Sample records for tristeza virus isolate

  1. Population structure of Citrus tristeza virus from field Argentinean isolates.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Néstor G; Gago-Zachert, Selma P; Robledo, Germán; Costa, Norma; Plata, María Inés; Vera, Osmar; Grau, Oscar; Semorile, Liliana C

    2008-02-01

    We studied the genetic variability of three genomic regions (p23, p25 and p27 genes) from 11 field Citrus tristeza virus isolates from the two main citrus growing areas of Argentina, a country where the most efficient vector of the virus, Toxoptera citricida, is present for decades. The pathogenicity of the isolates was determinated by biological indexing, single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis showed that most isolates contained high intra-isolate variability. Divergent sequence variants were detected in some isolates, suggesting re-infections of the field plants. Phylogenetic analysis of the predominant sequence variants of each isolate revealed similar grouping of isolates for genes p25 and p27. The analysis of p23 showed two groups contained the severe isolates. Our results showed a high intra-isolate sequence variability suggesting that re-infections could contribute to the observed variability and that the host can play an important role in the selection of the sequence variants present in these isolates. PMID:17999168

  2. CPm gene diversity in field isolates of Citrus tristeza virus from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Oliveros-Garay, Oscar Arturo; Martinez-Salazar, Natalhie; Torres-Ruiz, Yanneth; Acosta, Orlando

    2009-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence diversity of the CPm gene from 28 field isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was assessed by SSCP and sequence analyses. These isolates showed two major shared haplotypes, which differed in distribution: A1 was the major haplotype in 23 isolates from different geographic regions, whereas R1 was found in isolates from a discrete region. Phylogenetic reconstruction clustered A1 within an independent group, while R1 was grouped with mild isolates T30 from Florida and T385 from Spain. Some isolates contained several minor haplotypes, which were very similar to, and associated with, the major haplotype. PMID:19882104

  3. Isolates of Citrus tristeza virus that overcome Poncirus trifoliata resistance comprise a novel strain.

    PubMed

    Harper, S J; Dawson, T E; Pearson, M N

    2010-04-01

    The economically important rootstock species Poncirus trifoliata is resistant to most isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), but not to members of the CTV resistance-breaking (RB) strain presently found in New Zealand. In this study, five known and suspected RB isolates were separated from field mixtures, and their genomes were sequenced in full. It was found that the RB isolates are members of a single phylogenetically distinct clade with an average of 90.3% genomic nucleotide sequence identity to the closest extant isolate, T36. These isolates also show evidence of multiple recombination events throughout their evolutionary history, with T36, T30 and VT-like isolates, and with each other. Finally, the genomic sequences of these isolates show that several genes contain unique polymorphisms that may or may not be involved in overcoming resistance. These data will aid in the understanding of host-virus interactions, and the mechanism of resistance in P. trifoliata. PMID:20352212

  4. Genetic Variation of Citrus Tristeza Virus Isolates from California and Spain: Evidence for Mixed Infections and Recombination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LUIS RUBIO; MARIA ANGELES AYLLON; P. Kong; A. Fernandez; M. Polek; J. Guerri; P. Moreno; B. W. Falk

    2001-01-01

    We examined the population structure and genetic variation of four genomic regions within and between 30 Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates from Spain and California. Our analyses showed that most isolates con- tained a population of sequence variants, with one being predominant. Four isolates showed two major sequence variants in some genomic regions. The two major variants of three of

  5. Complete genome sequences of two distinct and diverse Citrus tristeza virus isolates from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Harper, S J; Dawson, T E; Pearson, M N

    2009-01-01

    Two Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates from New Zealand that display distinct phenotypes were isolated, examined and sequenced in full. The first isolate, NZ-M16, is largely asymptomatic and non-transmissible by the aphid vector Toxoptera citricida, while the second, NZ-B18, is highly transmissible and induces very severe symptoms on C. sinensis and C. aurantii. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome sequences showed that both isolates were approximately 90-93% similar to the VT and T318 isolates but possessed only 89% identity to one another. Based on sequence identity, both isolates are VT subtypes, with NZ-M16 being T3-like, while NZ-B18 is a member of a novel subtype with B165 from India. PMID:19629636

  6. Molecular analyses revealed genetic complexity in Citrus tristeza virus Dekopon isolate and its aphid-transmitted progeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An assessment was made of the disease potential of a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolate designated Dekopon found in a hybrid mandarin variety topworked in a citrus planting in Fresno County, CA. After aphid transmissions (AT), parental and AT isolates were analyzed by SSCP, genotyping with multipl...

  7. Molecular characterization of Citrus tristeza virus isolates from the Northeastern Himalayan region of India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, K K

    2010-06-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates from the Darjeeling hills of the Northeastern Himalayan region of India were characterized by biological indexing, multiple molecular marker (MMM) analysis, heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) and sequence analysis. Variability was studied using the CP gene and a 5' ORF1a fragment of the CTV genome. HMA and sequence analysis of the 5' ORF1a fragment classified Darjeeling isolates into two groups, whereas CP gene analysis provided evidence for three different groups. Darjeeling CTV isolates shared nucleotide sequence identities of 89-97 and 91-92% in the 5' ORF1a fragment and CP gene, respectively, suggesting extensive diversity among CTV isolates from this Indian region. PMID:20437063

  8. Genetic diversity and evolution of two capsid protein genes of citrus tristeza virus isolates from China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guan-Wei; Tang, Min; Wang, Guo-Ping; Jin, Feng-Yin; Yang, Zuo-Kun; Cheng, Li-Jing; Hong, Ni

    2015-03-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates from China were investigated based on partial sequences spanning the C-terminal end of p61 and the complete sequences of the CPm and CP genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed five known groups (RB, T30, T36, HA and VT) and one new group (VI) consisting of only Chinese CTV isolates. Incongruent phylogenetic trees coupled with recombination analysis suggested several recombination events in the CPm gene. Positive selection was detected at codon 9 of CPm and codons 31, 41 and 68 of CP. The widespread CTV subpopulation AT-1 found in China has a unique amino acid insertion at the C-terminus of p61, which could increase CTV population complexity with implications for the evolutionary history of the virus. Our results suggest relevant roles for gene flow, purifying selection and recombination in shaping the CTV population in China. PMID:25387862

  9. Assessment of the Citrus tristeza virus isolates detected in spring 2007 at the Lindcove Research and Extension Center, Exeter, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus was detected in at least 50 trees at the 71 ha Lindcove Research and Extension Center (LREC) near Exeter, Calif. in spring 2007. The purpose of this research was to assess genetic diversity and aphid transmissibility of these isolates. Nine representative trees were sampled o...

  10. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or s...

  11. Segregation of distinct variants from Citrus tristeza virus isolate SY568 using aphid transmission.

    PubMed

    Velazquez-Monreal, J J; Mathews, D M; Dodds, J A

    2009-10-01

    A well-studied severe isolate of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) known as SY568 has previously been shown to contain multiple variants of the virus which differ in their genetic and biological characters. Aphid transmission was used in an attempt to segregate some of these variants for further characterization. Resulting infections gave symptoms which varied from asymptomatic to more severe than the inoculum source. RNase protection assays (RPAs) were used to compare nine regions of the CTV genome and determine whether unique strains could be identified. Five aphid-transmitted subcultures, with fingerprints that were different from those of the inoculum sources in at least one genomic area, were then cloned, sequenced, and compared with known isolates. An asymptomatic strain was shown to be different in every area of the CTV genome when examined by RPA and sequencing of selected regions. Mixed-infection studies using graft transmission of the asymptomatic subculture and two of the more severe aphid-transmitted subcultures showed that the mild strain was not able to compete well when in the presence of any of the severe variants tested, and its titer was significantly reduced from that seen in single infection. The mild strain and a selected severe strain were singly graft inoculated into five different citrus hosts (sweet orange, grapefruit, sour orange, lemon, and lime), where they maintained their distinct biological and genetic characteristics. PMID:19740030

  12. Real-time RT-PCR assay for detection and differentiation of Citrus tristeza virus isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For universal detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) strains by real time RT-PCR, a protocol was developed based on a set of primers and a Cy5-labeled TaqMan probe. This test included primers and a TET-labeled TaqMan probe selected on the mitochondrial nad5 gene for the simultaneous detection of ...

  13. Genetic diversity of Citrus tristeza virus isolates spreading in Central California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid increase in the number of trees infected with Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was observed in several locations in Tulare, County, CA during 2007. Since trees had been tested annually, these infections represent new infections. Leaf and bark tissue were sampled from infected trees and used for...

  14. Real-time RT-PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Citrus Tristeza Virus Isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiplex one step real time RT-PCR assays using TaqMan probes were developed for detection and strain differentiation of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). For broad spectrum CTV detection, a TaqMan primer and Cy5-labeled probe were designed using CP gene sequences. An internal control was developed us...

  15. HISTOLOGY OF SWEET ORANGE STEM PITTING CAUSED BY AN AUSTRALIAN ISOLATE OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some strains of the citrus tristeza virus (CTV) cause stem pitting in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). This abnormality causes tree decline and reduction in fruit size and yield of affected citrus trees. Stem-pitting symptoms can occur on trunks, on all sizes of limbs, and on the twigs ...

  16. Genetic Diversity of Citrus tristeza Virus Isolates Collected Recently in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys conducted over the past several years show a dramatic increase in Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) incidence in several locations in Central California. Our objective was to assess genetic diversity of current CTV field populations and determine their phylogenetic relationships with representati...

  17. Comparison of the minor coat protein gene sequences of aphid-transmissible and -nontransmissible isolates of Citrus tristeza virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Barzegar; Heshmat Rahimian; Haleh Hashemi Sohi

    2010-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences for the minor coat protein (CPm) gene and its deduced amino acid sequences for two aphid-transmissible\\u000a and two nontransmissible isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) from symptomless orchard trees of Miyagawa satsuma [Citrus unshiu (Macf.) Marc.] on trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliate (L.) Raf.] and declining Washington navel [C. sinensis (L.) Osb.] trees on sour orange (C. aurantium

  18. Protein-protein interactions between proteins of Citrus tristeza virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Nchongboh, Chofong Gilbert; Wu, Guan-Wei; Hong, Ni; Wang, Guo-Ping

    2014-12-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most devastating pathogens of citrus. Its genome is organized into 12 open reading frames (ORFs), of which ten ORFs located at the 3'-terminus of the genome have multiple biological functions. The ten genes at the 3'-terminus of the genome of a severe isolate (CTV-S4) and three ORFs (CP, CPm and p20) of three other isolates (N4, S45 and HB1) were cloned into pGBKT7 and pGADT7 yeast shuttle vectors. Yeast two-hybridization (Y2H) assays results revealed a strong self-interaction for CP and p20, and a unique interaction between the CPm of CTV-S4 (severe) and CP of CTV-N4 (mild) isolates. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation also confirmed these interactions. Analysis of the deletion mutants delineated the domains of CP and p20 self-interaction. Furthermore, the domains responsible for CP and p20 self-interactions were mapped at the CP amino acids sites 41-84 and p20 amino acids sites 1-21 by Y2H. This study provided new information on CTV protein interactions which will help for further understanding the biological functions. PMID:25064367

  19. Genome analysis of an orange stem pitting citrus tristeza virus isolate reveals a novel recombinant genotype.

    PubMed

    Roy, Avijit; Brlansky, R H

    2010-08-01

    An orange stem pitting citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolate CTV-B165 was found to be symptomatically similar to other known CTV-VT isolates however molecular methods failed to classify it as an identifiable CTV genotype. The sequence variation of the Indian CTV-B165 isolate was compared to the three well known CTV genotypes, T36, T30, and VT. The genome of the predominant component of CTV-B165 was 19,247 nt in length with 12 open reading frames (ORFs) and was structurally identical to the other CTV isolates. All the completely sequenced CTV isolates except the VT isolate were 2-55 nt longer than the CTV-B165. In comparison to the other fully sequenced T36, T30 and VT genotypic isolates, CTV-B165 had nucleotide identity of 72-86% in ORF1 and 92-99% in ORFs 2-11. Sequence data of independent overlapping clones from the CTV-B165 genome showed highly divergent sequences of the overlapping region of 5'-UTR and ORF1a, the inter-domain region of ORF1a and the partial regions of ORF2. Phylogenetic analysis of five domains of ORF1a, ORF1b, and ORF2 revealed that CTV-B165 isolate distinctly segregates from the existing three genotypes in the dendrograms and was supported by high bootstrap values and robust tree topology. The PHYLPRO graphical analysis showed multiple recombination signals with significant correlation values. The precise detection of recombination sites for different genomic regions in CTV sequences was supported by several recombination-detecting methods. Collectively, the phylogenetic and recombination analyses suggest that the observed CTV-B165 genotype variation is an outcome of inter-genotype recombination. To determine the presence of the CTV-B165 genotype a pair of genome specific primers was designed and standardized for reliable detection of the novel CTV genotype by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. PMID:20381550

  20. Complete 3' end genome analysis of the asymptomatic citrus tristeza virus isolate B192 and its eight single aphid transmitted subisolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most important viral disease of citrus is caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). CTV infection often exists in field isolates as a complex of multiple genotypes. Aphid transmission is important for CTV dispersal. The complete 3' terminal half sequences of the asymptomatic CTV isolate B192 and it...

  1. The genotypes of citrus tristeza virus isolates from China revealed by sequence analysis of multiple molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guan-Wei; Pan, Song; Wang, Guo-Ping; Tang, Min; Liu, Yong; Yang, Fan; Hong, Ni

    2013-01-01

    The genotypes of ten citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates from central China were determined by examining multiple molecular markers (MMMs) using 11 primer pairs. The results revealed that one isolate contained a single T30 genotype, two isolates contained a single VT genotype, and the other seven isolates were mixtures of two or more genotypes. Sequence analysis of amplified MMMs showed a high genetic diversity in Chinese CTV populations. The genotypes resembling T36, RB and B165 were identified from Chinese CTV isolates for the first time. Our results suggest that genotype assignment of CTV cannot be based solely on the amplification profiles of MMMs, and sequencing of MMMs is required. PMID:22987316

  2. Characterization of a novel citrus tristeza virus genotype within three cross-protecting source GFMS12 sub-isolates in South Africa by means of Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zablocki, Olivier; Pietersen, Gerhard

    2014-08-01

    Tristeza disease (caused by citrus tristeza virus, CTV) is currently controlled in South Africa by means of cross-protection. In this study, we characterized the CTV populations of three grapefruit mild strain 12 (GFMS12) single-aphid-transmission-derived sub-isolates at the whole-genome level using Illumina sequencing technology. A novel South African isolate (CT-ZA3, of the T68 genotype) was shown to be the dominant genotype in all GFMS12 sub-isolates tested, along with reads unique to various other genotypes occurring as minor components. Uncertainty remains as to the significance of these minor components. PMID:24623089

  3. Citrus tristeza virus: characterization of Texas isolates, studies on aphid transmission and pathogen-derived control strategies 

    E-print Network

    Herron, Caroline Mary

    2004-11-15

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), an economically important graft-transmissible pathogen of citrus, causes major global declines in citrus production. In the commercial citrus of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas (LRGV), ...

  4. Molecular analysis among MCA13-reactive isolates reveals a rapid strategy for assessment of Citrus tristeza virus severity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) usually occurs as a complex of strains that vary greatly in severity and aphid transmissibility. A rapid assay, therefore, is needed to distinguish potentially mild vs. severe strains of CTV for disease mitigation. An economical and practical strategy to screen for poten...

  5. The First Identified Citrus tristeza virus Isolate of Turkey Contains a Mixture of Mild and Severe Strains.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Bayram; Yardimci, Nejla; Korkmaz, Sava?

    2013-03-01

    The presence of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has previously been reported in citrus growing regions of Turkey. All serologically and biologically characterized isolates including I?d?r, which was the first identified CTV isolates from Turkey, were considered mild isolates. In this study, molecular characteristics of the I?d?r isolate were determined by different methods. Analysis of the I?d?r isolate by western blot and BD-RT-PCR assays showed the presence of MCA13 epitope, predominantly found in severe isolates, in the I?d?r isolate revealing that it contains a severe component. For further characterization, the coat protein (CP) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes representing the 3' and 5' half of CTV genome, respectively, were amplified from dsRNA by RT-PCR. Both genes were cloned separately and two clones for each gene were sequenced. Comparisons of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences showed that while two CP gene sequences were identical, two RdRp clones showed only 90% and 91% sequence identity in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively, suggesting a mixed infection with different strains. Phylogenetic analyses of the CP and RdRp genes of I?d?r isolate with previously characterized CTV isolates from different citrus growing regions showed that the CP gene was clustered with NZRB-TH30, a resistance breaking isolate from New Zealand, clearly showing the presence of severe component. Furthermore, two different clones of the RdRp gene were clustered separately with different CTV isolates with a diverse biological activity. While the RdRp-1 was clustered with T30 and T385, two well-characterized mild isolates from Florida and Spain, respectively, the RdRp-2 was most closely related to NZRB-G90 and NZRB-TH30, two well-characterized resistance breaking and stem pitting (SP) isolates from New Zealand confirming the mixed infection. These results clearly demonstrated that the I?d?r isolate, which was previously described as biologically a mild isolate, actually contains a mixture of mild and severe strains. PMID:25288926

  6. The First Identified Citrus tristeza virus Isolate of Turkey Contains a Mixture of Mild and Severe Strains

    PubMed Central

    Çevik, Bayram; Yardimci, Nejla; Korkmaz, Sava?

    2013-01-01

    The presence of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has previously been reported in citrus growing regions of Turkey. All serologically and biologically characterized isolates including I?d?r, which was the first identified CTV isolates from Turkey, were considered mild isolates. In this study, molecular characteristics of the I?d?r isolate were determined by different methods. Analysis of the I?d?r isolate by western blot and BD-RT-PCR assays showed the presence of MCA13 epitope, predominantly found in severe isolates, in the I?d?r isolate revealing that it contains a severe component. For further characterization, the coat protein (CP) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes representing the 3? and 5? half of CTV genome, respectively, were amplified from dsRNA by RT-PCR. Both genes were cloned separately and two clones for each gene were sequenced. Comparisons of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences showed that while two CP gene sequences were identical, two RdRp clones showed only 90% and 91% sequence identity in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively, suggesting a mixed infection with different strains. Phylogenetic analyses of the CP and RdRp genes of I?d?r isolate with previously characterized CTV isolates from different citrus growing regions showed that the CP gene was clustered with NZRB-TH30, a resistance breaking isolate from New Zealand, clearly showing the presence of severe component. Furthermore, two different clones of the RdRp gene were clustered separately with different CTV isolates with a diverse biological activity. While the RdRp-1 was clustered with T30 and T385, two well-characterized mild isolates from Florida and Spain, respectively, the RdRp-2 was most closely related to NZRB-G90 and NZRB-TH30, two well-characterized resistance breaking and stem pitting (SP) isolates from New Zealand confirming the mixed infection. These results clearly demonstrated that the I?d?r isolate, which was previously described as biologically a mild isolate, actually contains a mixture of mild and severe strains. PMID:25288926

  7. TRANSMISSION AND SPREAD OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS IN CENTRAL CALIFORNIA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The topic of aphid transmission of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) by Aphis gossypii is reviewed and an update on the genotypes and transmissibility of San Joaquin Valley CTV isolates are provided. This article includes data presented in a symposium on CTV at the annual meeting of the American Phytopath...

  8. Citrus tristeza virus-aphid interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review chapter on aphid transmission of Citrus tristeza virus is provided for a book on “Vector-Mediated Transmission of Plant Pathogens”. Earliest uses of citrus goes back over two millennia as items of trade, gifts and medicinal compounds. Citrus propagation during this period was by seed and si...

  9. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, W. O.; Garnsey, S. M.; Tatineni, S.; Folimonova, S. Y.; Harper, S. J.; Gowda, S.

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting (SP) symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows (SY) symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in those mixtures interact with each other and cause diseases. PMID:23717303

  10. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions.

    PubMed

    Dawson, W O; Garnsey, S M; Tatineni, S; Folimonova, S Y; Harper, S J; Gowda, S

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting (SP) symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows (SY) symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in those mixtures interact with each other and cause diseases. PMID:23717303

  11. Characterization of the mixture of genotypes of a Citrus tristeza virus isolate by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, G; Venkataprasanna, T; Roy, Avijit; Brlansky, R H

    2010-03-01

    A multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed to detect and quantify the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genotypic mixture present in infected plants. CTV isolate FS627, a complex Florida isolate containing T36, T30 and VT genotypes and its aphid transmitted subisolates was used. The relative quantitative assay was carried out using specific primers and probes developed from the genotypes of three CTV virus isolates and included the coat protein region of isolate T36 and the 5' end, ORF 1a and ORF 2 region of isolates T36, T30 and VT. Among the three genotypes present in the aphid transmitted subisolates, the T30 genotype showed higher overall relative quantitation in all specific regions compared to other isolates. The profiles of the some aphid transmitted subisolates were different from the parent source from which they transmitted. The 2(-DeltaDeltaCt) method (the amount of target, normalized to an endogenous control and relative to a calibrator) was used to analyze the relative titers of the three reference genotypes in the aphid transmitted plants infected with FS627. This protocol enabled assessments of CTV genetic diversity in the aphid transmitted subisolates. This simple quantitative assay was sensitive, efficient, and took less time than other existing methods. This relative quantitative assay will be a reliable tool for diagnosis, detection and genetic diversity studies on CTV. PMID:20005260

  12. Evidence of Recombinant Citrus tristeza virus Isolate Occurring in Acid Lime cv. Pant Lemon Orchard in Uttarakhand Terai Region of Northern Himalaya in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaywant Kumar; Tarafdar, Avijit; Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Biswas, Kajal Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The present study for the first time describes biological and molecular characterization of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) occurring in the Terai area of Uttarakhand State in Northern Himalaya region of India. Direct antigen coated-ELISA and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detected the CTV infection in Acid lime cv. Pant lemon (Citrus aurantifolia) orchards of Pantnagar with an estimated disease incidence of 16.6-20.5 %. To know the biological and genetic properties, an isolate, CTV Pant 4 was characterized. Isolate Pant 4 could be graft transmitted to Kinnow, Nagpur and Darjeeling mandarins, Mosambi sweet orange, Kagzi lime, Sweet lime, Sour orange but not to Rough lemon. The sequence analyses of the 5'ORF1a (3038 nucleotides) of LPro domain and 3'end (2058 nt) covering ORF7-ORF10 regions of the CTV genome revealed that Pant 4 was closely related to the previously reported Indian CTV isolate, Kpg3 from Northeastern Himalaya region with 97 and 98 % sequence identity, respectively. Whereas, it differed from the previously reported CTV isolate B165 from Southern India with 79 and 92 % identity, respectively for 5'ORF1a and 3' end regions. Recombination and SplitsTree decomposition analyses indicated that CTV isolate Pant 4 was a recombinant isolate originating from Kpg3 as a major and B165 as a minor donor. PMID:24426255

  13. Characterization of isolates of Citrus tristeza virus by sequential analyses of enzyme immunoassays and capillary electrophoresis-single-strand conformation polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Licciardello, G; Raspagliesi, D; Bar-Joseph, M; Catara, A

    2012-05-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the causal agent of tristeza disease, which is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus crops worldwide. This paper describes a method for the rapid detection and genotyping of naturally spreading CTV isolates. This method uses ELISA or dot-blot immunological tests to detect trees infected with CTV. The reaction wells or membrane spots for which there is a positive reaction are sequentially treated by (i) washing and elution of viral RNA from the trapped samples, (ii) one-step synthesis of cDNA and PCR and (iii) automated fluorescence-based capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) analysis of amplification products. Comparative CE-SSCP results are presented for CTV RNA extracted directly from infected leaves and ELISA plates or from membranes. In the analyses of all of these RNA samples, the p18, p27 and p23 CTV genes were targeted for amplification. Specific profiles of forward and reverse strands were obtained from a group of eight CTV isolates collected in Sicily, each with distinct biological characteristics, which were analyzed using the conventional two-step procedure (immunological detection followed by CE-SSCP molecular characterization after RNA isolation) or in a continuous process of ELISA/CE-SSCP or dot-blot/CE-SSCP starting from infected plant material. The combined method is simple, highly sensitive and reproducible, thus allowing the processing of numerous field samples for a variety of epidemiological needs. The sequential processing of an ELISA or dot-blot/ELISA followed by CE-SSCP is expected to allow the rapid detection of recent CTV infections along with the simultaneous characterization of the genetic diversity and structure of the population of newly invading CTV. PMID:22305960

  14. Stem pitting Citrus tristeza virus predominantly transmitted by the brown citrus aphid from mixed infections containing non-stem pitting and stem pitting isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited closterovirus that produces a variety of symptoms in various Citrus spp. One of these symptoms is stem pitting (SP). SP does not occur in all Citrus spp. but when it does it may cause low tree vigor, decline and an economically-significant reduction ...

  15. Genetic variation and recombination of RdRp and HSP 70h genes of Citrus tristeza virus isolates from orange trees showing symptoms of citrus sudden death disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clarissa PC Gomes; Tatsuya Nagata; Waldir C de Jesus; Carlos R Borges Neto; Georgios J Pappas Jr; Darren P Martin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Citrus sudden death (CSD), a disease that rapidly kills orange trees, is an emerging threat to the Brazilian citrus industry. Although the causal agent of CSD has not been definitively determined, based on the disease's distribution and symptomatology it is suspected that the agent may be a new strain of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). CTV genetic variation was therefore

  16. Population dynamics of a Florida Citrus tristeza virus isolate and aphid-transmitted subisolates: identification of three genotypic groups and recombinants after aphid transmission.

    PubMed

    Roy, Avijit; Brlansky, R H

    2009-11-01

    Tristeza is an important citrus disease affecting the viability and productivity of citrus worldwide. The causal agent, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), usually occurs as a mixture of genotypes in nature, with one of the genotypes often dominating the population. CTV has a monopartite, positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 19.3 kb and exhibits over 30% diversity in the 5' half and less than 10% in the 3' half among different genotypes. A Florida CTV isolate, FS627, was selected for this study. Isolate FS627 was analyzed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers to three regions: 788-bp region in the 5' (697 to 1,484 nucleotides), open reading frame (ORF)1a, 696 or 718 bp from the overlapping region of the RdRp (ORF1b) and p33 (ORF2) gene, and a 672-bp major coat protein gene (ORF7) in the 3' end of the CTV genome. The presence of T36, T30, and VT genotypes in isolate FS627 was confirmed utilizing the genotype specific overlapping region of RdRp primer pairs for RT-PCR amplification followed by cloning and sequence analysis. Analysis of single-strand conformational polymorphisms and sequences of RT-PCR-amplified products of the above regions were used to determine the presence of genotypes in both the parent and aphid-transmitted (AT) subisolates. Although the parent isolate had T36 as the major genotype, T30 was the major genotype in most of the AT subisolates. Some intermediate genotypes were detected that differed from the parental or AT subisolates. These intermediate genotypes were considered to be recombinants of the T30 and T36 genotypes and also were observed in the second level of AT subisolates generated from the of first-level AT subisolates of CTV-FS627. This work provides advance information on the population dynamics in CTV mixtures and the generation of virus recombinants after aphid transmission. PMID:19821734

  17. Amplification of Citrus Tristeza Virus from a cDNA Clone and Infection of Citrus Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Satyanarayana; M. Bar-Joseph; M. R. Albiach-Marti; M. R. Albiach-Mart??; M. A. Ayllón; S. Gowda; M. E. Hilf; P. Moreno; S. M. Garnsey; W. O. Dawson

    2001-01-01

    Isolates of the Closterovirus, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), are populations of disparate genotypes and defective RNAs developed during long periods of vegetative propagation of citrus trees. Because it has not been possible to obtain pure cultures of the virus, it is not known what components of the population are primarily responsible for induction of diseases. We previously developed an infectious

  18. Development and application of a multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for screening a global collection of Citrus tristeza virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Roy, Avijit; Ananthakrishnan, G; Hartung, John S; Brlansky, R H

    2010-10-01

    The emerging diversity of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genotypes has complicated detection and diagnostic measures and prompted the search for new differentiation methods. To simplify the identification and differentiation of CTV genotypes, a multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique for the screening of CTV isolates was developed. Variable regions within the open reading frame (ORF)-1a of diverse CTV genotypes were identified to develop first a simplex (S) and then a hexaplex (H) RT-PCR. CTV isolates have been grouped previously into five genotypes (namely, T3, T30, T36, VT, and B165) based on the nucleotide sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses. Nucleotide sequences from GenBank were used to design species and genotype-specific primers (GSPs). The GSPs were initially used for reliable detection of all CTV genotypes using S-RT-PCR. Furthermore, detection of all five recognized CTV genotypes was established using the H-RT-PCR. Six amplicons, one generic to all CTV isolates and one for each of the five recognized genotypes, were identified on the basis of their size and were confirmed by sequence analysis. In all, 175 CTV isolates from 29 citrus-growing countries were successfully analyzed by S- and H-RT-PCR. Of these, 97 isolates contained T36 genotypes, 95 contained T3 genotypes, 76 contained T30 genotypes, 71 contained VT genotypes, and 24 contained B165 genotype isolates. In total, 126 isolates contained mixed infections of 2 to 5 of the known CTV genotypes. Two of the CTV isolates could not be assigned to a known genotype. H-RT-PCR provides a sensitive, specific, reliable, and rapid way to screen for CTV genotypes compared with other methods for CTV genotype detection. Efficient identification of CTV genotypes will facilitate a better understanding of CTV isolates, including the possible interaction of different genotypes in causing or preventing diseases. The methods described can also be used in virus-free citrus propagation programs and in the development of CTV-resistant cultivars. PMID:20839943

  19. Genotype composition of populations of grapefruit-cross-protecting citrus tristeza virus strain GFMS12 in different host plants and aphid-transmitted sub-isolates.

    PubMed

    Scott, Katherine Anne; Hlela, Quinsile; Zablocki, Olivier; Read, David; van Vuuren, Stephanus; Pietersen, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes severe losses in grapefruit production in South Africa and requires mild-strain cross-protection to maintain production. Unfortunately, cross-protection breakdown of the pre-immunizing CTV grapefruit mild source GFMS12 is prevalent in grapefruit in South Africa. The CTV genotype composition of the GFMS12 population inoculated onto different hosts was determined by sequencing part of ORF1a and the p23 gene of multiple clones from each plant. Analysis of the GFMS12 population in Mexican lime and Marsh and Star Ruby grapefruit varieties revealed that at least four genotypes occur in the GFMS12 population and that genotype compositions differed amongst the populations in different host plants. Single-aphid-transmitted sub-isolates derived from the GFMS12 mother population on Mexican lime appeared to contain three populations of a mixture of VT-like and recombinant B165/VT-like genotypes; a mixture of recombinant RB/VT- and B165/VT-like genotypes; and a single recombinant B165/VT-like genotype. This study underlines the importance of determining the genotype composition of a potential CTV pre-immunizing source on a range of inoculated host species before utilization. PMID:22932923

  20. Production of Polyclonal Antibodies to the Recombinant Coat Protein of Citrus tristeza virus and Their Effectiveness for Virus Detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The p25 coat protein gene of three Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates, two from Mexico and one from India, was amplified by RT-PCR and further cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant coat protein (rCP) of the three CTV isolates was injected into rabbits and goats for antibo...

  1. Genetic differentiation and biology of Citrus tristeza virus populations spreading in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates were collected from more than 1500 trees in citrus groves in Tulare, Kern, Ventura, Riverside and San Diego Counties for laboratory tests to assess molecular and biological properties of CTV strains currently in California. Tests included serology with MCA13 mon...

  2. Emergence and Phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F.; Rubio, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events. PMID:23818960

  3. Emergence and phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F; Rubio, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events. PMID:23818960

  4. Transcriptional response of Citrus aurantifolia to infection by Citrus tristeza virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica Gandía; Ana Conesa; Gema Ancillo; José Gadea; Javier Forment; Vicente Pallás; Ricardo Flores; Nuria Duran-Vila; Pedro Moreno; José Guerri

    2007-01-01

    Changes in gene expression of Mexican lime plants in response to infection with a severe (T305) or a mild (T385) isolate of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were analyzed using a cDNA microarray containing 12,672 probes to 6875 different citrus genes. Statistically significant (P<0.01) expression changes of 334 genes were detected in response to infection with isolate T305, whereas infection with

  5. Current status of Citrus tristeza virus in Central California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lindcove Research and Extension Center (LREC), Exeter, CA has 51 ha of citrus and is the field site and screenhouses for the University of California Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP). LREC maintains a zero tolerance of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) infected trees to protect the CCPP and re...

  6. Genetic differentiation and biology of Citrus tristeza virus populations spreading in eradicative and non-eradicative areas of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies showed Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from the 1970’s in California were closely related to the mild T30 isolate; only a few severe strains such as SY568 (Riverside) and Dekopon (Orange Cove) were found and subsequently eradicated. CTV is now spreading rapidly in so...

  7. Discrimination between mild and severe Citrus tristeza virus isolates with a rapid and highly specific real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method using TaqMan LNA probes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, S; Moreno, P; Guerri, J; Ambrós, S

    2009-03-01

    Severe isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) inducing seedling yellows (SY) and/or stem pitting (SP) in grapefruit or sweet orange are a major threat for the citrus industry worldwide. Identification of these CTV variants was achieved by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using a general primer set and three TaqMan locked nucleic acids (LNA) probes targeting sequences characteristic of severe, mild (non-SY, non-SP), and T36-like isolates. Successful amplification was achieved from fresh or silica-desiccated CTV-infected samples and all isolates but one reacted with one or more probes. Standard curves using RNA transcripts homologous to the three probes allowed a reproducible quantitative assay, with a wide dynamic range of detection starting with 10(2) copies. RT-PCR assays with homologous and heterologous transcript RNA mixes demonstrated that each probe reacted only with its cognate sequence which was detected even at ratios below 2.5%. Analysis of 56 pathogenically distinct CTV isolates from 20 countries showed that mild isolates reacted only with the mild probe, whereas severe SP and SY isolates reacted with the severe-SP or the T36-like probes, respectively, and often with a second probe. This procedure can be useful to identify and control potentially dangerous CTV isolates in areas affected only by mild isolates. PMID:19203284

  8. Infection with strains of Citrus tristeza virus does not exclude superinfection by other strains of the virus.

    PubMed

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Robertson, Cecile J; Shilts, Turksen; Folimonov, Alexey S; Hilf, Mark E; Garnsey, Stephen M; Dawson, William O

    2010-02-01

    Superinfection exclusion or homologous interference, a phenomenon in which a primary viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or closely related virus, has been observed commonly for viruses in various systems, including viruses of bacteria, plants, and animals. With plant viruses, homologous interference initially was used as a test of virus relatedness to define whether two virus isolates were "strains" of the same virus or represented different viruses, and subsequently purposeful infection with a mild isolate was implemented as a protective measure against isolates of the virus causing severe disease. In this study we examined superinfection exclusion of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a positive-sense RNA closterovirus. Thirteen naturally occurring isolates of CTV representing five different virus strains and a set of isolates originated from virus constructs engineered based on an infectious cDNA clone of T36 isolate of CTV, including hybrids containing sequences from different isolates, were examined for their ability to prevent superinfection by another isolate of the virus. We show that superinfection exclusion occurred only between isolates of the same strain and not between isolates of different strains. When isolates of the same strain were used for sequential plant inoculation, the primary infection provided complete exclusion of the challenge isolate, whereas isolates from heterologous strains appeared to have no effect on replication, movement or systemic infection by the challenge virus. Surprisingly, substitution of extended cognate sequences from isolates of the T68 or T30 strains into T36 did not confer the ability of resulting hybrid viruses to exclude superinfection by those donor strains. Overall, these results do not appear to be explained by mechanisms proposed previously for other viruses. Moreover, these observations bring an understanding of some previously unexplained fundamental features of CTV biology and, most importantly, build a foundation for the strategy of selecting mild isolates that would efficiently exclude severe virus isolates as a practical means to control CTV diseases. PMID:19923189

  9. Citrus tristeza virus: Evolution of Complex and Varied Genotypic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Harper, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the Closteroviridae, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is almost unique in possessing a number of distinct and characterized strains, isolates of which produce a wide range of phenotype combinations among its different hosts. There is little understanding to connect genotypes to phenotypes, and to complicate matters more, these genotypes are found throughout the world as members of mixed populations within a single host plant. There is essentially no understanding of how combinations of genotypes affect symptom expression and disease severity. We know little about the evolution of the genotypes that have been characterized to date, little about the biological role of their diversity and particularly, about the effects of recombination. Additionally, genotype grouping has not been standardized. In this study we utilized an extensive array of CTV genomic information to classify the major genotypes, and to determine the major evolutionary processes that led to their formation and subsequent retention. Our analyses suggest that three major processes act on these genotypes: (1) ancestral diversification of the major CTV lineages, followed by (2) conservation and co-evolution of the major functional domains within, though not between CTV genotypes, and (3) extensive recombination between lineages that have given rise to new genotypes that have subsequently been retained within the global population. The effects of genotype diversity and host-interaction are discussed, as is a proposal for standardizing the classification of existing and novel CTV genotypes. PMID:23630519

  10. Citrus tristeza virus: Evolution of Complex and Varied Genotypic Groups.

    PubMed

    Harper, S J

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the Closteroviridae, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is almost unique in possessing a number of distinct and characterized strains, isolates of which produce a wide range of phenotype combinations among its different hosts. There is little understanding to connect genotypes to phenotypes, and to complicate matters more, these genotypes are found throughout the world as members of mixed populations within a single host plant. There is essentially no understanding of how combinations of genotypes affect symptom expression and disease severity. We know little about the evolution of the genotypes that have been characterized to date, little about the biological role of their diversity and particularly, about the effects of recombination. Additionally, genotype grouping has not been standardized. In this study we utilized an extensive array of CTV genomic information to classify the major genotypes, and to determine the major evolutionary processes that led to their formation and subsequent retention. Our analyses suggest that three major processes act on these genotypes: (1) ancestral diversification of the major CTV lineages, followed by (2) conservation and co-evolution of the major functional domains within, though not between CTV genotypes, and (3) extensive recombination between lineages that have given rise to new genotypes that have subsequently been retained within the global population. The effects of genotype diversity and host-interaction are discussed, as is a proposal for standardizing the classification of existing and novel CTV genotypes. PMID:23630519

  11. Evaluación de Anticuerpos Desarrollados Contra la Proteína Recombinante de la Cápside del Virus Tristeza de los Cítricos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyclonal antibodies specific for the recombinant coat protein (rCP) p25 gene of (Citrus tristeza virus = CTV), were developed for isolates MX08 and MX14 from México and B227 from India. The reactivity of rCP antibodies was evaluated using healthy and CTV infected tissue. The combination of rCP ant...

  12. Use of the Coat Protein (CP) and minor CP Intergene Sequence to Discriminate Severe Strains of Citrus tristeza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid assay is a needed to differentiate mild vs severe strains of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Multiple alignment performed on the coat protein (CP) and the minor coat protein (CPm) intergene sequences (~80-100 bp) from different CTV isolates revealed that severe strains generally associated wit...

  13. The conserved structures of the 5? nontranslated region of Citrus tristeza virus are involved in replication and virion assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddarame Gowda; Tatineni Satyanarayana; María A. Ayllón; Pedro Moreno; Ricardo Flores; William O. Dawsona

    2003-01-01

    The genomic RNA of different isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) reveals an unusual pattern of sequence diversity: the 3? halves are highly conserved (homology >90%), while the 5? halves show much more dissimilarity, with the 5? nontranslated region (NTR) containing the highest diversity (homology as low as 42%). Yet, positive-sense sequences of the 5? NTR were predicted to fold

  14. Genetic variation and recombination of RdRp and HSP 70h genes of Citrus tristeza virus isolates from orange trees showing symptoms of citrus sudden death disease

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Clarissa PC; Nagata, Tatsuya; de Jesus, Waldir C; Neto, Carlos R Borges; Pappas, Georgios J; Martin, Darren P

    2008-01-01

    Background Citrus sudden death (CSD), a disease that rapidly kills orange trees, is an emerging threat to the Brazilian citrus industry. Although the causal agent of CSD has not been definitively determined, based on the disease's distribution and symptomatology it is suspected that the agent may be a new strain of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). CTV genetic variation was therefore assessed in two Brazilian orange trees displaying CSD symptoms and a third with more conventional CTV symptoms. Results A total of 286 RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp) and 284 heat shock protein 70 homolog (HSP70h) gene fragments were determined for CTV variants infecting the three trees. It was discovered that, despite differences in symptomatology, the trees were all apparently coinfected with similar populations of divergent CTV variants. While mixed CTV infections are common, the genetic distance between the most divergent population members observed (24.1% for RdRp and 11.0% for HSP70h) was far greater than that in previously described mixed infections. Recombinants of five distinct RdRp lineages and three distinct HSP70h lineages were easily detectable but respectively accounted for only 5.9 and 11.9% of the RdRp and HSP70h gene fragments analysed and there was no evidence of an association between particular recombinant mosaics and CSD. Also, comparisons of CTV population structures indicated that the two most similar CTV populations were those of one of the trees with CSD and the tree without CSD. Conclusion We suggest that if CTV is the causal agent of CSD, it is most likely a subtle feature of population structures within mixed infections and not merely the presence (or absence) of a single CTV variant within these populations that triggers the disease. PMID:18199320

  15. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) resistance in transgenic citrus based on virus challenge of protoplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Olivares-Fuster; G. H. Fleming; M. R. Albiach-Marti; S. Gowda; W. O. Dawson; J. W. Crosser

    2003-01-01

    Summary  A strategy for the sereening of candidate virus-derived sequences to provide RNA-mediated citrus tristeza virus (CTV) resistance\\u000a and early selection of virus-resistant citrus is presented. The system is based on the polyethylene glycol-(PEG) mediated\\u000a cotransformation of protoplasts using virus-derived sequences and green fluorescent protein as a single selectable marker,\\u000a followed by an in vitro assay of virus inoculation into transgenic

  16. Citrus tristeza virus: a pathogen that changed the course of the citrus industry.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Pedro; Ambrós, Silvia; Albiach-Martí, Maria R; Guerri, José; Peña, Leandro

    2008-03-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) (genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae) is the causal agent of devastating epidemics that changed the course of the citrus industry. Adapted to replicate in phloem cells of a few species within the family Rutaceae and to transmission by a few aphid species, CTV and citrus probably coevolved for centuries at the site of origin of citrus plants. CTV dispersal to other regions and its interaction with new scion varieties and rootstock combinations resulted in three distinct syndromes named tristeza, stem pitting and seedling yellows. The first, inciting decline of varieties propagated on sour orange, has forced the rebuilding of many citrus industries using tristeza-tolerant rootstocks. The second, inducing stunting, stem pitting and low bearing of some varieties, causes economic losses in an increasing number of countries. The third is usually observed by biological indexing, but rarely in the field. CTV polar virions are composed of two capsid proteins and a single-stranded, positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) of approximately 20 kb, containing 12 open reading frames (ORFs) and two untranslated regions (UTRs). ORFs 1a and 1b, encoding proteins of the replicase complex, are directly translated from the gRNA, and together with the 5' and 3'UTRs are the only regions required for RNA replication. The remaining ORFs, expressed via 3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs, encode proteins required for virion assembly and movement (p6, p65, p61, p27 and p25), asymmetrical accumulation of positive and negative strands during RNA replication (p23), or suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing (p25, p20 and p23), with the role of proteins p33, p18 and p13 as yet unknown. Analysis of genetic variation in CTV isolates revealed (1) conservation of genomes in distant geographical regions, with a limited repertoire of genotypes, (2) uneven distribution of variation along the gRNA, (3) frequent recombination events and (4) different selection pressures shaping CTV populations. Measures to control CTV damage include quarantine and budwood certification programmes, elimination of infected trees, use of tristeza-tolerant rootstocks, or cross protection with mild isolates, depending on CTV incidence and on the virus strains and host varieties predominant in each region. Incorporating resistance genes into commercial varieties by conventional breeding is presently unfeasible, whereas incorporation of pathogen-derived resistance by plant transformation has yielded variable results, indicating that the CTV-citrus interaction may be more specific and complex than initially thought. A deep understanding of the interactions between viral proteins and host and vector factors will be necessary to develop reliable and sound control measures. PMID:18705856

  17. Distribution, genetic diversity and recombination analysis of Citrus tristeza virus of India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, K K; Tarafdar, A; Diwedi, S; Lee, R F

    2012-08-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates representing all the citrus-growing geographical zones of India were analyzed for nucleotide sequence of the 5'ORF1a fragments of the partial LProI domain and for the coat protein (CP) gene. The nucleotide sequences were compared with previously reported Indian and CTV genotypes from GenBank. The Indian isolates had 80-99 % sequence identity for the 5'ORF1a and 89-99 % identity for the CP genes. In phylogenetic tree analysis, all the Indian and previously reported isolates segregated into eight clades or groups for the 5'ORF1a region. Indian CTV isolates were clustered in all the clades, four of which, D13, K5, BAN-1, and B165, consisted of only Indian isolates. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the CP genes resulted in seven clades. Indian CTV isolates clustered in six of them, and clades I and VI consisted of only Indian isolates. In the phylogenetic tree the Indian CTV isolates clustered in different groups regardless their geographical origin. Diversities in CTV isolates within individual citrus farms were highlighted. Because incongruent phylogenetic relationships were observed for both of the genomic regions, 5'ORF1a and CP gene, recombination analysis was performed using program RDP3. This analysis detected potential recombination events among the CTV isolates which involved exchange of sequences between divergent CTV variants. The SplitsTree analysis showed evidence of phylogenetic conflicts in evolutionary relationships among CTV isolates. PMID:22562224

  18. Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus.

    PubMed

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick decline could be effectively managed by the use of resistant and/or tolerant rootstocks, the only means to protect commercial citrus against endemic stem pitting isolates of CTV has been cross-protection with mild isolates of the virus. In some citrus areas cross-protection has been successful and allowed production of certain citrus cultivars despite the presence of severe stem pitting isolates in those regions. However, many other attempts to find isolates that would provide sustained protection against aggressive isolates of the virus had failed. In general, there has been no understanding why some mild isolates were effective and others failed to protect. We have been working on the mechanism of cross-protection by CTV. Recent considerable progress has significantly advanced our understanding of how cross-protection may work in the citrus/CTV pathosystem. As we demonstrated, only isolates that belong to the same strain of the virus cross protect against each other, while isolates from different strains do not. We believe that the results of our research could now make finding protecting isolates relatively straightforward. This review discusses some of the history of CTV cross-protection along with the recent findings and our "recipe" for selection of protecting isolates. PMID:23577008

  19. Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus

    PubMed Central

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y.

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick decline could be effectively managed by the use of resistant and/or tolerant rootstocks, the only means to protect commercial citrus against endemic stem pitting isolates of CTV has been cross-protection with mild isolates of the virus. In some citrus areas cross-protection has been successful and allowed production of certain citrus cultivars despite the presence of severe stem pitting isolates in those regions. However, many other attempts to find isolates that would provide sustained protection against aggressive isolates of the virus had failed. In general, there has been no understanding why some mild isolates were effective and others failed to protect. We have been working on the mechanism of cross-protection by CTV. Recent considerable progress has significantly advanced our understanding of how cross-protection may work in the citrus/CTV pathosystem. As we demonstrated, only isolates that belong to the same strain of the virus cross protect against each other, while isolates from different strains do not. We believe that the results of our research could now make finding protecting isolates relatively straightforward. This review discusses some of the history of CTV cross-protection along with the recent findings and our “recipe” for selection of protecting isolates. PMID:23577008

  20. Transgenic resistance to Citrus tristeza virus in grapefruit.

    PubMed

    Febres, Vicente J; Lee, Richard F; Moore, Gloria A

    2008-01-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) transgenic plants transformed with a variety of constructs derived from the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome were tested for their resistance to the virus. Most transgenic lines were susceptible (27 lines), a few were partially resistant (6 lines) and only one line, transformed with the 3' end of CTV was resistant. Transgene expression levels and siRNA accumulation were determined to identify whether the resistance observed was RNA-mediated. The responses were varied. At least one resistant plant from a partially resistant line showed no steady-state transgene mRNA, siRNA accumulation and no viral RNA, implicating posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) as the mechanism of resistance. The most resistant line showed no transgene mRNA accumulation and promoter methylation of cytosines in all contexts, the hallmark of RNA-directed DNA methylation and transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). The variety of responses, even among clonally propagated plants, is unexplained but is not unique to citrus. The genetics of CTV, host response or other factors may be responsible for this variability. PMID:17882423

  1. Contribution of recombination and selection to molecular evolution of Citrus tristeza virus.

    PubMed

    Martín, Susana; Sambade, Adrián; Rubio, Luis; Vives, María C; Moya, Patricia; Guerri, José; Elena, Santiago F; Moreno, Pedro

    2009-06-01

    The genetic variation of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was analysed by comparing the predominant sequence variants in seven genomic regions (p33, p65, p61, p18, p13, p20 and p23) of 18 pathogenically distinct isolates from seven different countries. Analyses of the selective constraints acting on each codon suggest that most regions were under purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis shows diverse patterns of molecular evolution for different genomic regions. A first clade composed of isolates that are genetically close to the reference mild isolates T385 or T30 was inferred from all genomic regions. A second clade, mostly comprising virulent isolates, was defined from regions p33, p65, p13 and p23. For regions p65, p61, p18, p13 and p23, a third clade that mostly included South American isolates could not be related to any reference genotype. Phylogenetic relationships among isolates did not reflect their geographical origin, suggesting significant gene flow between geographically distant areas. Incongruent phylogenetic trees for different genomic regions suggested recombination events, an extreme that was supported by several recombination-detecting methods. A phylogenetic network incorporating the effect of recombination showed an explosive radiation pattern for the evolution of some isolates and also grouped isolates by virulence. Taken together, the above results suggest that negative selection, gene flow, sequence recombination and virulence may be important factors driving CTV evolution. PMID:19264625

  2. Past and future of a century old Citrus Tristeza virus collection: A California citrus germplasm tale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP) provides a mechanism for introduction and distribution of pathogen-free citrus varieties to California for use in research, variety improvement, or commercial production. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a serious citrus pathogen worldwide. The pr...

  3. Citrus tristeza virus replicates and forms infectious virions in protoplasts of resistant citrus relatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria R. Albiach-Marti; Jude W. Grosser; Siddarame Gowda; Munir Mawassi; Tatineni Satyanarayana; Stephen M. Garnsey; William O. Dawson

    2004-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the most economically important viral disease of citrus worldwide. Cultivars with improved CTV tolerance or resistance are needed to manage CTV-induced diseases. The citrus relatives Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf., Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco) Merr., and Severinia buxifolia (Poir) Ten. are potential sources of CTV resistance, but their resistance mechanisms are poorly characterized. As a first step

  4. Genetic diversity and evidence for recent modular recombination in Hawaiian Citrus tristeza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hawaiian Islands are home to a widespread and diverse population of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), an economically important pathogen of citrus. In this study we quantified the genetic diversity of two CTV genes and determined the complete genomic sequence for two strains of Hawaiian CTV. The nucl...

  5. Past and future of a century old Citrus tristeza virus collection: a California citrus germplasm tale

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinbo; Bozan, Orhan; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Dang, Tyler; Rucker, Tavia; Yokomi, Raymond K.; Lee, Richard F.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Krueger, Robert R.; Bash, John; Greer, Greg; Diaz, James; Serna, Ramon; Vidalakis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from citrus germplasm, dooryard and field trees in California from 1914 have been maintained in planta under quarantine in the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Riverside, California. This collection, therefore, represents populations of CTV isolates obtained over time and space in California. To determine CTV genetic diversity in this context, genotypes of CTV isolates from the CCPP collection were characterized using multiple molecular markers (MMM). Genotypes T30, VT, and T36 were found at high frequencies with T30 and T30+VT genotypes being the most abundant. The MMM analysis did not identify T3 and B165/T68 genotypes; however, biological and phylogenetic analysis suggested some relationships of CCPP CTV isolates with these two genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the CTV coat protein (CP) gene sequences classified the tested isolates into seven distinct clades. Five clades were in association with the standard CTV genotypes T30, T36, T3, VT, and B165/T68. The remaining two identified clades were not related to any standard CTV genotypes. Spatiotemporal analysis indicated a trend of reduced genotype and phylogenetic diversity as well as virulence from southern California (SC) at early (1907–1957) in comparison to that of central California (CC) isolates collected from later (1957–2009) time periods. CTV biological characterization also indicated a reduced number and less virulent stem pitting (SP) CTV isolates compared to seedling yellows isolates introduced to California. This data provides a historical insight of the introduction, movement, and genetic diversity of CTV in California and provides genetic and biological information useful for CTV quarantine, eradication, and disease management strategies such as CTV-SP cross protection. PMID:24339822

  6. Past and future of a century old Citrus tristeza virus collection: a California citrus germplasm tale.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinbo; Bozan, Orhan; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Dang, Tyler; Rucker, Tavia; Yokomi, Raymond K; Lee, Richard F; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Krueger, Robert R; Bash, John; Greer, Greg; Diaz, James; Serna, Ramon; Vidalakis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from citrus germplasm, dooryard and field trees in California from 1914 have been maintained in planta under quarantine in the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Riverside, California. This collection, therefore, represents populations of CTV isolates obtained over time and space in California. To determine CTV genetic diversity in this context, genotypes of CTV isolates from the CCPP collection were characterized using multiple molecular markers (MMM). Genotypes T30, VT, and T36 were found at high frequencies with T30 and T30+VT genotypes being the most abundant. The MMM analysis did not identify T3 and B165/T68 genotypes; however, biological and phylogenetic analysis suggested some relationships of CCPP CTV isolates with these two genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the CTV coat protein (CP) gene sequences classified the tested isolates into seven distinct clades. Five clades were in association with the standard CTV genotypes T30, T36, T3, VT, and B165/T68. The remaining two identified clades were not related to any standard CTV genotypes. Spatiotemporal analysis indicated a trend of reduced genotype and phylogenetic diversity as well as virulence from southern California (SC) at early (1907-1957) in comparison to that of central California (CC) isolates collected from later (1957-2009) time periods. CTV biological characterization also indicated a reduced number and less virulent stem pitting (SP) CTV isolates compared to seedling yellows isolates introduced to California. This data provides a historical insight of the introduction, movement, and genetic diversity of CTV in California and provides genetic and biological information useful for CTV quarantine, eradication, and disease management strategies such as CTV-SP cross protection. PMID:24339822

  7. The epitope structure of Citrus tristeza virus coat protein mapped by recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guan-Wei; Tang, Min; Wang, Guo-Ping; Wang, Cai-Xia; Liu, Yong; Yang, Fan; Hong, Ni

    2014-01-01

    It has been known that there exists serological differentiation among Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates. The present study reports three linear epitopes (aa 48-63, 97-104, and 114-125) identified by using bacterially expressed truncated coat proteins and ten monoclonal antibodies against the native virions of CTV-S4. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis demonstrated that the mutation D98G within the newly identified epitope (97)DDDSTGIT(104) abolished its reaction to MAbs 1, 4, and 10, and the presence of G98 in HB1-CP also resulted in its failure to recognize the three MAbs. Our results suggest that the conformational differences in the epitope I (48)LGTQQNAALNRDLFLT(63) between the CPs of isolates S4 and HB1 might contribute to the different reactions of two isolates to MAbs 5 and 6. This study provides new information for the antigenic structures of CTV, and will extend the understanding of the processes required for antibody binding and aid the development of epitope-based diagnostic tools. PMID:24314654

  8. Sequence diversity on four ORFs of citrus tristeza virus correlates with pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Isidrón, Lisset; Ochoa-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael; Martínez-Soriano, Juan Pablo

    2009-01-01

    The molecular characterization of isolates of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) from eight locations in Mexico was undertaken by analyzing five regions located at the opposite ends of the virus genome. Two regions have been previously used to study CTV variability (coat protein and p23), while the other three correspond to other genomic segments (p349-B, p349-C and p13). Our comparative nucleotide analyses included CTV sequences from different geographical origins already deposited in the GenBank databases. The largest nucleotide differences were located in two fragments located at the 5' end of the genome (p349-B and p349-C). Phylogenetic analyses on those five regions showed that the degree of nucleotide divergence among strains tended to correlate with their pathogenicity. Two main groups were defined: mild, with almost no noticeable effects on the indicator plants and severe, with drastic symptoms. Mild isolates clustered together in every analyzed ORF sharing a genetic distance below 0.022, in contrast with the severe isolates, which showed a more disperse distribution and a genetic distance of 0.276. Analyses of the p349-B and p349-C regions evidenced two lineages within the severe group: severe common subgroup (most of severe isolates) and severe divergent subgroup (T36-like isolates). This study represents the first attempt to analyze the genetic variability of CTV in Mexico by constructing phylogenetic trees based on new genomic regions that use group-specific nucleotide and amino acid sequences. These results may be useful to implement specific assays for strain discrimination. Moreover, it would be an excellent reference for the CTV situation in México to face the recent arrival of brown citrus aphid. PMID:19642988

  9. Agroinoculation of Citrus tristeza virus causes systemic infection and symptoms in the presumed nonhost Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Ambrós, Silvia; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Peña, Leandro; Guerri, José; Dawson, William O; Moreno, Pedro

    2011-10-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) naturally infects only some citrus species and relatives and within these it only invades phloem tissues. Failure to agroinfect citrus plants and the lack of an experimental herbaceous host hindered development of a workable genetic system. A full-genome cDNA of CTV isolate T36 was cloned in binary plasmids and was used to agroinfiltrate Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, with or without coinfiltration with plasmids expressing different silencing-suppressor proteins. A time course analysis in agroinfiltrated leaves indicated that CTV accumulates and moves cell-to-cell for at least three weeks postinoculation (wpi), and then, it moves systemically and infects the upper leaves with symptom expression. Silencing suppressors expedited systemic infection and often increased infectivity. In systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants, CTV invaded first the phloem, but after 7 wpi, it was also found in other tissues and reached a high viral titer in upper leaves, thus allowing efficient transmission to citrus by stem-slash inoculation. Infected citrus plants showed the symptoms, virion morphology, and phloem restriction characteristic of the wild T36 isolate. Therefore, agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana provided the first experimental herbaceous host for CTV and an easy and efficient genetic system for this closterovirus. PMID:21899435

  10. Transcriptional response of Citrus aurantifolia to infection by Citrus tristeza virus.

    PubMed

    Gandía, Mónica; Conesa, Ana; Ancillo, Gema; Gadea, José; Forment, Javier; Pallás, Vicente; Flores, Ricardo; Duran-Vila, Nuria; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, José

    2007-10-25

    Changes in gene expression of Mexican lime plants in response to infection with a severe (T305) or a mild (T385) isolate of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were analyzed using a cDNA microarray containing 12,672 probes to 6875 different citrus genes. Statistically significant (P<0.01) expression changes of 334 genes were detected in response to infection with isolate T305, whereas infection with T385 induced no significant change. Induced genes included 145 without significant similarity with known sequences and 189 that were classified in seven functional categories. Genes related with response to stress and defense were the main category and included 28% of the genes induced. Selected transcription changes detected by microarray analysis were confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Changes detected in the transcriptome upon infecting lime with T305 may be associated either with symptom expression, with a strain-specific defense mechanism, or with a general response to stress. PMID:17617431

  11. The evolutionary rate of citrus tristeza virus ranks among the rates of the slowest RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gonçalo; Marques, Natália; Nolasco, Gustavo

    2012-02-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has been studied intensively at the molecular level. However, knowledge regarding the dynamics of its evolution is practically non-existent. In the past, diverse authors have referred to CTV as a highly variable virus, implying rapid evolution. Others have, in recent times, referred to CTV as an exceptionally slowly evolving virus. In this work, we used the capsid protein (CP) gene to estimate the rate of evolution. This was obtained from a large set of heterochronous CP gene sequences using a bayesian coalescent approach. The best-fitting evolutionary and population models pointed to an evolutionary rate of 1.58×10(-4) nt per site year(-1) (95?% highest posterior density, 1.73×10(-5)-3.16×10(-4) nt per site year(-1)). For an unbiased comparison with other plant and animal viruses, the evolutionary rate of synonymous substitutions was considered. In a series of 88 synonymous evolutionary rates, ranging from 5.2×10(-6) to 6.2×10(-2) nt per site year(-1), CTV ranks in the 10th percentile, embedded among the slowest animal RNA viruses. At the time of citrus dissemination to Europe and the New World, the major clades that led to the current phylogenetic groups were already defined, which may explain the absence nowadays of geographical speciation. PMID:22071513

  12. The p23 Protein of Citrus Tristeza Virus Controls Asymmetrical RNA Accumulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatineni Satyanarayana; A. Ayllon; R. Albiach-Martõ; Shailaja Rabindran; William O. Dawson

    2002-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the Closteroviridae, has a 19.3-kb positive-stranded RNA genome that is organized into 12 open reading frames (ORFs) with the 10 3 genes expressed via a nested set of nine or ten 3-coterminal subgenomic mRNAs (sgRNAs). Relatively large amounts of negative-stranded RNAs comple- mentary to both genomic and sgRNAs accumulate in infected cells. As

  13. Efficient production of transgenic citrus plants expressing the coat protein gene of citrus tristeza virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Domínguez; J. Guerri; M. Cambra; L. Navarro; P. Moreno; L. Peña

    2000-01-01

    The coat protein gene of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has been introduced into Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swing.) plants by using an improved Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system. Internodal stem segments from greenhouse-grown seedlings were co-cultivated with\\u000a A. tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying the binary plasmid pBI 121\\/CTV-CP in a medium rich in auxins that provided the explant cells with the

  14. Differential tropism in roots and shoots infected by Citrus tristeza virus.

    PubMed

    Harper, S J; Cowell, S J; Robertson, C J; Dawson, W O

    2014-07-01

    Virus tropism is a result of interactions between virus, host and vector species, and determines the fate of an infection. In this study, we examined the infection process of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in susceptible and resistant species, and found that the tropism of CTV is not simply phloem limited, but tissue specific. In resistant species, virus infection was not prevented, but mostly restricted to the roots. This phenomenon was also observed after partial replacement of genes of one CTV strain from another, despite both parental strains being capable of systemic infection. Finally, the roots remained susceptible in the absence of viral gene products needed for systemic infection of shoots. Our results suggest that all phloem cells within a plant are not equally susceptible and that changes in host or virus may produce a novel tropism: restriction by the host to a location where further virus spread is prevented. PMID:25010274

  15. Citrus tristeza virus p23: a unique protein mediating key virus-host interactions.

    PubMed

    Flores, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Soler, Nuria; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús; Fagoaga, Carmen; López, Carmelo; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    The large RNA genome of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV; ca. 20 kb) contains 12 open reading frames, with the 3'-terminal one corresponding to a protein of 209 amino acids (p23) that is expressed from an abundant subgenomic RNA. p23, an RNA-binding protein with a putative zinc-finger domain and some basic motifs, is unique to CTV because no homologs have been found in other closteroviruses, including the type species of the genus Beet yellows virus (despite both viruses having many homologous genes). Consequently, p23 might have evolved for the specific interaction of CTV with its citrus hosts. From a functional perspective p23 has been involved in many roles: (i) regulation of the asymmetrical accumulation of CTV RNA strands, (ii) induction of the seedling yellows syndrome in sour orange and grapefruit, (iii) intracellular suppression of RNA silencing, (iv) elicitation of CTV-like symptoms when expressed ectopically as a transgene in several Citrus spp., and (v) enhancement of systemic infection (and virus accumulation) in sour orange and CTV release from the phloem in p23-expressing transgenic sweet and sour orange. Moreover, transformation of Mexican lime with intron-hairpin constructs designed for the co-inactivation of p23 and the two other CTV silencing suppressors results in complete resistance against the homologous virus. From a cellular point of view, recent data indicate that p23 accumulates preferentially in the nucleolus, being the first closterovirus protein with such a subcellular localization, as well as in plasmodesmata. These major accumulation sites most likely determine some of the functional roles of p23. PMID:23653624

  16. Citrus tristeza virus p23: a unique protein mediating key virus–host interactions

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Soler, Nuria; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús; Fagoaga, Carmen; López, Carmelo; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    The large RNA genome of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV; ca. 20 kb) contains 12 open reading frames, with the 3?-terminal one corresponding to a protein of 209 amino acids (p23) that is expressed from an abundant subgenomic RNA. p23, an RNA-binding protein with a putative zinc-finger domain and some basic motifs, is unique to CTV because no homologs have been found in other closteroviruses, including the type species of the genus Beet yellows virus (despite both viruses having many homologous genes). Consequently, p23 might have evolved for the specific interaction of CTV with its citrus hosts. From a functional perspective p23 has been involved in many roles: (i) regulation of the asymmetrical accumulation of CTV RNA strands, (ii) induction of the seedling yellows syndrome in sour orange and grapefruit, (iii) intracellular suppression of RNA silencing, (iv) elicitation of CTV-like symptoms when expressed ectopically as a transgene in several Citrus spp., and (v) enhancement of systemic infection (and virus accumulation) in sour orange and CTV release from the phloem in p23-expressing transgenic sweet and sour orange. Moreover, transformation of Mexican lime with intron-hairpin constructs designed for the co-inactivation of p23 and the two other CTV silencing suppressors results in complete resistance against the homologous virus. From a cellular point of view, recent data indicate that p23 accumulates preferentially in the nucleolus, being the first closterovirus protein with such a subcellular localization, as well as in plasmodesmata. These major accumulation sites most likely determine some of the functional roles of p23. PMID:23653624

  17. Superinfection exclusion by Citrus tristeza virus does not correlate with the production of viral small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Harper, Scott J; Leonard, Michael T; Triplett, Eric W; Shilts, Turksen

    2014-11-01

    Superinfection exclusion (SIE), a phenomenon in which a preexisting viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or closely related virus, has been described for different viruses, including important pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. Several mechanisms acting at various stages of the viral life cycle have been proposed to explain SIE. Most cases of SIE in plant virus systems were attributed to induction of RNA silencing, a host defense mechanism that is mediated by small RNAs. Here we show that SIE by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) does not correlate with the production of viral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). CTV variants, which differed in the SIE ability, had similar siRNAs profiles. Along with our previous observations that the exclusion phenomenon requires a specific viral protein, p33, the new data suggest that SIE by CTV is highly complex and appears to use different mechanisms than those proposed for other viruses. PMID:25248160

  18. Transgenic expression in citrus of single-chain antibody fragments specific to Citrus tristeza virus confers virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Magdalena; Esteban, Olga; Gil, Maite; Gorris, M Teresa; Martínez, M Carmen; Peña, Leandro; Cambra, Mariano

    2010-12-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes one of the most destructive viral diseases of citrus worldwide. Generation of resistant citrus genotypes through genetic engineering could be a good alternative to control CTV. To study whether production of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies in citrus could interfere and immunomodulate CTV infection, transgenic Mexican lime plants expressing two different scFv constructs, separately and simultaneously, were generated. These constructs derived from the well-referenced monoclonal antibodies 3DF1 and 3CA5, specific against CTV p25 major coat protein, whose mixture is able to detect all CTV isolates characterized so far. ScFv accumulation levels were low and could be readily detected just in four transgenic lines. Twelve homogeneous and vigorous lines were propagated and CTV-challenged by graft inoculation with an aggressive CTV strain. A clear protective effect was observed in most transgenic lines, which showed resistance in up to 40-60% of propagations. Besides, both a delay in symptom appearance and attenuation of symptom intensity were observed in infected transgenic plants compared with control plants. This effect was more evident in lines carrying the 3DF1scFv transgene, being probably related to the biological functions of the epitope recognized by this antibody. This is the first report describing successful protection against a pathogen in woody transgenic plants by ectopic expression of scFv recombinant antibodies. PMID:20204695

  19. Transgenic expression in citrus of single-chain antibody fragments specific to Citrus tristeza virus confers virus resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdalena Cervera; Olga Esteban; Maite Gil; M. Teresa Gorris; M. Carmen Martínez; Leandro Peña; Mariano Cambra

    2010-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes one of the most destructive viral diseases of citrus worldwide. Generation of resistant citrus genotypes through\\u000a genetic engineering could be a good alternative to control CTV. To study whether production of single-chain variable fragment\\u000a (scFv) antibodies in citrus could interfere and immunomodulate CTV infection, transgenic Mexican lime plants expressing two\\u000a different scFv constructs, separately and

  20. Exploring the limits of vector construction based on Citrus tristeza virus.

    PubMed

    El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O

    2014-01-01

    We examined the limits of manipulation of the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome for expressing foreign genes in plants. We previously created a vector with a foreign gene cassette inserted between the major and minor coat protein genes, which is position 6 from the 3' terminus. Yet, this virus has 10 3'-genes with several other potential locations for expression of foreign genes. Since genes positioned closer to the 3' terminus tend to be expressed in greater amounts, there were opportunities for producing greater amounts of foreign protein. We found that the virus tolerated insertions of an extra gene in most positions within the 3' region of the genome with substantially increased levels of gene product produced throughout citrus trees. CTV was amazingly tolerant to manipulation resulting in a suite of stable transient expression vectors, each with advantages for specific uses and sizes of foreign genes in citrus trees. PMID:24314658

  1. High codon adaptation in citrus tristeza virus to its citrus host

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the genus Closterovirus within the family Closteroviridae, is the causal agent of citrus tristeza disease. Previous studies revealed that the negative selection, RNA recombination and gene flow were the most important forces that drove CTV evolution. However, the CTV codon usage was not studied and thus its role in CTV evolution remains unknown. Results A detailed comparative analysis of CTV codon usage pattern was done in this study. Results of the study show that although in general CTV does not have a high degree of codon usage bias, the codon usage of CTV has a high level of resemblance to its host codon usage. In addition, our data indicate that the codon usage resemblance is only observed for the woody plant-infecting closteroviruses but not the closteroviruses infecting the herbaceous host plants, suggesting the existence of different virus-host interactions between the herbaceous plant-infecting and woody plant-infecting closteroviruses. Conclusion Based on the results, we suggest that in addition to RNA recombination, negative selection and gene flow, host plant codon usage selection can also affect CTV evolution. PMID:22698086

  2. Stem pitting and seedling yellows symptoms of Citrus tristeza virus infection may be determined by minor sequence variants.

    PubMed

    Cerni, Silvija; Rusci?, Jelena; Nolasco, Gustavo; Gatin, Zivko; Krajaci?, Mladen; Skori?, Dijana

    2008-02-01

    The isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), the most destructive viral pathogen of citrus, display a high level of variability. As a result of genetic bottleneck induced by the bud-inoculation of CTV-infected material, inoculated seedlings of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka displayed different symptoms. All successfully grafted plants showed severe symptoms of stem pitting and seedling yellows, while plants in which inoculated buds died displayed mild symptoms. Since complex CTV population structure was detected in the parental host, the aim of this work was to investigate how it changed after the virus transmission, and to correlate it with observed symptoms. The coat protein gene sequence of the predominant genotype was identical in parental and grafted plants and clustered to the phylogenetic group 5 encompassing severe reference isolates. In seedlings displaying severe symptoms, the low-frequency variants clustering to other phylogenetic groups were detected, as well. Indicator plants were inoculated with buds taken from unsuccessfully grafted C. wilsonii seedlings. Surprisingly, they displayed no severe symptoms despite the presence of phylogenetic group 5 genomic variants. The results suggest that the appearance of severe symptoms in this case is probably induced by a complex CTV population structure found in seedlings displaying severe symptoms, and not directly by the predominant genomic variant. PMID:18074213

  3. Investigation of seedling yellows cross protection by mild components of the Dekopon strain of Citrus tristeza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulent strains of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) can be controlled by pre-infection by mild strains of CTV which is called cross protection. However, the mode of action of cross protection is unknown and its durability unpredictable. RNA silencing is a regulatory mechanism to maintain genome integri...

  4. Accumulation of a 5’ proximal subgenomic RNA of Citrus tristeza virus is correlated with encapsidation by the minor coat protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During replication, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) produces large amounts of two unusual subgenomic (sg) RNAs that are positive-stranded and 5' -coterminal. Although these RNAs are produced in similar amounts and are similar in size, with LMT1 (~750 nt) only slightly larger than LMT2 (~650), we found ...

  5. Studies of Seedling Yellows Amelioration of Citrus tristeza virus Strain Mixtures to Elucidate Mechanisms of Cross Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) cross-protection involves a mild strain of CTV preventing or interfering with infection or symptom expression by a severe strain. It is used to protect citrus when virulent stem pitting strains of CTV and efficient aphid vectors are endemic. However, the mode of action ...

  6. Differential diagnosis of Brazilian strains of Citrus tristeza virus by epitope mapping of coat protein using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Peroni, Luís Antonio; Lorencini, Márcio; dos Reis, José Raimundo Ribeiro; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Stach-Machado, Dagmar Ruth

    2009-10-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most important citrus pathogen, and among Brazilian CTV strains, the genotype Capão Bonito (CB) is the most harmful. Therefore, the coat protein (CP) gene were cloned and expressed as recombinant protein and used to develop four specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Our previously data had showed these MAbs could recognize different strains of CTV and the present goal is to identify the epitopes of the recombinant CP by ELISA screening of overlapping recombinant peptides and to determine the binding specificity of CTV isolates in light of their antigenic domains onto CB strains. Three MAbs, 30.G.02, 37.G.11 and 39.07 recognized linear and no identical epitopes, but the fourth MAb, IC.04-12, probably had a conformational epitope, since it could not be identified by ELISA screening. Our previous data revealed MAb IC.04-12 do not recognize CP under denaturing conditions, but can identify weak CTV strains in ELISA involving crop samples. MAb 30.G.02 recognized an extremely conserved sequence and can be classified as "universal" antibody, and, interestingly, the epitope turned out by MAb 39.07 corresponded to severe CTV isolates. So, these MAbs can be applied in a differential screening by ELISA. PMID:19540276

  7. Development of an asymmetric PCR-ELISA typing method for citrus tristeza virus based on the coat protein gene.

    PubMed

    Nolasco, G; Santos, C; Silva, G; Fonseca, F

    2009-02-01

    The coat protein gene of isolates of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) from 20 citrus-producing regions around the world was amplified by RT-PCR, TA cloned, and characterized by SSCP. Haplotypes that produced different patterns within each geographic region were sequenced and a database of 153 accessions of CTV was assembled. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of seven well-defined clusters (Coefficient of differentiation 0.78). An asymmetric PCR-ELISA typing (APET) assay was developed in the frame of this clustering pattern using a set of eight hybridisation probes. The membership of any unknown haplotype is determined by comparing its pattern of reaction against the whole set of probes and not, as previously done in hybridisation assays, in an all-or-nothing basis. Interpretation of the results is objective and done through a visual basic application that compares the rates of hydrolysis of the ELISA substrate of an assayed isolate to a matrix of rates of hydrolysis obtained from standard haplotypes. This assay was validated and showed a better ability to resolve haplotypes than other assays to which it was compared experimentally. It may be automated to the same extent as any ELISA. PMID:18992281

  8. Prevalence of Citrus tristeza virus in Mandarin of Sikkim Himalayan Region.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Kundan; Rahman, H; Kalita, H; Pandey, Brijesh; Monika, N

    2010-10-01

    The assessment of Citrus tristeza virus incidence in mandarin of Sikkim, involving sampling techniques, was estimated by DAS-ELISA. Mandarin orchards had high CTV incidence (46.32%), however, differential prevalence with regard to age of plant and location was observed. The CTV prevalence was relatively high in older orchards (51.01%) than that of younger ones (40.80%). Under all the plant age groups, south district had the highest CTV incidence (52.50%) and east district had the lowest (37.71%). The spatial distribution of CTV in plants indicates high concentration in twig followed by leaf tissue, however, stem had relatively less concentration. High aphid infestation was observed in all mandarin growing groves with the maximum in south district and minimum in east district. Taxoptera citricida was the predominating aphid species followed by T. aurantii, however, Aphis spp population was significantly less. Aphid infestation and CTV prevalence were positively and significantly correlated. PMID:23637493

  9. Enhancement or Attenuation of Disease by Deletion of Genes from Citrus Tristeza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana

    2012-01-01

    Stem pitting is a common virus-induced disease of perennial woody plants induced by a range of different viruses. The phenotype results from sporadic areas of the stem in which normal xylem and phloem development is prevented during growth of stems. These alterations interfere with carbohydrate transport, resulting in reduced plant growth and yield. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a phloem-limited closterovirus, induces economically important stem-pitting diseases of citrus. CTV has three nonconserved genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not related to genes of other viruses and that are not required for systemic infection of some species of citrus, which allowed us to examine the effect of deletions of these genes on symptom phenotypes. In the most susceptible experimental host, Citrus macrophylla, the full-length virus causes only very mild stem-pitting symptoms. Surprisingly, we found that certain deletion combinations (p33 and p18 and/or p13) induced greatly increased stem-pitting symptoms, while other combinations (p13 or p13 plus p18) resulted in reduced stem pitting. These results suggest that the stem-pitting phenotype, which is one of more economically important disease phenotypes, can result not from a specific sequence or protein but from a balance between the expression of different viral genes. Unexpectedly, using green fluorescent protein-tagged full-length virus and deletion mutants (CTV9?p33 and CTV9?p33?p18?p13), the virus was found at pitted areas in abnormal locations outside the normal ring of phloem. Thus, increased stem pitting was associated not only with a prevention of xylem production but also with a proliferation of cells that supported viral replication, suggesting that at random areas of stems the virus can elicit changes in cellular differentiation and development. PMID:22593155

  10. Enhancement or attenuation of disease by deletion of genes from Citrus tristeza virus.

    PubMed

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Dawson, William O

    2012-08-01

    Stem pitting is a common virus-induced disease of perennial woody plants induced by a range of different viruses. The phenotype results from sporadic areas of the stem in which normal xylem and phloem development is prevented during growth of stems. These alterations interfere with carbohydrate transport, resulting in reduced plant growth and yield. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a phloem-limited closterovirus, induces economically important stem-pitting diseases of citrus. CTV has three nonconserved genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not related to genes of other viruses and that are not required for systemic infection of some species of citrus, which allowed us to examine the effect of deletions of these genes on symptom phenotypes. In the most susceptible experimental host, Citrus macrophylla, the full-length virus causes only very mild stem-pitting symptoms. Surprisingly, we found that certain deletion combinations (p33 and p18 and/or p13) induced greatly increased stem-pitting symptoms, while other combinations (p13 or p13 plus p18) resulted in reduced stem pitting. These results suggest that the stem-pitting phenotype, which is one of more economically important disease phenotypes, can result not from a specific sequence or protein but from a balance between the expression of different viral genes. Unexpectedly, using green fluorescent protein-tagged full-length virus and deletion mutants (CTV9?p33 and CTV9?p33?p18?p13), the virus was found at pitted areas in abnormal locations outside the normal ring of phloem. Thus, increased stem pitting was associated not only with a prevention of xylem production but also with a proliferation of cells that supported viral replication, suggesting that at random areas of stems the virus can elicit changes in cellular differentiation and development. PMID:22593155

  11. Virus-Viroid Interactions: Citrus Tristeza Virus Enhances the Accumulation of Citrus Dwarfing Viroid in Mexican Lime via Virus-Encoded Silencing Suppressors

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Pedro; Bani Hashemian, Seyed M.; Fagoaga, Carmen; Romero, Juan; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Gorris, Maria T.; Bertolini, Edson

    2014-01-01

    An assay to identify interactions between Citrus Dwarfing Viroid (CDVd) and Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) showed that viroid titer was enhanced by the coinfecting CTV in Mexican lime but not in etrog citron. Since CTV encodes three RNA silencing suppressors (RSSs), p23, p20 and p25, an assay using transgenic Mexican limes expressing each RSS revealed that p23 and, to a lesser extent, p25 recapitulated the effect observed with coinfections of CTV and CDVd. PMID:24227850

  12. Virus-viroid interactions: Citrus Tristeza Virus enhances the accumulation of Citrus Dwarfing Viroid in Mexican lime via virus-encoded silencing suppressors.

    PubMed

    Serra, Pedro; Bani Hashemian, Seyed M; Fagoaga, Carmen; Romero, Juan; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Gorris, Maria T; Bertolini, Edson; Duran-Vila, Núria

    2014-01-01

    An assay to identify interactions between Citrus Dwarfing Viroid (CDVd) and Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) showed that viroid titer was enhanced by the coinfecting CTV in Mexican lime but not in etrog citron. Since CTV encodes three RNA silencing suppressors (RSSs), p23, p20 and p25, an assay using transgenic Mexican limes expressing each RSS revealed that p23 and, to a lesser extent, p25 recapitulated the effect observed with coinfections of CTV and CDVd. PMID:24227850

  13. Citrus tristeza virus: survival at the edge of the movement continuum.

    PubMed

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Folimonov, Alexey S; Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Dawson, William O

    2008-07-01

    Systemic invasion of plants by viruses is thought to involve two processes: cell-to-cell movement between adjacent cells and long-distance movement that allows the virus to rapidly move through sieve elements and unload at the growing parts of the plant. There is a continuum of proportions of these processes that determines the degrees of systemic infection of different plants by different viruses. We examined the systemic distribution of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in citrus species with a range of susceptibilities. By using a "pure" culture of CTV from a cDNA clone and green fluorescent protein-labeled virus we show that both cell-to-cell and long-distance movement are unusually limited, and the degree of limitation varies depending on the citrus host. In the more-susceptible hosts CTV infected only a small portion of phloem-associated cells, and moreover, the number of infection sites in less-susceptible citrus species was substantially decreased further, indicating that long-distance movement was reduced in those hosts. Analysis of infection foci in the two most differential citrus species, Citrus macrophylla and sour orange, revealed that in the more-susceptible host the infection foci were composed of a cluster of multiple cells, while in the less-susceptible host infection foci were usually single cells, suggesting that essentially no cell-to-cell movement occurred in the latter host. Thus, CTV in sour orange represents a pattern of systemic infection in which the virus appears to function with only the long-distance movement mechanism, yet is able to survive in nature. PMID:18434397

  14. Transfer of citrus tristeza virus (CTV)-derived resistance candidate sequences to four grapefruit cultivars through Agrobacterium -mediated genetic transformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ananthakrishnan; V. Orbovi?; G. Pasquali; M. ?alovi?; J. W. Grosser

    2007-01-01

    Transgenic plants of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) cvs. ‘Duncan’, ‘Flame’, ‘Marsh’, and ‘Ruby Red’ were obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of seedling epicotyl tissue. Two citrus tristeza virus (CTV)-derived candidate resistance genes:\\u000a ‘392’ (3? region of the p23 ORF plus 3? untranslated region—UTR) and ‘p23 hairpin’ (sense-p23 ORF plus UTR plus antisense-p23\\u000a ORF) were introduced into grapefruit using Agrobacterium strains

  15. A Sensitive and Reliable RT-Nested PCR Assay for Detection of Citrus tristeza Virus from Naturally Infected Citrus Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charith Raj Adkar-Purushothama; P. K. Maheshwar; Teruo Sano; G. R. Janardhana

    2011-01-01

    A specific and sensitive reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-nPCR) was developed for the detection\\u000a of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) from naturally infected citrus samples. Two sets of primer pairs were designed by alignment of nucleotide sequences\\u000a available in GenBank database for different genotypes of CTV. RT-nPCR reaction components and thermal cycling parameters were\\u000a optimized and reaction conditions were

  16. Calculation of diagnostic parameters of advanced serological and molecular tissue-print methods for detection of Citrus tristeza virus. A model for other plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most important virus diseases which affect citrus. Control of CTV in Spain and central California is achieved by planting virus-free citrus on CTV-tolerant or -resistant rootstocks. Quarantine and certification programs remain essential to avoid importation ...

  17. Tissue-print real-time RT-PCR for accurate detection of Citrus tristeza virus. Validation and comparison with Tissue print-ELISA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes one of the most important virus diseases of Citrus species. The control of CTV in Spain and Central California is based on planting virus-free citrus on CTV-tolerant or -resistant rootstocks. However, quarantine and certification programs are still essential to avo...

  18. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Citrus tristeza virus forms oligomers.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Bayram

    2013-12-01

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) from Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were tagged with HA and FLAG epitopes. Differentially tagged proteins were expressed either individually or concomitantly in Escherichia coli. Immunoprecipitation of the expressed proteins with anti-FLAG antibody followed by Western blot with anti-HA antibody demonstrated that molecules of RdRp from CTV interact to form oligomers. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that molecules of RdRp interact in eukaryotic cells. Co-immunoprecipitation with anti-FLAG antibody of truncated HA-tagged RdRps (RdRp?1-166-HA, RdRp?1-390-HA, RdRp1-169-HA) co-expressed with full-length RdRp-FLAG showed that only RdRp1-169-HA interacted with the full-length FLAG-RdRp. Yeast two-hybrid assays with truncated RdRp constructs confirmed that the oligomerization site resides in the N-terminal region and that the first 169 aa of CTV RdRp are necessary and sufficient for oligomerization both in bacterial and yeast cells. Development of control strategies targeting viral RdRp oligomer formation may inhibit virus replication and prove useful in control of CTV. PMID:24210106

  19. Transgenic citrus plants expressing the citrus tristeza virus p23 protein exhibit viral-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, R; López, C; Fagoaga, C; Moreno, P; Navarro, L; Flores, R; Peña, L

    2001-01-01

    Summary The 23 kDa protein (p23) coded by the 3'-terminal gene of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the genus Closterovirus with the largest genome among plant RNA viruses, is an RNA-binding protein that contains a motif rich in cysteine and histidine residues in the core of a putative zinc-finger domain. On this basis, a regulatory role for CTV replication or gene expression has been suggested for p23. To explore whether over-expression of this protein in transgenic plants could affect the normal CTV infection process, transgenic Mexican lime plants were generated carrying the p23 transgene, or a truncated version thereof, under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Constitutive expression of p23 induced phenotypic aberrations that resembled symptoms incited by CTV in non-transgenic lime plants, whereas transgenic plants expressing the p23 truncated version were normal. The onset of CTV-like symptoms in p23-transgenic plants was associated with the expression of p23, and its accumulation level paralleled the intensity of the symptoms. This demonstrates that p23 is involved in symptom development and that it most likely plays a key role in CTV pathogenesis. This is the first case in which a protein encoded by a woody plant-infecting RNA virus has been identified as being directly involved in pathogenesis in its natural host. This finding also delimits a small region of the large CTV genome for the future mapping of specific pathogenic determinants. PMID:20572989

  20. Genetic diversity and evidence for recent modular recombination in Hawaiian Citrus tristeza virus.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Michael J; Borth, Wayne B; Sether, Diane M; Ferreira, Stephen; Gonsalves, Dennis; Hu, John S

    2010-02-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are home to a widespread and diverse population of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), an economically important pathogen of citrus. In this study, we quantified the genetic diversity of two CTV genes and determined the complete genomic sequence for two strains of Hawaiian CTV. The nucleotide diversity was estimated to be 0.0565 + or - 0.0022 for the coat protein (CP) gene (n = 137) and 0.0822 + or - 0.0033 for the p23 gene (n = 30). The genome size and organization of CTV strains HA18-9 and HA16-5 were similar to other fully sequenced strains of CTV. The 3'-terminal halves of their genomes were nearly identical (98.5% nucleotide identity), whereas the 5'-terminal halves were more distantly related (72.3% nucleotide identity), suggesting a possible recombination event. Closer examination of strain HA16-5 indicated that it arose through recent recombination between the movement module of an HA18-9 genotype, and the replication module of an undescribed CTV genotype. PMID:19834797

  1. Characterization of Citrus tristeza virus strains from southern China based on analysis of restriction patterns and sequences of their coat protein genes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Hong, Ni; Wang, Guo-Ping; Hu, John; Zhang, Jian-Kun; Wang, Cai-Xia; Liu, Yong; Fan, Xu-Dong

    2008-10-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from southern China were characterized by biological indexing on citrus indicators, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and bi-directional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (BD-PCR) analysis of their coat protein (CP) genes. Of the 30 isolates, only two isolates, N3 and N4, did not induce visible symptoms. Twenty-eight other isolates induced stem pitting and vein clearing, plant stunting, and leaf yellowing symptoms on Mexican lime, Duncan grapefruit, and sour orange seedlings. In BD-PCR analysis, a 392-bp fragment specific for the mild strains was amplified from isolates N3 and N4, and a 320-bp fragment specific for the severe strains was produced from the other 28 isolates. The RFLP analysis for RT-PCR products of the CP gene with restriction enzyme HinfI identified seven groups representing groups I-VI and a new group, which was not involved in the seven groups defined by Gillings (J Virol Methods 44:305-317, 1993). The sequences of the CP genes from 12 Chinese CTV isolates showed a high divergence, with 91.5-99.7% identities at the nucleotide level and 94.2-99.6% identities at the amino acid level. Our results suggest that the composition of CTV populations from China has a high genetic diversity in the CP gene. PMID:18626763

  2. PostTranscriptional Gene Silencing of the p23 Silencing Suppressor of Citrus tristeza virus Confers Resistance to the Virus in Transgenic Mexican Lime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Fagoaga; Carmelo López; Alfonso Hermoso de Mendoza; Pedro Moreno; Luis Navarro; Ricardo Flores; Leandro Peña

    2006-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that most Mexican limes (Citrus aurantifolia (Christ.) Swing.) expressing the p23 gene of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) exhibit aberrations resembling viral leaf symptoms. Here we report that five independent transgenic lines having normal\\u000a phenotype displayed characteristics typical of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS): multiple copies of the transgene,\\u000a low levels of the corresponding mRNA, methylation of the

  3. A cDNA clone from a defective RNA of citrus tristeza virus is infective in the presence of the helper virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang Yang; Munir Mawassi; Lilach Ashoulin; Ron Gafny; Victor Gaba; Amit Gal-On; Moshe Bar-Joseph

    A naturally occurring defective RNA of 2379 nt (D2.3) from the VT strain of citrus tristeza clostero- virus (CTV) was cloned and sequenced. The D2.3 RNA is a fusion of two regions of 1521 and 858 nt from the 5« and 3« ends of the CTV genome, respectively. A cDNA clone of D2.3 RNA was tagged by the insertion of

  4. In vivo and in vitro expression analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Citrus tristeza virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Çevik; R. F. Lee; C. L. Niblett

    2008-01-01

    Summary  Expression of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied in vivo and in vitro using a polyclonal antiserum raised against the recombinant CTV-RdRp protein. Although a 57-kDa CTV-RdRp was expected to\\u000a be expressed by a +1 translational frameshift at the carboxyl terminus of a 400-kDa polyprotein, a 50-kDa protein was detected\\u000a in CTV-infected but not

  5. A real-time RT-PCR assay for detection and absolute quantitation of Citrus tristeza virus in different plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, José; Ambrós, Silvia

    2007-11-01

    A real-time RT-PCR assay using SYBR Green was developed for specific and reliable quantitative detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in infected plants. A general primer set designed from conserved sequences in ORFs 1b and 2 enabled amplification of the genomic RNA (gRNA) while excluding most subgenomic and defective RNAs. Single RT-PCR products of 204 bp (isolate T36) or 186 bp (other isolates) were obtained with no primer-dimer or non-specific amplifications detected. Melting curve analysis revealed distinct melting temperature peaks (T(m)) for severe and mild isolates. External standard curves using RNA transcripts of the selected target allowed a reproducible quantitative assay, with a wide dynamic range of detection starting with 10(2) gRNA copies and with very low variation coefficient values. This protocol enabled reliable assessments of CTV accumulation in different tissues and from different citrus species, grown in the greenhouse or under field conditions, and infected with CTV isolates differing in their pathogenicity. CTV accumulation was higher in bark and fruits than in roots or leaves and showed minimal differences among several susceptible citrus species, but it was significantly lower in sour orange. This quantitative detection assay will be a valuable tool for diagnosis and molecular studies on CTV biology. PMID:17573130

  6. Rapid differentiation and identification of potential severe strains of Citrus tristeza virus by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    Yokomi, R K; Saponari, M; Sieburth, P J

    2010-04-01

    A multiplex Taqman-based real-time reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to identify potential severe strains of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and separate genotypes that react with the monoclonal antibody MCA13. Three strain-specific probes were developed using intergene sequences between the major and minor coat protein genes (CPi) in a multiplex reaction. Probe CPi-VT3 was designed for VT and T3 genotypes; probe CPi-T36 for T36 genotypes; and probe CPi-T36-NS to identify isolates in an outgroup clade of T36-like genotypes mild in California. Total nucleic acids extracted by chromatography on silica particles, sodium dodecyl sulfate-potassium acetate, and CTV virion immunocapture all yielded high quality templates for real-time PCR detection of CTV. These assays successfully differentiated CTV isolates from California, Florida, and a large panel of CTV isolates from an international collection maintained in Beltsville, MD. The utility of the assay was validated using field isolates collected in California and Florida. PMID:20205535

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grapefruit with the wild-type and mutant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of Citrus tristeza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus paradisi Macf. cv. Duncan was transformed with constructs coding for the wild-type and mutant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) for exploring replicase-mediated pathogen-derived resistance (RM-PDR). The RdRp gene was amplified from CTV genome and used to gener...

  8. Profiling of the small RNA populations derived from sour orange seedlings cross-protected against seedling yellows strains of Citrus tristeza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in central California changed in 2009 from removal of all CTV-infected trees to only those which react positive in tests with selective probes for potentially severe CTV strains. Therefore, new strategies for CTV control are needed. Greenhouse tests have show...

  9. Construction of a 1.2Mb contig including the citrus tristeza virus resistance gene locus using a bacterial artificial chromosome library of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong-Nan Yang; Xin-Rong Ye; Sandong Choi; Joe Molina; Francis Moonan; Rod A. Wing; Mikeal L. Roose; T. Erik Mirkov

    2001-01-01

    The citrus tristeza virus resistance gene ( Ctv) is a single dominant gene in Poncirus trifoliata, a sexually compatible relative of citrus. To clone this gene, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library has been constructed from an individual plant that was homozygous for Ctv. This library contains 45 696 clones with an average insert size of 80 kb, corresponding to

  10. Ectopic expression of the p23 silencing suppressor of Citrus tristeza virus differentially modifies viral accumulation and tropism in two transgenic woody hosts.

    PubMed

    Fagoaga, Carmen; Pensabene-Bellavia, Giovanni; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luís; Flores, Ricardo; Peña, Leandro

    2011-12-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a phloem-restricted closterovirus infecting citrus, encodes three different silencing suppressors (p25, p20 and p23), one of which (p23) is a pathogenicity determinant that induces aberrations resembling CTV symptoms when expressed ectopically in transgenic citrus hosts. In this article, the effect of p23 ectopic expression on virus infection was examined in sweet orange (SwO), a highly susceptible host, and sour orange (SO), which severely restricts CTV cell-to-cell movement. Transgenic plants of both species ectopically expressing p23, or transformed with an empty vector, were graft inoculated with the mild CTV isolate T385 or with CTV-BC1/GFP, a clonal strain derived from the severe isolate T36 carrying the gene for the green fluorescent protein (GFP). CTV distribution in infected tissues was assessed by direct tissue blot immunoassay and fluorescence emission, and virus accumulation was estimated by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. CTV accumulation in p23-expressing and control SwO plants was similar, whereas the viral load in transgenic SO expressing p23 was 10-10(5) times higher than in the cognate control plants. Although few infection foci composed of a single cell were observed in the phloem of CTV-infected control SO, the number of foci in p23-expressing plants was higher and usually comprised two to six cells, indicating viral cell-to-cell movement. CTV was detected in mesophyll protoplasts and cells from infected SO and SwO expressing p23, but not in similar protoplasts and cells from infected control plants. Our results show that the ectopic expression of p23 enables CTV to escape from the phloem and, in addition, facilitates systemic infection of the resistant SO host. This is the first report of a viral-encoded protein that enhances virus accumulation and distribution in woody hosts. PMID:21726389

  11. A sensitive and reliable RT-nested PCR assay for detection of Citrus tristeza virus from naturally infected citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Maheshwar, P K; Sano, Teruo; Janardhana, G R

    2011-05-01

    A specific and sensitive reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-nPCR) was developed for the detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) from naturally infected citrus samples. Two sets of primer pairs were designed by alignment of nucleotide sequences available in GenBank database for different genotypes of CTV. RT-nPCR reaction components and thermal cycling parameters were optimized and reaction conditions were standardized. Sequencing of the PCR products from direct and nested-PCR reactions confirmed the specificity of both primer pairs. Presence of CTV specific amplicons in asymptomatic samples which were collected from diseased orchards indicated the sensitivity of the test. As RT-nPCR technique, developed in the present study, is specific and efficient in detecting CTV, this could be envisioned for diagnostic applications and surveillance. PMID:21298268

  12. The pathogenicity determinant of Citrus tristeza virus causing the seedling yellows syndrome maps at the 3'-terminal region of the viral genome.

    PubMed

    Albiach-Marti, Maria R; Robertson, Cecile; Gowda, Siddarame; Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Belliure, Belén; Garnsey, Stephen M; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Moreno, Pedro; Dawson, William O

    2010-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) (genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae) causes some of the more important viral diseases of citrus worldwide. The ability to map disease-inducing determinants of CTV is needed to develop better diagnostic and disease control procedures. A distinctive phenotype of some isolates of CTV is the ability to induce seedling yellows (SY) in sour orange, lemon and grapefruit seedlings. In Florida, the decline isolate of CTV, T36, induces SY, whereas a widely distributed mild isolate, T30, does not. To delimit the viral sequences associated with the SY syndrome, we created a number of T36/T30 hybrids by substituting T30 sequences into different regions of the 3' half of the genome of an infectious cDNA of T36. Eleven T36/T30 hybrids replicated in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts. Five of these hybrids formed viable virions that were mechanically transmitted to Citrus macrophylla, a permissive host for CTV. All induced systemic infections, similar to that of the parental T36 clone. Tissues from these C. macrophylla source plants were then used to graft inoculate sour orange and grapefruit seedlings. Inoculation with three of the T30/T36 hybrid constructs induced SY symptoms identical to those of T36; however, two hybrids with T30 substitutions in the p23-3' nontranslated region (NTR) (nucleotides 18 394-19 296) failed to induce SY. Sour orange seedlings infected with a recombinant non-SY p23-3' NTR hybrid also remained symptomless when challenged with the parental virus (T36), demonstrating the potential feasibility of using engineered constructs of CTV to mitigate disease. PMID:20078776

  13. Three genes of Citrus tristeza virus are dispensable for infection and movement throughout some varieties of citrus trees.

    PubMed

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Robertson, Cecile J; Garnsey, Stephen M; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Gowda, Siddarame; Dawson, William O

    2008-07-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the Closteroviridae, possesses a 19.3-kb positive-stranded RNA genome that is organized into twelve open reading frames (ORFs). The CTV genome contains two sets of conserved genes, which are characteristic of this virus group, the replication gene block (ORF 1a and 1b) and the quintuple gene block (p6, HSP70 h, p61, CPm, and CP). With the exception of the p6 gene, they are required for replication and virion assembly. CTV contains five additional genes, p33, p18, p13, p20 and p23, in the 3' half of the genome, some of which (p33, p18 and p13) are not conserved among other members of this virus group, and have been proposed to have evolved for specific interactions with the citrus host. In the present study, the requirements for systemic infection of citrus trees of p33, p6, p18, p13 and p20 were examined. Viral mutants with a deletion in the p6 or the p20 ORF failed to infect citrus plants systemically, suggesting their possible roles in virus translocation/systemic infection. However, we found that deletions within the p33, p18 or p13 ORF individually resulted in no significant loss of ability of the virus to infect, multiply, and spread throughout citrus trees. Furthermore, deletions in the p33, p18 and p13 genes in all possible combinations including deletions in all three genes allowed the virus to systemically invade citrus trees. Green fluorescent protein-tagged CTV variants with deletions in the p33 ORF or the p33, p18 and p13 ORFs demonstrated that the movement and distribution of these deletion mutants were similar to that of the wild-type virus. PMID:18456299

  14. Quantitative detection of Citrus tristeza virus in citrus and aphids by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (TaqMan).

    PubMed

    Saponari, Maria; Manjunath, Keremane; Yokomi, Raymond K

    2008-01-01

    A quantitative and multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay was developed to detect Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) along with plant mRNA, which serves as an internal control to ascertain RNA extraction quality. The real-time technique was validated against 39 CTV strains from around the world as well as with the aphid vector, Aphis gossypii, given a 48 h acquisition access period on a CTV source plant. The assay was effective for quantitation of the viral template in infected plants and in single aphids. CTV detection was compared from different plant tissues and for different RNA isolation methods from aphids. Less than 1 fg was consistently detected when RNA transcripts were diluted in extracts from healthy plants while RNA copies carried by single aphids were estimated to be between 12,000 and 13,000,000. The assay was more sensitive and less time consuming than ELISA or traditional RT-PCR. The real-time RT-PCR assay developed is a valuable new tool for detection and titer quantitation of CTV. PMID:17888522

  15. Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2005-01-01

    An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

  16. Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.

    PubMed

    Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

    1983-11-01

    Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested. PMID:6316795

  17. Citrus tristeza virus p23: determinants for nucleolar localization and their influence on suppression of RNA silencing and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Soler, Nuria; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús; Fagoaga, Carmen; López, Carmelo; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Peña, Leandro; Flores, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) encodes a singular protein (p23, 209 amino acids) with multiple functions, including RNA silencing suppression (RSS). Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-p23 agroexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed its accumulation in the nucleolus, Cajal bodies, and plasmodesmata. To dissect the nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) typically associated with basic motifs, seven truncated and 10 point-mutated versions of p23 were assayed. Deletion mutants showed that regions 50 to 86 and 100 to 157 (excluding fragment 106 to 114), both with basic motifs and the first with a zinc-finger, contain the (bipartite) NoLS. Alanine substitutions delimited this signal to three cysteines of the Zn-finger and some basic amino acids. RSS activity of p23 in N. benthamiana was abolished by essentially all mutants, indicating that it involves most p23 regions. The necrotic-inducing ability of p23 when launched in N. benthamiana from Potato virus X was only retained by deletion mutant 158-209 and one substitution mutant, showing that the Zn-finger and flanking basic motifs form part of the pathogenic determinant. Ectopic expression of p23 and some deletion mutants in transgenic Mexican lime demarcated a similar determinant, suggesting that p23 affects related pathways in citrus and N. benthamiana. Both RSS activity and pathogenicity of p23 appear related to its nucleolar localization. PMID:23387469

  18. In vivo and in vitro expression analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Citrus tristeza virus.

    PubMed

    Cevik, B; Lee, R F; Niblett, C L

    2008-01-01

    Expression of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied in vivo and in vitro using a polyclonal antiserum raised against the recombinant CTV-RdRp protein. Although a 57-kDa CTV-RdRp was expected to be expressed by a +1 translational frameshift at the carboxyl terminus of a 400-kDa polyprotein, a 50-kDa protein was detected in CTV-infected but not in healthy citrus tissue by Western blot. This suggests that the RdRp was cleaved from the CTV polyprotein. The 50-kDa protein was present in both the cytoplasmic and membrane fractions, but it accumulated mainly in the membrane fraction, where most of the replication-associated proteins of RNA viruses are found. When the expression of a cloned CTV-RdRp gene encoding a 60-kDa fusion protein was studied in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, two smaller proteins of about 50 kDa and 10 kDa were detected in addition to the expected 60-kDa protein. All three proteins were immunoprecipitated with the anti-CTV-RdRp serum, suggesting that the 50-kDa and 10-kDa proteins were fragments of the 60-kDa CTV-RdRp fusion protein. When the expression of the RdRp was analyzed at different times during in vitro translation, the 60-kDa and 50-kDa proteins were detected at all time points, and a small amount of the 10-kDa protein was detected after 30 min of translation. These results suggest that the CTV-RdRp may also be cleaved in vitro in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate. PMID:18193157

  19. A genetic system for Citrus Tristeza Virus using the non-natural host Nicotiana benthamiana: an update.

    PubMed

    Ambrós, Silvia; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Peña, Leandro; Moreno, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    In nature Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), genus Closterovirus, infects only the phloem cells of species of Citrus and related genera. Finding that the CTV T36 strain replicated in Nicotiana benthamiana (NB) protoplasts and produced normal virions allowed development of the first genetic system based on protoplast transfection with RNA transcribed from a full-genome cDNA clone, a laborious and uncertain system requiring several months for each experiment. We developed a more efficient system based on agroinfiltration of NB leaves with CTV-T36-based binary plasmids, which caused systemic infection in this non-natural host within a few weeks yielding in the upper leaves enough CTV virions to readily infect citrus by slash inoculation. Stem agroinoculation of citrus and NB plants with oncogenic strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying a CTV-T36 binary vector with a GUS marker, induced GUS positive galls in both species. However, while most NB tumors were CTV positive and many plants became systemically infected, no coat protein or viral RNA was detected in citrus tumors, even though CTV cDNA was readily detected by PCR in the same galls. This finding suggests (1) strong silencing or CTV RNA processing in transformed cells impairing infection progress, and (2) the need for using NB as an intermediate host in the genetic system. To maintain CTV-T36 in NB or assay other CTV genotypes in this host, we also tried to graft-transmit the virus from infected to healthy NB, or to mechanically inoculate NB leaves with virion extracts. While these trials were mostly unsuccessful on non-treated NB plants, agroinfiltration with silencing suppressors enabled for the first time infecting NB plants by side-grafting and by mechanical inoculation with virions, indicating that previous failure to infect NB was likely due to virus silencing in early infection steps. Using NB as a CTV host provides new possibilities to study virus-host interactions with a simple and reliable system. PMID:23847598

  20. A genetic system for Citrus Tristeza Virus using the non-natural host Nicotiana benthamiana: an update

    PubMed Central

    Ambrós, Silvia; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Peña, Leandro; Moreno, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    In nature Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), genus Closterovirus, infects only the phloem cells of species of Citrus and related genera. Finding that the CTV T36 strain replicated in Nicotiana benthamiana (NB) protoplasts and produced normal virions allowed development of the first genetic system based on protoplast transfection with RNA transcribed from a full-genome cDNA clone, a laborious and uncertain system requiring several months for each experiment. We developed a more efficient system based on agroinfiltration of NB leaves with CTV-T36-based binary plasmids, which caused systemic infection in this non-natural host within a few weeks yielding in the upper leaves enough CTV virions to readily infect citrus by slash inoculation. Stem agroinoculation of citrus and NB plants with oncogenic strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying a CTV-T36 binary vector with a GUS marker, induced GUS positive galls in both species. However, while most NB tumors were CTV positive and many plants became systemically infected, no coat protein or viral RNA was detected in citrus tumors, even though CTV cDNA was readily detected by PCR in the same galls. This finding suggests (1) strong silencing or CTV RNA processing in transformed cells impairing infection progress, and (2) the need for using NB as an intermediate host in the genetic system. To maintain CTV-T36 in NB or assay other CTV genotypes in this host, we also tried to graft-transmit the virus from infected to healthy NB, or to mechanically inoculate NB leaves with virion extracts. While these trials were mostly unsuccessful on non-treated NB plants, agroinfiltration with silencing suppressors enabled for the first time infecting NB plants by side-grafting and by mechanical inoculation with virions, indicating that previous failure to infect NB was likely due to virus silencing in early infection steps. Using NB as a CTV host provides new possibilities to study virus-host interactions with a simple and reliable system. PMID:23847598

  1. Accumulation of a 5' proximal subgenomic RNA of Citrus tristeza virus is correlated with encapsidation by the minor coat protein.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Siddarame; Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Hilf, Mark E; Dawson, William O

    2009-06-20

    During replication, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) produces large amounts of two unusual subgenomic (sg) RNAs that are positive-stranded and 5' coterminal. Although these RNAs are produced in similar amounts and are similar in size, with LMT1 ( approximately 750 nt) only slightly larger than LMT2 ( approximately 650), we found that the similar sgRNAs are produced differently. We previously showed that the LMT1 RNA is produced by premature termination during genomic RNA synthesis. However, LMT2 production was found to correlate with virion assembly instead of RNA replication. The time course of accumulation of the LMT2 RNA occurred late, coinciding with virion accumulation. The long flexuous virions of CTV contain two coat proteins that encapsidate the virions in a polar manner. The major coat protein encapsidates approximately 97% of the virion, while the minor capsid protein encapsidates the remainder of the genome beginning in the 5' non-translated region with the transition zone at approximately 630 nucleotides from the 5' end. The section of the virion RNA that was encapsidated by CPm was identical in size to the LMT2 RNA, suggesting that the LMT2 RNA represented a portion of the viral RNA protected by CPm encapsidation. Mutations that abrogated encapsidation by CPm also abolished the accumulation of LMT2 RNA. Thus, these two unusual but similar RNAs are produced via different pathways, one from RNA replication and one processed by the virion assembly process. To our knowledge, this represents the first evidence of a viral RNA processed by the assembly mechanism. PMID:19446304

  2. A cDNA clone from a defective RNA of citrus tristeza virus is infective in the presence of the helper virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, G; Mawassi, M; Ashoulin, L; Gafny, R; Gaba, V; Gal-On, A; Bar-Joseph, M

    1997-07-01

    A naturally occurring defective RNA of 2379 nt (D2.3) from the VT strain of citrus tristeza closterovirus (CTV) was cloned and sequenced. The D2.3 RNA is a fusion of two regions of 1521 and 858 nt from the 5' and 3' ends of the CTV genome, respectively. A cDNA clone of D2.3 RNA was tagged by the insertion of a 0.47 kb chimeric DNA fragment and the recombinant cDNA was inserted downstream of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The resulting construct was bombarded into CTV-infected tissue, which was then grafted onto virus-free plants. The presence of recombinant RNA in systemically infected leaves was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Sequencing the RT-PCR products synthesized from double-stranded RNA confirmed the presence of the chimeric segment used for tagging. This is the first report of an infectious cDNA molecule derived from CTV D-RNA. PMID:9225053

  3. The presence of tristeza virus in Satsuma oranges, Meyer lemons, and other citrus plants in the Gulf Coast areas in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Malouf, Wajih D

    1959-01-01

    LIBRARY A & M COLLEGE OF TEXAS THE I'RESENCE OF TPISTElt VIRUS IN SATSUMA ORANGES, ME VER LE AGNS & ANii OTHER C I TRU S F'L ANTS I N THE GULF CC &ST 'RE 4; I N TEXAS A Thea is ' a j i h u . lii a l o u f' bubmi t ted to the Graduate School...;tCLLIS I "I'I LITER-'TJRE CITEi L I ST QF PLi', TES Plate :mexican Lime Seedling, Fxempli f'ying Cup- shaped Leaf Symptoms of' Tristeza Virus on Young . 'colature Foliage. 31 'yexi can Lime Sesdl i ng Exempli fying No l'isease Symptoms. 32 Young...

  4. Occurrence of genetic bottlenecks during citrus tristeza virus acquisition by Toxoptera citricida under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Nolasco, G; Fonseca, F; Silva, G

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we address the involvement of T. citricida in strain segregation and genetic bottleneck events by comparing the nucleotide diversity of CTV coat protein (CP) gene variants present in field-grown trees with that of variants retrieved from single apterous aphids. Plant material and aphids were collected in orange orchards in the northern part of Portugal. Shoots from two trees that were found to be positive using ELISA and twenty-four apterous aphids from these same trees were selected for individual molecular assays. CTV was detected in 60% of the aphids by amplification of a 417-bp fragment of the CP gene. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of this fragment revealed that most of the variation of the virus was found among individual aphids (FSC: 0.766) within each location. Nucleotide diversity comparison between the pool of sequences obtained from a given shoot and sequences obtained from individual aphids present on that shoot showed a reduction of more than one order of magnitude in most cases. Computer simulations of random virus acquisition by single aphids showed that in 54% of the cases only a single CP gene phylogenetic group was acquired. However, a small number of aphids (e.g. 6) was enough to acquire the full complement of phylogenetic groups present. PMID:18049792

  5. Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).

    PubMed

    Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

    2014-04-20

    A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372

  6. Accumulation of transgene-derived siRNAs is not sufficient for RNAi-mediated protection against Citrus tristeza virus in transgenic Mexican lime.

    PubMed

    López, Carmelo; Cervera, Magdalena; Fagoaga, Carmen; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Flores, Ricardo; Peña, Leandro

    2010-01-01

    Mexican lime plants transformed with the 3'-terminal 549 nucleotides of the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome in sense, antisense and intron-hairpin formats were analysed for transgene-derived transcript and short interfering RNA (siRNA) accumulation, and for CTV resistance. Propagations from all sense, antisense and empty-vector transgenic lines were susceptible to CTV, except for a single sense-line plant with a complex transgene integration pattern that showed transgene-derived siRNAs in association with low levels of the transgene-derived transcript. In contrast, nine of 30 intron-hairpin lines showed CTV resistance, with 9%-56% of bud-propagated plants, depending on the line, remaining uninfected on graft inoculation, and the others being susceptible. Although resistance was always associated with the presence of transgene-derived siRNAs, their level in different sense and intron-hairpin transformants was variable irrespective of the response to CTV infection. In intron-hairpin lines with single transgene integration, CTV resistance was correlated with low accumulation of the transgene-derived transcript rather than with high accumulation of transgene-derived siRNAs. PMID:20078774

  7. Heterologous minor coat proteins of Citrus tristeza virus strains affect encapsidation, but the coexpression of HSP70h and p61 restores encapsidation to wild-type levels.

    PubMed

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Gowda, Siddarame; Dawson, William O

    2010-07-01

    The long flexuous bipolar virions of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a Closterovirus, are encapsidated with two capsid proteins at opposite ends: the minor coat protein (CPm) encapsidates the 5' 630 nts of the genomic RNA and the major coat protein encapsidates the remainder of the genome. In this study, we found encapsidation of CTV CPm in the absence of other assembly-related proteins is highly specific in contrast to most plant viruses that allow virion assembly by a range of heterologous coat proteins. Heterologous CPms with 95-96% amino acid identity from related strains in CTV-CPm, a replicon with CPm as the only assembly-related ORF, either failed to initiate encapsidation or reduced encapsidation substantially. Substitution of subsets of amino acids revealed that the amino acids that differ between positions 121 and 180 of the VT strain, and 61 and 120 of the T3 strain were involved in specific encapsidation. We further mapped the specific encapsidation to a single amino acid: mutation of methionine(165) to threonine (VT type) or serine(105) to proline (T3 type) in CTV-CPm failed to form nucleocapsids. However, the heterologous CPm in combination with both HSP70h and p61 proteins, but not HSP70h or p61 alone, encapsidated at wild-type levels, suggesting that specific encapsidation by CPm was mitigated by the combination of HSP70h and p61. Thus, in addition to the previously described functions of HSP70h and p61 of greatly enhanced virion formation and restriction of CPm encapsidation to the 5' 630 nts of the genomic RNA, these proteins facilitate encapsidation by heterologous CPms. PMID:20399478

  8. Toscana virus isolated from sandflies, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Es-sette, Nargys; Ajaoud, Malika; Anga, Latifa; Mellouki, Fouad; Lemrani, Meryem

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the transmission of phleboviruses, a total of 7,057 sandflies were collected in well-known foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis and were identified to species level according to morphological characters.Collected sandflies were tested by Nested PCR for the presence of Phleboviruses and subsequently by viral isolation on Vero cells. The corresponding products were sequenced. Toscana virus was isolated, for the first time, from 5 pools of sandflies.Hence, Toscana virus should be considered a potential risk that threatens public health and clinicians should be aware of the role of Toscana virus in cases of meningitis and encephalitis in Morocco. PMID:25886511

  9. Calculation of diagnostic parameters of advanced serological and molecular tissue-print methods for detection of Citrus tristeza virus: a model for other plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Vidal, E; Yokomi, R K; Moreno, A; Bertolini, E; Cambra, M

    2012-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most important virus diseases that affect citrus. Control of CTV is achieved by grafting selected virus-free citrus scions onto CTV-tolerant or -resistant rootstocks. Quarantine and certification programs are essential for avoiding the entry and propagation of severe strains of CTV. Citrus nurseries in Spain and central California (United States) maintain zero-tolerance policies for CTV that require sensitive, specific, and reliable pathogen-detection methods. Tissue-print (TP) real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was compared with the validated TP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using the CTV-specific monoclonal antibodies 3DF1 and 3CA5, for CTV detection. In total, 1,395 samples from healthy and CTV-infected nursery and mature tree plants were analyzed with both methods. The total agreement between both detection methods was substantial (Cohen's kappa index of 0.77 ± 0.03). The diagnostic parameters of each technique (i.e., the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios) were evaluated in a second test involving 658 Citrus macrophylla nursery plants. Mexican lime indexing was used to evaluate samples with discrepant results in the analysis. For TP-ELISA, a sensitivity of 0.8015, a specificity of 0.9963, and a positive and negative likelihood ratio of 216.42 and 0.199, respectively, were estimated. For TP real-time RT-PCR, a sensitivity of 0.9820, a specificity of 0.8519, and a positive and negative likelihood ratio of 6.63 and 0.021, respectively, were estimated. These diagnostic parameters show that TP real-time RT-PCR was the most sensitive technique, whereas TP-ELISA showed the highest specificity, validating the use of the molecular technique for routine CTV-detection purposes. In addition, our results show that the combination of both techniques can accurately substitute for the conventional biological Mexican lime index for the detection of CTV. The calculation of diagnostic parameters is discussed, as a necessary tool, to validate detection or diagnostic methods in plant pathology. Furthermore, assessment of the post-test probability of disease after a diagnostic result and CTV prevalence allows selection of the best method for accurate and reliable diagnosis. PMID:21879789

  10. Comparison of cowpox-like viruses isolated from European zoos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Baxby; W. B. Shackleton; Jean Wheeler; A. Turner

    1979-01-01

    Summary Poxviruses isolated from captive carnivores in Russia (Moscow virus) and elephants in Germany (elephant virus) were very closely-related to cowpox virus. Immunological analysis with absorbed sera separated elephant virus but not cowpox and Moscow virus, whereas polypeptide analysis separated cowpox but not elephant and Moscow virus. A combination of biological tests separated all three. The epidemiological implications are briefly

  11. Isolation of Usutu Virus in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Jöst, Hanna; Bialonski, Alexandra; Maus, Deborah; Sambri, Vittorio; Eiden, Martin; Groschup, Martin H.; Günther, Stephan; Becker, Norbert; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged 2001 in Austria and caused deaths in wild birds. In Germany, 70,378 female mosquitoes were captured in 2009 and 2010 and assayed for USUV. Virus was isolated in cell culture from one pool of Culex pipiens pipiens mosquitoes trapped exclusively in August 2010 in Weinheim, Germany. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the isolated USUV strain from Germany and a USUV strain from Austria, which was detected in a dead blackbird in 2004. PMID:21896821

  12. Transformation of Mexican lime with an intron-hairpin construct expressing untranslatable versions of the genes coding for the three silencing suppressors of Citrus tristeza virus confers complete resistance to the virus.

    PubMed

    Soler, Nuria; Plomer, Montserrat; Fagoaga, Carmen; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Flores, Ricardo; Peña, Leandro

    2012-06-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), the causal agent of the most devastating viral disease of citrus, has evolved three silencing suppressor proteins acting at intra- (p23 and p20) and/or intercellular level (p20 and p25) to overcome host antiviral defence. Previously, we showed that Mexican lime transformed with an intron-hairpin construct including part of the gene p23 and the adjacent 3' untranslated region displays partial resistance to CTV, with a fraction of the propagations from some transgenic lines remaining uninfected. Here, we transformed Mexican lime with an intron-hairpin vector carrying full-length, untranslatable versions of the genes p25, p20 and p23 from CTV strain T36 to silence the expression of these critical genes in CTV-infected cells. Three transgenic lines presented complete resistance to viral infection, with all their propagations remaining symptomless and virus-free after graft inoculation with CTV-T36, either in the nontransgenic rootstock or in the transgenic scion. Accumulation of transgene-derived siRNAs was necessary but not sufficient for CTV resistance. Inoculation with a divergent CTV strain led to partially breaking the resistance, thus showing the role of sequence identity in the underlying mechanism. Our results are a step forward to developing transgenic resistance to CTV and also show that targeting simultaneously by RNA interference (RNAi) the three viral silencing suppressors appears critical for this purpose, although the involvement of concurrent RNAi mechanisms cannot be excluded. PMID:22405601

  13. Isolation of avian influenza viruses in central Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Lai, A C; McPhillips, A M

    1999-12-01

    Aquatic birds are the natural hosts for influenza virus. It is established that avian influenza viruses provide the gene pool for the generation of new strains of human influenza virus, which can cause pandemic infections. The recent outbreak of an avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Hong Kong not only produced high mortality in chickens, but also resulted in six human fatalities. This outbreak indicates that avian influenza virus can be pathogenic for humans. We surveyed local waterfowl habitats by taking water and fecal samples for virus isolation and identification. We isolated avian influenza viruses from ponds and small lakes in Bartlesville, Lawton, Stillwater, and Tulsa. The density of birds in these sites is small. However, our virus isolation rate is comparable to that found in higher density habitats. The risk of human infection remains to be determined. We encourage primary care physicians to submit samples for virus surveillance. PMID:10616258

  14. Recent isolates of Newcastle disease virus in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Spradbrow; M. MacKenzie; S. E. Grimes

    1995-01-01

    Forty-five recently isolated strains of Newcastle disease virus and the V4 vaccine strain of Newcastle disease virus were used to infect experimental chickens. Neither V4 nor any of the new strains produced detectable clinical disease. All the viruses produced an antibody response and spread by contact. Some of the newly isolated viruses produced a more rapid serological response than V4

  15. Analysis of Iranian Potato virus S isolates.

    PubMed

    Salari, Khadijeh; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Varsani, Arvind

    2011-10-01

    Two hundred forty potato samples with one or more symptoms of leaf mosaic, distortion, mottling and yellowing were collected between 2005 and 2008 from seven Iranian provinces. Forty-four of these samples tested positive with double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA) using a Potato virus S (PVS) polyclonal antibody. Of these 12 isolates of PVS were selected based on the geographical location for biological and molecular characterization. The full coat protein (CP) and 11K genes from 12 PVS isolates were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. All 12 PVS isolates showed mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana debneyii and N. tabacum cv. Whiteburly and local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and C. album. The Iranian isolates share between 93 and 100% pairwise nucleotide identity with other PVS(O) isolates. Based on maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis coupled with pairwise identity analysis, we propose 15 genotypes for the PVS(O) strain and 3 genotypes for the PVS(A) strain. PMID:21567245

  16. Zinc Salts Inactivate Clinical Isolates of Herpes Simplex Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAX ARENS; SHARON TRAVIS

    2000-01-01

    Using a standard plaque assay and clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (HSV), we have tested the ability of zinc salts to inactivate HSV. Virus was treated by incubation at 37°C with zinc salts in morpholinepropane- sulfonic acid-buffered culture medium and was then diluted and plated onto CV-1 cells for detection and quantitation of remaining infectious virus. Of 10 randomly

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of classical swine fever virus isolates from Peru.

    PubMed

    Araínga, M; Hisanaga, T; Hills, K; Handel, K; Rivera, H; Pasick, J

    2010-08-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is considered to be endemic in Peru with outbreaks reported to the World Organization for Animal Health as recently as 2008 and 2009. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the genetic subgroup(s) of CSF virus that are circulating in Peru or their relationship to recent CSF viruses that have been isolated from neighbouring South American countries or other parts of the world. In this study, we molecularly characterize CSF viruses that were isolated from domestic pigs from different regions of Peru from the middle of 2007 to early 2008. All virus isolates were found to belong to genetic subgroup 1.1, consistent with the subgroup of viruses that have been identified from other South American countries. Although the Peruvian isolates are most closely related to viruses from Colombia and Brazil, they form a monophyletic clade, which suggests they have a distinct evolutionary history. PMID:20545910

  18. Isolation of genetically diverse Marburg viruses from Egyptian fruit bats.

    PubMed

    Towner, Jonathan S; Amman, Brian R; Sealy, Tara K; Carroll, Serena A Reeder; Comer, James A; Kemp, Alan; Swanepoel, Robert; Paddock, Christopher D; Balinandi, Stephen; Khristova, Marina L; Formenty, Pierre B H; Albarino, Cesar G; Miller, David M; Reed, Zachary D; Kayiwa, John T; Mills, James N; Cannon, Deborah L; Greer, Patricia W; Byaruhanga, Emmanuel; Farnon, Eileen C; Atimnedi, Patrick; Okware, Samuel; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W; Zaki, Sherif R; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E

    2009-07-01

    In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans. PMID:19649327

  19. Isolation of Genetically Diverse Marburg Viruses from Egyptian Fruit Bats

    PubMed Central

    Towner, Jonathan S.; Amman, Brian R.; Sealy, Tara K.; Carroll, Serena A. Reeder; Comer, James A.; Kemp, Alan; Swanepoel, Robert; Paddock, Christopher D.; Balinandi, Stephen; Khristova, Marina L.; Formenty, Pierre B. H.; Albarino, Cesar G.; Miller, David M.; Reed, Zachary D.; Kayiwa, John T.; Mills, James N.; Cannon, Deborah L.; Greer, Patricia W.; Byaruhanga, Emmanuel; Farnon, Eileen C.; Atimnedi, Patrick; Okware, Samuel; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2009-01-01

    In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans. PMID:19649327

  20. Evidence for two groups of banana bunchy top virus isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirko Karan; Robert M. Harding; James L. Dale

    1994-01-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) DNA component 1 from isolates from 10 different countries was cloned and sequenced and the sequences were aligned and com- pared. This analysis indicated two groups: the South Pacific group (isolates from Australia, Burundi, Egypt, Fiji, India, Tonga and Western Samoa) and the Asian group (isolates from the Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam). The mean sequence

  1. Refinement of the Citrus tristeza virus resistance gene (Ctv) positional map in Poncirus trifoliata and generation of transgenic grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) plant lines with candidate resistance genes in this region.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mamta

    2006-06-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a major pathogen of Citrus. A single dominant gene Ctv present in the trifoliate relative of Citrus, Poncirus trifoliata confers broad spectrum resistance against CTV. Refinement of genetic maps has delimited this gene to a 121 kb region, comprising of ten candidate Ctv resistance genes. The ten candidate genes were individually cloned in Agrobacterium based binary vector and transformed into three CTV susceptible grapefruit varieties. Two of the candidate R-genes, R-2 and R-3 are exclusively expressed in transgenic plants and in Poncirus trifoliata, while five other genes are also expressed in non-transformed Citrus controls. Northern blotting with a CTV derived probe for assessment of infection in virus inoculated plants over a span of three growth periods, each comprising of six to eight weeks, indicates either an absence of initiation of infection or it's slow spread in R-2 plant lines or an initial appearance of infection and it's subsequent obliteration in some R-1 and R-4 plant lines. Limited genome walk up- and downstream form R-1 gene, based on it's 100% sequence identity between Poncirus and Citrus, indicates promoter identity of 92% between the two varieties. Further upstream and downstream sequencing indicates the presence of an O-methyl transferase and a Copia like gene respectively in Citrus instead of the amino acid transporter like gene upstream and a sugar transporter like gene downstream in Poncirus. The possibility of recombinations in the resistance locus of Citrus and the need for consistent monitoring for virus infection and gene expression in the transgenic Citrus trees is discussed. PMID:16830176

  2. Identification of herd-specific bovine viral diarrhoea virus isolates from infected cattle and sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Paton; U. Carlsson; J. P. Lowings; J. J. Sands; S. Vil?ek; S. Alenius

    1995-01-01

    Thirteen pestiviruses isolated from ruminants on four different farms in Sweden were compared antigenically and genetically. On two farms, viruses were isolated from both cattle and sheep, a third farm contained only sheep and a fourth only cattle. Seven viruses were isolated from six different cattle and six viruses were isolated from five different sheep. Epitope conservation between the viruses

  3. Isolation and molecular characterization of Newcastle disease viruses from raptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naresh Jindal; Yogesh Chander; Alexander Primus; Patrick T. Redig; Sagar M. Goyal

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to detect and characterize Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in raptors. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 60 casualty raptors during January to March 2009 in Minnesota. Inoculation of all these samples (n=120) in 9-day-old embryonated hens’ eggs resulted in isolation of haemagglutinating viruses in three samples from two bald eagles and one great

  4. Characterization of Grapevine Algerian latent virus isolated from nipplefruit ( Solanum mammosum ) in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takehiro Ohki; Seiji Uematsu; Yasuhiro Nakayama; Dietrich-Eckhardt Lesemann; Yohachiro Honda; Shinya Tsuda; Ichiro Fujisawa

    2006-01-01

    Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Tomato bushy stunt virus nipplefruit strain (TBSV-Nf), and an unknown spherical virus were isolated from nipplefruit (Solanum mammosum) cultivated in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. The spherical virus was identified as Grapevine Algerian latent virus nipplefruit strain (GALV-Nf) from the genus Tombusvirus, based on its physical properties, serological relationships, and

  5. Citrus tristeza virus infection induces the accumulation of viral small RNAs (21-24-nt) mapping preferentially at the 3'-terminal region of the genomic RNA and affects the host small RNA profile.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Navarro, Beatriz; Gisel, Andreas; Peña, Leandro; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Di Serio, Francesco; Flores, Ricardo

    2011-04-01

    To get an insight into the host RNA silencing defense induced by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and into the counter defensive reaction mediated by its three silencing suppressors (p25, p20 and p23), we have examined by deep sequencing (Solexa-Illumina) the small RNAs (sRNAs) in three virus-host combinations. Our data show that CTV sRNAs: (i) represent more than 50% of the total sRNAs in Mexican lime and sweet orange (where CTV reaches relatively high titers), but only 3.5% in sour orange (where the CTV titer is significantly lower), (ii) are predominantly of 21-22-nt, with a biased distribution of their 5' nucleotide and with those of (+) polarity accumulating in a moderate excess, and (iii) derive from essentially all the CTV genome (ca. 20 kb), as revealed by its complete reconstruction from viral sRNA contigs, but adopt an asymmetric distribution with a prominent hotspot covering approximately the 3'-terminal 2,500 nt. These results suggest that the citrus homologues of Dicer-like (DCL) 4 and 2 most likely mediate the genesis of the 21 and 22 nt CTV sRNAs, respectively, and show that both ribonucleases act not only on the genomic RNA but also on the 3' co-terminal subgenomic RNAs and, particularly, on their double-stranded forms. The plant sRNA profile, very similar and dominated by the 24-nt sRNAs in the three mock-inoculated controls, was minimally affected by CTV infection in sour orange, but exhibited a significant reduction of the 24-nt sRNAs in Mexican lime and sweet orange. We have also identified novel citrus miRNAs and determined how CTV influences their accumulation. PMID:21327514

  6. Detection and molecular characterization of Egyptian isolates of grapevine viruses.

    PubMed

    Fattouh, F; Ratti, C; El-Ahwany, A M D; Aleem, E Abdel; Babini, A R; Autonell, C Rubies

    2014-01-01

    Selected commercial and/or local vineyards and nurseries in three different governorates of Egypt (Alexandria, El-Beheira and El-Menofia) were surveyed for symptoms indicative of infection by grapevine viruses. Leaf samples from red-fruited and white-fruited Vitis vinefera were tested for grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV-1, GLRaV-2, and GLRaV-3), grapevine viruses A and B (GVA, GVB), grapevine rupestris stem pitting virus (GRSPaV), grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), and grapevine fleck virus (GFKV) from early April to late October 2010. Incidence of these viruses was assessed by RT-PCR in 60 different samples. Selected amplicons were sequenced. While GVA was the most wide spread (30%), GLRaV-1, GVB, GFLV, and GFKV were not detected during the survey. However, GVA, GLRaV-2, GLRaV-3, and GRSPaV were detected in the form of single infection or in mixed infections of 2 to 4 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on all Egyptian isolates of GLRaV-2 (4), GLRaV-3 (7), GVA (3), and GRSPaV (6). GRSPaV was detected for the first time in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis provided insights into the evolutionary relationship between the reported Egyptian isolates and other previously reported isolates. PMID:24957718

  7. Molecular characterization and heterogeneity of feline immunodeficiency virus isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Maki; T. Miyazawa; M. Fukasawa; A. Hasegawa; M. Hayami; K. Miki; T. Mikami

    1992-01-01

    Summary We have molecularly cloned the complete genomic DNA of TM2 strain of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) isolated in Japan and compared its nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequence with those of previously described U.S. isolates, FIV Petaluma and FIV PPR. The infectious molecular clone of FIV TM2 is different from FIV Petaluma in host cell range; the clone

  8. Mild strain cross protection of tristeza: a review of research to protect against decline on sour orange in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard F.; Keremane, Manjunath L.

    2013-01-01

    Tristeza, caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), has long been present in Florida but outbreaks of decline on sour orange rootstock were occasional events until the late 1970s. Sour orange rootstock was valued for the high quality of fruit produced and was widely used because of its tolerance of citrus blight, a disease of unknown etiology. Research was directed towards the selection and screening of mild strains of CTV which could protect against sour orange decline strains. Following the introduction of Toxoptera citricida (also known as the brown citrus aphid) in 1995 there was a greater concern for maintaining production of existing blocks of citrus on sour orange rootstock. Availability of the CTV genome sequence around the same time as well as molecular characterization of in planta CTV populations led to the selection of mild CTV isolates which when inoculated into existing field trees, extended the productive life of the groves and enabled a more graduate replanting of trees on CTV-tolerant rootstocks. The history of CTV in Florida and the methods developed to select mild isolates for use for mild strain cross protection will be reviewed. PMID:24046764

  9. Mild strain cross protection of tristeza: a review of research to protect against decline on sour orange in Florida.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard F; Keremane, Manjunath L

    2013-01-01

    Tristeza, caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), has long been present in Florida but outbreaks of decline on sour orange rootstock were occasional events until the late 1970s. Sour orange rootstock was valued for the high quality of fruit produced and was widely used because of its tolerance of citrus blight, a disease of unknown etiology. Research was directed towards the selection and screening of mild strains of CTV which could protect against sour orange decline strains. Following the introduction of Toxoptera citricida (also known as the brown citrus aphid) in 1995 there was a greater concern for maintaining production of existing blocks of citrus on sour orange rootstock. Availability of the CTV genome sequence around the same time as well as molecular characterization of in planta CTV populations led to the selection of mild CTV isolates which when inoculated into existing field trees, extended the productive life of the groves and enabled a more graduate replanting of trees on CTV-tolerant rootstocks. The history of CTV in Florida and the methods developed to select mild isolates for use for mild strain cross protection will be reviewed. PMID:24046764

  10. Isolation of influenza viruses in MDCK 33016PF cells and clearance of contaminating respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Roth, Bernhard; Mohr, Hannah; Enders, Martin; Garten, Wolfgang; Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2012-01-11

    This paper summarizes results obtained by multiplex PCR screening of human clinical samples for respiratory viruses and corresponding data obtained after passaging of virus-positive samples in MDCK 33016PF cells. Using the ResPlexII v2.0 (Qiagen) multiplex PCR, 393 positive results were obtained in 468 clinical samples collected during an influenza season in Germany. The overall distribution of positive results was influenza A 42.0%, influenza B 38.7%, adenovirus 1.5%, bocavirus 0.5%, coronavirus 3.3%, enterovirus 5.6%, metapneumovirus 1.0%, parainfluenza virus 0.8%, rhinovirus 4.1%, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) 2.5%. Double infections of influenza virus together with another virus were found for adenovirus B and E, bocavirus, coronavirus, enterovirus and for rhinovirus. These other viruses were rapidly lost upon passages in MDCK 33016PF cells and under conditions as applied to influenza virus passaging. Clinical samples, in which no influenza virus but other viruses were found, were also subject to passages in MDCK 33016PF cells. Using lower inoculum dilutions than those normally applied for preparations containing influenza virus (total dilution of the original sample of ?10(4)), the positive results for the different viruses turned negative already after 2 or 3 passages in MDCK 33016PF cells. These results demonstrate that, under practical conditions as applied to grow influenza viruses, contaminating viruses can be effectively removed by passages in MDCK cells. In combination with their superior isolation efficiency, MDCK cells appear highly suitable to be used as an alternative to embryonated eggs to isolate and propagate influenza vaccine candidate viruses. PMID:22119922

  11. Triticum Mosaic Virus: A New Virus Isolated From Wheat in Kansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006 a mechanically-transmissible and previously uncharacterized virus was isolated in Kansas from wheat with mosaic symptoms. The physio-chemical properties of the virus were examined by purification on cesium chloride density gradients, electron microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylalmid...

  12. Diversity of Grapevine fanleaf virus isolates from Iran.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Nemat Sokhandan; Zarghani, Shaheen Nourinejhad; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2007-09-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of 126 grapevine samples, from vineyards in the northwest region of Iran, detected Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) in 33 samples. Total RNA from eight of the infected samples were subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis using primers which corresponded to the virus coat protein and 3' non coding region of RNA 2. An expected 1620 bp DNA fragment was amplified from all the tested samples. PCR products from isolates B5, S1 and SH3 were cloned and the nucleotide sequences of three clones from each isolate were determined. The sequences showed that a DNA fragment of 1623 bp from isolate S1 and 1629bp from isolates B5 and SH3 were amplified. The fragments covered 1481 nucleotides of the 3' proximal region of the CP gene plus 142 or 148 nucleotides of the 3' non coding region. Alignment of the sequences revealed over 99% identities among clones from each isolate and 83-93% among clones from different isolates. Identities of 83-94% were found between the isolates from Iran and previously reported GFLV strains/isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on CP sequences showed that isolates S1 and SH3 formed a distinct cluster but isolate B5 clustered with previously reported GFLV strains. This is the first report on sequence analysis of nearly full-length CP cDNA clones of GFLV isolates from Iran. PMID:17521761

  13. Isolated acute dysphagia due to varicella-zoster virus.

    PubMed

    Mantero, Vittorio; Rigamonti, Andrea; Valentini, Sergio; Fiumani, Anna; Piamarta, Francesca; Bonfanti, Paolo; Salmaggi, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    We present a case of zoster sine herpete causing isolated acute dysphagia in an immunocompetent patient. The interest of this paper is the atypical presentation of varicella-zoster virus reactivation. A 77-year-old woman presented with a 3-day history of fever and worsening dysphagia for both liquid and solid foods. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis and PCR amplified varicella-zoster virus DNA with high antibody titers in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The panel was suggestive of a cranial neuritis due to varicella-zoster virus, involved cranial nerves, even in the absence of a cutaneous and mucosal rash. Varicella-zoster virus reactivation should be included in the differential diagnosis of isolated or multiple cranial nerve palsies, with or without zosteriform skin lesions. A prompt etiologic diagnosis can lead to early administration of antiviral therapy. PMID:24529416

  14. First Human Isolate of Hantavirus (Andes virus) in the Americas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hector Galeno; Judith Mora; Eliecer Villagra; Jorge Fernandez; Jury Hernandez; Gregory J. Mertz; Eugenio Ramirez

    2002-01-01

    We isolated Andes virus (formal name: Andes virus (ANDV), a species in the genus Hantavirus), from serum of an asymptomatic 10-year-old Chilean boy who died 6 days later of hantavirus pulmonary syn- drome (HPS). The serum was obtained 12 days after his grandmother died from HPS and 2 days before he became febrile. No hantavirus immunoglobulin (Ig) G or IgM

  15. Complete genome sequence of mandarin decline Citrus tristeza virus of the Northeastern Himalayan hill region of India: comparative analyses determine recombinant.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Kajal K; Tarafdar, Avijit; Sharma, Susheel K

    2012-03-01

    The complete genome sequence of a mandarin (Citrus reticulata) decline CTV isolate, Kpg3, of the Darjeeling hills of the Northeastern Himalayan region of India is reported for the first time. The complete Kpg3 genome has 19253 nt, and its nucleotide sequence identity ranged from 79% with the Florida CTV isolate T36 to 94% with the Israel isolate VT, whereas its identity to B165, the other Indian isolate, was 89%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Kpg3 genome is closely related to isolate VT and distantly to T36 and B165. Recombination analysis indicated that Kpg3 is recombinant and originated through multiple recombination events in which parts of the genome were exchanged between divergent CTV sequences. PMID:22160128

  16. Characterization of grapefruit plants ( Citrus paradisi Macf.) transformed with citrus tristeza closterovirus genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. J. Febres; C. L. Niblett; R. F. Lee; G. A. Moore

    2003-01-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. cv Duncan) plants were transformed with several sequences from citrus tristeza closterovirus (CTV) that varied in terms of position in the CTV genome and virus strain origin in an attempt to obtain resistant plants. The sequences included the capsid protein gene from three different strains, a nontranslatable version of the capsid protein gene, the replicase (RdRp),

  17. Molecular Diagnosis of Human Rhinovirus Infections: Comparison with Virus Isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TIMO HYYPIA; TUOMO PUHAKKA; OLLI RUUSKANEN; MIKA MAKELA; ANITA AROLA; PERTTI ARSTILA

    1998-01-01

    To compare the sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR with that of virus isolation in the detection of human rhinoviruses, we tested nasopharyngeal aspirates from 200 patients on the 1st and 7th days after the onset of the common cold. An assay utilizing a short amplicon in the conserved 5* noncoding region was found highly sensitive. Of 192 positive samples altogether,

  18. Isolation of Frog Virus 3 from Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Isolation of Frog Virus 3 from Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) Suggests an Interclass Host #12;· Pallid Sturgeon Conservation within the Missouri River Basin ­ History of the decline · Significance & Future Directions Topics Covered #12;Decline of Pallid Sturgeon within the Missouri River Basin

  19. Characterization of field isolates of infectious laryngotracheitis virus from Ontario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davor Ojkic; Janet Swinton; Marie Vallieres; Emily Martin; Jan Shapiro; Babak Sanei; Brian Binnington

    2006-01-01

    Five cases of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) occurred in the fall of 2004 in the Niagara Peninsula, in Southern Ontario. At about the same time two more cases occurred in Eastern Ontario and one case in South-Western Ontario. We examined, at a molecular level, 10 Ontario ILT virus field isolates from 2004 and early 2005 as well as four ILT vaccine

  20. Iguana Virus, a Herpes-Like Virus Isolated from Cultured Cells of a Lizard, Iguana iguana

    PubMed Central

    Clark, H. Fred; Karzon, David T.

    1972-01-01

    An agent cytopathic for Terrapene and Iguana cell cultures was isolated from spontaneously degenerating cell cultures prepared from a green iguana (Iguana iguana). The agent, designated iguana virus, caused a cytopathic effect (CPE) of a giant cell type, with eosinophilic inclusions commonly observed within giant cell nuclei. Incubation temperature had a marked effect on CPE and on virus release from infected cells. Within the range of 23 to 36 C, low temperatures favored CPE characterized by cytolysis and small giant cell formation, and significant virus release was observed. At warmer temperatures, a purely syncytial type of CPE and total absence of released virus were noted. A unique type of hexagonal eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion was observed within syncytia of infected Terrapene cell cultures incubated at 36 C. In vivo studies revealed no evidence of pathogenicity of iguana virus for suckling mice, embryonated hen's eggs, or several species of reptiles and amphibians. Inoculation of iguana virus into young iguanas consistently caused infection that was “unmasked” only when cell cultures were prepared directly from the infected animal. Filtration studies revealed a virion size of >100 nm and <220 nm. Iguana virus is ether-sensitive and, as presumptively indicated by studies of inhibition by bromodeoxyuridine, possesses a deoxyribonucleic type of nucleic acid. The virus characteristics described, as well as electron microscopy observations described in a separate report, indicate that iguana virus is a member of the herpesvirus group. Images PMID:4344303

  1. Isolation and molecular characterization of Newcastle disease viruses from raptors.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Naresh; Chander, Yogesh; Primus, Alexander; Redig, Patrick T; Goyal, Sagar M

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to detect and characterize Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in raptors. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 60 casualty raptors during January to March 2009 in Minnesota. Inoculation of all these samples (n=120) in 9-day-old embryonated hens' eggs resulted in isolation of haemagglutinating viruses in three samples from two bald eagles and one great horned owl. These three haemagglutinating viruses were confirmed as NDV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using fusion gene-specific primers, and were negative for avian influenza virus by RT-PCR. Further characterization revealed that all three possessed (112)GKQGRL(117) at the fusion gene cleavage site, indicating that they were lentogenic strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all three isolates clustered with published class II genotype II NDVs. The nucleotide sequence homology of the three NDV isolates among themselves was 98.4 to 99.6% and the sequence homology with lentogenic strains from wild birds used for comparison varied between 94.5 and 100%. Detection of NDV strains from raptors merits further epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence of different NDV strains in raptors and their impact in relation to transmission to domestic poultry. PMID:21154052

  2. An evaluation of aqueous humor of chickens as a source of material for the isolation of infectious bronchitis virus

    E-print Network

    Flowers, A. I

    1959-01-01

    +. ~ in 1954, reported that seasons honor of fool uss ?n oncelleat source of notarial for the isolation af Nsucastle disease virus. Atteapts vere nods to iaprove virus isolation techniques, but tracheal caudate recafasd ths notarial of choice fer virus isola...

  3. Isolation and characterization of Midway virus: a new tick-borne virus related to Nyamanini.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Yunker, C E; Clifford, C M; Nakano, W; Fujino, N; Tanifuji, K; Thomas, L A

    1982-01-01

    Midway virus, a new tick-borne virus isolated from two species of Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) ticks of the capensis group (O capensis, O denmarki), is described from Midway, Kure, and Manana islands in the Central Pacific (Hawaiian Archipelago) and from northern Honshu (Japan). Midway virion is enveloped, unusually large, acid and temperature sensitive, and its type of nucleic acid is RNA. Complement-fixation (CF) tests show a close relation of Midway to Nyamanini virus, which has been isolated from ardeid birds and Argas ticks in Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Southeastern Asia. However, cross-box tests (CF, mouse and tissue culture neutralization, immunofluorescence) show that these two viruses are quite distinct. Midway virus is lethal for newborn Swiss mice inoculated by intracerebral, but not intraperitoneal route. It fails to kill four-week-old mice by either route. Midway virus causes cytopathic effects in BHK-21 cells and titerable plaques in Vero cells. Antibodies to it were prevalent among nestlings of Larus crassirostris (Black-tailed Gull) on Aomatsushima I., but were scarce among those of Nycticorax nycticorax (Black-crowned Night Heron) of the same island. PMID:7153772

  4. [Rabies virus isolation in the salivary glands of insectivorous bats].

    PubMed

    Gury Dohmen, F; Beltrán, F

    2009-12-01

    This study determined the presence of the rabies virus in salivary glands, as well as its titre and antigenic characterisation and the level of exposure to the virus from contact between domestic animals and humans. Twenty-six positive brain samples were selected, 80% of which were from the Brazilian free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis, corresponding to the period 1999-2005. Antigenic characterisation was conducted on a panel of 19 monoclonal antibodies targeting the rabies virus nucleoprotein supplied by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta in the United States of America. The results revealed a high percentage of isolations in salivary glands (76.9%). Their average titres were compared in a batch of positive samples of brain and salivary glands, giving values of 4.75 and 3.81 respectively (expressed as log LD50/0.03 ml). The isolated viruses corresponded principally to variant 4 associated with T brasiliensis and variant 6 associated with the hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus, and the red bat, L. borealis, and their respective subvariants. The level of exposure in domestic animals and humans was 50% during the period under study. PMID:20462155

  5. Epigallocatechin Gallate Inactivates Clinical Isolates of Herpes Simplex Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Isaacs; Guang Y. Wen; Weimin Xu; Jun Hua Jia; Lisa Rohan; Christopher Corbo; Vincenzo Di Maggio; Edmund C. Jenkins; Sharon Hillier

    2008-01-01

    In the absence of a fully effective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine, topical microbicides represent an important strategy for preventing HSV transmission. ()-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (molecular weight, 458.4) is the primary catechin in green tea. The present study shows that EGCG has greater anti-HSV activity than other green tea catechins and inactivates multiple clinical isolates of HSV type 1 (HSV-1)

  6. Isolation and identification of African horsesickness virus from naturally infected dogs in Upper Egypt.

    PubMed Central

    Salama, S A; Dardiri, A H; Awad, F I; Soliman, A M; Amin, M M

    1981-01-01

    African horsesickness virus was isolated from blood samples of street dogs in Aswan Province in Arab Republic of Egypt. Of six isolated "dog strain" African horsesickness viruses, three viruses designated D2, D6 and D10 have been identified as type 9 African horsesickness virus. Methods of isolation, tissue culture adaptation, serological indentification and typing are described. Horses experimentally infected with dog viruses showed febrile reaction and characteristic clinical and pathological signs of African horsesickness. Reisolation of African horsesickness virus type 9 was achieved from the horses during serial passages. PMID:7337871

  7. Genetic characterization of H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from chickens in Indonesia in 2010.

    PubMed

    Nidom, Chairul A; Yamada, Shinya; Nidom, Reviany V; Rahmawati, Kadek; Alamudi, Muhamad Y; Kholik; Indrasari, Setyarina; Hayati, Ratnani S; Iwatsuki Horimoto, Kiyoko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2012-06-01

    Since 2003, highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have caused outbreaks among poultry in Indonesia every year, producing the highest number of human victims worldwide. However, little is known about the H5N1 influenza viruses that have been circulating there in recent years. We therefore conducted surveillance studies and isolated eight H5N1 viruses from chickens. Phylogenic analysis of their hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes revealed that all eight viruses belonged to clade 2.1.3. However, on the basis of nucleotide differences, these viruses could be divided into two groups. Other viruses genetically closely related to these two groups of viruses were all Indonesian isolates, suggesting that these new isolates have been evolving within Indonesia. Among these viruses, two distinct viruses circulated in the Kalimantan islands during the same season in 2010. Our data reveal the continued evolution of H5N1 viruses in Indonesia. PMID:22323117

  8. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: Isolation of Suppressed Measles Virus from Lymph Node Biopsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Horta-Barbosa; Rebecca Hamilton; Barbara Wittig; David A. Fuccillo; John L. Sever; Mina Lee Vernon

    1971-01-01

    Measles virus was isolated in mixed cultures of lymph node cells and HeLa cells. The agent was isolated by cocultivation from biopsy specimens of two of five patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The virus was identified by hemagglutination-inhibition, immunofluorescent, and neutralization tests. Biopsies from controls did not show evidence of measles virus.

  9. Performance characteristics of qualified cell lines for isolation and propagation of influenza viruses for vaccine manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Donis, Ruben O; Davis, C Todd; Foust, Angie; Hossain, M Jaber; Johnson, Adam; Klimov, Alexander; Loughlin, Rosette; Xu, Xiyan; Tsai, Theodore; Blayer, Simone; Trusheim, Heidi; Colegate, Tony; Fox, John; Taylor, Beverly; Hussain, Althaf; Barr, Ian; Baas, Chantal; Louwerens, Jaap; Geuns, Ed; Lee, Min-Shi; Venhuizen, Odewijk; Neumeier, Elisabeth; Ziegler, Thedi

    2014-11-12

    Cell culture is now available as a method for the production of influenza vaccines in addition to eggs. In accordance with currently accepted practice, viruses recommended as candidates for vaccine manufacture are isolated and propagated exclusively in hens' eggs prior to distribution to manufacturers. Candidate vaccine viruses isolated in cell culture are not available to support vaccine manufacturing in mammalian cell bioreactors so egg-derived viruses have to be used. Recently influenza A (H3N2) viruses have been difficult to isolate directly in eggs. As mitigation against this difficulty, and the possibility of no suitable egg-isolated candidate viruses being available, it is proposed to consider using mammalian cell lines for primary isolation of influenza viruses as candidates for vaccine production in egg and cell platforms. To investigate this possibility, we tested the antigenic stability of viruses isolated and propagated in cell lines qualified for influenza vaccine manufacture and subsequently investigated antigen yields of such viruses in these cell lines at pilot-scale. Twenty influenza A and B-positive, original clinical specimens were inoculated in three MDCK cell lines. The antigenicity of recovered viruses was tested by hemagglutination inhibition using ferret sera against contemporary vaccine viruses and the amino acid sequences of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase were determined. MDCK cell lines proved to be highly sensitive for virus isolation. Compared to the virus sequenced from the original specimen, viruses passaged three times in the MDCK lines showed up to 2 amino acid changes in the hemagglutinin. Antigenic stability was also established by hemagglutination inhibition titers comparable to those of the corresponding reference virus. Viruses isolated in any of the three MDCK lines grew reasonably well but variably in three MDCK cells and in VERO cells at pilot-scale. These results indicate that influenza viruses isolated in vaccine certified cell lines may well qualify for use in vaccine production. PMID:24975811

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Tomato Mosaic Virus Isolated from Jasmine in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fillmer, Kornelia; Adkins, Scott; Pongam, Patchara

    2015-01-01

    Tomato mosaic virus was reported from jasmine in Florida. We present the first complete genome sequence of a tomato mosaic virus isolate from this woody perennial plant in the United States. PMID:26159525

  11. Divergence and Recombination of Clinical Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Norberg; Mabula J. Kasubi; Lars Haarr; Tomas Bergstrom; Jan-Åke Liljeqvist

    2007-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and is one of the most common sexually transmitted viruses. Here we sequenced a segment comprising 3.5% of the HSV-2 genome, including genes coding for glycoproteins G, I, and E, from 27 clinical isolates from Tanzania, 10 isolates from Norway, and 10 isolates from Sweden. The sequence variation was low

  12. Diversity Among Potato virus Y Isolates Obtained from Potatoes Grown in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Piche; R. P. Singh; X. Nie; N. C. Gudmestad

    2004-01-01

    Piche, L. M., Singh, R. P., Nie, X., and Gudmestad, N. C. 2004. Diversity among Potato virus Y isolates obtained from potatoes grown in the United States. Phytopathology 94:1368-1375. Potato field isolates (Solanum tuberosum) of Potato virus Y (PVY) collected from the midwestern and western United States were charac- terized using serological, molecular, and biological assays. PVY field isolates were

  13. Application of the "best fit" pathotyping assay for evaluation of Russian isolates of Marek's disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the validity of the "best fit" pathotyping assay for testing of field isolates of Marek's disease (MD) virus. Twenty serotype 1 MD viruses were isolated from breeder and commercial flocks in 8 regions of the Russian Federation. These isolates were pat...

  14. PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS ISOLATES FROM CITRUS AND GRAPEVINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Paradies; M. Finetti Sialer; D. Gallitelli; M. A. Castellano; A. Di Franco; M. Digiaro; G. P. Martelli; M. A. Yilmaz

    SUMMARY Three mechanically transmissible viruses recovered from grapevine (isolate YA200) and lemon (isolate L43) in Turkey and from sweet orange (isolate OR) in Italy, were identified as new strains in the subgroup IA of Cu- cumber mosaic virus (CMV). Particle morphology, elec- trophoretic pattern of viral nucleic acids, molecular hy- bridization with CMV-specific riboprobes, and reac- tions of experimental test

  15. Cedar Virus: A Novel Henipavirus Isolated from Australian Bats

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Jennifer A.; Tachedjian, Mary; Smith, Craig; Middleton, Deborah; Yu, Meng; Todd, Shawn; Foord, Adam J.; Haring, Volker; Payne, Jean; Robinson, Rachel; Broz, Ivano; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E.; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2012-01-01

    The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV), which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt) and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin- B2) for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-? response than HeV. PMID:22879820

  16. Genomic characterization of pseudorabies virus strains isolated in Italy.

    PubMed

    Sozzi, E; Moreno, A; Lelli, D; Cinotti, S; Alborali, G L; Nigrelli, A; Luppi, A; Bresaola, M; Catella, A; Cordioli, P

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we undertook the genomic characterization of 54 pseudorabies virus (PRV) strains isolated in Italy during 1984-2010. The characterization was based on partial sequencing of the UL44 (gC) and US8 (gE) genes; 44 strains (38 for gene gE and 36 for gC) were isolated on pig farms; 9 originated from dogs and 1 from cattle. These porcine PRV strains, which were closely related to those isolated in Europe and America in the last 20 years, and the bovine strain bovine/It/2441/1992 belong to cluster B in both phylogenetic trees. Six porcine strains that do not belong to cluster B are related in both gE and gC phylogenetic trees to the 'old' porcine PRV strains isolated in the 1970s and 1980s. In the last two decades, the presence of these strains in domestic pig populations has been reduced drastically, whereas they are prevalent in wild boar. The two remaining strains have an interesting genomic profile, characterized by the gC gene being closely related to the old porcine PRV strains, and the gE gene being similar to that of recently isolated strains. Three strains originating from working dogs on pig farms are located in cluster B in both phylogenetic trees. Five strains isolated from hunting dogs have a high degree of correlation with PRV strains circulating in wild boar. The last isolate has a gC gene similar to that in the two porcine strains mentioned previously, and the gE gene is correlated with the strains isolated from hunting dogs. These results provide interesting insight into the genomic characterization of PRV strains and reveal a clear differentiation between the strains isolated from hunting dogs that are related to the wild boar strains and those originating from domestic pigs. PMID:23331342

  17. Endogenous mink (Mustela vison) type C virus isolated from sarcoma virus-transformed mink cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sherr, C J; Benveniste, R E; Todaro, G J

    1978-01-01

    A previously described type virus stock (designated PP-1R), isolated by cocultivating baboon cells with mink cells transformed by Kirsten sarcoma virus (64J1), has been further cloned and characterized. End point-diluted stocks of PP-1R have been obtained that are free of focus-forming activity and lack both Kirsten sarcoma and primate type C viral sequences. Nucleic acid hybridization experiments show that the cloned virus (MiLV) is an endogenous, genetically transmitted virus of the mink (Mustela vison). MiLV replicates in canine, feline, and 64J1 mink cells but not in an untransformed mink cell line. Multiple viral gene copies can be detected in the DNA of normal mink cells in culture and in normal mink tissues; related endogenous viral genes are also detected in several related Mustela species. The virus codes for a p30 protein very closely related antigenically to that of feline leukemia virus but contains p15 and p12 proteins that are antigenically distinct. The mink cell line, Mv1Lu, and its Kirsten sarcoma-transformed derivatives, 64J1, express relatively low levels of type C viral RNA related to MiLV and normally do not produce detectable levels of MiLV p30 protein or complete, infectious viral particles. Infection of sarcoma virus-transformed mink cells with baboon type C virus, however, can augment the level of expression of endogenous mink viral RNA and can result in the synthesis and packaging of mink viral RNA and p30 antigen in extracellular virions. Since the Mv1Lu cell line and its tranformed derivatives have become widely used in studies of retroviruses, the possibility of activating endogenous mink viral genes should be considered by investigators working with these cells. PMID:76684

  18. Sequence diversity and interrelationships among isolates of satsuma dwarf-related viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Iwanami; Y. Kondo; M. Kobayashi; S. S. Han; A. V. Karasev

    2001-01-01

    Summary.  ?The 3?-region of RNA2 of three viruses {Natsudaidai dwarf virus (isolate ND-1), and two unidentified isolates (LB-1, Az-1)},\\u000a which were related to Satsuma dwarf virus (SDV), were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis including the previously reported SDV-related\\u000a viruses {Citrus mosaic virus (CiMV, Ci-968), Navel orange infectious mottling virus (NIMV, NI-1)} showed that they were classified\\u000a into three groups, SDV (S-58), CiMV (Ci-968,

  19. Molecular characterization of Indian sugarcane streak mosaic virus isolate.

    PubMed

    Parameswari, B; Bagyalakshmi, K; Viswanathan, R; Chinnaraja, C

    2013-02-01

    Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV), a member of the genus Poacevirus, family Potyviridae, is an important viral pathogen affecting sugarcane cultivation in India. The complete nucleotide sequence of a SCSMV isolate from India (SCSMV-IND) was determined. The linear, assembled, single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of SCSMV-IND was 9,786 nucleotides in length (excluding the poly (A) tail) and encoded a polyprotein of 3,131 amino acid residues. The genome of SCSMV-IND shared high degree of sequence identity with SCSMV-PAK (93 % at nucleotide and 97 % at amino acid), and shared only 81 % nucleotide and 94 % amino acid identities with all the four SCSMV isolates (SCSMV-JP1, -JP2, -ID, and -THA). Phylogenetic tree analysis of the complete genome sequences of SCSMV isolates revealed that they can be clustered into two groups. SCSMV-IND and -AP isolates showed 18 % (nucleotide) divergence within the highly conserved 3' partial genome, suggesting a high level of genetic diversity among the Indian SCSMV isolates. PMID:23011777

  20. First Isolation of a Giant Virus from Wild Hirudo medicinalis Leech: Mimiviridae isolation in Hirudo medicinalis

    PubMed Central

    Boughalmi, Mondher; Pagnier, Isabelle; Aherfi, Sarah; Colson, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Giant viruses and amoebae are common in freshwater, where they can coexist with other living multicellular organisms. We screened leeches from the species Hirudo medicinalis for giant viruses. We analyzed five H. medicinalis obtained from Tunisia (3) and France (2). The leeches were decontaminated and then dissected to remove internal parts for co-culture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga. The genomes of isolated viruses were sequenced on a 454 Roche instrument, and a comparative genomics analysis was performed. One Mimivirus was isolated and the strain was named Hirudovirus. The genome assembly generated two scaffolds, which were 1,155,382 and 25,660 base pairs in length. Functional annotations were identified for 47% of the genes, which corresponds to 466 proteins. The presence of Mimividae in the same ecological niche as wild Hirudo may explain the presence of the mimivirus in the digestive tract of the leech, and several studies have already shown that viruses can persist in the digestive tracts of leeches fed contaminated blood. As leeches can be used medically and Mimiviruses have the potential to be an infectious agent in humans, patients treated with leeches should be surveyed to investigate a possible connection. PMID:24287596

  1. Isolation of H9N2 avian influenza virus from bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Zoghby, Elham F; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Hassan, Mohamed K; Aly, Mona M; Selim, Abdullah; Kilany, Walid H; Selim, Usama; Nasef, Soad; Aggor, Mohamed G; Abdelwhab, E M; Hafez, Hafez M

    2012-06-01

    This study describes the first isolation of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) from commercial bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) in Egypt. Infected birds showed neither clinical signs nor mortality. Virus isolation and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of the H9N2 virus in cloacal swab samples collected at 35 days of age and the absence of other AIV subtypes, including H5 and H7. The hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the isolated virus showed 99.1% and 98.2% nucleotide identity and 97.3% and 100% amino acid identity, respectively, to those of H9N2 viruses currently circulating in poultry in the Middle East. Phylogenetically, the Egyptian H9N2 virus was closely related to viruses of the G1-like lineage isolated from neighbouring countries, indicating possible epidemiological links. PMID:22426861

  2. Isolation of Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus from a Horse with Neurological Disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Roberta; Costa, Erica Azevedo; Marques, Rafael Elias; Oliveira, Taismara Simas; Furtini, Ronaldo; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Renato Lima

    2013-01-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a causative agent of encephalitis in humans in the Western hemisphere. SLEV is a positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Flavivirus genus, which includes West Nile encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Dengue virus and other medically important viruses. Recently, we isolated a SLEV strain from the brain of a horse with neurological signs in the countryside of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The SLEV isolation was confirmed by reverse-transcription RT-PCR and sequencing of the E protein gene. Virus identity was also confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence using commercial antibodies against SLEV. To characterize this newly isolated strain in vivo, serial passages in newborn mice were performed and led to hemorrhagic manifestations associated with recruitment of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system of newborns. In summary this is the first isolation of SLEV from a horse with neurological signs in Brazil. PMID:24278489

  3. Characterisation of potato virus Y isolates from Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Atefe; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Varsani, Arvind

    2011-02-01

    A survey of Potato virus Y (PVY) was conducted in cultivated fields in six Iranian provinces between January 2005 to July 2007. Two hundred samples from potato and tomato were collected and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for potyviruses. Almost one fourth of the samples were found to be infected by PVY. Analysis of these PVY-positive samples using three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) facilitating the simultaneous detection of three main strains namely the ordinary (PVY(O)), strain (PVY(N)) and C (PVY(C)) strains. However, the fourth strain (PVY(NTN)) and some others recombinant isolates were also identified by molecular methods. Host range and symptoms analysis using sap inoculation of four different strains of PVY onto a range of plants revealed that the four strains showed biological properties that seemed to be consistent with their molecular grouping. Fourteen isolates of PVY were chosen based on the host and geographical location, primer specificity and serology for further biological and molecular characterisation. The coat protein (CP) and P1 genes and 3'-non-translated region (3'NTR) from 14 representative isolates were sequenced and analysed with the sequences available in GenBank. Composite analysis of the P1, CP and 3'-UTR sequences with all full genome sequences of PVY revealed that there are three potential strains of PVY in Iran, PVY(O), PVY(N)-W and PVY(NTN). Isolate KER.SA(N) was the most divergent of all the 14 isolates reacted with PVY(N) specific MAbs but grouped with PVY(O) strains in maximum likelihood phylogentic analysis. The PVY(NTN) isolates from Iran more closely related to the European than North American PVY(NTN) isolates. PMID:21082231

  4. The classification of new serotypes of infectious bronchitis virus isolated from poultry flocks in Britain between 1981 and 1983

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane K. A. Cook

    1984-01-01

    Between 1981 and 1983 10 isolations of infectious bronchitis (IB) virus were made from broiler chickens with respiratory infection and five from breeder chickens showing aberrant egg production. One isolate was serologically similar to an IB virus isolated in England in 1976; the remainder were related to three of the four serotypes of IB virus first isolated in The Netherlands

  5. Isolation and partial characterisation of a new strain of Ebola We have isolated a new strain of Ebola virus from a non-

    E-print Network

    1271 Isolation and partial characterisation of a new strain of Ebola virus Summary We have isolated a new strain of Ebola virus from a non- fatal human case infected during the autopsy of a wild about the natural reservoir of the Ebola virus. Lancet 1995; 345: 1271-74 Introduction Ebola virus

  6. [Changes in the properties of the vaccinia virus isolated in postvaccinal encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Vilesova, I S; Gurvich, E B; Dzagurov, S G; Grigor'eva, L V; Abel, H

    1985-01-01

    Properties of 6 isolates of vaccinia virus isolated from the brain and cerebrospinal fluid in postvaccination encephalitis were studied in comparison with 2 production strains of vaccinia virus with which the children had been vaccinated. Significant differences were found between the strains isolated in postvaccination encephalitis and reference virus strains. The plaques produced by the isolates from brain and CSF were larger (and in some isolates had a hemorrhagic pattern). The isolates were highly pathogenic for chick embryos, reproduced more actively in cells of the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos at higher temperature of incubation (40 degrees C), more intensively accumulated in the liver and brain of chick embryos at 37 degrees C and 40 degrees C, produced more intensive lesions and necroses in rabbit skin. The isolates were markedly thermostable at 56 degrees C and insensitive to interferon. It is suggested that the increased pathogenicity of the virus is manifested in the presence of altered immune responsiveness of the host. PMID:2865855

  7. Isolation and identification of citrus psorosis virus Egyptian isolate (CPsV-EG).

    PubMed

    Ghazal, S A; El-Dougdoug, Kh A; Mousa, A A; Fahmy, H; Sofy, A R

    2008-01-01

    Citrus psorosis ophiovirus (CPsV), is considered to be of the most serious and deter mental virus pathogen's citrus species trees in Egypt. CPsV-EG was isolated from infected citrus grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.) at Agric. Res. Centre (ARC). The grapefruit which used for CPsV-EG isolate was found to be free from CTV, CEVd and Spiroplasma citri where as gave -ve results with DTBIA, tissue print hybridization and Diene's stain respectively. CPsV-EG was detected on the basis of biological indexing by graft inoculation which gave oak leaf pattern (OLP) on Dweet tangor and serological assay by DAS-ELISA using Mab specific CPsV. CPsV-EG was reacted with variable responses on 16 host plants belonging to 6 families. Only 8 host plants are susceptible and showed visible external symptoms which appeared as local, systemic and local followed by systemic infections. CPsV-EG isolate was transmitted from infected citrus to citrus by syringe and grafting and herbaceous plants by forefinger inoculation and syringe. The woody indicators and rootstocks were differed in response to CPsV-EG isolate which appeared as no-response, response, sensitivity and hypersensitivity. The serological characters represented as the antigenic determinants of CPsV-EG isolate related to monoclonal antibodies specific CPsV strain where as appeared precipitation reaction by DAS-ELISA and DTBIA. The partial fragment of RNA3 (coat protein gene) of CPsV-EG (-1140bp and -571bp) was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from grapefruit tissues using two sets primers specific CPsV (CPV3 and CPV4) and (PS66 and PS65) respectively. The virus under study was identified as CPsV-EG isolate according to biological, serological and molecular characters. PMID:19226765

  8. Purification, Identity and Some Properties of An Isolate of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus from Indiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hammond; R. M. Lister; J. E. Foster

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Methods were developed for preparing an Indiana isolate of barley yellow dwarf virus in amounts (1 to 2 mg\\/kg) and purity comparable to those recently achieved with other luteoviruses. Choice of host, and environmental conditions, period of infection and tissue used were critical factors for virus production. Aphid transmission, serological tests, and other properties defined the isolate as 'PAV-like'

  9. Identification of a strain of infectious bursal disease virus isolated from mosquitoes.

    PubMed Central

    Howie, R I; Thorsen, J

    1981-01-01

    The Becht strain of infectious bursal disease virus was compared with a virus isolated from Aedes vexans mosquitoes and designed 743 virus. The viruses were compared with respect to cell culture host range, cellular changes resulting from viral infections, growth curves, antigenic relationship, and physicochemical characteristics. The viruses are closely comparable in all these properties, and they are considered to be strains of the same virus. In cross comparisons by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 743 virus and infectious bursal disease virus were found to be antigenically identical, confirming the results of the neutralization test. The 743 virus differs from most strains of infectious bursal disease virus in that it is nonpathogenic for chickens. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:6280817

  10. Properties of a citrus isolate of olive latent virus 1, a new necrovirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Martelli; M. A. Yilmaz; V. Savino; S. Baloglu; F. Grieco; M. E. Güldür; N. Greco; R. Lafortezza

    1996-01-01

    A virus was recovered by sap transmission from plants of several citrus species exhibiting or not symptoms of chlorotic dwarf (CCD), a disease recently reported from Eastern Mediterranean Turkey. The virus was identified as an isolate of olive latent virus 1 (OLV-1), originally described as a possible sobemovirus. The citrus isolate of OLV-1 (OLV-1\\/Tk) possesses biological, morphological, physico-chemical, and ultrastructural

  11. Isolation of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from goats in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Daltabuit Test, M; de la Concha-Bermejillo, A; Espinosa, L E; Loza Rubio, E; Aguilar Setién, A

    1999-01-01

    A lentivirus was isolated from 2 goats in Mexico that were seropositive to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The lentivirus was identified as CAEV by the observation of giant multinucleated cells (syncytia) in goat synovial membrane (GSM) monolayers co-cultivated with blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from the seropositive goats, and by amplifying a DNA segment of the CAEV gag gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Subsequently, cell supernatants from the GSM cells co-cultivated with BMN cells were used to infect 2 CAEV-seronegative goats. These goats seroconverted to CAEV as determined by the AGID test, and CAEV was re-isolated from these goats. One of the goats developed polyarthritis 8 mo after inoculation. Previous serological surveys indicate that infection with CAEV is prevalent among goats in Mexico. To our knowledge this is the first report of CAEV isolation in Mexico. Because of globalization of markets and increased trading among nations, the rapid identification and reporting of diseases such as CAEV are important to prevent the dissemination of these diseases. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10480464

  12. Genetic Transformation of Citrus paradisi with Antisense and Untranslatable RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Genes of Citrus tristeza closterovirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard F. LEE; Charles L. NIBLETT

    Protein and RNA-mediated forms of pathogen-derived resistance (PDR) have been developed against many viruses in different plants. However, no resistance has been reported against Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a closterovirus, in Citrus species transformed with coat protein genes or other sequences of CTV. The successful use of replication-associated genes in RNA-mediated resistance in other crops prompted the use of the

  13. Genetic diversity of the attachment (H) protein gene of current field isolates of canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Bolt, G; Jensen, T D; Gottschalck, E; Arctander, P; Appel, M J; Buckland, R; Blixenkrone-Møller, M

    1997-02-01

    To characterize the variability of recent field isolates of canine distemper virus (CDV) from different hosts and geographical areas, we conducted nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene encoding the haemagglutinin (H), the attachment protein of this virus. Pronounced differences between field isolates were revealed in comparison to the Convac and Onderstepoort vaccine strains. The diversity of CDV appeared to exceed that determined for measles virus. Phylogenetic analysis also separated the field isolates of CDV from the vaccine strains and provided evidence for the existence of different contemporary genotypes of CDV. Isolates from a Greenlandic sledge dog and a Siberian seal formed a distinct lineage. The remaining isolates formed a group. This group contained two European isolates from mink and ferret, a single lineage comprising three European dog isolates, and another separate lineage of North American isolates from dog, javelina, raccoon and captive leopards. PMID:9018059

  14. The use of chicken tracheal organ cultures for the isolation and assay of avian infectious bronchitis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane K. A. Cook; J. H. Darbyshire; R. W. Peters

    1976-01-01

    Summary A study has been made of the use of chicken tracheal organ cultures for the isolation and assay of avian infectious bronchitis (AIB) virus from both naturally and experimentally infected chickens. Six strains of AIB virus were investigated, 3 of which had been isolated from natural outbreaks of disease. Two of the virus isolations from the outbreaks of AIB

  15. Genetic characterisation of infectious bursal disease virus isolates in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jenberie, Shiferaw; Lynch, Stacey E.; Kebede, Fekadu; Christley, Robert M.; Gelaye, Esayas; Negussie, Haileleul; Asmare, Kassahun; Ayelet, Gelagay

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to characterise infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDV) circulating in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia between 2009 and 2011. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence for VP2 hypervariable region of ten IBDVs were determined by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to well characterised IBDV isolates worldwide. IBDV genetic material was amplified directly from bursa or cell passaged material. Phylogenetically, Ethiopian IBDVs represented two genetic lineages: very virulent (vv) IBDVs or variants of the classical attenuated vaccine strain (D78). The nucleotide identity between Ethiopian vvIBDVs ranged between 0% and 2.6%. Ethiopian vvIBDVs are clustered phylogenetically with the African IBDV genetic lineage, independent of the Asian/European lineage. This report demonstrates the circulation of vvIBDV in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia. PMID:24145155

  16. Genetic characterization of Aleutian mink disease viruses isolated in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwu; Huang, Juan; Jia, Yun; Du, Yijun; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Rui

    2012-08-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a parvovirus that causes an immune complex mediated disease in minks. To understand the genetic characterization of AMDV in China, the genomic sequences of three isolates, ADV-LN1, ADV-LN2, and ADV-LN3, from different farms in the Northern China were analyzed. The results showed that the lengths of genomic sequences of three isolates were 4,543, 4,566, and 4,566 bp, respectively. They shared only 95.5-96.3 % nucleotide identity with each other. The nucleotide and amino acid homology of genome sequence between the Chinese isolates and European or American strains (ADV-G, ADV-Utah1, and ADV-SL3) were 92.4-95.0 % and 92.1-93.8 %, respectively. The amino acid substitutions randomly distributed in the genome, especially NS gene. ADV-LN1 strain had a 9-amino-acid deletion at amino acid positions 70 and 72-79 in the VP1 gene, comparing with ADV-G strain; ADV-LN2 and ADV-LN3 strains had 1-amino-acid deletion at amino acid positions 70 in the VP1. Some potential glycosylation site mutations in VP and NS genes were also observed. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that the three strains belonged to two different branches based on the complete coding sequence of VP2 gene. However, they all were in the same group together with the strains from United States based on the NS1 sequence. It indicated that Chinese AMDV isolates had genetic diversity. The origin of the ancestors of the Chinese AMDV strains might be associated with the American strains. PMID:22415541

  17. The complete sequence of the genomic RNA of an isolate of Lily virus X (genus Potexvirus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Chen; Y.-H. Shi; M. J. Adams; J.-P. Chen

    2005-01-01

    Summary. The complete sequence of the genomic RNA of an isolate of Lily virus X (LVX) has been determined for the first time. The isolate from the Netherlands was 5823 nucleotide (nt) long excluding the 3'-poly(A) tail, making it the shortest reported potexvirus sequence. The 5'-non-coding region begins with GGAAAA like that of Scallion virus X (ScaVX) and some isolates

  18. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction method for reliable, sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple viruses in citrus trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avijit Roy; Amer Fayad; G. Barthe; R. H. Brlansky

    2005-01-01

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay was developed to detect six RNA and one DNA citrus virus: Citrus leaf rugose virus (CLRV), Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV), Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), Citrus variegation virus (CVV), Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV), and Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) from citrus plants. These seven viruses are classified in

  19. Genetic characterization of rabies viruses isolated from frugivorous bat (Artibeus spp.) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Youko; Kobayashi, Yuki; Sato, Go; Itou, Takuya; Miura, Yasuo; Mikami, Takeshi; Cunha, Elenice M S; Samara, Samir I; Carvalho, Adlorata A B; Nocitti, Darci P; Ito, Fumio H; Kurane, Ichiro; Sakai, Takeo

    2004-10-01

    In Latin America, rabies cases related to frugivorous bats have been reported since 1930's. Recently, two viruses isolated from Artibeus lituratus were proved to be vampire bat variants by monoclonal antibodies panels [2], but their genetic information is not well known. In this report, four rabies viruses were isolated from frugivorous bats (Artibeus spp.) in Brazil and their nucleoprotein gene sequences were determined. These isolates were found to be genotype 1 of lyssavirus and showed the maximum nucleotide sequence homology of 97.6-99.4% with vampire bat-related viruses in Brazil [6]. These results indicate that the Brazilian frugivorous bat rabies viruses in this study are closely related to vampire bat-related viruses that play a main role in rabies virus transmission to livestock in Brazil. PMID:15528863

  20. Rabies virus isolates of India - simultaneous existence of two distinct evolutionary lineages.

    PubMed

    Reddy, R V Chandrasekhar; Mohana Subramanian, B; Surendra, K S N L; Babu, R P Aravindh; Rana, S K; Manjari, K Sunitha; Srinivasan, V A

    2014-10-01

    Rabies is a fatal viral disease of serious public health implication. The disease is enzootic in India. In the present study, thirty six rabies virus isolates were obtained from terrestrial mammals of India during 2002-2012. Ecto-domain coding region of the glycoprotein gene from all the isolates were sequenced and the phylogenetic analysis was performed in relation to the global rabies and rabies related virus isolates. The Indian isolates grouped into two distinctly separate lineages with majority of the Indian isolates in Arctic like 1 lineage and the remaining isolates in sub-continental lineage. Isolates of the two distinct lineages were identified simultaneously from the same geographical region. Time scaled phylogenetic tree indicated that the sub-continental lineage of the virus is one of the earliest clade of rabies virus that diverged from bat rabies virus. On the contrary, the Arctic-like 1 lineage of India appeared to be a more recent divergence event. The amino acid sequence comparison revealed that all the major antigenic sites were almost conserved among the Indian isolates whereas few amino acid variations could be identified around site IIa, minor site I and IV. The dN/dS study based on G ecto-domain is in support of the earlier reports of strong purifying selection. In conclusion, it is evident that the Indian rabies virus isolates are of two major distinct lineages with distant phylogenetic and evolutionary relationship. PMID:25077994

  1. Sequence diversity and interrelationships among isolates of satsuma dwarf-related viruses.

    PubMed

    Iwanami, T; Kondo, Y; Kobayashi, M; Han, S S; Karasev, A V

    2001-01-01

    The 3'-region of RNA2 of three viruses (Natsudaidai dwarf virus (isolate ND-1), and two unidentified isolates (LB-1, Az-1)), which were related to Satsuma dwarf virus (SDV), were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis including the previously reported SDV-related viruses (Citrus mosaic virus (CiMV, Ci-968), Navel orange infectious mottling virus (NIMV, NI-1)) showed that they were classified into three groups, SDV (S-58), CiMV (Ci-968, LB-1, Az-1, ND-1), and NIMV (NI-1). The results suggested these groups might correspond to the three distinct virus species. ND-1, LB-1, and Az-1 were considered strains of CiMV, although they do not induce citrus mosaic on the fruit rind. PMID:11402866

  2. Adaptive evolution of simian immunodeficiency viruses isolated from two conventional progressor macaques with neuroaids

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Brian T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques may result in neuroAIDS, a feature more commonly observed in macaques with rapid progressive disease than in those with conventional disease. This is the first report of two conventional progressors (H631 and H636) with encephalitis in rhesus macaques inoculated with a derivative of SIVsmES43-3. Phylogenetic analyses of viruses isolated from the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from both animals demonstrated tissue compartmentalization. Additionally, virus from the central nervous system (CNS) was able to infect primary macaque monocyte-derived macrophages more efficiently than virus from plasma. Conversely, virus isolated from plasma was able to replicate better in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than virus from CNS. We speculate that these viruses were under different selective pressures in their separate compartments. Furthermore, these viruses appear to have undergone adaptive evolution to preferentially replicate in their respective cell targets. Analysis of the number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) in gp160 showed that there was a statistically significant loss of PNGS in viruses isolated from CNS in both macaques compared to SIVsmE543-3. Moreover, virus isolated from the brain in H631, had statistically significant loss of PNGS compared to virus isolated from CSF and plasma of the same animal. It is possible that the brain isolate may have adapted to decrease the number of PNGS given that humoral immune selection pressure is less likely to be encountered in the brain. These viruses provide a relevant model to study the adaptations required for SIV to induce encephalitis.

  3. Characterization of swine infertility and respiratory syndrome (SIRS) virus (isolate ATCC VR-2332).

    PubMed

    Benfield, D A; Nelson, E; Collins, J E; Harris, L; Goyal, S M; Robison, D; Christianson, W T; Morrison, R B; Gorcyca, D; Chladek, D

    1992-04-01

    The characterization of an isolate of swine infertility and respiratory syndrome (SIRS) virus (ATCC VR-2332) is reported. A commercial cell line (CL2621) was used for the propagation of the virus for all assays. Laboratory studies indicate that this isolate is a fastidious, nonhemagglutinating, enveloped RNA virus. Cesium chloride-purified virions visualized by electron microscopy were spherical particles with an average diameter of 62 nm (range: 48-83 nm) and a 25-30 nm core surrounded by an envelope. Virus replication was restricted to the cytoplasm, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. The virus did not react serologically with antisera to several common porcine viruses or with antisera to known viruses in the alphavirus, rubivirus, pestivirus, and ungrouped lactic dehydrogenase virus genera of the Togaviridae. However, convalescent sow sera and rabbit hyperimmune sera neutralized the SIRS virus at titers of 1:256 and 1:512, respectively. The virus was stable at 4 and -70 C, but was labile at 37 and 56 C. The properties of this isolate of SIRS virus resemble those of the family Togaviridae but do not match the described genera. PMID:1616976

  4. Novel Influenza A Viruses Isolated from Canadian Feral Ducks: Including Strains Antigenically Related to Swine Influenza (Hsw1N1) Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Hinshaw; R. G. Webster; B. TURNERt

    1978-01-01

    SUMMARY Twelve influenza A viruses, antigenically related to the Ho, HI and Hswl subtypes, were isolated from cloacal samples of feral ducks in Canada. Antigenic comparisons showed that these viruses were most closely related to the recent HswINI isolates from man and pigs, whereas in vivo pathogenicity tests revealed differences between the HswINl viruses from the ducks and those from

  5. Characterisation of influenza a viruses isolated from turkeys in england during March?May 1979

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Alexander; D. Spackman

    1981-01-01

    During the early spring of 1979 turkeys on at least twelve sites in England became infected with influenza A viruses. On five of these sites no virus was isolated but birds were shown to have antibodies to Havl (four sites) and Hav2 antigenic subtypes of influenza A viruses. The eight viruses isolated were typed:A\\/turkey\\/England\\/192–328\\/79 (Havl Nav2\\/3), A\\/turkey\\/England\\/192–329\\/79 (Hav1 N2), A\\/turkey\\/England\\/199\\/79

  6. Avian influenza virus isolation, propagation and titration in embryonated chicken eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) virus is usually isolated, propagated, and titrated in embryonated chickens eggs (ECE). Most any sample type can be accommodated for culture with appropriate processing. Isolation may also be accomplished in cell culture particularly if mammalian lineage isolates are suspected, ...

  7. PATHOGENESIS OF CHICKEN-PASSAGED NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUSES ISOLATED FROM CHICKENS, WILD, AND EXOTIC BIRDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenesis of six Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from chickens and wild (anhinga) and exotic (yellow nape parrot, pheasant, and dove isolate) birds was examined after four passages of the isolates in domestic chickens. Groups of four-week-old specific-pathogen-free White Legh...

  8. Pseudorecombinants between Cloned DNAs of Two Isolates of Cassava Latent Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Townsend; S. J. Curson

    1985-01-01

    SUMMARY Infective clones of the Nigerian isolate of cassava latent virus (CLV) have been obtained. The apparent molecular weight of the capsid protein of this isolate is slightly higher than that produced in plants infected with cloned DNAs of the Kenyan isolate of CLV. Pseudorecombinant experiments using heterologous combinations of cloned DNAs have confirmed that the physical properties of the

  9. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction method for reliable, sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple viruses in citrus trees.

    PubMed

    Roy, Avijit; Fayad, Amer; Barthe, G; Brlansky, R H

    2005-10-01

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay was developed to detect six RNA and one DNA citrus virus: Citrus leaf rugose virus (CLRV), Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV), Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), Citrus variegation virus (CVV), Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV), and Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) from citrus plants. These seven viruses are classified in six different virus genera. Degenerate primers were designed based on the respective virus isolate sequence data available from the GenBank and were used for reliable detection of the different viruses by simplex- and mPCR. The sensitive and simultaneous detection of RNA and DNA viruses using the mPCR decreases the risk of contamination, saves time and reduces the cost as compared to other conventional methods for citrus virus detection. Seven different fragments (245-942 bp) specific to the viruses were simultaneously amplified using mPCR and were identified on the basis of their molecular sizes. The consistent results of the mPCR were compared with simplex PCR for detection of each virus pathogen. The mPCR results were confirmed with sequencing analysis. The mPCR provides a useful rapid method for detecting multiple viruses in citrus plants that will aid in the production of virus-free citrus plants for certification programs. PMID:15951030

  10. VIRULENCE OF HETEROGENEOUS-ORIGIN NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS ISOLATES BEFORE AND AFTER SEQUENTIAL PASSAGES IN DOMESTIC CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four serial passages of six Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates were performed in 2-week-old White Leghorns. The viruses were recovered from chickens (Ckn-Live Bird Market and Ckn-Australia isolates), exotic (Yellow Nape [YN] Parrot, Pheasant, and Dove isolates) and wild birds (Anhinga isolate). ...

  11. Nucleotide sequence analysis of virus isolates indicates the presence of three potyvirus species in Allium plants.

    PubMed

    Tsuneyoshi, T; Matsumi, T; Natsuaki, K T; Sumi, S

    1998-01-01

    cDNAs of potyviruses from Allium plants cultivated in different parts of the world were cloned by RT-PCR with a common primer for amplifying the 3' terminal genomic RNAs of onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV) and, probably, of closely related potyviruses. Their nucleotide sequences bearing the viral coat protein (CP) gene and the 3' non-coding sequence were determined and compared. The degree of their sequence similarities clearly differentiated the respective viruses into 3 groups, namely OYDV "garlic-type", "wakegi-type" and LYSV group. The "garlic-type" included all the garlic isolates and two Indonesian shallot isolates. The "wakegi-type" group consisted of the isolates from Indonesian shallot and previously reported ones from Japanese Allium plants excluding garlic. The LYSV group was represented by LYSV isolates from garlic and leek. The CP sequences of LYSV group viruses differed from those of OYDV "garlic-type" and "wakegi-type" viruses (less than 60% similarities). In contrast, the sequence similarities between the OYDV "wakegi-type" and "garlic-type" isolates were 73.5 to 76.7%, suggesting they were closely related but should be discriminated as distinct species. These findings indicate that at least three distinct potyviruses, clearly distinguishable by the viral CP sequence, are present in Allium species. Finally, we concluded that the "garlic-type" viruses correspond to the typical OYDV and the "wakegi-type" viruses represent the viruses previously identified as Welsh onion yellow stripe virus (WoYSV) and shallot yellow stripe virus (SYSV). We propose the name wakegi yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) for the "wakegi-type" viruses. PMID:9505969

  12. Macrophage Tropism of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates from Brain and Lymphoid Tissues Predicts Neurotropism Independent of Coreceptor Specificity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL R. GORRY; GREG BRISTOL; JEROME A. ZACK; KIMBERLY RITOLA; RONALD SWANSTROM; CHRIS J. BIRCH; JEANNE E. BELL; NORBERT BANNERT; KEITH CRAWFORD; HUI WANG; DOMINIQUE SCHOLS; ERIK DE CLERCQ; KEVIN KUNSTMAN; STEVEN M. WOLINSKY; DANA GABUZDA

    2001-01-01

    The viral determinants that underlie human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neurotropism are unknown, due in part to limited studies on viruses isolated from brain. Previous studies suggest that brain- derived viruses are macrophage tropic (M-tropic) and principally use CCR5 for virus entry. To better understand HIV-1 neurotropism, we isolated primary viruses from autopsy brain, cerebral spinal fluid, blood, spleen,

  13. Isolation of Tacaribe Virus, a Caribbean Arenavirus, from Host-Seeking Amblyomma americanum Ticks in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Sayler, Katherine A.; Barbet, Anthony F.; Chamberlain, Casey; Clapp, William L.; Alleman, Rick; Loeb, Julia C.; Lednicky, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Arenaviridae are a family of single stranded RNA viruses of mammals and boid snakes. Twenty-nine distinct mammalian arenaviruses have been identified, many of which cause severe hemorrhagic disease in humans, particularly in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and in Central and South America. Humans typically become infected with an arenavirus through contact with excreta from infected rodents. Tacaribe virus (TCRV) is an arenavirus that was first isolated from bats and mosquitoes during a rabies surveillance survey conducted in Trinidad from 1956 to 1958. Tacaribe virus is unusual because it has never been associated with a rodent host and since that one time isolation, the virus has not been isolated from any vertebrate or invertebrate hosts. We report the re-isolation of the virus from a pool of 100 host-seeking Amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks) collected in a Florida state park in 2012. TCRV was isolated in two cell lines and its complete genome was sequenced. The tick-derived isolate is nearly identical to the only remaining isolate from Trinidad (TRVL-11573), with 99.6% nucleotide identity across the genome. A quantitative RT-PCR assay was developed to test for viral RNA in host-seeking ticks collected from 3 Florida state parks. Virus RNA was detected in 56/500 (11.2%) of surveyed ticks. As this virus was isolated from ticks that parasitize humans, the ability of the tick to transmit the virus to people should be evaluated. Furthermore, reservoir hosts for the virus need to be identified in order to develop risk assessment models of human infection. PMID:25536075

  14. [Phylogenetic analysis of rabies viruses isolated from animals in Tokyo in the 1950s].

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Kaoru; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2011-05-01

    Molecular epidemiological analysis of 96 rabies viruses isolated from animals in Tokyo in the 1950s involves Japanese fixed virus, Komatsugawa, Takamen, and Nishigahara strains. Strains isolated in Tokyo were divided into Tokyo 1 and Tokyo 2, and grouped into a worldwide distribution cluster differing from Takamen and Nishigahara. Tokyo 1 was grouped into the same cluster as viruses isolated from United States west coast dogs in the 1930s and 1940s. Tokyo 2 was grouped into the same cluster as the Komatsugawa strain, also known as a cluster of viruses from the Khabarovsk raccoon dog, and the Lake Baikal stepped fox in Russia. These findings suggest that 1950s Tokyo rabies viruses were related to those in Russia and the USA. PMID:21706842

  15. Isolations of West Nile and Bagaza viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in central Senegal (Ferlo).

    PubMed

    Traore-Lamizana, M; Zeller, H G; Mondo, M; Hervy, J P; Adam, F; Digoutte, J P

    1994-11-01

    During October-November 1990, 31,497 mosquitoes consisting of 25 different species were collected in Barkedji, Ferlo area (Senegal), and tested for virus infection. Viruse were isolated from 55 of 407 pools. Eighteen pools were found positive for both Bagaza virus (BGA) and West Nile virus (WN). One alphavirus (Babanki [BBK] and 72 flaviviruses (19 BGA, 53 WN) were isolated from Culex poicilipes Theobald (29 WN, 8 BGA), C. neavei Theobald (3 WN, 1 BGA), Mimomyia hispida Theobald (8 WN, 6 BGA, and 1 BBK), M. lacustris Edwards (4 WN, 1 BGA), M. splendens Theobald (6 WN, 2 BGA), Mimomyia. spp. (2 WN), and Aedeomyia africana Neveu-Lemaire (1 WN). These were the first isolations of arboviruses from A. africana and Mimomyia species. C. poicilipes and possibly Mimomyia spp. may be involved in an avian-mosquito cycle of West Nile virus transmission in Senegal. PMID:7815413

  16. Use of muscovy duck embryo fibroblasts for the isolation of viruses from wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Slota, Paul G.

    1988-01-01

    Techniques are described for the preparation, cryopreservation, and inoculation of Muscovy duck embryo cell cultures. The procedure yields a susceptible reproducible cell culture system for the isolation and cultivation of viruses from wild birds.

  17. Use of muscovy duck embryo fibroblasts for the isolation of viruses from wild birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas E. Docherty; Paul G. Slota

    1988-01-01

    Summary Techniques are described for the preparation, cryopreservation, and inoculation of Muscovy duck embryo cell cultures. The procedure yields a susceptible reproducible cell culture system for the isolation and cultivation of viruses from wild birds.

  18. Complete genome sequence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus isolated from an olive flounder in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Nishizawa, Toyohiko; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2013-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a seriously problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture farms in South Korea. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of VHSV which was isolated from spleen and kidney tissues of dead fish at an aquaculture farm in 2005. This genome sequence will be useful for virus diagnostics and in comparative analyses with other virus genotypes. PMID:24009117

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Isolated from an Olive Flounder in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Nishizawa, Toyohiko

    2013-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a seriously problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture farms in South Korea. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of VHSV which was isolated from spleen and kidney tissues of dead fish at an aquaculture farm in 2005. This genome sequence will be useful for virus diagnostics and in comparative analyses with other virus genotypes. PMID:24009117

  20. Molecular differentiation of cytopathic and noncytopathic isolates of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 

    E-print Network

    Bissey, Lynda LeDawn

    1989-01-01

    disease may occur as a result of superinfection with a distinct CP virus into a persistently infected seronegative animal and not as a result of a noncytopathic virus mutating into a cytopathic virus. tv I would like to dedicate my thesis to my mother.... Oligonucleotide fingerprinting patterns for five BVDV isolates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3. A comparison of the oligonucleotides shared between the Illinois CP/NCP pair. . . . 18 4. A comparison of the oligonucteotides shared between TGA CP/TGA NCP...

  1. Characterization of a Siberian Virus Isolated from a Patient with Progressive Chronic Tick-Borne Encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Gritsun; T. V. Frolova; A. I. Zhankov; M. Armesto; S. L. Turner; M. P. Frolova; V. V. Pogodina; V. A. Lashkevich; E. A. Gould

    2003-01-01

    A strain of Tick-borne encephalitis virus designated Zausaev (Za) was isolated in Siberia from a patient who died of a progressive (2-year) form of tick-borne encephalitis 10 years after being bitten by a tick. The complete genomic sequence of this virus was determined, and an attempt was made to correlate the sequence with the biological characteristics of the virus. Phylogenetic

  2. Host range and symptom differences between isolates of turnip mosaic virus obtained from Sisymbrium loeselii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zde?ka Procházková

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-four isolates of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) from spontaneously infectedSisymbriutn loeselii plants were collected in Bohemian localities. Single lesions on leaves ofNicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun served for inoculating petunia plants used as infection sources for twelve host species. In no case were two identical\\u000a isolates obtained. 15 isolates could be transmitted toVicia faba, a new TuMV host. Almost all isolates

  3. Virus excretion and antibody dynamics in goats inoculated with a field isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Wu, X; Wang, Z; Bao, J; Li, L; Zhao, Y; Li, J

    2013-11-01

    A field isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) from an outbreak in Tibet, China, was inoculated into goats to investigate the dynamics of virus excretion and antibody production. Further, animals received PPRV vaccine strain Nigeria 75/1. Ocular, nasal and oral samples were tested for the presence of virus antigen by one-step real-time qualitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR); competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) was used for the measurement of specific antibodies against PPRV. Virus particles could be detected as early as day 3 post-inoculation (pi) and virus excretion lasted for up to day 26 pi. All four goats inoculated with the PPRV field isolate were seropositive as early as day 10 pi. In animals inoculated with the vaccine strain, antibody was detected at day 14 pi, and levels of neutralizing antibodies remained above the protection threshold level (1 : 8) for 8 months. Both virus particles and neutralizing antibodies were detected earlier in goats challenged with the field isolate than in those receiving the vaccine strain. PMID:24589103

  4. Genetic diversity of the attachment (H) protein gene of current field isolates of canine distemper virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gert Bolt; Tove Dannemann Jensen; Elisabeth Gottschalck; Peter Arctander; Max J. G. Appel; Robin Buckland; Merete Blixenkrone-Møller

    1997-01-01

    To characterize the variability of recent field iso- lates of canine distemper virus (CDV) from different hosts and geographical areas, we conducted nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene encoding the haemagglutinin (H), the attachment protein of this virus. Pronounced differences between field isolates were revealed in comparison to the Convac and Onderstepoort vaccine strains. The diversity of CDV appeared to

  5. New mite-borne virus isolates from rakkyo, shallot and wild leek species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul van Dijk; René A. A. van der Vlugt

    1994-01-01

    Flexuous viruses were transmitted from rakkyo (Allium chinense) and wild leek species (especiallyA. commutatum) to plants of crow garlic (A. vineale), by transfer of dry bulb mites. By electron microscope decoration tests using three antisera and by inoculations onto test plants, it was concluded that from each of the two natural host species at least two viruses were isolated. The

  6. Coat protein gene sequence of an Austrian isolate of grapevine fanleaf virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Brandt; M. Ibl; G. Himmler I

    1995-01-01

    Summary The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein cistron of an Austrian isolate of grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV-FC) fromVitis vinifera cv. French Colombard was determined. It shows small differences at the RNA level as well as at the protein level compared to the sequences of already published grapevine fanleaf virus strains. The differences may be a result of the natural

  7. Evolutionary changes effecting rapid diagnostics of 2009 Newcastle disease viruses isolated from Double-crested Cormorants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An outbreak of virulent Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in wild double-breasted cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) occurred in North America in the summer of 2008. All ten viruses isolated from cormorants were positively identified by the USDA validated real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chai...

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of a Tomato Mottle Mosaic Virus Isolate from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fillmer, Kornelia; Adkins, Scott; Pongam, Patchara

    2015-01-01

    Tomato mottle mosaic virus was recently reported from the United States following its original description from Mexico as a novel Tobamovirus species. We present the first complete genome sequence of a tomato mottle mosaic virus isolate from the United States. PMID:25838476

  9. Full-Genome Sequence of a Novel Varicella-Zoster Virus Clade Isolated in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Castillo, Araceli; Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna María; Gonzalez-Durán, Elizabeth; Segura-Candelas, José Miguel; Pérez-Agüeros, Sandra Ivette; Escobar-Escamilla, Noé; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Diaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family, which causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles) in humans. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of varicella-zoster virus, isolated from a vesicular fluid sample, revealing the circulation of VZV clade VIII in Mexico. PMID:26159533

  10. Pathogenesis of a Texas feline immunodeficiency virus isolate: An emerging subtype of clade B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anagha P. Phadke; Andres de la Concha-Bermejillo; Alice M. Wolf; Philip R. Andersen; Veerabhadran Baladandayuthapani; Ellen W. Collisson

    2006-01-01

    We have recently provided evidence that Texas feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV-TX) isolates are an emerging subtype sharing a common ancestry with clade B isolates. Specific, pathogen-free cats were infected, intravenously, with 500, 2000 or 8000TCID50 of the FIV-TX53 virus to study the acute stage of infection. Infection of cats resulted in lymphadenopathy at 10 days post-infection (p.i.). By 7 weeks

  11. Susceptibility of different plant species and tomato cultivars to two isolates of Pepino mosaic virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Fakhro; Susanne von Bargen; Martina Bandte; Carmen Büttner; Philipp Franken; Dietmar Schwarz

    2011-01-01

    As Pepino mosaic virus has become a pathogen of major importance in worldwide tomato production, information is needed on possible differences between\\u000a the sensitivity of cultivars towards infection. Furthermore, it is important what hosts other than Solanaceae may be virus reservoirs and are, therefore, threats for tomato cultivation. Two PepMV isolates (PepMV-Sav, E397, a European\\u000a tomato isolate and PV-0554, a

  12. Characterization of peripheral blood human immunodeficiency virus isolates from Hispanic women with cognitive impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianedis M. Toro Nieves; Marinés Plaud; Valerie Wojna; Richard Skolasky; Loyda M. Meléndez

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) tropism plays an important role in HIV-associated dementia. In this study, aimed\\u000a at determining if the tropism and coreceptor usage of circulating viruses correlates with cognitive function, the authors\\u000a isolated and characterized HIV from the peripheral blood of 21 Hispanic women using antiretroviral therapy. Macrophage tropism\\u000a was determined by inoculation of HIV isolates onto

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Viruses Related to the SARS Coronavirus from Animals in Southern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Guan; B. J. Zheng; Y. Q. He; X. L. Liu; Z. X. Zhuang; C. L. Cheung; S. W. Luo; P. H. Li; L. J. Zhang; Y. J. Guan; K. M. Butt; K. L. Wong; K. W. Chan; W. Lim; K. F. Shortridge; K. Y. Yuen; J. S. M. Peiris; L. L. M. Poon

    2003-01-01

    A novel coronavirus (SCoV) is the etiological agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). SCoV-like viruses were isolated from Himalayan palm civets found in a live-animal market in Guangdong, China. Evidence of virus infection was also detected in other animals (including a raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides) and in humans working at the same market. All the animal isolates retain a

  14. [Isolation of rabies virus in Artibeus fimbriatus bat in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cunha, Elenice M Sequetin; Lara, Maria do Carmo C S H; Nassar, Alessandra Figueiredo de Castro; Sodré, Miriam M; Amaral, Luis Flávio Vani

    2005-08-01

    This is the first report of the isolation and identification of the rabies virus in the frugivorous bat Artibeus fimbriatus in the city of Sao José do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The virus was isolated from an animal found in an urban area. The animal was found on the ground under a tree, still alive. Diagnosis was made by direct immunofluorescence and intracerebral inoculation of mice. PMID:16113922

  15. Isolation methods and electron microscopy of the Internal Cork Virus of sweet potatoes

    E-print Network

    Pickens, Edgar Eugene

    1967-01-01

    ISOLATION METHODS AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF THE INTERNAL CORK VIRUS OF SWEET POTATOES A Thesis By Edgar Eugene Pickens Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Major Subject Biochemistry ISOLATION METHODS AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF THE INTERNAL CORK VIRUS OF SWEET POTATOES A Thesis Edgar Eugene Pickens Approved as to style and content by: (Cnairman of Committee) (Head wf...

  16. The use of attenuated isolates of Pepino mosaic virus for cross-protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martijn F. Schenk; Roel Hamelink; René A. A. van der Vlugt; Adriaan M. W. Vermunt; Ruud C. Kaarsenmaker; Ineke C. C. M. M. Stijger

    2010-01-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) has recently emerged as a highly infectious viral pathogen in tomato crops. Greenhouse trials\\u000a were conducted under conditions similar to commercial tomato production. These trials examined whether tomato plants can be\\u000a protected against PepMV by a preceding infection with an attenuated isolate of this virus. Two potential attenuated isolates\\u000a that displayed mild leaf symptoms were selected

  17. Genetic analysis of influenza B viruses isolated in Uganda during the 2009–2010 seasons

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza B viruses can cause morbidity and mortality in humans but due to the lack of an animal reservoir are not associated with pandemics. Because of this, there is relatively limited genetic sequences available for influenza B viruses, especially from developing countries. Complete genome analysis of one influenza B virus and several gene segments of other influenza B viruses isolated from Uganda from May 2009 through December 2010 was therefore undertaken in this study. Methods Samples were collected from patients showing influenza like illness and screened for influenza A and B by PCR. Influenza B viruses were isolated on Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells and selected isolates were subsequently sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Findings Of the 2,089 samples collected during the period, 292 were positive by PCR for influenza A or B; 12.3% of the PCR positives were influenza B. Thirty influenza B viruses were recovered and of these 25 that grew well consistently on subculture were subjected to further analysis. All the isolates belonged to the B/Victoria-lineage as identified by hemagglutination inhibition assay and genetic analysis except one isolate that grouped with the B-Yamagata-lineage. The Ugandan B/Victoria-lineage isolates grouped in clade 1 which was defined by the N75K, N165K and S172P substitutions in hemagglutinin (HA) protein clustered together with the B/Brisbane/60/2008 vaccine strain. The Yamagata-like Ugandan strain, B/Uganda/MUWRP-053/2009, clustered with clade 3 Yamagata viruses such as B/Bangladesh/3333/2007 which is characterized by S150I and N166Y substitutions in HA. Conclusion In general there was limited variation among the Ugandan isolates but they were interestingly closer to viruses from West and North Africa than from neighboring Kenya. Our isolates closely matched the World Health Organization recommended vaccines for the seasons. PMID:23289789

  18. Glycosaminoglycan binding properties of natural venezuelan equine encephalitis virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Eryu; Brault, Aaron C; Powers, Ann M; Kang, Wenli; Weaver, Scott C

    2003-01-01

    Equine-virulent, epidemic/epizootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus (VEEV) arise via mutation of progenitor enzootic strains that replicate poorly in equines. Sequencing studies have implicated positively charged amino acids on the surface of the E2 envelope glycoprotein in the acquisition of equine virulence and viremia potential, suggesting that changes in binding to cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) may mediate VEE emergence. Therefore, we evaluated the binding of natural enzootic and epizootic VEEV isolates to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing normal, high levels of GAGs as well as to mutant CHO cells lacking GAG expression. Binding to GAGs was not consistently associated with the epizootic phenotype, and cell culture passages resulted in increased GAG binding. The low levels of GAG binding exhibited by some low-passage, equine-virulent subtype IC VEEV strains indicate that the positive-charge E2 mutations implicated in VEE subtype IC emergence are not artifacts of laboratory passage and suggest that GAG binding does not play a major role in mediating VEE emergence. The increased GAG binding exhibited by VEEV strain CPA201 from the 1993 Mexican epizootic, when compared to that of closely related enzootic subtype IE strains, was shown to result from a Glu-to-Lys mutation at position 117 of the E2 envelope glycoprotein. PMID:12502837

  19. Comparison of biological characteristics of H9N2 avian influenza viruses isolated from different hosts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yinbiao; Yang, Yang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Xin; Yang, Da; Sun, Zhihao; Ju, Yong; Chen, Sujuan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Xiufan

    2015-04-01

    The pathogenicity and transmissibility of H9N2 influenza viruses has been widely investigated; however, few studies comparing the biological characteristics of H9N2 viruses isolated from different hosts have been performed. In this study, eight H9N2 viruses, isolated from chickens (Ck/F98, Ck/AH and Ck/TX), pigeons (Pg/XZ), quail/(Ql/A39), ducks (Dk/Y33) and swine (Sw/YZ and Sw/TZ) were selected, and their biological characteristics were determined. The results showed that all H9N2 viruses maintained a preference for both the avian- and human-type receptors, except for Sw/TZ, which had exclusive preference for the human-type receptor. The viruses replicated well in DF-1 and MDCK cells, whereas only three isolates, Ck/F98, Ck/TX and Sw/TZ, could replicate in A549 cells and also replicated in mouse lungs, resulting in body weight loss in mice. All H9N2 viruses were nonpathogenic to chickens and were detected in the trachea and lung tissues. The viruses were shed primarily by the oropharynx and were transmitted efficiently to naïve contact chickens. Our findings suggest that all H9N2 viruses from different hosts exhibit efficient replication and contact-transmission among chickens, and chickens serve as a good reservoir for the persistence and interspecies transmission of H9N2 influenza viruses. PMID:25616845

  20. Structure of isolated nucleocapsids from venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and implications for assembly and disassembly of enveloped virus.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Angel; Alwell-Warda, Kathy; Weaver, Scott C; Chiu, Wah; Watowich, Stanley J

    2003-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an important human and equine pathogen in the Americas, with widespread reoccurring epidemics extending from South America to the southern United States. Most troubling, VEEV has been made into a weapon by several countries and is currently restricted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a potential biological warfare and terrorism agent. To facilitate the development of antiviral compounds, the structure of the nucleocapsid isolated from VEEV has been determined by electron cryomicroscopy and image reconstruction and represents the first three-dimensional structure of a nucleocapsid isolated from a single-stranded enveloped RNA virus. The isolated VEEV nucleocapsid undergoes significant reorganization relative to its structure within VEEV. However, the isolated nucleocapsid clearly exhibits T=4 icosahedral symmetry, and its characteristic nucleocapsid hexons and pentons are preserved. The diameter of the isolated nucleocapsid is approximately 11.5% larger than that of the nucleocapsid within VEEV, with radial expansion being greatest near the hexons. Significantly, this is the first direct structural evidence showing that a simple enveloped virus undergoes large conformational changes during maturation, suggesting that the lipid bilayer and the transmembrane proteins of simple enveloped viruses provide the energy necessary to reorganize the nucleocapsid during maturation. PMID:12477868

  1. Responses of isolator-derived Japanese quail and quail cell cultures to selected animal viruses.

    PubMed

    Farrow, W M; Schmitt, M W; Groupé, V

    1975-11-01

    Thirteen oncogenic and necrotizing animal viruses were assayed in LIFE Sciences, Inc. (LSI)-specific pathogen-free Japanese quail and LSI-specific pathogen-free chicken embryo cell cultures. Nine viruses produced similar titers in the quail and chicken cell systems, whereas four viruses showed significantly higher titers in chickens. Young Japanese quail and chickens were inoculated with five selected avain viruses and maintained in stainless-steel isolators. Comparable responses were noted in quail and chickens injected with Newcastle disease virus and avain leukosis virus, but quail were significantly more resistant than chickens to fowl pox virus, laryngotracheitis virus, and Marek's disease herpesvirus. Although no overt symptoms of disease were observed in Japanese quail inoculated with most avain viruses, neutralizing antibody or virus was detected, indicating presence of an inapparent infection. In one experiment, neutralizing antibody was detected in a comparable number of quail and chickens after inoculation with avian leukosis virus. Avian leukosis virus viremia was observed at 12 and 70 days postinoculation, with the COFAL (complement fixation for avian leukosis) titers similar for quail and chickens. Most quail infected with Marek's disease herpesvirus produced neutralizing antibody within 70 days but showed no classical symptoms of Marek's disease even when held for 5 months. In contrast, all chickens inoculated with Marek's disease herpesvirus died within 20 days. The utility of quail embryo cell cultured in the preparation of vaccines and biological reagents is discussed. PMID:172527

  2. Isolation and mutation trend analysis of influenza A virus subtype H9N2 in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Avian influenza virus H9N2 is a panzootic pathogen that affects poultry causing mild to moderate respiratory distress but has been associated with high morbidity and considerable mortality. Interspecies transmission of H9N2 from avian species to mammalian hosts does occur. The virus possesses human virus-like receptor specificity and it can infect humans producing flu-like illness. Methods Recently, mild influenza like symptoms were detected in H5N1 vaccinated flocks. Influenza A subtype H9N2 was isolated from the infected flock. The virus evolution was investigated by sequencing the viral genes to screen the possible virus recombination. The viral amino acid sequences from the isolated H9N2 strains were compared to other related sequences from the flu data base that were used to assess the robustness of the mutation trend. Changes in the species-associated amino acid residues or those that enabled virulence to mammals were allocated. Results Phylogenetic analyses of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes showed that the recently isolated Egyptian strain belonged to the H9N2 sub-lineage that prevails in Israel. The six internal segments of the isolated virus were found to be derived from the same sub-lineage with no new evidence of reassortment. The results demonstrated conserved genetic and biological constitution of H9N2 viruses in the Middle East. The recently isolated H9N2 virus from chicken in Egypt possessed amino acids that could enable the virus to replicate in mammals and caused severe disease in domestic chickens. Conclusion The study highlights the importance of continuous monitoring of the mutations evolved in avian influenza viruses and its impact on virulence to avian species in addition to its importance in the emergence of new strains with the capacity to be a pandemic candidate. PMID:22925485

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of a Fish Nervous Necrosis Virus Isolated from Sea Perch (Lateolabrax japonicus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Peng

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of a fish nervous necrosis virus isolated from diseased sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus) in Guangdong Province, China. The virus genome contains RNA1 (3,103 bp) and RNA2 (1,433 bp). Phylogenetic analysis shows that the virus belongs to the redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus genotype of betanodavirus. PMID:26044411

  4. West Nile virus isolates from mosquitoes in New York and New Jersey, 1999.

    PubMed Central

    Nasci, R. S.; White, D. J.; Stirling, H.; Oliver, J. A.; Daniels, T. J.; Falco, R. C.; Campbell, S.; Crans, W. J.; Savage, H. M.; Lanciotti, R. S.; Moore, C. G.; Godsey, M. S.; Gottfried, K. L.; Mitchell, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    An outbreak of encephalitis due to West Nile (WN) virus occurred in New York City and the surrounding areas during 1999. Mosquitoes were collected as part of a comprehensive surveillance program implemented to monitor the outbreak. More than 32,000 mosquitoes representing 24 species were tested, and 15 WN virus isolates were obtained. Molecular techniques were used to identify the species represented in the WN virus-positive mosquito pools. Most isolates were from pools containing Culex pipiens mosquitoes, but several pools contained two or more Culex species. PMID:11585523

  5. Genomic and phylogenetic characterization of Merino Walk virus, a novel arenavirus isolated in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Gustavo; Savji, Nazir; Hui, Jeffrey; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Popov, Vsevolod; Briese, Thomas; Tesh, Robert; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2010-01-01

    Merino Walk virus (MWV), a proposed novel tentative species of the family Arenaviridae, was isolated from a rodent, Myotomys unisulcatus, collected at Merino Walk, Eastern Cape, South Africa, in 1985. Full-length genomic sequence confirmed MWV as an arenavirus related distantly to Mobala, Mopeia and Ippy viruses, all members of the Old World arenavirus complex. We propose MWV as a tentative novel species in the Lassa–lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus complex, based on its isolation from a novel rodent species and its genetic and serological characteristics. PMID:20071489

  6. Characterisation of an isolate of Narcissus degeneration virus from Chinese narcissus (Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Shi, Y-H; Adams, M J; Zheng, H-Y; Qin, B-X; Chen, J-P

    2007-02-01

    A potyvirus from Chinese narcissus was transmitted mechanically to three species of Narcissus and to Lycoris radiata but not to 22 other test species. In western blot, the coat protein reacted strongly with Narcissus degeneration virus (UK isolate) antiserum. Antiserum raised to the Chinese virus did not react with eighteen other potyviruses. The complete nucleotide sequence (9816 nt) had the typical genome organisation for a member of the genus Potyvirus. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis showed that the Chinese virus was different from all previously sequenced potyviruses but distantly related to onion yellow dwarf and shallot yellow stripe viruses. PMID:16932980

  7. Archaeal Viruses of the Sulfolobales: Isolation, Infection, and CRISPR Spacer Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Susanne; Garrett, Roger A

    2015-01-01

    Infection of archaea with phylogenetically diverse single viruses, performed in different laboratories, has failed to activate spacer acquisition into host CRISPR loci. The first successful uptake of archaeal de novo spacers was observed on infection of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 with an environmental virus mixture isolated from Yellowstone National Park (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012). Experimental studies of isolated genetic elements from this mixture revealed that SMV1 (S ulfolobus Monocauda Virus 1), a tailed spindle-shaped virus, can induce spacer acquisition in CRISPR loci of Sulfolobus species from a second coinfecting conjugative plasmid or virus (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012; Erdmann et al. Mol Microbiol 91:900-917, 2014). Here we describe, firstly, the isolation of archaeal virus mixtures from terrestrial hot springs and the techniques used both to infect laboratory strains with these virus mixtures and to obtain purified virus particles. Secondly, we present the experimental conditions required for activating SMV1-induced spacer acquisition in two different Sulfolobus species. PMID:25981476

  8. Modoc-like virus isolated from wild deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Zarnke, R L; Yuill, T M

    1985-04-01

    Small mammals were trapped in northeastern Alberta, Canada during 1976. Blood samples from these animals were tested for virus by inoculation of suckling mice. Blood clots from two deer mice yielded isolates of the same virus. The virus was related antigenically to a number of flaviviruses which have been isolated from mammals in Central America and North America and was related most closely to Modoc virus. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of the virus were similar also to those of Modoc virus. It did not produce illness or death in deer mice inoculated in the laboratory. Neutralization tests indicated that 1/38 (3%) red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), 3/35 (9%) least chipmunks (Eutamius minimus), 13/109 (12%) deer mice, and 3/50 (6%) humans were infected naturally. This is the first reported evidence of infection of red squirrels and chipmunks with a Modoc-like virus. These data extend the range of Modoc-like viruses northward by 1,500 km and comprise the first isolate from mammals in the boreal forest of Canada. PMID:2987550

  9. Coat protein gene sequence of an Austrian isolate of grapevine fanleaf virus.

    PubMed

    Brandt, S; Ibl, M; Himmler, G

    1995-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein cistron of an Austrian isolate of grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV-FC) from Vitis vinifera cv. French Colombard was determined. It shows small differences at the RNA level as well as at the protein level compared to the sequences of already published grapevine fanleaf virus strains. The differences may be a result of the natural variation among virus populations or a consequence of selection in a special host plant. As the virus RNA sequence reported here was isolated directly from its natural woody host by an immunocapture-PCR technique, passage of the virus through a herbaceous host could be avoided and a possible bias introduced by a different host environment was excluded. The sequence similarity of known GFLV coat protein cistrons to the sequence described is as high as among the other strains. PMID:7646340

  10. Diagnosis and Management of Virus and Virus like Diseases of Citrus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. Roistacher

    This chapter covers fifteen virus and virus like diseases of citrus plus thermotherapy, with emphasis on the citrus tristeza\\u000a disease. Included in this chapter are the citrus disease of psorosis, cristacortis, citrus chlorotic dwarf, impietratura,\\u000a satsuma dwarf, vein enation, leprosis, tatter leaf, infectious variegation, exocortis, cachexia, gum pocket, stubborn and\\u000a concave gum. Epidemiology of tristeza is presented in some detail

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of recent isolates of classical swine fever virus from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Sabogal, Zonia Yubyll; Mogollón, José Darío; Rincón, Maria Antonia; Clavijo, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    The ability to discriminate between different classical Swine fever virus (CSFV) isolates is a prerequisite for identifying the possible origin of an outbreak. To determine the relatedness between Colombian isolates from different geographical regions, genetic sequences of the glycoprotein E2 and the 5'UTR of CSFV were amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared with reference strains of different genetic grouping. The viruses originated from classical swine fever (CSF) outbreaks in Colombia during 1998-2002. All viruses characterized belonged to genogroup 1 and were members of the subgroup 1.1. The results indicate that the outbreaks from the year 2002 are caused by a strain related to the virus CSF/Santander, isolated in 1980, suggesting that the current CSF outbreaks are the consequence of a single strain that continues to circulate in the field. For the first time, an association between isolates from outbreaks in Colombia in the 1990s was established with a virus isolate from Brazil, indicating a possible origin of the virus causing the outbreak. PMID:16143418

  12. Isolation and serological studies with infectious bursal disease viruses from fowl, turkeys and ducks: Demonstration of a second serotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. McFerran; M. S. McNulty; E. R. McKillop; T. J. Connor; R. M. McCracken; D. S. Collins; G. M. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The isolation of a number of strains of infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus from fowl, turkeys and ducks is described. These isolates could be grouped into two serotypes using the neutralisation test. It is proposed that the cell culture adapted vaccine strain from fowl should be the prototype virus for serotype 1 and that the TY89 isolate from a turkey

  13. Characterization of Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza A Viruses Isolated from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Won; Suarez, David L.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Sung, Haan-Woo; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Choi, Jun-Gu; Joh, Seong-Joon; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Park, Jong-Myung; Lu, Xiuhua; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2005-01-01

    An unprecedented outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been reported for poultry in eight different Asian countries, including South Korea, since December 2003. A phylogenetic analysis of the eight viral genes showed that the H5N1 poultry isolates from South Korea were of avian origin and contained the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (Gs/Gd) lineage. The current H5N1 strains in Asia, including the Korean isolates, share a gene constellation similar to that of the Penfold Park, Hong Kong, isolates from late 2002 and contain some molecular markers that seem to have been fixed in the Gs/Gd lineage virus since 2001. However, despite genetic similarities among recent H5N1 isolates, the topology of the phylogenetic tree clearly differentiates the Korean isolates from the Vietnamese and Thai isolates which have been reported to infect humans. A representative Korean isolate was inoculated into mice, with no mortality and no virus being isolated from the brain, although high titers of virus were observed in the lungs. The same isolate, however, caused systemic infections in chickens and quail and killed all of the birds within 2 and 4 days of intranasal inoculation, respectively. This isolate also replicated in multiple organs and tissues of ducks and caused some mortality. However, lower virus titers were observed in all corresponding tissues of ducks than in chicken and quail tissues, and the histological lesions were restricted to the respiratory tract. This study characterizes the molecular and biological properties of the H5N1 HPAI viruses from South Korea and emphasizes the need for comparative analyses of the H5N1 isolates from different countries to help elucidate the risk of a human pandemic from the strains of H5N1 HPAI currently circulating in Asia. PMID:15731263

  14. Characterisation of the welsh onion isolate of Shallot yellow stripe virus from China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Chen; C.-B. Wei; H.-Y. Zheng; Y.-H. Shi; M. J. Adams; L. Lin; Q.-Y. Zhang; S.-J. Wang; J.-P. Chen

    2005-01-01

    Summary. The host range and nucleotide sequence of shallot yellow stripe virus (SYSV) from welsh onion in Shandong province, China is described. Of the plants tested, only shallot and welsh onion became infected but most shallot plants were symptomless. The complete sequence of one isolate (10429?nt) and the 3?-terminal 3540?nts of a second isolate were determined. They had c. 90%

  15. Complete genome sequence analysis of an American isolate of Grapevine virus E

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence of an isolate of Grapevine virus E (GVE) collected from a red-berried wine grape cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon) in Washington State was determined. The 7,568 nt long genome of GVE is similar in size and sequence identity with a GVE isolate from a wine grape cv. Shiraz fro...

  16. Isolation of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus from Aedes albopictus in Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Mitchell; M. L. Niebylski; G. C. Smith; N. Karabatsos; D. Martin; J.-P. Mutebi; G. B. Craig Jr.; M. J. Mahler

    1992-01-01

    Fourteen strains of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus were isolated from Aedes albopictus mosquitoes collected in Polk County, Florida. These are the first isolations of an arbovirus of proven public health and veterinary importance from naturally infected Ae. albopictus in the United States since established populations of this introduced mosquito were first discovered in 1985. The widespread distribution of Ae.

  17. Complete nucleotide sequence of a maize chlorotic mottle virus isolate from Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome of a maize chlorotic mottle virus isolate from Nebraska (MCMV-NE) was cloned and sequenced. The MCMV-NE genome consists of 4,436 nucleotides and shares 99.5% nucleotide sequence identity with an MCMV isolate from Kansas (MCMV-KS). Of 22 polymorphic sites, most resulted from t...

  18. SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR TYPING OF PLUM POX VIRUS ISOLATES IN THE NORTH OF ROMANIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Zagrai; I. Zagrai; B. Ferencz; I. Gaboreanu; K. Kovacs; I. Petricele; O. Popescu; D. Pamfil; N. Capote

    SUMMARY Plum pox virus (PPV) is considered as the most dan- gerous viral pathogen of stone fruits. Although PPV is widespread in Romania and causes serious yield losses, little is known about the variability of its isolates. To se- cure this information we investigated 43 PPV isolates collected from five different plum orchards in the North of Romania in the

  19. Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates obtained from Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) in Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calogero Terregino; Giovanni Cattoli; Barbara Grossele; Elena Bertoli; Ernesto Tisato; Ilaria Capua

    2003-01-01

    Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) are thought to originate from India and they have colonized, throughout the centuries, the Middle East and, more recently, Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Spain. In the present paper we report of the isolation and characterization of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) obtained from Eurasian collared doves during 2000-2001, and compare them to isolates obtained

  20. Population Structure of Blueberry Mosaic Associated Virus: Evidence of Genetic Exchange in Geographically Distinct Isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The population structure of blueberry mosaic associated virus (BlMaV), a putative member of the family Ophioviridae, was examined using 59 isolates collected from North America and Slovenia. The studied isolates displayed low genetic diversity in the movement and nucleoprotein regions and low ratios...

  1. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Sweet Potato Chlorotic Stunt Virus Isolates from China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yanhong; Qiao, Qi; Zhang, Desheng; Tian, Yuting; Wang, Yongjiang; Wang, Shuang

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) was first detected in China in 2010, and several partial sequences have been determined for Chinese SPCSV isolates. This report describes the complete genome sequences of two SPCSV isolates from the Guangdong and Jiangsu provinces and will be valuable for understanding the characteristics of SPCSVs in China. PMID:23661487

  2. [Analysis on nucleoprotein gene sequence of 25 rabies virus isolates in Guizhou Province, China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun; Li, Shi-Jun; Wang, Ding-Ming; Tang, Qing; Tao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hao; Zhuang, Yan; Zhou, Jian-Zhu; Wang, Yue; Tian, Ke-Cheng; Tang, Guang-Peng

    2011-11-01

    To analyze 25 nucleoprotein gene (N gene) sequences of rabies viruses circulating in Guizhou province during 2005-2010, China, and to explore the epidemic characteristics and the probable mutant of rabies in Guizhou Province. Rabies virus RNA in human brain tissues, human saliva, and domestic dog brain tissues derived from different prefectures of Guizhou Province were detected with RT-nested PCR, and the amplified products were then sequenced. Bioinformatics software was used to determine the genetic characteristics of these rabies viruses. The sequences of N gene of 25 Guizhou provincial isolates were identical with homogeny between 97.5% - 99.3% and 98.4% - 99.8% at nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, respectively, while the identities between them and isolated strains from other province of China were 88% - 99.1% and 88% - 99.7%. There were several amino acid substitutions in the nucleoprotein of 25 Guizhou isolates compared with the known genotype 1 isolates. The analysis of phylogenetic tree of 25 Guizhou isolates was demonstrated to be genetically divided into two groups, indicating that the virus presented a unique characteristics in geographic distribution and in a time dependent-manner. And phylogenetic tree of 25 Guizhou isolates and 7 genotype 1 strains isolated from other Province of China was also divided into two groups, which were further composed of several subgroups, respectively. From these observations, the rabies viruses derived from Guizhou province were still genotype 1. These isolates of rabies virus were diverged from the strains isolated from other provinces in both gene sequences and deduced amino acid sequences, and these divergences were characterized in geographic distribution and in a time-dependent manner. PMID:22263267

  3. Rat sarcoma virus: further analysis of individual viral isolates and the gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Young, H A; Rasheed, S; Sowder, R; Benton, C V; Henderson, L E

    1981-01-01

    Rasheed rat sarcoma virus, derived by in vitro cocultivation of two rat cell lines (Rasheed et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:2972-2976, 1978), has been reported to code for a protein of 29,000 Mr, immunologically related to the 21,000 Mr src gene product of Harvey and Kirsten sarcoma viruses. Rat sarcoma virus p29 was thought to contain at least part of a rat type C virus structural protein, since antiserum prepared against whole rat virus was able to immunoprecipitate rat sarcoma virus p29 but not Harvey or Kirsten sarcoma virus p21 (Young et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76:3523-3527, 1979). We now report that antiserum directed against rat type C virus p15, but not viral p12, p10, or p27, immunoprecipitated rat sarcoma virus p29. The p15 antiserum was also able to immunoprecipitate both denatured p29 and a peptide derived by V-8 protease cleavage of p29, indicating that this antiserum contains antibodies directed against primary amino acid determinants. Finally, five separate isolates of rat sarcoma virus were found to code for p29, which indicates that a highly specific site of recombination is involved in the generation of sarcoma viruses in rat cells. Images PMID:7195432

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF VIRUS RESISTANT TRANSGENIC PAPAYAS EXPRESSING THE COAT PROTEIN FROM A BRAZILIAN ISOLATE OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS (PRSV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Translatable and untranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the State of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of Carica papaya L. The biolistic system was used to transform secondary soma...

  5. Massilia Virus, A Novel Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) Isolated from Sandflies in the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Moureau, Grégory; Temmam, Sarah; Izri, Arezki; Marty, Pierre; Parola, Philippe; da Rosa, Amelia Travassos; Tesh, Robert B.; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A new virus was isolated from three independent pools of Phlebotomus perniciosus sandflies (Diptera; Psychodidae) trapped in two regions of southeastern France, located 90 miles apart. Microscopic, antigenic and genetic analyses indicate that this novel virus belongs to the genus Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. The new virus is designated Massilia virus since the first isolate was obtained from sandflies collected in the suburban area of Marseille. The complete genome sequence was determined and used to compare the genetic and phylogenetic relationships of Massilia virus with other phleboviruses. Genetic and antigenic properties were employed to address whether or not Massilia virus should be considered a new species within the genus, or a member of a previously recognized species. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens, collected from local patients with central nervous system infections during the previous four-year period were tested for the presence of Massilia virus RNA, but gave negative results. In conclusion, Massilia virus is proposed as a member of the Sand-fly fever Naples virus complex; its public health importance has yet to be determined. PMID:19055373

  6. Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Sun W.; Johnson, Jordan; Beck, Melinda A.; Webby, Richard J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing human H7N9 influenza infections highlight the threat of emerging avian influenza viruses. In 2011, an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from moribund New England harbour seals was shown to have naturally acquired mutations known to increase the transmissibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. To elucidate the potential human health threat, here we evaluate a panel of avian H3N8 viruses and find that the harbour seal virus displays increased affinity for mammalian receptors, transmits via respiratory droplets in ferrets and replicates in human lung cells. Analysis of a panel of human sera for H3N8 neutralizing antibodies suggests that there is no population-wide immunity to these viruses. The prevalence of H3N8 viruses in birds and multiple mammalian species including recent isolations from pigs and evidence that it was a past human pandemic virus make the need for surveillance and risk analysis of these viruses of public health importance.

  7. Differentiation of BHV-1 isolates from vaccine virus by high-resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Ostertag-Hill, Claire; Fang, Liang; Izume, Satoko; Lee, Megan; Reed, Aimee; Jin, Ling

    2015-02-16

    An efficacious bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) vaccine has been used for many years. However, in the past few years, abortion and respiratory diseases have occurred after administration of the modified live vaccine. To investigate whether BHV-1 isolates from disease outbreaks are identical to those of the vaccines used, selected regions of the BHV-1 genome were investigated by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis and PCR-DNA sequencing. When a target region within the thymidine kinase (TK) gene was examined by HRM analysis, 6 out of the 11 isolates from abortion cases and 22 out of the 25 isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases had different melting curves compared to the vaccine virus. Surprisingly, when a conserved region within the US6 gene that encodes glycoprotein D (gD) was examined by HRM analysis, 5 out of the 11 abortion isolates and 18 out of the 23 BRD isolates had different melting curves from the vaccine virus. To determine whether SNPs within the coding regions of glycoprotein E (gE) and TK genes can be used to differentiate the isolates from the vaccine virus, PCR-DNA sequencing was used to examine these SNPs in all the isolates. This revealed that only 1 out of 11 of the abortion isolates and 4 out of 24 of the BRD isolates are different in the target region of gE from the vaccine virus, while 5 out of 11 abortion isolates and 4 out of 22 BRD isolates are different in the target region of TK from the vaccine virus. No DNA sequence differences were observed in glycoprotein G (gG) region between disease and vaccine isolates. Our study demonstrated that many disease isolates had genetic differences from the vaccine virus in regions examined by HRM and PCR-DNA sequencing analysis. In addition, many isolates contained more than one type of mutation and were composed of mixed variants. Our study suggests that a mixture of variants were present in isolates collected post-vaccination. HRM is a rapid diagnostic method that can be used for rapid differentiation of clinical isolates from vaccine strains. PMID:25556125

  8. Genome sequence analysis of the first human West Nile virus isolated in Italy in 2009.

    PubMed

    Barzon, L; Franchin, E; Squarzon, L; Lavezzo, E; Toppo, S; Martello, T; Bressan, S; Pagni, S; Cattai, M; Piazza, A; Pacenti, M; Cusinato, R; Palù, G

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, six new human cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) were identified in Veneto region, following the six cases already reported in 2008. A human West Nile virus (WNV) isolate was obtained for the first time from an asymptomatic blood donor. Whole genome sequence of the human WNV isolate showed close phylogenetic relatedness to the Italy-1998-WNV strain and to other WNV strains recently isolated in Europe, with the new acquisition of the NS3-Thr249Pro mutation, a trait associated with avian virulence, increased virus transmission, and the occurrence of outbreaks in humans. PMID:19941775

  9. Superinfection exclusion is an active virus-controlled function that requires a specific viral protein.

    PubMed

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y

    2012-05-01

    Superinfection exclusion, a phenomenon in which a preexisting viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or a closely related virus, has been described for various viruses, including important pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. The phenomenon was initially used to test the relatedness of plant viruses. Subsequently, purposeful infection with a mild isolate has been implemented as a protective measure against virus isolates that cause severe disease. In the medical and veterinary fields, superinfection exclusion was found to interfere with repeated applications of virus-based vaccines to individuals with persistent infections and with the introduction of multicomponent vaccines. In spite of its significance, our understanding of this phenomenon is surprisingly incomplete. Recently, it was demonstrated that superinfection exclusion of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a positive-sense RNA closterovirus, occurs only between isolates of the same strain, but not between isolates of different strains of the virus. In this study, I show that superinfection exclusion by CTV requires production of a specific viral protein, the p33 protein. Lack of the functional p33 protein completely eliminated the ability of the virus to exclude superinfection by the same or a closely related virus. Remarkably, the protein appeared to function only in a homology-dependent manner. A cognate protein from a heterologous strain failed to confer the exclusion, suggesting the existence of precise interactions of the p33 protein with other factors involved in this complex phenomenon. PMID:22398285

  10. Superinfection Exclusion Is an Active Virus-Controlled Function That Requires a Specific Viral Protein

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Superinfection exclusion, a phenomenon in which a preexisting viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or a closely related virus, has been described for various viruses, including important pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. The phenomenon was initially used to test the relatedness of plant viruses. Subsequently, purposeful infection with a mild isolate has been implemented as a protective measure against virus isolates that cause severe disease. In the medical and veterinary fields, superinfection exclusion was found to interfere with repeated applications of virus-based vaccines to individuals with persistent infections and with the introduction of multicomponent vaccines. In spite of its significance, our understanding of this phenomenon is surprisingly incomplete. Recently, it was demonstrated that superinfection exclusion of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a positive-sense RNA closterovirus, occurs only between isolates of the same strain, but not between isolates of different strains of the virus. In this study, I show that superinfection exclusion by CTV requires production of a specific viral protein, the p33 protein. Lack of the functional p33 protein completely eliminated the ability of the virus to exclude superinfection by the same or a closely related virus. Remarkably, the protein appeared to function only in a homology-dependent manner. A cognate protein from a heterologous strain failed to confer the exclusion, suggesting the existence of precise interactions of the p33 protein with other factors involved in this complex phenomenon. PMID:22398285

  11. Characterization of West Nile Viruses Isolated from Captive American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice. PMID:22802436

  12. Characterization of West Nile viruses isolated form captive American flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice.

  13. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF VIRUS ISOLATES CAUSING MOSAIC IN LOUISIANA SUGARCANE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten strains of sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and three strains sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) have been reported to cause mosaic in Louisiana; however, only strains H, I, and M of SrMV were recovered from commercial fields during surveys conducted between 1973 and 1995. Annual surveys were discontinue...

  14. Diversity of Grapevine fanleaf virus isolates from Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nemat Sokhandan Bashir; Shaheen Nourinejhad Zarghani; Mohammad Saeid Hejazi

    2007-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of 126 grapevine samples, from vineyards in the northwest region of Iran, detected Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) in 33 samples. Total RNA from eight of the infected samples were subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis using primers which corresponded to the virus coat protein and 3? non coding region of RNA 2.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF VIRUS ISOLATES CAUSING MOSAIC OF SUGARCANE IN LOUSIANA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten strains of sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and three strains of sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) have been shown to cause sugarcane mosaic in Louisiana, USA; however, surveys conducted between the 1970s and 1995 identified strains of SrMV only. In 2001 and 2002, approximately 350 leaf samples from pla...

  16. A comparison of direct electron microscopy, virus isolation and a DNA amplification method for the detection of avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus in field material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Williams; Carol E. Savage; R. C. Jones

    1994-01-01

    Seventy?two post?mortem samples of mainly tracheal tissue from commercial chickens from 25 commercial chicken flocks with suspected infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) were examined for the presence of the virus using direct electron microscopy (EM), virus isolation (VI) in primary chick embryo liver cell culture and a DNA amplification method (polymerase chain reaction; PCR). ILT virus was identified in 22 outbreaks, and

  17. Characterization of Newly Emerging Newcastle Disease Virus Isolates from the People's Republic of China and Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LI YU; ZHILIANG WANG; YIHAI JIANG; LEO CHANG; JIMMY KWANG

    2001-01-01

    Seven Newcastle disease (ND) virus (NDV) isolates which were recovered from ND outbreaks in chicken and pigeon flocks in China and Taiwan between 1996 and 2000 were genotypically and pathotypically characterized. By phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein genes, isolates Ch-A7\\/96, Ch\\/98-3, Ch\\/99, Ch\\/2000, and TW\\/2000 were placed into two novel subgenotypes, VIIc and VIId. Isolate Ch\\/98-1 was grouped into

  18. New isolates of the necrotic strain of potato virus Y (PVY N ) found recently in Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Chrzanowska

    1991-01-01

    Summary  In comparison to the previously known isolates of potato virus YN (PVYN), some isolates found in Poland since 1984 are more infectious to potato plants, reach faster a higher concentration and\\u000a induce milder disease symptoms.\\u000a \\u000a Potato cultivars resistant to the standard type of PVYN may be susceptible to the new isolates whereas those that are extremely resistant to PVY remain

  19. Molecular characterization of Belgian pseudorabies virus isolates from domestic swine and wild boar.

    PubMed

    Verpoest, Sara; Cay, Ann Brigitte; De Regge, Nick

    2014-08-01

    Aujeszky's disease is an economically important disease in domestic swine caused by suid herpesvirus 1, also called pseudorabies virus (PRV). In several European countries, including Belgium, the virus has successfully been eradicated from the domestic swine population. The presence of PRV in the wild boar population however poses a risk for possible reintroduction of the virus into the domestic pig population. It is therefore important to assess the genetic relatedness between circulating strains and possible epidemiological links. In this study, nine historical Belgian domestic swine isolates that circulated before 1990 and five recent wild boar isolates obtained since 2006 from Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were genetically characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and phylogenetic analysis. While all wild boar isolates were characterized as type I RFLP genotypes, the RFLP patterns of the domestic swine isolates suggest that a shift from genotype I to genotype II might have occurred in the 1980s in the domestic population. By phylogenetic analysis, Belgian wild boar isolates belonging to both clade A and B were observed, while all domestic swine isolates clustered within clade A. The joint phylogenetic analysis of both wild boar and domestic swine strains showed that some isolates with identical sequences were present within both populations, raising the question whether these strains represent an increased risk for reintroduction of the virus into the domestic population. PMID:24908275

  20. Genetic heterogeneity among isolates of Ross River virus from different geographical regions.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, M D; Coelen, R J; Mackenzie, J S

    1993-01-01

    The RNase T1 maps of 80 isolates of Ross River virus from different regions of mainland Australia and the Pacific Islands were compared. Four different clusters of isolates with greater than an estimated 5 to 6% diversity at the nucleotide level were found. There was a pattern of differences between eastern and western Australian strains; however, the pattern was disturbed by overlaps and incursants. Pacific Islands isolates belonged to the eastern Australian topotype. Our findings suggest that certain genetic types of Ross River virus predominate in different geographical regions. In contrast, populations of other important Australian arboviruses (Murray Valley encephalitis, Kunjin, and Sindbis viruses) are distributed across the Australian continent as minor variants of one strain. Our data also show that in one region, strains of Ross River virus with identical RNase T1 maps circulate during both years when epidemics occur and years when they do not. This finding suggests that Ross River virus epidemics are not dependent on the introduction or evolution of new strains of the virus. Two strains, belonging to the eastern Australian topotype, were isolated in Western Australia. It is likely that viremic humans or possibly domestic livestock travelling by aircraft were responsible for this movement. Images PMID:8497065

  1. Genetic characterization and pathogenicity assessment of Newcastle disease virus isolated from wild peacock.

    PubMed

    Khulape, Sagar A; Gaikwad, Satish S; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad; Dey, Sohini

    2014-12-01

    The continued spread and occurrence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has posed potential threat to domestic poultry industry around the globe. Mainly, wild avian species has always been implicated for the natural reservoir for virus and spread of the disease. In the present study, we report the isolation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV/Peacock/India/2012) in necropsy brain tissue sample of wild peacock from North India. Complete genome of the virus was found to be 15,186 nucleotides (nts) with six genes in order of 3'-N-P-M-F-HN-L-5', which was limited by 55-nts leader region at the 3' end and a 114-nts trailer sequence at 5' end. Sequence analysis of fusion protein revealed the dibasic amino acid cleavage site (112)R-R-Q-K-R-F(117), a characteristic motif of virulent virus. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate in genotype II of Newcastle disease virus showing the lowest mean percent divergence (6 %) with other genotype II counterparts. The isolate was characterized as mesogenic (intermediate pathotype) based on the mean death time (63 h) in embryonated chicken eggs and the intra-cerebral pathogenicity index (1.40) in day-old chicks. The report emphasizes the dynamic ecology of NDV strains circulating in a wild avian host during the outbreak of 2012 in North India. Further the genotypic and pathotypical characterizations of the isolate could help in development of homologous vaccine against NDV strain circulating in avian population. PMID:25260553

  2. Virus Neutralising Antibodies Against 22 Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Isolates in Vaccinated Calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hamers; E. Di valentin; C. Lecomte; M. Lambot; E. Joris; B. Genicot; P. Pastoret

    2002-01-01

    Seven of nine colostrum deprived calves, free from bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), were vaccinated with a commercially available vaccine containing two inactivated strains of BVDV, an inactivated strain of bovine herpesvirus-1 and modified-live strains of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and para-influenza-3 virus. The two other calves were kept as controls. The virus neutralising (VN) antibodies induced by vaccination were

  3. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of glycoprotein of rabies virus isolated from several species in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sato, Go; Itou, Takuya; Shoji, Youko; Miura, Yasuo; Mikami, Takeshi; Ito, Mikako; Kurane, Ichiro; Samara, Samir I; Carvalho, Adolorata A B; Nociti, Darci P; Ito, Fumio H; Sakai, Takeo

    2004-07-01

    Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of the region containing the glycoprotein (G) gene, which is related to pathogenicity and antigenicity, and the G-L intergenic region were carried out in 14 Brazilian rabies virus isolates. The isolates were classified as dog-related rabies virus (DRRV) or vampire bat-related rabies virus (VRRV), by nucleoprotein (N) analysis. The nucleotide and amino acid (AA) homologies of the area containing the G protein gene and G-L intergenic region were generally lower than those of the ectodomain. In both regions, nucleotide and deduced AA homologies were lower among VRRVs than among DRRVs. There were AA differences between DRRV and VRRV at 3 antigenic sites and epitopes (IIa, WB+ and III), suggesting that DRRV and VRRV can be distinguished by differences of antigenicity. In a comparison of phylogenetic trees between the ectodomain and the area containing the G protein gene and G-L intergenic region, the branching patterns of the chiropteran and carnivoran rabies virus groups differed, whereas there were clear similarities in patterns within the DRRV and VRRV groups. Additionally, the VRRV isolates were more closely related to chiropteran strains isolated from Latin America than to Brazilian DRRV. These results indicate that Brazilian rabies virus isolates can be classified as DRRV or VRRV by analysis of the G gene and the G-L intergenic region, as well as by N gene analysis. PMID:15297743

  4. Sequence analysis of an Archaeal virus isolated from a hypersaline lake in Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    Pagaling, Eulyn; Haigh, Richard D; Grant, William D; Cowan, Don A; Jones, Brian E; Ma, Yanhe; Ventosa, Antonio; Heaphy, Shaun

    2007-01-01

    Background We are profoundly ignorant about the diversity of viruses that infect the domain Archaea. Less than 100 have been identified and described and very few of these have had their genomic sequences determined. Here we report the genomic sequence of a previously undescribed archaeal virus. Results Haloarchaeal strains with 16S rRNA gene sequences 98% identical to Halorubrum saccharovorum were isolated from a hypersaline lake in Inner Mongolia. Two lytic viruses infecting these were isolated from the lake water. The BJ1 virus is described in this paper. It has an icosahedral head and tail morphology and most likely a linear double stranded DNA genome exhibiting terminal redundancy. Its genome sequence has 42,271 base pairs with a GC content of ~65 mol%. The genome of BJ1 is predicted to encode 70 ORFs, including one for a tRNA. Fifty of the seventy ORFs had no identity to data base entries; twenty showed sequence identity matches to archaeal viruses and to haloarchaea. ORFs possibly coding for an origin of replication complex, integrase, helicase and structural capsid proteins were identified. Evidence for viral integration was obtained. Conclusion The virus described here has a very low sequence identity to any previously described virus. Fifty of the seventy ORFs could not be annotated in any way based on amino acid identities with sequences already present in the databases. Determining functions for ORFs such as these is probably easier using a simple virus as a model system. PMID:17996081

  5. Genetic diversity of Japanese encephalitis virus isolates obtained from the Indonesian archipelago between 1974 and 1987.

    PubMed

    Schuh, Amy J; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B; Barrett, Alan D T

    2013-07-01

    Five genotypes (GI-V) of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) have been identified, all of which have distinct geographical distributions and epidemiologies. It is thought that JEV originated in the Indonesia-Malaysia region from an ancestral virus. From that ancestral virus GV diverged, followed by GIV, GIII, GII, and GI. Genotype IV appears to be confined to the Indonesia-Malaysia region, as GIV has been isolated in Indonesia from mosquitoes only, while GV has been isolated on three occasions only from a human in Malaysia and mosquitoes in China and South Korea. In contrast, GI-III viruses have been isolated throughout Asia and Australasia from a variety of hosts. Prior to this study only 13 JEV isolates collected from the Indonesian archipelago had been studied genetically. Therefore the sequences of the envelope (E) gene of 24 additional Indonesian JEV isolates, collected throughout the archipelago between 1974 and 1987, were determined and a series of molecular adaptation analyses were performed. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that over a 14-year time span three genotypes of JEV circulated throughout Indonesia, and a statistically significant association between the year of virus collection and genotype was revealed: isolates collected between 1974 and 1980 belonged to GII, isolates collected between 1980 and 1981 belonged to GIV, and isolates collected in 1987 belonged to GIII. Interestingly, three of the GII Indonesian isolates grouped with an isolate that was collected during the JE outbreak that occurred in Australia in 1995, two of the GIII Indonesian isolates were closely related to a Japanese isolate collected 40 years previously, and two Javanese GIV isolates possessed six amino acid substitutions within the E protein when compared to a previously sequenced GIV isolate collected in Flores. Several amino acids within the E protein of the Indonesian isolates were found to be under directional evolution and/or co-evolution. Conceivably, the tropical climate of the Indonesia/Malaysia region, together with its plethora of distinct fauna and flora, may have driven the emergence and evolution of JEV. This is consistent with the extensive genetic diversity seen among the JEV isolates observed in this study, and further substantiates the hypothesis that JEV originated in the Indonesia-Malaysia region. PMID:23590316

  6. Genetic Diversity of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Isolates Obtained from the Indonesian Archipelago Between 1974 and 1987

    PubMed Central

    Schuh, Amy J.; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Five genotypes (GI–V) of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) have been identified, all of which have distinct geographical distributions and epidemiologies. It is thought that JEV originated in the Indonesia-Malaysia region from an ancestral virus. From that ancestral virus GV diverged, followed by GIV, GIII, GII, and GI. Genotype IV appears to be confined to the Indonesia-Malaysia region, as GIV has been isolated in Indonesia from mosquitoes only, while GV has been isolated on three occasions only from a human in Malaysia and mosquitoes in China and South Korea. In contrast, GI–III viruses have been isolated throughout Asia and Australasia from a variety of hosts. Prior to this study only 13 JEV isolates collected from the Indonesian archipelago had been studied genetically. Therefore the sequences of the envelope (E) gene of 24 additional Indonesian JEV isolates, collected throughout the archipelago between 1974 and 1987, were determined and a series of molecular adaptation analyses were performed. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that over a 14-year time span three genotypes of JEV circulated throughout Indonesia, and a statistically significant association between the year of virus collection and genotype was revealed: isolates collected between 1974 and 1980 belonged to GII, isolates collected between 1980 and 1981 belonged to GIV, and isolates collected in 1987 belonged to GIII. Interestingly, three of the GII Indonesian isolates grouped with an isolate that was collected during the JE outbreak that occurred in Australia in 1995, two of the GIII Indonesian isolates were closely related to a Japanese isolate collected 40 years previously, and two Javanese GIV isolates possessed six amino acid substitutions within the E protein when compared to a previously sequenced GIV isolate collected in Flores. Several amino acids within the E protein of the Indonesian isolates were found to be under directional evolution and/or co-evolution. Conceivably, the tropical climate of the Indonesia/Malaysia region, together with its plethora of distinct fauna and flora, may have driven the emergence and evolution of JEV. This is consistent with the extensive genetic diversity seen among the JEV isolates observed in this study, and further substantiates the hypothesis that JEV originated in the Indonesia-Malaysia region. PMID:23590316

  7. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B, C, E, and G Virus Infections and Molecular Analysis of Hepatitis G Virus Isolates in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Konomi, Nami; Miyoshi, Chiaki; La Fuente Zerain, Carlos; Li, Tian-Cheng; Arakawa, Yasuyuki; Abe, Kenji

    1999-01-01

    Prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis G virus (HGV), and hepatitis E virus (HEV) was investigated among 574 healthy blood donors in Bolivia. HCV RNA and HGV RNA in the serum were identified by a nested reverse transcription-PCR using primers derived from the 5? untranslated region (5? UTR). We also tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and for the antibody to HEV. The results revealed that HGV RNA was present in 84 of 574 (14.6%) tested blood donors, whereas HBsAg was detected in only 2 (0.3%) donors, and no individuals positive for HCV RNA were found. Anti-HEV immunoglobulin G (IgG) was detected in 93 (16.2%) individuals and anti-HEV IgM was found in 10 (1.7%) individuals among the same population. Phylogenetic analysis of 44 HGV isolates in the 5? UTR showed that 27 (61%) isolates were genotype 3 (Asian type) and the remaining 17 (39%) isolates were genotype 2 (United States and European type). Moreover, we obtained a full-length nucleotide sequence of the HGV genome (designated HGV-BL230) recovered from a Bolivian blood donor. The BL230 was composed of 9,227 nucleotides and had a single open reading frame, encoding 2,842 amino acid residues. Interestingly, the BL230 belonged to genotype 2 of HGV at the level of a full-length sequence, although this was classified as genotype 3 by a phylogenetic analysis based on the 5? UTR sequence. The BL230 differed from previously reported HGV/hepatitis GB virus type C isolates by 12 to 13% of the nucleotide sequence and 4% of the amino acid sequence. Our data indicate a high prevalence of HGV in native Bolivians, and the major genotype of HGV was type 3. PMID:10488194

  8. Nucleotide sequencing and serologic analysis of Cache Valley virus isolates from the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Blitvich, Bradley J; Loroño-Pino, Maria A; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E; Farfan-Ale, Jose A; Dorman, Karin S

    2012-08-01

    Nucleotide sequencing was performed on part of the medium and large genome segments of 17 Cache Valley virus (CVV) isolates from the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Alignment of these sequences to all other sequences in the Genbank database revealed that they have greatest nucleotide identity (97-98 %) with the equivalent regions of Tlacotalpan virus (TLAV), which is considered to be a variety of CVV. Next, cross-plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs) were performed using sera from mice that had been inoculated with a representative isolate from the Yucatan Peninsula (CVV-478) or the prototype TLAV isolate (61-D-240). The PRNT titers exhibited a twofold difference in one direction and no difference in the other direction suggesting that CVV-478 and 61-D-240 belong to the same CVV subtype. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the CVV isolates from the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico are genetically and antigenically similar to the prototype TLAV isolate. PMID:22467180

  9. [Pathogenicity of noncytophatic isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus in experimentally infected seronegative calves].

    PubMed

    Glotov, A G; Glotova, T I; Za?tsev, Iu N; P'iankov, O V; Sergeev, A N; Guliukin, M I

    2014-01-01

    The results of experimental infection of seronegative calves with three non-cytopathogenic (NCP) isolates of BVDV isolated from cattle with different clinical manifestations of the disease belonging to genotype 1 (subgenotype 1a, 1b and 1d) are presented. All tested isolates showed the virulence for seronegative calves 4 to 6 months of age. Belonging to biotype did not correlate with the ability of the virus to infect the lymphoid tissues and to induce leukopenia. All isolates of the virus led to "transiting" leukopenia (up to 2880-3800 kl/mm3) for 8-10 days after infection. Isolate cluster 1d was more virulent and caused the development of a mild respiratory syndrome and short-term diarrhea. The virulence was "strain-dependent". PMID:25549468

  10. Isolation and characterization of viruses from fetal calf serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Molander; A. J. Kniazeff; C. W. Boone; A. Paley; D. T. Imagawa

    1971-01-01

    Summary  Ten lots of specially procured fetal calf serum collected under sterile conditions and not filtered and 16 lots of commercial\\u000a fetal calf serum were tested for both human and bovine viral contamination. The presence of viruses was evaluated by observing\\u000a for cytopathogenic effect (CPE), hemadsorption with guinea pig erythrocytes, and interference with cytopathogenic challenge\\u000a viruses in both embryonic bovine trachea

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of dengue virus types 1 and 3 isolated in Jakarta, Indonesia in 1988.

    PubMed

    Sjatha, Fithriyah; Takizawa, Yamato; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Konishi, Eiji

    2012-12-01

    Dengue viruses are mosquito-borne viruses that cause dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, both of which are globally important diseases. These viruses have evolved in a transmission cycle between human hosts and mosquito vectors in various tropical and subtropical environments. We previously isolated three strains of dengue type 1 virus (DENV1) and 14 strains of dengue type 3 virus (DENV3) during an outbreak of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Jakarta, Indonesia in 1988. Here, we compared the nucleotide sequences of the entire envelope protein-coding region among these strains. The isolates were 97.6-100% identical for DENV1 and 98.8-100% identical for DENV3. All DENV1 isolates were included in two different clades of genotype IV and all DENV3 isolates were included in a single clade of genotype I. For DENV1, three Yap Island strains isolated in 2004 were the only strains closely related to the present isolates; the recently circulated Indonesian strains were in different clades. Molecular clock analyses estimated that ancestors of the genotype IV strains of DENV1 have been indigenous in Indonesia since 1948. We predict that they diverged frequently around 1967 and that their offspring distributed to Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific, and Africa. For DENV3, the clade containing all the present isolates also contained strains isolated from other Indonesian regions and other countries including Malaysia, Singapore, China, and East Timor from 1985-2010. Molecular clock analyses estimated that the common ancestor of the genotype I strains of DENV3 emerged in Indonesia around 1967 and diverged frequently until 1980, and that their offspring distributed mainly in Southeast Asia. The first dengue outbreak in 1968 and subsequent outbreaks in Indonesia might have influenced the divergence and distribution of the DENV1 genotype IV strains and the DENV3 genotype I strains in many countries. PMID:22959957

  12. Molecular characterization and experimental host range of an isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus.

    PubMed

    Collins, A M; Mujaddad-ur-Rehman, Malik; Brown, J K; Reddy, C; Wang, A; Fondong, V; Roye, M E

    2009-12-01

    Partial genome segments of a begomovirus were previously amplified from Wissadula amplissima exhibiting yellow-mosaic and leaf-curl symptoms in the parish of St. Thomas, Jamaica and this isolate assigned to a tentative begomovirus species, Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus. To clone the complete genome of this isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus, abutting primers were designed to PCR amplify its full-length DNA-A and DNA-B components. Sequence analysis of the complete begomovirus genome obtained, confirmed that it belongs to a distinct begomovirus species and this isolate was named Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus-[Jamaica:Albion:2005] (WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05]). The genome of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is organized similar to that of other bipartite Western Hemisphere begomoviruses. Phylogenetic analyses placed the genome components of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] in the Abutilon mosaic virus clade and showed that the DNA-A component is most closely related to four begomovirus species from Cuba, Tobacco leaf curl Cuba virus, Tobacco leaf rugose virus, Tobacco mottle leaf curl virus, and Tomato yellow distortion leaf virus. The putative Rep-binding-site motif in the common region of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] was observed to be identical to that of Chino del tomate virus-Tomato [Mexico:Sinaloa:1983], Sida yellow mosaic Yucatan virus-[Mexico:Yucatan:2005], and Tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus-[Nicaragua:Santa Lucia], suggesting that WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is capable of forming viable pseudo-recombinants with these begomoviruses, but not with other members of the Abutilon mosaic virus clade. Biolistic inoculation of test plant species with partial dimers of the WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] DNA-A and DNA-B components showed that the virus was infectious to Nicotiana benthamiana and W. amplissima and the cultivated species Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). Infected W. amplissima plants developed symptoms similar to symptoms observed under field conditions, confirming that this virus is a causal agent of Wissadula yellow mosaic disease in W. amplissima. PMID:19768650

  13. Avian paramyxoviruses and influenza viruses isolated from mallard ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos ) in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Stanislawek; C. R. Wilks; J. Meers; G. W. Horner; D. J. Alexander; R. J. Manvell; J. A. Kattenbelt; A. R. Gould

    2002-01-01

    Summary.  ?A comprehensive study using virological and serological approaches was carried out to determine the status of live healthy\\u000a mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in New Zealand for infections with avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) and influenza viruses (AIV). Thirty-three viruses isolated\\u000a from 321 tracheal and cloacal swabs were characterized as: 6 AIV (two H5N2 and four H4N6), 10 APMV-1 and 17 APMV-4. Of

  14. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus stability in environmental and clinical substrates: implications for virus detection and isolation.

    PubMed

    Dornas, Fábio P; Silva, Lorena C F; de Almeida, Gabriel M; Campos, Rafael K; Boratto, Paulo V M; Franco-Luiz, Ana P M; La Scola, Bernard; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are extremely diverse and abundant and are present in countless environments. Giant viruses of the Megavirales order have emerged as a fascinating research topic for virologists around the world. As evidence of their ubiquity and ecological impact, mimiviruses have been found in multiple environmental samples. However, isolation of these viruses from environmental samples is inefficient, mainly due to methodological limitations and lack of information regarding the interactions between viruses and substrates. In this work, we demonstrate the long-lasting stability of mimivirus in environmental (freshwater and saline water) and hospital (ventilator plastic device tube) substrates, showing the detection of infectious particles after more than 9 months. In addition, an enrichment protocol was implemented that remarkably increased mimivirus detection from all tested substrates, including field tests. Moreover, biological, morphological and genetic tests revealed that the enrichment protocol maintained mimivirus particle integrity. In conclusion, our work demonstrated the stability of APMV in samples of environmental and health interest and proposed a reliable and easy protocol to improve giant virus isolation. The data presented here can guide future giant virus detection and isolation studies. PMID:24498379

  15. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus Stability in Environmental and Clinical Substrates: Implications for Virus Detection and Isolation

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Gabriel M.; Campos, Rafael K.; Boratto, Paulo V. M.; Franco-Luiz, Ana P. M.; La Scola, Bernard; Ferreira, Paulo C. P.; Kroon, Erna G.; Abrahão, Jônatas S.

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are extremely diverse and abundant and are present in countless environments. Giant viruses of the Megavirales order have emerged as a fascinating research topic for virologists around the world. As evidence of their ubiquity and ecological impact, mimiviruses have been found in multiple environmental samples. However, isolation of these viruses from environmental samples is inefficient, mainly due to methodological limitations and lack of information regarding the interactions between viruses and substrates. In this work, we demonstrate the long-lasting stability of mimivirus in environmental (freshwater and saline water) and hospital (ventilator plastic device tube) substrates, showing the detection of infectious particles after more than 9 months. In addition, an enrichment protocol was implemented that remarkably increased mimivirus detection from all tested substrates, including field tests. Moreover, biological, morphological and genetic tests revealed that the enrichment protocol maintained mimivirus particle integrity. In conclusion, our work demonstrated the stability of APMV in samples of environmental and health interest and proposed a reliable and easy protocol to improve giant virus isolation. The data presented here can guide future giant virus detection and isolation studies. PMID:24498379

  16. Evolutionary Changes Affecting Rapid Identification of 2008 Newcastle Disease Viruses Isolated from Double-Crested Cormorants? †

    PubMed Central

    Rue, Cary A.; Susta, Leonardo; Brown, Corrie C.; Pasick, John M.; Swafford, Seth R.; Wolf, Paul C.; Killian, Mary Lea; Pedersen, Janice C.; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2010-01-01

    A morbidity-mortality event involving virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) occurred in North America in the summer of 2008. All 22 viruses isolated from cormorants were positively identified by the USDA-validated real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay targeting the matrix gene. However, the USDA-validated reverse transcription-PCR assay targeting the fusion gene that is specific for virulent isolates identified only 1 of these 22 isolates. Additionally, several of these isolates have been sequenced, and this information was used to identify genomic changes that caused the failure of the test and to revisit the evolution of NDV in cormorants. The forward primer and fusion probe were redesigned from the 2008 cormorant isolate sequence, and the revised fusion gene test successfully identified all 22 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses using both the full fusion sequence and the partial 374-nucleotide sequence identified these isolates as genotype V, with their nearest ancestor being an earlier isolate collected from Nevada in 2005. Histopathological analysis of this ancestral strain revealed morphological changes in the brain consistent with that of the traditional mesogenic pathotypes in cormorants. Intracerebral pathogenicity assays indicated that each of these isolates is virulent with values of >0.7 but not more virulent than earlier isolates reported from Canada. PMID:20107098

  17. Evolutionary changes affecting rapid identification of 2008 Newcastle disease viruses isolated from double-crested cormorants.

    PubMed

    Rue, Cary A; Susta, Leonardo; Brown, Corrie C; Pasick, John M; Swafford, Seth R; Wolf, Paul C; Killian, Mary Lea; Pedersen, Janice C; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2010-07-01

    A morbidity-mortality event involving virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) occurred in North America in the summer of 2008. All 22 viruses isolated from cormorants were positively identified by the USDA-validated real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay targeting the matrix gene. However, the USDA-validated reverse transcription-PCR assay targeting the fusion gene that is specific for virulent isolates identified only 1 of these 22 isolates. Additionally, several of these isolates have been sequenced, and this information was used to identify genomic changes that caused the failure of the test and to revisit the evolution of NDV in cormorants. The forward primer and fusion probe were redesigned from the 2008 cormorant isolate sequence, and the revised fusion gene test successfully identified all 22 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses using both the full fusion sequence and the partial 374-nucleotide sequence identified these isolates as genotype V, with their nearest ancestor being an earlier isolate collected from Nevada in 2005. Histopathological analysis of this ancestral strain revealed morphological changes in the brain consistent with that of the traditional mesogenic pathotypes in cormorants. Intracerebral pathogenicity assays indicated that each of these isolates is virulent with values of >0.7 but not more virulent than earlier isolates reported from Canada. PMID:20107098

  18. Thermostability of subpopulations of H2N3 influenza virus isolates from mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Negovetich, Nicholas J; Webster, Robert G

    2010-09-01

    Maintenance of avian influenza virus in waterfowl populations requires that virions remain infectious while in the environment. Temperature has been shown to negatively correlate with persistence time, which is the duration for which virions are infectious. However, thermostability can vary between isolates regardless of subtype, and it is not known whether this variation occurs when host and geographic location of isolation are controlled. In this study, we analyzed the thermostabilities of 7 H2N3 viruses isolated from mallard ducks in Alberta, Canada. Virus samples were incubated at 37 degrees C and 55 degrees C, and infectivity titers were calculated at different time points. Based on the rate of infectivity inactivation at 37 degrees C, isolates could be grouped into either a thermosensitive or thermostable fraction for both egg- and MDCK-grown virus populations. Titers decreased more rapidly for isolates incubated at 55 degrees C, and this loss of infectivity occurred in a nonlinear, 2-step process, which is in contrast with the consensus on thermostability. This suggests that stock samples contain a mixture of subpopulations with different thermostabilities. The rate of decrease for the sensitive fraction was approximately 14 times higher than that for the stable fraction. The presence of subpopulations is further supported by selection experiments and plaque purification, both of which result in homogenous populations that exhibit linear decreases of infectivity titer. Therefore, variation of thermostability of influenza virus isolates begins at the level of the population. The presence of subpopulations with high thermostability suggests that avian viruses can persist in water longer than previously estimated, thus increasing the probability of transmission to susceptible hosts. PMID:20610728

  19. [Genetic characterisation of Powassan virus (POWV) isolated from Haemophysalis longicornis ticks in Primorye and two strains of Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus): Alma-Arasan virus (AAV) isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Kazakhstan and Malyshevo virus isolated from Aedes vexans nipponii mosquitoes in Khabarovsk kray].

    PubMed

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovski?, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Botikov, A G; Aristova, V A

    2014-01-01

    The complete genomes of the three tick-borne flaviviruses (genus Flavivirus, fam. Bunyaviridae) were sequenced: Povassan virus (POWV, strain LEIV-3070Prm, isolated from Haemophysalis logicornis in Primorsky Krai, Russia in 1977), Alma-Arasan virus (AAV, strain LEIV-1380Kaz, isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Kazakhstan in 1977) and Malyshevo virus (isolated from a pool of Aedes vexans nipponii mosquitoes, in the Khabarovsk Krai, Russia in 1978). It is shown that AAV and Malyshevo virus are the strains of Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and belong to Sibirian and Far-Eastern genotypes, respectively (GenBank ID: AAV KJ744033; strain Malyshevo KJ744034). Phylogenetically AAV is closest related (94,6% nt and 98,3% aa identity) to TBEV strains, isolated in Sibiria (Vasilchenko, Aino, Chita-653, Irkutsk-12). Malyshevo virus is closest related (96,4% nt and 98,3% nt identity) to strains of TBEV, isolated in Far Eastern part of Russia (1230, Spassk-72, Primorye-89). POWV LEIV-3070Prm has 99.7% identity with the prototype strain POWV LB, isolated in Canada and 99.5% of isolates with Far-Eastern strains of POWV (Spassk-9 and Nadezdinsk-1991). PMID:25895206

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Influenza C Viruses in the Philippines and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Odagiri, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Yoko; Okamoto, Michiko; Suzuki, Akira; Saito, Mariko; Tamaki, Raita; Lupisan, Socorro P.; Sombrero, Lydia T.; Hongo, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    From November 2009 to December 2013 in the Philippines, 15 influenza C viruses were isolated, using MDCK cells, from specimens obtained from children with severe pneumonia and influenza-like illness (ILI). This is the first report of influenza C virus isolation in the Philippines. In addition, from January 2008 to December 2013, 7 influenza C viruses were isolated from specimens that were obtained from children with acute respiratory illness (ARI) in Sendai city, Japan. Antigenic analysis with monoclonal antibodies to the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) glycoprotein showed that 19 strains (12 from the Philippines and 7 from Japan) were similar to the influenza C virus reference strain C/Sao Paulo/378/82 (SP82). Phylogenetic analysis of the HE gene showed that the strains from the Philippines and Japan formed distinct clusters within an SP82-related lineage. The clusters that included the Philippine and Japanese strains were shown to have diverged from a common ancestor around 1993. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of the internal genes showed that all strains isolated in the Philippines and Japan had emerged through reassortment events. The composition of the internal genes of the Philippine strains was different from that of the Japanese strains, although all strains were classified into an SP82-related lineage by HE gene sequence analysis. These observations suggest that the influenza C viruses analyzed here had emerged through different reassortment events; however, the time and place at which the reassortment events occurred were not determined. PMID:25552361

  1. Genetic characterization of H5N1 influenza A viruses isolated from zoo tigers in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alongkorn Amonsin; Sunchai Payungporn; Apiradee Theamboonlers; Roongroje Thanawongnuwech; Sanipa Suradhat; Nuananong Pariyothorn; Rachod Tantilertcharoen; Sudarat Damrongwantanapokin; Chantanee Buranathai; Arunee Chaisingh; Thaweesak Songserm; Yong Poovorawan

    2006-01-01

    The H5N1 avian influenza virus outbreak among zoo tigers in mid-October 2004, with 45 animals dead, indicated that the avian influenza virus could cause lethal infection in a large mammalian species apart from humans. In this outbreak investigation, six H5N1 isolates were identified and two isolates (A\\/Tiger\\/Thailand\\/CU-T3\\/04 and A\\/Tiger\\/Thailand\\/CU-T7\\/04) were selected for whole genome analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the 8

  2. Characterisation of the welsh onion isolate of Shallot yellow stripe virus from China.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Wei, C-B; Zheng, H-Y; Shi, Y-H; Adams, M J; Lin, L; Zhang, Q-Y; Wang, S-J; Chen, J-P

    2005-10-01

    The host range and nucleotide sequence of shallot yellow stripe virus (SYSV) from welsh onion in Shandong province, China is described. Of the plants tested, only shallot and welsh onion became infected but most shallot plants were symptomless. The complete sequence of one isolate (10429 nt) and the 3'-terminal 3540 nts of a second isolate were determined. They had c. 90% nt identity to one another and to published (partial) sequences of SYSV. SYSV was most closely related to onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) and resembled it in having a much larger P3 protein than other species in the genus. PMID:15968472

  3. Characterization of velogenic Newcastle disease viruses isolated from dead wild birds in Serbia during 2007.

    PubMed

    Vidanovi?, Dejan; Sekler, Milanko; Asanin, Ruzica; Mili?, Nenad; Nisavi?, Jakov; Petrovi?, Tamas; Savi?, Vladimir

    2011-04-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses type 1 or Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are frequently recovered from wild birds and such isolates are most frequently of low virulence. Velogenic NDV are usually recovered from poultry and only occasionally from wild birds. Five NDV isolates were obtained from carcasses of four wild bird species during 2007 in Serbia: Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), feral Rock Pigeon (Columba livia), and Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto). All the isolates have a typical fusion protein cleavage site motif of velogenic viruses ((112)R-R-Q-K-R-F(117)). The highest homology (99%) for the nucleotide sequences spanning the M and F gene of the studied isolates was with the genotype VII NDV isolate Muscovy duck/China(Fujian)/FP1/02. Phylogenetic analysis based on a partial F gene sequence showed that the isolates from wild birds cluster together with concurrent isolates from poultry in Serbia within the subgenotype VIId, which is the predominant pathogen involved currently in Newcastle disease outbreaks in poultry worldwide. It is unlikely that the wild birds played an important role in primary introduction or consequent spread of the velogenic NDV to domestic poultry in Serbia, and they probably contracted the virus from locally infected poultry. PMID:21441197

  4. Comparison of the coat protein genes of Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus isolates from Australia with those of isolates from other continents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda D. Maccarone; Martin J. Barbetti; Krishnapillai Sivasithamparam; Roger A. C. Jones

    2010-01-01

    The complete coat protein nucleotide encoding sequences of 13 Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus isolates from Australia were compared to those of 23 other isolates, including one from Australia. On phylogenetic analysis,\\u000a sub-clade A1 contained isolates from Australia (13), Europe and Japan, A2 contained isolates from Australia (1), Europe and\\u000a South America, and B1 and B2 contained only European isolates. In

  5. Biological and molecular variation of Iranian Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) isolates.

    PubMed

    Farzadfar, Shirin; Pourrahim, Reza

    2013-10-01

    Seventeen provinces of Iran were surveyed during 2003-2012 to find Brassicaceae hosts of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). A total 397 samples were collected from plants with virus-like symptoms. Among those tested by ELISA, 255 samples (67.2 %) were found to be infected with CaMV. Mechanical transmission tests showed that the Iranian isolates have similar biological properties on a number of Brassica and Raphanus plant species and cultivars tested. However, the isolates varied in the severity of symptoms they induced and in the capacity to infect B. oleracea var. capitata, on the basis of which they were grouped into two distinct biotypes L/MMo (latent/mild mottle) and severe (S) infection. The molecular diversity of natural population of CaMV were investigated based on the complete sequences of OFR 6 of 36 Iranian isolates collected from different geographically distant regions in Iran alongside the sequences of 14 previously reported isolates. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Iranian CaMV isolates belong to two groups (GI and GII). Most of the Iranian isolates fell into GI with other exotic isolates; however, the isolates from North-East Iran with Xinjiang from China fell into GII. The phylogenetic group GII (the North-East Iranian isolates) closely corresponded to the S biological group however other Iranian isolates corresponded to the L/MMo biological group. The within-population diversity was lower than the between population diversity suggesting the contribution of a founder effect on diversification of CaMV isolates. The Iranian isolates were differentiated from other exotic CaMV isolates and clustered into two RFLP groups using Hpy99I which closely corresponded to the biological and phylogenetic groups. This study showed the evolutionary process in CaMV isolates is shaped by a combination of host range differentiation and nucleotide substitution using the approach of population genetics. PMID:23828619

  6. Characterisation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates from an outbreak with haemorrhagic enteritis and severe pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ye?ilba?, Kadir; Förster, Christine; Ozyi?it, M Ozgür; Alpay, Gizem; Tuncer, Pelin; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; König, Matthias

    2014-02-21

    During 2007 a disease outbreak occurred in cattle in the Marmara region of western Turkey characterised by severe pneumonia and haemorrhagic enteritis in calves. Cases from three farms at different locations were examined and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolated in all cases. Phylogenetic characterisation of the virus isolates allocated them in a new cluster tentatively named as BVDV-1r. PMID:24447942

  7. An avian leukosis virus subgroup J isolate with a Rous sarcoma virus-like 5'-LTR shows enhanced replication capability.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanni; Guan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yongzhen; Li, Xiaofei; Yun, Bingling; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was first isolated from meat-producing chickens that had developed myeloid leukosis. However, ALV-J infections associated with hemangiomas have occurred in egg-producing (layer) flocks in China. In this study, we identified an ALV-J layer isolate (HLJ13SH01) as a recombinant of ALV-J and a Rous sarcoma virus Schmidt-Ruppin B strain (RSV-SRB), which contained the RSV-SRB 5'-LTR and the other genes of ALV-J. Replication kinetic testing indicated that the HLJ13SH01 strain replicated faster than other ALV-J layer isolates in vitro. Sequence analysis indicated that the main difference between the two isolates was the 5'-LTR sequences, particularly the U3 sequences. A 19 nt insertion was uniquely found in the U3 region of the HLJ13SH01 strain. The results of a Dual-Glo luciferase assay revealed that the 19 nt insertion in the HLJ13SH01 strain increased the enhancer activity of the U3 region. Moreover, an additional CCAAT/enhancer element was found in the 19 nt insertion and the luciferase assay indicated that this element played a key role in increasing the enhancer activity of the 5'-U3 region. To confirm the potentiation effect of the 19 nt insertion and the CCAAT/enhancer element on virus replication, three infectious clones with 5'-U3 region variations were constructed and rescued. Replication kinetic testing of the rescued viruses demonstrated that the CCAAT/enhancer element in the 19 nt insertion enhanced the replication capacity of the ALV-J recombinant in vitro. PMID:25274857

  8. Use of Ultrafiltration To Isolate Viruses from Seawater Which Are Pathogens of Marine Phytoplankton †

    PubMed Central

    Suttle, Curtis A.; Chan, Amy M.; Cottrell, Matthew T.

    1991-01-01

    Viruses may be major structuring elements of phytoplankton communities and hence important regulators of nutrient and energy fluxes in aquatic environments. In order to ascertain whether viruses are potentially important in dictating phytoplankton community structure, it is essential to determine the extent to which representative phytoplankton taxa are susceptible to viral infection. We used a spiral ultrafiltration cartridge (30,000-molecular-weight cutoff) to concentrate viruses from seawater at efficiencies approaching 100%. Natural virus communities were concentrated from stations in the Gulf of Mexico, a barrier island pass, and a hypersaline lagoon (Laguna Madre) and added to cultures of potential phytoplankton hosts. By following changes in in vivo fluorescence over time, it was possible to isolate several viruses that were pathogens to a variety of marine phytoplankton, including a prasinophyte (Micromonas pusilla), a pennate diatom (likely a Navicula sp.), a centric diatom (of unknown taxa), and a chroococcoid cyanobacterium (a Synechococcus sp.). As well, we observed changes in fluorescence in cultures of a cryptophyte (a Rhodomonas sp.) and a chlorophyte (Nannochloropsis oculata) which were consistent with the presence of viral pathogens. Although pathogens were isolated from all stations, all the pathogens were not isolated from every station. Filterability studies on the viruses infecting M. pusilla and the Navicula sp. showed that the viruses were consistently infective after filtration through polycarbonate and glass-fiber filters but were affected by most other filter types. Establishment of phytoplankton-pathogen systems will be important in elucidating the effect that viruses have on primary producers in aquatic systems. PMID:16348439

  9. “Zaliv Terpeniya” virus, a new Uukuniemi group arbovirus isolated from ixodes (Ceratixodes) putus Pick.-Camb. 1878 on tyuleniy island (Sakhalin region) and Commodore islands (Kamchatsk region)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Lvov; A. A. TIMOPI-IEEVA; V. L. GROMASttEVSKI; G. V. GOSTINSIICIIIKOVA; O. V. Veselovskaya; V. I. Chervonski; K. B. Fomina; A. I. Gromov; A. G. Pogrebenko; V. Yu. Zhezmer

    1973-01-01

    Summary Three virus strains isolated fromIxodes putus ticks were shown to be related to, though not identical, with Uukuniemi virus by complement-fixation tests. No antigenic relations were detected in the cross-neutralization test performed with the virus isolated and Uukuniemi virus. Two virus strains were isolated in 1969 on Tyuleniy island, Zaliv Terpeniya (Patience Bay) of the Sea of Okhotsk (Sakhalin

  10. Antigenic and genetic characterization of H1 influenza viruses isolated from feral ducks and swine in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Arikawa; N. Yamane; K. Totsukawa; T. Odagiri; N. Ishida

    1983-01-01

    Summary The strains of H1N4 influenza A virus isolated from feral ducks in Japan in 1977–78 were compared to swine-origin H1N1 viruses antigenically and genetically. Homologous characteristics were found among the H1N4 isolates from feral ducks in hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests, viral RNA patterns on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and oligonucleotide mapping. Although the hemagglutinins of duck-origin viruses employed in this study

  11. Pathogenesis and Transmission of Feral Swine Pseudorabies Virus Isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Aujesky’s Disease or pseudorabies, is one of the oldest recognized swine diseases. It is caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV), an alpha-herpesvirus that can induce respiratory disease, reproductive failure, and affect the central nervous system. PRV vaccines, in conjunction with serologi...

  12. DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PLUM POX VIRUS ISOLATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Boscia; V. Savino

    SUMMARY - Sharka is a devastating disease affecting many European and Mediterranean areas where stone fruit species are cultivated. The need for a rapid and sensitive detection of the disease, and for the identification of the virus strains as well, stimulated the development of several methods of laboratory diagnosis. In this paper the latest diagnostic methods are listed and briefly

  13. Molecular analysis of the complete genomic sequences of four isolates of Gooseberry vein banding associated virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donglin Xu; Ray Mock; Gary Kinard; Ruhui Li

    2011-01-01

    The presence of Gooseberry vein banding associated virus (GVBaV), a badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae, is strongly correlated with gooseberry vein banding disease in Ribes spp. In this study, full-length genomic sequences of four GVBaV isolates from different hosts and geographic regions were\\u000a determined to be 7649–7663 nucleotides. These isolates share identities of 96.4–97.3% for the complete genomic sequence, indicating

  14. Phylogenetic characterization of canine distemper virus isolates from naturally infected dogs and a marten in Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Jun An; Sook-Hee Yoon; Jee-Yong Park; In-Sun No; Bong-Kyun Park

    2008-01-01

    We sequenced the hemagglutinin (H) genes from four canine distemper virus (CDV) isolates obtained from three dogs and a marten in Korea. These sequences were included in subsequent H gene-focused phylogenetic tree analysis of 89 CDV strains. This analysis revealed eight clades designated as EU1, EU2, EU3, NA1, NA2, Asia 1, Asia 2 and Vaccine. Three of the Korean isolates

  15. Differentiation of field isolates and vaccine strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus by DNA sequencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Luis Chacón; Antonio J. Piantino Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Two different regions of the infected cell protein 4 (ICP4) gene of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) were amplified and sequenced for characterization of field isolates and tissue culture-origin (TCO) and chicken embryo-origin (CEO) vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the two regions showed differences in nucleotide and amino acid sequences between field isolates and attenuated vaccines. The PCR-RFLP results were identical

  16. Identification of new isolates of Turnip mosaic virus that cluster with less common viral strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Sánchez; M. Rodríguez-Mateos; A. Touriño; J. Fresno; C. Gómez-Campo; C. E. Jenner; J. A. Walsh; F. Ponz

    2007-01-01

    Summary  Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) was found infecting cultivated brassicas and wild and cultivated ornamental Brassicaceae plants in different regions of Spain. Five new TuMV isolates, originating from different host plant species (Brassica cretica, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa and Sisymbrium orientale), have been identified. The nucleotide sequences of the coat protein (CP) genes of the five isolates

  17. Analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of current wild-type canine distemper virus isolates from Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Haas; W Martens; I Greiser-Wilke; L Mamaev; T Butina; D Maack; T Barrett

    1997-01-01

    The haemagglutinin (H) gene sequences from three wild-type canine distemper viruses (CDV) isolated during 1994–1995 were sequenced to determine whether contemporary strains had undergone significant genetic changes relative to the currently used vaccine strains. The new isolates were closely related to each other (>99%) and displayed about 90–91% sequence homology to the Onderstepoort and Convac vaccine strains. There were one

  18. Complete genome sequence of nine isolates of canna yellow streak virus reveals its relationship to the sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) subgroup of potyviruses.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Ravendra P; Rajakaruna, Punsasi; Verchot, Jeanmarie

    2015-03-01

    Complete genome sequences were obtained from nine isolates of canna yellow streak virus (CaYSV). CaYSV belongs to the sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) subgroup of potyviruses with johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV) as its closest relative. Multiple sequence alignments showed a pattern of amino acid substitutions in the CP sequences, which enabled us to relate these isolates to South East Asian or European isolates. Biological characterization of CaYSV identified Nicotiana benthamiana, Chenopodium quinoa and Phaseolus vulgaris as experimental hosts. Given the popularity and global trade of cannas, a clear picture of the genetic diversity of CaYSV is critical to disease management. PMID:25567205

  19. Isolation of bluetongue and related viruses from Culicoides spp. in the Sudan.

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, P. S.; Osborne, R.; Jennings, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    Infection of domestic ruminants with bluetongue virus (BTV) is widespread in the Sudan but there are no records of vector species of Culicoides in that country. Therefore, light-trap collections of Culicoides for virus isolation procedures were made in the Khartoum and Um Benein areas of the Sudan during September-October 1982. Two virus isolates were made from pools of unengorged, female Culicoides. An isolate from a pool of C. kingi (schultzei gp) is a member of the Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease (EHD) serogroup. The other isolate from a pool of C. imicola, a known BTV vector in other parts of Africa, is type-5 BTV. In laboratory experiments, the North American vector of BTV, C. variipennis, supported replication of both Sudanese isolates to a high titre and transmission occurred after 10 days' incubation. This paper records the first isolation in the Sudan of arboviruses from Culicoides, with the identification of a BTV serotype and the presence of a member of the EHD (genus orbivirus, family Reoviridae) serogroup. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6096444

  20. Dielectrophoretic isolation and detection of cfc-DNA nanoparticulate biomarkers and virus from blood.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, Avery; Marciniak, Jennifer Y; McCanna, James; Krishnan, Rajaram; Rassenti, Laura; Kipps, Thomas J; Heller, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Dielectrophoretic (DEP) microarray devices allow important cellular nanoparticulate biomarkers and virus to be rapidly isolated, concentrated, and detected directly from clinical and biological samples. A variety of submicron nanoparticulate entities including cell free circulating (cfc) DNA, mitochondria, and virus can be isolated into DEP high-field areas on microelectrodes, while blood cells and other micron-size entities become isolated into DEP low-field areas between the microelectrodes. The nanoparticulate entities are held in the DEP high-field areas while cells are washed away along with proteins and other small molecules that are not affected by the DEP electric fields. DEP carried out on 20 ?L of whole blood obtained from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients showed a considerable amount of SYBR Green stained DNA fluorescent material concentrated in the DEP high-field regions. Whole blood obtained from healthy individuals showed little or no fluorescent DNA materials in the DEP high-field regions. Fluorescent T7 bacteriophage virus could be isolated directly from blood samples, and fluorescently stained mitochondria could be isolated from biological buffer samples. Using newer DEP microarray devices, high-molecular-weight DNA could be isolated from serum and detected at levels as low as 8-16 ng/mL. PMID:23436471

  1. Phylogenetic characterization of H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in Indonesia from 2003–2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryo Takano; Chairul A. Nidom; Maki Kiso; Yukiko Muramoto; Shinya Yamada; Yuko Sakai-Tagawa; Catherine Macken; Yoshihiro Kawaoka

    2009-01-01

    The wide distribution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses is a global threat to human health. Indonesia has had the largest number of human infections and fatalities caused by these viruses. To understand the enzootic conditions of the viruses in Indonesia, twenty-four H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry from 2003 to 2007 were phylogenetically characterized. Although previous studies exclusively classified

  2. Characterization of a Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza A Virus Isolated from Duck Meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terrence M. Tumpey; David L. Suarez; Laura E. L. Perkins; Dennis A. Senne; Jae-gil Lee; Youn-Jeong Lee; In-Pil Mo; Haan-Woo Sung; David E. Swayne

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1997 H5N1 influenza virus outbreak in humans and poultry in Hong Kong, the emergence of closely related viruses in poultry has raised concerns that additional zoonotic transmissions of influenza viruses from poultry to humans may occur. In May 2001, an avian H5N1 influenza A virus was isolated from duck meat that had been imported to South Korea from

  3. Characterization of an H3N2 canine influenza virus isolated from Tibetan mastiffs in China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Qiaoyang; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Dawei; Zhou, Jiewen; Dai, Xiaoguang; Chen, Zhaoguo; Li, Zejun

    2013-03-23

    Ten 3-month-old Tibetan mastiffs became ill 2 days after they were bought from a Tibetan mastiff exhibition, and 4 of them died 2 weeks later. A canine influenza virus (ZJ0110) was isolated from the lung of a deceased Tibetan mastiff and was characterized in detail. Sequence analysis indicated that the 8 genes of the canine isolate were most similar to those of avian-origin canine influenza viruses (H3N2) isolated in South Korea in 2007, with which they shared >98% sequence identity. ZJ0110 could experimentally infect 6-month-old beagles by intranasal inoculation and by airborne transmission, causing severe respiratory syndrome. Moreover, ZJ0110 could replicate in the upper respiratory tracts of mice and guinea pigs, and the virus titer was comparable to that in the upper respiratory tracts of dogs. Although the virus was genetically of avian origin, ZJ0110 could not experimentally infect chicken or ducks by intranasal inoculation. These results suggest that dogs might be an intermediary host in which avian influenza viruses adapt to replicate in mammals. PMID:23107656

  4. Isolation of mixed subtypes of influenza A virus from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    From April 2007 to March 2008, cloacal swabs were obtained from 246 casualty raptors recovered by various wildlife rehabilitation centers in the United States. The swabs were placed in a virus transport medium and transported to the laboratory on ice packs. At the laboratory, the samples were pooled with each pool consisting of five samples. All pools (n = 50) were screened for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) using a real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR); one of the pools was found positive. All five samples in this pool were tested individually by rRT-PCR; one sample from a bald eagle was found positive. This sample was inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation and a hemagglutinating virus was isolated. Complete genome sequencing of the isolate revealed a mixed infection with H1N1 and H2N1 subtypes. Further analysis revealed that the PB1-F2 gene sequence of H1N1 virus had the N66S virulence-associated substitution. Further studies on ecology and epidemiology of AIV in raptors are needed to help understand their role in the maintenance and evolution of AIV. PMID:20667110

  5. Isolation of mixed subtypes of influenza A virus from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sagar M; Jindal, Naresh; Chander, Yogesh; Ramakrishnan, Muthanan A; Redig, Patrick T; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2010-01-01

    From April 2007 to March 2008, cloacal swabs were obtained from 246 casualty raptors recovered by various wildlife rehabilitation centers in the United States. The swabs were placed in a virus transport medium and transported to the laboratory on ice packs. At the laboratory, the samples were pooled with each pool consisting of five samples. All pools (n = 50) were screened for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) using a real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR); one of the pools was found positive. All five samples in this pool were tested individually by rRT-PCR; one sample from a bald eagle was found positive. This sample was inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation and a hemagglutinating virus was isolated. Complete genome sequencing of the isolate revealed a mixed infection with H1N1 and H2N1 subtypes. Further analysis revealed that the PB1-F2 gene sequence of H1N1 virus had the N66S virulence-associated substitution. Further studies on ecology and epidemiology of AIV in raptors are needed to help understand their role in the maintenance and evolution of AIV. PMID:20667110

  6. Molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus type-1 and 2 isolated in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Muhd Hasyim; Rahman, Md. Mostafizur; Hussin, Salasawati

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Detection of different serotypes of dengue virus and provide information on origin, distribution and genotype of the virus. Methods: Dengue virus serotypes identified as DEN-1 and DEN-2 were amplified and sequenced with E gene. The consensus sequences were aligned with references E gene sequences of globally available GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Neighbor-joining and Kimura 2-parameter model to construct phylogenetic tree. Results: A total of 53 dengue virus isolates were positive, of which 38 (71.7%) were DENV-1 and 15 (28.3%) were DENV-2. Phylogenetic tree of DENV-1 and DENV-2 showed that the isolates were clustered in genotype I and cosmopolitan genotype, respectively considered the predominant genotypes in Southeast Asian countries. The molecular epidemiology genotype I DENV-1 and cosmopolitan genotype DENV-2 have been co-circulating in Klang Valley areas, Malaysia without shifting of genotype. Conclusion: The study reveals that DENV-1 and DENV-2 have been circulating in Malaysia. The isolates are clustered in genotype 1 and cosmopolitian genotype, respectively. The study results would help in planning for prevention and control of dengue virus in Malaysia.

  7. Molecular characterization of an Infectious bursal disease virus isolate from Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, S D; Omar, A R; Aini, I

    2004-01-01

    The segment A of an Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolate from Iran was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), sequenced and compared with published sequences of 26 IBDV isolates from other parts of the world. The Iranian isolate showed 8 unique amino acid differences. In addition, 9 common amino acid differences, namely 3 in VP2, (222 Ala, 256 lIe and 294 lIe), 3 in VP4 (685 Asn/Ser, 715 Ser and 751 Asp), 2 in VP3 (990 Val and 1005 Ala), and 1 in VP5 (49 Arg) were found. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Iranian isolate is closely related to highly virulent (hv) IBDV isolates from Asian countries. Nevertheless, it may share a common origin with hv isolates from other parts of the world. PMID:15462282

  8. Avian influenza virus with Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase combination H8N8, isolated in Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the genome sequence of an avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H8N8 isolated in Russia. The genome analysis shows that all genes belong to AIV Eurasian lineages. The PB2 gene was similar to a Mongolian low pathogenic (LP) AIV H7N1 and a Chinese high pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N2....

  9. Isolation of a virus responsible for an outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Nejmi, S.; Gaudin, O. G.; Chomel, J. J.; Baaj, A.; Sohier, R.; Bosshard, S.

    1974-01-01

    An epidemic of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis occurred in Morocco in 1970-1. It was caused by an enterovirus which appeared to be a new antigenic type similar to a virus isolated in South East Asia during the same period. PMID:4362409

  10. Hemagglutinin Receptor Binding of a Human Isolate of Influenza A(H10N8) Virus.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Irene; Mansour, Mena; Wohlbold, Teddy J; Ermler, Megan E; Hirsh, Ariana; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Krammer, Florian

    2015-07-01

    Three cases of influenza A(H10N8) virus infection in humans have been reported; 2 of these infected persons died. Characterization of the receptor binding pattern of H10 hemagglutinin from avian and human isolates showed that both interact weakly with human-like receptors and maintain strong affinity for avian-like receptors. PMID:26079843

  11. Complete genome sequence of an Argentinean isolate of Solenopsis invicta virus 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of an Argentinean isolate of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3ArgSF) obtained from the Santa Fe region of Argentina was sequenced in entirety. Assembly of 9 overlapping fragments yielded a consensus genome sequence 10,386 nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A) tail present on the 3' en...

  12. Hemagglutinin Receptor Binding of a Human Isolate of Influenza A(H10N8) Virus

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Mena; Wohlbold, Teddy J.; Ermler, Megan E.; Hirsh, Ariana; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Three cases of influenza A(H10N8) virus infection in humans have been reported; 2 of these infected persons died. Characterization of the receptor binding pattern of H10 hemagglutinin from avian and human isolates showed that both interact weakly with human-like receptors and maintain strong affinity for avian-like receptors. PMID:26079843

  13. Neurological lesions in chickens experimentally infected with virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distribution, character, and severity of lesions were evaluated in tissues from the central nervous system of chickens inoculated with 10 different Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates: CA 1083, Korea 97-147, Australia (all velogenic viscerotropic); Texas GB and Turkey North Dakota (both velogenic...

  14. Characterization of a naturally occurring recombinant isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Vigne; G. Demangeat; V. Komar; M. Fuchs

    2005-01-01

    The naturally occurring Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) recombinant isolate A17b was recovered from its grapevine host by sap inoculation and serial passages onto Gomphrena globosa, a pseudo local lesion herbaceous host, and Chenopodium quinoa, a systemic herbaceous host, to characterize some of its biological properties. Sequence analysis of the CP gene, in which a recombinational event was previously detected, demonstrated

  15. Comparison of cultural methods for primary isolation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus from field material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn S. Hughes; R. C. Jones

    1988-01-01

    Primary isolation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILT) from tracheal samples from 11 suspected field outbreaks was attempted using a variety of avian cell cultures, Vero cells and embryonated chicken eggs. Tracheal smears of each field sample were also examined by electron microscopy (EM) for the presence of herpesvirus particles.Chick embryo liver cells (CELi) appeared to be the most rapid and

  16. Variability of the NSS protein among Rift Valley fever virus isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Sall; A. Zanotto; H. G. Zeller; J. P. Digoutte; Y. Thiongane; M. Bouloy

    1997-01-01

    Eighteen strains of Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus collected over a period of 38 years and isolated from diverse localities in Africa and from various hosts (human, animal and arthropod) were investi- gated by RT-PCR followed by sequencing of the NSS protein coding region. This region was chosen to analyse variability because, in contrast to the N protein, the NSS

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strain Isolated in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qing; Xie, Zhiqin; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Liji; Luo, Sisi

    2014-01-01

    We report here the full-length RNA genomic sequence of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain GX4, isolated from a cow in southern China. Studies indicate that BVDV GX4 belongs to the BVDV-1b subtype. This report will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of BVDV in southern China cattle. PMID:24948756

  18. Complete nucleotide sequence of encephalomyocarditis virus isolated from South china tigers in china.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huimin; Yan, Qi; He, Hongxuan

    2013-01-01

    A strain of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), strain FJ13, has been isolated from South China tigers in China, and its complete genome has been sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that FJ13 belongs to the EMCV-1 serotype, and it is highly prevalent in China. PMID:23990575

  19. Complete genome sequences of new emerging Newcastle disease virus strains isolated from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains were isolated from geese in China during 2010 to 2011. The complete sequences of two NDV strains and the sequences of the envelop glyprotein genes (F and HN) of three other strains were determined. Phylogenetic analysis classified then into a new g...

  20. Isolation and characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 from donkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed S Abdel-Moneim; Ahmad E Abdel-Ghany; Salama AS Shany

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic H5N1 is a major avian pathogen that crosses species barriers and seriously affects humans as well as some mammals. It mutates in an intensified manner and is considered a potential candidate for the possible next pandemic with all the catastrophic consequences. METHODS: Nasal swabs were collected from donkeys suffered from respiratory distress. The virus was isolated

  1. Efficient Isolation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA from Cervical Swabs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ADELINE M. HAJJAR; PAUL F. LEWIS; YOHANNES ENDESHAW; JACKONIAH NDINYA-ACHOLA; JOAN K. KREISS; JULIE OVERBAUGH

    1998-01-01

    An efficient method for the isolation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleic acids from dry cervical swabs was developed. HIV-1 gag and env were detected in 96% (25 of 26) and 81% (21 of 26), respectively, of the samples tested by PCR from HIV-1-seropositive women in a Kenyan cohort study. Eighty- eight percent of the swabs (22 of

  2. Kolente virus, a rhabdovirus species isolated from ticks and bats in the Republic of Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Ghedin, Elodie; Rogers, Matthew B.; Widen, Steven G.; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Wood, Thomas G.; Fitch, Adam; Popov, Vsevolod; Holmes, Edward C.; Walker, Peter J.; Tesh, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Kolente virus (KOLEV) is a rhabdovirus originally isolated from ticks and a bat in Guinea, West Africa, in 1985. Although tests at the time of isolation suggested that KOLEV is a novel rhabdovirus, it has remained largely uncharacterized. We assembled the complete genome sequence of the prototype strain DakAr K7292, which was found to encode the five canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins (N, P, M, G and L) with alternative ORFs (>180 nt) in the P and L genes. Serologically, KOLEV exhibited a weak antigenic relationship with Barur and Fukuoka viruses in the Kern Canyon group. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that KOLEV represents a distinct and divergent lineage that shows no clear relationship to any rhabdovirus except Oita virus, although with limited phylogenetic resolution. In summary, KOLEV represents a novel species in the family Rhabdoviridae. PMID:24062532

  3. The complete genome sequences of two isolates of potato black ringspot virus and their relationship to other isolates and nepoviruses.

    PubMed

    Richards, R Souza; Adams, I P; Kreuze, J F; De Souza, J; Cuellar, W; Dullemans, A M; Van Der Vlugt, R A A; Glover, R; Hany, U; Dickinson, M; Boonham, N

    2014-04-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of the nepovirus potato black ringspot virus (PBRSV) from two different isolates were determined, as well as partial sequences from two additional isolates. RNA1 is 7,579-7,598 nucleotides long and contains one single open reading frame (ORF), which is translated into a large polyprotein with 2,325 amino acids and a molecular weight of 257 kDa. The complete sequence of RNA2 ranges from 3857 to 3918 nt between the different isolates. It encodes a polyprotein of 1079-1082 amino acids with a molecular weight of 120 kDa. Sequence comparison using the Pro-Pol region and CP showed that all four isolates formed two distinct groups, corresponding to potato and arracacha, that were closely related to each other and also to tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV). Comparing our data to those obtained with other nepoviruses, our results confirm that PBRSV belongs to a distinct species and is a member of subgroup A in the genus Nepovirus based on its RNA2 size, genome organization, and nucleotide sequence. PMID:24122155

  4. Properties of an Antigenic Glycoprotein Isolated from Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Edward A.

    1973-01-01

    A purified antigen, HABA protein, has been derived from influenza virus concentrates by extraction with denaturing solvents. The protein lacks hemagglutinating activity but binds completely strain-specific, hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies and induces neutralizing antibodies in experimental animals. Physicochemical characterization of HABA protein identifies it as a single homogeneous glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 78,000. On dissociation with guanidine or sodium dodecyl sulfate, in the presence of reducing agents, only one size of polypeptide with a molecular weight of the order of 40,000 is characteristic of the preparations. The data indicate that HABA protein is a dimer of HA1 polypeptide of the influenza virus hemagglutinin substructure, and that only trace amounts of other polypeptides are present. PMID:4688702

  5. Characterization and Isolation of Structural Polypeptides in Haemagglutinating Encephalomyelitis Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Callebaut; M. B. Pensaert

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY Haemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (HEV), a member of the coronavirus family, was purified and analysed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It was shown to contain eight polypeptides, seven of which were glycosylated. They had apparent tool. wt. of 180000 (GP T8o), I3OOOO (GP T3o), I2oooo (GP tzo) 760oo (GP 76), 64ooo (VP 64), 54ooo (GP 54), 32000 (GP 32) and 3I

  6. Glycosaminoglycan Binding Properties of Natural Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eryu Wang; Aaron C. Brault; Ann M. Powers; Wenli Kang; Scott C. Weaver

    2003-01-01

    Equine-virulent, epidemic\\/epizootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus (VEEV) arise via mutation of progenitor enzootic strains that replicate poorly in equines. Sequencing studies have implicated positively charged amino acids on the surface of the E2 envelope glycoprotein in the acquisition of equine virulence and viremia potential, suggesting that changes in binding to cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) may mediate VEE

  7. Pathogenesis in lambs and sequence analysis of putative virulence genes of Brazilian orf virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mathias; Cargnelutti, Juliana F; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo F

    2014-11-01

    The parapoxvirus orf virus (ORFV) is the agent of contagious ecthyma, an ubiquitous mucocutaneous disease of sheep and goats that may present variable clinical presentations. We herein studied the pathogenesis of ORFV infection in lambs and analyzed three putative virulence genes of four Brazilian ORFV isolates. Lambs inoculated in the labial commissures with each ORFV isolate (n=4, viral titer 10(5.6) TCID50/ml) developed classical orf lesions, characterized by a progressive course of erythema/macules, vesicles, pustules and proliferative scabs. Lesions lasted an average of 22.9 days (18-26) and virus shedding was detected for approximately 24.6 days (18-30). Two isolates (SV269/11 and SV820/10) produced more severe, long-lasting lesions resulting in highest clinical scores. Lambs inoculated with isolate SV581/11 developed lesions markedly milder (lower clinical scores [p<0.05]) and more limited than the other groups. Virus shedding by SV581/11 group, however, lasted similarly or even longer than the other groups. Sequence analysis of three virulence genes (VEGF, VIR and IL-10v) revealed amino acid deletions and mutations in VEGF and IL-10v genes of SV581/11 and SV252/11, the isolate(s) producing milder lesions. Additionally, the VEGF gene of isolate SV581/11 presented the lowest amino acid identity with the other isolates and with ORFV standard strain OV-IA82. Thus, these results demonstrate that ORFV isolates may display differential virulence in lambs and these differences might be associated with genetic changes in putative virulence genes. PMID:25293399

  8. Ilheus Virus Isolation in the Pantanal, West-Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Kenney, Joan L.; Couto-Lima, Dinair; Campos, Zilca M. S.; Nogueira, Rita M. R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The wetlands of the Brazilian Pantanal host large concentrations of diverse wildlife species and hematophagous arthropods, conditions that favor the circulation of zoonotic arboviruses. A recent study from the Nhecolândia sub-region of Pantanal reported serological evidence of various flaviviruses, including West Nile virus and Ilheus virus (ILHV). According to the age of seropositive horses, at least three flaviviruses, including ILHV, circulated in the Brazilian Pantanal between 2005 and 2009. To extend this study, we collected 3,234 adult mosquitoes of 16 species during 2009 and 2010 in the same sub-region. Mosquito pool homogenates were assayed for infectious virus on C6/36 and Vero cell monolayers and also tested for flaviviral RNA by a group-specific real-time RT-PCR. One pool containing 50 non-engorged female specimens of Aedes scapularis tested positive for ILHV by culture and for ILHV RNA by real-time RT-PCR, indicating a minimum infection rate of 2.5 per 1000. Full-length genomic sequence exhibited 95% identity to the only full genome sequence available for ILHV. The present data confirm the circulation of ILHV in the Brazilian Pantanal. PMID:23875051

  9. Phylogeography of rabies virus isolated from herbivores and bats in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Luiz Fernando Pereira; Pereira, Sílvia Regina Ferreira Gonçalves; Carnieli, Pedro; Tavares, Luiz Carlos Barbosa; Kotait, Ivanete

    2013-04-01

    Rabies is enzootic in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Every year, cattle and horses die from rabies that is transmitted by the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. This paper describes the spread of the rabies virus by the continuous diffusion model using relaxed random walks with BEAST software. Forty-one (41) sequences of gene G from the rabies virus that was isolated from bats and domestic herbivores from several areas of the state between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed. The phylogenetic tree showed three main clusters as well as two sub-clusters under cluster 2. A spatial analysis showed that three strains of the rabies virus spread independently. In general, central Espírito Santo, which is mountainous, was the area where separation of the virus strains occurred. This physical barrier, however, was overcome at some point in time, as samples from different lineages were found in the same microarea. PMID:23264105

  10. A noda-like virus isolated from the sweetpotato pest spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lep.; noctuidae)

    PubMed

    Zeddam; Rodriguez; Ravallec; Lagnaoui

    1999-11-01

    A small isometric virus has been isolated from larvae of the sweetpotato pest Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) collected near Pariacoto, Ancash province, Peru. It is designated the Pariacoto virus (PaV). In addition to its high pathogenicity on its natural host Spodoptera eridania, PaV was found to replicate in Spodoptera ochrea (Hampson) larvae but not in Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) larvae. The size of the viral particle was estimated to be about 30 nm in diameter. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a protein of approximately 40.5 kDa. After agarose gel electrophoresis, the viral genome appeared to be bipartite RNA. Gel immunodiffusion tests showed no serological relationship between PaV and Nodamura virus, the type species for insect nodaviruses. Electron microscopy confirmed that viral replication occurs in the cytoplasm. These properties are similar to those of other members of family Nodaviridae, to which the virus is currently assigned. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10534414

  11. Arboretum and Puerto Almendras viruses: two novel rhabdoviruses isolated from mosquitoes in Peru.

    PubMed

    Vasilakis, Nikos; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Widen, Steven G; Aguilar, Patricia V; Guzman, Hilda; Guevara, Carolina; Fernandez, Roberto; Auguste, Albert J; Wood, Thomas G; Popov, Vsevolod; Mundal, Kirk; Ghedin, Elodie; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Holmes, Edward C; Walker, Peter J; Tesh, Robert B

    2014-04-01

    Arboretum virus (ABTV) and Puerto Almendras virus (PTAMV) are two mosquito-associated rhabdoviruses isolated from pools of Psorophora albigenu and Ochlerotattus fulvus mosquitoes, respectively, collected in the Department of Loreto, Peru, in 2009. Initial tests suggested that both viruses were novel rhabdoviruses and this was confirmed by complete genome sequencing. Analysis of their 11?482 nt (ABTV) and 11?876 (PTAMV) genomes indicates that they encode the five canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins (N, P, M, G and L) with an additional gene (U1) encoding a small hydrophobic protein. Evolutionary analysis of the L protein indicates that ABTV and PTAMV are novel and phylogenetically distinct rhabdoviruses that cannot be classified as members of any of the eight currently recognized genera within the family Rhabdoviridae, highlighting the vast diversity of this virus family. PMID:24421116

  12. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates from BVDV infected alpacas in North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung G. Kim; Renee R. Anderson; Jin Z. Yu; Nancy C. Zylich; Hailu Kinde; Suzanne Carman; Daniela Bedenice; Edward J. Dubovi

    2009-01-01

    Over a three-year period, 2004–2007, greater than 12,000 alpacas in the United States were screened by real-time RT-PCR to identify alpacas persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). A total of 46 BVD viruses were isolated from PI alpacas or diagnostic samples from alpacas. Forty-three US alpaca BVDV isolates and 3 Canadian isolates were analyzed by comparison of

  13. Isolation and Characterization of a Single-Stranded DNA Virus Infecting Chaetoceros lorenzianus Grunow?

    PubMed Central

    Tomaru, Yuji; Takao, Yoshitake; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Nagumo, Tamotsu; Koike, Kanae; Nagasaki, Keizo

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms are one of the most significant primary producers in the ocean, and the importance of viruses as a potential source of mortality for diatoms has recently been recognized. Thus far, eight different diatom viruses infecting the genera Rhizosolenia and Chaetoceros have been isolated and characterized to different extents. We report the isolation of a novel diatom virus (ClorDNAV), which causes the lysis of the bloom-forming species Chaetoceros lorenzianus, and show its physiological, morphological, and genomic characteristics. The free virion was estimated to be ?34 nm in diameter. The arrangement of virus particles appearing in cross-section was basically a random aggregation in the nucleus. Occasionally, distinctive formations such as a ring-like array composed of 9 or 10 spherical virions or a centipede-like array composed of rod-shaped particles were also observed. The latent period and the burst size were estimated to be <48 h and 2.2 × 104 infectious units per host cell, respectively. ClorDNAV harbors a covalently closed circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genome (5,813 nucleotides [nt]) that includes a partially double-stranded DNA region (979 nt). At least three major open reading frames were identified; one showed a high similarity to putative replicase-related proteins of the other ssDNA diatom viruses, Chaetoceros salsugineum DNA virus (previously reported as CsNIV) and Chaetoceros tenuissimus DNA virus. ClorDNAV is the third member of the closed circular ssDNA diatom virus group, the genus Bacilladnavirus. PMID:21666026

  14. Genotypic and pathotypic characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from racing pigeons in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengda; Qu, Yajin; Wang, Fangkun; Liu, Sidang; Sun, Honglei

    2015-07-01

    A Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from an outbreak in racing pigeons in China was characterized in this study. Complete gene of the NDV isolate was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis. Pathogenicity experiment was carried out in pigeons, chickens, and ducks. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain clustered with the Class II viruses, has highly phylogenetically similar to NDV strains isolated from pigeons in China, but was distant from the viruses prevalence in chickens and vaccine strains used in China. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein confirmed that the isolate contained the virulent motif (112)RRQKRF(117) at the cleavage site, but it caused no appearance disease in chickens and ducks. However, the isolate had virulence in pigeons, resulting in severe nervous signs and highly mortality. Pigeons were considered as a potential source of NDV infection and disease for commercial poultry flocks. Therefore, new vaccines to prevent the NDV infection in the pigeon flocks should be developed as soon as possible, and strict biosecurity measures should be taken to reduce the risk of pigeon Newcastle disease outbreaks. PMID:25877412

  15. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  16. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-06-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. 'Sorok', 'Sodam' and 'Somyeong'. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1-100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  17. Antigenic typing of Brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000.

    PubMed

    Favoretto, Silvana Regina; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Cunha, Elenice Maria S; Aguiar, Elizabeth A C; Silva, Luzia Helena Q; Sodre, Miriam M; Souza, Maria Conceição A M; Kotait, Ivanete

    2002-01-01

    Animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. The panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the Americas. Samples were isolated in the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Pasteur Institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in Brazil. In addition to the fixed virus samples CVS-31/96-IP, preserved in mouse brain, and PV-BHK/97, preserved in cell culture, a total of 330 rabies virus samples were isolated from dogs, cats, cattle, horses, bats, sheep, goat, swine, foxes, marmosets, coati and humans. Six antigenic variants that were compatible with the pre-established monoclonal antibodies panel were defined: numbers 2 (dog), 3 (Desmodus rotundus), 4 (Tadarida brasiliensis), 5 (vampire bat from Venezuela), 6 (Lasiurus cinereus) and Lab (reacted to all used antibodies). Six unknown profiles, not compatible with the panel, were also found. Samples isolated from insectivore bats showed the greatest variability and the most commonly isolated variant was variant-3 (Desmodus rotundus). These findings may be related to the existence of multiple independent transmission cycles, involving different bat species. PMID:12048546

  18. Genetic variation in potato virus M isolates infecting pepino (Solanum muricatum) in China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Beibei; He, Zhen; Zhang, Zhixiang; Wang, Hongqing; Li, Shifang

    2014-12-01

    Potato virus M (PVM, genus Carlavirus, family Betaflexviridae) is considered to be one of most economically important pathogens of pepino in China. However, the details and the mechanisms underlying PVM evolution are unknown. In this study, we determined and analyzed 40 TGB 1 gene sequences, 67 TGB 2 and TGB 3 gene sequences, and 88 CP and NABP gene sequences from viruses isolated from 19 samples of pepino (Solanum muricatum) and one sample of tomato (S. lycopersicum) collected from different areas of China. Recombination analysis identified only one clear recombinant in the TGB2-TGB3-CP region, but no recombinants were detected for each of the five individual genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all PVM isolates could be divided into at least two lineages in trees derived from the TGB 2, CP, and NABP gene sequences, and the lineages seemed to reflect geographical origin. The five PVM genes in this study were found to be under strong negative selection pressure. The PVM isolates examined showed frequent gene flow between the Chinese and European populations, and also within the Chinese population. Clear star phylogenies and the neutral equilibrium model test showed that pepino isolates of PVM appear to be experiencing a new expansion after a recent introduction into China, and these isolates display low levels of genetic diversity. To our knowledge, this study is the first report describing genetic structure, recombination, and gene flow in PVM populations, and it provides strong evolutionary evidence for the virus populations from different geographic regions of China. PMID:25233939

  19. Comparison of rt pcr assay and virus isolation in cell cultures for the detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus ( bvdv) in field samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. I Laamanen; E. P Neuvonen; E. M Yliviuhkola; P. M.-L Veijalainen

    1997-01-01

    The virus isolation-immunoperoxidase test (ipx) on cell cultures and the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay were compared for the detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) directly in serum samples. Material for this study consisted of 403 sera originating from cattle in 41 bvdv-infected Finnish dairy herds and one suckler cow herd. The presence of virus was demonstrated in

  20. Development of FPV140 antigen-specific ELISA differentiating fowlpox virus isolates from all other viral pathogens of avian origin.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Hong, Q; Ren, Y; Lillehoj, H S; He, C; Ren, X

    2012-10-01

    The FPV140 gene encodes an envelope protein of fowlpox virus (FPV). In this study, the FPV140 gene of FPV Chinese isolate HH2008 was cloned and the comparison of its sequence with other FPV isolates showed it to be highly conserved across all FPV isolates. A recombinant plasmid pET-FPV140 carrying FPV140 gene was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli. The optimal expression condition for the FPV140 gene was developed and purified FPV140 recombinant protein was used to produce rabbit polyclonal antibody. An indirect ELISA using this anti-FPV140 polyclonal antibody was capable of distinguishing avian FPV isolates from other common avian pathogens such as mycoplasma gallisepticum, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, avian influenza virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and avian infectious bronchitis virus. This ELISA will serve as a useful diagnostic tool for the detection of FPV in clinical samples. PMID:22991535

  1. Flaviviruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during the first recorded outbreak of Japanese encephalitis virus on Cape York Peninsula, Australia.

    PubMed

    Van Den Hurk, A F; Johansen, C A; Zborowski, P; Phillips, D A; Pyke, A T; Mackenzie, J S; Ritchie, S A

    2001-01-01

    In response to an outbreak of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus on Cape York Peninsula, Australia, in 1998, mosquitoes were collected using CO2 and octenol-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps. A total of 35,235 adult mosquitoes, comprising 31 species, were processed for virus isolation. No isolates of JE virus were recovered from these mosquitoes. However, 18 isolates of Kokobera virus, another flavivirus were obtained from Culex annulirostris. Twelve isolates were from western Cape York (minimum infection rate (MIR) of 0.61: 1,000 mosquitoes) and 6 were from the Northern Peninsula Area (MIR of 1.0:1,000). Potential explanations for the failure to detect JE virus in mosquitoes collected from Cape York Peninsula include the timing of collections, the presence of alternative bloodmeal hosts, differences in pig husbandry, asynchronous porcine seroconversion, and the presence of other flaviviruses. PMID:11442206

  2. Molecular characterization of Dasheen mosaic virus isolates infecting edible aroids in India.

    PubMed

    Babu, B; Hegde, V

    2014-01-01

    Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV) infecting three major edible aroids namely Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, Colocasia esculenta, and Xanthosoma sagittifolium cultivated in India was characterized. Infected plants showing typical DsMV symptoms were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and an amplification of a 963 bp fragment which encoded the coat protein (CP) gene was obtained. BLAST analysis of the cloned DNA amplicon revealed the identity of the virus to be that of DsMV. Sequence identity matrix of the nucleotide sequences among the three isolates showed that the DsMV isolate infecting A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta shared an identity as high as 93%, while the DsMV isolate from X. sagittifolium shared an identity of only 73% and 76% with the DsMV isolates from A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta, respectively. Comparative analysis of the coat protein of the three DsMV isolates showed the presence of DVG motif (A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta) and DTG motif in X. sagittifolium and several varying potential threonine and asparagine rich N-glycosylation motifs. Single amino acid substitution of the several conserved motifs occurs in all the three DsMV isolates. This is the first characterization of DsMV isolates infecting A. paeoniifolius, C. esculenta, and X. sagittifolium plants in India. PMID:24717027

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of bluetongue virus serotype 4 field isolates from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Legisa, D; Gonzalez, F; De Stefano, G; Pereda, A; Dus Santos, M J

    2013-03-01

    Bluetongue is an insect-transmitted viral disease of ruminant species, which represents a major barrier to the international trade of animals and their products. Bluetongue virus (BTV) has a genome composed of ten linear segments of dsRNA, which code for at least ten different viral proteins. In South America, serological evidence for the presence of BTV has been found in Peru, Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador and Chile. Brazil and Argentina are the only South American countries where BTV has been isolated. In Brazil, only one BTV isolate, serotype 12, has been reported, whereas in Argentina five BTV serotype 4 isolates have been obtained from cattle without clinical signs. Three of these five isolates were isolated during 1999-2001, whereas two of them were obtained as part of the present work. This study describes sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses of segment (Seg)-2, Seg-3, Seg-6, Seg-7 and Seg-10 of the first Argentinian field isolates of BTV. The analysis of Seg-2 and Seg-6 resulted in a single cluster of Argentinian sequences into the serotype 4 clade. In addition, the Argentinian sequences grouped within the nucleotype A clade, along with reference strains. The analysis of Seg-3, Seg-7 and Seg-10 showed that the Argentinian isolates grouped into the western topotype, indicating that the circulating virus had an African/European origin. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Argentinian sequences present a South American genetic identity, suggesting an independent lineage evolution. PMID:23152367

  4. The identification of three new viruses isolated from Wisteria and Pisum in The Netherlands, and the problem of variation within the potato virus Y group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bos

    1970-01-01

    Three new legume diseases in The Netherlands are described:Wisteria vein mosaic, pea necrosis, and pea leafroll mosaic. In particle size and morphology and in host reaction the virus isolates resembled bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), but they were readily distinguishable in several test plants.

  5. Comparison of the complete sequences of three different isolates of Pepino mosaic virus : Size variability of the TGBp3 protein between tomato and L. peruvianum isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. López; S. Soler; F. Nuez

    2005-01-01

    Summary. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genomes of two Spanish isolates (LE-2000 and LE-2002) from tomato and one Peruvian isolate (LP-2001) from Lycopersicon peruvianum of the Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) were determined. The tomato isolates share identities higher than 99%, while the genome of LP-2001 had mean nucleotide identities of 95.6% to 96.0% with tomato isolates. The predicted amino

  6. A bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1a strain in China: isolation, identification, and experimental infection in calves

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important pathogens in cattle. Previously, BVDV sub-genotypes of 1b, 1c, 1d, and 1 m were detected in China. However, isolation of BVDV type 1a from cattle has not been reported in China. In 2010, twenty nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from the cattle suspected BVDV infection in Henan province, China. A BVDV isolate was isolated using cell culture, and the pathogenesis of the virus isolate was studied. Methods Virus isolation was performed on MDBK cells. The virus identification was conducted by RT-PCR, neutralization test and immunofluorescence assay. In order to determine the genotype of the newly isolated virus, the 5? un-translated region (5?UTR) of the virus isolate was cloned, sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. To evaluate the virulence of the virus isolate, four BVDV sero-negative calves were intranasally inoculated with the virus suspension. Rectal temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for changes in white blood cell counts, and tissue samples were taken for histopathology analysis. Results A new isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), named HN01, was isolated from the nasal swabs using MDBK cell culture. The HN01 strain caused cytopathic effect (CPE) in MDBK cell cultures after two passages. The virus specifically reacted to BVDV1-specific monoclonal antibody in an immunofluorescence assay. A fragment of 288 bp of genome from this isolate was amplified by the RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of 5?UTR indicated that the virus was BVDV 1a. In the pathogenesis study, four calves experimentally infected with the BVDV strain developed depression, cough and other clinical signs. Calves showed high temperature over 40°C, and white blood cell counts dropped more than 40%. Conclusions A new subgenotype 1a strain of BVDV was firstly isolated from dairy cattle in China. The experimental infection showed that the virus was moderate pathogenic to cattle and can be used as a BVDV challenge virus to evaluate the efficacy of BVDV vaccines in the target animals. PMID:24444389

  7. A molecular taxonomy for cricket paralysis virus including two new isolates from Australian populations of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Johnson; P. D. Christian

    1996-01-01

    Summary Two new isolates of cricket paralysis virus, TAR and SIM, are described that were originally isolated from laboratory colonies ofDrosophila melanogaster andDrosophila simulans respectively. Using a combination of biological, serological and molecular characters it was possible to distinguish the SIM isolate from all other isolates and it is thus described as a new strain; CrPVSIM. The TAR isolate however,

  8. Molecular characterization of the Tobacco rattle virus RNA2 genome isolated from Gladiolus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon J; Lim, Mi S; Kim, Su M; Ryu, Ki H; Choi, Sun H

    2015-06-01

    Tobacco rattle virus (TRV-K) was first identified in a symptomatic Gladiolus plant cultivated in Korea. We analyzed the TRV-K genome and compared its phylogeny with other TRV isolates. After constructing of a full-length genomic RNA2 strand clone, a complete sequence was generated from several overlapping clones. The cloned genome was 3261 bases in length, identical to TRV-K, and had three open reading frames. TRV-K had the highest sequence identity with the American isolate TRV-ORY. Sequence analysis of the RNA2 genome showed that TRV-K contains an intact 2a, 2b, and 2c coding sequence and an RNA1-related 3' terminus, which is typical of TRV RNA2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that TRV-K is in the same cluster as the American isolates and another Korean isolate, TRV-SK; however, it was in a different cluster than the European isolates. PMID:26081277

  9. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of a sheep pox virus isolated from the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X L; Yang, F; Li, H X; Dou, Y X; Meng, X L; Li, H; Luo, X N; Cai, X P

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of sheep pox was investigated in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China. Through immunofluorescence testing, isolated viruses, polymerase chain reaction identification, and electron microscopic examination, the isolated strain was identified as a sheep pox virus. The virus was identified through sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the P32 gene, open reading frame (ORF) 095, and ORF 103 genes. This study is the first to use the ORF 095 and ORF 103 genes as candidate genes for the analysis of sheep pox. The results showed that the ORF 095 and ORF 103 genes could be used for the genotyping of the sheep pox virus. PMID:23765973

  10. An efficient in vivo method for the isolation of Puumala virus in Syrian hamsters and the characterization of the isolates from Russia.

    PubMed

    Seto, Takahiro; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Tanikawa, Yoichi; Kolominov, Sergey I; Belov, Sergey N; Nakamura, Ichiro; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Kon, Yasuhiro; Balakiev, Alexander E; Dzagurnova, Tamara K; Medvedkina, Olga A; Nakauchi, Mina; Ishizuka, Mariko; Yoshii, Kentaro; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Ivanov, Leonid V; Arikawa, Jiro; Takashima, Ikuo; Kariwa, Hiroaki

    2011-04-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) and other Arvicolinae-borne hantaviruses are difficult to cultivate in cell culture. To isolate these hantaviruses efficiently, hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (NP)-positive but seronegative wild rodents were selected by NP-detection ELISA. Three of 68 Myodes glareolus captured in Samara, Russia, were NP-positive and seronegative. Syrian hamsters were inoculated with lung homogenates from NP-positive rodents for virus propagation. Virus isolation in vitro was carried out by inoculation of lung homogenates of NP-positive hamsters to Vero E6 cell monolayers. Two PUUV strains (Samara49/CG/2005 and Samara94/CG/2005) from M. glareolus were isolated in Vero E6 cells. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities of the S segment of these isolates to those of PUUV F-s808 from a fatal HFRS patient in Samara region were 96.7-99.3% and 99.3-100.0%, respectively. Morphologic features of Vero E6 cells infected with PUUV strain Samara49/CG/2005 were quite similar to those of Hantaan virus-infected cells. Isolation of Hokkaido virus from Myodes rufocanus captured in Hokkaido, Japan, was also performed. Hokkaido virus NP and RNA were recovered and maintained in hamsters. These results suggest that inoculation of Syrian hamsters with rodent samples is an efficient method for the isolation and maintenance of PUUV and other Arvicolinae-borne hantaviruses. PMID:21192975

  11. Genomic Analysis and Pathogenic Characteristics of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Strains Isolated in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Toshikazu; Ohsawa, Makiko; Morita, Chiharu; Sato, Hiroshi; Ohsawa, Kazutaka

    2012-01-01

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a zoonotic pathogen of which mice are the natural reservoir. Different strains and clones of LCMV show different pathogenicity in mice. Here we determined the complete genomic sequences of 3 LCMV strains (OQ28 and BRC which were isolated from mice in Japan and WE(ngs) which was derived from strain WE). Strains OQ28 and BRC showed high sequence homology with other LCMV strains. Although phylogenetic analyses placed these 2 Japanese strains in different subclusters, they belonged to same cluster of LCMV isolates. WE(ngs) and WE had many sequence substitutions between them but fell into same subcluster. The pathogenicity of the 3 new LCMV isolates was examined by inoculating ICR mice with 102 and 104 TCID50 of virus. ICR mice infected with OQ28 or WE(ngs) exhibited severe clinical signs, and some of the infected mice died. In contrast, all ICR mice infected with BRC showed no clinical signs and survived infection. Virus was detected in the blood, organs, or both of most of the surviving ICR mice inoculated with either OQ28 or WE(ngs). However, virus was below the level of detection in all ICR mice surviving infection with strain BRC. Therefore, LCMV strains OQ28 and BRC were genetically classified in the same cluster of LCMV strains but exhibited very different pathogenicity. PMID:22776051

  12. Genetic diversity of the coat protein of olive latent virus 1 isolates.

    PubMed

    Varanda, C M R; Nolasco, G; Clara, M I; Félix, M R

    2014-06-01

    The CP gene variability among 21 olive latent virus 1 (OLV-1) isolates obtained from different hosts and locations and at different times was assessed. Amplicons obtained by RT-PCR were cloned, and at least 10 sequences from each isolate were analyzed and compared. OLV-1 sequences available in GenBank were included. The encoded CPs consisted of 270 amino acids, except those of isolates G1S and C7 (269 aa) and G6 (271 aa). Comparison of CP genomic sequences of the isolates under study showed very low values of nucleotide diversity, 0.02, and maximum nucleotide distances between (0.087) or within isolates (0.001). Although very few nucleotide sequence differences were observed among the isolates, olive isolates exhibited lower diversity (0.012). In addition, at position 158 (157 in C7 and G1S and 159 in G6) of the deduced aa sequences, an alanine residue was found to be conserved among the olive isolates. In citrus and tulip isolates, a threonine residue was present at position 158, whereas a valine was present at this same position in tomato isolates. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that OLV-1 isolates clustered in five groups according to original host. However, G6, originally recovered from olive but repeatedly inoculated and maintained in N. benthamiana plants for 8 years in our laboratory, was separated from other isolates. This may be attributable to adaptation to the experimental host over time. There was no correlation of phylogenetic grouping of isolates based on geographical location or year of collection. Strong negative selection may have contributed to the low diversity among the OLV-1 CP isolates. PMID:24352437

  13. Isolation of avian influenza H5N1 virus from vaccinated commercial layer flock in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Uninterrupted transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 in Egypt since 2006 resulted in establishment of two main genetic clusters. The 2.2.1/C group where all recent human and majority of backyard origin viruses clustered together, meanwhile the majority of viruses derived from vaccinated poultry in commercial farms grouped in 2.2.1.1 clade. Findings In the present investigation, an HPAIV H5N1 was isolated from twenty weeks old layers chickens that were vaccinated with a homologous H5N1 vaccine at 1, 7 and 16 weeks old. At twenty weeks of age, birds showed cyanosis of comb and wattle, decrease in egg production and up to 27% mortality. Examined serum samples showed low antibody titer in HI test (Log2 3.2± 4.2). The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the isolated virus were closely related to viruses in 2.2.1/C group isolated from poultry in live bird market (LBM) and backyards or from infected people. Conspicuous mutations in the HA and NA genes including a deletion within the receptor binding domain in the HA globular head region were observed. Conclusions Despite repeated vaccination of layer chickens using a homologous H5N1 vaccine, infection with HPAIV H5N1 resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. In endemic countries like Egypt, rigorous control measures including enforcement of biosecurity, culling of infected birds and constant update of vaccine virus strains are highly required to prevent circulation of HPAIV H5N1 between backyard birds, commercial poultry, LBM and humans. PMID:23185975

  14. Development, characterization and application of monoclonal antibodies against Brazilian Dengue virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Zanluca, Camila; Mazzarotto, Giovanny Augusto Camacho Antevere; Bordignon, Juliano; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent human arboviral disease. The morbidity related to dengue infection supports the need for an early, quick and effective diagnostic test. Brazil is a hotspot for dengue, but no serological diagnostic test has been produced using Brazilian dengue virus isolates. This study aims to improve the development of immunodiagnostic methods for dengue virus (DENV) detection through the production and characterization of 22 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Brazilian isolates of DENV-1, -2 and -3. The mAbs include IgG2b?, IgG2a? and IgG1? isotypes, and most were raised against the envelope or the pre-membrane proteins of DENV. When the antibodies were tested against the four DENV serotypes, different reactivity patterns were identified: group-specific, subcomplex specific (DENV-1, -3 and -4 and DENV-2 and -3) and dengue serotype-specific (DENV-2 or -3). Additionally, some mAbs cross-reacted with yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV) and Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). None of the mAbs recognized the alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Furthermore, mAbs D3 424/8G, D1 606/A12/B9 and D1 695/12C/2H were used to develop a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-dengue IgM detection in sera from patients with acute dengue. To our knowledge, these are the first monoclonal antibodies raised against Brazilian DENV isolates, and they may be of special interest in the development of diagnostic assays, as well as for basic research. PMID:25412181

  15. RT-PCR–RFLP for genetic diversity analysis of Tunisian Grapevine fanleaf virus isolates in their natural host plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sami Fattouch; Hajer Acheche; Sonia M’hirsi; Lotfi Mellouli; Samir Bejar; Mohamed Marrakchi; Najib Marzouki

    2005-01-01

    Genetic diversity was characterized in 20 isolates of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) recovered from naturally infected grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera) in the North of Tunisia. Viral RNAs were isolated by oligoprobe capture, and a 605bp fragment containing a part of the viral coat protein gene was amplified by RT-PCR. Sequence variation among isolates was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism

  16. VARYING GENETIC DIVERSITY OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS ISOLATES FROM TWO TIME-SEPARATED OUTBREAKS IN JAMAICA AND VENEZUELA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coat protein (CP) genes of eleven Jamaican Papaya ringspot virus type-p (PRSV) isolates that were collected in 1999 were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of these isolates were compared to each other, with a sequence of another Jamaican isolate collected after the f...

  17. Isolation of avian pneumovirus from mallard ducks that is genetically similar to viruses isolated from neighboring commercial turkeys.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun-Jin; Nagaraja, Kakambi V; McComb, Brian; Halvorson, David A; Jirjis, Faris F; Shaw, Daniel P; Seal, Bruce S; Njenga, M Kariuki

    2002-02-26

    Our earlier studies demonstrating avian pneumovirus (APV) RNA in wild geese, sparrows, swallows, starlings and mallard ducks suggested that wild birds might be involved in the circulation of APV in the United States. To determine whether turkey virus can be transmitted to the free flying birds, we placed APV-negative mallard ducks next to a turkey farm experiencing a severe APV outbreak and in an area with a large population of waterfowls. The sentinel ducks did not develop clinical APV disease but infectious APV (APV/MN-12) was recovered from choanal swabs after 2 weeks, and anti-APV antibodies detected after 4 weeks. Four APV isolates recovered from the neighboring turkeys that were experiencing an APV outbreak at the same time shared 95-99% nucleotide identity and 97-99% predicted amino acid identity with the duck isolate. In addition experimental infection of turkey poults with APV/MN-12 resulted in detection of viral RNA in nasal turbinates and APV-specific IgG in serum. These results indicate that the APV isolates from turkeys and ducks shared a common source, and the viruses from different avian species can cross-infect. PMID:11864753

  18. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of South Korean sacbrood virus isolates from infected honey bees (Apis cerana).

    PubMed

    Choe, Se-Eun; Nguyen, Thuy Thi-Dieu; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Noh, Jin-Hyeong; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Chang-Hee; Kang, Seung-Won

    2012-05-25

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) is one of the most destructive honey bee viruses. The virus causes failure to pupate and death in both larvae and adult bees. Genetic analysis of SBV infected honey bees (Apis cerana) from five different provinces was carried out based on three nucleotide sequences; one partial structural protein coding sequence and two non-structural protein coding sequences. Sequences amplified by three specific primer pairs were aligned and compared with reference sequences deposited in the GenBank database. Sequence alignments revealed a low level of sequence variation among Korean isolates (? 98.6% nucleotide identity), regardless of the genome regions studied or the geographic origins of the strains. Multiple sequence comparisons indicated that Korean SBV isolates are genetically closely related to Chinese and other Asian strains. Interestingly, the Korean SBV isolates showed a number of unique nucleotides and amino acids that had not been observed in other published strains. Korean and other Asian isolates from the host A. cerana and the UK, European and Japanese strains from the host Apis mellifera showed differences in nucleotide and deduced amino acid identities. This suggests that host-specificity exists among SBV strains isolated from different species. Phylogenetic relatedness between compared sequences was analyzed by MEGA 4.1 software using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method with a boot-strap value of 1000 replicates. Obtained topologies were in agreement with previous studies, in which a distinct group of SBV was formed by UK and European genotypes and another group was comprised of Asian genotypes including strains that originated from China, Japan (japonica), India and Nepal. However, phylogeny based on a partial protein structural coding sequence grouped all Korean SBV isolates identified in A. cerana as a separate cluster. Our findings suggest that further study, including Korean SBV isolated from A. mellifera, is needed. PMID:22221381

  19. Isolation and genetic characterization of Japanese encephalitis virus from equines in India

    PubMed Central

    Singha, Harisankar; Singh, Birendra K.; Virmani, Nitin; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Raj K.

    2012-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important vector-borne viral disease of humans and horses in Asia. JE outbreaks occur regularly amongst humans in certain parts of India and sporadic cases occur among horses. In this study, JE seroprevalence and evidence of JE virus (JEV) infection among horses in Haryana (India) is described. Antibodies against JEV were detected in 67 out of 637 (10.5%) horses screened between 2006 and 2010. Two foals exhibiting neurological signs were positive for JEV RNA by RT-PCR; JEV was isolated from the serum of one of the foals collected on the second day of illness. This is the first report of JEV isolation from a horse in India. Furthermore, a pool of mosquitoes collected from the premises housing these foals was positive for JEV RNA by RT-PCR. Three structural genes, capsid (C), premembrane (prM), and envelope (E) of the isolated virus (JE/eq/India/H225/2009) spanning 2,500 nucleotides (from 134 to 2,633) were cloned and sequenced. BLAST results showed that these genes had a greater than 97% nucleotide sequence identity with different human JEV isolates from India. Phylogenetic analysis based on E- and C/prM genes indicated that the equine JEV isolate belonged to genotype III and was closely related to the Vellore group of JEV isolates from India. PMID:22705732

  20. Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates obtained from Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Terregino, Calogero; Cattoli, Giovanni; Grossele, Barbara; Bertoli, Elena; Tisato, Ernesto; Capua, Ilaria

    2003-02-01

    Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) are thought to originate from India and they have colonized, throughout the centuries, the Middle East and, more recently, Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Spain. In the present paper we report of the isolation and characterization of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) obtained from Eurasian collared doves during 2000-2001, and compare them to isolates obtained from feral pigeons (Columba livia) during the same period. All isolates could be classified as avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV1) and belonged to the pigeon variant group (PPMV1), as their haemagglutinating activity was inhibited by mAb 161/617 which is specific for PPMV1. The intracerebral pathogenicity indices ranged from 0.68 to 1.38 and all isolates contained multiple basic amino acids at the deduced cleavage site of the fusion protein, which is a typical feature of virulent viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates indicate that 18/20 of these form a separate cluster from the isolates obtained from pigeons in the same period. These findings suggest that different lineages are circulating in feral pigeon populations, and that a separate lineage affects Eurasian collared doves. PMID:12745382

  1. Isolation and characterization of a pathogenic Newcastle disease virus from a natural case in indonesia.

    PubMed

    Adi, Anak Agung Ayu Mirah; Astawa, Nyoman Mantik; Putra, Ketut Santhia Adhy; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Yasunobu

    2010-03-01

    This study was performed to isolate a velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain currently found in Indonesia for establishing a domestic reference virus for future pathological and molecular epidemiological studies. A chicken suspected to have contracted Newcastle disease (ND) in a local outbreak in Bali was selected for NDV isolation. Atrophy of lymphoid tissues such as the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen; intestinal haemorrhage; and oedema of the brain were observed in the chicken. Histopathological examination revealed severe non-suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis characterised by neuronal necrosis, multifocal to diffuse gliosis, and perivascular cuffing of mononuclear cells, hemorrhagic necrosis of the trachea, intestines and bursa of Fabricius, and various degree of lymphoid depletion and necrosis of the lymphoid tissues. After ND was confirmed immunohistochemically, the NDV was propagated by inoculating tissue homogenate of the diseased chicken in embryonated eggs. Phylogenetic analysis based on the F gene nucleotide sequence revealed that this isolate belonged to genotype VII. The deduced amino acid sequence of the isolated NDV F protein at the cleavage site was (112)RRQKRF(117), which is typically found in virulent NDV isolates. Pathogenicity indexes such as the mean death time (MDT) and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) were 54 hr and 1.77, respectively. Pathological findings, phylogenetic analysis, amino acid sequence of the F protein cleavage site, and pathogenicity index test results revealed the NDV isolate, designated as NDV/Bali-1/07, to be a novel Indonesian velogenic NDV strain belonging to group VII. PMID:19996566

  2. Genome sequence analysis of dengue virus 1 isolated in Key West, Florida.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongyoung; Richards, Stephanie L; Alto, Barry W; Bettinardi, David J; Smartt, Chelsea T

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted to humans through the bite of mosquitoes. In November 2010, a dengue outbreak was reported in Monroe County in southern Florida (FL), including greater than 20 confirmed human cases. The virus collected from the human cases was verified as DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1) and one isolate was provided for sequence analysis. RNA was extracted from the DENV-1 isolate and was used in reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to amplify PCR fragments to sequence. Nucleic acid primers were designed to generate overlapping PCR fragments that covered the entire genome. The DENV-1 isolate found in Key West (KW), FL was sequenced for whole genome characterization. Sequence assembly, Genbank searches, and recombination analyses were performed to verify the identity of the genome sequences and to determine percent similarity to known DENV-1 sequences. We show that the KW DENV-1 strain is 99% identical to Nicaraguan and Mexican DENV-1 strains. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses suggest that the DENV-1 isolated in KW originated from Nicaragua (NI) and the KW strain may circulate in KW. Also, recombination analysis results detected recombination events in the KW strain compared to DENV-1 strains from Puerto Rico. We evaluate the relative growth of KW strain of DENV-1 compared to other dengue viruses to determine whether the underlying genetics of the strain is associated with a replicative advantage, an important consideration since local transmission of DENV may result because domestic tourism can spread DENVs. PMID:24098658

  3. Structure of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus assembly intermediate isolated from infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Kristen; Lokesh, G.L. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0647 (United States); Sherman, Michael [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0647 (United States); W.M. Keck Center for Virus Imaging, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0647 (United States); Watowich, Stanley, E-mail: watowich@xray.utmb.ed [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0647 (United States); W.M. Keck Center for Virus Imaging, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0647 (United States)

    2010-10-25

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a prototypical enveloped ssRNA virus of the family Togaviridae. To better understand alphavirus assembly, we analyzed newly formed nucleocapsid particles (termed pre-viral nucleocapsids) isolated from infected cells. These particles were intermediates along the virus assembly pathway, and ultimately bind membrane-associated viral glycoproteins to bud as mature infectious virus. Purified pre-viral nucleocapsids were spherical with a unimodal diameter distribution. The structure of one class of pre-viral nucleocapsids was determined with single particle reconstruction of cryo-electron microscopy images. These studies showed that pre-viral nucleocapsids assembled into an icosahedral structure with a capsid stoichiometry similar to the mature nucleocapsid. However, the individual capsomers were organized significantly differently within the pre-viral and mature nucleocapsids. The pre-viral nucleocapsid structure implies that nucleocapsids are highly plastic and undergo glycoprotein and/or lipid-driven rearrangements during virus self-assembly. This mechanism of self-assembly may be general for other enveloped viruses.

  4. Structure of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus assembly intermediate isolated from infected cells.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Kristen; Lokesh, G L; Sherman, Michael; Watowich, Stanley

    2010-10-25

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a prototypical enveloped ssRNA virus of the family Togaviridae. To better understand alphavirus assembly, we analyzed newly formed nucleocapsid particles (termed pre-viral nucleocapsids) isolated from infected cells. These particles were intermediates along the virus assembly pathway, and ultimately bind membrane-associated viral glycoproteins to bud as mature infectious virus. Purified pre-viral nucleocapsids were spherical with a unimodal diameter distribution. The structure of one class of pre-viral nucleocapsids was determined with single particle reconstruction of cryo-electron microscopy images. These studies showed that pre-viral nucleocapsids assembled into an icosahedral structure with a capsid stoichiometry similar to the mature nucleocapsid. However, the individual capsomers were organized significantly differently within the pre-viral and mature nucleocapsids. The pre-viral nucleocapsid structure implies that nucleocapsids are highly plastic and undergo glycoprotein and/or lipid-driven rearrangements during virus self-assembly. This mechanism of self-assembly may be general for other enveloped viruses. PMID:20701942

  5. Characterization of a naturally occurring recombinant isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus.

    PubMed

    Vigne, E; Demangeat, G; Komar, V; Fuchs, M

    2005-11-01

    The naturally occurring Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) recombinant isolate A17b was recovered from its grapevine host by sap inoculation and serial passages onto Gomphrena globosa, a pseudo local lesion herbaceous host, and Chenopodium quinoa, a systemic herbaceous host, to characterize some of its biological properties. Sequence analysis of the CP gene, in which a recombinational event was previously detected, demonstrated the genetic stability of recombinant isolate A17b over a 5-year period in its natural host as well as in C. quinoa. Also, recombinant isolate A17b was graft transmissible, as shown by an in vitro heterologous approach, and transmitted by the nematode Xiphinema index as readily as nonrecombinant GFLV isolates. Furthermore, despite a lower pathogenicity on Chenopodium amaranticolor, recombinant isolate A17b had a similar host range and induced similar symptoms in type and severity to nonrecombinant GFLV isolates. Interestingly, the use of infectious chimeric RNA2 transcripts in combination to RNA1 transcripts of GFLV strain F13 suggested no implication of the recombination event in the CP gene of isolate A17b in the reduced pathogenicity on C. amaranticolor. Altogether, recombinant isolate A17b had similar biological properties to GFLV nonrecombinant isolates. PMID:15968475

  6. Identification of new isolates of Turnip mosaic virus that cluster with less common viral strains.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, F; Rodríguez-Mateos, M; Touriño, A; Fresno, J; Gómez-Campo, C; Jenner, C E; Walsh, J A; Ponz, F

    2007-01-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) was found infecting cultivated brassicas and wild and cultivated ornamental Brassicaceae plants in different regions of Spain. Five new TuMV isolates, originating from different host plant species (Brassica cretica, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa and Sisymbrium orientale), have been identified. The nucleotide sequences of the coat protein (CP) genes of the five isolates were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the CP sequences showed that the five isolates grouped into two different clusters. The three isolates from the central region of Spain clustered with a previously reported Pisum sativum isolate from southeastern Spain, whereas the other two isolates from the eastern region clustered with two Italian and two Greek isolates. Both clusters were genetically distinct and belonged to the multi-lineage group OBR. The OBR group contains mainly TuMV isolates from hosts other than Brassica spp. and Raphanus sativus and mostly originating from Mediterranean countries. These new sequences provide further phylogenetic resolution of the OBR group. Although new TuMV isolates have been found in Spain, they were not associated with any serious disease outbreaks. PMID:17347771

  7. Evolutionary and phenotypic analysis of live virus isolates suggests arthropod origin of a pathogenic RNA virus family.

    PubMed

    Marklewitz, Marco; Zirkel, Florian; Kurth, Andreas; Drosten, Christian; Junglen, Sandra

    2015-06-16

    The evolutionary origins of arboviruses are unknown because their typical dual host tropism is paraphyletic within viral families. Here we studied one of the most diversified and medically relevant RNA virus families, the Bunyaviridae, in which four of five established genera are transmitted by arthropods. We define two cardinally novel bunyavirus groups based on live isolation of 26 viral strains from mosquitoes (Jonchet virus [JONV], eight strains; Ferak virus [FERV], 18 strains). Both viruses were incapable of replicating at vertebrate-typical temperatures but replicated efficiently in insect cells. Replication involved formation of virion-sense RNA (vRNA) and mRNA, including cap-snatching activity. SDS/PAGE, mass spectrometry, and Edman degradation identified translation products corresponding to virion-associated RNA-dependent RNA polymerase protein (RdRp), glycoprotein precursor protein, glycoproteins Gn and Gc, as well as putative nonstructural proteins NSs and NSm. Distinct virion morphologies suggested ancient evolutionary divergence, with bunyavirus-typical morphology for FERV (spheres of 60-120 nm) as opposed to an unusual bimorphology for JONV (tubular virions of 60 × 600 nm and spheres of 80 nm). Both viruses were genetically equidistant from all other bunyaviruses, showing <15% amino acid identity in the RdRp palm domain. Both had different and unique conserved genome termini, as in separate bunyavirus genera. JONV and FERV define two novel sister taxons to the superclade of orthobunyaviruses, tospoviruses, and hantaviruses. Phylogenetic ancestral state reconstruction with probabilistic hypothesis testing suggested ancestral associations with arthropods at deep nodes throughout the bunyavirus tree. Our findings suggest an arthropod origin of bunyaviruses. PMID:26038576

  8. Genetics, Receptor Binding, and Virulence in Mice of H10N8 Influenza Viruses Isolated from Ducks and Chickens in Live Poultry Markets in China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guohua; Shi, Jianzhong; Wang, Jing; Kong, Huihui; Cui, Pengfei; Zhang, Fang; Tan, Dan; Suzuki, Yasuo; Liu, Liling; Jiang, Yongping; Guan, Yuntao; Chen, Hualan

    2015-06-15

    We analyzed eight H10N8 viruses isolated from ducks and chickens in live poultry markets from 2009 to 2013 in China. These viruses showed distinct genetic diversity and formed five genotypes: the four duck isolates formed four different genotypes, whereas the four chicken viruses belong to a single genotype. The viruses bound to both human- and avian-type receptors, and four of the viruses caused 12.7% to 22.5% body weight loss in mice. PMID:25855738

  9. Genetics, Receptor Binding, and Virulence in Mice of H10N8 Influenza Viruses Isolated from Ducks and Chickens in Live Poultry Markets in China

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Guohua; Shi, Jianzhong; Wang, Jing; Kong, Huihui; Cui, Pengfei; Zhang, Fang; Tan, Dan; Suzuki, Yasuo; Liu, Liling; Jiang, Yongping; Guan, Yuntao

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed eight H10N8 viruses isolated from ducks and chickens in live poultry markets from 2009 to 2013 in China. These viruses showed distinct genetic diversity and formed five genotypes: the four duck isolates formed four different genotypes, whereas the four chicken viruses belong to a single genotype. The viruses bound to both human- and avian-type receptors, and four of the viruses caused 12.7% to 22.5% body weight loss in mice. PMID:25855738

  10. Genetic and serological typing of European infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johansson, T.; Einer-Jensen, K.; Batts, W.; Ahrens, P.; Bjorkblom, C.; Kurath, G.; Bjorklund, H.; Lorenzen, N.

    2009-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes the lethal disease infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in juvenile salmon and trout. The nucleocapsid (N) protein gene and partial glycoprotein (G) gene (nucleotides 457 to 1061) of the European isolates IT-217A, FR-32/87, DE-DF 13/98 11621, DE-DF 4/99-8/99, AU-9695338 and RU-FR1 were sequenced and compared with IHNV isolates from the North American genogroups U, M and L. In phylogenetic studies the N gene of the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, though in a different subgroup than the isolates from the USA. Analyses of the partial G gene of these European isolates clustered them in the M genogroup close to the root while the Russian isolate clustered in the U genogroup. The European isolates together with US-WRAC and US-Col-80 were also tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the N protein. MAbs 136-1 and 136-3 reacted equally at all concentrations with the isolates tested, indicating that these antibodies identify a common epitope. MAb 34D3 separated the M and L genogroup isolates from the U genogroup isolate. MAb 1DW14D divided the European isolates into 2 groups. MAb 1DW14D reacted more strongly with DE-DF 13/98 11621 and RU-FR1 than with IT-217A, FR- 32/87, DE-DF 4/99-8/99 and AU-9695338. In the phylogenetic studies, the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, whereas in the serological studies using MAbs, the European M genogroup isolates could not be placed in the same specific group. These results indicate that genotypic and serotypic classification do not correlate. ?? 2009 Inter-Research.

  11. Characterization in vitro and in vivo of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza viruses isolated from patients.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Imai, Masaki; Watanabe, Shinji; Shinya, Kyoko; Hatta, Masato; Li, Chengjun; Neumann, Gabriele; Ozawa, Makoto; Hanson, Anthony; Zhong, Gongxun; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Kawakami, Eiryo; Simmons, Heather A; Schenkman, Daniel; Brunner, Kevin; Capuano, Saverio V; Weinfurter, Jason T; Kilander, Anette; Dudman, Susanne G; Suresh, M; Hungnes, Olav; Friedrich, Thomas C; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2012-09-01

    The first influenza pandemic of the 21st century was caused by novel H1N1 viruses that emerged in early 2009. Molecular evolutionary analyses of the 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 [A(H1N1)pdm09] virus revealed two major clusters, cluster I and cluster II. Although the pathogenicity of viruses belonging to cluster I, which became extinct by the end of 2009, has been examined in a nonhuman primate model, the pathogenic potential of viruses belonging to cluster II, which has spread more widely in the world, has not been studied in this animal model. Here, we characterized two Norwegian isolates belonging to cluster II, namely, A/Norway/3568/2009 (Norway3568) and A/Norway/3487-2/2009 (Norway3487), which caused distinct clinical symptoms, despite their genetic similarity. We observed more efficient replication in cultured cells and delayed virus clearance from ferret respiratory organs for Norway3487 virus, which was isolated from a severe case, compared with the efficiency of replication and time of clearance of Norway3568 virus, which was isolated from a mild case. Moreover, Norway3487 virus to some extent caused more severe lung damage in nonhuman primates than did Norway3568 virus. Our data suggest that the distinct replicative and pathogenic potentials of these two viruses may result from differences in their biological properties (e.g., the receptor-binding specificity of hemagglutinin and viral polymerase activity). PMID:22718834

  12. Characterization of H7N9 influenza A viruses isolated from humans

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Kiso, Maki; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Nakajima, Noriko; Imai, Masaki; Yamada, Shinya; Murakami, Shin; Yamayoshi, Seiya; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Takashita, Emi; McBride, Ryan; Noda, Takeshi; Hatta, Masato; Imai, Hirotaka; Zhao, Dongming; Kishida, Noriko; Shirakura, Masayuki; de Vries, Robert P.; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Tamura, Tomokazu; Tomita, Yuriko; Fujimoto, Naomi; Goto, Kazue; Katsura, Hiroaki; Kawakami, Eiryo; Ishikawa, Izumi; Watanabe, Shinji; Ito, Mutsumi; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Sugita, Yukihiko; Uraki, Ryuta; Yamaji, Reina; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Zhong, Gongxun; Fan, Shufang; Ping, Jihui; Maher, Eileen A.; Hanson, Anthony; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Takehiko; Ozawa, Makoto; Neumann, Gabriele; Kida, Hiroshi; Odagiri, Takato; Paulson, James C.; Hasegawa, Hideki; Tashiro, Masato; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Summary Avian influenza A viruses rarely infect humans, but if they do and transmit among them, worldwide outbreaks (pandemics) can result. The recent sporadic infections of humans in China with a previously unrecognized avian influenza A virus of the H7N9 subtype (A(H7N9)) have caused concern due to the appreciable case fatality rate associated with these infections (>25%), potential instances of human-to-human transmission1, and the lack of pre-existing immunity among humans to viruses of this subtype. Here, we therefore characterized two early human A(H7N9) isolates, A/Anhui/1/2013 and A/Shanghai/1/2013 (H7N9; hereafter referred to as Anhui/1 and Shanghai/1, respectively). In mice, Anhui/1 and Shanghai/1 were more pathogenic than a control avian H7N9 virus (A/duck/Gunma/466/2011; H7N9; Dk/GM466) and a representative pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus (A/California/04/2009; H1N1; CA04). Anhui/1, Shanghai/1, and Dk/GM466 replicated well in the nasal turbinates of ferrets. In nonhuman primates (NHPs), Anhui/1 and Dk/GM466 replicated efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, whereas the replicative ability of conventional human influenza viruses is typically restricted to the upper respiratory tract of infected primates. By contrast, Anhui/1 did not replicate well in miniature pigs upon intranasal inoculation. Most critically, Anhui/1 transmitted via respiratory droplets in one of three pairs of ferrets. Glycan arrays demonstrated that Anhui/1, Shanghai/1, and A/Hangzhou/1/2013 (a third human A(H7N9) virus tested in this assay) bind to human virus-type receptors, a property that may be critical for virus transmissibility in ferrets. Anhui/1 was less sensitive than a pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus to neuraminidase inhibitors, although both viruses were equally susceptible to an experimental antiviral polymerase inhibitor. The robust replicative ability in mice, ferrets, and NHPs and the limited transmissibility in ferrets of Anhui/1 suggest that A(H7N9) viruses have pandemic potential. PMID:23842494

  13. Antigenic and genotypical characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Taiwan between 1969 and 1996.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Chang, Kuo-Hui; Tseng, Chun-Hsien; Frost, Karen M; Manvell, Ruth J; Alexander, Dennis J

    2004-11-30

    Three major epidemics of Newcastle disease (ND) occurred in Taiwan over the past three decades (in 1969, 1984, and 1995). In order to gain a better understanding of the relationships between past ND epizootics in Taiwan, 36 ND viruses (NDVs) isolated between 1969 and 1996 were characterized antigenically and genotypically. The antigenicity of these viruses was analysed by their ability to cause binding of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to cell cultures infected with the isolate. Using a panel of 22 mAbs to divide NDVs into subgroups, a total of 18 binding patterns were revealed. The sequences covering the cleavage site of the fusion protein gene of these isolates were also determined. The results of the phylogenetic analysis placed 36 NDVs into I, II, VIb, VIIa, VIII and two novel genotypes (provisionally termed X and VIh). The 1969 velogenic isolates were of genotypes X and VIh; the 1984-1985 velogenic isolates were genotyped VIb, VIh, VIIa, and X; while the 1995-1996 velogenic isolates were genotyped VIIa or VIII. Some 1969 and 1984 velogenic isolates were of the same mAbs binding pattern and genotype, and the mAbs binding patterns of the 1995-1996 isolates have not been seen before. It is concluded that velogenic NDVs of different genotype and antigenic type have co-circulated in Taiwan at least since 1969. Also there were epizootiological links between strains isolated in 1969 and 1984, whereas the 1995-1996 epidemic was caused by new antigenic variants. PMID:15530736

  14. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ADVENTITIOUS AVIAN LEUKOSIS VIRUS ISOLATED FROM COMMERCIAL MAREK'S DISEASE VACCINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial Marek's disease (MD) vaccines produced by two manufacturers were tested for possible contamination with avian leukosis virus (ALV). Samples of MD vaccines manufactured by two companies (A & B) were received from a breeder company; samples were also received directly from vaccine company B...

  15. Genetic characterization and geographic distribution of rabies virus isolates in Brazil: identification of two reservoirs, dogs and vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Ito, M; Arai, Y T; Itou, T; Sakai, T; Ito, F H; Takasaki, T; Kurane, I

    2001-06-01

    We analyzed 50 rabies virus samples isolated in Brazil from 12 dogs, 11 cats, 5 vampire bats, 15 cattle, 2 horses, 1 pig, 1 sheep, and 3 humans to investigate the molecular epidemiology of rabies viruses. We sequenced 203 nucleotides on the nucleoprotein gene by direct sequencing of the PCR-amplified products. All the isolates belonged to the genotype 1 and homology of the 203 nucleotides was at least 83.7% among isolates. The main reservoirs were estimated based on the homology of nucleotide sequences. Brazilian rabies virus isolates were clustered into two reservoir groups: dogs and vampire bats. All the dog-related rabies virus isolates showed nucleotide homology greater than 99.0%. Vampire bat-related rabies virus isolates showed nucleotide homology greater than 96.6% and could be further divided into subgroups corresponding to areas where viruses were isolated. These data suggest that circulating rabies variants belong to at least two different genotype clusters in Brazil and that these two clusters are maintained independently among vampire bats and dogs. PMID:11384221

  16. Three-step isolation method for sensitive detection of enterovirus, rotavirus, hepatitis A virus, and small round structured viruses in water samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Gilgen; D Germann; J Lüthy; Ph Hübner

    1997-01-01

    Control of drinking or bathing water quality in respect to viral contamination remains an unsolved problem. A highly sensitive isolation protocol was developed for concentration and detection of different enteric viruses from water samples. The three-step isolation procedure combines filtration with a positively charged nylon membrane, ultrafiltration and clean-up of the viral RNA with a silica based membrane. Detection of

  17. Preliminary comparisons of the biological properties of two strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) isolated in Japan with FIV Petaluma strain isolated in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takayuki Miyazawa; Tetsuya Furuya; Shin-ichi Itagaki; Yukinobu Tohya; Kenji Nakano; Eiji Takahashi I; Takeshi Mikami

    1989-01-01

    Summary Two strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were isolated directly from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Japanese domestic cats or indirectly from PBMCs of specific pathogen free (SPF) cats inoculated with whole blood from naturally infected cats with FIV by cocultivation with primary PBMCs from SPF cats. Two isolates, designated as FIV TM 1 and FIV TM 2,

  18. Genetic Diversity of the Coat Protein of Olive Mild Mosaic Virus (OMMV) and Tobacco Necrosis Virus D (TNV-D) Isolates and Its Structural Implications

    PubMed Central

    Varanda, Carla M. R.; Machado, Marco; Martel, Paulo; Nolasco, Gustavo; Clara, Maria I. E.; Félix, Maria R.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic variability among 13 isolates of Olive mild mosaic virus (OMMV) and of 11 isolates of Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D) recovered from Olea europaea L. samples from various sites in Portugal, was assessed through the analysis of the coat protein (CP) gene sequences. This gene was amplified through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned, and 5 clone sequences of each virus isolate, were analysed and compared, including sequences from OMMV and TNV-D isolates originally recovered from different hosts and countries and available in the GenBank, totalling 131 sequences. The encoded CP sequences consisted of 269 amino acids (aa) in OMMV and 268 in TNV-D. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the isolates showed a very low variability among OMMV isolates, 0.005 and 0.007, respectively, as well as among TNV-D isolates, 0.006 and 0.008. The maximum nucleotide distances of OMMV and TNV-D sequences within isolates were also low, 0.013 and 0.031, respectively, and close to that found between isolates, 0.018 and 0.034, respectively. In some cases, less variability was found in clone sequences between isolates than in clone sequences within isolates, as also shown through phylogenetic analysis. CP aa sequence identities among OMMV and TNV-D isolates ranged from 84.3% to 85.8%. Comparison between the CP genomic sequences of the two viruses, showed a relatively low variability, 0.199, and a maximum nucleotide distance between isolates of 0.411. Analysis of comparative models of OMMV and TNV-D CPs, showed that naturally occurring substitutions in their respective sequences do not seem to cause significant alterations in the virion structure. This is consistent with a high selective pressure to preserve the structure of viral capsid proteins. PMID:25350108

  19. Gouléako Virus Isolated from West African Mosquitoes Constitutes a Proposed Novel Genus in the Family Bunyaviridae?

    PubMed Central

    Marklewitz, M.; Handrick, S.; Grasse, W.; Kurth, A.; Lukashev, A.; Drosten, C.; Ellerbrok, H.; Leendertz, F. H.; Pauli, G.; Junglen, S.

    2011-01-01

    The family Bunyaviridae is the most diversified family of RNA viruses. We describe a novel prototypic bunyavirus, tentatively named Gouléako virus, isolated from various mosquito species trapped in Côte d'Ivoire. The S segment comprised 1,087 nucleotides (nt), the M segment 3,188 nt, and the L segment 6,358 nt, constituting the shortest bunyavirus genome known so far. The virus had shorter genome termini than phleboviruses and showed no evidence of encoded NSs and NSm proteins. An uncharacterized 105-amino-acid (aa) putative open reading frame (ORF) was detected in the S segment. Genetic equidistance to other bunyaviruses (74 to 88% aa identity) and absence of serological cross-reactivity with phleboviruses suggested a proposed novel Bunyaviridae genus. PMID:21715500

  20. Isolation and Preliminary Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Primary Enveloped Virions from the Perinuclear Space?

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Maryn E.; Sydnor, Mariam L.; Wilson, Duncan W.

    2009-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) nucleocapsids exit the nucleus by budding into the inner nuclear membrane, where they exist briefly as primary enveloped virions. These virus particles subsequently fuse their envelopes with the outer nuclear membrane, permitting nucleocapsids to then enter the cytoplasm and complete assembly. We have developed a method to isolate primary enveloped virions from HSV-1-infected cells and subjected the primary enveloped virion preparation to MALDI-MS/MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tandem mass spectrometry) analyses. We identified most capsid proteins, a tegument protein (VP22), a glycoprotein (gD), and a cellular protein (annexin A2) in the primary enveloped virion preparation. We determined that annexin A2 does not play an essential role in infection under our experimental conditions. Elucidating the structure and biochemical properties of this unique virus assembly intermediate will provide new insights into HSV-1 biology. PMID:19279117

  1. Isolation and Physiological Characterization of a Novel Algicidal Virus Infecting the Marine Diatom Skeletonema costatum.

    PubMed

    Kim, JinJoo; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Youn, Seok-Hyun; Choi, Tae-Jin

    2015-06-01

    Diatoms are a major component of the biological community, serving as the principal primary producers in the food web and sustaining oxygen levels in aquatic environments. Among marine planktonic diatoms, the cosmopolitan Skeletonema costatum is one of the most abundant and widespread species in the world's oceans. Here, we report the basic characteristics of a new diatom-infecting S. costatum virus (ScosV) isolated from Jaran Bay, Korea, in June 2008. ScosV is a polyhedral virus (45-50 nm in diameter) that propagates in the cytoplasm of host cells and causes lysis of S. costatum cultures. The infectivity of ScosV was determined to be strain- rather than species-specific, similar to other algal viruses. The burst size and latent period were roughly estimated at 90-250 infectious units/cell and <48 h, respectively. PMID:26060438

  2. Isolation and Physiological Characterization of a Novel Algicidal Virus Infecting the Marine Diatom Skeletonema costatum

    PubMed Central

    Kim, JinJoo; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Youn, Seok-Hyun; Choi, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Diatoms are a major component of the biological community, serving as the principal primary producers in the food web and sustaining oxygen levels in aquatic environments. Among marine planktonic diatoms, the cosmopolitan Skeletonema costatum is one of the most abundant and widespread species in the world’s oceans. Here, we report the basic characteristics of a new diatom-infecting S. costatum virus (ScosV) isolated from Jaran Bay, Korea, in June 2008. ScosV is a polyhedral virus (45–50 nm in diameter) that propagates in the cytoplasm of host cells and causes lysis of S. costatum cultures. The infectivity of ScosV was determined to be strain- rather than species-specific, similar to other algal viruses. The burst size and latent period were roughly estimated at 90–250 infectious units/cell and <48 h, respectively. PMID:26060438

  3. Genetic diversity of tomato-infecting Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) isolates in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sue Hoon; Oh, Sung; Oh, Tae-Kyun; Park, Jae Sung; Kim, Sei Chang; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Young Shik; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Sim, Sang-Yun; Park, Kwon Seo; Lee, Hwan Gu; Kim, Kyung Jae; Choi, Chang Won

    2011-02-01

    Epidemic outbreaks of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) diseases occurred in greenhouse grown tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants of Busan (TYLCV-Bus), Boseong (TYLCV-Bos), Hwaseong (TYLCV-Hwas), Jeju Island (TYLCV-Jeju), and Nonsan (TYLCV-Nons) in Korea during 2008-2009. Tomato disease by TYLCV has never occurred in Korea before. We synthesized the full-length genomes of each TYLCV isolate from the tomato plants collected at each area and determined their nucleotides (nt) sequences and deduced the amino acids of six open reading frames in the genomes. TYLCV-Bus and -Bos genomes shared higher nt identities with four Japanese isolates -Ng, -Omu, -Mis, and -Miy. On the other hand, TYLCV-Hwas, -Jeju, and -Nons genomes shared higher nt identities with five Chinese isolates TYLCV-AH1, -ZJ3, -ZJHZ12, -SH2, -Sh10, and two Japanese isolates -Han and -Tosa. On the basis of a neighbor-joining tree, five Korean TYLCV isolates were separated into three clades. TYLCV-Bus and -Bos formed the first clade, clustering with four Japanese isolates TYLCV-Mis, -Omu, -Ng, and -Miy. TYLCV-Jeju and -Nons formed the second clade, clustering with two Chinese isolates -ZJHZ212 and -Sh10. TYLCV-Hwas was clustered with two Japanese isolates -Han and -Tosa and three Chinese isolates -AH1, -ZJ3, and -SH2. Two fragments that had a potentially recombinant origin were identified using the RDP, GENECONV, BootScan, MaxChi, Chimaera, SiScan, and 3Seq methods implemented in RDP3.41. On the basis of RDP analysis, all TYLCV isolates could originated from the interspecies recombination between TYLCV-Mld[PT] isolated from Portugal as a major parent and TYLCTHV-MM isolated from Myanmar as a minor parent. PMID:20963475

  4. Genetic variability of blueberry scorch virus isolates from highbush blueberry in New York State.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, El?bieta; Marsella-Herrick, Patricia; Fuchs, Marc

    2015-06-01

    The genetic variability of blueberry scorch virus (BlScV) isolates from New York was determined within a portion of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene and the triple gene block and coat protein (CP) genes. Phylogenetic analysis of 19 New York isolates and other isolates for which sequence information is available in GenBank revealed two distinct clades, regardless of the coding region analyzed, and limited variability within (0.029 ± 0.007) and between (0.183 ± 0.032) phylogroups. Recombination events were identified in the CP gene of three New York isolates, and codons of the five BlScV genes characterized were found to be under neutral or negative selective pressure. PMID:25809019

  5. Genome sequence of a pathogenic isolate of monkey B virus (species Macacine herpesvirus 1).

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, Kazutaka; Black, Darla; Ohsawa, Makiko; Eberle, R

    2014-10-01

    The only genome sequence for monkey B virus (BV; species Macacine herpesvirus 1) is that of an attenuated vaccine strain originally isolated from a rhesus monkey (BVrh). Here we report the genome sequence of a virulent BV strain isolated from a cynomolgus macaque (BVcy). The overall genome organization is the same, although sequence differences exist. The greatest sequence divergence is located in non-coding areas of the long and short repeat regions. Like BVrh, BVcy has duplicated Ori elements and lacks an ORF corresponding to the ?34.5 gene of herpes simplex virus. Nine of ten miRNAs and the majority of ORFs are conserved between BVrh and BVcy. The most divergent genes are several membrane-associated proteins and those encoding immediate early proteins. PMID:24903602

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Broad and Ultrapotent Human Monoclonal Antibodies with Therapeutic Activity against Chikungunya Virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott A; Silva, Laurie A; Fox, Julie M; Flyak, Andrew I; Kose, Nurgun; Sapparapu, Gopal; Khomadiak, Solomiia; Ashbrook, Alison W; Kahle, Kristen M; Fong, Rachel H; Swayne, Sherri; Doranz, Benjamin J; McGee, Charles E; Heise, Mark T; Pal, Pankaj; Brien, James D; Austin, S Kyle; Diamond, Michael S; Dermody, Terence S; Crowe, James E

    2015-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted RNA virus that causes acute febrile infection associated with polyarthralgia in humans. Mechanisms of protective immunity against CHIKV are poorly understood, and no effective therapeutics or vaccines are available. We isolated and characterized human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize CHIKV infectivity. Among the 30 mAbs isolated, 13 had broad and ultrapotent neutralizing activity (IC50 < 10 ng/ml), and all of these mapped to domain A of the E2 envelope protein. Potent inhibitory mAbs blocked post-attachment steps required for CHIKV membrane fusion, and several were protective in a lethal challenge model in immunocompromised mice, even when administered at late time points after infection. These highly protective mAbs could be considered for prevention or treatment of CHIKV infection, and their epitope location in domain A of E2 could be targeted for rational structure-based vaccine development. PMID:26159721

  7. Factors influencing quantitative isolation of varicella-zoster virus.

    PubMed

    Levin, M J; Leventhal, S; Masters, H A

    1984-06-01

    Optimal conditions are described for the recovery of cell culture-derived varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Of the cells tested, human embryonic lung fibroblasts were the most sensitive. Storage and handling procedures were examined to determine the stability of VZV in viral transport medium. When the initial VZV titer was high (2 X 10(4) PFU/ml) 40% of the VZV survived room temperature for 24 h and 75% of the VZV remained viable for this long at 4 degrees C. Recovery was 5- to 10-fold less at lower initial VZV titers (less than 2 X 10(3) PFU/ml). Other factors which influenced VZV recovery included freezing at -20 degrees C, the use of cotton or calcium alginate swabs, and filtration to remove bacterial contaminants. The tissue culture methods described were used in a reconstruction experiment to demonstrate that VZV could be recovered from a laboratory coat or human skin (0.1 to 0.3% of input VZV) or from a stethoscope (19% of input VZV) as late as 30 min after inoculation. During a clinical trial using optimal VZV recovery procedures, 76% of the patients with herpes zoster yielded VZV when first cultured, and 60% remained culture positive for an additional 48 h. PMID:6088572

  8. Receptor Specificity and Transmission of H2N2 Subtype Viruses Isolated from the Pandemic of 1957

    E-print Network

    Pappas, Claudia

    Influenza viruses of the H2N2 subtype have not circulated among humans in over 40 years. The occasional isolation of avian H2 strains from swine and avian species coupled with waning population immunity to H2 hemagglutinin ...

  9. Tissue distribution of virus replication in cats experimentally infected with distinct feline calicivirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Truyen, U; Geissler, K; Hirschberger, J

    1999-09-01

    Four specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats were each inoculated with one of two genetically and antigenically well characterized feline caliciviruses originally isolated from cats with acute respiratory disease (FCV-KS100/2), or with chronic stomatitis (FCV-KS20). Two cats of each group were euthanized at day 10 post infection and two cats at day 28. No clear differences between the clinical disease induced by the two isolates could be observed, and no apparent differences in the tissue spectrum were seen between day 10 and 28. No persistent virus shedding was observed over the 4-week period of this experiment. PMID:10507186

  10. Comparative Sequence Analyses of La Crosse Virus Strain Isolated from Patient with Fatal Encephalitis, Tennessee, USA

    PubMed Central

    Fryxell, Rebecca Trout; Freyman, Kimberly; Ulloa, Armando; Velez, Jason O.; Paulsen, Dave; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Moncayo, Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    We characterized a La Crosse virus (LACV) isolate from the brain of a child who died of encephalitis-associated complications in eastern Tennessee, USA, during summer 2012. We compared the isolate with LACV sequences from mosquitoes collected near the child’s home just after his postmortem diagnosis. In addition, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of these and other sequences derived from LACV strains representing varied temporal, geographic, and ecologic origins. Consistent with historical findings, results of these analyses indicate that a limited range of LACV lineage I genotypes is associated with severe clinical outcomes. PMID:25898269

  11. [Genotypes and serotypes of avian infectious bronchitis viruses isolated during 2009-2011 in Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Qin, Li-Li; Li, Meng; Sun, Rong; Wu, Zhi-Jin; He, Kun; Mo, Mei-Lan; Wei, Tian-Chao; Wei, Ping

    2014-03-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence and track genetic and antigenic evolutions of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and their prevalence in Guangxi, China since 1985, gene amplification and sequencing and virus neutralization (VN) test on chicken embryo tracheal organ cultures were used in genotyping and serotyping of 28 IBV isolates during 2009-2011 in Guangxi. The results of N gene sequencing and comparison showed that the 28 isolates and reference strains were classified into three groups, and most isolates belonged to group Ill, while the isolates in 1985-2008 belonged to groups IV and II. The data of VN test indicated that the 28 isolates belonged to 6 serotypes; among them, 71. 4% belonged to serotypes 1, 2, and 3, and 11 (39.3%) shared the same serotype with the current vaccine strains. Given the data of our previous study, it is found that prevalent serotypes and their proportions varied in different areas of Guangxi and during different periods. These data lay a good foundation for developing an oil-emulsified inactivated polyvalent vaccine containing local dominant serotypes for the effective prevention and control of infectious bronchitis. PMID:24923170

  12. Genomic characterisation of two virulent Newcastle disease viruses isolated from crested ibis (Nipponia nippon) in China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Huafang; Chen, Shengli; Wu, Pengpeng; Wang, Jie; Duan, Xuji; Du, Enqi; Wang, Xinglong; Yang, Zengqi

    2014-12-15

    This paper describes the complete genomic sequences of two virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates, Shaanxi06 (prevalent genotype VIId) and Shaanxi10 (novel sub-genotype VIi), from sick crested ibises. The genomes of both isolates were 15,192 nt long and consisted of six genes in the order of 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. The genomes of the two isolates were highly similar to other reference NDV strains. However, some unique features were found in the HN protein of Shaanxi06 and the F gene end of Shaanxi10. Shaanxi06 and Shaanxi10 shared the same virulent motif (112-)R-R-Q-K-R-F(-117) at the F protein cleavage site, which coincided with previous pathogenicity test results. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both isolates were clustered within class II NDV, with Shaanxi06 in genotype VII and Shaanxi10 in genotype VI. Both isolates shared high homology with the prevalent genotype NDV strains that circulate in fowls and waterfowls. This study is the first to provide genomic information about a novel sub-genotype VIi NDV strain and another genotype VIId virus, which will be useful for subsequent investigations. PMID:25281014

  13. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus isolated from outbreaks in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Munir, M; Zohari, S; Saeed, A; Khan, Q M; Abubakar, M; LeBlanc, N; Berg, M

    2012-02-01

    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is an important viral disease of small ruminants and is endemic in Pakistan. In the following study, samples from two outbreaks of PPR in goats have been subjected to laboratory investigations. The Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV) genome was detected using both conventional and real-time PCR. Genetic characterization of the local PPRV field isolates was conducted by sequencing 322?bp of the fusion (F) gene and 255 bp of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. The phylogenetic tree based on the F gene clustered samples from both outbreaks into lineage 4 along with other Asian isolates, specifically into subcluster 1 along with isolates from Middle East. Analysis of N gene revealed a different pattern. In this case, the Pakistani samples clustered with Chinese, Tajikistani and Iranian isolates, which probably represents the true geographical pattern of virus circulation. This is the first report presenting the phylogenetic tree based on N gene as well as performing a parallel comparison of the trees of F and N gene together from Pakistani isolates. The results of this study shed light on the PPRV population in Pakistan and emphasize the importance of using molecular methods to understand the epidemiology. Such understanding is essential in any efforts to control the number and impact of outbreaks that are occurring in endemic countries such as Pakistan, especially in the current scenario where OIE and FAO are eager to control and subsequently eradicate PPR from the globe, as has been achieved for Rinderpest. PMID:21777402

  14. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Upasana; Chakraborty, Somnath; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various terrestrial plants and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti–WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. The best anti–WSSV plant isolate, TP22C was isolated and further analyzed. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Seven plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug TP22C thus formulated showed 86% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of TP22C required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 86%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug TP22C derived from Momordica charantia is a potent anti-white spot syndrome virus drug. PMID:25183066

  15. Avian Influenza (H5N1) Viruses Isolated from Humans in Asia in 2004 Exhibit Increased Virulence in Mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taronna R. Maines; Xui Hua Lu; Steven M. Erb; Lindsay Edwards; Jeannette Guarner; Patricia W. Greer; Doan C. Nguyen; Kristy J. Szretter; Li-Mei Chen; Pranee Thawatsupha; Malinee Chittaganpitch; Sunthareeya Waicharoen; Diep T. Nguyen; Tung Nguyen; Hanh H. T. Nguyen; Jae-Hong Kim; Long T. Hoang; Chun Kang; Lien S. Phuong; Wilina Lim; Sherif Zaki; Ruben O. Donis; Nancy J. Cox; Jacqueline M. Katz; Terrence M. Tumpey

    2005-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses across Asia in 2003 and 2004 devastated domestic poultry populations and resulted in the largest and most lethal H5N1 virus outbreak in humans to date. To better understand the potential of H5N1 viruses isolated during this epizootic event to cause disease in mammals, we used the mouse and ferret models to

  16. [Variation and evolution analysis of the PB1-F2 genes of novel influenza A viruses isolated from Guangzhou China].

    PubMed

    Fung, Fat-Sum; He, Xia; Wang, Zhu; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Ding-Mei; Guan, Lin-Lin; Deng, Yu; Cao, Kai-Yuan

    2012-06-01

    To compare and analyze the variation of PB1-F2 genes of Influenza A Viruses from Guangzhou during 2009 to 2011 with the Influenza A Viruses from all over the world, to lay the foundation of functional research and interaction mechanism of the PB1-F2 protein. 17 Novel H1N1 influenza viruses and 1 seasonal H1N1 influenza virus have been isolated from human in Guangzhou during 2009 to 2011 that were cloned into pMD 18-T Vector for sequencing. Then, 68 PB1-F2 genes of IAVs from human around the world were downloaded from GenBank database and analyzed using molecular biological software. The phylogenetic tree result shows that the PB1-F2 genes of IAV from the world separated into two main groups. There is high homology of PB1-F2 genes of one Seasonal H1N1 virus and Novel H1N1 viruses which were isolated in Guangzhou compared with the global Novel H1N1 viruses. And all of them got the 11 amino acids truncated protein by mutation included one seasonal H1N1 strain isolated by our laboratory. There is no variation of PB1-F2 genes of Novel H1N1 virus in Guangzhou compared with the worldwide strains. However, one seasonal H1N1 virus which isolated by our laboratory shows analogous truncated mutation of PB1-F2 of Novel H1N1 virus, it reveals that the PB1-F2 gene might has done the early reassortment between the Novel H1N1 virus and seasonal H1N1 virus. PMID:22978153

  17. Isolation and characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Ixodes persulcatus in Mongolia in 2012.

    PubMed

    Muto, Memi; Bazartseren, Boldbaatar; Tsevel, Bazartseren; Dashzevge, Erdenechimeg; Yoshii, Kentaro; Kariwa, Hiroaki

    2015-07-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a zoonotic virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus, in the family Flaviviridae. The virus, which is endemic in Europe and northern parts of Asia, causes severe encephalitis. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been reported in Mongolia since the 1980s, but details about the biological characteristics of the endemic virus are lacking. In this study, 680 ticks (Ixodes persulcatus) were collected in Selenge aimag, northern Mongolia, in 2012. Nine Mongolian TBEV strains were isolated from tick homogenates. A sequence analysis of the envelope protein gene revealed that all isolates belonged to the Siberian subtype of TBEV. Two strains showed similar growth properties in cultured cells, but their virulence in mice differed. Whole genome sequencing revealed only thirteen amino acid differences between these Mongolian TBEV strains. Our results suggest that these naturally occurring amino acid mutations affected the pathogenicity of Mongolian TBEV. Our results may be an important platform for monitoring TBEV to evaluate the epidemiological risk in TBE endemic areas of Mongolia. PMID:26025267

  18. Characterization of Tomato bushy stunt virus newly isolated from nipplefruit ( Solanum mammosum ) in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takehiro Ohki; Seiji Uematsu; Dietrich-Eckhardt Lesemann; Yohachiro Honda; Shinya Tsuda; Ichiro Fujisawa

    2005-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was isolated from nipplefruit (Solanum mammosum) in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, with mosaic symptoms, leaf deformation, and stunting. The genomic structure of the TBSV-nipplefruit strain (TBSV-Nf) is identical to that of the TBSV-cherry strain (TBSV-Ch). Transcripts from its full-length cDNA clone without a cap analog at the 5' terminus infected Nicotiana glutinosa, Nicotiana benthamiana, S. mammosum,

  19. Genetic diversity of tomato-infecting Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) isolates in Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue Hoon Kim; Sung Oh; Tae-Kyun Oh; Jae Sung Park; Sei Chang Kim; Seong Hwan Kim; Young Shik Kim; Jeum Kyu Hong; Sang-Yun Sim; Kwon Seo Park; Hwan Gu Lee; Kyung Jae Kim; Chang Won Choi

    2011-01-01

    Epidemic outbreaks of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) diseases occurred in greenhouse grown tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants of Busan (TYLCV-Bus), Boseong (TYLCV-Bos), Hwaseong (TYLCV-Hwas), Jeju Island (TYLCV-Jeju), and Nonsan (TYLCV-Nons)\\u000a in Korea during 2008–2009. Tomato disease by TYLCV has never occurred in Korea before. We synthesized the full-length genomes\\u000a of each TYLCV isolate from the tomato plants collected at

  20. Genetic Structure and Molecular Variability of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolates in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Shahideh; Arevalo, Rafael; Falk, Bryce W.; Groves, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has a worldwide distribution and the widest host range of any known plant virus. From 2000 to 2012, epidemics of CMV severely affected the production of snap bean (Phaseulos vulgaris L.) in the Midwest and Northeastern United States. Virus diversity leading to emergence of new strains is often considered a significant factor in virus epidemics. In addition to epidemics, new disease phenotypes arising from genetic exchanges or mutation can compromise effectiveness of plant disease management strategies. Here, we captured a snapshot of genetic variation of 32 CMV isolates collected from different regions of the U.S including new field as well as historic isolates. Nucleotide diversity (?) was low for U.S. CMV isolates. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CMV subgroup I is predominant in the US and further showed that the CMV population is a mixture of subgroups IA and IB. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggests likely reassortment between subgroups IA and IB within five CMV isolates. Based on phylogenetic and computational analysis, recombination between subgroups I and II as well as IA and IB in RNA 3 was detected. This is the first report of recombination between CMV subgroups I and II. Neutrality tests illustrated that negative selection was the major force operating upon the CMV genome, although some positively selected sites were detected for all encoded proteins. Together, these data suggest that different regions of the CMV genome are under different evolutionary constraints. These results also delineate composition of the CMV population in the US, and further suggest that recombination and reassortment among strain subgroups does occur but at a low frequency, and point towards CMV genomic regions that differ in types of selection pressure. PMID:24801880

  1. Molecular characterization of the first Australian isolate of Japanese encephalitis virus, the FU strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David T. Williams; Lin-Fa Wang; Peter W. Daniels; John S. Mackenzie

    2000-01-01

    The complete genomic and predicted amino acid sequence of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) FU strain, a human isolate recovered from the first outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in Australian territory, was determined. Comparison of the FU genome with 15 fully sequenced JEV genomes revealed high levels of sequence identity, ranging from 88-7% (GP78) to 89-7% (K94P05) for nucleotides and 96-8%

  2. Antigenic variants of rabies virus in isolates from eastern, central and northern Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, W A; Casey, G A; Charlton, K M; Wiktor, T J

    1985-01-01

    Street rabies virus isolated from 51 specimens from Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba and the Northwest Territories have been typed by a panel of 36 antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies. Three main groups were found. The first group comprised those terrestrial mammals originating in Ontario, Quebec and the Northwest Territories. The second group was found in terrestrial mammals from Manitoba. The third heterogenous group was made up of bats from Ontario. PMID:3893660

  3. Complete Nucleotide Sequence and Phylogenetic Analyses of Hepatitis B Virus Isolated from Two Pileated Gibbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoto Aiba; Hiroyuki Nishimura; Yasuyuki Arakawa; Kenji Abe

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed full-length sequence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recovered from two pileated gibbons (Hylobates pileatus) originally born in East Asia. Two animals possessed a viral genome of 3182?nt in length with a 33?nt deletion in the pre-S1 region, and designated HBV PG-Makiko and HBV PG-Yohko, respectively. Both sequences had 65–90% similarity to type A–G of human HBV isolates. Phylogenetic

  4. Complete genomic sequence and phylogenetic relatedness of hepatitis B virus isolates in Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tran Thien Tuan Huy; Amadou Alpha Sall; Jean Marc Reynes; Kenji Abe

    2008-01-01

    Although it is known that Cambodia is one of the high endemic area of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, molecular characterization\\u000a of HBV circulating in this country has not been reported. In this study, pre-S gene of HBV from 12 Cambodian patients was\\u000a sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis based on the pre-S gene sequence revealed that 8 out of 12 isolates (66.7%)

  5. Isolation and partial characterisation of a new strain of Ebola virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Le Guenno; P Formentry; M. Wyers; P. Gounon; F. Walker; C. Boesch

    1995-01-01

    We have isolated a new strain of Ebola virus from a non-fatal human case infected during the autopsy of a wild chimpanzee in the Cote-d'Ivoire. The wild troop to which this animal belonged has been decimated by outbreaks of haemorrhagic syndromes. This is the first time that a human infection has been connected to naturally-infected monkeys in Africa. Data from

  6. Complete nucleotide sequence of the RNA 1 of a grapevine isolate of Arabis mosaic virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Wetzel; A. Beck; U. Wegener; G. Krczal

    2004-01-01

    Summary. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA 1 of the grapevine isolate NW (Neustadt an der Weinstrasse) of Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) was determined. It is 7334 nucleotides long excluding the poly(A) tail, and contains one long open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 2284 amino acids. The 5' and 3' non-coding regions were 227 and 252 nucleotides

  7. Isolation and expression in transgenic tobacco and rice plants, of the cassava vein mosaic virus (CVMV) promoter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertrand Verdaguer; Alexandre de Kochko; Roger N. Beachy; Claude Fauquet

    1996-01-01

    The cassava vein mosaic virus (CVMV) is a double stranded DNA virus which infects cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and has been characterized as a plant pararetrovirus belonging to the caulimovirus subgroup. Two DNA fragments, CVP1 of 388 nucleotides from position -368 to +20 and CVP2 of 511 nucleotides from position -443 to +72, were isolated from the viral genome

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of a Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from an Apparently Healthy Village Chicken in South India

    PubMed Central

    Uthrakumar, Arumugam; Vijayarani, Kumanan; Kumanan, Kathaperumal; Bhuvaneswari, Srinivasan; Kuchipudi, Suresh Varma

    2014-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate, NDV-D1/1998, from an apparently healthy village chicken in South India. This class II, genotype II virus is 15,186 nucleotides in length with unique amino acid variations and was found to be a velogenic pathotype by standard pathogenicity tests. PMID:24948766

  9. Antigenic diversity and similarities detected in avian paramyxovirus type 1 (Newcastle disease virus) isolates using monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Alexander; R. J. Manvell; J. P. Lowings; K. M. Frost; M. S. Collins; P. H. Russell; J. E. Smith

    1997-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) virus (APMV?1) isolates submitted to the International Reference Laboratory for ND were characterised antigenically by their ability to cause binding of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to cell cultures infected with the isolate. Since the availability of the mAbs 1526 viruses have been examined using a panel of nine mAbs and 818 with an extended panel of 26

  10. Complete genome sequence of a tobacco isolate of the tobacco vein banding mosaic virus strain prevailing in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-Y. Wang; T.-S. Zhu; T.-T. Cui; S.-S. Hou; X. Yin; Xiang-Dong Li; L.-P. Lei; X.-P. Zhu

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV) is a species of the largest plant virus genus Potyvirus. Its incidence has been increasing in Chinese tobacco-growing area. TVBMV isolates can be clustered into three genetic groups\\u000a that are corresponding with their geographical origin. We have reported the complete genomic sequence of TVBMV isolate YND\\u000a with unique NIb\\/CP cleavage site. Here, we determined

  11. Antigenic and genetic analysis of H5 influenza viruses isolated from water birds for the purpose of vaccine use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kosuke Soda; Hiroichi Ozaki; Yoshihiro Sakoda; Norikazu Isoda; Yoshinari Haraguchi; Saori Sakabe; Noritaka Kuboki; Noriko Kishida; Ayato Takada; Hiroshi Kida

    2008-01-01

    In order to prepare H5N1 influenza virus vaccine, the hemagglutinins (HAs) of 14 H5 virus isolates from water birds in Asia\\u000a were antigenically and genetically analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the H5 HA genes revealed that 13 isolates belong to\\u000a Eurasian and the other one to North American lineages. Each of the deduced amino acid sequences of the HAs indicated a

  12. Complete genome sequence of an avian leukosis virus isolate associated with hemangioma and myeloid leukosis in egg-type and meat-type chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new virus isolate was separated from a commercial egg-type flock of chickens in China and was determined as subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J). ALV-J is known to cause myeloid leukosis. But this new isolate of viruses causes both hemangioma and myeloid leukosis in chickens. Hemangioma is an a...

  13. A cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus isolated from the pine processionary caterpillar, Thaumetopoea pityocampa.

    PubMed

    Ince, Ikbal Agah; Demir, Ismail; Demirbag, Zihni; Nalcacioglu, Remziye

    2007-04-01

    A cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) was isolated from the larvae of Thaumetopoea pityocampa and shown to cause an infection of midgut cells. This viral infection revealed several important diagnostic symptoms, including discoloration of the posterior midgut, reduced feeding, and extended development time of the larvae. The virus infection is lethal to Thaumetopoea pityocampa, and with the increasing doses kills the larvae within 4-5 days post infection. Electron microscopy studies showed typical cytoplasmic polyhedral inclusion bodies that are icosahedral, and ranged from 2.4 to 5.3 microm in diameter. Electrophoretic analysis of the RNA genome showed that the virus has a genome composed of 10 equimolar RNA segments with the sizes of 3,907, 3,716, 3,628, 3,249, 2,726, 1,914, 1,815, 1,256, 1,058, and 899 bp, respectively. Based on morphology and nucleic acid analysis, this virus was named Thaumetopoea pityocampa cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (TpCPV), and belongs to the genus Cypovirus, family Reoviridae. PMID:18051275

  14. [Fungal origin of PBV-group viruses isolated from Penicillium brevi-compactum].

    PubMed

    Surkov, V V; Chaplygina, N M; Velikodvorskaia, G A; Tikhonenko, T I

    1975-01-01

    Treatment of extracts from the disintegrated mycelium of Penicillium brevi-compactum with antisera against viruses PBV-1 and PBV-3 grown on bacteria results in a considerable decrease in the infectiveness of micellar preparations toward E. coli C. This is a specific reaction since treatment with a heterologic antiserum against phage T2 has no effect on the infectiveness of the micellar extracts. The kinetics of reassociation of DNA from PBV-3 and DNA from Penicillium brevi-compactum has shown that the value of Cot at half-reassociation of these DNAs is 13.3 times higher than the value of Cot at half-reassociation of DNA from PBV-3 and heterologic DNA from chicken embryos. As was found by calculations, DNA isolated from the fungal mycelium contains virus sequences at an amount of 3.7 virus genomes per cell. These data confirm the micellar origin of the viruses PBV-1 and PBV-3. The virus PBV-3 is supposed to be present in the cells in the form of prophage. PMID:1207508

  15. First isolation of dengue virus from Lao PDR in a Chinese traveler

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemic dengue activity has been demonstrated in several southern regions of China, but not in Yunnan province, which borders countries in Southeast Asia where dengue is endemic. Many dengue cases imported from Southeast Asia to Yunnan have been reported, but dengue virus (DENV) has not been isolated from any patients. This study is the first to report the isolation of DENV from a Chinese traveler returning to Yunnan from Lao PDR. Findings A serum sample was collected from a patient presenting with a febrile illness who returned from Lao PDR in 2009 and was used to inoculate Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells for viral isolation. The viral isolate was identified using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and phylogenetic analyses based on the full E sequence were performed using Clustalx 1.8 software. The analyses detected DENV genome, and thus, a DENV isolate was obtained from the patient’s serum sample. The new DENV isolate was grouped into genotype Asia 1, serotype 2. The viral E protein shared the greatest nucleotide sequence identity (99.6%) with the D2/Thailand/0606aTw strain isolated from Thailand in 2006 and demonstrated 94.3% to 100% identity with the predicted amino acid sequence of other DENV 2 strains. Conclusions Our findings indicate that DENV serotype 2 is circulating in Lao PDR, and surveillance of patients suspected of infection with dengue should be conducted not only by a serological test but also by pathogenic detection methods. PMID:23497045

  16. [Isolation, identification and full-length genome sequence analysis of encephalomyocarditis virus from local aardvarks].

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong-Tao; Liu, Hui-Min; He, Xiu-Yuan; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Lu; Wang, Xin-Wei; Yang, Xia; Yao, Hui-Xia; Wang, Chuan-Qing

    2014-07-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a natural epidemic zoonotic pathogen. However, no reports have been published regarding the isolation, identification and full-length genome of EMCV from a local aardvark population. In present study, an EMCV isolate HNXX13 was isolated from aardvarks named Huainan-pig in Henan Province. The systematic identification, full-length genome sequencing and molecular characteristic analysis of the isolate HNXX13 were conducted. The result showed that the isolate was spherical with a diameter of 24-30 nm, neither heat- nor acid-resistant, sensitive to trypsin, insensitive to chloroform, not protected by bivalent cationic, and the specific fluorescence was observed in the cytoplasm of BHK-21 cells infected with the isolate by using indirect fluorescence assay. The full-length genome of EMCV HNXX13 generated a 7 725bp sequence (GenBank: F771002), with 81.0%-99.9% nucleotide identity to reference strains from different animals, and 99.5% with a Chinese reference strain isolated earlier from a commercial pig herd. The phylogenetic tree based on the full-length genome and ORF sequences identified that all EMCV strains were divided into three groups G1, G2 and G3, and strain HNXX13 belonging to the G1 group with other Chinese reference strains. The result also identified that this EMCV infection could cause severe clinical signs in a local aardvark population, and enriches the molecular epidemiological data of EMCV in China. Regional differences exist in EMCV genome and transmission is limited within a certain area. However, the cross-infection and transmission of EMCV between aardvark and mice appears most likely. Mutations have occurred in some amino acids of EMCV strain HNXX13 during the transmission in local aardvark herd and these mutations might make the virus easier to infect the aardvark. PMID:25272589

  17. Complete nucleotide sequence of a South African isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, Renate L; Maree, Hans J; Stephan, Dirk; Burger, Johan T

    2012-10-01

    The complete sequences of RNA1 and RNA2 have been determined for a South African isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV-SAPCS3). The two RNAs are, respectively, 7,342 and 3,817 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tails. RNA1 has a large open reading frame (ORF) of 6,852 nucleotides and a 5'-UTR and a 3'-UTR of 243 and 244 nucleotides, respectively. RNA2 encodes for an ORF of 3,330 nucleotides and has the highest nucleotide identity (90.4 %) with GFLV-F13. The full length nucleotide sequence of GFLV-SAPCS3 RNA1 had the highest nucleotide identity (86.5 %) to the French isolate GFLV-F13. The 5'- and 3'-UTRs of GFLV-SAPCS3 RNA2 are 272 nucleotides and 212 nucleotides (nt) in length, respectively. The GFLV-SAPCS3 RNA2 5'-UTR is 32-53 nt longer compared to other GFLV isolates. The GFLV-SAPCS3 RNA2 5'-UTR is also more closely related to GFLV-GHu and Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) isolates than to other GFLV isolates. Putative intra- and interspecies recombination events between GFLV and ArMV isolates involving GFLV-SAPCS3 RNA1 and RNA2 were investigated. Recombination analysis software has indicated that the GFLV-SAPCS3 5'-UTR might have evolved from a recombinational event between GFLV-F13-type and ArMV-Ta-type isolate. PMID:22669541

  18. A minute virus of canines (MVC: canine bocavirus) isolated from an elderly dog with severe gastroenteritis, and phylogenetic analysis of MVC strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ohshima; K. Kawakami; T. Abe; M. Mochizuki

    2010-01-01

    Two of the three adult dogs kept in a family developed severe gastroenteritis. From the feces of one of the affected dogs a minute virus of canines (MVC) was detected by PCR and virus isolation. That this virus had recently infected the dogs was indicated by high anti-MVC antibody titers of their sera. No other virus commonly associated with canine

  19. Studies of nondefective adenovirus 2-simian virus 40 hybrid viruses. V. Isolation of additional hybrids which differ in their simian virus 40-specific biological properties.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A M; Levine, A S; Crumpacker, C S; Levin, M J; Samaha, R J; Henry, P H

    1973-05-01

    Four new nondefective adenovirus 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) hybrid viruses have been isolated. Although these viruses (designated Ad2(+)ND(2), Ad2(+)ND(3), Ad2(+)ND(4), and Ad2(+)ND(5)) were clonal derivatives of the same Ad2-SV40 hybrid population, they differ significantly from each other and from the previously isolated nondefective hybrid, Ad2(+)ND(1), in their biological properties or in the amount of SV40-specific RNA induced during lytic infection.Like Ad2(+)ND(1), Ad2(+)ND(2), and Ad2(+)ND(4) pass serially in both human embryonic kidney (HEK) and primary African green monkey kidney cells. In contrast, Ad2(+)ND(3) and Ad2(+)ND(5) pass serially only in HEK cells. Ad2(+)ND(2) is like Ad2(+)ND(1) in that it induces the SV40 U antigen, but not SV40 T antigen; however, in contrast to the perinuclear SV40 antigen induced by Ad2(+)ND(1), the SV40 antigen induced by Ad2(+)ND(2) is located peripherally in the cytoplasm as well as in the perinuclear region of infected cells. Ad2(+)ND(4) induces both the SV40 T and U antigens. Ad2(+)ND(3) and Ad2(+)ND(5) do not induce serologically detectable SV40 antigens and are distinguished from each other on the basis of the relative quantities of SV40-specific RNA which they induce. The induction of different SV40-specific functions suggests the incorporation of different segments of SV40 DNA within the genomes of the respective hybrid viruses. PMID:4350710

  20. Characterization of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in Mongolia 2005 through 2007

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Since the emergence of H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) in Asia, numerous efforts worldwide have focused on elucidating the relative roles of wild birds and domestic poultry movement in virus dissemination. In accordance with this a surveillance program for AIV in wild birds was conducted in Mongolia from 2005-2007. An important feature of Mongolia is that there is little domestic poultry production in the country, therefore AIV detection in wild birds would not likely be from spill-over from domestic poultry. Results During 2005-2007 2,139 specimens representing 4,077 individual birds of 45 species were tested for AIV by real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) and/or virus isolation. Bird age and health status were recorded. Ninety rRT-PCR AIV positive samples representing 89 individual birds of 19 species including 9 low pathogenicity (LP) AIVs were isolated from 6 species. A Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus), a Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus) and 2 Ruddy shelducks (Tadorna ferruginea) were positive for H12N3 LP AIV. H16N3 and H13N6 viruses were isolated from Black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus). A Red-crested pochard (Rhodonessa rufina) and 2 Mongolian gulls (Larus vagae mongolicus) were positive for H3N6 and H16N6 LP AIV, respectively. Full genomes of each virus isolate were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically and were most closely related to recent European and Asian wild bird lineage AIVs and individual genes loosely grouped by year. Reassortment occurred within and among different years and subtypes. Conclusion Detection and/or isolation of AIV infection in numerous wild bird species, including 2 which have not been previously described as hosts, reinforces the wide host range of AIV within avian species. Reassortment complexity within the genomes indicate the introduction of new AIV strains into wild bird populations annually, however there is enough over-lap of infection for reassortment to occur. Further work is needed to clarify how AIV is maintained in these wild bird reservoirs. PMID:19891786

  1. Avian Influenza (H5N1) Viruses Isolated from Humans in Asia in 2004 Exhibit Increased Virulence in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Maines, Taronna R.; Lu, Xui Hua; Erb, Steven M.; Edwards, Lindsay; Guarner, Jeannette; Greer, Patricia W.; Nguyen, Doan C.; Szretter, Kristy J.; Chen, Li-Mei; Thawatsupha, Pranee; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Nguyen, Diep T.; Nguyen, Tung; Nguyen, Hanh H. T.; Kim, Jae-Hong; Hoang, Long T.; Kang, Chun; Phuong, Lien S.; Lim, Wilina; Zaki, Sherif; Donis, Ruben O.; Cox, Nancy J.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2005-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses across Asia in 2003 and 2004 devastated domestic poultry populations and resulted in the largest and most lethal H5N1 virus outbreak in humans to date. To better understand the potential of H5N1 viruses isolated during this epizootic event to cause disease in mammals, we used the mouse and ferret models to evaluate the relative virulence of selected 2003 and 2004 H5N1 viruses representing multiple genetic and geographical groups and compared them to earlier H5N1 strains isolated from humans. Four of five human isolates tested were highly lethal for both mice and ferrets and exhibited a substantially greater level of virulence in ferrets than other H5N1 viruses isolated from humans since 1997. One human isolate and all four avian isolates tested were found to be of low virulence in either animal. The highly virulent viruses replicated to high titers in the mouse and ferret respiratory tracts and spread to multiple organs, including the brain. Rapid disease progression and high lethality rates in ferrets distinguished the highly virulent 2004 H5N1 viruses from the 1997 H5N1 viruses. A pair of viruses isolated from the same patient differed by eight amino acids, including a Lys/Glu disparity at 627 of PB2, previously identified as an H5N1 virulence factor in mice. The virus possessing Glu at 627 of PB2 exhibited only a modest decrease in virulence in mice and was highly virulent in ferrets, indicating that for this virus pair, the K627E PB2 difference did not have a prevailing effect on virulence in mice or ferrets. Our results demonstrate the general equivalence of mouse and ferret models for assessment of the virulence of 2003 and 2004 H5N1 viruses. However, the apparent enhancement of virulence of these viruses in humans in 2004 was better reflected in the ferret. PMID:16140756

  2. Isolation and characterization of a variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An outbreak of diarrhea in pigs started in Guangdong, South China in January 2011. Cases were characterized by watery diarrhea, dehydration and vomiting, with 80–100% morbidity and 50–90% mortality in suckling piglets. The causative agent of the diarrhea was ultimately identified as porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). In this study, we isolated a PEDV strain designated CHGD-01 from piglet intestines using Vero cell cultures, and its specific cytopathic effects were confirmed in susceptible cells by direct immunofluorescence testing and electron microscopy. The complete genome of CHGD-01 was shown to be 28,035 nucleotides in length, with a similar structure to that of PEDV reference strains. Phylogenetic analyses based on the whole genome revealed that CHGD-01 shared nucleotide sequence identities of 98.2–98.4% with two other Chinese isolates reported in the same year, thus constituting a new cluster. Amino acid sequence analysis based on individual virus genes indicated a close relationship between the spike protein gene of CHGD-01 and the field strain KNU0802 in Korea. Its ORF3 and nucleoprotein genes, however, were divergent from all other sequenced PEDV isolate clusters and therefore formed a new group, suggesting a new variant PEDV isolate in China. Further studies will be required to determine the immunogenicity and pathogenicity of this new variant. PMID:22967434

  3. The complete genome sequence of a Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus isolated from an endemic region in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Duh, Darja; Nichol, Stuart T; Khristova, Marina L; Saksida, Ana; Hafner-Bratkovi?, Iva; Petrovec, Miroslav; Dedushaj, Iusuf; Ahmeti, Salih; Avši?-Županc, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    The Balkan region and Kosovo in particular, is a well-known Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) endemic region, with frequent epidemic outbreaks and sporadic cases occurring with a hospitalized case fatality of approximately 30%. Recent analysis of complete genome sequences of diverse CCHF virus strains showed that the genome plasticity of the virus is surprisingly high for an arthropod-borne virus. High levels of nucleotide and amino acid differences, frequent RNA segment reassortment and even RNA recombination have been recently described. This diversity illustrates the need to determine the complete genome sequence of CCHF virus representatives of all geographically distinct endemic areas, particularly in light of the high pathogenicity of the virus and its listing as a potential bioterrorism threat. Here we describe the first complete CCHF virus genome sequence of a virus (strain Kosova Hoti) isolated from a hemorrhagic fever case in the Balkans. This virus strain was isolated from a fatal CCHF case, and passaged only twice on Vero E6 cells prior to sequence analysis. The virus total genome was found to be 19.2 kb in length, consisting of a 1672 nucleotide (nt) S segment, a 5364 nt M segment and a 12150 nt L segment. Phylogenetic analysis of CCHF virus complete genomes placed the Kosova Hoti strain in the Europe/Turkey group, with highest similarity seen with Russian isolates. The virus M segments are the most diverse with up to 31 and 27% differences seen at the nt and amino acid levels, and even 1.9% amino acid difference found between the Kosova Hoti and another strain from Kosovo (9553-01). This suggests that distinct virus strains can coexist in highly endemic areas. PMID:18197964

  4. Influenza A viruses isolated from waterfowl in two wildlife management areas of Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, C P; Cowen, B S; van Campen, H

    1995-04-01

    A survey was conducted at two wildlife management areas of Pennsylvania (USA) to evaluate an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) for the detection of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in cloacal swabs from waterfowl and to determine the influenza A virus subtypes and the distribution of these viruses among waterfowl. We collected 330 cloacal swabs from hunter-killed waterfowl in the fall of 1990 and from cage-captured waterfowl in the summer of 1991. Thirty-one hemagglutinating agents were isolated by chicken embryo inoculation (CEI) of which 27 were influenza A viruses and four Newcastle disease viruses (NDV). The prevalence of AIV infection was 8.2%. Compared to CEI, AC-ELISA was only 15% sensitive and 61% specific. Based on the distribution of AIV by species of waterfowl, mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and American wigeons (Anas americana) were at equal risk of AIV infection even though most of the AIV isolates came from mallards. Although significant crude effects of sampling site and season on AIV recovery could be established, juvenile age was identified as the primary risk factor of AIV recovery. Twelve AIV subtypes were identified by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) tests. The most prevalent subytpes were H4N8 and H6N8. We concluded that AC-ELISA was not useful for the detection of AIV in cloacal swabs from waterfowl and that CEI, HI, and NI tests remain as the method of choice for AIV screening in waterfowl. Based on the results AIV infected preferentially the young which represent the high risk group in waterfowl populations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8583635

  5. Rapid detection of antigenic diversity of Akabane virus isolates by dot immunobinding assay using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Tsuda, T

    1998-03-01

    Akabane (AKA) virus is an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Simbu group of the genus Bunyavirus. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against AKA virus were prepared, and the neutralizing epitopes of the virus were defined by competitive binding assay. Five distinct antigenic domains were identified and were designated A, B, C, D, and E. Domains A and C consisted of two epitopes each. It was demonstrated that seven neutralizing epitopes exist on the G1 glycoprotein of AKA virus. Dot immunobinding assays (DIAs) were performed with MAbs which recognize these seven neutralizing epitopes. The results were similar to those obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DIAs were performed using two Australian strains, one isolate from Taiwan, and isolates from Japan collected between the years 1959 and 1994, for a total of 63 isolates. The MAb response patterns were divided into five groups: the OBE-1 strain, the JaGAr39 strain, the Iriki strain, a group which consisted of features between those of the JaGAr39 strain and Iriki strain groups, and a group which did not belong to any of these patterns. The isolates which showed patterns similar to that of the JaGAr39 strain were found mostly among the isolates collected in 1974 and 1990, and isolates with patterns of MAb responses similar to the pattern of the Iriki strain were found mostly in the 1985 isolates. Those showing patterns in between were found mostly around 1977, 1987, and 1994. The results show that DIA can be used to effectively compare the antigenicities of AKA virus isolates within a few hours, even with lesser amounts of virus culture than is required for other assays. PMID:9521142

  6. Demonstration of antigenic variation among rabies virus isolates by using monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J S; Reid-Sanden, F L; Roumillat, L F; Trimarchi, C; Clark, K; Baer, G M; Winkler, W G

    1986-01-01

    Rabies virus isolates from terrestrial animals in six areas of the United States were examined with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid proteins. Characteristic differences in immunofluorescence reactions permitted the formation of four antigenically distinct reaction groups from the 231 isolates tested. The geographic distribution of these groups corresponded well with separate rabies enzootic areas recognized by surveillance of sylvatic rabies in the United States. Distinctive reaction patterns were also identified for viral proteins from four infected bat species, and identical patterns were found in eight isolated cases of rabies in terrestrial animals. These findings suggest that monoclonal antibodies can be used to study the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of rabies among wildlife species. PMID:2429983

  7. Single Strain Isolation Method for Cell Culture-Adapted Hepatitis C Virus by End-Point Dilution and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Nao; Murayama, Asako; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Shiina, Masaaki; Liang, T. Jake; Wakita, Takaji; Kato, Takanobu

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) culture system has enabled us to clarify the HCV life cycle and essential host factors for propagation. However, the virus production level of wild-type JFH-1 (JFH-1/wt) is limited, and this leads to difficulties in performing experiments that require higher viral concentrations. As the cell culture-adapted JFH-1 has been reported to have robust virus production, some mutations in the viral genome may play a role in the efficiency of virus production. In this study, we obtained cell culture-adapted virus by passage of full-length JFH-1 RNA-transfected Huh-7.5.1 cells. The obtained virus produced 3 log-fold more progeny viruses as compared with JFH-1/wt. Several mutations were identified as being responsible for robust virus production, but, on reverse-genetics analysis, the production levels of JFH-1 with these mutations did not reach the level of cell culture-adapted virus. By using the single strain isolation method by end-point dilution and infection, we isolated two strains with additional mutations, and found that these strains have the ability to produce more progeny viruses. On reverse-genetics analysis, the strains with these additional mutations were able to produce robust progeny viruses at comparable levels as cell culture-adapted JFH-1 virus. The strategy used in this study will be useful for identifying strains with unique characteristics, such as robust virus production, from a diverse population, and for determining the responsible mutations for these characteristics. PMID:24848954

  8. Characterization of grapefruit plants (Citrus paradisi Macf.) transformed with citrus tristeza closterovirus genes.

    PubMed

    Febres, V J; Niblett, C L; Lee, R F; Moore, G A

    2003-01-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. cv Duncan) plants were transformed with several sequences from citrus tristeza closterovirus (CTV) that varied in terms of position in the CTV genome and virus strain origin in an attempt to obtain resistant plants. The sequences included the capsid protein gene from three different strains, a nontranslatable version of the capsid protein gene, the replicase (RdRp), the minor capsid protein (p27), a highly transcribed gene of unknown function (p20) and the more conserved 3' end of the genomic RNA. Transgenic plants were generated from all of the constructs, except from the p20 and p27 genes. Southern and Western blot analyses demonstrated that stably transformed grapefruit plants were obtained and that at least some transgenes were expressed. In a first effort at virus challenge, 25 transgenic lines were graft inoculated with a severe strain of CTV. Although some transgenic plants averaged lower titers of virus than controls, there was great variability in titer in both controls and transgenic plants, and all were apparently susceptible to the virus. PMID:12789444

  9. HoMuLV: a novel pathogenic ecotropic virus isolated from the European mouse, Mus hortulanus.

    PubMed

    Voytek, P; Kozak, C

    1988-08-01

    We isolated a novel infectious murine leukemia virus (HoMuLV) from the wild mouse Mus hortulanus. HoMuLV has an ecotropic virus host range, but the viral DNA fails to hybridize to viral envelope segments specific for the known inbred and wild mouse ecotropic as well as nonecotropic MuLVs. Despite this difference in its env gene, HoMuLV appears to use the same ecotropic cell-surface receptor since it infects only hamster and mouse somatic cell hybrids which contain the Rec-1 ecotropic virus receptor on chromosome 5. Furthermore, HoMuLV does not infect mice carrying the Fv-4r allele which is thought to prevent ecotropic virus infection through an interference mechanism. HoMuLV is NB-tropic and, unlike other infectious MuLVs, does not grow in cells derived from the wild mouse species. M. dunni. Five to ten months after neonatal inoculation with HoMuLV, 72% of female NIH Swiss mice (8/11) contracted lymphoma or erythroid leukemia, but 33% of the inoculated males (5/15) developed erythroid or myelogenous leukemia within 8-16 months. These data suggest that NIH Swiss males and females differ in their susceptibility to HoMuLV-induced disease. Furthermore, NIH Swiss mice were found to be more susceptible to HoMuLV-induced disease than NFS/N mice. Tumors contained infectious MCF virus, which is consistent with the hypothesis that MCF virus may mediate tumorigenesis by HoMuLV. PMID:2841796

  10. Biochemical and Antigenic Properties of the First Isolates of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus from Salmonid Fish in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Arkush; G. Bovo; P. De Kinkelin; J. R. Winton; W. H. Wingfield; R. P. Hedrick

    1989-01-01

    The first isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) recovered from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri) in France and Italy were compared to six representative strains from North America by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of virion polypeptides and neutralization by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). All three IHNV isolates from Europe had similar polypeptide profiles when compared by

  11. ISOLATION OF ORTHO- AND PARAMYXOVIRUSES FROM WILD BIRDS IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA, AND THE CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL INFLUENZA A VIRUSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JS Mackenzie; EC Edwards; RM Holmes; VS Hinshaw

    1984-01-01

    As part of the World Health Organization's international programme on the ecology of influenza, cloacal swabs were collected from 3, 736 birds belonging to 67 species over a 3-year period in Western Australia for the isolation of ortho- and paramyxoviruses. A total of 24 influenza A viruses were isolated from various species of ducks, shearwaters, noddies, terns and a coot,

  12. INFLUENCE OF COAT PROTEIN TRANSGENE COPY NUMBER ON RESISTANCE IN TRANSGENIC LINE 63-1 AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS ISOLATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Line 63-1 is a ‘Sunset’-derived transgenic papaya expressing the coat protein (CP) gene from a mild mutant of a Hawaiian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Previous work showed that line 63-1 R1 plants exhibited a range of resistance to severe PRSV isolates from Hawaii (HA), Jamaica (JA), Thai...

  13. Complete genomic sequence analyses of Turnip mosaic virus basal-BR isolates from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Liu, Jin-Liang; Gao, Rui; Chen, Jia; Shao, Yun-Hua; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2009-06-01

    Isolates of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) are divided into four molecular lineages based on host range and geographical origins. Basal-BR is one of the four lineages and represented a new emergent lineage in East Asia. In one previous paper, we report the occurrence of basal-BR isolates in China. Here, we presented the first two complete genomic sequences of Chinese TuMV basal-BR isolates, WFLB06 and TANX2. The genomes of both isolates were 9833 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail, and had identical genomic structure. Most of their genes shared the highest identities with Japanese isolates. Recombination analysis showed that WFLB06 was an interlineage recombinant of basal-BR and Asian-BR parents, while TANX2 was an intralineage recombinant of basal-BR parents, and these two isolates represented two novel recombination patterns of TuMV. The ratio of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution for the P1 gene of Chinese TuMV population was the highest and amounted to 12 times higher than that for the NIa-Pro gene, which implies that the selection pressure on the P1 gene was the highest among the genes present in the genome. PMID:19238532

  14. Genetic and phylogenetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from wildlife and livestock in Paraiba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Sato, G; Gomes, A A B; Itou, T; Ito, F H; Sakai, T

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-four rabies virus (RV) isolates from foxes (8), insectivore bats (9), cattle (14), sheep (1), a goat (1) and a donkey (1) from Paraiba state, northeastern Brazil, were genetically characterized. Sequences of 890 nts of nucleoprotein (N) genes of these isolates were analyzed and compared with those of other Brazilian isolates characterized earlier. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three genetical lineages of RV co-existing in this region. Each lineage was found to be associated with particular host species and to circulate independently of each other. The first lineage was found in foxes (Dusicyon sp.) and could be discriminated from domestic carnivore isolates from Sao Paulo, Goias and Minas Gerais in the southern and central Brazil. The second lineage was associated with insectivorous bats (Molossus spp.) and differed from vampire bat-associated RV isolates. The third lineage was found in livestock and clustered with vampire bat-associated RV isolates from Sao Paulo, Tocantins, Goias and Matto Grosso. These results indicate that RV of these genetic lineages are cocirculating in the Paraiba state and that livestock in this region are infected with vampire bat-associated RV, suggesting that the vampire bat is the main reservoir of livestock rabies in this region. PMID:16599183

  15. Detection and isolation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus on a broiler farm after a disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Dormitorio, Teresa V; Giambrone, Joseph J; Macklin, Kenneth S

    2013-12-01

    A broiler farm in North Alabama suffered a mild infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) outbreak, as determined by clinical disease and PCR. The poultry integrator sought help to control further outbreaks in subsequent flocks. Samples were collected from various areas of the poultry houses on the farm over an 8-wk period. The first sampling was conducted 8 days after the infected farm was depopulated; the second was conducted 2 days prior to subsequent flock placement; and the third was conducted when the new flock was 5 wk of age. Samples were examined for ILT virus (ILTV) DNA by real-time PCR and virus isolation in embryos. The infected houses were cleaned, disinfected, heated, litter composted, and curtains replaced after the first sampling and prior to placement of the next flock. Samples from all periods were positive for ILTV DNA. However, the number of positive samples and crossing point values indicated a decrease in the amount of viral DNA, while virus isolation in embryos was successful only on the first sampling. The subsequent flock was vaccinated against ILTV by in ovo route using a commercial recombinant vaccine. Cleaning and sanitation after the disease outbreak reduced the amount of ILTV on the farm and together with in ovo vaccination of the new flock may have prevented a recurrence of another ILT outbreak. PMID:24597126

  16. Whole-Genome Sequence of a Reassortant H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from a Live Poultry Market in China, 2013.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xian; Cui, Lunbiao; Yu, Huiyan; Ge, Yiyue; Tang, Fengyang

    2014-01-01

    An avian influenza virus, A/environment/Zhenjiang/C13/2013(H5N6), was isolated from a live poultry market in eastern China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate was a novel reassortant virus with a neuraminidase (NA) gene from H6N6 viruses and the other seven genes from H5N1 viruses, which may pose a potential threat to human and animal health. PMID:25212611

  17. Identification of Recombination in the Envelope Gene of Simian Foamy Virus Serotype 2 Isolated from Macaca cyclopis

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, Teresa A.; Ahmed, Imran A.; Shahabuddin, Muhammad; Bryan, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    The full-length sequence of simian foamy virus serotype 2 (SFVmcy-2), isolated from a Taiwanese macaque, was determined. SFVmcy-2 was highly related to SFV serotype 1 (SFVmcy-1), an isolate from the same species, except in the putative receptor binding domain (RBD) in env, which contained novel sequences related to SFV serotype 3 (SFVagm-3), isolated from an African green monkey. The results identify a potential region of neutralization in SFVs and demonstrate recombination between genetically divergent foamy viruses. PMID:23698303

  18. The genomic RNA1 and RNA2 sequences of the tobacco rattle virus isolates found in Polish potato fields.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhimin; Pawe?kowicz, Magdalena; Michalak, Krystyna; Chrzanowska, Miros?awa; Zimnoch-Guzowska, Ewa

    2014-06-24

    Four tobacco rattle virus (TRV) isolates were identified from tobacco bait seedlings planted in soil samples from Polish potato fields. Sequence analysis of the genomic RNA1 of the isolates revealed significant similarity to the isolates Ho and AL recently found in Germany. Multiple sequence alignments of the genomic RNA2 indicated that the two isolates from northern Poland (Deb57 and Slu24) are in a cluster with the isolates PSG and PLB found in the Netherlands. The remaining two isolates, from central Poland (11r21 and Mlo7), are in a distinct group with the unique isolate SYM found in England. The RNA2 sequences of the studied isolates range from 1998 nt to 2739 nt in length, and all carry deletions of the 2b and/or 2c genes. The isolate Mlo7 has an atypical RNA2 structure, having its cp gene located in its central region. PMID:24637409

  19. Computer aided evaluation of differences in host reactions between isolates of turnip mosaic virus from Sisymbrium loeselii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Br?ák

    1980-01-01

    Twenty three isolates of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) obtained from spontaneously infected plants ofSiaymbrivm loeaelii\\u000a JUSL. were serologically related, but differed in reactions of eleven host plants. Susceptibility and sensitivity of each host\\u000a for each TuMV isolate were classified by one of six degrees (0 to 5) respectively. Similarities of isolates (as compared in\\u000a 253 pairs) were evaluated by means

  20. Phylogeny, genome evolution, and antigenic variability among endemic foot-and-mouth disease virus type A isolates from India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mittal; C. Tosh; D. Hemadri; A. Sanyal; S. K. Bandyopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    Summary. The capsid-coding (P1) and 3A regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A field isolates including two vaccine strains collected during 1977–2000 were analyzed. In the phylogenies, the isolates were distributed into two previously identified genotypes VI and VII, with multiple sub-genotypes that are temporally clustered. Comparison of the antigenic relationships of field isolates with the two vaccine strains

  1. Infectivity and complete nucleotide sequence of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus isolate Cm cDNA.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sun-Ju; Hong, Jin-Sung; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2014-07-01

    Three isolates of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus (CFMMV) were collected from melon, cucumber, and pumpkin plants in Korea. A full-length cDNA clone of CFMMV-Cm (melon isolate) was produced and evaluated for infectivity after T7 transcription in vitro (pT7CF-Cmflc). The complete CFMMV genome sequence of the infectious clone pT7CF-Cmflc was determined. The genome of CFMMV-Cm consisted of 6,571 nucleotides and shared high nucleotide sequence identity (98.8 %) with the Israel isolate of CFMMV. Based on the infectious clone pT7CF-Cmflc, a CaMV 35S-promoter driven cDNA clone (p35SCF-Cmflc) was subsequently constructed and sequenced. Mechanical inoculation with RNA transcripts of pT7CF-Cmflc and agro-inoculation with p35SCF-Cmflc resulted in systemic infection of cucumber and melon, producing symptoms similar to those produced by CFMMV-Cm. Progeny virus in infected plants was detected by RT-PCR, western blot assay, and transmission electron microscopy. PMID:24473709

  2. Isolation, molecular characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of encephalomyocarditis virus from South China tigers in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huimin; Yan, Qi; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Jing; Wang, Chengmin; Du, Yingchun; Yan, Jing; He, Hongxuan

    2013-10-01

    Although encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) can infect many host species and cause myocarditis and sudden death in many species, little is known about EMCV infection in tigers. A virus was isolated from organs of dead South China tigers with sudden death in southern China. The production of cytopathic effect on BHK cells, and the results of PCR, electron microscopy (EM), and whole genome sequencing indicated that the pathogen was EMCV, the strain was named FJ13. Other pathogenic agents were excluded as possible pathogenic agents. Phylogenetic analyses of the whole genome, ORF (open reading frame) and CCR (capsid coding region) using the neighbour-joining method revealed that EMCV isolates cluster into two groups (group 1 and 2) with two sub-clusters within group 1 (group 1a and 1b), and FJ13 belongs to group 1a. Animal experiment showed that the isolated strain FJ13 could cause clinical symptoms and pathological changes. The results of this study indicated that FJ13 caused myocarditis of tigers and provided new epidemiologic data on EMCV in China. PMID:23917023

  3. Genetic characterization of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus strains isolated from cattle in Israel.

    PubMed

    Wilson, William C; Ruder, Mark G; Klement, Eyal; Jasperson, Dane C; Yadin, Hagai; Stallknecht, David E; Mead, Daniel G; Howerth, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), a member of the genus Orbivirus not reported previously in Israel, was isolated from Israeli cattle during a 'bluetongue-like' disease outbreak in 2006. To ascertain the origin of this new virus, three isolates from the outbreak were fully sequenced and compared with available sequences. Whilst the L2 gene segment clustered with the Australian EHDV serotype 7 (EHDV-7) reference strain, most of the other segments were clustered with EHDV isolates of African/Middle East origin, specifically Bahrain, Nigeria and South Africa. The M6 gene had genetic relatedness to the Australian/Asian strains, but with the limited data available the significance of this relationship is unclear. Only one EHDV-7 L2 sequence was available, and as this gene encodes the serotype-specific epitope, the relationship of these EHDV-7 L2 genes to an Australian EHDV-7 reflects the serotype association, not necessarily the origin. The genetic data indicated that the strains affecting Israel in 2006 may have been related to similar outbreaks that occurred in North Africa in the same year. This finding also supports the hypothesis that EHDV entered Israel during 2006 and was not present there before this outbreak. PMID:25701817

  4. Characteristics of a Lettuce mosaic virus Isolate Infecting Lettuce in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seungmo; Zhao, Fumei; Yoo, Ran Hee; Igori, Davaajargal; Lee, Su-Heon; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2014-01-01

    Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) causes disease of plants in the family Asteraceae, especially lettuce crops. LMV isolates have previously been clustered in three main groups, LMV-Yar, LMV-Greek and LMVRoW. The first two groups, LMV-Yar and LMV-Greek, have similar characteristics such as no seed-borne transmission and non-resistance-breaking. The latter one, LMV-RoW, comprising a large percentage of the LMV isolates contains two large subgroups, LMV-Common and LMV-Most. To date, however, no Korean LMV isolate has been classified and characterized. In this study, LMV-Muju, the Korean LMV isolate, was isolated from lettuce showing pale green and mottle symptoms, and its complete genome sequence was determined. Classification method of LMV isolates based on nucleotide sequence divergence of the NIb-CP junction showed that LMV-Muju was categorized as LMV-Common. LMV-Muju was more similar to LMV-O (LMV-Common subgroup) than to LMV-E (LMV-RoW group but not LMV-Common subgroup) even in the amino acid domains of HC-Pro associated with pathogenicity, and in the CI and VPg regions related to ability to overcome resistance. Taken together, LMV-Muju belongs to the LMV-Common subgroup, and is expected to be a seed-borne, non-resistance-breaking isolate. According to our analysis, all other LMV isolates not previously assigned to a subgroup were also included in the LMV-RoW group. PMID:25289001

  5. Characteristics of a Lettuce mosaic virus Isolate Infecting Lettuce in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seungmo; Zhao, Fumei; Yoo, Ran Hee; Igori, Davaajargal; Lee, Su-Heon; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2014-06-01

    Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) causes disease of plants in the family Asteraceae, especially lettuce crops. LMV isolates have previously been clustered in three main groups, LMV-Yar, LMV-Greek and LMVRoW. The first two groups, LMV-Yar and LMV-Greek, have similar characteristics such as no seed-borne transmission and non-resistance-breaking. The latter one, LMV-RoW, comprising a large percentage of the LMV isolates contains two large subgroups, LMV-Common and LMV-Most. To date, however, no Korean LMV isolate has been classified and characterized. In this study, LMV-Muju, the Korean LMV isolate, was isolated from lettuce showing pale green and mottle symptoms, and its complete genome sequence was determined. Classification method of LMV isolates based on nucleotide sequence divergence of the NIb-CP junction showed that LMV-Muju was categorized as LMV-Common. LMV-Muju was more similar to LMV-O (LMV-Common subgroup) than to LMV-E (LMV-RoW group but not LMV-Common subgroup) even in the amino acid domains of HC-Pro associated with pathogenicity, and in the CI and VPg regions related to ability to overcome resistance. Taken together, LMV-Muju belongs to the LMV-Common subgroup, and is expected to be a seed-borne, non-resistance-breaking isolate. According to our analysis, all other LMV isolates not previously assigned to a subgroup were also included in the LMV-RoW group. PMID:25289001

  6. Vaccinia viruses isolated from cutaneous disease in horses are highly virulent for rabbits.

    PubMed

    Felipetto Cargnelutti, Juliana; Schmidt, Candice; Masuda, Eduardo Kenji; Braum, Lisiane Danusa; Weiblen, Rudi; Furtado Flores, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    Two genotypically distinct Vaccinia viruses (VACV), named P1V and P2V, were isolated from an outbreak of cutaneous disease in horses in Southern Brazil. We herein investigated the susceptibility of rabbits, a proposed animal model, to P1V and P2V infection. Groups of weanling rabbits were inoculated intranasally (IN) with P1V or P2V at low (10(2.5) TCID50), medium (10(4.5)TCID50), or high titer (10(6.5)TCID50). Rabbits inoculated with medium and high titers shed virus in nasal secretions and developed serous to hemorrhagic nasal discharge and severe respiratory distress, followed by progressive apathy and high lethality. Clinical signs appeared around days 3-6 post-inoculation (pi) and lasted up to the day of death or euthanasia (around days 5-10). Virus shedding and clinical signs were less frequent in rabbits inoculated with low virus titers. Viremia was detected in all groups, with different frequencies. Viral DNA was detected in the feces of a few animals inoculated with P1V and P2V, low titer, and with P2V at high titer. Gross necropsy findings and histological examination showed diffuse interstitial fibrousing pneumonia with necrosuppurative bronchopneumonia and intestinal liquid content. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in all inoculated animals surviving beyond day 9 pi. These results show that rabbits are highly susceptible to VACV isolated from horses, and develop severe respiratory and systemic disease upon IN inoculation. Thus, rabbits may be used to study selected aspects of VACV infection and disease. PMID:22226666

  7. Genome Sequence Analysis of In Vitro and In Vivo Phenotypes of Bunyamwera and Ngari Virus Isolates from Northern Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Odhiambo, Collins; Venter, Marietjie; Limbaso, Konongoi; Swanepoel, Robert; Sang, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Biological phenotypes of tri-segmented arboviruses display characteristics that map to mutation/s in the S, M or L segments of the genome. Plaque variants have been characterized for other viruses displaying varied phenotypes including attenuation in growth and/or pathogenesis. In order to characterize variants of Bunyamwera and Ngari viruses, we isolated individual plaque size variants; small plaque (SP) and large plaque (LP) and determined in vitro growth properties and in vivo pathogenesis in suckling mice. We performed gene sequencing to identify mutations that may be responsible for the observed phenotype. The LP generally replicated faster than the SP and the difference in growth rate was more pronounced in Bunyamwera virus isolates. Ngari virus isolates were more conserved with few point mutations compared to Bunyamwera virus isolates which displayed mutations in all three genome segments but majority were silent mutations. Contrary to expectation, the SP of Bunyamwera virus killed suckling mice significantly earlier than the LP. The LP attenuation may probably be due to a non-synonymous substitution (T858I) that mapped within the active site of the L protein. In this study, we identify natural mutations whose exact role in growth and pathogenesis need to be determined through site directed mutagenesis studies. PMID:25153316

  8. Analysis of the complete sequences of two biologically distinct Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates further evidences the involvement of a single amino acid in the virus pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Nováková, S; Svoboda, J; Glasa, M

    2014-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of two Slovak Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates (ZYMV-H and ZYMV-SE04T) were determined. These isolates differ significantly in their pathogenicity, producing either severe or very mild symptoms on susceptible cucurbit hosts. The viral genome of both isolates consisted of 9593 nucleotides in size, and contained an open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein of 3080 amino acids. Despite their different biological properties, an extremely high nucleotide identity could be noted (99.8%), resulting in differences of only 5 aa, located in the HC-Pro, P3, and NIb, respectively. In silico analysis including 5 additional fully-sequenced and phylogenetically closely-related isolates known to induce different symptoms in cucurbits was performed. This suggested that the key single mutation responsible for virus pathogenicity is likely located in the N-terminal part of P3, adjacent to the PIPO. PMID:25518719

  9. Genetic and evolutionary characterization of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus isolates from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pisano, María Belén; Torres, Carolina; Ré, Viviana Elizabeth; Farías, Adrián Alejandro; Sánchez Seco, María Paz; Tenorio, Antonio; Campos, Rodolfo; Contigiani, Marta Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV) are emerging pathogens of medical and veterinary importance circulating in America. Argentina is a country free from epizootic VEEV activity, with circulation of enzootic strains belonging to Rio Negro virus (RNV; VEEV subtype VI) and Pixuna virus (PIXV, VEEV subtype IV). In this work, we aim to report the sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of all Argentinean VEE viruses, including 7 strains previously isolated from mosquitoes in 1980, 5 sequences obtained from rodents in 1991 and 11 sequences amplified from mosquitoes between 2003 and 2005. Two genomic regions, corresponding to the non-structural protein 4 (nsP4) and the protein E3/E2 (PE2) genes were analyzed, but only 8 samples could be amplified in the last one (longer and more variable fragment of 702 bp). For both genomic fragments, phylogenetic trees showed the absence of lineages within RNV group, and a close genetic relationship between Argentinean strains and the prototype strain BeAr35645 for PIXV clade. The analysis of nsP4 gene opens the possibility to propose a possible geographic clustering of strains within PIXV group (Argentina and Brazil). Coalescent analysis performed on RNV sequences suggested a common ancestor of 58.3 years (with a 95% highest posterior density [HPD] interval of 16.4-345.7) prior to 1991 and inferred a substitution rate of 9.8×10(-5)substitutions/site/year, slightly lower than other enzootic VEE viruses. These results provide, for the first time, information about genetic features and variability of all VEEVs detected in Argentina, creating a database that will be useful for future detections in our country. This is particularly important for RNV, which has indigenous circulation. PMID:24833218

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of a Duck Hepatitis A Virus 1 Isolated from a Pigeon in China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Chen, Zhen; Fu, Guanghua; Wan, Chunhe; Lin, Su; Cheng, Longfei; Fu, Qiuling; Lin, Jiansheng; Lin, Fang

    2013-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a duck hepatitis A virus 1 (DHAV-1), strain FJ1220, isolated from a dead pigeon in eastern China. DHAV-1 FJ1220 has high homology of up to 99.6% to the DHAV-1 strain Du/CH/LGD/111238 but relatively low homology to strains FFZ05 and FZ05. An amino acid hypervariable region in the VP1 protein of FJ1220 has the motif 180TPSGR184 replaced by 180ALSRG184 compared to strains FFZ05 and FZ05. PMID:23846267

  11. A novel highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza virus isolated from a wild duck in China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shengtao; Zhou, Lichen; Wu, Di; Gao, Xiaolong; Pei, Enle; Wang, Tianhou; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2014-01-01

    Migrating wild birds are considered natural reservoirs of influenza viruses and serve as a potential source of novel influenza strains in humans and livestock. During routine avian influenza surveillance conducted in eastern China, a novel H5N8 (SH-9) reassortant influenza virus was isolated from a mallard duck in China. blast analysis revealed that the HA, NA, PB1, PA, NP, and M segments of SH-9 were most closely related to the corresponding segments of A/duck/Jiangsu/k1203/2010 (H5N8). The SH-9 virus preferentially recognized avian-like influenza virus receptors and was highly pathogenic in mice. Our results suggest that wild birds could acquire the H5N8 virus from breeding ducks and spread the virus via migratory bird flyways. Please cite this paper as: Fan et al. (2014) A novel highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza virus isolated from a wild duck in China. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 8(6), 646–653. PMID:25363159

  12. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B, C, E, and G Virus Infections and Molecular Analysis of Hepatitis G Virus Isolates in Bolivia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NAMI KONOMI; CHIAKI MIYOSHI; CARLOS LA FUENTE ZERAIN; TIAN-CHENG LI; YASUYUKI ARAKAWA; KENJI ABE

    1999-01-01

    Prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis G virus (HGV), and hepatitis E virus (HEV) was investigated among 574 healthy blood donors in Bolivia. HCV RNA and HGV RNA in the serum were identified by a nested reverse transcription-PCR using primers derived from the 5* untranslated region (5* UTR). We also tested for hepatitis B surface

  13. Hepatitis B virus subgenotype A1: evolutionary relationships between Brazilian, African and Asian isolates.

    PubMed

    Lago, Bárbara V; Mello, Francisco C; Kramvis, Anna; Niel, Christian; Gomes, Selma A

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of low hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity in which the genotype A of HBV (HBV/A) is the most prevalent. The complete nucleotide sequences of 26 HBV/A isolates, originating from eight Brazilian states, were determined. All were adw2. Twenty-three belonged to subgenotype A1 and three to A2. By phylogenetic analysis, it was shown that all the 23 HBV/A1 isolates clustered together with isolates from Bangladesh, India, Japan, Nepal, the Philippines and United Arab Emirates, but not with those of Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Four amino acid residues in the polymerase (His138 in the terminal protein domain, Pro18 and His90 in the spacer, and Ser109 in the reverse transcriptase), and one (Phe17) in the precore region, predominated in Latin American and Asian HBV/A1 isolates, but were rarely encountered in African isolates, with the exception of those from Somalia. Specific variations of two adjacent amino acids in the C-terminal domain of the HBx protein, namely Ala146 and Pro147, were found in all the Brazilian, but rarely in the other HBV/A1 isolates. By Bayesian analysis, the existence of an 'Asian-American' clade within subgenotype A1 was supported by a posterior probability value of 0.996. The close relatedness of the Brazilian, Asian and Somalian isolates suggests that the HBV/A1 strains predominant in Brazil did not originate from the five million slaves who were imported from Central and Western Africa from 1551 to 1840, but rather from the 300-400,000 captives forcibly removed from southeast Africa at the middle of the 19th century. PMID:25122004

  14. Differential Pathogenesis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Clinical Isolates in BALB/c Mice?

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Kate L.; Chi, Michael H.; Sakamoto, Kaori; Newcomb, Dawn C.; Currier, Michael G.; Huckabee, Matthew M.; Lee, Sujin; Goleniewska, Kasia; Pretto, Carla; Williams, John V.; Hotard, Anne; Sherrill, Taylor P.; Peebles, R. Stokes; Moore, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    Airway mucus is a hallmark of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract illness. Laboratory RSV strains differentially induce airway mucus production in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that RSV strains differ in pathogenesis by screening six low-passage RSV clinical isolates for mucogenicity and virulence in BALB/cJ mice. The RSV clinical isolates induced variable disease severity, lung interleukin-13 (IL-13) levels, and gob-5 levels in BALB/cJ mice. We chose two of these clinical isolates for further study. Infection of BALB/cJ mice with RSV A2001/2-20 (2-20) resulted in greater disease severity, higher lung IL-13 levels, and higher lung gob-5 levels than infection with RSV strains A2, line 19, Long, and A2001/3-12 (3-12). Like the line 19 RSV strain, the 2-20 clinical isolate induced airway mucin expression in BALB/cJ mice. The 2-20 and 3-12 RSV clinical isolates had higher lung viral loads than laboratory RSV strains at 1 day postinfection (p.i.). This increased viral load correlated with higher viral antigen levels in the bronchiolar epithelium and greater histopathologic changes at 1 day p.i. The A2 RSV strain had the highest peak viral load at day 4 p.i. RSV 2-20 infection caused epithelial desquamation, bronchiolitis, airway hyperresponsiveness, and increased breathing effort in BALB/cJ mice. We found that RSV clinical isolates induce variable pathogenesis in mice, and we established a mouse model of clinical isolate strain-dependent RSV pathogenesis that recapitulates key features of RSV disease. PMID:21471228

  15. Hepatitis B Virus Subgenotype A1: Evolutionary Relationships between Brazilian, African and Asian Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Lago, Bárbara V.; Mello, Francisco C.; Kramvis, Anna; Niel, Christian; Gomes, Selma A.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of low hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity in which the genotype A of HBV (HBV/A) is the most prevalent. The complete nucleotide sequences of 26 HBV/A isolates, originating from eight Brazilian states, were determined. All were adw2. Twenty-three belonged to subgenotype A1 and three to A2. By phylogenetic analysis, it was shown that all the 23 HBV/A1 isolates clustered together with isolates from Bangladesh, India, Japan, Nepal, the Philippines and United Arab Emirates, but not with those of Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Four amino acid residues in the polymerase (His138 in the terminal protein domain, Pro18 and His90 in the spacer, and Ser109 in the reverse transcriptase), and one (Phe17) in the precore region, predominated in Latin American and Asian HBV/A1 isolates, but were rarely encountered in African isolates, with the exception of those from Somalia. Specific variations of two adjacent amino acids in the C-terminal domain of the HBx protein, namely Ala146 and Pro147, were found in all the Brazilian, but rarely in the other HBV/A1 isolates. By Bayesian analysis, the existence of an ‘Asian-American’ clade within subgenotype A1 was supported by a posterior probability value of 0.996. The close relatedness of the Brazilian, Asian and Somalian isolates suggests that the HBV/A1 strains predominant in Brazil did not originate from the five million slaves who were imported from Central and Western Africa from 1551 to 1840, but rather from the 300–400,000 captives forcibly removed from southeast Africa at the middle of the 19th century. PMID:25122004

  16. Molecular characterization of two isolates of human T cell leukaemia virus type II from Italian drug abusers and comparison of genome structure with other isolates.

    PubMed

    Zella, D; Cavicchini, A; Salemi, M; Casoli, C; Lori, F; Achilli, G; Cattaneo, E; Landini, V; Bertazzoni, U

    1993-03-01

    The human T cell leukaemia virus type II (HTLV-II), whose pathogenicity is as yet unclear, was recently found to be associated with intravenous drug abuse in North America and Europe. HTLV-II was isolated from two Italian drug abusers belonging to the same cohort and coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Two new isolates, HTLV-II Gu and Va, were established in a culture of BJAB cells, a continuous B cell line (Epstein-Barr virus-negative), and characterized by nucleotide sequence analysis of the long terminal repeat (LTR) and portions of the gag, env and X regions. These sequences were compared to those of the HTLV-II Mo isolate reported in the literature. No major variations were observed in important regulatory elements of LTR nor in the stem-bulge-loop configuration known to be essential for binding of rex protein. The results obtained from the sequence of the 1988 nucleotides examined indicated a 1.6% variability between the Gu and Va isolates and about 6% with respect to Mo. Notable differences were found in the structure of putative open reading frames of the X region when compared to those reported for the Mo isolate. Restriction analysis of proviral DNA of two isolates and comparison with the physical map of the Mo isolate confirmed the existence of genetic heterogeneity in the HTLV-II group and demonstrated that the new isolates Gu and Va belong to the HTLV-IIb subtype. The results of this study show that the new isolates have distinct features with respect to the Mo isolate though all important regulatory elements of the LTR appear to be well conserved. PMID:8445366

  17. Isolation and characterization of Tula virus, a distinct serotype in the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, O; Lundkvist, A; Kukkonen, S K; Cheng, Y; Gilljam, M; Kanerva, M; Manni, T; Pejcoch, M; Niemimaa, J; Kaikusalo, A; Henttonen, H; Vaheri, A; Plyusnin, A

    1996-12-01

    A Vero E6 cell culture isolate of Tula virus (TUL), a hantavirus first detected in European common voles (Microtus arvalis and M. rossiaemeridionalis) by RT-PCR was obtained after initial passaging of TUL-infected vole lung samples in laboratory-colonized M. arvalis. TUL was defined as a classical serotype by a cross-focus-reduction neutralization test (FRNT) and was also shown to be distinct from other hantaviruses by haemagglutination inhibition assay. The sequences of S, M and partial L genome segments of the isolate were determined: the S segment was 99.9% identical to the original rodent-derived sequence. Serological evidence for a previous TUL infection was obtained from the serum of a blood donor living near a TUL focus in Moravia, Czech Republic, showing at least a 16-fold higher FRNT titre to TUL as compared to Puumala or other hantaviruses. PMID:9000098

  18. Molecular characterization of an infectious bronchitis virus strain isolated from northern China in 2012.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Liu, Xiao-yu; Cheng, Jin-long; Wu, Yan-ping; Zhang, Guo-zhong

    2014-12-01

    This study reports the complete genome sequence of an infectious bronchitis virus (CK/CH/SD/121220, KJ128295) isolated in 2012 from Shandong Province in northern China. The genome is 27,666 nt long, comprising six genes and 5' and 3' untranslated regions. The full-length genome of the CK/CH/SD/121220 isolate had the highest nucleotide sequence identity (96.7 %) to the YX10 strain. Sites of recombination were identified in the genes 1ab, S, 5a, 5b and N, with their putative parental strains belonging to the QX- and YN-type subgroups, which are already circulating in China. Our findings suggest an important role played by recombination in IBV evolution. PMID:25168045

  19. Complete genome sequence of three tomato ringspot virus isolates: evidence for reassortment and recombination.

    PubMed

    Walker, Melanie; Chisholm, Joan; Wei, Ting; Ghoshal, Basudev; Saeed, Hanna; Rott, Michael; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2015-02-01

    The genome sequence of tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV, a subgroup C nepovirus) is currently available for one raspberry isolate. In this study, we describe the complete genome sequence of three additional isolates from raspberry (Rasp1-2014), grapevine (GYV-2014) and prunus (13C280). The degree of nucleotide sequence identity shared between RNA1 and RNA2 in the 5'-terminal 900 nucleotides and 3' untranslated region varied from 98-99 % (13C280, GYV-2014) to 80 % (Rasp1-2014). Phylogenetic studies revealed distinct origins for Rasp1-2014 RNA1 and RNA2, suggesting reassortment. Two recombination events were also identified in the 3' UTR and 5'-terminal region of RNA1. PMID:25267178

  20. Hen egg yolk as a source of antiviral antibodies in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): a comparison of two plant viruses.

    PubMed

    Bar-Joseph, M; Malkinson, M

    1980-01-01

    A method of raising antibodies against plant viruses in hen egg yolk is described. Laying hens were immunized with citrus tristeza virus (CTV) or tobacco mosaic virus-avocado isolate (TMV-A). Anti-viral antibodies in the yolks of sequentially laid eggs as well as in the serum were titrated by the (heterologous) antiglobulin double antibody sandwich form of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HADAS-ELISA). Antibodies first appeared in yolk 7 days after injection and peak levels were attained on day 9-11; these levels persisted for about 6-12 days. Non-specific yolk antibodies were removed by absorption with an extract of uninfected plant tissue. Using the HADAS-ELISA technique we found that yolk titres were equal to, or higher than those in serum. The benefits of using laying hens over conventional laboratory animals as a source of antiviral antibody are discussed. PMID:7024292

  1. Characterization of an Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 Strain Isolated from a Wild Bird in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Xie, Zhixun; Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhiqin; Deng, Xianwen; Liu, Jiabo; Luo, Sisi

    2014-01-01

    We isolated an avian influenza virus H9N2 strain from a wild bird in the Guangxi Province of southern China in 2013 named A/turtledove/Guangxi/49B6/2013(H9N2) (GX49B6). We aimed to understand the genetic characters of the GX49B6 strain by analyzing the complete genome sequence. The results showed that our isolated strain has features of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses and viruses that infect humans. The discovery of the complete genome sequence of the GX49B6 strain may be helpful to further the understanding of the epidemiology and surveillance of avian influenza viruses in the field. PMID:24948768

  2. Characterization of an Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 Strain Isolated from a Wild Bird in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhiqin; Deng, Xianwen; Liu, Jiabo; Luo, Sisi

    2014-01-01

    We isolated an avian influenza virus H9N2 strain from a wild bird in the Guangxi Province of southern China in 2013 named A/turtledove/Guangxi/49B6/2013(H9N2) (GX49B6). We aimed to understand the genetic characters of the GX49B6 strain by analyzing the complete genome sequence. The results showed that our isolated strain has features of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses and viruses that infect humans. The discovery of the complete genome sequence of the GX49B6 strain may be helpful to further the understanding of the epidemiology and surveillance of avian influenza viruses in the field. PMID:24948768

  3. Phylogenetic Relationships among Highly Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Isolates Obtained from Exotic Birds and Poultry from 1989 to 1996

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Bruce S.; King, Daniel J.; Locke, Devin P.; Senne, Dennis A.; Jackwood, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus {NDV (avian paramyxovirus type 1 [APMV1])} isolates were recovered from imported exotic birds confiscated following importation into the United States, from waterbirds in the United States, and from poultry. The exotic birds probably originated from Central and South America, Asia, and Africa. The NDV isolates were initially characterized as highly virulent because of a short mean death time in embryonated chicken eggs. The isolates were typed as neurotropic or viscerotropic velogenic by intracloacal inoculation of adult chickens. Intracerebral pathogenicity index values for the virulent NDV isolates ranged from 1.54 to 1.90, compared to a possible maximum value of 2.0. These isolates had a dibasic amino acid motif in the fusion protein cleavage site sequence required for host systemic replication. Sequence differences were detected surrounding the fusion protein cleavage site and the matrix protein nuclear localization signal, indicating evolution of highly virulent NDV. Phylogenetically, these isolates were categorized with other highly virulent NDV strains that caused outbreaks in southern California poultry during 1972 and in cormorants in the north central United States and southern Canada during 1990 and 1992. These isolates are related to NDV that may have the APMV1 strain chicken/Australia/AV/32 or a related virus as a possible progenitor. Recent virulent NDV isolates and those recovered during disease outbreaks since the 1970s are phylogenetically distinct from current vaccine viruses and standard challenge strains. PMID:9542957

  4. Isolation and Characterization of a Single-Stranded DNA Virus Infecting the Marine Diatom Chaetoceros sp. Strain SS628-11 Isolated from Western JAPAN

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Kei; Tomaru, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Diatoms are significant organisms for primary production in the earth's aquatic environment. Hence, their dynamics are an important focus area in current studies. Viruses are a great concern as potential factors of diatom mortality, along with other physical, chemical, and biological factors. We isolated and characterized a new diatom virus (Csp07DNAV) that lyses the marine planktonic diatom Chaetoceros sp. strain SS628-11. This paper examines the physiological, morphological, and genomic characteristics of Csp07DNAV. The virus was isolated from a surface water sample that was collected at Hiroshima Bay, Japan. It was icosahedral, had a diameter of 34 nm, and accumulated in the nuclei of host cells. Rod-shaped virus particles also coexisted in the host nuclei. The latent period and burst size were estimated to be <12 h and 29 infectious units per host cell, respectively. Csp07DNAV had a closed circular single-stranded DNA genome (5,552 nucleotides), which included a double-stranded region and 3 open reading frames. The monophyly of Csp07DNAV and other Bacilladnavirus group single-stranded DNA viruses was supported by phylogenetic analysis that was based on the amino acid sequence of each virus protein. On the basis of these results, we considered Csp07DNAV to be a new member of the genus Bacilladnavirus. PMID:24358139

  5. Novel Mutations in Reverse Transcriptase of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reduce Susceptibility to Foscarnet in Laboratory and Clinical Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN W. MELLORS; HENGAMEH Z. BAZMI; RAYMOND F. SCHINAZI; BIRGIT M. ROY; YU HSIOU; EDWARD ARNOLD; JERRY WEIR; ANDDOUGLAS L. MAYERS

    1995-01-01

    Foscarnet (phosphonoformic acid) is a pyrophosphate analog that inhibits the replication of human immu- nodeficiencyvirustype1(HIV-1)invitroandinpatientswithAIDS.HIV-1resistancetofoscarnethasnotbeen reported despite long-term foscarnet therapy of AIDS patients with cytomegalovirus disease. We therefore attempted to select foscarnet-resistant HIV-1 in vitro by serial endpoint passage of virus in 400 mM foscarnet. After 13 cycles of passage in MT-2 cells, virus exhibiting $8.5-fold foscarnet resistance was isolated.

  6. The Surface Glycoproteins of H5 Influenza Viruses Isolated from Humans, Chickens, and Wild Aquatic Birds Have Distinguishable Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MIKHAIL MATROSOVICH; NANNAN ZHOU; YOSHIHIRO KAWAOKA; ROBERT WEBSTER; M. P. Chumakov

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, 18 confirmed cases of human influenza arising from multiple independent transmissions of H5N1 viruses from infected chickens were reported from Hong Kong. To identify possible phenotypic changes in the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of the H5 viruses during interspecies transfer, we compared the receptor-binding properties and NA activities of the human and chicken H5N1 isolates from Hong

  7. Establishment of a lymphoblastoid cell line and isolation of an Epstein-Barr-related virus of gorilla origin.

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, R H; Rabin, H; Strnad, B C; Nonoyama, M; Nelson-Rees, W A

    1979-01-01

    A B-lymphoid cell line was established from a normal gorilla. The cells contained Epstein-Barr virus-related antigens, and herpesvirus particles were demonstrated by electron microscopy. DNA-DNA reassociation kinétics revealed 30 to 40% hybridization to Epstein-Barr virus with 50 genomes per cell. Examination of the viral nuclear antigen with gorilla sera showed this to be a unique isolate termed Herpesvirus gorilla. H. gorilla transformed gibbon B-lymphocytes in vitro. Images PMID:92573

  8. Characterization of H5N1 influenza A viruses isolated during the 2003–2004 influenza outbreaks in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaji Mase; Kenji Tsukamoto; Tadao Imada; Kunitoshi Imai; Nobuhiko Tanimura; Kikuyasu Nakamura; Yasunori Yamamoto; Toru Hitomi; Takuhiro Kira; Tadayoshi Nakai; Maki Kiso; Taisuke Horimoto; Yoshihiro Kawaoka; Shigeo Yamaguchi

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, between the end of December 2003 and March 2004, four outbreaks of acute, highly transmissible and lethal disease occurred in birds in three prefectures separated by 150–450 km, involving three chicken farms and a group of chickens raised as pets. The cause of each outbreak was an H5N1 influenza A virus—the first highly pathogenic virus to be isolated

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Nigerian and Ghanaian measles virus isolates reveals a genotype circulating widely in western and central Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Hanses; Anh T. Truong; Wim Ammerlaan; Oyewole Ikusika; Festus Adu; Akeeb O. Oyefolu; Sunday A. Omilabu; Claude P. Muller

    1999-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions of the globe with the highest measles-related morbidity and mortality. Yet only seven virus isolates from this vast region have been phylogenetically characterized on the basis of their nucleoprotein, the last one in 1991. To characterize the prevalent wild-type viruses and to understand their circulation pattern, a large panel (n fl 45) of

  10. Genetic characterization of 2006–2008 isolates of Chikungunya virus from Kerala, South India, by whole genome sequence analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Sreekumar; Aneesh Issac; Sajith Nair; Ramkumar Hariharan; M. B. Janki; D. S. Arathy; R. Regu; Thomas Mathew; M. Anoop; K. P. Niyas; M. R. Pillai

    2010-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a positive-stranded alphavirus, causes epidemic febrile infections characterized by severe and\\u000a prolonged arthralgia. In the present study, six CHIKV isolates (2006 RGCB03, RGCB05; 2007 RGCB80, RGCB120; 2008 RGCB355, RGCB356)\\u000a from three consecutive Chikungunya outbreaks in Kerala, South India, were analyzed for genetic variations by sequencing the\\u000a 11798 bp whole genome of the virus. A total of 37 novel

  11. Isolation and genetic characterization of naturally NS-truncated H3N8 equine influenza virus in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Na, W; Kang, B; Kim, H-I; Hong, M; Park, S-J; Jeoung, H-Y; An, D-J; Moon, H; Kim, J-K; Song, D

    2014-04-01

    Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious respiratory disease in equids, with confirmed outbreaks in Europe, America, North Africa, and Asia. Although China, Mongolia, and Japan have reported equine influenza outbreaks, Korea has not. Since 2011, we have conducted a routine surveillance programme to detect EIV at domestic stud farms, and isolated H3N8 EIV from horses showing respiratory disease symptoms. Here, we characterized the genetic and biological properties of this novel Korean H3N8 EIV isolate. This H3N8 EIV isolate belongs to the Florida sublineage clade 1 of the American H3N8 EIV lineage, and surprisingly, possessed a non-structural protein (NS) gene segment, where 23 bases of the NS1-encoding region were naturally truncated. Our preliminary biological data indicated that this truncation did not affect virus replication; its effect on biological and immunological properties of the virus will require further study. PMID:23800580

  12. Microevolution of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses Isolated from Humans, Egypt, 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Younan, Mary; Poh, Mee Kian; Elassal, Emad; Davis, Todd; Rivailler, Pierre; Balish, Amanda L.; Simpson, Natosha; Jones, Joyce; Deyde, Varough; Loughlin, Rosette; Perry, Ije; Gubareva, Larisa; ElBadry, Maha A.; Truelove, Shaun; Gaynor, Anne M.; Mohareb, Emad; Amin, Magdy; Cornelius, Claire; Pimentel, Guillermo; Earhart, Kenneth; Naguib, Amel; Abdelghani, Ahmed S.; Refaey, Samir; Klimov, Alexander I.; Kandeel, Amr

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from humans infected in Egypt during 2007–2011. All analyzed viruses evolved from the lineage of subtype H5N1 viruses introduced into Egypt in 2006; we found minimal evidence of reassortment and no exotic introductions. The hemagglutinin genes of the viruses from 2011 formed a monophyletic group within clade 2.2.1 that also included human viruses from 2009 and 2010 and contemporary viruses from poultry; this finding is consistent with zoonotic transmission. Although molecular markers suggestive of decreased susceptibility to antiviral drugs were detected sporadically in the neuraminidase and matrix 2 proteins, functional neuraminidase inhibition assays did not identify resistant viruses. No other mutations suggesting a change in the threat to public health were detected in the viral proteomes. However, a comparison of representative subtype H5N1 viruses from 2011 with older subtype H5N1 viruses from Egypt revealed substantial antigenic drift. PMID:23260983

  13. Isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Helmy, Ahmed; Al-Sebayel, Mohammed Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of isolated anti-HBc in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and its relation to disease severity. METHODS: We screened all patients with chronic HCV infection referred to King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), and anti-HBc. One hundred and sixty nine patients who tested negative for both HBsAg and anti-HBs were included in this study. RESULTS: Pathologically, 59 had biopsy-proven cirrhosis and 110 had chronic active hepatitis (CAH). Of these 169 patients, 85 (50.3%) tested positive for anti-HBc. Patients with CAH had significantly higher prevalence of isolated anti-HBc than patients with cirrhosis, 71 (64.5%) and 14 (23.7%) respectively (P < 0.001). Twenty-five patients were tested for HBV DNA by qualitative PCR. The test was positive in 3 of them (12%; occult HBV infection). CONCLUSION: Isolated anti-HBc alone is common in Saudi patients with chronic HCV infection, and is significantly more common in those with CAH than those with cirrhosis. Therefore, a screening strategy that only tests for HBsAg and anti-HBs in these patients will miss a large number of individuals with isolated anti-HBc, who may be potentially infectious. PMID:16865787

  14. Partial molecular characterization of a mild isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus from South Moravia, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Komínek, P; Bryxiová, M; Glasa, M

    2006-01-01

    An atypical mild isolate HV5 of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) was found in a South Moravian viticulture region in Czech Republic. Partial sequence of its RNA2 was determined and compared with available sequences of typical GFLV isolates. Two genomic regions, namely a 814 nt-long one spanning the movement protein (MP) gene and a 5'-part of the coat protein (CP) gene. and a 1426 nt-long one covering a part of the CP gene and the adjacent 3'-non-coding region (3'-NCR) were analyzed. Although no HV5-specific molecular features could be found in the two regions, marked differences were observed in the 3'-NCR. There was a 54 nt-long portion in which the sequence identity of some compared isolates was only 54.7%. Moreover, an unique one-nucleotide deletion occurred in the HV5 3'-NCR. These changes were also reflected in the predicted RNA secondary structure of this region. Particular biological behavior of GFLV HV5 isolate, namely a symptomless infection, could be related to the observed molecular differences. PMID:17131940

  15. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1?000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug. PMID:25183065

  16. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the reticuloendotheliosis virus isolated from wild birds in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Yulong; Hua, Yuping; Li, Kai; Deng, Xiaoyun; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Lizhou; Chai, Hongliang; Chen, Yuming; Yin, Chunhong; Gao, Honglei; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Qu, Yue; Chen, Qiang; Fan, Zhaobin; Wang, Xiaomei

    2013-09-27

    To analyze the status of reticuloendotheliosis (RE) infection of wild birds in China, 585 samples from wild birds collected in Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces China were investigated and analyzed. The sampled birds represent 3 orders and more than 40 species. Virus isolation and PCR amplification showed that some of the wild birds were infected with REV, and 10 REV strains were isolated. The gp90 gene from each of the 10 REV strains was amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that the gp90 genes of the 10 REV strains isolated in this study were more similar at the nucleotide level with the northeast Chinese strains HLJR0901 and HLJR0801 and some REV strains found in the US and Taiwan than with the early Chinese REV isolate HA9901. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gp90 genes of the 10 REV strains were more similar to the REV subtype III-representing strain (CSV) than to strains 170A (subtype I) or SNV (subtype II). This is the first study to investigate the status of wild birds infected with REV. The results of this paper will not only provide necessary information for further understanding the evolution of REV, but they also identify the potential role of wild birds in REV transmission and furthers our understanding of the ecology of REV in wild bird species. PMID:23845736

  17. The genome sequence of ectromelia virus Naval and Cornell isolates from outbreaks in North America

    PubMed Central

    Mavian, Carla; López-Bueno, Alberto; Bryant, Neil A.; Seeger, Kathy; Quail, Michael A.; Harris, David; Barrell, Bart; Alcami, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is the causative agent of mousepox, a disease of laboratory mouse colonies and an excellent model for human smallpox. We report the genome sequence of two isolates from outbreaks in laboratory mouse colonies in the USA in 1995 and 1999: ECTV-Naval and ECTV-Cornell, respectively. The genome of ECTV-Naval and ECTV-Cornell was sequenced by the 454-Roche technology. The ECTV-Naval genome was also sequenced by the Sanger and Illumina technologies in order to evaluate these technologies for poxvirus genome sequencing. Genomic comparisons revealed that ECTV-Naval and ECTV-Cornell correspond to the same virus isolated from independent outbreaks. Both ECTV-Naval and ECTV-Cornell are extremely virulent in susceptible BALB/c mice, similar to ECTV-Moscow. This is consistent with the ECTV-Naval genome sharing 98.2% DNA sequence identity with that of ECTV-Moscow, and indicates that the genetic differences with ECTV-Moscow do not affect the virulence of ECTV-Naval in the mousepox model of footpad infection. PMID:24999046

  18. Biologic and molecular characterization of two newly isolated ras-containing murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, T N; O'Neill, R R; Rutledge, R A; Theodore, T S; Martin, M A; Ruscetti, S K; Austin, J B; Hartley, J W

    1987-01-01

    A murine sarcoma virus (MSV) was recovered from an (NFS X NS.C58v-1) F1 mouse which developed splenic sarcoma and erythroleukemia 6 months after inoculation with a mink cell focus-inducing murine leukemia virus (MuLV) isolated from an NFS mouse infected with a wild mouse ecotropic MuLV. The MSV, designated NS.C58 MSV-1, induced foci of transformation in mouse and rat fibroblasts, and inoculation of mice of various strains 2 weeks of age or younger resulted in erythroleukemia and sarcomatous lesions in spleen, lymph node, and brain. The MSV provirus was molecularly cloned from a genomic library prepared from transformed non-producer rat cells. The 8.8-kilobase proviral DNA contained a 1.0-kilobase p21 ras coding segment which replaced most of the gp70-encoding portion of an MuLV, most likely the endogenous C58v-1 ecotropic virus. The ras oncogene is closely related to v-Ha-ras by hybridization, expression of p21 protein, and nucleotide sequence. It is nearly identical in sequence to v-bas, the only previously described transduced, activated mouse c-ras. At position 12 in the p21 coding region, arginine is substituted for the naturally occurring glycine present in c-ras. A second MSV isolate is described which is similar to NS.C58 MSV-1 except for a 100- to 200-base-pair deletion in the noncoding region of the ras-containing insert. Images PMID:3035212

  19. Characterization of a herpes virus isolated from domestic geese in Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, R.E.; Hansen, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    A herpesvirus (GHV 552/89) associated with high mortality in a flock of domestic geese in Australia was compared with duck virus enteritis (DVE) herpesvirus by cross-protection studies in domestic geese, Muscovy ducks and commercial Pekin ducks. In DVE-vaccinated geese, Muscovy ducks and Pekin ducks, mortality levels of 100, 50 and 0%, respectively, were recorded following challenge with GHV 552/89. Conversely, in geese, Muscovy ducks and Pekin ducks immunized with inactivated GHV 552/89, 100% mortality was observed in the geese and Muscovy ducks, and 80% in the Pekin ducks following challenge with DVE virus. The isolate was also compared with six other avian herpesviruses using cross-neutralization tests in cell cultures. No detectable cross-neutralization occurred with any of the avian herpesviruses tested. Further characterization of GHV 552/89 was undertaken by comparing its genome with strains of DVE herpesvirus using restriction endonuclease analysis of the viral DNA and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Following digestion with HindIII, the DNA fragment pattern of GHV 552/89 was found to be completely different from the DVE viruses. Similarities were found between the digestion patterns of a UK and a US DVE isolate, but both were distinguishable from a UK vaccine strain. The results of the PCR analysis and comparison using two DVE-specific primer sets did not produce specific amplification products of expected molecular weights (603 and 446 base pairs) from the GHV 552/89 genome. The PCR products derived from the DVE strains were similar to those derived from the DVE control DNA. From the results of this study, it is concluded that the goose herpesvirus GHV 552/89 is antigenically and genomically distinct from DVE herpesvirus.

  20. Pathogenic determinants in the U3 region of recombinant murine leukemia viruses isolated from CWD and HRS/J mice.

    PubMed

    Lawrenz-Smith, S C; Massey, A C; Innes, D J; Thomas, C Y

    1994-08-01

    Recombinant murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) from high-leukemia-incidence mouse strains typically acquire pathogenic U3 region sequences from the genome of the endogenous xenotropic virus, Bxv-1. However, a recombinant virus isolated from a leukemic HRS/J mouse and another from a CWD mouse contained U3 regions that lacked genetic markers of Bxv-1. The U3 regions of both recombinants were derived from the endogenous ecotropic virus Env-1 and had retained a single enhancer element. However, compared with that of Emv-1, the U3 region of each of the recombinant viruses contained five nucleotide substitutions, one of which was shared. To determine the biological significance of these substitutions, chimeric ecotropic viruses that contained the U3 region from one of the two recombinant viruses or from Emv-1 were injected into NIH Swiss mice. All three of the chimeric ecotropic viruses were leukemogenic following a long latency. Despite the presence of an enhancer core motif that is known to contribute to the leukemogenicity of the AKR MuLV SL3-3, the HRS/J virus U3 region induced lymphomas only slightly more rapidly than the allelic Emv-1 sequences. The chimeric virus with the U3 region of the CWD recombinant caused lymphomas more frequently and more rapidly than either of the other two viruses. The results support the hypothesis that one or more of the five nucleotide substitutions in the U3 regions of the recombinants contribute to viral pathogenicity. Comparison of DNA sequences suggests that the pathogenicity of the CWD virus U3 region was related to a sequence motif that is shared with Bxv-1 and is recognized by the basic helix-loop-helix class of transcription factors. PMID:8035516