the rhizosphere, respectively sterile conditions in the control treatments. Concerning the method development, the plants grew without visible toxicity in all the boxes, and the analysis of root and agar samples indicated that the controls were sterile and the strains inoculated were growing along the roots. More than 90% of the TE and nutrients added to the system were in the liquid fraction of the agar medium, thus available for root uptake. The screening showed that the microorganisms in general decreased TE uptake by wheat and sunflower, although some of them had an opposite effect on the plants. However, with the same plant species, the microorganisms had a consistent effect on all TE tested, i.e. a given single strain caused the same effect (increase or decrease of TE uptake) on all TE tested. In sunflower, 3 microorganisms (Paenibacillus polymyxa, Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani) decreased Cu and Zn uptake by 50% compared to the control treatment. These three species are common soil microorganisms. All three are known to exude auxin, a phytohormone. This hormone can modify root morphology and physiology and thus may affect TE uptake by plants. R. solani and P. ultimum are root pathogens. Their effect was opposite to what we expected. If roots are damaged, TE should have flooded into the plant and accumulate in the tissues, but this was not the case. One explanation could be the biosorption of TE by these mi

Marchetti, M.; Robinson, B. H.; Evangelou, M. W. H.; Vachey, A.; Schwitzguebel, J. P.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Schulin, R.

2009-04-01