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1

Molecular Characterization of Citrus tristeza virus Isolates from Panama  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twelve isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were collected from the main citrus growing regions in Panama and characterized at the molecular level. The CTV coat protein gene (CPG) was amplified by RT-PCR, and the amplified PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The sequences analyses showed the ...

2

VARIABILITY IN TRANSMISSION OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS ISOLATES FROM FLORIDA BY TOXOPTERA CITRICIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is an aphid transmitted plant infecting virus that continues to pose serious problems in the citriculture industries. Fifteen Florida isolates of CTV were tested for their transmissibility by the brown citrus aphid (Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy) (BrCA). The BrCA is the ma...

3

BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AN INTERNATIONAL COLLECTION OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS (CTV) ISOLATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Symptoms induced by 266 isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) obtained from 30 countries were evaluated in graft-inoculated Mexican lime, sour orange, Madam vinous sweet orange and Duncan grapefruit seedlings, and sweet orange plants budded on sour orange rootstock. Sequential tests were conducte...

4

Genetic diversity and evolution of two capsid protein genes of citrus tristeza virus isolates from China.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity and population structure of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates from China were investigated based on partial sequences spanning the C-terminal end of p61 and the complete sequences of the CPm and CP genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed five known groups (RB, T30, T36, HA and VT) and one new group (VI) consisting of only Chinese CTV isolates. Incongruent phylogenetic trees coupled with recombination analysis suggested several recombination events in the CPm gene. Positive selection was detected at codon 9 of CPm and codons 31, 41 and 68 of CP. The widespread CTV subpopulation AT-1 found in China has a unique amino acid insertion at the C-terminus of p61, which could increase CTV population complexity with implications for the evolutionary history of the virus. Our results suggest relevant roles for gene flow, purifying selection and recombination in shaping the CTV population in China. PMID:25387862

Wu, Guan-Wei; Tang, Min; Wang, Guo-Ping; Jin, Feng-Yin; Yang, Zuo-Kun; Cheng, Li-Jing; Hong, Ni

2014-11-12

5

Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or s...

6

Molecular Marker Analysis of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates from the Dominican Republic  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Samples of citrus tissue infected with Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were collected from Persian lime, mandarin, Washington navel, Valencia or grapefruit trees from various locations in the Dominican Republic. Desiccated tissue samples were re-hydrated and virions extracted by grinding samples in buff...

7

HISTOLOGY OF SWEET ORANGE STEM PITTING CAUSED BY AN AUSTRALIAN ISOLATE OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some strains of the citrus tristeza virus (CTV) cause stem pitting in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). This abnormality causes tree decline and reduction in fruit size and yield of affected citrus trees. Stem-pitting symptoms can occur on trunks, on all sizes of limbs, and on the twigs ...

8

Protein-protein interactions between proteins of Citrus tristeza virus isolates.  

PubMed

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most devastating pathogens of citrus. Its genome is organized into 12 open reading frames (ORFs), of which ten ORFs located at the 3'-terminus of the genome have multiple biological functions. The ten genes at the 3'-terminus of the genome of a severe isolate (CTV-S4) and three ORFs (CP, CPm and p20) of three other isolates (N4, S45 and HB1) were cloned into pGBKT7 and pGADT7 yeast shuttle vectors. Yeast two-hybridization (Y2H) assays results revealed a strong self-interaction for CP and p20, and a unique interaction between the CPm of CTV-S4 (severe) and CP of CTV-N4 (mild) isolates. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation also confirmed these interactions. Analysis of the deletion mutants delineated the domains of CP and p20 self-interaction. Furthermore, the domains responsible for CP and p20 self-interactions were mapped at the CP amino acids sites 41-84 and p20 amino acids sites 1-21 by Y2H. This study provided new information on CTV protein interactions which will help for further understanding the biological functions. PMID:25064367

Nchongboh, Chofong Gilbert; Wu, Guan-Wei; Hong, Ni; Wang, Guo-Ping

2014-12-01

9

Characterization of a novel citrus tristeza virus genotype within three cross-protecting source GFMS12 sub-isolates in South Africa by means of Illumina sequencing.  

PubMed

Tristeza disease (caused by citrus tristeza virus, CTV) is currently controlled in South Africa by means of cross-protection. In this study, we characterized the CTV populations of three grapefruit mild strain 12 (GFMS12) single-aphid-transmission-derived sub-isolates at the whole-genome level using Illumina sequencing technology. A novel South African isolate (CT-ZA3, of the T68 genotype) was shown to be the dominant genotype in all GFMS12 sub-isolates tested, along with reads unique to various other genotypes occurring as minor components. Uncertainty remains as to the significance of these minor components. PMID:24623089

Zablocki, Olivier; Pietersen, Gerhard

2014-08-01

10

Development and application of a hexaplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for screening global Citrus tristeza virus isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The discovery of the diversity of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genotypes has complicated detection and diagnostic measures. To simplify the identification and differentiation of CTV genotypes, an efficient multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR) technique for the screenin...

11

Development and application of a hexaplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for screening global citrus tristeza virus isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The discovery of the diversity of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genotypes has complicated detection and diagnostic measures. To simplify the identification and differentiation of CTV genotypes, an efficient multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR) technique for the screenin...

12

Citrus tristeza virus: characterization of Texas isolates, studies on aphid transmission and pathogen-derived control strategies  

E-print Network

on tristeza-decline sensitive sour orange rootstocks predominate, incidence of CTV is low. The efficient CTV vector, the brown citrus aphid (BrCA, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy) is now established in Mexico and Florida, thus information is needed...

Herron, Caroline Mary

2004-11-15

13

AMINO ACID SEQUENCE VARIATIONS ASSOICATED WITH APHID TRANSMISSIBILITY OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus isolates were collected from the San Joaquin Valley of California. Different transmission phenotypes were identified among these isolates with Aphis gossypii and Toxoptera citricida, the brown citrus aphid (BrCA). To investigate the differential transmissibility at the genomic ...

14

Dramatic Change in Citrus tristeza virus populations in the Dominican Republic  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the most destructive viral pathogen of citrus and has been an important concern for the citrus industry in the Dominican Republic. Earlier studies documented widespread distribution of mild isolates of the T30 genotype, which caused no disease in the infected trees, an...

15

Transgenic Resistance to Citrus tristeza virus in Grapefruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) transgenic plants transformed with a variety of constructs derived from the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome were tested for their resistance to the virus. Most transgenic lines were susceptible (27 lines), a few were partially resistant (6 lines) and only one line, tr...

16

Production of Polyclonal Antibodies to the Recombinant Coat Protein of Citrus tristeza virus and Their Effectiveness for Virus Detection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The p25 coat protein gene of three Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates, two from Mexico and one from India, was amplified by RT-PCR and further cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant coat protein (rCP) of the three CTV isolates was injected into rabbits and goats for antibo...

17

Emergence and Phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events. PMID:23818960

Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F.; Rubio, Luis

2013-01-01

18

Citrus tristeza virus: Evolution of Complex and Varied Genotypic Groups  

PubMed Central

Amongst the Closteroviridae, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is almost unique in possessing a number of distinct and characterized strains, isolates of which produce a wide range of phenotype combinations among its different hosts. There is little understanding to connect genotypes to phenotypes, and to complicate matters more, these genotypes are found throughout the world as members of mixed populations within a single host plant. There is essentially no understanding of how combinations of genotypes affect symptom expression and disease severity. We know little about the evolution of the genotypes that have been characterized to date, little about the biological role of their diversity and particularly, about the effects of recombination. Additionally, genotype grouping has not been standardized. In this study we utilized an extensive array of CTV genomic information to classify the major genotypes, and to determine the major evolutionary processes that led to their formation and subsequent retention. Our analyses suggest that three major processes act on these genotypes: (1) ancestral diversification of the major CTV lineages, followed by (2) conservation and co-evolution of the major functional domains within, though not between CTV genotypes, and (3) extensive recombination between lineages that have given rise to new genotypes that have subsequently been retained within the global population. The effects of genotype diversity and host-interaction are discussed, as is a proposal for standardizing the classification of existing and novel CTV genotypes. PMID:23630519

Harper, S. J.

2013-01-01

19

Evaluación de Anticuerpos Desarrollados Contra la Proteína Recombinante de la Cápside del Virus Tristeza de los Cítricos  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polyclonal antibodies specific for the recombinant coat protein (rCP) p25 gene of (Citrus tristeza virus = CTV), were developed for isolates MX08 and MX14 from México and B227 from India. The reactivity of rCP antibodies was evaluated using healthy and CTV infected tissue. The combination of rCP ant...

20

HISTORY, PRESENT INCIDENCE, AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS IN THE CALIFORNIA CENTRAL VALLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has been a primary concern in the San Joaquin Valley of California since its detection in 1956. Virus eradication was deemed necessary and was undertaken by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. Since 1963 the eradication program has been managed by the Cent...

21

Genetic diversity and evidence for recent modular recombination in Hawaiian Citrus tristeza virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Hawaiian Islands are home to a widespread and diverse population of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), an economically important pathogen of citrus. In this study we quantified the genetic diversity of two CTV genes and determined the complete genomic sequence for two strains of Hawaiian CTV. The nucl...

22

The evolutionary rate of citrus tristeza virus ranks among the rates of the slowest RNA viruses.  

PubMed

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has been studied intensively at the molecular level. However, knowledge regarding the dynamics of its evolution is practically non-existent. In the past, diverse authors have referred to CTV as a highly variable virus, implying rapid evolution. Others have, in recent times, referred to CTV as an exceptionally slowly evolving virus. In this work, we used the capsid protein (CP) gene to estimate the rate of evolution. This was obtained from a large set of heterochronous CP gene sequences using a bayesian coalescent approach. The best-fitting evolutionary and population models pointed to an evolutionary rate of 1.58×10(-4) nt per site year(-1) (95?% highest posterior density, 1.73×10(-5)-3.16×10(-4) nt per site year(-1)). For an unbiased comparison with other plant and animal viruses, the evolutionary rate of synonymous substitutions was considered. In a series of 88 synonymous evolutionary rates, ranging from 5.2×10(-6) to 6.2×10(-2) nt per site year(-1), CTV ranks in the 10th percentile, embedded among the slowest animal RNA viruses. At the time of citrus dissemination to Europe and the New World, the major clades that led to the current phylogenetic groups were already defined, which may explain the absence nowadays of geographical speciation. PMID:22071513

Silva, Gonçalo; Marques, Natália; Nolasco, Gustavo

2012-02-01

23

Citrus tristeza virus p23: a unique protein mediating key virus–host interactions  

PubMed Central

The large RNA genome of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV; ca. 20 kb) contains 12 open reading frames, with the 3?-terminal one corresponding to a protein of 209 amino acids (p23) that is expressed from an abundant subgenomic RNA. p23, an RNA-binding protein with a putative zinc-finger domain and some basic motifs, is unique to CTV because no homologs have been found in other closteroviruses, including the type species of the genus Beet yellows virus (despite both viruses having many homologous genes). Consequently, p23 might have evolved for the specific interaction of CTV with its citrus hosts. From a functional perspective p23 has been involved in many roles: (i) regulation of the asymmetrical accumulation of CTV RNA strands, (ii) induction of the seedling yellows syndrome in sour orange and grapefruit, (iii) intracellular suppression of RNA silencing, (iv) elicitation of CTV-like symptoms when expressed ectopically as a transgene in several Citrus spp., and (v) enhancement of systemic infection (and virus accumulation) in sour orange and CTV release from the phloem in p23-expressing transgenic sweet and sour orange. Moreover, transformation of Mexican lime with intron-hairpin constructs designed for the co-inactivation of p23 and the two other CTV silencing suppressors results in complete resistance against the homologous virus. From a cellular point of view, recent data indicate that p23 accumulates preferentially in the nucleolus, being the first closterovirus protein with such a subcellular localization, as well as in plasmodesmata. These major accumulation sites most likely determine some of the functional roles of p23. PMID:23653624

Flores, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Soler, Nuria; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús; Fagoaga, Carmen; López, Carmelo; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

2013-01-01

24

High codon adaptation in citrus tristeza virus to its citrus host  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the genus Closterovirus within the family Closteroviridae, is the causal agent of citrus tristeza disease. Previous studies revealed that the negative selection, RNA recombination and gene flow were the most important forces that drove CTV evolution. However, the CTV codon usage was not studied and thus its role in CTV evolution remains unknown. Results A detailed comparative analysis of CTV codon usage pattern was done in this study. Results of the study show that although in general CTV does not have a high degree of codon usage bias, the codon usage of CTV has a high level of resemblance to its host codon usage. In addition, our data indicate that the codon usage resemblance is only observed for the woody plant-infecting closteroviruses but not the closteroviruses infecting the herbaceous host plants, suggesting the existence of different virus-host interactions between the herbaceous plant-infecting and woody plant-infecting closteroviruses. Conclusion Based on the results, we suggest that in addition to RNA recombination, negative selection and gene flow, host plant codon usage selection can also affect CTV evolution. PMID:22698086

2012-01-01

25

Investigation of seedling yellows cross protection by mild components of the Dekopon strain of Citrus tristeza virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Virulent strains of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) can be controlled by pre-infection by mild strains of CTV which is called cross protection. However, the mode of action of cross protection is unknown and its durability unpredictable. RNA silencing is a regulatory mechanism to maintain genome integri...

26

Accumulation of a 5’ proximal subgenomic RNA of Citrus tristeza virus is correlated with encapsidation by the minor coat protein  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During replication, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) produces large amounts of two unusual subgenomic (sg) RNAs that are positive-stranded and 5' -coterminal. Although these RNAs are produced in similar amounts and are similar in size, with LMT1 (~750 nt) only slightly larger than LMT2 (~650), we found ...

27

Effects of Modification of the Transcription Initiation Site Context on Citrus Tristeza Virus Subgenomic RNA Synthesis†  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the Closteroviridae, has a positive-sense RNA genome of about 20 kb organized into 12 open reading frames (ORFs). The last 10 ORFs are expressed through 3?-coterminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) regulated in both amounts and timing. Additionally, relatively large amounts of complementary sgRNAs are produced. We have been unable to determine whether these sgRNAs are produced by internal promotion from the full-length template minus strand or by transcription from the minus-stranded sgRNAs. Understanding the regulation of 10 sgRNAs is a conceptual challenge. In analyzing commonalities of a replicase complex in producing so many sgRNAs, we examined initiating nucleotides of the sgRNAs. We mapped the 5? termini of intermediate- (CP and p13) and low- (p18) produced sgRNAs that, like the two highly abundant sgRNAs (p20 and p23) previously mapped, all initiate with an adenylate. We then examined modifications of the initiation site, which has been shown to be useful in defining mechanisms of sgRNA synthesis. Surprisingly, mutation of the initiating nucleotide of the CTV sgRNAs did not prevent sgRNA accumulation. Based on our results, the CTV replication complex appears to initiate sgRNA synthesis with purines, preferably with adenylates, and is able to initiate synthesis using a nucleotide a few positions 5? or 3? of the native initiation nucleotide. Furthermore, the context of the initiation site appears to be a regulatory mechanism for levels of sgRNA production. These data do not support either of the established mechanisms for synthesis of sgRNAs, suggesting that CTV sgRNA production utilizes a different mechanism. PMID:12915539

Ayllón, María A.; Gowda, Siddarame; Satyanarayana, Tatineni; Karasev, Alexander V.; Adkins, Scott; Mawassi, Munir; Guerri, José; Moreno, Pedro; Dawson, William O.

2003-01-01

28

The presence of tristeza virus in Satsuma oranges, Meyer lemons, and other citrus plants in the Gulf Coast areas in Texas  

E-print Network

leaves, which might indicate the presence of a severe strain of tristeza virus ~ 6. Detection and recording oi' any stunting of the growth which might be caused by ths virus infection, and especially by the severe strains of this virus ~ /. Despite...) in Brazi l, were not detected on any oi' the infected lime seedlings' In addition to the above detected symptoms of' tr isteza virus, infected lime seedlings exhibited a sickly appearance and stunted growths After several months of disease symptoms, a...

Malouf, Wajih D

2012-06-07

29

A high-resolution linkage map of the citrus tristeza virus resistance gene region in Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.  

PubMed Central

Resistance to citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was evaluated in 554 progeny of 10 populations derived from Poncirus trifoliata. A dominant gene (Ctv) controlled CTV resistance in P. trifoliata. Twenty-one dominant PCR-based DNA markers were identified as linked to Ctv by bulked segregant analysis. Of the 11 closest markers to Ctv, only 2 segregated in all populations. Ten of these markers were cloned and sequenced, and codominant RFLP markers were developed. Seven RFLP markers were then evaluated in 10 populations. Marker orders were consistent in all linkage maps based on data of single populations or on combined data of populations with similar segregation patterns. In a consensus map, the six closest marker loci spanned 5.3 cM of the Ctv region. Z16 cosegregated with Ctv. C19 and AD08 flanked Ctv at distances of 0.5 and 0.8 cM, respectively. These 3 markers were present as single copies in the Poncirus genome, and could be used directly for bacterial artificial chromosome library screening to initiate a walk toward Ctv. BLAST searches of the GenBank database revealed high sequence similarities between 2 markers and known plant disease resistance genes, indicating that a resistance gene cluster exists in the Ctv region in P. trifoliata. PMID:9755216

Fang, D Q; Federici, C T; Roose, M L

1998-01-01

30

Citrus tristeza virus: survival at the edge of the movement continuum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Systemic invasion of plants by viruses is thought to involve two processes: cell-to-cell movement between adjacent cells and long-distance movement that allows the virus to rapidly move through sieve elements and unload at the growing parts of the plant. There is a continuum of proportions of these ...

31

Enhancement or attenuation of disease by deletion of genes from Citrus tristeza virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stem pitting is a common virus-induced disease of perennial woody plants induced by a range of different viruses. The phenotype results from sporadic areas in which normal xylem and phloem development is prevented during growth of stems. These alterations interfere with carbohydrate transport resu...

32

A genetic system for Citrus Tristeza Virus using the non-natural host Nicotiana benthamiana: an update  

PubMed Central

In nature Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), genus Closterovirus, infects only the phloem cells of species of Citrus and related genera. Finding that the CTV T36 strain replicated in Nicotiana benthamiana (NB) protoplasts and produced normal virions allowed development of the first genetic system based on protoplast transfection with RNA transcribed from a full-genome cDNA clone, a laborious and uncertain system requiring several months for each experiment. We developed a more efficient system based on agroinfiltration of NB leaves with CTV-T36-based binary plasmids, which caused systemic infection in this non-natural host within a few weeks yielding in the upper leaves enough CTV virions to readily infect citrus by slash inoculation. Stem agroinoculation of citrus and NB plants with oncogenic strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying a CTV-T36 binary vector with a GUS marker, induced GUS positive galls in both species. However, while most NB tumors were CTV positive and many plants became systemically infected, no coat protein or viral RNA was detected in citrus tumors, even though CTV cDNA was readily detected by PCR in the same galls. This finding suggests (1) strong silencing or CTV RNA processing in transformed cells impairing infection progress, and (2) the need for using NB as an intermediate host in the genetic system. To maintain CTV-T36 in NB or assay other CTV genotypes in this host, we also tried to graft-transmit the virus from infected to healthy NB, or to mechanically inoculate NB leaves with virion extracts. While these trials were mostly unsuccessful on non-treated NB plants, agroinfiltration with silencing suppressors enabled for the first time infecting NB plants by side-grafting and by mechanical inoculation with virions, indicating that previous failure to infect NB was likely due to virus silencing in early infection steps. Using NB as a CTV host provides new possibilities to study virus-host interactions with a simple and reliable system. PMID:23847598

Ambrós, Silvia; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Peña, Leandro; Moreno, Pedro

2013-01-01

33

Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.  

PubMed

Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested. PMID:6316795

Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

1983-11-01

34

Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2005-01-01

35

Characterization of Recently Introduced HLB and CTV Isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Severe stem-pitting isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were found in Florida citrus 5 years ago, followed by the discovery 2 years later of the citrus greening disease (huanglongbing: HLB) caused by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. The new CTV isolates are members of the VT grou...

36

Whitepox virus isolated from hamsters inoculated with monkeypox virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SINCE the eradication of smallpox in Equatorial Africa several `new' pox viruses have been isolated in our laboratory from materials collected by WHO field workers-monkeypox virus from an affected individual and the `whitepox' viruses from apparently healthy monkeys and rodents. Monkeypox virus is not widespread but occasionally infects man and has caused death: 33 such cases have occurred in Africa,

S. S. Marennikova; E. M. Shelukhina

1978-01-01

37

Vigour and behaviour of fifteen citrus varieties against tristeza in the forest zone of Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen varieties or combinations of citrus (lime, grapefruit, lemons, oranges, mandarin and hybrids) were characterized in the forest zone of Cameroon. Characterization was carried out based on the behaviour of these citrus varieties against citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Foliar and cortical symptoms were evaluated. Six years old plants did not show any immune reaction against the disease. Unusual mild symptoms

Ndongo Bekolo; Belibi Messanga Louis; Ongono Yvette

38

Alternative cell line for virus isolation.  

PubMed Central

A human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) was compared with various other cell lines to determine susceptibility to viral growth. In the first phase of the study, A549 cells were compared with human embryonic kidney (HEK) and cynomolgus monkey kidney (CMK) cells for isolation of upper-respiratory disease viruses by using 1,248 throat swab specimens from basic-combat trainees. Of the 552 virus isolates, 507 were adenoviruses, 41 were polioviruses, and 4 were herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Of the isolates, 518 (93.8%) were isolated in A549 cells, 480 (87.0%) were isolated in HEK cells, and 262 (47.5%) were isolated in CMK cells (P less than 0.001). In the second phase of the study, A549 cells were compared with a human diploid fibroblast cell strain (MRC-5) and Vero monkey kidney (VMK) cells for the isolation of HSV from 1,157 specimens submitted for culture. Of the 227 HSV isolates, 210 (92.5%) were isolated in A549 cells, 202 (89.0%) were isolated in VMK cells (P greater than 0.1 for A549 versus VMK cells), and 167 (73.6%) were isolated in MRC-5 cells (P less than 0.001 for A549 versus MRC-5 cells). These results suggest that A549 cells are more susceptible to adenovirus infection and at least as susceptible to HSV infection compared with the other cell cultures evaluated. Detracting factors for the use of A549 cells were a slight loss of sensitivity to adenovirus at passage 120 and a concurrent change in the morphology of the cells. The A549 cell line proved to be an efficient, practical, and economical alternative cell system for the isolation of adenovirus and HSV in particular. Initial indications are that other clinically significant viruses may be grown in A549 cells; however, additional studies need to be performed. PMID:3018038

Smith, C D; Craft, D W; Shiromoto, R S; Yan, P O

1986-01-01

39

[Preparative method of isolating influenza virus glycoproteins].  

PubMed

Two preparative methods for isolation of biologically active glycoproteins from influenza virus A - hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, were elaborated. A three-step procedure involves solubilization of glycoproteins with nonionic (Triton N-101, TN) or cationic (cetylpyridinium chloride, CPC) detergents, separation from degraded virions by centrifugation, and removal of detergents and lipids by precipitation of the glycoproteins with butanol (TN), or, alternatively, precipitation of CPC upon cooling. Using virion concentration of approximately 1 mg/ml and optimal weight ratio of detergent to virus (protein) of approximately 20:1 (for TN) and 1:1 (for CPC), the glycoproteins were obtained with the overall yield of 70-80%. The isolated glycoproteins exhibit the same immunological and enzymatic activities as intact virus A/Texas/77 and A/Leningrad/80. PMID:3994773

Medvedev, S A; Arbatski?, N P; Likhosherstov, L M; Iurtov, D V; Dervitskaia, V A

1985-02-01

40

ISOLATION OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS FROM TEALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight of 30 teals (Anas crecca) died several days following capture and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) was isolated from all eight. Brains from the dead birds were homogenized and inoculated into chicken embryos. The allantoic fluid from the embryos was inoculated into 10 domestic chickens susceptible to NDV and 10 chickens immunized against NDV. Eight of 10 (80%) susceptible chickens

M. H. BOZORGMEHRI-FARD; H. KEYVANFAR

41

Genetic Transformation of Citrus Paradisi with Antisense and untranslatable RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Genes of Citrus Tristeza Closterovirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Expression of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied in vivo and in vitro using a polyclonal antiserum raised against the recombinant CTV-RdRp protein. Although 56 kDa CTV-RdRp is thought to be expressed by a +1 translational frameshift at the carboxyl te...

42

Molecular characterization of Korean rabies virus isolates  

PubMed Central

The nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) of 11 Korean rabies virus (RABV) isolates collected from animals diagnosed with rabies between 2008 and 2009 were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses. Six isolates originated from domestic animals (cattle and dogs) and five were obtained from wild free-ranging raccoon dogs. The similarities in the nucleotide sequences of the N gene among all Korean isolates ranged from 98.1 to 99.8%, while those of the G gene ranged from 97.9 to 99.3%. Based on the nucleotide analysis of the N and G genes, the Korean RABV isolates were confirmed as genotype I of Lyssavirus and classified into four distinct subgroups with high similarity. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Korean isolates were most closely related to the non-Korean NeiMeng1025B and 857r strains, which were isolated from rabid raccoon dogs in Eastern China and Russia, respectively. These findings suggest that the Korean RABV isolates originated from a rabid raccoon dog in Northeastern Asia. Genetic analysis of the Korean RABV isolates revealed no substitutions at several antigenic sites, indicating that the isolates circulating in Korea may be pathogenic in several hosts. PMID:21368564

Park, Young-Nam; Hong, Gyeong-Soo; Kang, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Yoon-I; Cho, Soo-Dong; Song, Jae-Young

2011-01-01

43

Analysis of Iranian Potato virus S isolates.  

PubMed

Two hundred forty potato samples with one or more symptoms of leaf mosaic, distortion, mottling and yellowing were collected between 2005 and 2008 from seven Iranian provinces. Forty-four of these samples tested positive with double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA) using a Potato virus S (PVS) polyclonal antibody. Of these 12 isolates of PVS were selected based on the geographical location for biological and molecular characterization. The full coat protein (CP) and 11K genes from 12 PVS isolates were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. All 12 PVS isolates showed mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana debneyii and N. tabacum cv. Whiteburly and local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and C. album. The Iranian isolates share between 93 and 100% pairwise nucleotide identity with other PVS(O) isolates. Based on maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis coupled with pairwise identity analysis, we propose 15 genotypes for the PVS(O) strain and 3 genotypes for the PVS(A) strain. PMID:21567245

Salari, Khadijeh; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Varsani, Arvind

2011-10-01

44

Influenza A virus isolation, culture and identification.  

PubMed

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause epidemics and pandemics that result in considerable financial burden and loss of human life. To manage annual IAV epidemics and prepare for future pandemics, an improved understanding of how IAVs emerge, transmit, cause disease and acquire pandemic potential is urgently needed. Fundamental techniques essential for procuring such knowledge are IAV isolation and culture from experimental and surveillance samples. Here we present a detailed protocol for IAV sample collection and processing, amplification in chicken eggs or mammalian cells, and identification from samples containing unknown pathogens. This protocol is robust, and it allows for the generation of virus cultures that can be used for downstream analyses. Once experimental or surveillance samples are obtained, virus cultures can be generated and the presence of IAVs can be verified in 3-5 d via reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR or hemagglutination assay. Increased time frames may be required for less experienced laboratory personnel, or when large numbers of samples will be processed. PMID:25321410

Eisfeld, Amie J; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2014-11-01

45

Complete genome sequence of chikungunya virus isolated in the Philippines.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus is an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, which causes a febrile illness with arthralgia in humans. We report here on the complete genome sequence of chikungunya virus strain CHIKV-13-112A isolated from a patient in the Philippines who was suspected to have dengue virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain is of the Asian genotype. PMID:24970822

Kawashima, Kent D; Suarez, Lady-Anne C; Labayo, Hannah Karen M; Liles, Veni R; Salvoza, Noel C; Klinzing, David C; Daroy, Maria Luisa G; Matias, Ronald R; Natividad, Filipinas F

2014-01-01

46

Complete Genome Sequence of Chikungunya Virus Isolated in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Chikungunya virus is an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, which causes a febrile illness with arthralgia in humans. We report here on the complete genome sequence of chikungunya virus strain CHIKV-13-112A isolated from a patient in the Philippines who was suspected to have dengue virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain is of the Asian genotype. PMID:24970822

Kawashima, Kent D.; Suarez, Lady-Anne C.; Labayo, Hannah Karen M.; Liles, Veni R.; Salvoza, Noel C.; Klinzing, David C.; Natividad, Filipinas F.

2014-01-01

47

Variants of Triticum mosaic virus isolated from wheat in Colorado  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a recently discovered virus infecting wheat. We compared the Colorado isolates C10-492 and C11-775 with the 06-123 isolate of TriMV from Kansas (TriMV-K). Comparisons were made using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), infectivity assay, host range, dry weig...

48

Serological characterization of viruses isolated from experimental mucosal disease.  

PubMed

Four cattle persistently infected with non-cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhoea-mucosal disease (BVD-MD) virus and 3 normal controls were challenge exposed to cytopathogenic BVD-MD viruses that are antigenically different from the persistent viruses. Two of the persistently infected cattle developed mucosal disease and became moribund on postinoculation days (PID) 28 and 14, respectively; one developed severe and chronic diarrhoea and became moribund on PID 32; and the other remained healthy until the end of the experiment (PID 150). All control cattle showed transient fever, but no diarrhoea, and recovered from infection. Cytopathogenic viruses were isolated from blood of all cattle early in infection (PID 5-10) and from carcasses at necropsy. The former viruses were antigenically identical with the challenge viruses. On the other hand, the antigenicity of the cytopathogenic viruses isolated from carcasses at necropsy were different from that of the challenge viruses but similar to that of the non-cytopathogenic persistent viruses. Three of 4 persistently infected cattle, but not the calf which became moribund on PID 14, produced serum neutralizing (SN) antibodies to the challenge viruses, but not to the persistent viruses and the cytopathogenic viruses isolated from carcasses at necropsy. Control cattle produced SN antibodies to both the challenge and persistent viruses. PMID:2538022

Shimizu, M; Satou, K; Nishioka, N; Yoshino, T; Momotani, E; Ishikawa, Y

1989-01-01

49

Tanay virus, a new species of virus isolated from mosquitoes in the Philippines.  

PubMed

In 2005, we isolated a new species of virus from mosquitoes in the Philippines. The virion was elliptical in shape and had a short single projection. The virus was named Tanay virus (TANAV) after the locality in which it was found. TANAV genomic RNA was a 9562 nt+poly-A positive strand, and polycistronic. The longest ORF contained putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP); however, conserved short motifs in the RdRP were permuted. TANAV was phylogenetically close to Negevirus, a recently proposed taxon of viruses isolated from haemophagic insects, and to some plant viruses, such as citrus leprosis virus C, hibiscus green spot virus and blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus. In this paper, we describe TANAV and the permuted structure of its RdRP, and discuss its phylogeny together with those of plant viruses and negevirus. PMID:24646751

Nabeshima, Takeshi; Inoue, Shingo; Okamoto, Kenta; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Yu, Fuxun; Uchida, Leo; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Sakaguchi, Miako; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Buerano, Corazon C; Tadena, Florencio P; Orbita, Ildefonso B; Natividad, Filipinas F; Morita, Kouichi

2014-06-01

50

High sequence conservation among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from lily.  

PubMed

For classification of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates from ornamental crops of different geographical areas, these were characterized by comparing the nucleotide sequences of RNAs 4 and the encoded coat proteins. Within the ornamental-infecting CMV viruses both subgroups were represented. CMV isolates of Alstroemeria and crocus were classified as subgroup II isolates, whereas 8 other isolates, from lily, gladiolus, amaranthus, larkspur, and lisianthus, were identified as subgroup I members. In general, nucleotide sequence comparisons correlated well with geographic distribution, with one notable exception: the analyzed nucleotide sequences of 5 lily isolates showed remarkably high homology despite different origins. PMID:11676424

Chen, Y K; Derks, A F; Langeveld, S; Goldbach, R; Prins, M

2001-08-01

51

Evidence for two groups of banana bunchy top virus isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) DNA component 1 from isolates from 10 different countries was cloned and sequenced and the sequences were aligned and com- pared. This analysis indicated two groups: the South Pacific group (isolates from Australia, Burundi, Egypt, Fiji, India, Tonga and Western Samoa) and the Asian group (isolates from the Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam). The mean sequence

Mirko Karan; Robert M. Harding; James L. Dale

1994-01-01

52

Differentiation of egg drop syndrome virus isolates by restriction endonuclease analysis of virus dna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen isolates of egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus were compared by restriction endonuclease analysis of the virus DNA. One virus, an Australian chicken isolate, was distinguished from the others using the endonucleases EcoRl, BamUl, Kpnl, Hindlll, Pstl and Pvull, all of which recognise six base pair DNA sequences. Polyacrylamide gel restriction fragment patterns generated by Haelll, Hhall and TaqI, which

D. Todd; M. S. McNulty; Joan A. Smyth

1988-01-01

53

[Isolation of the virus of Syr-Darya Valley fever].  

PubMed

In the course of studies on the ecological structure of acute febrile diseases in the season of activity of blood-sucking arthropods strains of a virus antigenically related to Sikhote-Alyñ virus were isolated from the blood of a patient and from Ixodid ticks. This paper presents the results of the study on the causative agent and the clinical picture of the disease caused by this virus. The virus was found to be a new one for science; its appurtenance to the family Picornaviridae, genus Cardiovirus, the antigenic group of encephalomyocarditis has been determined. The virus has been designated "Syr-Darya Valley fever virus" by the area of its isolation. PMID:6097042

L'vov, D K; Karimov, S K; Kiriushchenko, T V; Chun-Siun, F; Skvortsova, T M

1984-01-01

54

Chikungunya virus was isolated in Thailand, 2010.  

PubMed

Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is an acute febrile illness caused by a mosquito-borne alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). This disease re-emerged in Kenya in 2004, and spread to the countries in and around the Indian Ocean. The re-emerging epidemics rapidly spread to regions like India and Southeast Asia, and it was subsequently identified in Europe in 2007, probably as a result of importation of chikungunya cases. On the one hand, chikungunya is one of the neglected diseases and has only attracted strong attention during large outbreaks. In 2008-2009, there was a major outbreak of chikungunya fever in Thailand, resulting in the highest number of infections in any country in the region. However, no update of CHIKV circulating in Thailand has been published since 2009. In this study, we examined the viral growth kinetics and sequences of the structural genes derived from CHIKV clinical isolates obtained from the serum specimens of CHIKF-suspected patients in Central Thailand in 2010. We identified the CHIKV harboring two mutations E1-A226V and E2-I211T, indicating that the East, Central, and South African lineage of CHIKV was continuously circulating as an indigenous population in Thailand. PMID:25113745

Sasayama, Mikiko; Benjathummarak, Surachet; Kawashita, Norihito; Rukmanee, Prasert; Sangmukdanun, Suntaree; Masrinoul, Promsin; Pitaksajjakul, Pannamthip; Puiprom, Orapim; Wuthisen, Pitak; Kurosu, Takeshi; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Maneekan, Pannamas; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Luplertlop, Natthanej

2014-12-01

55

Isolation of border disease virus from twin lambs in Alberta  

PubMed Central

We describe herein a field case of border disease (BD) in twin lambs. Both lambs were unthrifty, stunted, and one exhibited nervous signs characteristic of BD, with tremors of the head, neck, hind legs, and pelvis. Hairiness of the coat and excessive pigmentation, often seen in lambs with BD, were not observed. A noncytopathic virus, which showed cross-reactivity with bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus antiserum and BVD virus monoclonal antibodies, was isolated repeatedly from leukocytes from one lamb and from tissues of the other. Although the source of the virus is unknown, our results suggest that the dam of the affected twins had been infected during pregnancy. We used the BD virus isolated to inoculate pregnant ewes and experimentally reproduce the disease in a newborn lamb. Our findings indicate that leukocytes, rather than serum, should be utilized for BD virus isolation. Further, it is recommended that BD virus, rather than BVD virus, be used in serum neutralization tests when screening sheep for antibody titers. PMID:17423897

Lees, V. Wayne; Loewen, Ken G.; Deregt, Dirk; Knudsen, Robin

1991-01-01

56

Virulence and molecular polymorphism of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) occurs as numerous strains or isolates that vary widely in their pathogenic, biophysical and serological properties. Prior attempts to distinguish pathotypes based upon physical properties have not been successful; our approach was to examine the molecular properties that may distinguish these isolates. The nucleic acid sequence was determined from 1-65 kbp RT-PCR products derived from

Rosemarie W. Hammond; James M. Crosslin

1998-01-01

57

Isolation, transmission and purification of the High Plains virus.  

PubMed

The wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer) often simultaneously transmits the High Plains virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus under field conditions, resulting in doubly infected plants. In this study, a pure culture of the High Plains virus (isolate HPV95ID), which was infected with both High Plains virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus, was mechanically transmitted from barley (Hordeum vulgáre L.) to maize (Zea mays L.) by vascular puncture inoculation. Different water temperatures and durations for soaking kernels at pre-inoculation and different incubation temperatures and durations at post-inoculation on transmission of High Plains virus were studied. Transmissions of the High Plains virus were significantly different for post-inoculation incubations at 11, 21, or 30 degrees C after a 2 h pre-inoculation soaking at 30 degrees C and post-inoculation incubations of kernels for 1 day versus 2 days. Use of Cs2SO4 in a partial purification protocol resulted in infectious final fractions. Bioassays, serological assays, analyses by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and examinations by electron microscopy confirmed isolation of a pure culture of High Plains virus from infectious final partially purified fractions. We demonstrate infectivity of the final fractions and associate it with the High Plains disease symptoms, the 32 kDa protein and double membrane bodies and discuss this evidence to support the viral nature of High Plains virus. PMID:16672165

Louie, Raymond; Seifers, Dallas L; Bradfute, Oscar E

2006-08-01

58

Vaccine efficacy against challenge with HPAI H5N1 virus isolates from Vietnam  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multiple isolates of H5N1 were isolated from northern Vietnam in December of 2005. All the viruses characterized were clade 2 viruses, but phylogenetically they formed two separate sub-lineages. The isolation of clade 2 viruses was unexpected, since previous isolations from both northern and south...

59

Characterization of two strains of Tribe? virus isolated in Ukraine.  

PubMed

During arbovirus surveillance in Ixodes ricinus ticks in South Ukraine, two strains of Tribe? virus were isolated using an in vivo method and characterized using the complement fixation text (CFT), hemagglutination assay (HA), electron microscopy, and molecular methods. Both strains replicated well in the BHK-21, PEC, and Vero cell lines and demonstrated 95% nucleotide identity in their VP3 sequences compared with the reference VP3 sequence for Tribe? virus. These two strains of Tribe? virus were named Tr35 and Tr19. Also, segment reassortment involving Tr35, Tr19, TRBV, and LIPV strains was shown. PMID:25409272

Dedkov, Vladimir G; Dubina, Dmitriy A; Yurchenko, Oksana A; Bekova, Marina V; Valdokhina, Anna V; Shipulin, German A

2014-11-01

60

Molecular and phenotypic characterization of infectious bursal disease virus isolates.  

PubMed

Two infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDVs 1174 and V1) were isolated from IBDV-vaccinated broiler flocks in California and Georgia. These flocks had a history of subclinical immunosuppression. These isolates are commonly used in IBDV progeny challenge studies at Auburn, AL, as well as vaccine manufacturer's vaccine efficacy studies, because they come from populated poultry-producing states, and are requested by poultry veterinarians from those states. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) generated viral genome products for sequencing. A 491-bp segment from the VP2 gene, covering the hypervariable region, from each isolate was analyzed and compared with previously sequenced isolates. Sequence analysis showed that they were more closely related to the Delaware (Del) E antigenic variant than they are to the Animal Health Plant Inspection Service (APHIS) standard, both at the nucleotide level (96%, 97%) and at the amino acid level (94%, 97%). Both isolates had the glutamine to lysine shift in amino acid 249 which has been reported to be critical in binding the virus neutralizing Mab B69. Phenotypic studies showed that both isolates produced rapid atrophy of the bursae and weight loss, without the edematous bursal phase, in 2-wk-old commercial broilers having antibody against IBDV. A progeny challenge study showed both isolates produced more atrophy of the bursae (less percentage of protection) than the Del E isolate. Molecular and phenotypic data of these important IBDV isolates help in the improved detection and control of this continually changing and important viral pathogen of chickens. PMID:17626491

Dormitorio, T V; Giambrone, J J; Guo, K; Jackwood, D J

2007-06-01

61

[Characteristics of isolating influenza virus hemagglutinin using purified bromelin].  

PubMed

Gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography were used to isolate a fraction with the highest proteolytic activity and virtually lacking glycosidases from a commercial bromeline preparation ("Serva", grade B) showing, in addition to proteolytic, also glycosidase activity. The utilization of purified bromeline allows isolation of hemagglutinin without residual neuraminidase activity from influenza virus of various serotypes (H1, H1, and H3). The results are discussed on the basis of an assumption of analogous localization but different conformation accessibility of bromeline-sensitive parts of the light chains of influenza viruses of different subtypes, and a possible role of the carbohydrate component of surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of influenza virus virions. PMID:7293158

Mukazhanova, G N; Siniakov, M S; Kharitonenkov, I G

1981-01-01

62

Isolation of Frog Virus 3 from Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)  

E-print Network

by gravity from Blind Pony Lake Dam 1 2 3 4 5 10 7 11 6 12 8 9 #12;Pallid Sturgeon Restoration EffortIsolation of Frog Virus 3 from Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) Suggests an Interclass Host #12;· Pallid Sturgeon Conservation within the Missouri River Basin ­ History of the decline

Gray, Matthew

63

Molecular Diagnosis of Human Rhinovirus Infections: Comparison with Virus Isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR with that of virus isolation in the detection of human rhinoviruses, we tested nasopharyngeal aspirates from 200 patients on the 1st and 7th days after the onset of the common cold. An assay utilizing a short amplicon in the conserved 5* noncoding region was found highly sensitive. Of 192 positive samples altogether,

TIMO HYYPIA; TUOMO PUHAKKA; OLLI RUUSKANEN; MIKA MAKELA; ANITA AROLA; PERTTI ARSTILA

1998-01-01

64

Characterization and phylogenic analysis of Mexican Newcastle disease virus isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was isolated in Mexico for the first time in 1946 and the last report of a field outbreak caused by a highly virulent strain dates from year 2000, when 13.6 million birds were slaughtered and 93 farms quarantined. Mean Death Time test resulted in velogenic classificati...

65

Isolation and characterisation of an Aujeszky's disease virus naturally infecting a wild boar ( Sus scrofa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) from an injured, female wild boar (Sus scrofa), shot dead by hunters, in an area adjacent to the Abruzzo National Park is reported. The brain was submitted for attempted virus isolation following episodes of mortality in several dogs and cats fed with meat from the wild boar. Virus was isolated on first passage from

I. Capua; R. Fico; M. Banks; M. Tamba; G. Calzetta

1997-01-01

66

Molecular characterisation of virulence graded field isolates of myxoma virus  

PubMed Central

Background Myxoma virus (MV) has been endemic in Europe since shortly after its deliberate release in France in 1952. While the emergence of more resistant hosts and more transmissible and attenuated virus is well documented, there have been relatively few studies focused on the sequence changes incurred by the virus as it has adapted to its new host. In order to identify regions of variability within the MV genome to be used for phylogenetic studies and to try to investigate causes of MV strain attenuation we have molecularly characterised nine strains of MV isolated in Spain between the years 1992 and 1995 from wide ranging geographic locations and which had been previously graded for virulence by experimental infection of rabbits. Results The findings reported here show the analysis of 16 genomic regions accounting for approximately 10% of the viral genomes. Of the 20 genes analysed 5 (M034L, M069L, M071L, M130R and M135R) were identical in all strains and 1 (M122R) contained only a single point mutation in an individual strain. Four genes (M002L/R, M009L, M036L and M017L) showed insertions or deletions that led to disruption of the ORFs. Conclusions The findings presented here provide valuable tools for strain differentiation and phylogenetic studies of MV isolates and some clues as to the reasons for virus attenuation in the field. PMID:20187925

2010-01-01

67

Epigallocatechin Gallate Inactivates Clinical Isolates of Herpes Simplex Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of a fully effective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine, topical microbicides represent an important strategy for preventing HSV transmission. ()-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (molecular weight, 458.4) is the primary catechin in green tea. The present study shows that EGCG has greater anti-HSV activity than other green tea catechins and inactivates multiple clinical isolates of HSV type 1 (HSV-1)

Charles E. Isaacs; Guang Y. Wen; Weimin Xu; Jun Hua Jia; Lisa Rohan; Christopher Corbo; Vincenzo Di Maggio; Edmund C. Jenkins; Sharon Hillier

2008-01-01

68

Dispatches Isolation and Phylogenetic Characterization of Ebola Viruses Causing Different Outbreaks in Gabon  

E-print Network

Three outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever have recently occurred in Gabon. Virus has been isolated from clinical materials from all three outbreaks, and nucleotide sequence analysis of the glycoprotein gene of the isolates and virus present in clinical samples has been carried out. These data indicate that each of the three outbreaks should be considered an independent emergence of a different Ebola virus of the Zaire subtype. As in earlier Ebola virus outbreaks, no genetic variability was detected between virus samples taken during an individual outbreak. Since the first recognized outbreaks of human Ebola virus hemorrhagic fever in Africa in the 1970s, biological and genetic differences have been described among the four distinct Ebola viruses isolated: Zaire, Sudan, and Côte d’Ivoire, all isolated from humans, and Reston virus isolated from macaque monkeys from the Philippines (1-5). Serologic evidence has suggested the presence

unknown authors

69

Performance characteristics of qualified cell lines for isolation and propagation of influenza viruses for vaccine manufacturing.  

PubMed

Cell culture is now available as a method for the production of influenza vaccines in addition to eggs. In accordance with currently accepted practice, viruses recommended as candidates for vaccine manufacture are isolated and propagated exclusively in hens' eggs prior to distribution to manufacturers. Candidate vaccine viruses isolated in cell culture are not available to support vaccine manufacturing in mammalian cell bioreactors so egg-derived viruses have to be used. Recently influenza A (H3N2) viruses have been difficult to isolate directly in eggs. As mitigation against this difficulty, and the possibility of no suitable egg-isolated candidate viruses being available, it is proposed to consider using mammalian cell lines for primary isolation of influenza viruses as candidates for vaccine production in egg and cell platforms. To investigate this possibility, we tested the antigenic stability of viruses isolated and propagated in cell lines qualified for influenza vaccine manufacture and subsequently investigated antigen yields of such viruses in these cell lines at pilot-scale. Twenty influenza A and B-positive, original clinical specimens were inoculated in three MDCK cell lines. The antigenicity of recovered viruses was tested by hemagglutination inhibition using ferret sera against contemporary vaccine viruses and the amino acid sequences of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase were determined. MDCK cell lines proved to be highly sensitive for virus isolation. Compared to the virus sequenced from the original specimen, viruses passaged three times in the MDCK lines showed up to 2 amino acid changes in the hemagglutinin. Antigenic stability was also established by hemagglutination inhibition titers comparable to those of the corresponding reference virus. Viruses isolated in any of the three MDCK lines grew reasonably well but variably in three MDCK cells and in VERO cells at pilot-scale. These results indicate that influenza viruses isolated in vaccine certified cell lines may well qualify for use in vaccine production. PMID:24975811

Donis, Ruben O

2014-11-12

70

Isolation from the Asian Mouse Mus caroli of an Endogenous Type C Virus Related to Infectious Primate Type C Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of a cell line derived from the Asian feral mouse Mus caroli with 5-bromodeoxyuridine induces an infectious, xenotropic type C virus. This virus shares strongly cross-reactive reverse transcriptase (RNA-dependent DNA polymerase) and p30 antigens and cross-interferes with type C viruses isolated from a woolly monkey (SSAV) and gibbon apes (GALV). By similar criteria, the caroli virus is much less

Michael M. Lieber; Charles J. Sherr; George J. Todaro; Raoul E. Benveniste; Robert Callahan; Hayden G. Coon

1975-01-01

71

Isolation and Genetic Characterization of a Tembusu Virus Strain Isolated From Mosquitoes in Shandong, China.  

PubMed

Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a flavivirus, presumed to be a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Ntaya virus subgroup. To date, however, there have been no reports indicating that mosquitoes are involved in the spread of TMUV. In this study, we report the first isolation of TMUV from Culex mosquitoes. We describe the isolation and characterization of a field strain of TMUV from mosquitoes collected in Shandong Province, China. The virus isolate, named TMUV-SDMS, grows well in mosquito cell line C6/36, in Vero and duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cell lines, and causes significant cytopathic effects in these cell cultures. The TMUV-SDMS genome is a single-stranded RNA, 10 989 nt in length, consisting of a single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3410 amino acids, with 5' and 3' untranslated regions of 142 and 617 nt, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the E and NS5 genes revealed that the TMUV-SDMS is closely related to the TMUV YY5 and BYD strains which cause severe egg-drop in ducks. The 3'NTR of TMUV-SDMS contains two pairs of tandem repeat CS and one non-duplicate CS, which have sequence similarities to the same repeats in the YY5 and BYD strains. Our findings indicate that mosquitoes carrying the TMUV may play an important role in the spread of this virus and in disease outbreak. PMID:23711093

Tang, Y; Diao, Y; Chen, H; Ou, Q; Liu, X; Gao, X; Yu, C; Wang, L

2013-05-27

72

Recovery of H14 influenza A virus isolates from sea ducks in the Western Hemisphere  

PubMed Central

In 2010, H14 influenza A viruses were recovered from clinically normal sea ducks in the United States. These are the first H14 isolates recovered in the Western Hemisphere and represent the only documented H14 influenza A viruses isolated since the original isolates were recovered from near the Caspian Sea during 1982. PMID:22307173

Nolting, Jacqueline; Fries, Anthony C.; Slemons, Richard D; Courtney, Chad; Hines, Nichole; Pedersen, Janice

2012-01-01

73

Recovery of H14 influenza A virus isolates from sea ducks in the Western Hemisphere.  

PubMed

In 2010, H14 influenza A viruses were recovered from clinically normal sea ducks in the United States. These are the first H14 isolates recovered in the Western Hemisphere and represent the only documented H14 influenza A viruses isolated since the original isolates were recovered from near the Caspian Sea during 1982. PMID:22307173

Nolting, Jacqueline; Fries, Anthony C; Slemons, Richard D; Courtney, Chad; Hines, Nichole; Pedersen, Janice

2012-01-01

74

Divergence and Recombination of Clinical Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and is one of the most common sexually transmitted viruses. Here we sequenced a segment comprising 3.5% of the HSV-2 genome, including genes coding for glycoproteins G, I, and E, from 27 clinical isolates from Tanzania, 10 isolates from Norway, and 10 isolates from Sweden. The sequence variation was low

Peter Norberg; Mabula J. Kasubi; Lars Haarr; Tomas Bergstrom; Jan-Åke Liljeqvist

2007-01-01

75

Characterization of Whitney's Clethrionomy gapperi virus isolates from Massachusetts.  

PubMed

Six strains of virus were recovered from the blood and/or liver of five Clethrionomys gapperi ochraceus trapped in southeastern Massachusetts during 1969. Biological, antigenic and physiochemical properties of these isolates are reported. USA M-2268a was selected as the reference strain. This strain was identical by complement-fixation and neutralization tests to Whitneys C. gapperie virus (USA 64-7855) from New York State and was related to, but distinct from, an unpublished agent (Johnson's Microtus montanus enterovirus USA M-1146) isolated in June, 1962 from voles trapped in Klamath County, Oregon. USA M-2268a was resistant to lipid solvents and acid pH and was stable at temperatures of 4 C, 22 C, and 37 C. Virus was detected over a 10-day observation period in four species of mosquitoes inoculated with USA M-2268a, although there was no evidence of infection or replication, and transmission attempts by bite failed. Neutralizing antibody was detected in C.g. gapperi and C. g. ochraceus in various habitats throughout the state. PMID:6801

Main, A J; Shope, R E; Wallis, R C

1976-04-01

76

Evaluation of Rabies Biologics against Irkut Virus Isolated in China  

PubMed Central

An Irkut virus (IRKV) was recently isolated from a bat in China. The protective ability of rabies biologics available in the Chinese market and experimental biologics against the rabies virus (RABV) and IRKV were assessed in a hamster model via preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) experiments. The results demonstrated that a single dose of rabies vaccine did not induce adequate protection against IRKV infection. However, routine PrEP with three doses of vaccine induced complete protection against IRKV infection. Higher doses of RABV immunoglobulins and alpha interferon were required during PEP to protect hamsters against IRKV versus RABV infection. Experimental recombinant vaccines containing IRKV glycoproteins induced more-reliable protection against IRKV than against RABV infection. Those findings may be explained by limited cross-neutralization of these viruses (confirmed via in vitro tests) in conjunction with antigenic distances between RABV and IRKV. These results indicate that the development and evaluation of new biologics for PrEP and PEP are required to ensure sufficient protection against IRKV infection in China and other territories where this virus is present. PMID:23946522

Liu, Ye; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Shoufeng; Li, Nan; Lian, Hai; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Jinxia

2013-01-01

77

Endogenous mink (Mustela vison) type C virus isolated from sarcoma virus-transformed mink cells.  

PubMed Central

A previously described type virus stock (designated PP-1R), isolated by cocultivating baboon cells with mink cells transformed by Kirsten sarcoma virus (64J1), has been further cloned and characterized. End point-diluted stocks of PP-1R have been obtained that are free of focus-forming activity and lack both Kirsten sarcoma and primate type C viral sequences. Nucleic acid hybridization experiments show that the cloned virus (MiLV) is an endogenous, genetically transmitted virus of the mink (Mustela vison). MiLV replicates in canine, feline, and 64J1 mink cells but not in an untransformed mink cell line. Multiple viral gene copies can be detected in the DNA of normal mink cells in culture and in normal mink tissues; related endogenous viral genes are also detected in several related Mustela species. The virus codes for a p30 protein very closely related antigenically to that of feline leukemia virus but contains p15 and p12 proteins that are antigenically distinct. The mink cell line, Mv1Lu, and its Kirsten sarcoma-transformed derivatives, 64J1, express relatively low levels of type C viral RNA related to MiLV and normally do not produce detectable levels of MiLV p30 protein or complete, infectious viral particles. Infection of sarcoma virus-transformed mink cells with baboon type C virus, however, can augment the level of expression of endogenous mink viral RNA and can result in the synthesis and packaging of mink viral RNA and p30 antigen in extracellular virions. Since the Mv1Lu cell line and its tranformed derivatives have become widely used in studies of retroviruses, the possibility of activating endogenous mink viral genes should be considered by investigators working with these cells. PMID:76684

Sherr, C J; Benveniste, R E; Todaro, G J

1978-01-01

78

Isolation of Hendra virus from pteropid bats: a natural reservoir of Hendra virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since it was first described in Australia in 1994, Hendra virus (HeV) has caused two outbreaks of fatal disease in horses and humans, and an isolated fatal horse case. Our preliminary studies revealed a high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to HeV in bats of the genus Pteropus, but it was unclear whether this was due to infection with HeV or

K. Halpin; P. L. Young; H. E. Field; J. S. Mackenzie

79

Isolation of Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus from a Horse with Neurological Disease in Brazil  

PubMed Central

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a causative agent of encephalitis in humans in the Western hemisphere. SLEV is a positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Flavivirus genus, which includes West Nile encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Dengue virus and other medically important viruses. Recently, we isolated a SLEV strain from the brain of a horse with neurological signs in the countryside of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The SLEV isolation was confirmed by reverse-transcription RT-PCR and sequencing of the E protein gene. Virus identity was also confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence using commercial antibodies against SLEV. To characterize this newly isolated strain in vivo, serial passages in newborn mice were performed and led to hemorrhagic manifestations associated with recruitment of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system of newborns. In summary this is the first isolation of SLEV from a horse with neurological signs in Brazil. PMID:24278489

Rosa, Roberta; Costa, Erica Azevedo; Marques, Rafael Elias; Oliveira, Taismara Simas; Furtini, Ronaldo; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Renato Lima

2013-01-01

80

A Small Iridescent Virus (Type 29) Isolated from Tenebrio molitor: a Comparison of its Proteins and Antigens with Six Other Iridescent Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A small iridescent virus (type 29) has been isolated from the meal worm Tenebrio molitor. The virus is distinct from a number of previous isolates of small iridescent viruses (types 2, 6, 21, 22, 23 and 28) judged by polyacrylamide gel electro- phoresis of its structural polypeptides. Immunodiffusion and immunoprecipitation tests showed that iridescent virus type 29 is related

D. C. Kelly; M. D. Ayres; THELMA LESCOTT; J. S. Robertson; G. M. Happ

1979-01-01

81

Characterisation of potato virus Y isolates from Iran.  

PubMed

A survey of Potato virus Y (PVY) was conducted in cultivated fields in six Iranian provinces between January 2005 to July 2007. Two hundred samples from potato and tomato were collected and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for potyviruses. Almost one fourth of the samples were found to be infected by PVY. Analysis of these PVY-positive samples using three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) facilitating the simultaneous detection of three main strains namely the ordinary (PVY(O)), strain (PVY(N)) and C (PVY(C)) strains. However, the fourth strain (PVY(NTN)) and some others recombinant isolates were also identified by molecular methods. Host range and symptoms analysis using sap inoculation of four different strains of PVY onto a range of plants revealed that the four strains showed biological properties that seemed to be consistent with their molecular grouping. Fourteen isolates of PVY were chosen based on the host and geographical location, primer specificity and serology for further biological and molecular characterisation. The coat protein (CP) and P1 genes and 3'-non-translated region (3'NTR) from 14 representative isolates were sequenced and analysed with the sequences available in GenBank. Composite analysis of the P1, CP and 3'-UTR sequences with all full genome sequences of PVY revealed that there are three potential strains of PVY in Iran, PVY(O), PVY(N)-W and PVY(NTN). Isolate KER.SA(N) was the most divergent of all the 14 isolates reacted with PVY(N) specific MAbs but grouped with PVY(O) strains in maximum likelihood phylogentic analysis. The PVY(NTN) isolates from Iran more closely related to the European than North American PVY(NTN) isolates. PMID:21082231

Hosseini, Atefe; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Varsani, Arvind

2011-02-01

82

Isolation and partial characterisation of a new strain of Ebola We have isolated a new strain of Ebola virus from a non-  

E-print Network

1271 Isolation and partial characterisation of a new strain of Ebola virus Summary We have isolated a new strain of Ebola virus from a non- fatal human case infected during the autopsy of a wild about the natural reservoir of the Ebola virus. Lancet 1995; 345: 1271-74 Introduction Ebola virus

83

First isolation of reticuloendotheliosis virus from mallards in China.  

PubMed

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) causes an oncogenic, immunosuppressive and runting syndrome in many avian hosts worldwide. REV infection has never been reported in mallard ducks, however. To identify REV infection in mallards, we collected 40 mallard duck samples from Jilin Province of China. In this study, the REV strain, DBYR1102, was first isolated from a mallard in China and identified by PCR, indirect immunofluorescence assay and electron microscopy. The gp90 gene and complete LTR of DBYR1102 were amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis based on gp90 genes of REV indicated that the REV strain DBYR1102 is closely related to strain HLJR0901 from northeastern China, the prairie chicken isolate APC-566, and REV subtype III, represented by chick syncytial virus. This new strain is distantly related to two other subtypes of REV, 170A and SNV. Phylogenetic analysis based on the LTR yielded information similar to that obtained with the gp90 genes. The results of this study not only expand our epidemiological understanding of REV in the wild birds of China but also demonstrate the potential role of wild waterfowl in REV transmission. PMID:24643331

Jiang, Lili; Deng, Xiaoyun; Gao, Yulong; Li, Kai; Chai, Hongliang; Fan, Zhaobin; Ren, Xiangang; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Lizhou; Yun, Bingling; Yin, Chunhong; Chen, Yuming; Qin, Liting; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Yongqiang; Hua, Yuping; Wang, Xiaomei

2014-08-01

84

Serotyping and strain identification of maize streak virus isolates.  

PubMed

Four strains of maize streak virus, namely the Panicum maximum, Digitaria setigera and sugarcane strains, have been identified from 19 isolates by ELISA using polyclonal antisera cross-absorbed with particles of the maize strain. The results suggest there is an epitope of the maize strain which is not dependent on the capsid being intact and which is common to all the members of the group; other strain-specific epitopes are probably conformation-dependent. A specific epitope (probably internal) occurs on the coat protein of a maize strain isolate, D(R)D, grown in D. velutina, that is also present on the coat protein of the D. setigera (previously reported as D. sanguinalis) strain. Specific internal epitopes also occur in the coat proteins of sugarcane and P. maximum strains. The use of indirect ELISA was necessary for accurate serotyping. The serological reactivities of particles of all the members of each type were identical irrespective of the host from which they were extracted. Sap extracts proved to be more reliable sources of antigen than virus preparations, which could vary in their serological reactivity. Nevertheless, serological differentiation index values determined in tests using either type of antigen proved reliable and consistent. PMID:1697327

Pinner, M S; Markham, P G

1990-08-01

85

Isolation of a novel swine influenza virus from Oklahoma in 2011 which is distantly related to human influenza C viruses.  

PubMed

Of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, only influenza A viruses are thought to exist as multiple subtypes and has non-human maintenance hosts. In April 2011, nasal swabs were collected for virus isolation from pigs exhibiting influenza-like illness. Subsequent electron microscopic, biochemical, and genetic studies identified an orthomyxovirus with seven RNA segments exhibiting approximately 50% overall amino acid identity to human influenza C virus. Based on its genetic organizational similarities to influenza C viruses this virus has been provisionally designated C/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (C/OK). Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted viral proteins found that the divergence between C/OK and human influenza C viruses was similar to that observed between influenza A and B viruses. No cross reactivity was observed between C/OK and human influenza C viruses using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Additionally, screening of pig and human serum samples found that 9.5% and 1.3%, respectively, of individuals had measurable HI antibody titers to C/OK virus. C/OK virus was able to infect both ferrets and pigs and transmit to naive animals by direct contact. Cell culture studies showed that C/OK virus displayed a broader cellular tropism than a human influenza C virus. The observed difference in cellular tropism was further supported by structural analysis showing that hemagglutinin esterase (HE) proteins between two viruses have conserved enzymatic but divergent receptor-binding sites. These results suggest that C/OK virus represents a new subtype of influenza C viruses that currently circulates in pigs that has not been recognized previously. The presence of multiple subtypes of co-circulating influenza C viruses raises the possibility of reassortment and antigenic shift as mechanisms of influenza C virus evolution. PMID:23408893

Hause, Ben M; Ducatez, Mariette; Collin, Emily A; Ran, Zhiguang; Liu, Runxia; Sheng, Zizhang; Armien, Anibal; Kaplan, Bryan; Chakravarty, Suvobrata; Hoppe, Adam D; Webby, Richard J; Simonson, Randy R; Li, Feng

2013-02-01

86

New genome sequences of gamboa viruses (family bunyaviridae, genus orthobunyavirus) isolated in panama and Argentina.  

PubMed

We describe here the nearly complete open reading frame (ORF) of five Gamboa virus strains isolated in Panama and Argentina. The viruses with complete ORF showed the regular genome organization observed in other orthobunyaviruses with exception to the presence of NSs protein. All predicted proteins showed homology with viruses belonging to members of the family Bunyaviridae. PMID:25414487

Nunes, Marcio R T; Chiang, Jannifer O; de Lima, Clayton P S; Martins, Lívia C; Aragão Dias, Amarílis; Cardoso, Jedson F; Silva, Sandro P; Da Silva, Daisy E A; Oliveira, Layanna F; Vasconcelos, Janaina M; Ferreira, João Paulo C; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

2014-01-01

87

Mystery swine disease in The Netherlands: the isolation of Lelystad virus.  

PubMed

In early 1991, the Dutch pig-industry was struck by the so-called mystery swine disease. Large-scale laboratory investigations were undertaken to search for the etiological agent. We focused on isolating viruses and mycoplasmas, and we tested paired sera of affected sows for antibodies against ten known pig viruses. The mycoplasmas M. hyosynoviae, M. hyopneumoniae, and Acholeplasma laidlawii, and the viruses encephalomyocarditis virus and porcine enterovirus types 2 and 7 were isolated from individual pigs. An unknown agent, however, was isolated from 16 of 20 piglets and from 41 of 63 sows. This agent was characterised as a virus and designated Lelystad virus. No relationship between this virus and other viruses has yet been established. Of 165 sows reportedly afflicted by the disease, 123 (75 per cent) seroconverted to Lelystad virus, whereas less than 10 per cent seroconverted to any of the other virus isolates or to the known viral pathogens. Antibodies directed against Lelystad virus were also found in pigs with mystery swine disease in England, Germany, and in the United States. We conclude that infection with Lelystad virus is the likely cause of mystery swine disease. PMID:1835211

Wensvoort, G; Terpstra, C; Pol, J M; ter Laak, E A; Bloemraad, M; de Kluyver, E P; Kragten, C; van Buiten, L; den Besten, A; Wagenaar, F

1991-07-01

88

New Genome Sequences of Gamboa Viruses (Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Orthobunyavirus) Isolated in Panama and Argentina  

PubMed Central

We describe here the nearly complete open reading frame (ORF) of five Gamboa virus strains isolated in Panama and Argentina. The viruses with complete ORF showed the regular genome organization observed in other orthobunyaviruses with exception to the presence of NSs protein. All predicted proteins showed homology with viruses belonging to members of the family Bunyaviridae. PMID:25414487

de Lima, Clayton P. S.; Martins, Lívia C.; Aragão Dias, Amarílis; Cardoso, Jedson F.; Silva, Sandro P.; Da Silva, Daisy E. A.; Oliveira, Layanna F.; Vasconcelos, Janaina M.; Ferreira, João Paulo C.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.

2014-01-01

89

Isolation of Type A Influenza Viruses from Red-necked Grebes (Podiceps grisegena).  

PubMed

Abstract Six type-A low pathogenic influenza viruses from 14 Red-necked Grebes (Podiceps grisegena) from Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge were sequenced. The grebe viruses were closely related to North American duck viruses. The genetic and temporal subtype consistency between the duck and grebe isolates suggest spillover events, potentially enhanced by feather eating. PMID:25380358

Lebarbenchon, Camille; Wilcox, Benjamin R; Poulson, Rebecca L; Slusher, Morgan J; Fedorova, Nadia B; Katzel, Dan A; Cardona, Carol J; Knutsen, Greggory A; Wentworth, David E; Stallknecht, David E

2015-01-01

90

Characterization of an avianpox virus isolated from an Andean condor ( Vultur gryphus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel pox virus, condorpox virus (CPV) isolated from the spleen of an Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) by inoculation of chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryos was compared biologically, antigenically and genetically with fowlpox virus (FPV), the type species of the genus Avipoxvirus. Susceptible chickens inoculated with CPV developed only mild localized lesions but were not

Tae-Joong Kim; William M. Schnitzlein; Denise McAloose; Allan P. Pessier; Deoki N. Tripathy

2003-01-01

91

Genetic relationships between southern African SAT-2 isolates of foot-and-mouth-disease virus.  

PubMed Central

Sequencing of part of the 1D gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus was used to determine the relationships between SAT-2 viruses isolated from outbreaks which occurred in cattle in Zimbabwe and Namibia and in impala in South Africa between 1979 and 1989. The results demonstrated that the outbreaks in different countries were unrelated. Surprisingly close relationships were shown between all SAT-2 viruses isolated from cattle in Zimbabwe since 1983 but the two major epizootics which occurred in 1989 were caused by viruses which were clearly different. Conversely, two apparently unrelated outbreaks in impala in South Africa were caused by viruses which could not be distinguished. PMID:1334842

Vosloo, W.; Knowles, N. J.; Thomson, G. R.

1992-01-01

92

Genomic characterization of Indian isolates of egg drop syndrome 1976 virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five Indian isolates of egg drop syndrome (EDS) 1976 virus and the reference strain 127 were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of viral DNA, and the hexon gene amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Using these techniques, no differences were seen among these viruses. However, partial sequencing of the hexon gene revealed major differences (4.6%) in one of the isolates sequenced,

G. Dhinakar Raj; S. Sivakumar; S. Sudharsan; A. C. Mohan; K. Nachimuthu

2001-01-01

93

Isolations of Potosi Virus from Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Collected in Connecticut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potosi virus (POTV) (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) was Þrst isolated from Aedes albopictus (Skuse) collected in Potosi, MO, in 1989, and subsequent isolations were reported from Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, and the Carolinas. To determine whether the distribution of this virus extends into the northeastern United States, we analyzed arboviruses acquired from mosquitoes collected in Connecticut from 1998 to 2004. In 2001, a

Philip M. Armstrong; Theodore G. Andreadis; John F. Anderson; Andrew J. Main

2005-01-01

94

Isolation and pathotyping of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Indian poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 1246 faecal and tissue samples collected\\/received from 119 farms located in various states of India were processed for isolation of avian influenza viruses (AIV) during 2003–2004 as part of a program to monitor AIV infection in Indian poultry population. Avian influenza virus was isolated for the first time in India from poultry farms with history of drop

S. Nagarajan; K. Rajukumar; C. Tosh; V. Ramaswamy; K. Purohit; G. Saxena; P. Behera; B. Pattnaik; H. K. Pradhan; S. C. Dubey

2009-01-01

95

Leakey Virus: a New Hantavirus Isolated from Mus musculus in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A hantavirus, designated Leakey virus, was isolated from a Mus musculus captured in Real County, Texas, U.S.A. in August 1986. Virus-specific fluorescence was first detected 13 days after inoculation of Vero-E6 cells with spleen tissue from the seropositive M. musculus. Ultrastructurally, the new isolate resembled other hantaviruses. Leakey virus induced a fatal meningoencephalitis in infant Fischer rats, with viral

L. J. Baek; R. Yanagihara; C. J. Gibbs; M. Miyazaki; D. C. Gajdusek

1988-01-01

96

Genetic characterisation of infectious bursal disease virus isolates in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

The objective of the investigation was to characterise infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDV) circulating in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia between 2009 and 2011. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence for VP2 hypervariable region of ten IBDVs were determined by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to well characterised IBDV isolates worldwide. IBDV genetic material was amplified directly from bursa or cell passaged material. Phylogenetically, Ethiopian IBDVs represented two genetic lineages: very virulent (vv) IBDVs or variants of the classical attenuated vaccine strain (D78). The nucleotide identity between Ethiopian vvIBDVs ranged between 0% and 2.6%. Ethiopian vvIBDVs are clustered phylogenetically with the African IBDV genetic lineage, independent of the Asian/European lineage. This report demonstrates the circulation of vvIBDV in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia. PMID:24145155

Jenberie, Shiferaw; Lynch, Stacey E.; Kebede, Fekadu; Christley, Robert M.; Gelaye, Esayas; Negussie, Haileleul; Asmare, Kassahun; Ayelet, Gelagay

2014-01-01

97

[Khurdun virus, a presumably new RNA-containing virus associated with coots (Fulica atra), isolated in the Volga river delta].  

PubMed

The prototype strain LEIV-Ast 01-5 of the unclassified enveloped RNA-containing Khurdun virus, less than 220 nm in size, which is widely distributed among coots (Fulica atra) in the Volga River delta, was deposited on November 4, 2004, at the State Virus Collection (SVC # 992). The virus was isolated annually (2001-2004) with a frequency of 2.3-8.5% (mean 6.3%) when examining 348 coots caught in the lower and middle zones of the Volga River delta. Virological examinations used mixed pools of the brain and spleen to inoculate neonatal albino mice and the cellular line Vero-E6. One strain was isolated from a pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus). The virus could not be isolated from other species of 1080 birds, 20 hares, 140,000 mosquitoes of 5 predominant species, and 6,700 Hyalomma marginatum ticks. Any antigenic relationship of the virus with all the viruses early isolated in the Northern Caspian Sea region has not been found. ELISA has been developed to detect and identify Khurdun virus antigen. PMID:16104519

Galkina, I V; L'vov, L N; Gromashevski?, V L; Moskvina, T M

2005-01-01

98

Adaptive evolution of simian immunodeficiency viruses isolated from two conventional progressor macaques with neuroaids  

SciTech Connect

Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques may result in neuroAIDS, a feature more commonly observed in macaques with rapid progressive disease than in those with conventional disease. This is the first report of two conventional progressors (H631 and H636) with encephalitis in rhesus macaques inoculated with a derivative of SIVsmES43-3. Phylogenetic analyses of viruses isolated from the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from both animals demonstrated tissue compartmentalization. Additionally, virus from the central nervous system (CNS) was able to infect primary macaque monocyte-derived macrophages more efficiently than virus from plasma. Conversely, virus isolated from plasma was able to replicate better in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than virus from CNS. We speculate that these viruses were under different selective pressures in their separate compartments. Furthermore, these viruses appear to have undergone adaptive evolution to preferentially replicate in their respective cell targets. Analysis of the number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) in gp160 showed that there was a statistically significant loss of PNGS in viruses isolated from CNS in both macaques compared to SIVsmE543-3. Moreover, virus isolated from the brain in H631, had statistically significant loss of PNGS compared to virus isolated from CSF and plasma of the same animal. It is possible that the brain isolate may have adapted to decrease the number of PNGS given that humoral immune selection pressure is less likely to be encountered in the brain. These viruses provide a relevant model to study the adaptations required for SIV to induce encephalitis.

Foley, Brian T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

99

Detection, isolation, and persistence of viruses within bivalve mollusks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Norovirus (NV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and other virus transmission by molluscan shellfish is a significant issue. Research at the ARS-Dover DE laboratory has led to the development of improved methods for detecting these viruses. To identify pathogenic viruses within mollusks, a rapid highly-se...

100

Isolation methods and electron microscopy of the Internal Cork Virus of sweet potatoes  

E-print Network

. Dr. W. Gordon Whaley and Dr. H. H. Mollenhauer for the use of the facilities of The Cell Research Institute of The University of Texas. Isolation Methods and Electron Microscopy of' the Internal Cork Virus of Sweet Potatoes (August 1967) E. E... of sweet potatoes so that infectivity is retained. Electron micrographs of negative stained isolated virus particles as well as micrographs of the virus within lesion cells show that the virus ranges in size from 0 400 to 600 A. The electron micrographs...

Pickens, Edgar Eugene

2012-06-07

101

Characterisation of influenza a viruses isolated from turkeys in england during March?May 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the early spring of 1979 turkeys on at least twelve sites in England became infected with influenza A viruses. On five of these sites no virus was isolated but birds were shown to have antibodies to Havl (four sites) and Hav2 antigenic subtypes of influenza A viruses. The eight viruses isolated were typed:A\\/turkey\\/England\\/192–328\\/79 (Havl Nav2\\/3), A\\/turkey\\/England\\/192–329\\/79 (Hav1 N2), A\\/turkey\\/England\\/199\\/79

D. J. Alexander; D. Spackman

1981-01-01

102

PATHOGENESIS OF CHICKEN-PASSAGED NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUSES ISOLATED FROM CHICKENS, WILD, AND EXOTIC BIRDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pathogenesis of six Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from chickens and wild (anhinga) and exotic (yellow nape parrot, pheasant, and dove isolate) birds was examined after four passages of the isolates in domestic chickens. Groups of four-week-old specific-pathogen-free White Legh...

103

Macrophage Tropism of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates from Brain and Lymphoid Tissues Predicts Neurotropism Independent of Coreceptor Specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viral determinants that underlie human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neurotropism are unknown, due in part to limited studies on viruses isolated from brain. Previous studies suggest that brain- derived viruses are macrophage tropic (M-tropic) and principally use CCR5 for virus entry. To better understand HIV-1 neurotropism, we isolated primary viruses from autopsy brain, cerebral spinal fluid, blood, spleen,

PAUL R. GORRY; GREG BRISTOL; JEROME A. ZACK; KIMBERLY RITOLA; RONALD SWANSTROM; CHRIS J. BIRCH; JEANNE E. BELL; NORBERT BANNERT; KEITH CRAWFORD; HUI WANG; DOMINIQUE SCHOLS; ERIK DE CLERCQ; KEVIN KUNSTMAN; STEVEN M. WOLINSKY; DANA GABUZDA

2001-01-01

104

VIRULENCE OF HETEROGENEOUS-ORIGIN NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS ISOLATES BEFORE AND AFTER SEQUENTIAL PASSAGES IN DOMESTIC CHICKENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four serial passages of six Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates were performed in 2-week-old White Leghorns. The viruses were recovered from chickens (Ckn-Live Bird Market and Ckn-Australia isolates), exotic (Yellow Nape [YN] Parrot, Pheasant, and Dove isolates) and wild birds (Anhinga isolate). ...

105

[Subtypes of dengue virus serotypes 2, 3 and 4 isolated in Santander District, Colombia].  

PubMed

Virus serotypes 2, 3 and 4 that had circulated in Santander District, Colombia in the period 1998-2004 were analyzed. Identifying the subtype of a dengue virus serotype is a useful tool for surveillance of severe risk factors because the strain potential to cause hemorrhagic dengue makes the difference among them. Simultaneous sequence amplification technique known as restriction site specific-polymerase chain reaction (RSS-PCR) was used to determine the subtype by comparing the electrophoretic pattern of the local isolate to the reference virus. Virus serotype 2 corresponded to subtype A similar to the one isolated in Thailand (1996) and to the other isolated in Porto Rico (1986); virus serotypes 3 were of subtype C like the virus found in Sri Lanka (1990), Honduras (1995) and Porto Rico (2000); virus serotypes 4 were a variant of subtype B similar to a virus from Porto Rico (1987) and to another virus from Tahiti (1985). The study confirmed the presence in Colombia of dengue virus subtypes circulating now in the Americas. PMID:23427455

Cortés, Fabián M; Gómez, Sergio Y; Ocazionez, Raquel E

2007-01-01

106

Isolation of Tacaribe Virus, a Caribbean Arenavirus, from Host-Seeking Amblyomma americanum Ticks in Florida  

PubMed Central

Arenaviridae are a family of single stranded RNA viruses of mammals and boid snakes. Twenty-nine distinct mammalian arenaviruses have been identified, many of which cause severe hemorrhagic disease in humans, particularly in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and in Central and South America. Humans typically become infected with an arenavirus through contact with excreta from infected rodents. Tacaribe virus (TCRV) is an arenavirus that was first isolated from bats and mosquitoes during a rabies surveillance survey conducted in Trinidad from 1956 to 1958. Tacaribe virus is unusual because it has never been associated with a rodent host and since that one time isolation, the virus has not been isolated from any vertebrate or invertebrate hosts. We report the re-isolation of the virus from a pool of 100 host-seeking Amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks) collected in a Florida state park in 2012. TCRV was isolated in two cell lines and its complete genome was sequenced. The tick-derived isolate is nearly identical to the only remaining isolate from Trinidad (TRVL-11573), with 99.6% nucleotide identity across the genome. A quantitative RT-PCR assay was developed to test for viral RNA in host-seeking ticks collected from 3 Florida state parks. Virus RNA was detected in 56/500 (11.2%) of surveyed ticks. As this virus was isolated from ticks that parasitize humans, the ability of the tick to transmit the virus to people should be evaluated. Furthermore, reservoir hosts for the virus need to be identified in order to develop risk assessment models of human infection. PMID:25536075

Sayler, Katherine A.; Barbet, Anthony F.; Chamberlain, Casey; Clapp, William L.; Alleman, Rick; Loeb, Julia C.; Lednicky, John A.

2014-01-01

107

Replication of pea enation mosaic virus RNA in isolated pea nuclei  

PubMed Central

Isolated nuclei from healthy pea plants were primed with pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), radish mosaic virus (RdMV), tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), PEMV RNA, SBMV RNA, RdMV RNA, or TMV RNA. RNA replication occurred only with PEMV RNA and not with intact PEMV or any of the other viruses or RNAs, as judged by ensuing actinomycin D-insensitive polymerase activity. Molecular hybridization experiments showed that some of the product of the polymerase was PEMV-specific (-)RNA. The substrate and ionic requirements of this polymerase were the same as those for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in nuclei isolated from PEMV-infected pea plants. No virus particles could be recovered from nuclei primed with PEMV RNA. These results are discussed in relation to the possible mechanism for in vivo infection of pea cells. PMID:16592421

Powell, C. A.; Zoeten, G. A. de

1977-01-01

108

Use of muscovy duck embryo fibroblasts for the isolation of viruses from wild birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Techniques are described for the preparation, cryopreservation, and inoculation of Muscovy duck embryo cell cultures. The procedure yields a susceptible reproducible cell culture system for the isolation and cultivation of viruses from wild birds.

Docherty, D.E.; Slota, Paul G.

1988-01-01

109

Isolation of West Nile virus from mosquitoes, crows, and a Cooper's hawk in Connecticut.  

PubMed

West Nile (WN) virus, a mosquito-transmitted virus native to Africa, Asia, and Europe, was isolated from two species of mosquitoes, Culex pipiens and Aedes vexans, and from brain tissues of 28 American crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos, and one Cooper's hawk, Accipiter cooperii, in Connecticut. A portion of the genome of virus isolates from four different hosts was sequenced and analyzed by comparative phylogenetic analysis. Our isolates from Connecticut were similar to one another and most closely related to two WN isolates from Romania (2.8 and 3.6 percent difference). If established in North America, WN virus will likely have severe effects on human health and on the health of populations of birds. PMID:10600741

Anderson, J F; Andreadis, T G; Vossbrinck, C R; Tirrell, S; Wakem, E M; French, R A; Garmendia, A E; Van Kruiningen, H J

1999-12-17

110

Squash vein yellowing virus, a novel ipomovirus, isolated from squash and watermelon in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel whitefly-transmitted member of the family Potyviridae was isolated from a squash plant (Cucurbita pepo) with vein yellowing symptoms in Florida. The virus, for which the name Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is proposed, has flexuous rod-shaped particles of ~840 nm in length. SqVYV was ...

111

Evolutionary changes effecting rapid diagnostics of 2009 Newcastle disease viruses isolated from Double-crested Cormorants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An outbreak of virulent Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in wild double-breasted cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) occurred in North America in the summer of 2008. All ten viruses isolated from cormorants were positively identified by the USDA validated real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chai...

112

New mite-borne virus isolates from rakkyo, shallot and wild leek species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flexuous viruses were transmitted from rakkyo (Allium chinense) and wild leek species (especiallyA. commutatum) to plants of crow garlic (A. vineale), by transfer of dry bulb mites. By electron microscope decoration tests using three antisera and by inoculations onto test plants, it was concluded that from each of the two natural host species at least two viruses were isolated. The

Paul van Dijk; René A. A. van der Vlugt

1994-01-01

113

Genetic and antigenic characterization of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2 isolated from cattle in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) subtype b is predominantly circulating in Indian cattle. During testing for exotic pestiviruses between 2007 and 2010, BVDV-2 was identified by real time RT-PCR in two of 1446 cattle blood samples originating from thirteen states of India. The genetic analysis of the isolated virus in 5? UTR, Npro,

Sthita Pragnya Behera; Niranjan Mishra; Stefan Vilcek; Katherukamem Rajukumar; Ram Kumar Nema; Anil Prakash; S. Kalaiyarasu; Shiv Chandra Dubey

2011-01-01

114

Complete genome sequences of three ebola virus isolates from the 2014 outbreak in west Africa.  

PubMed

Here, we report the complete genome sequences, including the genome termini, of three Ebola virus isolates (species Zaire ebolavirus) originating from Guinea that are now being widely used in laboratories in North America for research regarding West African Ebola viruses. PMID:25523781

Hoenen, T; Groseth, A; Feldmann, F; Marzi, A; Ebihara, H; Kobinger, G; Günther, S; Feldmann, H

2014-01-01

115

Characterization of tomato spotted wilt virus isolates infecting peanut in Southwestern states of USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is among the greatest yield-reducing viruses affecting peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in all peanut-producing states in U.S. Due to the lack of molecular information on TSWV-isolates associated with peanut in southwestern states, the aim of this study was directed at ...

116

VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES, SURVEILLANCE, PREVENTION Isolations of Cache Valley Virus From Aedes albopictus (Diptera  

E-print Network

transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. Three virus isolates were obtained from 34,567 Ã?eld-collected Ae virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and all were negative. These results in the Northeast only WNV has been de- tected in Ae. albopictus using polymerase chain reac- tion (PCR) based

117

Complete Genome Sequences of Three Ebola Virus Isolates from the 2014 Outbreak in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the complete genome sequences, including the genome termini, of three Ebola virus isolates (species Zaire ebolavirus) originating from Guinea that are now being widely used in laboratories in North America for research regarding West African Ebola viruses. PMID:25523781

Groseth, A.; Feldmann, F.; Marzi, A.; Ebihara, H.; Kobinger, G.; Günther, S.

2014-01-01

118

Comparative Study of Influenza Virus H2 (Asian) Hemagglutinins Isolated from Human and Avian Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The hemagglutinin of an influenza virus isolated from a wild duck (Pintail, Anas acutd) in the USSR in 1976 had been found to be antigenically indistinguishable from the hemagglutinin of H2N2 viruses of human origin isolated in 1957. The hemagglutinins from viral preparations of the A\\/Anas acuta\\/Primorie\\/695\\/76 (H2Nav2) and A\\/Singapore\\/1\\/57 (H2N2) strains were purified by SDS gel chromatography as

Doris J. Bucher; Igor G. Kharitonenkov; Dema K. Lvov; Tamara V. Pysina; How-Ming Lee

1980-01-01

119

Susceptibility of different plant species and tomato cultivars to two isolates of Pepino mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Pepino mosaic virus has become a pathogen of major importance in worldwide tomato production, information is needed on possible differences between\\u000a the sensitivity of cultivars towards infection. Furthermore, it is important what hosts other than Solanaceae may be virus reservoirs and are, therefore, threats for tomato cultivation. Two PepMV isolates (PepMV-Sav, E397, a European\\u000a tomato isolate and PV-0554, a

Ahmad Fakhro; Susanne von Bargen; Martina Bandte; Carmen Büttner; Philipp Franken; Dietmar Schwarz

2011-01-01

120

Isolation and Characterization of Viruses Related to the SARS Coronavirus from Animals in Southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel coronavirus (SCoV) is the etiological agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). SCoV-like viruses were isolated from Himalayan palm civets found in a live-animal market in Guangdong, China. Evidence of virus infection was also detected in other animals (including a raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides) and in humans working at the same market. All the animal isolates retain a

Y. Guan; B. J. Zheng; Y. Q. He; X. L. Liu; Z. X. Zhuang; C. L. Cheung; S. W. Luo; P. H. Li; L. J. Zhang; Y. J. Guan; K. M. Butt; K. L. Wong; K. W. Chan; W. Lim; K. F. Shortridge; K. Y. Yuen; J. S. M. Peiris; L. L. M. Poon

2003-01-01

121

Analysis of the complete genome of Tembusu virus, a flavivirus isolated from ducks in China.  

PubMed

During investigations into the outbreak of duck viral infection in 2010 in China, with a severe drop in egg production, a flavivirus was isolated from the affected ducks. It was characterized as a Tembusu virus (TMUV). In this study, we obtained a complete genome sequence of Tembusu virus using RT-PCR and RACE techniques. TMUV genome is a singled-stranded RNA, with 10,990 nucleotides in length, and contains a single open reading frame (3410 amino acids) encoding 11 viral proteins with 5'and 3'non-translated regions (NTRs) of 142 and 618 nt, respectively. We characterized the open reading frame (ORF) with respect to gene sizes, cleavage sites and potential glycosylation sites. The different genomic regions of the virus were also compared with those of six other flaviviruses including Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus (WNV), dengue-2 virus, yellow fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Bagaza virus. TMUV demonstrated the highest similarity to Bagaza virus. The result of entire ORF scanning shows that TMUV was close to Bagaza viruses in genetic relatedness. These data demonstrate that TMUV is a unique virus among the mosquito-borne flaviviruses and also provide a useful reference for a critically important study to determine why TMUV is a serious pathogen for ducks. PMID:22103739

Tang, Y; Diao, Y; Gao, X; Yu, C; Chen, L; Zhang, D

2012-08-01

122

Independent isolates of the emerging subgroup J avian leukosis virus derive from a common ancestor.  

PubMed

A new subgroup of avian leukosis virus (ALV) that includes a unique env gene, designated J, was identified recently in England. Sequence analysis of prototype English isolate HPRS-103 revealed several other unique genetic characteristics of this strain and provided information that it arose by recombination between exogenous and endogenous virus sequences. In the past several years, ALV J type viruses (ALV-J) have been isolated from broiler breeder flocks in the United States. We were interested in determining the relationship between the U.S. and English isolates of ALV-J. Based on sequence data from two independently derived U.S. field isolates, we conclude that the U.S. and English isolates of ALV-J derive from a common ancestor and are not the result of independent recombination events. PMID:9811780

Benson, S J; Ruis, B L; Garbers, A L; Fadly, A M; Conklin, K F

1998-12-01

123

Pathogenesis of Newcastle Disease in Vaccinated Chickens: Pathogenicity of Isolated Virus and Vaccine Effect on Challenge of Its Virus  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The pathogenicity of Newcastle disease (ND) virus, isolated from ND outbreak in vaccinated chickens, was evaluated through experiments. The pathogenicity indexes (mean death time (MDT); 58 hr, intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI); 1.7 and intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI); 2.51) indicated that the ND virus was velogenic. The ND virus caused lymphocytic necrosis in the spleen with fibrinous exudation and proliferation of macrophages, sinusoidal fibrin exudation in the liver, proliferation of macrophages in the lung, lymphocytic necrosis and depletion in the bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils and thymus, necrosis of bone marrow, tracheitis, conjunctivitis and necrosis of feather epithelial cells in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Immunohistochemically, ND virus antigens were seen in the lesions mentioned above. The ND virus could not induce the encephalitis and pancreatitis that were observed in the natural case of ND in vaccinated chickens. There was no clinical disease in vaccinated chickens after the challenge of the ND virus. In diluted ND vaccine experiments, chickens vaccinated with a high dilution of vaccine and then challenged with the ND virus showed clinical sign and mortality with pancreatic focal necrosis. Vaccine diluted with fresh tap water had no effect on protection against the challenge of the ND virus. This study suggests that improper vaccination may be involved in outbreaks of ND in vaccinated chickens. PMID:23966012

NAKAMURA, Kikuyasu; ITO, Mitsuru; NAKAMURA, Toshiki; YAMAMOTO, Yu; YAMADA, Manabu; MASE, Masaji; IMAI, Kunitoshi

2013-01-01

124

Suitability of specimen types for isolation of avian influenza viruses from poultry.  

PubMed

In view of the outbreaks of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in poultry in India, its impact on global public health and growing concerns of avian influenza (AI) viruses, surveys in wet poultry markets were conducted in the states of Maharashtra, West Bengal and Jharkhand in India during the period 2009-2012. During these surveys various types of samples from poultry were collected. During outbreaks and surveys in poultry, tracheal swabs (TS), cloacal swabs (CS), poultry drinking water (PDW) samples and fecal samples (FS) are preferred samples for AI diagnosis. The suitability of various types of poultry samples for AI virus isolation was analyzed. The parameters such as availability of specimen, ease of collection, quality of the specimen for the presence of contaminants such as organic debris or solid matter were considered for the analysis. A total of 2,405 samples were collected, which included 1,297 TS, 1,012 CS, 79 PDW, and 17 FS. Out of 2,309 TS and CS samples 1,752 samples were paired samples, collected from 876 birds. All samples were processed for virus isolation and identification. Of the 2,405 samples AI H9N2 was isolated from 199 samples (8.27 %). The virus isolation rate was significantly higher in PDW samples (21.5 %) (P < 0.05) and TS samples (12.1 %), in comparison with CS (2.3 %) (P < 0.001). Other viruses isolated were AI H4N6 and HPAI H5N1viruses; however the number of isolates of AI H4N6 and H5N1 were not sufficient for comparison. In conclusion, the PDW and TS samples were suitable for AI H9N2 virus isolation from poultry. PMID:24426303

Kale, Sandeep D; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Pawar, Shailesh D

2013-12-01

125

Influenza A (H15N4) Virus Isolation in Western Siberia, Russia  

PubMed Central

The rarely identified influenza A viruses of the H15 hemagglutinin subtype have been isolated exclusively in Australia. Here we report the isolation of an H15N4 influenza A virus (A/teal/Chany/7119/2008) in Western Siberia, Russia. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the internal genes of the A/teal/Chany/7119/2008 strain belong to the Eurasian clade and that the H15 and N4 genes were introduced into the gene pool of circulating endemic avian influenza viruses through reassortment events. PMID:23283950

Sivay, Mariya V.; Baranovich, Tatiana; Marchenko, Vasiliy Y.; Sharshov, Kirill A.; Govorkova, Elena A.; Shestopalov, Aleksander M.

2013-01-01

126

Coat protein properties suggest that azuki bean mosaic virus, blackeye cowpea mosaic virus, peanut stripe virus, and three isolates from soybean are all strains of the same potyvirus.  

PubMed

The interrelationship of a number of potyviruses infecting legumes has been investigated by comparing molecular properties of their coat proteins. Comparison of the coat proteins by the techniques of amino acid analysis and PAGE was inadequate to distinguish strains from distinct potyviruses. However, high-performance liquid chromatographic peptide profiles of tryptic digests of coat proteins of these legume-infecting potyviruses enabled such assignments to be made. These data indicate that amino acid sequences of coat proteins of azuki bean mosaic virus, the Type and W strains of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus, three isolates (74, PM, PN) of a potyvirus obtained from soybean in Taiwan, and the Blotch and Mild Mottle strains of peanut stripe virus (PStV) may be very similar to the known sequence of PStV Stripe coat protein. In contrast, peptide profiles of coat proteins from soybean mosaic virus, clover yellow vein virus, bean yellow mosaic virus, potato virus Y, and tobacco etch virus were dissimilar to each other and to the profile of PStV Stripe, suggesting that their coat protein sequences were also quite different. Based on observations of the coat protein structure of many potyviruses, the results suggest that the potyvirus isolates with similar coat proteins are strains of the same potyvirus. PMID:1500273

McKern, N M; Shukla, D D; Barnett, O W; Vetten, H J; Dijkstra, J; Whittaker, L W; Ward, C W

1992-01-01

127

Characterisation of an isolate of Narcissus degeneration virus from Chinese narcissus (Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis).  

PubMed

A potyvirus from Chinese narcissus was transmitted mechanically to three species of Narcissus and to Lycoris radiata but not to 22 other test species. In western blot, the coat protein reacted strongly with Narcissus degeneration virus (UK isolate) antiserum. Antiserum raised to the Chinese virus did not react with eighteen other potyviruses. The complete nucleotide sequence (9816 nt) had the typical genome organisation for a member of the genus Potyvirus. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis showed that the Chinese virus was different from all previously sequenced potyviruses but distantly related to onion yellow dwarf and shallot yellow stripe viruses. PMID:16932980

Chen, J; Shi, Y-H; Adams, M J; Zheng, H-Y; Qin, B-X; Chen, J-P

2007-02-01

128

Characterization of a Tembusu virus isolated from naturally infected house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in Northern China.  

PubMed

The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is one of the most widely distributed wild birds in China. Tembusu virus (TMUV) strain, TMUV-SDHS, was isolated from house sparrows living around the poultry farms in Shandong Province, Northern China. Genetic analysis of E and NS5 genes showed that it had a close relationship with that of the YY5 strain, which can cause severe egg drop in ducks. Pathogenicity studies showed that the virus is highly virulent when experimentally inoculated into the ducks. These findings show that house sparrows carrying the Tembusu virus may play an important role in transmitting the virus among other species. PMID:22515847

Tang, Y; Diao, Y; Yu, C; Gao, X; Ju, X; Xue, C; Liu, X; Ge, P; Qu, J; Zhang, D

2013-04-01

129

Biological and Genomic Sequence Characterization of Maize streak virus Isolates from Wheat.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Maize streak virus (MSV) is best known as the causal agent of maize streak disease. However, only a genetically uniform subset of the viruses within this diverse species is actually capable of producing severe symptoms in maize. Whereas these "maize-type" viruses all share greater than 95% sequence identity, MSV strains isolated from grasses may share as little as 79% sequence identity with the maize-type viruses. Here, we present the complete genome sequences and biological characterization of two MSV isolates from wheat that share approximately 89% sequence identity with the maize-type viruses. Clonal populations of these two isolates, named MSV-Tas and MSV-VW, were leafhopper-transmitted to Digitaria sanguinalis and a range of maize, wheat, and barley genotypes. Whereas the two viruses showed some differences in their pathogenicity in maize, they were both equally pathogenic in D. sanguinalis and the various wheat and barley genotypes tested. Phylogenetic analyses involving the genome sequences of MSV-Tas and MSV-VW, a new maize-type virus also fully sequenced in this study (MSV-VM), and all other available African streak virus sequences, indicated that MSV-Tas and MSV-VW are close relatives that together represent a distinct MSV strain. Sequence analyses revealed that MSV-VM has a recombinant genome containing MSV-Tas/VW-like sequences within its movement protein gene. PMID:18944143

Willment, J A; Martin, D P; Van der Walt, E; Rybicki, E P

2002-01-01

130

Modoc-like virus isolated from wild deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) in Alberta.  

PubMed

Small mammals were trapped in northeastern Alberta, Canada during 1976. Blood samples from these animals were tested for virus by inoculation of suckling mice. Blood clots from two deer mice yielded isolates of the same virus. The virus was related antigenically to a number of flaviviruses which have been isolated from mammals in Central America and North America and was related most closely to Modoc virus. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of the virus were similar also to those of Modoc virus. It did not produce illness or death in deer mice inoculated in the laboratory. Neutralization tests indicated that 1/38 (3%) red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), 3/35 (9%) least chipmunks (Eutamius minimus), 13/109 (12%) deer mice, and 3/50 (6%) humans were infected naturally. This is the first reported evidence of infection of red squirrels and chipmunks with a Modoc-like virus. These data extend the range of Modoc-like viruses northward by 1,500 km and comprise the first isolate from mammals in the boreal forest of Canada. PMID:2987550

Zarnke, R L; Yuill, T M

1985-04-01

131

Genetic characterization of a noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 2b isolated from cattle in China.  

PubMed

In January 2013, several clinical signs of cattle with diarrhea, cough, nasal discharge, and fever were reported in Jilin province, China. One virus named SD1301 was isolated and identified. Complete genome of the virus is 12258nt in length and contains a 5'UTR, one open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3,897 amino acids and a 3'UTR. Phylogenetic analysis of 5'UTR, N(pro), E1 and E2 gene demonstrated the virus belonged to BVDV 2b, and genetically related to the BVDV strain Hokudai-Lab/09 from Japan in 2010. This bovine viral diarrhea virus displays a unique genetic signature with 27-nucleotide deletion in the 5'UTR, which is similar to the bovine viral diarrhea virus C413 (AF002227). This was the first confirmed isolation of ncp BVDV2b circulating in bovine herd of China. PMID:24811746

Wang, Wei; Shi, Xinchuan; Chen, Chaoyang; Wu, Hua

2014-10-01

132

A new cell culture tube in diagnostic virology for virus isolation.  

PubMed

Virus isolation and accurate characterization plays a crucial role in the rapid identification of the causative agents of infectious disease outbreaks especially if the causative viruses are novel where no pre-existing diagnostic reagents would be available. A new cell culture tube, named Jui Meng (JM) Cell Culture Tube, was developed to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency and biosafety of work pertaining to virus isolation. The design of the tube is based heavily on the principle of practicability, functionality, biosafety and long-term cost saving for diagnostic laboratory work in virus isolation. It is designed to culture an initial inoculum of one milliliter of culture medium containing 1 x 10(4) to 1 x 10(5) cells/ml. PMID:16190110

Chua, K B; Chua, K H; Chua, I-Ly; Chen, K F

2004-06-01

133

Nhumirim virus, a novel flavivirus isolated from mosquitoes from the Pantanal, Brazil.  

PubMed

We describe the isolation of a novel flavivirus, isolated from a pool of mosquitoes identified as Culex (Culex) chidesteri collected in 2010 in the Pantanal region of west-central Brazil. The virus is herein designated Nhumirim virus (NHUV) after the name of the ranch from which the mosquito pool was collected. Flavivirus RNA was detected by real-time RT-PCR of homogenized mosquitoes and from the corresponding C6/36 culture supernatant. Based on full-genome sequencing, the virus isolate was genetically distinct from but most closely related to Barkedji virus (BJV), a newly described flavivirus from Senegal. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that NHUV grouped with mosquito-borne flaviviruses forming a clade with BJV. This clade may be genetically intermediate between the Culex-borne flaviviruses amplified by birds and the insect-only flaviviruses. PMID:25252815

Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Solberg, Owen; Couto-Lima, Dinair; Kenney, Joan; Serra-Freire, Nicolau; Brault, Aaron; Nogueira, Rita; Langevin, Stanley; Komar, Nicholas

2015-01-01

134

Comparative sensitivity of three mosquito cell lines for isolation of dengue viruses*  

PubMed Central

Comparative studies were carried out on three mosquito cell lines (C6/36 clone of Aedes albopictus, AP-61 from A. pseudoscutellaris, and TRA-284 from Toxorhynchites amboinensis) to determine their sensitivity to dengue virus isolation, growth, and handling characteristics for immunofluorescent testing. Virus isolation rates from human sera were the highest in the TRA-284-SF (a line adapted to serum-free medium), followed by the TRA-284 parental line and AP-61. Virus isolation was the lowest in the C6/36 line. All 3 cell lines were comparable in terms of ease of handling, but C6/36 cells were preferable for detecting infected cells by the direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) because of frequent cell clumping in the AP-61 and TRA-284 lines. Early detection of viral antigen of all 4 serotypes in the infected cells by DFAT was dependent upon the virus titre in the serum. The AP-61 and TRA-284-SF cells were the best for early detection and identification of viral antigen. Similarly, both AP-61 and TRA-284 cells were more resistant than C6/36 cells to toxic effects of human sera. Based on the economy of using the serum-free medium, their higher sensitivity for dengue virus isolation, and their ease of handling, it is recommended that the TRA-284-SF cell line be used for routine dengue virus isolation in laboratories with cell culture capability. PMID:2861916

Kuno, G.; Gubler, D. J.; Vélez, M.; Oliver, A.

1985-01-01

135

Generation of representative primary virus isolates from blood plasma after isolation of HIV-1 with CD44 MicroBeads  

PubMed Central

Infection of cell cultures with cell-free virus isolated from HIV-infected patients is notoriously difficult and results in a loss of viral variation. Here, we describe viral sequences from PBMC, U87.CD4.CCR5 and U87.CD4.CXCR4 cell cultures and compare them to those from blood plasma from 12 patients from whom virus particles were isolated using CD44 MicroBeads. In both PBMC and U87.CD4.CCR5 cultures, 66% of the plasma viral strains were retrieved after culturing. In addition, coreceptor use was predicted based on the env-V3 sequence and tested in U87.CD4 cells expressing either CCR5 or CXCR4. Recovery was lower for the CXCR4-using viruses. Only 50% of the virus clusters predicted to use CXCR4 could be retrieved from cell cultures, while 71% of CCR5-using strains were found in U87.CCR5 cultures. Therefore, isolation of primary viruses with CD44 MicroBeads results in a good representation in cell culture of the in vivo divergence. PMID:20865288

Cornelissen, Marion; Heeregrave, Edwin J.; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Pollakis, Georgios; Paxton, William A.

2010-01-01

136

Isolation and serological studies with infectious bursal disease viruses from fowl, turkeys and ducks: Demonstration of a second serotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation of a number of strains of infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus from fowl, turkeys and ducks is described. These isolates could be grouped into two serotypes using the neutralisation test. It is proposed that the cell culture adapted vaccine strain from fowl should be the prototype virus for serotype 1 and that the TY89 isolate from a turkey

J. B. McFerran; M. S. McNulty; E. R. McKillop; T. J. Connor; R. M. McCracken; D. S. Collins; G. M. Allan

1980-01-01

137

Genetic Diversity of African Swine Fever Virus Isolates from Soft Ticks (Ornithodoros moubata) Inhabiting Warthog Burrows in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The genomes of African swine fever virus isolates collected from soft ticks (Ornithodoros moubata) inhabiting warthog burrows in four areas of Zambia were compared by restriction enzyme site mapping. Isolates from different areas showed considerable diversity. The regions of genomes that differed between isolates were distributed throughout the virus genome, although some more conserved regions were identified, such as

LINDA K. DIXON; PHILIP J. WILKINSON

1988-01-01

138

Characterisation of the welsh onion isolate of Shallot yellow stripe virus from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The host range and nucleotide sequence of shallot yellow stripe virus (SYSV) from welsh onion in Shandong province, China is described. Of the plants tested, only shallot and welsh onion became infected but most shallot plants were symptomless. The complete sequence of one isolate (10429?nt) and the 3?-terminal 3540?nts of a second isolate were determined. They had c. 90%

J. Chen; C.-B. Wei; H.-Y. Zheng; Y.-H. Shi; M. J. Adams; L. Lin; Q.-Y. Zhang; S.-J. Wang; J.-P. Chen

2005-01-01

139

Molecular Epidemiology of Rabies Virus Isolates from Israel and Other Middle and Near-Eastern Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 226 isolates of rabies virus from different areas of Israel, including three human isolates and one sample from South Lebanon were identified between 1993 and 1998 by direct immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies to the viral nucleoprotein (N). An epidemiological survey based on nucleotide sequence analysis of 328 bp from the C terminus of the N coding region

D. DAVID; B. YAKOBSON; J. S. SMITH; Y. STRAM

140

Identification of czechoslovak isolate of erysimum latent virus from sisymbrium altissimum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants of tall rocket (Sisymbrium altissimum L.) with symptoms of leaf mosaic and deformation of flowers were found in South Bohemia in 1990. Erysimum latent virus (ELV) was proved to be present in this host by reactions of differential host plants, electron microscopy and serological assays. ELV isolate from S. altissimum reacted with the antiserum prepared against the German isolate

Josef Špak; Jana Honetšlegrová; Karel Petrzik; Jirina Pelikánová

1993-01-01

141

Complete nucleotide sequence of a maize chlorotic mottle virus isolate from Nebraska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The complete genome of a maize chlorotic mottle virus isolate from Nebraska (MCMV-NE) was cloned and sequenced. The MCMV-NE genome consists of 4,436 nucleotides and shares 99.5% nucleotide sequence identity with an MCMV isolate from Kansas (MCMV-KS). Of 22 polymorphic sites, most resulted from t...

142

Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal.  

PubMed

The ongoing human H7N9 influenza infections highlight the threat of emerging avian influenza viruses. In 2011, an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from moribund New England harbour seals was shown to have naturally acquired mutations known to increase the transmissibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. To elucidate the potential human health threat, here we evaluate a panel of avian H3N8 viruses and find that the harbour seal virus displays increased affinity for mammalian receptors, transmits via respiratory droplets in ferrets and replicates in human lung cells. Analysis of a panel of human sera for H3N8 neutralizing antibodies suggests that there is no population-wide immunity to these viruses. The prevalence of H3N8 viruses in birds and multiple mammalian species including recent isolations from pigs and evidence that it was a past human pandemic virus make the need for surveillance and risk analysis of these viruses of public health importance. PMID:25183346

Karlsson, Erik A; Ip, Hon S; Hall, Jeffrey S; Yoon, Sun Woo; Johnson, Jordan; Beck, Melinda A; Webby, Richard J; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

2014-01-01

143

Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ongoing human H7N9 influenza infections highlight the threat of emerging avian influenza viruses. In 2011, an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from moribund New England harbour seals was shown to have naturally acquired mutations known to increase the transmissibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. To elucidate the potential human health threat, here we evaluate a panel of avian H3N8 viruses and find that the harbour seal virus displays increased affinity for mammalian receptors, transmits via respiratory droplets in ferrets and replicates in human lung cells. Analysis of a panel of human sera for H3N8 neutralizing antibodies suggests that there is no population-wide immunity to these viruses. The prevalence of H3N8 viruses in birds and multiple mammalian species including recent isolations from pigs and evidence that it was a past human pandemic virus make the need for surveillance and risk analysis of these viruses of public health importance.

Karlsson, Erik A.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Sun W.; Johnson, Jordan; Beck, Melinda A.; Webby, Richard J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

2014-01-01

144

Primary isolation and serial passage of hepatitis A virus strains in primate cell cultures.  

PubMed Central

Although several primate cell types have been reported to support replication of hepatitis A virus, optimal conditions for the isolation and production of quantities of virus have not been defined. We therefore examined seven different primate cell types for their ability to support replication of primate-passaged and wild-type virus as reflected by intracytoplasmic accumulation of viral antigen (direct immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay) and propagation of cell culture-adapted virus. Of the cells tested, low-passage African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells were most sensitive for initial isolation. Viral replication was documented after inoculation of AGMK cells with seven of nine hepatitis A virus antigen-positive fecal specimens (from seven epidemiologically distinct sources). With six inocula, virus was successfully passed in serial cultures. AGMK-adapted virus was readily propagated in continuous AGMK (BS-C-1) cells. The optimal temperature for the growth of virus in BS-C-1 cells was 35 degrees C. Viral release into supernatant fluids was documented in the absence of any cytopathic effect, and infectivity titers in supernatant fluids 21 days after inoculation (50% tissue culture infective does [TCID50], 10(6.0)/ml) equalled or exceeded those in the cell fraction (TCID50, 10(5.5)/ml). Cells maintained in serum-free media readily supported viral growth, with yields of virus (TCID50, 10(6.5)/ml) equal to or greater than those obtained with cells maintained in 2% fetal bovine serum. PMID:6086708

Binn, L N; Lemon, S M; Marchwicki, R H; Redfield, R R; Gates, N L; Bancroft, W H

1984-01-01

145

Swine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Québec: Isolation of an enveloped virus serologically-related to Lelystad virus  

PubMed Central

Sera were collected from convalescent sows and sick piglets from six pig farms in southern Quebec that have experienced outbreaks of the so-called porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. By indirect immunoperoxidase, a few of these sera (4 of 14) (28.6%) were found to be positive for antibody to the Lelystad virus, whereas by indirect immunofluorescence 30 of 36 (83.3%) were positive for antibody to the antigenically-related American isolate ATCC-VR2332. Pregnant sows inoculated intranasally with filtered homogenates prepared from the lungs of necropsied piglets obtained from a seropositive farm developed fever, inappetence, and reproductive failure characterized by stillbirths and various stages of mummification. Lesions of interstitial pneumonia were induced in experimentally-infected specific pathogen-free piglets. A virus, having morphological and biological characteristics of viruses assigned to the family Togaviridae, was isolated from lung tissues of experimentally-infected animals; it could only be propagated in primary cultures of porcine alveolar macrophages. Identification of the virus was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal antibody directed against the nucleocapsid protein of the ATCC-VR2332 isolate and porcine sera that were found positive for antibody to both the Lelystad and ATCC-VR2332 isolates. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17424133

Dea, Serge; Bilodeau, Robert; Athanassious, Raffat; Sauvageau, René; Martineau, Guy Pierre

1992-01-01

146

Complete genome and clinicopathological characterization of a virulent Newcastle disease virus isolate from South America.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry, negatively affecting poultry production worldwide. The disease is caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) or avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1), a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Avulavirus, family Paramyxoviridae. Although all NDV isolates characterized to date belong to a single serotype of APMV-1, significant genetic diversity has been described between different NDV isolates. Here we present the complete genome sequence and the clinicopathological characterization of a virulent Newcastle disease virus isolate (NDV-Peru/08) obtained from poultry during an outbreak of ND in Peru in 2008. Phylogenetic reconstruction and analysis of the evolutionary distances between NDV-Peru/08 and other isolates representing established NDV genotypes revealed the existence of large genomic and amino differences that clearly distinguish this isolate from viruses of typical NDV genotypes. Although NDV-Peru/08 is a genetically distinct virus, pathogenesis studies conducted with chickens revealed that NDV-Peru/08 infection results in clinical signs characteristic of velogenic viscerotropic NDV strains. Additionally, vaccination studies have shown that an inactivated NDV-LaSota/46 vaccine conferred full protection from NDV-Peru/08-induced clinical disease and mortality. This represents the first complete characterization of a virulent NDV isolate from South America. PMID:22135263

Diel, Diego G; Susta, Leonardo; Cardenas Garcia, Stivalis; Killian, Mary L; Brown, Corrie C; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

2012-02-01

147

Complete Genome and Clinicopathological Characterization of a Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Isolate from South America  

PubMed Central

Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry, negatively affecting poultry production worldwide. The disease is caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) or avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1), a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Avulavirus, family Paramyxoviridae. Although all NDV isolates characterized to date belong to a single serotype of APMV-1, significant genetic diversity has been described between different NDV isolates. Here we present the complete genome sequence and the clinicopathological characterization of a virulent Newcastle disease virus isolate (NDV-Peru/08) obtained from poultry during an outbreak of ND in Peru in 2008. Phylogenetic reconstruction and analysis of the evolutionary distances between NDV-Peru/08 and other isolates representing established NDV genotypes revealed the existence of large genomic and amino differences that clearly distinguish this isolate from viruses of typical NDV genotypes. Although NDV-Peru/08 is a genetically distinct virus, pathogenesis studies conducted with chickens revealed that NDV-Peru/08 infection results in clinical signs characteristic of velogenic viscerotropic NDV strains. Additionally, vaccination studies have shown that an inactivated NDV-LaSota/46 vaccine conferred full protection from NDV-Peru/08-induced clinical disease and mortality. This represents the first complete characterization of a virulent NDV isolate from South America. PMID:22135263

Diel, Diego G.; Susta, Leonardo; Cardenas Garcia, Stivalis; Killian, Mary L.; Brown, Corrie C.; Afonso, Claudio L.

2012-01-01

148

Incidence of Phlebiopsis gigantea large virus-1 in a collection of Phlebiopsis gigantea isolates.  

PubMed

Eighty six Phlebiopsis gigantea isolates from at least 9 different tree species from various locations in 12 different European countries and North America were screened for the presence of large molecular weight dsRNA >10 kbp in size. In 7 isolates, which contained large dsRNAs, the presence of Phlebiopsis gigantea large virus-1 (PgLV-1) was suggested following the sequencing of the RT-PCR amplicons generated with PgLV-1 specific oligonucleotide primers which also revealed little genetic diversity between the virus isolates. PMID:21818645

Lim, Jia M; Jamal, Atif; Phoon, Xiyu; Korhonen, Kari; Coutts, Robert H A

2011-11-01

149

Characterization of West Nile Viruses Isolated from Captive American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice. PMID:22802436

Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik

2012-01-01

150

Complete genome analysis of a rabies virus isolate from Brazilian wild fox  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete genome sequence of wild-type rabies virus (RABV) isolated from a wild Brazilian hoary fox (Dusicyon sp.), the BR-Pfx1 isolate, was determined and compared with fixed RABV strains. The genome structure and organization of\\u000a the BR-Pfx1 isolate were composed of 11,924 nt and included the five standard genes of rhabdoviruses. Sequences of mRNA start\\u000a and stop signals for transcription

Nobuyuki Mochizuki; Yuki Kobayashi; Go Sato; Takuya Itou; Alberio Antonio Barros Gomes; Fumio Honma Ito; Takeo Sakai

2009-01-01

151

Genetic polymorphism of natural Epstein-Barr virus isolates from infectious mononucleosis patients and healthy carriers.  

PubMed Central

We analyzed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genomes from lymphoblastoid cell lines isolated from patients with infectious mononucleosis and from healthy subjects from California, Hawaii, and Hong Kong between 1970 and 1987. Using genetic polymorphism as epidemiological markers, we found that several genotypes of EBV cocirculate in a community and that although most EBV strains isolated from California and Southern China may be differentiated genotypically, there was no specific association between genotype and disease or time of isolation. Images PMID:2901499

Lung, M L; Chang, R S; Jones, J H

1988-01-01

152

New isolates of the necrotic strain of potato virus Y (PVY N ) found recently in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In comparison to the previously known isolates of potato virus YN (PVYN), some isolates found in Poland since 1984 are more infectious to potato plants, reach faster a higher concentration and\\u000a induce milder disease symptoms.\\u000a \\u000a Potato cultivars resistant to the standard type of PVYN may be susceptible to the new isolates whereas those that are extremely resistant to PVY remain

M. Chrzanowska

1991-01-01

153

Chemokine coreceptor usage by diverse primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.  

PubMed

We tested chemokine receptor subset usage by diverse, well-characterized primary viruses isolated from peripheral blood by monitoring viral replication with CCR1, CCR2b, CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4 U87MG.CD4 transformed cell lines and STRL33/BONZO/TYMSTR and GPR15/BOB HOS.CD4 transformed cell lines. Primary viruses were isolated from 79 men with confirmed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection from the Chicago component of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at interval time points. Thirty-five additional well-characterized primary viruses representing HIV-1 group M subtypes A, B, C, D, and E and group O and three primary simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolates were also used for these studies. The restricted use of the CCR5 chemokine receptor for viral entry was associated with infection by a virus having a non-syncytium-inducing phenotype and correlated with a reduced rate of disease progression and a prolonged disease-free interval. Conversely, broadening chemokine receptor usage from CCR5 to both CCR5 and CXCR4 was associated with infection by a virus having a syncytium-inducing phenotype and correlated with a faster rate of CD4 T-cell decline and progression of disease. We also observed a greater tendency for infection with a virus having a syncytium-inducing phenotype in men heterozygous for the defective CCR5 Delta32 allele (25%) than in those men homozygous for the wild-type CCR5 allele (6%) (P = 0.03). The propensity for infection with a virus having a syncytium-inducing phenotype provides a partial explanation for the rapid disease progression among some men heterozygous for the defective CCR5 Delta32 allele. Furthermore, we did not identify any primary viruses that used CCR3 as an entry cofactor, despite this CC chemokine receptor being expressed on the cell surface at a level commensurate with or higher than that observed for primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Whereas isolates of primary viruses of SIV also used STRL33/BONZO/TYMSTR and GPR15/BOB, no primary isolates of HIV-1 used these particular chemokine receptor-like orphan molecules as entry cofactors, suggesting a limited contribution of these other chemokine receptors to viral evolution. Thus, despite the number of chemokine receptors implicated in viral entry, CCR5 and CXCR4 are likely to be the physiologically relevant chemokine receptors used as entry cofactors in vivo by diverse strains of primary viruses isolated from blood. PMID:9765480

Zhang, L; He, T; Huang, Y; Chen, Z; Guo, Y; Wu, S; Kunstman, K J; Brown, R C; Phair, J P; Neumann, A U; Ho, D D; Wolinsky, S M

1998-11-01

154

Characterization of H5N1 influenza A viruses isolated from domestic green-winged teal.  

PubMed

Two avian influenza virus strains, A/domestic green-winged teal/Hunan/67/2005 (H5N1) (D-GWT/67) and A/domestic green-winged teal/Hunan/79/2005 (H5N1) (D-GWT/79), were isolated from healthy domestic green-winged teals (Anas crecca) in Hunan Province, South China. Genomic analysis showed that both isolates were reassortants. The hemagglutinin (HA) genes of the two isolates were closely related to that of an H5N1 strain isolated from tree sparrow (A/tree sparrow/Henan/1/04). The neuraminidase (NA) genes and the internal protein genes of both isolates were closely related to those from A/chicken/Shantou/4231/2003-like (H5N1) viruses, with exception of the matrix (M) gene of D-GWT/79, which was closely related to that of the H7N3 strain A/mallard/Netherlands/12/2000 isolated from wild mallard duck. The virulence of the two isolates was examined in chickens, ducks, and mice. Both strains were found to be highly pathogenic in chickens and ducks, but showed low pathogenicity in mice. These findings contribute to the realization that domestic green-winged teals carrying the H5N1 virus may play an important role in transmitting the virus among birds. PMID:18825495

Chen, Jianjun; Yang, Zhongdong; Chen, Quanjiao; Liu, Xueying; Fang, Fang; Chang, Haiyan; Li, Dongmei; Chen, Ze

2009-02-01

155

Heterogeneity among Orf Virus Isolates from Goats in Fujian Province, Southern China  

PubMed Central

Orf virus is a parapoxvirus that causes recurring contagious ecthyma or orf disease in goat, sheep and other wild and domestic ruminants. Infected animals show signs of pustular lesions on the mouth and muzzle and develop scabs over the lesions. Although the infection is usually cleared within 1–2 months, delayed growth and associated secondary infections could still impact the herds. Orf virus can also infect humans, causing lesions similar to the animals in pathological histology. Prior infection of orf virus apparently offers little protective immunity against future infections. Several gene products of orf virus have been identified as responsible for immunomodulatory functions. In our recent study of orf virus isolates from an area along the Minjiang River in northern Fujian Province, we found a high heterogeneity among isolates from 10 farms within a 120-kilometer distance. Only two isolates from locations within 1 km to each other had same viral genes. There is no correlation between the geographical distance between the corresponding collection sites and the phylogenetic distance in ORFV011 or ORV059 genes for any two isolates. This finding suggests that there are diverse populations of orf virus present in the environment. This may in part contribute to the phenomenon of recurring outbreaks and heighten the need for better surveillance. PMID:24143166

Li, Ming; Li, Wei; Huang, Xiaohong; Wang, Shihua; Luo, Shuhong

2013-01-01

156

Sunguru virus: a novel virus in the family Rhabdoviridae isolated from a chicken in north-western Uganda.  

PubMed

Sunguru virus (SUNV), a novel virus belonging to the highly diverse Rhabdoviridae family, was isolated from a domestic chicken in the district of Arua, Uganda, in 2011. This is the first documented isolation of a rhabdovirus from a chicken. SUNV is related to, but distinct from, Boteke virus and other members of the unclassified Sandjimba group. The genome is 11056 nt in length and contains the five core rhabdovirus genes plus an additional C gene (within the ORF of a phosphoprotein gene) and a small hydrophobic protein (between the matrix and glycoprotein genes). Inoculation of vertebrate cells with SUNV resulted in significant viral growth, with a peak titre of 7.8 log10 p.f.u. ml(-1) observed in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Little to no growth was observed in invertebrate cells and in live mosquitoes, with Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes having a 47.4% infection rate in the body but no dissemination of the virus to the salivary glands; this suggests that this novel virus is not arthropod borne as some other members of the family Rhabdoviridae. PMID:24718834

Ledermann, Jeremy P; Zeidner, Nord; Borland, Erin M; Mutebi, John-Paul; Lanciotti, Robert S; Miller, Barry R; Lutwama, Julius J; Tendo, Joseph M; Andama, Vincent; Powers, Ann M

2014-07-01

157

Simian cytomegalovirus-related stealth virus isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with bipolar psychosis and acute encephalopathy.  

PubMed

A cytopathic 'stealth' virus was cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with a bipolar psychotic disorder who developed a severe encephalopathy leading to a vegetative state. DNA sequencing of a polymerase chain reaction-amplified product from infected cultures has identified the virus as an African green monkey simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV)-related stealth virus. The virus is similar to the SCMV-related stealth virus isolated from a patient with chronic fatigue syndrome. The findings support the concepts that stealth viruses can account for a spectrum of dysfunctional brain diseases and that some of these viruses may have arisen from live polio viral vaccines. PMID:8888270

Martin, W J

1996-01-01

158

[Pathogenicity of noncytophatic isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus in experimentally infected seronegative calves].  

PubMed

The results of experimental infection of seronegative calves with three non-cytopathogenic (NCP) isolates of BVDV isolated from cattle with different clinical manifestations of the disease belonging to genotype 1 (subgenotype 1a, 1b and 1d) are presented. All tested isolates showed the virulence for seronegative calves 4 to 6 months of age. Belonging to biotype did not correlate with the ability of the virus to infect the lymphoid tissues and to induce leukopenia. All isolates of the virus led to "transiting" leukopenia (up to 2880-3800 kl/mm3) for 8-10 days after infection. Isolate cluster 1d was more virulent and caused the development of a mild respiratory syndrome and short-term diarrhea. The virulence was "strain-dependent". PMID:25549468

Glotov, A G; Glotova, T I; Za?tsev, Iu N; P'iankov, O V; Sergeev, A N; Guliukin, M I

2014-01-01

159

Isolation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Mucambo Virus (Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Complex Subtype IIIA) in Trinidad  

PubMed Central

In the 1950s and 1960s, alphaviruses in the Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) antigenic complex were the most frequently isolated arboviruses in Trinidad. Since then, there has been very little research performed with these viruses. Herein, we report on the isolation, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses of Mucambo virus (MUCV; VEE complex subtype IIIA), including 6 recently isolated from Culex (Melanoconion) portesi mosquitoes and 11 previously isolated in Trinidad and Brazil. Results show that nucleotide and amino acid identities across the complete structural polyprotein for the MUCV isolates were 96.6 – 100% and 98.7 – 100%, respectively, and the phylogenetic tree inferred for MUCV was highly geographically- and temporally- structured. Bayesian analyses suggest the sampled MUCV lineages have a recent common ancestry of approximately 198 years (with a 95% highest posterior density (HPD) interval of 63 – 448 years) prior to 2007, and an overall rate of evolution of 1.28 × 10?4 substitutions/site/yr. PMID:19631956

Auguste, Albert J.; Volk, Sara M.; Arrigo, Nicole C.; Martinez, Raymond; Ramkissoon, Vernie; Adams, A. Paige; Thompson, Nadin N.; Adesiyun, Abiodun A.; Chadee, Dave D.; Foster, Jerome E.; Travassos Da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Carrington, Christine V. F.

2009-01-01

160

Isolation of Chandipura virus (Vesiculovirus: Rhabdoviridae) from Sergentomyia species of sandflies from Nagpur, Maharashtra, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: An outbreak of acute encephalitis syndrome was reported from Vidarbha region of Maharashtra State, India, during July 2012. Anti-IgM antibodies against Chandipura virus (CHPV) were detected in clinical samples. Sandfly collections were done to determine their role in CHPV transmission. Methods: Twenty nine pools of Sergentomyia spp. comprising 625 specimens were processed for virus isolation in Vero E6 cell line. Diagnostic RT-PCR targeting N-gene was carried out with the sample that showed cytopathic effects (CPE). The PCR product was sequenced, analysed and the sequences were deposited in Genbank database. Results: CPE in Vero E6 cell line infected with three pools was detected at 48 h post infection. However, virus could be isolated only from one pool. RT-PCR studies demonstrated 527 nucleotide product that confirmed the agent as CHPV. Sequence analysis of the new isolate showed difference in 10-12 nucleotides in comparison to earlier isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: This is perhaps the first isolation of CHPV from Sergentomyia spp. in India and virus isolation during transmission season suggests their probable role in CHPV transmission. Further studies need to be done to confirm the precise role of Sargentomyia spp. in CHPV transmission. PMID:25027088

Sudeep, A.B.; Bondre, V.P.; Gurav, Y.K.; Gokhale, M.D.; Sapkal, G.N.; Mavale, M.S.; George, R.P.; Mishra, A.C.

2014-01-01

161

Molecular characterization and experimental host range of an isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus.  

PubMed

Partial genome segments of a begomovirus were previously amplified from Wissadula amplissima exhibiting yellow-mosaic and leaf-curl symptoms in the parish of St. Thomas, Jamaica and this isolate assigned to a tentative begomovirus species, Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus. To clone the complete genome of this isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus, abutting primers were designed to PCR amplify its full-length DNA-A and DNA-B components. Sequence analysis of the complete begomovirus genome obtained, confirmed that it belongs to a distinct begomovirus species and this isolate was named Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus-[Jamaica:Albion:2005] (WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05]). The genome of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is organized similar to that of other bipartite Western Hemisphere begomoviruses. Phylogenetic analyses placed the genome components of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] in the Abutilon mosaic virus clade and showed that the DNA-A component is most closely related to four begomovirus species from Cuba, Tobacco leaf curl Cuba virus, Tobacco leaf rugose virus, Tobacco mottle leaf curl virus, and Tomato yellow distortion leaf virus. The putative Rep-binding-site motif in the common region of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] was observed to be identical to that of Chino del tomate virus-Tomato [Mexico:Sinaloa:1983], Sida yellow mosaic Yucatan virus-[Mexico:Yucatan:2005], and Tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus-[Nicaragua:Santa Lucia], suggesting that WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is capable of forming viable pseudo-recombinants with these begomoviruses, but not with other members of the Abutilon mosaic virus clade. Biolistic inoculation of test plant species with partial dimers of the WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] DNA-A and DNA-B components showed that the virus was infectious to Nicotiana benthamiana and W. amplissima and the cultivated species Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). Infected W. amplissima plants developed symptoms similar to symptoms observed under field conditions, confirming that this virus is a causal agent of Wissadula yellow mosaic disease in W. amplissima. PMID:19768650

Collins, A M; Mujaddad-ur-Rehman, Malik; Brown, J K; Reddy, C; Wang, A; Fondong, V; Roye, M E

2009-12-01

162

Avian flu: Isolation of drug-resistant H5N1 virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The persistence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in many Asian countries and their ability to cause fatal infections in humans have raised serious concerns about a global flu pandemic. Here we report the isolation of an H5N1 virus from a Vietnamese girl that is resistant to the drug oseltamivir, which is an inhibitor of the viral enzyme neuraminidase and is

Q. Mai Le; Maki Kiso; Kazuhiko Someya; Yuko T. Sakai; T. Hien Nguyen; Khan H. L. Nguyen; N. Dinh Pham; Ha H. Ngyen; Shinya Yamada; Yukiko Muramoto; Taisuke Horimoto; Ayato Takada; Hideo Goto; Takashi Suzuki; Yasuo Suzuki; Yoshihiro Kawaoka

2005-01-01

163

Characterization of an Iridescent Virus Isolated from the Velvetbean Caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An insect iridescent virus has heen isolated from diseased velvetbean caterpillars, Anticarsia gemmatalis, found in Argentina. The cytopathology is similar to that reported for other iridescent viruses with infected larvae exhibiting blue-purple opalescence. Icosahedral particles (n = 119) purified by sucrose gradient rate zonal centrifugation had dimensions of 145 ± 7 nm (point-to-point) and 136 ± 12 nm (side-to-side). The

Gary R. Kinard; O. W. Barnett; Gerald R. Carner

1995-01-01

164

Virulence differences between monkeypox virus isolates from West Africa and the Congo basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies indicate that West African and Congo basin isolates of monkeypox virus (MPXV) are genetically distinct. Here, we show Congo basin MPXV-ZAI-V79 is more virulent for cynomolgus monkeys as compared to presumed West African MPXV-COP-58. This finding may explain the lack of case-fatalities in the U.S. 2003 monkeypox outbreak, which was caused by a West African virus. Virulence differences between

Nanhai Chen; Guiyun Li; M. Kathryn Liszewski; John P. Atkinson; Peter B. Jahrling; Zehua Feng; Jill Schriewer; Charles Buck; Chunlin Wang; Elliot J. Lefkowitz; Joseph J. Esposito; Tiara Harms; Inger K. Damon; Rachel L. Roper; Chris Upton; R. Mark L. Buller

2005-01-01

165

Isolation of a virulent Newcastle disease virus from confiscated LaSota vaccine.  

PubMed

Vials of Newcastle disease vaccine labeled as LaSota were confiscated by the Arizona Division of Customs and Border Protection officials. Two different avian type 1 paramyxoviruses were isolated from all three vials of vaccine submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratories. The LaSota strain of avian paramyxovirus type 1 virus was isolated from all three vials and analyzed by nucleotide sequence analysis. A virulent Newcastle disease virus was also present in all three vials, but in low concentration. The virulence of the Newcastle disease virus was characterized by the intracerebral chicken pathogenicity index chicken inoculation assay but could not be determined by nucleotide sequence analysis from the virus isolated from embryonating chicken eggs. The intracerebral chicken pathogenicity index value for the isolated Newcastle disease virus was 1.55. Strains of Newcastle disease virus with intracerebral pathogenicity indexes significantly above 1.0 have been found to selectively kill many types of cancer cells while not affecting normal nonneoplastic cells and are considered to be a viable option for cancer treatment in humans by alternative medical researchers; however, the treatment is not approved for use in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration. Customs and Border Protection officials have been notified of an increased risk of Newcastle disease virus entering the United States for use as a nonapproved cancer treatment. Illegal importation of Newcastle disease vaccine for vaccination of backyard poultry is also a threat. This case report emphasizes the importance of conducting chicken inoculation for complete virus pathotyping and demonstrates the need for stringent security procedures at U.S. borders to detect known livestock pathogens that may be smuggled in for use in animal agriculture and reasons unrelated to animal agriculture. PMID:24689194

Pedersen, Janice C; Hines, Nichole L; Killian, Mary Lea; Predgen, Ann S; Schmitt, Beverly J

2013-06-01

166

Isolation of Influenza Virus in Human Lung Embryonated Fibroblast Cells (MRC5) from Clinical Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-four pharyngeal swab samples corresponding to 94 patients with suspected influenza virus infection were inoculated in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, the conventional cell system for the isolation of influenza virus, and infibroblastic human embryo lung (MRC-5) cells, a cell system less commonly used for this purpose but one frequently used in clinical virology laboratories. Both cell preparations were treated

MARIA DEONA; SANTIAGO MELON; PEDRO DE LAIGLESIA; FLOR HIDALGO; ANDANA F. VERDUGO

1995-01-01

167

Complete Genome Sequence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O Isolated from Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious enzootic disease caused by FMD virus. The complete genome sequence of a circulatory FMD virus (FMDV) serotype O isolated from Natore, Bangladesh, is reported here. Genomic analysis revealed antigenic heterogeneity within the VP1 region, a fragment deletion, and insertions at the 5? untranslated region (UTR) and 3A region compared to the genome of the available vaccine strain. PMID:24503997

Siddique, Mohammad Anwar; Momtaz, Samina; Rahman, Arafat; Ullah, Huzzat; Nandi, Shuvro Prokash

2014-01-01

168

Avian paramyxoviruses and influenza viruses isolated from mallard ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos ) in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?A comprehensive study using virological and serological approaches was carried out to determine the status of live healthy\\u000a mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in New Zealand for infections with avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) and influenza viruses (AIV). Thirty-three viruses isolated\\u000a from 321 tracheal and cloacal swabs were characterized as: 6 AIV (two H5N2 and four H4N6), 10 APMV-1 and 17 APMV-4. Of

W. L. Stanislawek; C. R. Wilks; J. Meers; G. W. Horner; D. J. Alexander; R. J. Manvell; J. A. Kattenbelt; A. R. Gould

2002-01-01

169

Evidence for RNA recombination between distinct isolates of Pepino mosaic virus.  

PubMed

Genetic recombination plays an important role in the evolution of virus genomes. In this study we analyzed publicly available genomic sequences of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) for recombination events using several bioinformatics tools. The genome-wide analyses not only confirm the presence of previously found recombination events in PepMV but also provide the first evidence for double recombinant origin of the US2 isolate. PMID:20725647

Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata; Kuzniar, Arnold; Peters, Sander A; Leunissen, Jack A M; Pospieszny, Henryk

2010-01-01

170

Analysis of new aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV) isolates suggests evolution of two ALPV species.  

PubMed

Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV; family Dicistroviridae) was first isolated from the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi. ALPV-like virus sequences have been reported from many insects and insect predators. We identified a new isolate of ALPV (ALPV-AP) from the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and a new isolate (ALPV-DvV) from western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. ALPV-AP has an ssRNA genome of 9940 nt. Based on phylogenetic analysis, ALPV-AP was closely related to ALPV-AM, an ALPV isolate from honeybees, Apis mellifera, in Spain and Brookings, SD, USA. The distinct evolutionary branches suggested the existence of two lineages of the ALPV virus. One consisted of ALPV-AP and ALPV-AM, whilst all other isolates of ALPV grouped into the other lineage. The similarity of ALPV-AP and ALPV-AM was up to 88?% at the RNA level, compared with 78-79?% between ALPV-AP and other ALPV isolates. The sequence identity of proteins between ALPV-AP and ALPV-AM was 98-99?% for both ORF1 and ORF2, whilst only 85-87?% for ORF1 and 91-92?% for ORF2 between ALPV-AP and other ALPV isolates. Sequencing of RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) products and cDNA clones of the virus genome revealed sequence variation in the 5' UTRs and in ORF1, indicating that ALPV may be under strong selection pressure, which could have important biological implications for ALPV host range and infectivity. Our results indicated that ALPV-like viruses infect insects in the order Coleoptera, in addition to the orders Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, and we propose that ALPV isolates be classified as two separate viral species. PMID:25170050

Liu, Sijun; Vijayendran, Diveena; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C

2014-12-01

171

Studies of H5N1 Influenza Virus Infection of Pigs by Using Viruses Isolated in Vietnam and Thailand in 2004  

PubMed Central

To determine whether avian H5N1 influenza viruses associated with human infections in Vietnam had transmitted to pigs, we investigated serologic evidence of exposure to H5N1 influenza virus in Vietnamese pigs in 2004. Of the 3,175 pig sera tested, 8 (0.25%) were positive for avian H5N1 influenza viruses isolated in 2004 by virus neutralization assay and Western blot analysis. Experimental studies of replication and transmissibility of the 2004 Asian H5N1 viruses in pigs revealed that all viruses tested replicated in the swine respiratory tract but none were transmitted to contact pigs. Virus titers from nasal swabs peaked on day 2, and low titers were detected in the liver of two of the four pigs tested. Our findings indicate that pigs can be infected with highly lethal Asian H5N1 viruses but that these viruses are not readily transmitted between pigs under experimental conditions. PMID:16051873

Choi, Young Ki; Nguyen, Tien Dzung; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Webby, Richard J.; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Buranathal, Chantanee; Chaisingh, Arunee; Auewarakul, Prasert; Hanh, N. T. H.; Ma, Sia Kit; Hui, Pui Yan; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik; Webster, Robert G.

2005-01-01

172

Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus Stability in Environmental and Clinical Substrates: Implications for Virus Detection and Isolation  

PubMed Central

Viruses are extremely diverse and abundant and are present in countless environments. Giant viruses of the Megavirales order have emerged as a fascinating research topic for virologists around the world. As evidence of their ubiquity and ecological impact, mimiviruses have been found in multiple environmental samples. However, isolation of these viruses from environmental samples is inefficient, mainly due to methodological limitations and lack of information regarding the interactions between viruses and substrates. In this work, we demonstrate the long-lasting stability of mimivirus in environmental (freshwater and saline water) and hospital (ventilator plastic device tube) substrates, showing the detection of infectious particles after more than 9 months. In addition, an enrichment protocol was implemented that remarkably increased mimivirus detection from all tested substrates, including field tests. Moreover, biological, morphological and genetic tests revealed that the enrichment protocol maintained mimivirus particle integrity. In conclusion, our work demonstrated the stability of APMV in samples of environmental and health interest and proposed a reliable and easy protocol to improve giant virus isolation. The data presented here can guide future giant virus detection and isolation studies. PMID:24498379

de Almeida, Gabriel M.; Campos, Rafael K.; Boratto, Paulo V. M.; Franco-Luiz, Ana P. M.; La Scola, Bernard; Ferreira, Paulo C. P.; Kroon, Erna G.; Abrahão, Jônatas S.

2014-01-01

173

Evolutionary Changes Affecting Rapid Identification of 2008 Newcastle Disease Viruses Isolated from Double-Crested Cormorants? †  

PubMed Central

A morbidity-mortality event involving virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) occurred in North America in the summer of 2008. All 22 viruses isolated from cormorants were positively identified by the USDA-validated real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay targeting the matrix gene. However, the USDA-validated reverse transcription-PCR assay targeting the fusion gene that is specific for virulent isolates identified only 1 of these 22 isolates. Additionally, several of these isolates have been sequenced, and this information was used to identify genomic changes that caused the failure of the test and to revisit the evolution of NDV in cormorants. The forward primer and fusion probe were redesigned from the 2008 cormorant isolate sequence, and the revised fusion gene test successfully identified all 22 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses using both the full fusion sequence and the partial 374-nucleotide sequence identified these isolates as genotype V, with their nearest ancestor being an earlier isolate collected from Nevada in 2005. Histopathological analysis of this ancestral strain revealed morphological changes in the brain consistent with that of the traditional mesogenic pathotypes in cormorants. Intracerebral pathogenicity assays indicated that each of these isolates is virulent with values of >0.7 but not more virulent than earlier isolates reported from Canada. PMID:20107098

Rue, Cary A.; Susta, Leonardo; Brown, Corrie C.; Pasick, John M.; Swafford, Seth R.; Wolf, Paul C.; Killian, Mary Lea; Pedersen, Janice C.; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.

2010-01-01

174

Evolutionary changes affecting rapid identification of 2008 Newcastle disease viruses isolated from double-crested cormorants.  

PubMed

A morbidity-mortality event involving virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) occurred in North America in the summer of 2008. All 22 viruses isolated from cormorants were positively identified by the USDA-validated real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay targeting the matrix gene. However, the USDA-validated reverse transcription-PCR assay targeting the fusion gene that is specific for virulent isolates identified only 1 of these 22 isolates. Additionally, several of these isolates have been sequenced, and this information was used to identify genomic changes that caused the failure of the test and to revisit the evolution of NDV in cormorants. The forward primer and fusion probe were redesigned from the 2008 cormorant isolate sequence, and the revised fusion gene test successfully identified all 22 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses using both the full fusion sequence and the partial 374-nucleotide sequence identified these isolates as genotype V, with their nearest ancestor being an earlier isolate collected from Nevada in 2005. Histopathological analysis of this ancestral strain revealed morphological changes in the brain consistent with that of the traditional mesogenic pathotypes in cormorants. Intracerebral pathogenicity assays indicated that each of these isolates is virulent with values of >0.7 but not more virulent than earlier isolates reported from Canada. PMID:20107098

Rue, Cary A; Susta, Leonardo; Brown, Corrie C; Pasick, John M; Swafford, Seth R; Wolf, Paul C; Killian, Mary Lea; Pedersen, Janice C; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

2010-07-01

175

Characterization of an iridescent virus isolated from the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis.  

PubMed

An insect iridescent virus has been isolated from diseased velvetbean caterpillars, Anticarsia gemmatalis, found in Argentina. The cytopathology is similar to that reported for other iridescent viruses with infected larvae exhibiting blue-purple opalescence. Icosahedral particles (n = 119) purified by sucrose gradient rate zonal centrifugation had dimensions of 145 +/- 7 nm (point-to-point) and 136 +/- 12 nm (side-to-side). The sedimentation coefficient was 2250 +/- 10 S20,w when the virus was suspended in phosphate buffer. Characterization of proteins by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed 24 polypeptides with a single major species of 53.6 kDa. Purified viral DNA had a density of 1.6902 g cm-3 in equilibrium ultracentrifugation, corresponding to a guanine:cytosine content of 32.2%. Analysis of digests of this DNA with two restriction enzymes revealed an average molecular size of 181.8 +/- 5.6 kbp. A 499-bp fragment was amplified from the genome of this isolate using the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced; data suggest this virus is very closely related to IV 1, originally isolated from Tipula paludosa. These properties indicate this virus is an isolate of the genus Iridovirus. PMID:8568281

Kinard, G R; Barnett, O W; Carner, G R

1995-11-01

176

Arbovirus investigations in Argentina, 1977-1980. II. Arthropod collections and virus isolations from Argentine mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Prospective surveys for arboviruses were carried out in Santa Fe, Corrientes, and Chaco provinces, Argentina, aperiodically during 1977-1980. A total of 313,233 mosquitoes and 598 biting flies other than mosquitoes were collected and tested for virus in 5,197 and 45 pools, respectively. Forty virus strains were isolated, all from mosquitoes, as follows: Santa Fe Province: 4 Gamboa group viruses from Aedeomyia squamipennis, 1 strain each of St. Louis encephalitis virus from Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Culex (Culex) spp.; Corrientes Province: a single strain of a newly discovered Anopheles A serogroup virus, Las Maloyas, from Anopheles albitarsis; and Chaco Province: 4 Gamboa group viruses from Ad. squamipennis, 6 strains of new Bunyaviridae (1 Antequera, 1 Barranqueras, and 4 Resistencia) from Culex (Melanoconion) delpontei, 3 strains of a new subtype of western equine encephalitis virus and 1 strain of Para virus from the Cx. (Mel.) ocossa group, 12 strains of a newly discovered subtype (VI) of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex from Cx. (Mel.) delpontei, and 1 strain each from Ad. squamipennis, Aedes scapularis, Ae. spp., Cx. (Cux.) spp., Cx. (Mel.) ocossa group, Mansonia spp., and Psorophora spp. Bloodmeals from 265 engorged mosquitoes were identified by precipitin test. These data, coupled with data on engorgement rates for 25,995 mosquitoes from bait collections, provide information on the host feeding patterns of several mosquito species. This information is discussed, along with data on relative abundance of mosquito species, within the context of the vector relationships of the species from which viruses were isolated. The association of Cx. (Mel.) delpontei with 18 strains of 4 different viruses in Chaco Province, plus its catholic feeding habits, clearly indicate for the first time the importance of this species as an arbovirus vector. PMID:2863989

Mitchell, C J; Monath, T P; Sabattini, M S; Cropp, C B; Daffner, J F; Calisher, C H; Jakob, W L; Christensen, H A

1985-09-01

177

Characterization of H5N1 influenza A viruses isolated from domestic green-winged teal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two avian influenza virus strains, A\\/domestic green-winged teal\\/Hunan\\/67\\/2005 (H5N1) (D-GWT\\/67) and A\\/domestic green-winged\\u000a teal\\/Hunan\\/79\\/2005 (H5N1) (D-GWT\\/79), were isolated from healthy domestic green-winged teals (Anas crecca) in Hunan Province, South China. Genomic analysis showed that both isolates were reassortants. The hemagglutinin (HA) genes\\u000a of the two isolates were closely related to that of an H5N1 strain isolated from tree sparrow (A\\/tree

Jianjun Chen; Zhongdong Yang; Quanjiao Chen; Xueying Liu; Fang Fang; Haiyan Chang; Dongmei Li; Ze Chen

2009-01-01

178

Characterisation of the welsh onion isolate of Shallot yellow stripe virus from China.  

PubMed

The host range and nucleotide sequence of shallot yellow stripe virus (SYSV) from welsh onion in Shandong province, China is described. Of the plants tested, only shallot and welsh onion became infected but most shallot plants were symptomless. The complete sequence of one isolate (10429 nt) and the 3'-terminal 3540 nts of a second isolate were determined. They had c. 90% nt identity to one another and to published (partial) sequences of SYSV. SYSV was most closely related to onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) and resembled it in having a much larger P3 protein than other species in the genus. PMID:15968472

Chen, J; Wei, C-B; Zheng, H-Y; Shi, Y-H; Adams, M J; Lin, L; Zhang, Q-Y; Wang, S-J; Chen, J-P

2005-10-01

179

Isolation of saffold virus type 2 in green monkey kidney cells.  

PubMed

Saffold viruses (SAFV) have been discovered recently and they are classified into Theilovirus species in genus Cardiovirus in the Picornaviridae family. SAFV, especially those belonging to the genotype 2, have been difficult to propagate in laboratory cell lines. This study describes the successful isolation of an efficiently growing SAFV-2 strain directly from a stool specimen by standard virological methods. The availability of SAFV isolates that can be propagated to high titers is crucial to the future studies on pathogenesis and epidemiology of these novel human viruses. PMID:22825830

Blomqvist, Soile; Lappalainen, Maija; Paananen, Anja; Ylipaasto, Petri; Roivainen, Merja

2012-09-01

180

Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from northern pintail (Anas acuta) in Japan.  

PubMed

A field isolate of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from northern pintail (Anas acuta) in Tohoku district, northeast Japan, was characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein indicated that the isolate belonged to genotype I and was closely related to isolates from the Far East corresponded to the migration route for this bird species. The isolate had the typical avirulent cleavage site of the fusion protein (112)GKQGR*L(117). In addition, pathogenicity tests indicated the isolate to have avirulent characteristics. However, the isolate has been shown to cause fusion cytopathic effects and form plaques on chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) in the absence of trypsin. The present results suggest that the CEF-adapted NDV, which is avirulent, is circulating among waterfowl populations. PMID:18176032

Sakai, Kouji; Sakabe, Genki; Tani, Orie; Watanabe, Yuko; Jahangir, Alam; Nakamura, Masayuki; Takehara, Kazuaki

2007-12-01

181

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus: Monophyletic origin of European isolates from North American Genogroup M  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was first detected in Europe in 1987 in France and Italy, and later, in 1992, in Germany. The source of the virus and the route of introduction are unknown. The present study investigates the molecular epidemiology of IHNV outbreaks in Germany since its first introduction. The complete nucleotide sequences of the glycoprotein (G) and non-virion (NV) genes from 9 IHNV isolates from Germany have been determined, and this has allowed the identification of characteristic differences between these isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of partial G gene sequences (mid-G, 303 nucleotides) from North American IHNV isolates (Kurath et al. 2003) has revealed 3 major genogroups, designated U, M and L. Using this gene region with 2 different North American IHNV data sets, it was possible to group the European IHNV strains within the M genogroup, but not in any previously defined subgroup. Analysis of the full length G gene sequences indicated that an independent evolution of IHN viruses had occurred in Europe. IHN viruses in Europe seem to be of a monophyletic origin, again most closely related to North American isolates in the M genogroup. Analysis of the NV gene sequences also showed the European isolates to be monophyletic, but resolution of the 3 genogroups was poor with this gene region. As a result of comparative sequence analyses, several different genotypes have been identified circulating in Europe. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

Enzmann, P.-J.; Kurath, G.; Fichtner, D.; Bergmann, S.M.

2005-01-01

182

An avian leukosis virus subgroup J isolate with a Rous sarcoma virus-like 5'-LTR shows enhanced replication capability.  

PubMed

Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was first isolated from meat-producing chickens that had developed myeloid leukosis. However, ALV-J infections associated with hemangiomas have occurred in egg-producing (layer) flocks in China. In this study, we identified an ALV-J layer isolate (HLJ13SH01) as a recombinant of ALV-J and a Rous sarcoma virus Schmidt-Ruppin B strain (RSV-SRB), which contained the RSV-SRB 5'-LTR and the other genes of ALV-J. Replication kinetic testing indicated that the HLJ13SH01 strain replicated faster than other ALV-J layer isolates in vitro. Sequence analysis indicated that the main difference between the two isolates was the 5'-LTR sequences, particularly the U3 sequences. A 19 nt insertion was uniquely found in the U3 region of the HLJ13SH01 strain. The results of a Dual-Glo luciferase assay revealed that the 19 nt insertion in the HLJ13SH01 strain increased the enhancer activity of the U3 region. Moreover, an additional CCAAT/enhancer element was found in the 19 nt insertion and the luciferase assay indicated that this element played a key role in increasing the enhancer activity of the 5'-U3 region. To confirm the potentiation effect of the 19 nt insertion and the CCAAT/enhancer element on virus replication, three infectious clones with 5'-U3 region variations were constructed and rescued. Replication kinetic testing of the rescued viruses demonstrated that the CCAAT/enhancer element in the 19 nt insertion enhanced the replication capacity of the ALV-J recombinant in vitro. PMID:25274857

Gao, Yanni; Guan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yongzhen; Li, Xiaofei; Yun, Bingling; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

2015-01-01

183

Phylogenetic Analysis of Clinical Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Isolates Identified Three Genetic Groups and Recombinant Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen which establishes lifelong infections. In the present study, we determined the sequence diversity of the complete genes coding for glycoproteins G (gG), I (gI), and E (gE), comprising 2.3% of the HSV-1 genome and located within the unique short (US) region, for 28 clinical HSV-1 isolates inducing oral lesions,

Peter Norberg; Tomas Bergstrom; Elham Rekabdar; Magnus Lindh; J.-A. Liljeqvist

2004-01-01

184

Two Viruses Isolated from Rodents (Clethrionomys gapperi and Microtus pennsylvanicus) Trapped in St. Lawrence County, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four strains of C. gapperi virus were isolated from 3 Clethrionomys gapperi and 47 strains of Microtus virus from 15 Microtus pennsylvani- cus and 1 Mus musculus. One of the Microtus strains was isolated from a poo1 of 20 mites while the others were from rodent tissues. These agents were insensitive to ether and sodium desoxycholate, withstood freezing at -70

ELINOR WHITNEY; ALBERT P. ROZ; GEORGE A. RAYNER

185

Full genome sequence and some biological properties of reticuloendotheliosis virus strain APC566 isolated from endangered Attwater's prairie chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) causes runting, high mortality, immunosuppression, and chronic neoplasia associated with T and\\/or B cell lymphomas in a variety of domestic and wild birds, including Attwater's prairie chickens (APC) (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). The complete proviral sequence of a recent REV isolate from APC (REV APC-566) was determined. This virus was isolated from an APC maintained in captivity in

Taylor Barbosa; Guillermo Zavala; Sunny Cheng; Pedro Villegas

2007-01-01

186

Isolation of caliciviruses from skunks that are antigenically and genotypically related to San Miguel sea lion virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caliciviruses were isolated from feces of skunks imported from the north central United States to Canada. Virus isolation was accomplished using adenovirus-transformed human kidney (293) cells, swine testes and Vero cells. Plaque size variants were present, but there was no apparent difference in virus morphology by negative stain or immune electron microscopy. Pigs infected with skunk calicivirus had a slightly

Bruce S. Seal; Cyril Lutze-Wallace; Luiz C. Kreutz; Theresa Sapp; Gilles C. Dulac; John D. Neill

1995-01-01

187

Genetic Characterization and Geographic Distribution of Rabies Virus Isolates in Brazil: Identification of Two Reservoirs, Dogs and Vampire Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed 50 rabies virus samples isolated in Brazil from 12 dogs, 11 cats, 5 vampire bats, 15 cattle, 2 horses, 1 pig, 1 sheep, and 3 humans to investigate the molecular epidemiology of rabies viruses. We sequenced 203 nucleotides on the nucleoprotein gene by direct sequencing of the PCR-amplified products. All the isolates belonged to the genotype 1 and

Mikako Ito; Yohko T. Arai; Takuya Itou; Takeo Sakai; Fumio H. Ito; Tomohiko Takasaki; Ichiro Kurane

2001-01-01

188

Comparison of the coat protein genes of Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus isolates from Australia with those of isolates from other continents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete coat protein nucleotide encoding sequences of 13 Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus isolates from Australia were compared to those of 23 other isolates, including one from Australia. On phylogenetic analysis,\\u000a sub-clade A1 contained isolates from Australia (13), Europe and Japan, A2 contained isolates from Australia (1), Europe and\\u000a South America, and B1 and B2 contained only European isolates. In

Linda D. Maccarone; Martin J. Barbetti; Krishnapillai Sivasithamparam; Roger A. C. Jones

2010-01-01

189

Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Argentina  

PubMed Central

Background Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Results Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analysis by direct immunofluorescence and cross neutralization test placed these isolates together with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). Nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic analysis of partial matrix gene sequences of the buffalo isolates and six field BPIV3 isolates from bovines in Argentina were studied. Buffalo isolates were similar to genotype B (BPIV3b) while the six BPIV3 isolates were similar to genotypes A (BPIV3a) and C (BPIV3c). Conclusions This is the first characterization of BPIV3 in water buffalo. According to the samples analyzed, in Argentina, the genotype B was found in buffalo and the genotypes A and C were found in cattle. PMID:22716217

2012-01-01

190

Pathogenesis and Transmission of Feral Swine Pseudorabies Virus Isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction. Aujesky’s Disease or pseudorabies, is one of the oldest recognized swine diseases. It is caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV), an alpha-herpesvirus that can induce respiratory disease, reproductive failure, and affect the central nervous system. PRV vaccines, in conjunction with serologi...

191

Isolation of ssDNA aptamers that inhibit rabies virus.  

PubMed

Aptamers, functional nucleic acids, capable of binding a variety of molecular targets with high affinity and specificity, have emerged as promising therapeutic agents. In this study, the cell surface-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (Cell-SELEX) strategy was used to generate DNA aptamers which targeted to the intact rabies virus-infected live cells. Through 35 iterative rounds of selection, five high-affinity single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers were generated by cell-SELEX. Virus titer assay and real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay revealed that all five aptamers could inhibit replication of rabies virus (RABV) in cultured baby hamster kidney (BHK)-21 cells; and T14 and F34 aptamers were most effective. The qRT-PCR also showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect in BHK-21 cells. Collectively, these data show the feasibility of generating functionally effective aptamers against rabies virus-infected cells by the Cell-SELEX iterative procedure. These aptamers may prove clinically useful as therapeutic molecules with specific antiviral potential against RABV infections. PMID:22771543

Liang, Hong-Ru; Hu, Gui-Qiu; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Yu-Jiao; Zhao, Li-Li; Qi, Ying-Lin; Wang, Hua-Lei; Gao, Yu-Wei; Yang, Song-Tao; Xia, Xian-Zhu

2012-11-01

192

[Monoclonal antibodies to Ebola virus: isolation, characteristics, and study of cross reactivity with Marburg virus].  

PubMed

Thirteen hybridoma strains producing monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) to Ebola virus were prepared by fusion of NS-O mouse myeloma cells with splenocytes of BALB/c mice immunized with purified and inactivated Ebola virus (Mayinga strain). Mabs directed against viral proteins were selected and tested by ELISA. Protein specificity of 13 Mabs was determined by immunoblotting with SDS-PAGE proteins of Ebola virus. Of these, 11 hybridoma Mabs reacted with 116 kDa protein (NP) and 2 with Ebola virus VP35. Antigenic cross-reactivity between Ebola and Marburg viruses was examined in ELISA and immunoblotting with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. In ELISA, polyclonal antibodies of immune sera to Ebola or Marburg viruses reacted with heterologous filoviruses, and two anti-NP Ebola antibodies (Mabs 7E1 and 6G8) cross-reacted with both viruses. Target proteins for cross-reactivity, Ebola NP (116 kDa) and Marburg NP (96 kDa), and VP35 of both filoviruses were detected by immunoblotting with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies (6G8) to Ebola virus. PMID:10867995

Kazachinskaia, E I; Pereboev, A V; Chepurnov, A A; Belanov, E F; Razumov, I A

2000-01-01

193

Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation\\u000a and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and\\u000a diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from\\u000a sika deer is seldom reported in literature.

Yugang Gao; Shijie Wang; Rui Du; Quankai Wang; Changjiang Sun; Nan Wang; Pengju Zhang; Lianxue Zhang

2011-01-01

194

The isolation of lumpy skin disease virus and bovine herpesvirus-4 from cattle in Egypt.  

PubMed

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) virus (LSDV) was isolated for the first time from cattle in Egypt in 2 disease outbreaks. Bovine herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4) and LSDV were detected in a pooled sample from the first outbreak (Suez). Only LSDV was isolated from the second outbreak (Ismalia). The capripoxviruses were identified as LSDV by neutralization with specific antiserum and by their ability to produce generalized LSD in experimentally inoculated cattle. PMID:1965577

House, J A; Wilson, T M; el Nakashly, S; Karim, I A; Ismail, I; el Danaf, N; Moussa, A M; Ayoub, N N

1990-04-01

195

Genome analysis and detection of a Chilean isolate of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete genome of the Chilean isolate Cl-766 of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3) has been sequenced. This is the first genome sequence obtained from a GLRaV-3 isolate of the Southern hemisphere.\\u000a The genomic RNA of 17,919 nucleotides contains 13 open reading frames (ORFs) with 5? and 3? untranslated regions (UTR) of\\u000a 158 and 277 nucleotides, respectively. Comparison with NY1, the

Esteban A. Engel; Cristobal Girardi; Paula F. Escobar; Vania Arredondo; Calixto Domínguez; Tomás Pérez-Acle; Pablo D. T. Valenzuela

2008-01-01

196

Isolation of Newcastle disease virus from teals (Anas crecca) in Iran.  

PubMed

Eight of 30 teals (Anas crecca) died several days following capture and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) was isolated from all eight. Brains from the dead birds were homogenized and inoculated into chicken embryos. The allantoic fluid from the embryos were inoculated into 10 domestic chickens susceptible to NDV and 10 chickens immunized against NDV. Eight of 10 (80%) susceptible chickens died, while the immunized chickens remained healthy. Anti-NDV serum showed complete homology against NDV and the eight isolates. PMID:480525

Bozorgmehri-Fard, M H; Keyvanfar, H

1979-04-01

197

Comparison of Four Methods for Typing Low-Passage Herpes Simplex Virus Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (HSV) were identified as HSVtype 1 or type 2 by sensitivity to (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2’-deoxyuridine (BVDU), by differential replication in chick embryo cells versus guinea pig embryo cells, by restriction endonuclease analysis, and by a direct fluorescent antibody technique using monoclonal antibodies. More than 550 isolates were typed by two or three of the systems

D. Mayo; J. Hilliard; M. Landry; S. Egbertson; R. Mirkovic

1985-01-01

198

Molecular Characterization of Three New Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) Strains Isolated in Quebec  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three unrecognized field isolates of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) were recovered from commercial broiler chickens vaccinated with live Mass viral strain (H120). These isolates were identified by immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies produced against reference serotypes: Mass, Conn, and Ark. RT-PCRs were performed on viral RNAs to amplify S1 gene using a specific set of primers S1OLIGO3' and S1OLIGO5'. Restriction polymorphism

Ridha Smati; Amer Silim; Claude Guertin; Marc Henrichon; Mehdi Marandi; Max Arella; Abderrazzak Merzouki

2002-01-01

199

Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) Oronasally Inoculated With a Nipah Virus Isolate From Bangladesh or Malaysia Develop Similar Respiratory Tract Lesions.  

PubMed

Nipah virus is a paramyxovirus in the genus Henipavirus, which has caused outbreaks in humans in Malaysia, India, Singapore, and Bangladesh. Whereas the human cases in Malaysia were characterized mainly by neurological symptoms and a case fatality rate of ?40%, cases in Bangladesh also exhibited respiratory disease and had a case fatality rate of ?70%. Here, we compared the histopathologic changes in the respiratory tract of Syrian hamsters, a well-established small animal disease model for Nipah virus, inoculated oronasally with Nipah virus isolates from human cases in Malaysia and Bangladesh. The Nipah virus isolate from Bangladesh caused slightly more severe rhinitis and bronchointerstitial pneumonia 2 days after inoculation in Syrian hamsters. By day 4, differences in lesion severity could no longer be detected. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated Nipah virus antigen in the nasal cavity and pulmonary lesions; the amount of Nipah virus antigen present correlated with lesion severity. Immunohistochemistry indicated that both Nipah virus isolates exhibited endotheliotropism in small- and medium-caliber arteries and arterioles, but not in veins, in the lung. This correlated with the location of ephrin B2, the main receptor for Nipah virus, in the vasculature. In conclusion, Nipah virus isolates from outbreaks in Malaysia and Bangladesh caused a similar type and severity of respiratory tract lesions in Syrian hamsters, suggesting that the differences in human disease reported in the outbreaks in Malaysia and Bangladesh are unlikely to have been caused by intrinsic differences in these 2 virus isolates. PMID:25352203

Baseler, L; de Wit, E; Scott, D P; Munster, V J; Feldmann, H

2015-01-01

200

Isolations of Potosi virus from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Connecticut.  

PubMed

Potosi virus (POTV) (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) was first isolated from Aedes albopictus (Skuse) collected in Potosi, MO, in 1989, and subsequent isolations were reported from Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, and the Carolinas. To determine whether the distribution of this virus extends into the northeastern United States, we analyzed arboviruses acquired from mosquitoes collected in Connecticut from 1998 to 2004. In 2001, a bunyavirus was isolated from Aedes vexans (Meigen) that was different from other arboviruses known to occur in Connecticut by cross-neutralization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Nucleotide and encoded amino acid sequences of a portion of the G2 envelope gene were 99 and 100% similar to POTV, respectively, yet distinct from indigenous strains of Jamestown Canyon (JCV), Cache Valley (CVV), and Trivittatus virus (TVTV). Viral isolates obtained from the statewide surveillance program were retested by RT-PCR coupled with restriction enzyme analysis to distinguish POTV from other bunyaviruses. POTV isolates, previously typed by neutralization, were correctly identified by RT-PCR; however, many isolates classified as JCV or CVV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay proved to be POTV by molecular assays. In total, 92 strains of POTV were isolated from 12 mosquito species in 2000, 2001, and 2003, whereas POTV was not detected in mosquitoes sampled during 1998, 1999, 2002, and 2004. Viral isolation rates were highest for Anopheles punctipennis (Say) (3.2-11.3 infection rate per 1,000 mosquitoes), whereas the greatest number of isolates came from Ochlerotatus trivittatus (Coquillett) (8-16 isolates). This finding represents the first detection of POTV in the northeastern United States where it infects a diverse array of mosquito species. PMID:16363172

Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G; Anderson, John F; Main, Andrew J

2005-09-01

201

Size Heterogeneity in the 3? Noncoding Region of South American Isolates of Yellow Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

The 3? noncoding region (3? NCR) of flaviviruses contains secondary and tertiary structures essential for virus replication. Previous studies of yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue virus have found that modifications to the 3? NCR are sometimes associated with attenuation in vertebrate and/or mosquito hosts. The 3? NCRs of 117 isolates of South American YFV have been examined, and major deletions and/or duplications of conserved RNA structures have been identified in several wild-type isolates. Nineteen isolates (designated YF-XL isolates) from Brazil, Trinidad, and Venezuela, dating from 1973 to 2001, exhibited a 216-nucleotide (nt) duplication, yielding a tandem repeat of conserved hairpin, stem-loop, dumbbell, and pseudoknot structures. YF-XL isolates were found exclusively within one subclade of South American genotype I YFV. One Brazilian isolate exhibited, in addition to the 216-nt duplication, a deletion of a 40-nt repeated hairpin (RYF) motif (YF-XL-?RYF). To investigate the biological significance of these 3? NCR rearrangements, YF-XL-?RYF and YF-XL isolates, as well as other South American YFV isolates, were evaluated for three phenotypes: growth kinetics in cell culture, neuroinvasiveness in suckling mice, and ability to replicate and produce disseminated infections in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. YF-XL-?RYF and YF-XL isolates showed growth kinetics and neuroinvasive characteristics comparable to those of typical South American YFV isolates, and mosquito infectivity trials demonstrated that both types of 3? NCR variants were capable of replication and dissemination in a laboratory-adapted colony of A. aegypti. PMID:15731274

Bryant, Juliet E.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.; Rijnbrand, Rene C. A.; Mutebi, J. P.; Higgs, Stephen; Barrett, Alan D. T.

2005-01-01

202

Clinicopathological characterization in poultry of three strains of Newcastle disease virus isolated from recent outbreaks.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease is a severe threat to the poultry industry and is caused by Newcastle disease virus, a member of the genus Avulavirus, family Paramyxoviridae. The virus is rapidly evolving, and several new genotypes have been discovered in the past few years. Characterization of these strains is important to evaluate field changes, anticipate new outbreaks, and develop adequate control measures. Three Newcastle disease isolates (APMV-1/duck/Vietnam, Long Bien/78/2002, APMV-1/chicken/Australia/9809-19-1107/1998, and APMV-1/double-crested cormorant/USA, Nevada/19529-04/2005) from recent outbreaks were investigated via clinicopathological assessment, immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization, virus isolation, and serology in experimentally infected 4-week-old chickens. Phylogenetic studies showed that Australia isolate belongs to class II genotype I, Long Bien to class II genotype VIId, and Nevada cormorant to class II genotype V. Even though all 3 viruses had a virulent fusion protein cleavage site and ICPI values greater than 1.5, they all differed in their ability to cause clinical signs, in their lesions, and in their viral distribution in body tissues. The Long Bien isolate showed the most severe clinicopathological picture and the most widespread viral distribution. The Australia and Nevada cormorant isolates had a milder pathological phenotype, with viral replication restricted to only a few organs. The variability in clinicopathological characteristics despite the similarity in ICPI suggests that full clinicopathological assessment is necessary to fully characterize new isolates and that there are differences in pathogenesis among viruses of different genotypes. PMID:20685918

Susta, L; Miller, P J; Afonso, C L; Brown, C C

2011-03-01

203

Characterization of a Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza A Virus Isolated from Duck Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1997 H5N1 influenza virus outbreak in humans and poultry in Hong Kong, the emergence of closely related viruses in poultry has raised concerns that additional zoonotic transmissions of influenza viruses from poultry to humans may occur. In May 2001, an avian H5N1 influenza A virus was isolated from duck meat that had been imported to South Korea from

Terrence M. Tumpey; David L. Suarez; Laura E. L. Perkins; Dennis A. Senne; Jae-gil Lee; Youn-Jeong Lee; In-Pil Mo; Haan-Woo Sung; David E. Swayne

2002-01-01

204

Dielectrophoretic isolation and detection of cfc-DNA nanoparticulate biomarkers and virus from blood.  

PubMed

Dielectrophoretic (DEP) microarray devices allow important cellular nanoparticulate biomarkers and virus to be rapidly isolated, concentrated, and detected directly from clinical and biological samples. A variety of submicron nanoparticulate entities including cell free circulating (cfc) DNA, mitochondria, and virus can be isolated into DEP high-field areas on microelectrodes, while blood cells and other micron-size entities become isolated into DEP low-field areas between the microelectrodes. The nanoparticulate entities are held in the DEP high-field areas while cells are washed away along with proteins and other small molecules that are not affected by the DEP electric fields. DEP carried out on 20 ?L of whole blood obtained from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients showed a considerable amount of SYBR Green stained DNA fluorescent material concentrated in the DEP high-field regions. Whole blood obtained from healthy individuals showed little or no fluorescent DNA materials in the DEP high-field regions. Fluorescent T7 bacteriophage virus could be isolated directly from blood samples, and fluorescently stained mitochondria could be isolated from biological buffer samples. Using newer DEP microarray devices, high-molecular-weight DNA could be isolated from serum and detected at levels as low as 8-16 ng/mL. PMID:23436471

Sonnenberg, Avery; Marciniak, Jennifer Y; McCanna, James; Krishnan, Rajaram; Rassenti, Laura; Kipps, Thomas J; Heller, Michael J

2013-04-01

205

Characterization of an H3N2 canine influenza virus isolated from Tibetan mastiffs in China.  

PubMed

Ten 3-month-old Tibetan mastiffs became ill 2 days after they were bought from a Tibetan mastiff exhibition, and 4 of them died 2 weeks later. A canine influenza virus (ZJ0110) was isolated from the lung of a deceased Tibetan mastiff and was characterized in detail. Sequence analysis indicated that the 8 genes of the canine isolate were most similar to those of avian-origin canine influenza viruses (H3N2) isolated in South Korea in 2007, with which they shared >98% sequence identity. ZJ0110 could experimentally infect 6-month-old beagles by intranasal inoculation and by airborne transmission, causing severe respiratory syndrome. Moreover, ZJ0110 could replicate in the upper respiratory tracts of mice and guinea pigs, and the virus titer was comparable to that in the upper respiratory tracts of dogs. Although the virus was genetically of avian origin, ZJ0110 could not experimentally infect chicken or ducks by intranasal inoculation. These results suggest that dogs might be an intermediary host in which avian influenza viruses adapt to replicate in mammals. PMID:23107656

Teng, Qiaoyang; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Dawei; Zhou, Jiewen; Dai, Xiaoguang; Chen, Zhaoguo; Li, Zejun

2013-03-23

206

Isolation of mixed subtypes of influenza A virus from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)  

PubMed Central

From April 2007 to March 2008, cloacal swabs were obtained from 246 casualty raptors recovered by various wildlife rehabilitation centers in the United States. The swabs were placed in a virus transport medium and transported to the laboratory on ice packs. At the laboratory, the samples were pooled with each pool consisting of five samples. All pools (n = 50) were screened for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) using a real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR); one of the pools was found positive. All five samples in this pool were tested individually by rRT-PCR; one sample from a bald eagle was found positive. This sample was inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation and a hemagglutinating virus was isolated. Complete genome sequencing of the isolate revealed a mixed infection with H1N1 and H2N1 subtypes. Further analysis revealed that the PB1-F2 gene sequence of H1N1 virus had the N66S virulence-associated substitution. Further studies on ecology and epidemiology of AIV in raptors are needed to help understand their role in the maintenance and evolution of AIV. PMID:20667110

2010-01-01

207

Isolation of mixed subtypes of influenza A virus from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).  

PubMed

From April 2007 to March 2008, cloacal swabs were obtained from 246 casualty raptors recovered by various wildlife rehabilitation centers in the United States. The swabs were placed in a virus transport medium and transported to the laboratory on ice packs. At the laboratory, the samples were pooled with each pool consisting of five samples. All pools (n = 50) were screened for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) using a real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR); one of the pools was found positive. All five samples in this pool were tested individually by rRT-PCR; one sample from a bald eagle was found positive. This sample was inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation and a hemagglutinating virus was isolated. Complete genome sequencing of the isolate revealed a mixed infection with H1N1 and H2N1 subtypes. Further analysis revealed that the PB1-F2 gene sequence of H1N1 virus had the N66S virulence-associated substitution. Further studies on ecology and epidemiology of AIV in raptors are needed to help understand their role in the maintenance and evolution of AIV. PMID:20667110

Goyal, Sagar M; Jindal, Naresh; Chander, Yogesh; Ramakrishnan, Muthanan A; Redig, Patrick T; Sreevatsan, Srinand

2010-01-01

208

Complete genomic characterization of a potato mop-top virus isolate from the United States.  

PubMed

Potato mop-top virus (PMTV; family Virgaviridae) was reported recently in the Pacific Northwestern USA. To better understand the genetic diversity of this virus, the complete genome of an isolate from Washington State (WA), USA, was characterized. Sequence comparisons of the WA isolate with other known sequences revealed that the RNA-Rep-encoded RdRp protein and the RNA-CP-encoded coat protein displayed >99 % amino acid sequence identity to those of two Nordic (RdRp) and several European and North American isolates (CP), respectively. The RNA-TGB-encoded TGB 1 and TGB 3 protein sequences had >99 % amino acid sequence identity to the corresponding proteins of Czech and Danish isolates, whereas the TGB 2 protein is identical to those of Colombian isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral genes of the WA isolate reflected the close relationship between WA and European isolates. RFLP analysis of corresponding DNA of RNA TGB and RNA CP revealed that the WA isolate has the RNA TGB-II and RNA CP-B types, which are prevalent in Europe and other parts of world. This is the first report of the complete genome characterization of PMTV from the Americas. PMID:25287129

Ramesh, S V; Raikhy, G; Brown, C R; Whitworth, J L; Pappu, H R

2014-12-01

209

Kolente virus, a rhabdovirus species isolated from ticks and bats in the Republic of Guinea  

PubMed Central

Kolente virus (KOLEV) is a rhabdovirus originally isolated from ticks and a bat in Guinea, West Africa, in 1985. Although tests at the time of isolation suggested that KOLEV is a novel rhabdovirus, it has remained largely uncharacterized. We assembled the complete genome sequence of the prototype strain DakAr K7292, which was found to encode the five canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins (N, P, M, G and L) with alternative ORFs (>180 nt) in the P and L genes. Serologically, KOLEV exhibited a weak antigenic relationship with Barur and Fukuoka viruses in the Kern Canyon group. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that KOLEV represents a distinct and divergent lineage that shows no clear relationship to any rhabdovirus except Oita virus, although with limited phylogenetic resolution. In summary, KOLEV represents a novel species in the family Rhabdoviridae. PMID:24062532

Ghedin, Elodie; Rogers, Matthew B.; Widen, Steven G.; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Wood, Thomas G.; Fitch, Adam; Popov, Vsevolod; Holmes, Edward C.; Walker, Peter J.; Tesh, Robert B.

2013-01-01

210

Induction of type I interferons by a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) inhibits synthesis of type I interferons (IFNs) in infected pigs and in cultured cells. Here we report that one PRRSV mutant A2MC2 induces type I IFNs in cultured cells and has no effect on IFN downstream signaling. The mutant isolate was p...

211

Molecular characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from recent outbreaks in Taiwan.  

PubMed

A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was described which amplified a portion of the F and HN genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from recent outbreaks in Taiwan. The F protein plays an important role in determining the virulence of NDV strains. Sequencing of a region specifying the F protein cleavage site was therefore undertaken and this verified the correlation between deduced amino sequences and pathogenicity. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the F protein cleavage site showed that all recent Taiwanese isolates in 1999 were velogenic viruses. All the virulent viruses have the amino acid sequence 112RRQKR116 for the C-terminus of the F2 protein and phenylanine (F) at the N-terminus of the F1 protein, residue 117. A phylogenetic tree based on the nucleotide sequences of the F gene revealed that recent Taiwanese NDV isolates responsible for recent outbreaks were classified into two distant genotypes (VI and VII). Genotype VI virus is the first finding in Taiwan and has a highly genetic similarity to European isolates, suggesting that they might have originated from a common ancestor. PMID:11483212

Ke, G M; Liu, H J; Lin, M Y; Chen, J H; Tsai, S S; Chang, P C

2001-09-01

212

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF RABIES VIRUS ISOLATES FROM MEXICO: IMPLICATIONS FOR TRANSMISSION DYNAMICS AND HUMAN RISK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-eight samples from humans and domestic and wild animals collected in Mexico between 1990 and 1995 were characterized by using anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies and limited sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein gene. The variants of rabies viruses identified in these samples were compared with other isolates from Mexico and the rest of the Americas to establish epidemiologic links between cases and

CECILIA C. DE MATTOS; CARLOS A. DE MATTOS; ELIZABETH LOZA-RUBIO; ALVARO AGUILAR-SETIEN; LILLIAN A. ORCIARI; JEAN S. SMITH

1999-01-01

213

Antigenic and genetic characterisation of border disease viruses isolated from UK cattle.  

PubMed

Available empirical data on the natural occurrence of ruminant pestiviruses has shown that in cattle, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is nearly exclusively found, whereas both border disease virus (BDV) and BVDV can be isolated from sheep. During routine genetic typing of pestivirus RNA from UK cattle diagnosed as BVDV positive between 2006 and 2008, five samples that were classified as BDV positive yielded positive virus isolates in cell cultures. The samples originated from animals that had shown signs typical for BVD. Phylogenetic analysis of the bovine BDVs showed that two belonged to the BDV-1a group and three to the BDV-1b group, thereby matching the genetic diversity seen for previously described UK ovine BDVs. Antigenic typing with a set of monoclonal antibodies (MABs) showed that all bovine BDVs lacked one or more epitopes conserved among ovine BDV-1 isolates, and that they had gained reactivity with at least one BVDV-1 specific MAB. Serial passaging of two of the virus isolates in ovine cell cultures did not change the epitope expression pattern. These findings suggest that the presumed natural resistance of cattle against infection with BDV no longer holds. A consequence of this is that BVD diagnostic assays should be checked for their ability to also detect BDV, and also highlights the need for monitoring of the BDV status in sheep that may be in contact with cattle in areas with organised BVD control programmes. PMID:19781869

Strong, R; La Rocca, S A; Ibata, G; Sandvik, T

2010-03-24

214

Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strain Isolated in Southern China  

PubMed Central

We report here the full-length RNA genomic sequence of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain GX4, isolated from a cow in southern China. Studies indicate that BVDV GX4 belongs to the BVDV-1b subtype. This report will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of BVDV in southern China cattle. PMID:24948756

Fan, Qing; Xie, Zhiqin; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Liji; Luo, Sisi

2014-01-01

215

H7 avian influenza virus vaccines protect chickens against challenge with antigenically diverse isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vaccination has been a critical tool in the control of some avian influenza viruses (AIV) and has been used routinely in Pakistan to help control sporadic outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H7 AIV since 1995. During that time, several AIV isolates were utilized as inactivated vaccines with varying...

216

Complete genome sequence of a bovine viral diarrhea virus strain isolated in southern china.  

PubMed

We report here the full-length RNA genomic sequence of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain GX4, isolated from a cow in southern China. Studies indicate that BVDV GX4 belongs to the BVDV-1b subtype. This report will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of BVDV in southern China cattle. PMID:24948756

Xie, Zhixun; Fan, Qing; Xie, Zhiqin; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Liji; Luo, Sisi; Khan, M I

2014-01-01

217

Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Wild Peacock (Pavo cristatus) in India.  

PubMed

We report here the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a wild peacock. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it belongs to genotype II, class II of NDV strains. This study helps to understand the ecology of NDV strains circulating in a wild avian host of this geographical region during the outbreak of 2012 in northwest India. PMID:24903868

Khulape, Sagar A; Gaikwad, Satish S; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad; Dey, Sohini

2014-01-01

218

Complete genome sequence of a newcastle disease virus isolate from an outbreak in central India.  

PubMed

The complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDV/Chicken/Nagpur/01/12 was isolated from vaccinated chicken farms in India during outbreaks in 2012. The genome is 15,192 nucleotides in length and is classified as genotype VII in class II. PMID:25593257

Gogoi, Polakshee; Morla, Sudhir; Kaore, Megha; Kurkure, Nitin Vasantrao; Kumar, Sachin

2015-01-01

219

Neuraminidase Sequence Analysis and Susceptibilities of Influenza Virus Clinical Isolates to Zanamivir and Oseltamivir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors zanamivir and oseltamivir were introduced into clinical practice in various parts of the world between 1999 and 2002. In order to monitor the potential development of resistance, the Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Network was established to coordinate testing of clinical isolates collected through the World Health Organization influenza surveillance network from different regions of the

J. McKimm-Breschkin; T. Trivedi; A. Hampson; A. Hay; A. Klimov; M. Tashiro; F. Hayden; M. Zambon

2003-01-01

220

Identification, phylogenetic evolutionary analysis of GDQY orf virus isolated from Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province, southern China.  

PubMed

Infection with the orf virus (ORFV) leads to contagious ecthyma, also called contagious pustular dermatitis, which usually affects sheep, goats and other small ruminants. It has a great distribution throughout the world and has also been reported to infect humans. Though many strains have been isolated from differing parts of mainland China, rarely has any strain been reported from the southern provinces of China. We studied a case of orf virus infection that occurred at Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province in southern China. An orf virus strain, GDQY, was successfully isolated and identified through cell culture techniques and transmission electron microscopy. Complete genes of ORFV011, ORFV059, ORFV106 and ORFV107 were amplified for the sequence analysis based on their nucleotide or amino acid level. In order to discuss the genetic variation, precise sequences were used to compare to other reference strains isolated from different districts or countries. Phylogenetic trees based on those strains were built up and evolutionary distances were calculated based on the alignment of their complete sequences. The typical structure of the orf virus was observed in cell-culture suspensions inoculated with GDQY, and the full-length of four genes was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GDQY is homologous to FJ-DS and CQ/WZ on ORFV011 nucleotides. ORFV059 may be more variable than ORFV011 based on the comparison between GDQY and other isolates. Genetic studies of ORFV106 and 107 are reported for the first time in the presented study. PMID:25447901

Duan, Chaohui; Liao, Meiying; Wang, Han; Luo, Xiaohong; Shao, Jing; Xu, Ying; Li, Wei; Hao, Wenbo; Luo, Shuhong

2015-01-25

221

Avian Influenza Virus with Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Combination H8N8, Isolated in Russia  

PubMed Central

We report the genome sequence of an avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H8N8, isolated in Russia. The genome analysis shows that all genes belong to AIV Eurasian lineages. The PB2 gene was similar to a Mongolian low-pathogenic (LP) AIV H7N1 and a Chinese high-pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N2. PMID:24903874

Sharshov, Kirill A.; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Muzyka, Vladimir V.; Shestopalov, Alexander M.

2014-01-01

222

Molecular characterization of three ferret badger (Melogale moschata) rabies virus isolates from Jiangxi province, China.  

PubMed

Ferret badger (FB) rabies viruses JX09-17(fb), JX09-18 and JX10-37 were isolated from three different regions in Jiangxi province, China, in 2009 and 2010. The complete nucleotide sequence identity between these three isolates was 87-93 %. Compared with the other Chinese rabies virus isolates and vaccine strains, 101 substitutions (53 in JX10-37, 23 in JX09-17(fb) and 25 in JX09-18) in the five structural proteins were observed, and 47 of these substitutions (27 in JX10-37, 14 in JX09-17(fb) and 6 in JX09-18) were unique among lyssaviruses. Amino acid substitutions of S231 and Q333 were noted respectively in the G protein antigenic site I of JX10-37 and site III in JX09-17(fb). Phylogenetic analysis showed that JX09-17(fb) is rooted within the China I lineage, JX09-18 is in China II, and JX10-37 is independent. Evolutionary analysis and comparative sequence data indicate that isolate JX10-37 is a variant virus that diverged from canine rabies viruses around 1933 (range 1886-1963). PMID:24643334

Zhao, Jinghui; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Ying; Mi, Lijuan; Wang, Shuchao; Hu, Rongliang

2014-08-01

223

Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Wild Peacock (Pavo cristatus) in India  

PubMed Central

We report here the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a wild peacock. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it belongs to genotype II, class II of NDV strains. This study helps to understand the ecology of NDV strains circulating in a wild avian host of this geographical region during the outbreak of 2012 in northwest India. PMID:24903868

Khulape, Sagar A.; Gaikwad, Satish S.; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad

2014-01-01

224

Complete Genome Sequences of Newcastle Disease Virus Strains Isolated from Three Different Poultry Species in China  

PubMed Central

In 2000, three Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains were isolated from outbreaks of infection in layers, ducklings, and geese in the same region of China during the same time period. Here, we report their complete genome sequences, which belong to the NDV genotype VIId. This discovery might provide clues as to the evolution of the NDVs of different avian origins. PMID:23950112

Wang, Xuan; Gong, Zheng; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Jian; Sun, Gege; Liu, Yali; Tao, Peipei; Zhang, Huaikang; Li, Shangde; Jiang, Fei; Hu, Yuanqing

2013-01-01

225

[Use of agarose for isolating influenza virus proteins retaining a high immunogenicity].  

PubMed

A method of influenza virus separation in agarose was modified. The possibility of using agarose of the national make and Difco agar was established. RNP and M proteins were isolated. Highly active anti-M and anti-RNP sera were prepared which work well in the ELISA and RIA. PMID:6356601

Ivanova, V T; Zakstel'skaia, L Ia; Trushinskaia, G N; Shenderovich, S F; Liubovtseva, O V

1983-01-01

226

Characterization of a naturally occurring recombinant isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The naturally occurring Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) recombinant isolate A17b was recovered from its grapevine host by sap inoculation and serial passages onto Gomphrena globosa, a pseudo local lesion herbaceous host, and Chenopodium quinoa, a systemic herbaceous host, to characterize some of its biological properties. Sequence analysis of the CP gene, in which a recombinational event was previously detected, demonstrated

E. Vigne; G. Demangeat; V. Komar; M. Fuchs

2005-01-01

227

Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolate from an Outbreak in Central India  

PubMed Central

The complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDV/Chicken/Nagpur/01/12 was isolated from vaccinated chicken farms in India during outbreaks in 2012. The genome is 15,192 nucleotides in length and is classified as genotype VII in class II. PMID:25593257

Gogoi, Polakshee; Morla, Sudhir; Kaore, Megha; Kurkure, Nitin Vasantrao

2015-01-01

228

Ilheus Virus Isolation in the Pantanal, West-Central Brazil  

PubMed Central

The wetlands of the Brazilian Pantanal host large concentrations of diverse wildlife species and hematophagous arthropods, conditions that favor the circulation of zoonotic arboviruses. A recent study from the Nhecolândia sub-region of Pantanal reported serological evidence of various flaviviruses, including West Nile virus and Ilheus virus (ILHV). According to the age of seropositive horses, at least three flaviviruses, including ILHV, circulated in the Brazilian Pantanal between 2005 and 2009. To extend this study, we collected 3,234 adult mosquitoes of 16 species during 2009 and 2010 in the same sub-region. Mosquito pool homogenates were assayed for infectious virus on C6/36 and Vero cell monolayers and also tested for flaviviral RNA by a group-specific real-time RT-PCR. One pool containing 50 non-engorged female specimens of Aedes scapularis tested positive for ILHV by culture and for ILHV RNA by real-time RT-PCR, indicating a minimum infection rate of 2.5 per 1000. Full-length genomic sequence exhibited 95% identity to the only full genome sequence available for ILHV. The present data confirm the circulation of ILHV in the Brazilian Pantanal. PMID:23875051

Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Kenney, Joan L.; Couto-Lima, Dinair; Campos, Zilca M. S.; Nogueira, Rita M. R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

2013-01-01

229

Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza virus H4N6 from ducks in China.  

PubMed

An avian influenza virus (AIV) strain belonging to the H4 subtype and provisionally designated as A/duck/China/J1/2012(H4N6) was isolated from diseased ducks with respiratory disease at a commercial poultry farm in Shandong, China, in 2012. The genomic coding sequences of all eight segments of this J1 isolate were determined and used for subsequent analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of all eight segments showed that this duck H4N6 virus was of Eurasian lineage and not American lineage. The results show that the virus probably emerged because of a reassortment event involving other avian H4N6 and H6N1 viruses. Interestingly, this H4N6 virus had all the conserved features common to low-pathogenic AIVs, including the HA cleavage sequence, receptor-binding sequences for the 2,3-linked sialic acid receptor in avian species, and the PB2 627E motif. These results suggest that the duck H4N6 isolate could not cross the species barrier to infect and replicate in mammals, including humans. In addition, screening of the duck serum samples showed that only 0.57 % (2/352) of the individuals had weak but measurable hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers. The low antibody prevalence data were also supported by the failure to detect H4N6 virus (0/56) in clinical nasal swabs of the ducks. These data indicate an alternate reservoir for the H4N6 virus. PMID:25248626

Yuan, Xiao-Yuan; Wang, You-Ling; Yu, Ke-Xiang; Zhang, Yu-Xia; Xu, Huai-Ying; Yang, Jin-Xing; Li, Feng; Song, Min-Xun

2015-01-01

230

Phylogeography of rabies virus isolated from herbivores and bats in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Rabies is enzootic in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Every year, cattle and horses die from rabies that is transmitted by the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. This paper describes the spread of the rabies virus by the continuous diffusion model using relaxed random walks with BEAST software. Forty-one (41) sequences of gene G from the rabies virus that was isolated from bats and domestic herbivores from several areas of the state between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed. The phylogenetic tree showed three main clusters as well as two sub-clusters under cluster 2. A spatial analysis showed that three strains of the rabies virus spread independently. In general, central Espírito Santo, which is mountainous, was the area where separation of the virus strains occurred. This physical barrier, however, was overcome at some point in time, as samples from different lineages were found in the same microarea. PMID:23264105

Vieira, Luiz Fernando Pereira; Pereira, Sílvia Regina Ferreira Gonçalves; Carnieli, Pedro; Tavares, Luiz Carlos Barbosa; Kotait, Ivanete

2013-04-01

231

Chapare Virus, a Newly Discovered Arenavirus Isolated from a Fatal Hemorrhagic Fever Case in Bolivia  

PubMed Central

A small focus of hemorrhagic fever (HF) cases occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia, in December 2003 and January 2004. Specimens were available from only one fatal case, which had a clinical course that included fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and vomiting with subsequent deterioration and multiple hemorrhagic signs. A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá). RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses. The virus was shown to be most closely related to Sabiá virus, but with 26% and 30% nucleotide difference in the S and L segments, and 26%, 28%, 15% and 22% amino acid differences for the L, Z, N, and GP proteins, respectively, indicating the virus represents a newly discovered arenavirus, for which we propose the name Chapare virus. In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia. PMID:18421377

Delgado, Simon; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Agudo, Roberto; Blair, Patrick J.; Vallejo, Efrain; Albariño, César G.; Vargas, Jorge; Comer, James A.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Olson, James G.; Nichol, Stuart T.

2008-01-01

232

Characterization of an iridescent virus isolated from Gryllus bimaculatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).  

PubMed

We have isolated an iridescent virus from commercially produced colonies of Gryllus bimaculatus in Germany, which showed apparent mortality. Transmission electron microscopy studies on adult cricket specimens revealed the paracrystalline assembly of icosahedral virus particles in the cytoplasm of hypertrophied abdominal fat body cells. The infecting agent could be cultivated in the lepidopteran cell line sf-9, where it caused cytopathogenic effects such as cell hypertrophy, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and cell death within 8 days postinfection. Infection titers of the first virus passage reached 10(7.5) TCID(50)/ml. Negatively stained virus particles (n = 100) had dimensions of 172 +/- 6 nm (apex to apex) and 148 +/- 5 nm (side to side). SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of virus proteins showed more than 20 distinct polypeptides with a major species of approximately 50 kDa. Analysis of the restriction fragment length profiles from digestion of purified viral DNA with the endonucleases EcoRI, BamHI, and HindIII showed marked differences from the profiles of iridoviruses of lower vertebrates (genus Ranavirus), e.g., Rana esculenta Iridovirus and Frog virus 3. Restriction enzyme digests with the endonucleases MspI and HpaII indicated the lack of methylation of viral DNA. Polymerase chain reaction led to the amplification of a 420-bp gene fragment with 97% sequence homology to the major capsid protein gene of Chilo iridescent virus. These data indicate that this new isolate, which we propose to be termed Gryllus bimaculatus iridescent virus, belongs to the genus Iridovirus of the family Iridoviridae. PMID:11161994

Just, F T; Essbauer, S S

2001-01-01

233

Nandina mosaic virus is an isolate of Plantago asiatica mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Nandina mosaic virus (NaMV), which has tentatively been assigned to the\\u000a genus Potexvirus, is reported. The sequence is 6066 nt in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contains ORFs coding for proteins of 155,\\u000a 25, 12, 13, and 21 kDa (ORFs 1–4 and the CP), respectively. The genomic organization of the virus and the

P. L. Hughes; F. Harper; M. T. Zimmerman; S. W. Scott

2005-01-01

234

Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza (H7) Virus Infection in Mice and Ferrets: Enhanced Virulence of Eurasian H7N7 Viruses Isolated from Humans?  

PubMed Central

Before 2003, only occasional case reports of human H7 influenza virus infections occurred as a result of direct animal-to-human transmission or laboratory accidents; most of these infections resulted in conjunctivitis. An increase in isolation of avian influenza A H7 viruses from poultry outbreaks and humans has raised concerns that additional zoonotic transmissions of influenza viruses from poultry to humans may occur. To better understand the pathogenesis of H7 viruses, we have investigated their ability to cause disease in mouse and ferret models. Mice were infected intranasally with H7 viruses of high and low pathogenicity isolated from The Netherlands in 2003 (Netherlands/03), the northeastern United States in 2002-2003, and Canada in 2004 and were monitored for morbidity, mortality, viral replication, and proinflammatory cytokine production in respiratory organs. All H7 viruses replicated efficiently in the respiratory tracts of mice, but only Netherlands/03 isolates replicated in systemic organs, including the brain. Only A/NL/219/03 (NL/219), an H7N7 virus isolated from a single fatal human case, was highly lethal for mice and caused severe disease in ferrets. Supporting the apparent ocular tropism observed in humans following infection with viruses of the H7 subtype, both Eurasian and North American lineage H7 viruses were detected in the mouse eye following ocular inoculation, whereas an H7N2 virus isolated from the human respiratory tract was not. Therefore, in general, the relative virulence and cell tropism of the H7 viruses in these animal models correlated with the observed virulence in humans. PMID:17686867

Belser, Jessica A.; Lu, Xuihua; Maines, Taronna R.; Smith, Catherine; Li, Yan; Donis, Ruben O.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2007-01-01

235

Molecular analysis of foot-and-mouth disease type O viruses isolated in Saudi Arabia between 1983 and 1995.  

PubMed

Partial nucleotide sequence of the capsid polypeptide coding gene 1D (VP1) was determined for 68 serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated between 1983 and 1995 from outbreaks occurring in Saudi Arabia. The sequences were compared with previously published sequences: 14 viruses of Middle Eastern origin (isolated between 1987 and 1991); and with four vaccine virus strain sequences, three originating from the Middle East (O1/Turkey/Manisa/69, O1/Sharquia/Egypt/72 and O1/Israel/2/85) and one from Europe (O1/BFS 1860/UK/67). The virus isolates from Saudi Arabia and the Middle East vaccine virus strains formed a related genetic group distinct from the European O1 virus. Within this large group 12 distinct genetic sublineages were observed. PMID:9440443

Samuel, A R; Knowles, N J; Kitching, R P; Hafez, S M

1997-12-01

236

Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza (H7) Virus Infection in Mice and Ferrets: Enhanced Virulence of Eurasian H7N7 Viruses Isolated from Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before 2003, only occasional case reports of human H7 influenza virus infections occurred as a result of direct animal-to-human transmission or laboratory accidents; most of these infections resulted in conjuncti- vitis. An increase in isolation of avian influenza A H7 viruses from poultry outbreaks and humans has raised concerns that additional zoonotic transmissions of influenza viruses from poultry to humans

Jessica A. Belser; Xuihua Lu; Taronna R. Maines; Catherine Smith; Yan Li; Ruben O. Donis; Jacqueline M. Katz; Terrence M. Tumpey

2007-01-01

237

Isolation of a cytopathogenic virus from a case of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and its characterization as parainfluenza virus type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?From a lung of a fetus of a breeding sow showing PRRS-like symptoms a viral agent could be isolated. It was characterized\\u000a as an enveloped, hemag-glutinating RNA virus. Ultrastructural examination of purified virus revealed paramyxovirus-like pleomorphic\\u000a virions of approx. 200?nm in diameter. The helical nucleocapsids were about 18?nm in diameter. The virus was found to be antigenically\\u000a related to simian

E. Heinen; W. Herbst; N. Schmeer

1998-01-01

238

First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea  

PubMed Central

A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

2014-01-01

239

Isolation, molecular and phylogenetic analysis of encephalomyocarditis virus strain GS01 in China.  

PubMed

Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus. It can infect many host species and cause acute myocarditis and respiratory failure in piglets, reproductive failure in pregnant sows. Diseases caused by EMCV currently affect the swine industry worldwide. In this study, an EMCV strain was isolated from an aborted fetus in western China. It was identified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and genome sequencing. The subsequent results showed that the virus could produce a specific cytopathic effect on BHK-21 cells and could cause severe clinical symptoms and pathological changes in mice. Complete genome sequencing and multiple sequence alignment indicated that the GS01 strain was 79.9-99.9% identical with other isolates worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EMCV isolates fell into five clusters: lineage 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 based on the nucleotide sequences of the entire ORF and VP3/VP1 junction, as well as 3D gene. GS01 isolate was grouped into lineage 1. The results of this study confirmed that an EMCV strain GS01 isolated from an aborted pig fetus in western China was fatal to mice and provided new epidemiologic data on EMCV in China. PMID:25497352

Feng, Ruofei; Zhang, Haixia; Wei, Jia; Li, Xiangrong; Xie, Jingying; Li, Mingsheng; Qiao, Zilin; Feng, Yuping; Ma, Zhongren

2015-03-01

240

Antigenic typing of Brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000.  

PubMed

Animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. The panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the Americas. Samples were isolated in the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Pasteur Institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in Brazil. In addition to the fixed virus samples CVS-31/96-IP, preserved in mouse brain, and PV-BHK/97, preserved in cell culture, a total of 330 rabies virus samples were isolated from dogs, cats, cattle, horses, bats, sheep, goat, swine, foxes, marmosets, coati and humans. Six antigenic variants that were compatible with the pre-established monoclonal antibodies panel were defined: numbers 2 (dog), 3 (Desmodus rotundus), 4 (Tadarida brasiliensis), 5 (vampire bat from Venezuela), 6 (Lasiurus cinereus) and Lab (reacted to all used antibodies). Six unknown profiles, not compatible with the panel, were also found. Samples isolated from insectivore bats showed the greatest variability and the most commonly isolated variant was variant-3 (Desmodus rotundus). These findings may be related to the existence of multiple independent transmission cycles, involving different bat species. PMID:12048546

Favoretto, Silvana Regina; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Cunha, Elenice Maria S; Aguiar, Elizabeth A C; Silva, Luzia Helena Q; Sodre, Miriam M; Souza, Maria Conceição A M; Kotait, Ivanete

2002-01-01

241

Complete genome analysis of three isolates of narcissus late season yellows virus and two of narcissus yellow stripe virus: three species or one?  

PubMed

Complete genome sequences of two new isolates of narcissus late season yellows virus (NLSYV) from Australia were compared with the other NLSYV genome from China and with two complete genomes of isolates designated narcissus yellow stripe virus (NYSV), one from Australia and the other from China. On the basis of symptoms on natural and experimental host species, and genome sequence identity, the isolates could either be classified as closely related members of three different species or placed together in one taxon. Options for classification of these potyvirus isolates are discussed. PMID:24385160

Wylie, Stephen J; Li, Hua; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Jones, Michael G K

2014-06-01

242

Molecular characterization of Dasheen mosaic virus isolates infecting edible aroids in India.  

PubMed

Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV) infecting three major edible aroids namely Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, Colocasia esculenta, and Xanthosoma sagittifolium cultivated in India was characterized. Infected plants showing typical DsMV symptoms were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and an amplification of a 963 bp fragment which encoded the coat protein (CP) gene was obtained. BLAST analysis of the cloned DNA amplicon revealed the identity of the virus to be that of DsMV. Sequence identity matrix of the nucleotide sequences among the three isolates showed that the DsMV isolate infecting A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta shared an identity as high as 93%, while the DsMV isolate from X. sagittifolium shared an identity of only 73% and 76% with the DsMV isolates from A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta, respectively. Comparative analysis of the coat protein of the three DsMV isolates showed the presence of DVG motif (A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta) and DTG motif in X. sagittifolium and several varying potential threonine and asparagine rich N-glycosylation motifs. Single amino acid substitution of the several conserved motifs occurs in all the three DsMV isolates. This is the first characterization of DsMV isolates infecting A. paeoniifolius, C. esculenta, and X. sagittifolium plants in India. PMID:24717027

Babu, B; Hegde, V

2014-01-01

243

Molecular detection, epidemiology, and genetic characterization of novel European field isolates of equine infectious anemia virus.  

PubMed

The application of molecular diagnostic techniques along with nucleotide sequence determination to permit contemporary phylogenetic analysis of European field isolates of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has not been widely reported. As a result, of extensive testing instigated following the 2006 outbreak of equine infectious anemia in Italy, 24 farms with a history of exposure to this disease were included in this study. New PCR-based methods were developed, which, especially in the case of DNA preparations from peripheral blood cells, showed excellent correlation with OIE-approved agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests for identifying EIAV-infected animals. In contrast, the OIE-recommended oligonucleotide primers for EIAV failed to react with any of the Italian isolates. Similar results were also obtained with samples from four Romanian farms. In addition, for the first time complete characterization of gag genes from five Italian isolates and one Romanian isolate has been achieved, along with acquisition of extensive sequence information (86% of the total gag gene) from four additional EIAV isolates (one Italian and three Romanian). Furthermore, in another 23 cases we accomplished partial characterization of gag gene sequences in the region encoding the viral matrix protein. Analysis of this information suggested that most Italian isolates were geographically restricted, somewhat reminiscent of the "clades" described for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Collectively this represents the most comprehensive genetic study of European EIAV isolates conducted to date. PMID:21084503

Cappelli, Katia; Capomaccio, Stefano; Cook, Frank R; Felicetti, Michela; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Coppola, Giacomo; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Coletti, Mauro; Passamonti, Fabrizio

2011-01-01

244

Molecular characterization of Ramie mosaic virus isolates detected in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, China.  

PubMed

Virus isolates were obtained from three ramie samples (Boehmeria nivea L.) showing yellow mosaic symptoms collected in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, China. Comparison of partial DNA-A fragments amplified with begomovirus universal primers PA/PB revealed that these viral isolates shared a high sequence identity. The complete DNA-A sequences of two isolates J4 and Z1 were determined to be 2736 and 2737 nts, respectively, sharing 94.7% nucleotide sequence identity with each other. Also, the DNA-B components were identified for J4 and Z1 isolates and comprised 2717 and 2719 nts, respectively, sharing 88.6% nucleotide sequence identity with each other. Furthermore, sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that J4 and Z1 isolates had the highest sequence identities (93.6-94.7%) with isolates of Ramie mosaic virus (RamMV) for DNA-A. These molecular data suggested that J4 and Z1 may be two different isolates of RamMV. This is the first report about the occurrence of a bipartite begomovirus in these regions of China. PMID:20822317

Li, J; Zhang, X Y; Qian, Y J

2010-01-01

245

A bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1a strain in China: isolation, identification, and experimental infection in calves  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important pathogens in cattle. Previously, BVDV sub-genotypes of 1b, 1c, 1d, and 1 m were detected in China. However, isolation of BVDV type 1a from cattle has not been reported in China. In 2010, twenty nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from the cattle suspected BVDV infection in Henan province, China. A BVDV isolate was isolated using cell culture, and the pathogenesis of the virus isolate was studied. Methods Virus isolation was performed on MDBK cells. The virus identification was conducted by RT-PCR, neutralization test and immunofluorescence assay. In order to determine the genotype of the newly isolated virus, the 5? un-translated region (5?UTR) of the virus isolate was cloned, sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. To evaluate the virulence of the virus isolate, four BVDV sero-negative calves were intranasally inoculated with the virus suspension. Rectal temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for changes in white blood cell counts, and tissue samples were taken for histopathology analysis. Results A new isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), named HN01, was isolated from the nasal swabs using MDBK cell culture. The HN01 strain caused cytopathic effect (CPE) in MDBK cell cultures after two passages. The virus specifically reacted to BVDV1-specific monoclonal antibody in an immunofluorescence assay. A fragment of 288 bp of genome from this isolate was amplified by the RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of 5?UTR indicated that the virus was BVDV 1a. In the pathogenesis study, four calves experimentally infected with the BVDV strain developed depression, cough and other clinical signs. Calves showed high temperature over 40°C, and white blood cell counts dropped more than 40%. Conclusions A new subgenotype 1a strain of BVDV was firstly isolated from dairy cattle in China. The experimental infection showed that the virus was moderate pathogenic to cattle and can be used as a BVDV challenge virus to evaluate the efficacy of BVDV vaccines in the target animals. PMID:24444389

2014-01-01

246

Phylogenetic and Pathogenic Analyses of Avian Influenza A H5N1 Viruses Isolated from Poultry in Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Despite great efforts to control the infection of poultry with H5N1 viruses, these pathogens continue to evolve and spread in nature, threatening public health. Elucidating the characteristics of H5N1 avian influenza virus will benefit disease control and pandemic preparation. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 15 H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in Vietnam in 2006 and 2007 and performed phylogenetic analyses to compare these sequences with those of other viruses available in the public databases. Molecular characterization of the H5N1 viruses revealed that seven genetically distinct clades of H5N1 viruses have appeared in Vietnam. Clade 2.3.4 viruses existed in Vietnam as early as 2005. Fifteen viruses isolated during 2006 and 2007 belonged to clade 1 and clade 2.3.4, and were divided into five genotypes. Reassortants between the clade 1 and clade 2.3.4 viruses were detected in both North and South Vietnam. We also assessed the replication and pathogenicity of these viruses in mice and found that these isolates replicated efficiently and exhibited distinct virulence in mice. Our results provide important information regarding the diversity of H5N1 viruses in nature. PMID:23226433

Li, Yanbing; Jiang, Yongping; Liu, Liling; Chen, Hualan

2012-01-01

247

Viral Replication, Persistence in Water and Genetic Characterization of Two Influenza A Viruses Isolated from Surface Lake Water  

PubMed Central

Water-borne transmission has been suggested as an important transmission mechanism for Influenza A (IA) viruses in wild duck populations; however, relatively few studies have attempted to detect IA viruses from aquatic habitats. Water-isolated viruses have rarely been genetically characterized and evaluation for persistence in water and infectivity in natural hosts has never been documented. In this study, we focused on two IA viruses (H3N8 and H4N6 subtypes) isolated from surface lake water in Minnesota, USA. We investigated the relative prevalence of the two virus subtypes in wild duck populations at the sampling site and their genetic relatedness to IA viruses isolated in wild waterbirds in North America. Viral persistence under different laboratory conditions (temperature and pH) and replication in experimentally infected Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were also characterized. Both viruses were the most prevalent subtype one year following their isolation in lake water. The viruses persisted in water for an extended time period at constant temperature (several weeks) but infectivity rapidly reduced under multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Furthermore, the two isolates efficiently replicated in Mallards. The complete genome characterization supported that these isolates originated from genetic reassortments with other IA viruses circulating in wild duck populations during the year of sampling. Based on phylogenetic analyses, we couldn't identify genetically similar viruses in duck populations in the years following their isolation from lake water. Our study supports the role for water-borne transmission for IA viruses but also highlights that additional field and experimental studies are required to support inter-annual persistence in aquatic habitats. PMID:22028909

Lebarbenchon, Camille; Yang, My; Keeler, Shamus P.; Ramakrishnan, Muthannan A.; Brown, Justin D.; Stallknecht, David E.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

2011-01-01

248

Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. Results we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China) using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE), indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX) and electron microscopy(EM). The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV) in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer. PMID:21352530

2011-01-01

249

Molecular characterization of the VP2 gene of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) isolates from Mexico.  

PubMed

Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is one of the most important viruses in the Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, and Rainbow Trout O. mykiss industry. This virus has been shown to produce high mortality among salmonid fry and juveniles, and survivors might become carriers. Since 2000, IPNV has affected Mexican Rainbow Trout culture, resulting in considerable economic losses. In the current study, molecular characterization of the VP2 gene of a number of Mexican IPNV isolates was done and the virus's phylogenetic relationships to IPNV reference strains were investigated. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that Mexican IPNV isolates are closely related to strains from the United States and Canada and that all Mexican IPNV isolates belong to genogroup 1. Furthermore, low genetic diversity was found between the Mexican isolates (identity, 95.8-99.8% nucleotides and 95.8-99.6% amino acids). The result of the analysis of the amino acid residues found at positions 217, 221, and 247 (alanine, threonine, and glutamic acid, respectively) could be associated with virulence, although the expression of virulence factors is more complex and may be influenced by the agent and host factors. The high percentage of identity among the VP2 genes from geographically distant IPNV isolates and the evidence of wide distribution in the country might have been facilitated by carrier trout. This hypothesis is supported by the identification of the amino acid threonine at position 221 in all Mexican isolates, a factor related to the carrier state for IPNV, as reported by other studies. PMID:24689957

Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Rojas-Anaya, Edith; García-Espinosa, Gary; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth

2014-03-01

250

Genetic diversity of African swine fever virus isolates from soft ticks (Ornithodoros moubata) inhabiting warthog burrows in Zambia.  

PubMed

The genomes of African swine fever virus isolates collected from soft ticks (Ornithodoros moubata) inhabiting warthog burrows in four areas of Zambia were compared by restriction enzyme site mapping. Isolates from different areas showed considerable diversity. The regions of genomes that differed between isolates were distributed throughout the virus genome, although some more conserved regions were identified, such as the right-hand third of the genome. The genomes of seven isolates from neighbouring warthog burrows within Livingstone Game Park in southern Zambia were more similar to each other than those from different areas. However, a number of differences were observed even between the genomes of isolates from the same warthog burrow. The variation between these latter isolates probably resulted from point mutations located at various positions along the genome, in addition to small additions or deletions at both terminal regions. Restriction enzyme site mapping indicated that one isolate may have originated by earlier recombination between two distinguishable viruses. PMID:3199101

Dixon, L K; Wilkinson, P J

1988-12-01

251

Molecular Characterization of Geographically Different Banana bunchy top virus Isolates in India.  

PubMed

Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most devastating diseases of banana and poses a serious threat for cultivars like Hill Banana (Syn: Virupakshi) and Grand Naine in India. In this study, we have cloned and sequenced the complete genome comprised of six DNA components of BBTV infecting Hill Banana grown in lower Pulney hills, Tamil Nadu State, India. The complete genome sequence of this hill banana isolate showed high degree of similarity with the corresponding sequences of BBTV isolates originating from Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh State, India, and from Fiji, Egypt, Pakistan, and Australia. In addition, sixteen coat protein (CP) and thirteen replicase genes (Rep) sequences of BBTV isolates collected from different banana growing states of India were cloned and sequenced. The replicase sequences of 13 isolates showed high degree of similarity with that of South Pacific group of BBTV isolates. However, the CP gene of BBTV isolates from Shervroy and Kodaikanal hills of Tamil Nadu showed higher amino acid sequence variability compared to other isolates. Another hill banana isolate from Meghalaya state had 23 nucleotide substitutions in the CP gene but the amino acid sequence was conserved. This is the first report of the characterization of a complete genome of BBTV occurring in the high altitudes of India. Our study revealed that the Indian BBTV isolates with distinct geographical origins belongs to the South Pacific group, except Shervroy and Kodaikanal hill isolates which neither belong to the South Pacific nor the Asian group. PMID:23637489

Selvarajan, R; Mary Sheeba, M; Balasubramanian, V; Rajmohan, R; Dhevi, N Lakshmi; Sasireka, T

2010-10-01

252

Properties of a virus isolated from Vernonia amygdalina Del. in Lagos, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A previously uncharacterized virus tentatively named Vernonia green vein-banding virus (VGVBV) was isolated from Vernonia amygdalina Del. ("bitterleaf") from Lagos, Nigeria. The virus was mechanically transmissible but had a narrow host range restricted to Nicotiana benthamiana, Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor. It was also transmissible in a non-persistent manner by Myzus persicae. The virus was purified from N. benthamiana and about 750 nm long flexuous rod-shaped particles were observed in purified preparations as well as in leaf-dips of Vernonia sp. Inclusion bodies in the form of pinwheels and scrolls were observed in ultrathin sections of Vernonia leaves by electron microscopy. M(r), of the viral coat protein was estimated to be about 34 K. In indirect ELISA, all 20 samples from naturally infected Vernonia sp. reacted positively with a potyvirus-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) as well as with an antiserum raised against VGVBV. Apart from the homologous antigen, the VGVBV antiserum reacted only with Plum poxvirus (PPV). The VGVBV reacted strongly with the antisera to Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Amaranthus leaf mottle virus (AmLMV) but weakly with antisera to PPV and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) (all members of the family Potyviridae, the genus Potyvirus) in at least one of the assays used (indirect ELISA, dot-blot immunoassay and Western blot analysis). The results of our host range, cytopathological and serological studies and the available literature indicate that a hitherto difficult to transmit VGVBV has only been reported from Nigeria. We consider VGVBV a candidate for a new potyvirus. This virus should be further investigated to collect sufficient data for a qualified proposal of VGVBV as a new potyvirus. PMID:15745049

Taiwo, M A; Dijkstra, J

2004-01-01

253

Characterization of a Canadian Mink H3N2 Influenza A Virus Isolate Genetically Related to Triple Reassortant Swine Influenza Virus?  

PubMed Central

In 2007, an H3N2 influenza A virus was isolated from Canadian mink. This virus was found to be phylogenetically related to a triple reassortant influenza virus which emerged in Canadian swine in 2005, but it is antigenically distinct. The transmission of the virus from swine to mink seems to have occurred following the feeding of animals with a ration composed of uncooked meat by-products of swine obtained from slaughterhouse facilities. Serological analyses suggest that the mink influenza virus does not circulate in the swine population. Presently, the prevalence of influenza virus in Canadian farmed and wild mink populations is unknown. The natural occurrence of influenza virus infection in mink with the presence of clinical signs is a rare event that deserves to be reported. PMID:19116358

Gagnon, Carl A.; Spearman, Grant; Hamel, Andre; Godson, Dale L.; Fortin, Audrey; Fontaine, Guy; Tremblay, Donald

2009-01-01

254

Comparison of multiple genes of spring viremia of carp viruses isolated in the United States.  

PubMed

Five spring viremia of carp viruses (SVCV), Rhabdovirus carpio, were isolated in the United States (US) between 2002 and 2004. Single tube reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to generate overlapping cDNA fragments from the US isolates of SVCV. Multiple pairs of specific primers were designed to amplify a portion of the phosphoprotein gene, the matrix gene, and the glycoprotein gene of SVCV genogroup Id (corresponding to nucleotides 2174-4942 of GenBank accession NC_002803). Sequences were proofread and aligned to generate a consensus sequence for each isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of the 2705 nucleotide consensus sequence revealed that all five US isolates belong to SVCV genogroup Ia, Asian origin isolates, and a PCR primer binding site unique to SVCV genogroup Ia was identified. PMID:17048110

Warg, Janet V; Dikkeboom, Audrey L; Goodwin, Andrew E; Snekvik, Kevin; Whitney, John

2007-08-01

255

SPF Rabbits Infected with Rabbit Hepatitis E Virus Isolate Experimentally Showing the Chronicity of Hepatitis  

PubMed Central

This study focused on investigating the pathogenesis seen in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits following infection with a homologous rabbit HEV isolate (CHN-BJ-rb14) and comparing it to that seen following infection with a heterologous swine genotype 4 HEV isolate (CHN-XJ-SW13). Three of the four animals inoculated with the homologous rabbit HEV became infected, exhibiting an intermittent viremia, obvious fluctuations of liver function biomarkers alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and persistent fecal virus shedding throughout the nine month study. In addition, liver histopathology showed both chronic inflammation and some degree of fibrosis. Both positive and negative-stranded HEV RNA and HEV antigen expression were detected in liver, brain, stomach, duodenum and kidney from the necropsied rabbits. Inflammation of extrahepatic tissue (duodenum and kidney) was also observed. Three of the four rabbits inoculated with the heterologous genotype 4 swine HEV also became infected, showing similar levels of anti-HEV antibody to that generated following infection with the homologous virus isolate. The duration of both viremia and fecal shedding of virus was however shorter following infection with the heterologous virus and there was no significant elevation of liver function biomarkers. These results suggest that rabbit HEV infection may cause more severe hepatitis and prolong the course of the disease, with a possible chronic trend of hepatitis in SPF rabbits. PMID:24937350

Han, Jian; Lei, Yaxin; Liu, Lin; Liu, Peng; Xia, Junke; Zhang, Yulin; Zeng, Hang; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

2014-01-01

256

Virulence variation among isolates of western equine encephalitis virus in an outbred mouse model  

PubMed Central

Little is known about viral determinants of virulence associated with western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV). Here, we have analysed six North American WEEV isolates in an outbred CD1 mouse model. Full genome sequence analyses showed ?2.7?% divergence among the six WEEV isolates. However, the percentage mortality and mean time to death (MTD) varied significantly when mice received subcutaneous injections of 103?p.f.u. of each virus. Two WEEV strains, McMillan (McM) and Imperial 181 (IMP), were the most divergent of the six in genome sequence; McM caused 100?% mortality by 5?days post-infection, whereas IMP caused no mortality. McM had significantly higher titres in the brain than IMP. Similar differences in virulence were observed when McM and IMP were administered by aerosol, intranasal or intravenous routes. McM was 100?% lethal with an MTD of 1.9?days when 103?p.f.u. of each virus was administered by intracerebral inoculation; in contrast, IMP caused no mortality. The presence of IMP in the brains after infection by different routes and the lack of observed mortality confirmed that IMP is neuroinvasive but not neurovirulent. Based on morbidity, mortality, MTD, severity of brain lesions, virus distribution patterns, routes of infection and differences in infection of cultured cells, McM and IMP were identified as high- and low-virulence isolates, respectively. PMID:19403754

Logue, Christopher H.; Bosio, Christopher F.; Welte, Thomas; Keene, Kimberley M.; Ledermann, Jeremy P.; Phillips, Aaron; Sheahan, Brian J.; Pierro, Dennis J.; Marlenee, Nicole; Brault, Aaron C.; Bosio, Catharine M.; Singh, Amber J.; Powers, Ann M.; Olson, Ken E.

2009-01-01

257

Phospholipase A2 Isolated from the Venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus Inactivates Dengue virus and Other Enveloped Viruses by Disrupting the Viral Envelope  

PubMed Central

The Flaviviridae family includes several virus pathogens associated with human diseases worldwide. Within this family, Dengue virus is the most serious threat to public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Currently, there are no vaccines or specific antiviral drugs against Dengue virus or against most of the viruses of this family. Therefore, the development of vaccines and the discovery of therapeutic compounds against the medically most important flaviviruses remain a global public health priority. We previously showed that phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus was able to inhibit Dengue virus and Yellow fever virus infection in Vero cells. Here, we present evidence that phospholipase A2 has a direct effect on Dengue virus particles, inducing a partial exposure of genomic RNA, which strongly suggests inhibition via the cleavage of glycerophospholipids at the virus lipid bilayer envelope. This cleavage might induce a disruption of the lipid bilayer that causes a destabilization of the E proteins on the virus surface, resulting in inactivation. We show by computational analysis that phospholipase A2 might gain access to the Dengue virus lipid bilayer through the pores found on each of the twenty 3-fold vertices of the E protein shell on the virus surface. In addition, phospholipase A2 is able to inactivate other enveloped viruses, highlighting its potential as a natural product lead for developing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. PMID:25383618

Muller, Vanessa Danielle; Soares, Ricardo Oliveira; dos Santos-Junior, Nilton Nascimento; Trabuco, Amanda Cristina; Cintra, Adelia Cristina; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu; Caliri, Antonio; Sampaio, Suely Vilela; Aquino, Victor Hugo

2014-01-01

258

Development, Characterization and Application of Monoclonal Antibodies against Brazilian Dengue Virus Isolates  

PubMed Central

Dengue is the most prevalent human arboviral disease. The morbidity related to dengue infection supports the need for an early, quick and effective diagnostic test. Brazil is a hotspot for dengue, but no serological diagnostic test has been produced using Brazilian dengue virus isolates. This study aims to improve the development of immunodiagnostic methods for dengue virus (DENV) detection through the production and characterization of 22 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Brazilian isolates of DENV-1, -2 and -3. The mAbs include IgG2b?, IgG2a? and IgG1? isotypes, and most were raised against the envelope or the pre-membrane proteins of DENV. When the antibodies were tested against the four DENV serotypes, different reactivity patterns were identified: group-specific, subcomplex specific (DENV-1, -3 and -4 and DENV-2 and -3) and dengue serotype-specific (DENV-2 or -3). Additionally, some mAbs cross-reacted with yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV) and Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). None of the mAbs recognized the alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Furthermore, mAbs D3 424/8G, D1 606/A12/B9 and D1 695/12C/2H were used to develop a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-dengue IgM detection in sera from patients with acute dengue. To our knowledge, these are the first monoclonal antibodies raised against Brazilian DENV isolates, and they may be of special interest in the development of diagnostic assays, as well as for basic research. PMID:25412181

Bordignon, Juliano; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia Nunes

2014-01-01

259

Genotype Diversity of H9N2 Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds and Chickens in Hunan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Three H9N2 avian influenza viruses were isolated from the Dongting Lake wetland, among which one was from fresh egret feces, the other two were from chicken cloacal swabs in poultry markets. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that eight genes of the egret-derived H9N2 virus might come from Korean-like or American-like lineages. The two poultry-derived H9N2 viruses were reassortants between the CK/BJ/94-like and G1-like viruses. Except the PB1 genes (90.6%), the nucleotide sequence of other internal genes of the two viruses exhibited high homology (>95%). In addition, they also exhibited high homology (96–98.3%) with some genes of the H7N9 virus that caused an epidemic in China in 2013. Nucleotide sequence of the poultry-derived and egret-derived H9N2 viruses shared low homology. Infection studies showed that the egret-derived H9N2 virus was non-pathogenic to both mice and chickens, and the virus was unable to infect chickens even through 8 passages continuously in the lung. On the other hand, the chickens infected by poultry-derived viruses showed obvious clinical symptoms and even died; the infected mice showed no noticeable clinical symptoms and weight loss, but viruses could be detected in their lungs. In conclusion, for the egret-derived H9N2 virus, it would take a long adaptation process to achieve cross-species transmission in poultry and mammals. H9N2 viruses isolated at different times from the same host species in the same geographical region presented different evolutionary status, and virus isolated from different hosts in the same geographical region exhibited genetic diversity. Therefore, it is important to continue the H9N2 virus surveillance for understanding their evolutionary trends so as to provide guidance for disease control and prevention. PMID:24979703

Wang, Ba; Liu, Zhihua; Chen, Quanjiao; Gao, Zhimin; Fang, Fang; Chang, Haiyan; Chen, Jianjun; Xu, Bing; Chen, Ze

2014-01-01

260

Full Genome Sequence of Egg Drop Syndrome Virus Strain FJ12025 Isolated from Muscovy Duckling.  

PubMed

Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) strain FJ12025 was isolated from a 9-day-old Muscovy duckling. The results of the sequence showed that the genome of strain FJ12025 is 33,213 bp in length, with a G+C content of 43.03%. When comparing the genome sequence of strain FJ12025 to that of laying duck original strain AV-127, we found 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the two viral genome sequences. A genomic sequence comparison of FJ12025 and AV-127 will help to understand the phenotypic differences between the two viruses. PMID:23969050

Fu, Guanghua; Chen, Hongmei; Huang, Yu; Cheng, Longfei; Fu, Qiuling; Shi, Shaohua; Wan, Chunhe; Chen, Cuiteng; Lin, Jiansheng

2013-01-01

261

Structure of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus assembly intermediate isolated from infected cells  

SciTech Connect

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a prototypical enveloped ssRNA virus of the family Togaviridae. To better understand alphavirus assembly, we analyzed newly formed nucleocapsid particles (termed pre-viral nucleocapsids) isolated from infected cells. These particles were intermediates along the virus assembly pathway, and ultimately bind membrane-associated viral glycoproteins to bud as mature infectious virus. Purified pre-viral nucleocapsids were spherical with a unimodal diameter distribution. The structure of one class of pre-viral nucleocapsids was determined with single particle reconstruction of cryo-electron microscopy images. These studies showed that pre-viral nucleocapsids assembled into an icosahedral structure with a capsid stoichiometry similar to the mature nucleocapsid. However, the individual capsomers were organized significantly differently within the pre-viral and mature nucleocapsids. The pre-viral nucleocapsid structure implies that nucleocapsids are highly plastic and undergo glycoprotein and/or lipid-driven rearrangements during virus self-assembly. This mechanism of self-assembly may be general for other enveloped viruses.

Lamb, Kristen; Lokesh, G.L. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0647 (United States); Sherman, Michael [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0647 (United States); W.M. Keck Center for Virus Imaging, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0647 (United States); Watowich, Stanley, E-mail: watowich@xray.utmb.ed [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0647 (United States); W.M. Keck Center for Virus Imaging, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0647 (United States)

2010-10-25

262

Pathogenicity and transmission of reticuloendotheliosis virus isolated from endangered prairie chickens.  

PubMed

The pathogenicity and transmission of a field isolate of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) was studied using an experimental model in Japanese quail. Oncogenicity was also evaluated after inoculations in chickens and turkeys. The original REV (designated APC-566) was isolated from Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri), an endangered wild avian species of the southern United States. The transmissibility of the REV isolate was studied in young naive Japanese quail in contact with experimentally infected quail. Vertical transmission was not detected by virus isolation and indirect immunofluorescence. Seroconversion was detected in few contact quails, suggesting horizontal transmission. The APC-566 isolate induced tumors beginning at 6 wk of age in quails infected as embryos. Most of the tumors detected in Japanese quail were lymphosarcomas, and 81% of these neoplasias contained CD3+ cells by immunoperoxidase. REV APC-566 was also oncogenic in chickens and turkeys infected at 1 day of age, with tumors appearing as early as 58 days after infection in chickens and at 13 wk of age in turkeys. This study was conducted in part as an attempt to understand the potential for pathogenicity and transmission of REV isolated from endangered avian species. PMID:17461264

Barbosa, Taylor; Zavala, Guillermo; Cheng, Sunny; Villegas, Pedro

2007-03-01

263

Isolation and characterization of a pathogenic Newcastle disease virus from a natural case in indonesia.  

PubMed

This study was performed to isolate a velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain currently found in Indonesia for establishing a domestic reference virus for future pathological and molecular epidemiological studies. A chicken suspected to have contracted Newcastle disease (ND) in a local outbreak in Bali was selected for NDV isolation. Atrophy of lymphoid tissues such as the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen; intestinal haemorrhage; and oedema of the brain were observed in the chicken. Histopathological examination revealed severe non-suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis characterised by neuronal necrosis, multifocal to diffuse gliosis, and perivascular cuffing of mononuclear cells, hemorrhagic necrosis of the trachea, intestines and bursa of Fabricius, and various degree of lymphoid depletion and necrosis of the lymphoid tissues. After ND was confirmed immunohistochemically, the NDV was propagated by inoculating tissue homogenate of the diseased chicken in embryonated eggs. Phylogenetic analysis based on the F gene nucleotide sequence revealed that this isolate belonged to genotype VII. The deduced amino acid sequence of the isolated NDV F protein at the cleavage site was (112)RRQKRF(117), which is typically found in virulent NDV isolates. Pathogenicity indexes such as the mean death time (MDT) and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) were 54 hr and 1.77, respectively. Pathological findings, phylogenetic analysis, amino acid sequence of the F protein cleavage site, and pathogenicity index test results revealed the NDV isolate, designated as NDV/Bali-1/07, to be a novel Indonesian velogenic NDV strain belonging to group VII. PMID:19996566

Adi, Anak Agung Ayu Mirah; Astawa, Nyoman Mantik; Putra, Ketut Santhia Adhy; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Yasunobu

2010-03-01

264

Virion envelope glycoproteins as epidermiological markers of Venezuelan encephalitis virus isolates.  

PubMed Central

Virion polypeptide compositions of 26 isolates of Venezuelan encephalitis virus were analyzed by a reproducible and comparative technique of discontinuous sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. Although the molecular weight of the core polypeptide for each isolate was 36,000, numbers and molecular weights of envelope glycoproteins were heterogeneous. Isolates associated with human, but not equine, disease usually had two glycoproteins of 50,000 to 51,000 and 51,000 to 55,000 molecular weight, whereas isolates associated with both human and equine disease usually had an additional, third polypeptide band of either 45,000 to 46,000 or 56,000 to 58,000 molecular weight. The former isolates were in hemagglutination inhibition subtypes I-D, I-E, III, or IV, and the latter were in subtypes I-A, I-B, I-C, or II. Thus virion envelope glycoproteins should be useful markers of Venezuelan encephalitis virus isolates in epidemiological investigations. PMID:7372798

Wiebe, M E; Scherer, W F

1980-01-01

265

Genetic variation and possible mechanisms driving the evolution of worldwide fig mosaic virus isolates.  

PubMed

Fig mosaic virus (FMV) is a multipartite negative-sense RNA virus infecting fig trees worldwide. FMV is transmitted by vegetative propagation and grafting of plant materials, and by the eriophyid mite Aceria ficus. In this work, the genetic variation and evolutionary mechanisms shaping FMV populations were characterized. Nucleotide sequences from four genomic regions (each within the genomic RNAs 1, 2, 3, and 4) from FMV isolates from different countries were determined and analyzed. FMV genetic variation was low, as is seen for many other plant viruses. Phylogenetic analysis showed some geographically distant FMV isolates which clustered together, suggesting long-distance migration. The extent of migration was limited, although varied, between countries, such that FMV populations of different countries were genetically differentiated. Analysis using several recombination algorithms suggests that genomes of some FMV isolates originated by reassortment of genomic RNAs from different genetically similar isolates. Comparison between nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions showed selection acting on some amino acids; however, most evolved neutrally. This and neutrality tests together with the limited gene flow suggest that genetic drift plays an important role in shaping FMV populations. PMID:24571394

Walia, Jeewan Jyot; Willemsen, Anouk; Elci, Eminur; Caglayan, Kadriye; Falk, Bryce W; Rubio, Luis

2014-01-01

266

Characterization of H7N9 influenza A viruses isolated from humans  

PubMed Central

Summary Avian influenza A viruses rarely infect humans, but if they do and transmit among them, worldwide outbreaks (pandemics) can result. The recent sporadic infections of humans in China with a previously unrecognized avian influenza A virus of the H7N9 subtype (A(H7N9)) have caused concern due to the appreciable case fatality rate associated with these infections (>25%), potential instances of human-to-human transmission1, and the lack of pre-existing immunity among humans to viruses of this subtype. Here, we therefore characterized two early human A(H7N9) isolates, A/Anhui/1/2013 and A/Shanghai/1/2013 (H7N9; hereafter referred to as Anhui/1 and Shanghai/1, respectively). In mice, Anhui/1 and Shanghai/1 were more pathogenic than a control avian H7N9 virus (A/duck/Gunma/466/2011; H7N9; Dk/GM466) and a representative pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus (A/California/04/2009; H1N1; CA04). Anhui/1, Shanghai/1, and Dk/GM466 replicated well in the nasal turbinates of ferrets. In nonhuman primates (NHPs), Anhui/1 and Dk/GM466 replicated efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, whereas the replicative ability of conventional human influenza viruses is typically restricted to the upper respiratory tract of infected primates. By contrast, Anhui/1 did not replicate well in miniature pigs upon intranasal inoculation. Most critically, Anhui/1 transmitted via respiratory droplets in one of three pairs of ferrets. Glycan arrays demonstrated that Anhui/1, Shanghai/1, and A/Hangzhou/1/2013 (a third human A(H7N9) virus tested in this assay) bind to human virus-type receptors, a property that may be critical for virus transmissibility in ferrets. Anhui/1 was less sensitive than a pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus to neuraminidase inhibitors, although both viruses were equally susceptible to an experimental antiviral polymerase inhibitor. The robust replicative ability in mice, ferrets, and NHPs and the limited transmissibility in ferrets of Anhui/1 suggest that A(H7N9) viruses have pandemic potential. PMID:23842494

Watanabe, Tokiko; Kiso, Maki; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Nakajima, Noriko; Imai, Masaki; Yamada, Shinya; Murakami, Shin; Yamayoshi, Seiya; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Takashita, Emi; McBride, Ryan; Noda, Takeshi; Hatta, Masato; Imai, Hirotaka; Zhao, Dongming; Kishida, Noriko; Shirakura, Masayuki; de Vries, Robert P.; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Tamura, Tomokazu; Tomita, Yuriko; Fujimoto, Naomi; Goto, Kazue; Katsura, Hiroaki; Kawakami, Eiryo; Ishikawa, Izumi; Watanabe, Shinji; Ito, Mutsumi; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Sugita, Yukihiko; Uraki, Ryuta; Yamaji, Reina; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Zhong, Gongxun; Fan, Shufang; Ping, Jihui; Maher, Eileen A.; Hanson, Anthony; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Takehiko; Ozawa, Makoto; Neumann, Gabriele; Kida, Hiroshi; Odagiri, Takato; Paulson, James C.; Hasegawa, Hideki; Tashiro, Masato; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2013-01-01

267

Characterization of H7N9 influenza A viruses isolated from humans.  

PubMed

Avian influenza A viruses rarely infect humans; however, when human infection and subsequent human-to-human transmission occurs, worldwide outbreaks (pandemics) can result. The recent sporadic infections of humans in China with a previously unrecognized avian influenza A virus of the H7N9 subtype (A(H7N9)) have caused concern owing to the appreciable case fatality rate associated with these infections (more than 25%), potential instances of human-to-human transmission, and the lack of pre-existing immunity among humans to viruses of this subtype. Here we characterize two early human A(H7N9) isolates, A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) and A/Shanghai/1/2013 (H7N9); hereafter referred to as Anhui/1 and Shanghai/1, respectively. In mice, Anhui/1 and Shanghai/1 were more pathogenic than a control avian H7N9 virus (A/duck/Gunma/466/2011 (H7N9); Dk/GM466) and a representative pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus (A/California/4/2009 (H1N1pdm09); CA04). Anhui/1, Shanghai/1 and Dk/GM466 replicated well in the nasal turbinates of ferrets. In nonhuman primates, Anhui/1 and Dk/GM466 replicated efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, whereas the replicative ability of conventional human influenza viruses is typically restricted to the upper respiratory tract of infected primates. By contrast, Anhui/1 did not replicate well in miniature pigs after intranasal inoculation. Critically, Anhui/1 transmitted through respiratory droplets in one of three pairs of ferrets. Glycan arrays showed that Anhui/1, Shanghai/1 and A/Hangzhou/1/2013 (H7N9) (a third human A(H7N9) virus tested in this assay) bind to human virus-type receptors, a property that may be critical for virus transmissibility in ferrets. Anhui/1 was found to be less sensitive in mice to neuraminidase inhibitors than a pandemic H1N1 2009 virus, although both viruses were equally susceptible to an experimental antiviral polymerase inhibitor. The robust replicative ability in mice, ferrets and nonhuman primates and the limited transmissibility in ferrets of Anhui/1 suggest that A(H7N9) viruses have pandemic potential. PMID:23842494

Watanabe, Tokiko; Kiso, Maki; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Nakajima, Noriko; Imai, Masaki; Yamada, Shinya; Murakami, Shin; Yamayoshi, Seiya; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Takashita, Emi; McBride, Ryan; Noda, Takeshi; Hatta, Masato; Imai, Hirotaka; Zhao, Dongming; Kishida, Noriko; Shirakura, Masayuki; de Vries, Robert P; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Tamura, Tomokazu; Tomita, Yuriko; Fujimoto, Naomi; Goto, Kazue; Katsura, Hiroaki; Kawakami, Eiryo; Ishikawa, Izumi; Watanabe, Shinji; Ito, Mutsumi; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Sugita, Yukihiko; Uraki, Ryuta; Yamaji, Reina; Eisfeld, Amie J; Zhong, Gongxun; Fan, Shufang; Ping, Jihui; Maher, Eileen A; Hanson, Anthony; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Takehiko; Ozawa, Makoto; Neumann, Gabriele; Kida, Hiroshi; Odagiri, Takato; Paulson, James C; Hasegawa, Hideki; Tashiro, Masato; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2013-09-26

268

Genetic and serological typing of European infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes the lethal disease infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in juvenile salmon and trout. The nucleocapsid (N) protein gene and partial glycoprotein (G) gene (nucleotides 457 to 1061) of the European isolates IT-217A, FR-32/87, DE-DF 13/98 11621, DE-DF 4/99-8/99, AU-9695338 and RU-FR1 were sequenced and compared with IHNV isolates from the North American genogroups U, M and L. In phylogenetic studies the N gene of the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, though in a different subgroup than the isolates from the USA. Analyses of the partial G gene of these European isolates clustered them in the M genogroup close to the root while the Russian isolate clustered in the U genogroup. The European isolates together with US-WRAC and US-Col-80 were also tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the N protein. MAbs 136-1 and 136-3 reacted equally at all concentrations with the isolates tested, indicating that these antibodies identify a common epitope. MAb 34D3 separated the M and L genogroup isolates from the U genogroup isolate. MAb 1DW14D divided the European isolates into 2 groups. MAb 1DW14D reacted more strongly with DE-DF 13/98 11621 and RU-FR1 than with IT-217A, FR- 32/87, DE-DF 4/99-8/99 and AU-9695338. In the phylogenetic studies, the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, whereas in the serological studies using MAbs, the European M genogroup isolates could not be placed in the same specific group. These results indicate that genotypic and serotypic classification do not correlate. ?? 2009 Inter-Research.

Johansson, T.; Einer-Jensen, K.; Batts, W.; Ahrens, P.; Bjorkblom, C.; Kurath, G.; Bjorklund, H.; Lorenzen, N.

2009-01-01

269

Analysis of the biological and molecular variability of Watermelon mosaic virus isolates from Iran.  

PubMed

Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) is one of the most important viruses that causes different symptoms in Cucurbitaceae. WMV is a potyvirus with a worldwide distribution, but occurs most commonly in temperate and Mediterranean regions. Cucurbit species grown in Yazd, Esfahan, West Azerbaijan, Hormozgan, and Kerman provinces were surveyed for the relative incidence of WMV in 2004-2005. A total of 757 symptomatic cucurbit and 31 weed species were collected and assayed for infection with WMV. Of 788 leaf samples from cucurbit and weed plants, 190 samples were positive by double antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) using specific polyclonal antibody. Among the weed species tested only colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis) was found to be infected with WMV. The coat protein (CP) gene from 18 representative isolates was PCR amplified, cloned, sequenced, and compared with the sequences available in GeneBank. Phylogenetic analysis using 778 nucleotide long sequences of the coat protein gene showed that these isolates fell into two; groups I and II. Only one isolates (KER.JI.1) was classified in the group II. This isolate had a wider host range and infected Nicotiana debneyii and Datura metel. None of the other 17 isolates could infect these two species. Members of group I were divided into three subgroups; A, B, and C. The subgroup I(B) appears to be a new subgroup comprising only of the Iranian isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on 200 nucleotides coding for the N-terminal segment of the CP showed that all Iranian isolates except KER.JI.1 clustered with the previously reported WMV strains. All Iranian isolates had a DAG amino acid triplet which is involved in aphid transmissibility. This is the first report on sequence analysis of the nearly full-length CP cDNA clones of WMV isolates from Iran. PMID:18712590

Sharifi, Maraym; Massumi, Hossain; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Shaabanian, Mehdi; Rahimian, H

2008-12-01

270

Antigenic and genotypical characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Taiwan between 1969 and 1996.  

PubMed

Three major epidemics of Newcastle disease (ND) occurred in Taiwan over the past three decades (in 1969, 1984, and 1995). In order to gain a better understanding of the relationships between past ND epizootics in Taiwan, 36 ND viruses (NDVs) isolated between 1969 and 1996 were characterized antigenically and genotypically. The antigenicity of these viruses was analysed by their ability to cause binding of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to cell cultures infected with the isolate. Using a panel of 22 mAbs to divide NDVs into subgroups, a total of 18 binding patterns were revealed. The sequences covering the cleavage site of the fusion protein gene of these isolates were also determined. The results of the phylogenetic analysis placed 36 NDVs into I, II, VIb, VIIa, VIII and two novel genotypes (provisionally termed X and VIh). The 1969 velogenic isolates were of genotypes X and VIh; the 1984-1985 velogenic isolates were genotyped VIb, VIh, VIIa, and X; while the 1995-1996 velogenic isolates were genotyped VIIa or VIII. Some 1969 and 1984 velogenic isolates were of the same mAbs binding pattern and genotype, and the mAbs binding patterns of the 1995-1996 isolates have not been seen before. It is concluded that velogenic NDVs of different genotype and antigenic type have co-circulated in Taiwan at least since 1969. Also there were epizootiological links between strains isolated in 1969 and 1984, whereas the 1995-1996 epidemic was caused by new antigenic variants. PMID:15530736

Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Chang, Kuo-Hui; Tseng, Chun-Hsien; Frost, Karen M; Manvell, Ruth J; Alexander, Dennis J

2004-11-30

271

Surveillance and characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from northern pintail (Anas acuta) in Japan during 2006-09.  

PubMed

A total of 38 Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates were obtained from 6060 fecal samples from northern pintail (Anas acuta) ducks collected in the Tohoku district in Japan during 2006-09. One isolate from each sampling location and date was selected for a total of 38 isolates, then 15 of these were characterized for their pathogenicity by mean death time of minimum lethal dose (MDT/MLD) using chicken embryos and by plaque formation on chicken embryo fibroblasts. Furthermore, nine isolates were randomly selected from these 15 isolates, and the fusion protein genes were sequenced to characterize amino acid sequences around the cleavage site. All 15 were confirmed to be nonvirulent by MDT/MLD test, and nine isolates were also confirmed as nonvirulent by the cleavage site of the fusion protein 112G/E-K/R-Q-G/E-R*L117 that was specific for nonvirulent NDVs. The characteristics of nine isolates identified by phylogenic analysis of the fusion protein gene indicated that the isolates belong to genotype I or II. In addition, we also isolated 68 avian influenza viruses and 28 other hemagglutinating viruses. Our data indicate that northern pintails are subclinically infected by, perpetuate, and distribute NDV along with different subtypes of avian influenza viruses and other hemagglutinating viruses during their migrations across vast areas over the Northern Hemisphere to Japan. PMID:21793438

Ruenphet, Sakchai; Jahangir, Alam; Shoham, Dany; Morikawa, Kae; Miyoshi, Yuki; Hanawa, Eiko; Okamura, Masashi; Nakamura, Masayuki; Takehara, Kazuaki

2011-06-01

272

Inhibition of apoptosis by primary isolates of herpes simplex virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?HSV-1 inhibits apoptosis of the infected cell, presumably to increase viral yield. Weaker anti-apoptotic activity was previously\\u000a reported in laboratory-adapted HSV-2, but not in two low-passage clinical HSV-2 isolates, suggesting that the anti-apoptotic\\u000a effect might result from adaptation to laboratory growth. We therefore assembled a large panel of clinical strains of HSV-1\\u000a and HSV-2. Clinical and laboratory strains of HSV-1

K. R. Jerome; R. Fox; Z. Chen; P. Sarkar; L. Corey

2001-01-01

273

Gouléako Virus Isolated from West African Mosquitoes Constitutes a Proposed Novel Genus in the Family Bunyaviridae?  

PubMed Central

The family Bunyaviridae is the most diversified family of RNA viruses. We describe a novel prototypic bunyavirus, tentatively named Gouléako virus, isolated from various mosquito species trapped in Côte d'Ivoire. The S segment comprised 1,087 nucleotides (nt), the M segment 3,188 nt, and the L segment 6,358 nt, constituting the shortest bunyavirus genome known so far. The virus had shorter genome termini than phleboviruses and showed no evidence of encoded NSs and NSm proteins. An uncharacterized 105-amino-acid (aa) putative open reading frame (ORF) was detected in the S segment. Genetic equidistance to other bunyaviruses (74 to 88% aa identity) and absence of serological cross-reactivity with phleboviruses suggested a proposed novel Bunyaviridae genus. PMID:21715500

Marklewitz, M.; Handrick, S.; Grasse, W.; Kurth, A.; Lukashev, A.; Drosten, C.; Ellerbrok, H.; Leendertz, F. H.; Pauli, G.; Junglen, S.

2011-01-01

274

First isolation of La Crosse virus from naturally infected Aedes albopictus.  

PubMed Central

La Crosse (LAC) virus, a California serogroup bunyavirus, is the leading cause of pediatric arboviral encephalitis in the United States and an emerging disease in Tennessee, West Virginia, and North Carolina. Human cases of LAC encephalitis in Tennessee and North Carolina have increased above endemic levels during 1997 to 1999 and may represent an expansion of a new southeastern endemic focus. This report describes the isolation of LAC virus from the exotic mosquito Aedes albopictus. The discovery of LAC virus in wild populations of Ae. albopictus coupled with its expanding distribution in the southeastern United States, suggests that this mosquito may become an important accessory vector, potentially increasing the number of human cases in endemic foci or expanding the range of the disease. PMID:11747692

Gerhardt, R. R.; Gottfried, K. L.; Apperson, C. S.; Davis, B. S.; Erwin, P. C.; Smith, A. B.; Panella, N. A.; Powell, E. E.; Nasci, R. S.

2001-01-01

275

Complete genome sequence of invertebrate iridescent virus 22 isolated from a blackfly larva  

PubMed Central

Members of the family Iridoviridae are animal viruses that infect only invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates. Invertebrate iridescent virus 22 (IIV-22) was originally isolated from the larva of a blackfly (Simulium sp., order Diptera) found in the Ystwyth river, near Aberystwyth, Wales, UK. IIV-22 virions are icosahedral, with a diameter of about 130 nm and contain a dsDNA genome that is 197.7 kb in length, has a G+C content of 28.05 mol% and contains 167 coding sequences. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of this virus and its annotation. This is the fourth genome sequence of an invertebrate iridovirus to be reported. PMID:23804567

Piégu, Benoît; Guizard, Sébastien; Spears, Tatsinda; Cruaud, Corinne; Couloux, Arnault; Bideshi, Dennis K.; Federici, Brian A.

2013-01-01

276

Complete genome sequence of invertebrate iridescent virus 22 isolated from a blackfly larva.  

PubMed

Members of the family Iridoviridae are animal viruses that infect only invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates. Invertebrate iridescent virus 22 (IIV-22) was originally isolated from the larva of a blackfly (Simulium sp., order Diptera) found in the Ystwyth river, near Aberystwyth, Wales, UK. IIV-22 virions are icosahedral, with a diameter of about 130 nm and contain a dsDNA genome that is 197.7 kb in length, has a G+C content of 28.05 mol% and contains 167 coding sequences. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of this virus and its annotation. This is the fourth genome sequence of an invertebrate iridovirus to be reported. PMID:23804567

Piégu, Benoît; Guizard, Sébastien; Spears, Tatsinda; Cruaud, Corinne; Couloux, Arnault; Bideshi, Dennis K; Federici, Brian A; Bigot, Yves

2013-09-01

277

Genetic Diversity of the Coat Protein of Olive Mild Mosaic Virus (OMMV) and Tobacco Necrosis Virus D (TNV-D) Isolates and Its Structural Implications  

PubMed Central

The genetic variability among 13 isolates of Olive mild mosaic virus (OMMV) and of 11 isolates of Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D) recovered from Olea europaea L. samples from various sites in Portugal, was assessed through the analysis of the coat protein (CP) gene sequences. This gene was amplified through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned, and 5 clone sequences of each virus isolate, were analysed and compared, including sequences from OMMV and TNV-D isolates originally recovered from different hosts and countries and available in the GenBank, totalling 131 sequences. The encoded CP sequences consisted of 269 amino acids (aa) in OMMV and 268 in TNV-D. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the isolates showed a very low variability among OMMV isolates, 0.005 and 0.007, respectively, as well as among TNV-D isolates, 0.006 and 0.008. The maximum nucleotide distances of OMMV and TNV-D sequences within isolates were also low, 0.013 and 0.031, respectively, and close to that found between isolates, 0.018 and 0.034, respectively. In some cases, less variability was found in clone sequences between isolates than in clone sequences within isolates, as also shown through phylogenetic analysis. CP aa sequence identities among OMMV and TNV-D isolates ranged from 84.3% to 85.8%. Comparison between the CP genomic sequences of the two viruses, showed a relatively low variability, 0.199, and a maximum nucleotide distance between isolates of 0.411. Analysis of comparative models of OMMV and TNV-D CPs, showed that naturally occurring substitutions in their respective sequences do not seem to cause significant alterations in the virion structure. This is consistent with a high selective pressure to preserve the structure of viral capsid proteins. PMID:25350108

Varanda, Carla M. R.; Machado, Marco; Martel, Paulo; Nolasco, Gustavo; Clara, Maria I. E.; Félix, Maria R.

2014-01-01

278

Comparative study of influenza virus H2 (Asian) hemagglutinins isolated from human and avian sources.  

PubMed

The hemagglutinin of an influenza virus isolated from a wild duck (Pintail, Anas acuta) in the USSR in 1976 had been found to be antigenically indistinguishable from the hemagglutinin of H2N2 viruses of human origin isolated in 1957. The hemagglutinins from viral preparations of the A/Anas acuta/Primorie/695/76 (H2Nav2) and A/Singapore/1/57 (H2N2) strains were purified by SDS gel chromatography as the subunits HA1 and HA2. Comparison of amino acid compositions and peptide maps of tryptic peptides containing [14C]-carboxymethylcysteine showed a striking degree of similarity between the H2 hemagglutinins. PMID:7193663

Bucher, D J; Kharitonenkov, I G; Lvov, D K; Pysina, T V; Lee, H M

1980-01-01

279

Epidemiological and molecular characterization of rubella virus isolated in São Paulo, Brazil during 1997-2004.  

PubMed

Rubella virus (RV) infection during the early stages of pregnancy can lead to serious birth defects, known as the congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In 2003, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) adopted a resolution calling for the elimination of rubella and the congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the Americas by the year 2010. Brazil will have implemented the recommended PAHO strategy for elimination and interruption of endemic rubella virus transmission. The characterization of genotypes during the final stages of rubella elimination is important for determining whether new rubella isolates represent endemic transmission or importations. Samples (blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and throat swabs) collected from patients with symptoms suggestive of rubella infection in 1997-2004 were isolated in cell culture and genotyped. Twenty-eight sequences were analyzed and two genotypes were identified: 1a and 1G. The information reported in this paper will contribute to understanding the molecular epidemiology of RV in São Paulo, Brazil. PMID:22997088

Figueiredo, C A; Oliveira, M I; Curti, S P; Afonso, A M S; Frugis Yu, A L; Araújo, J; Oliveira, D B; Durigon, E L

2012-11-01

280

Phylogenetic and pathotypical analysis of two virulent Newcastle disease viruses isolated from domestic ducks in China.  

PubMed

Two velogenic Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) obtained from outbreaks in domestic ducks in China were characterized in this study. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both strains clustered with the class II viruses, with one phylogenetically close to the genotype VII NDVs and the other closer to genotype IX. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein confirmed that both isolates contained the virulent motif (112)RRQK/RRF(117) at the cleavage site. The two NDVs had severe pathogenicity in fully susceptible chickens, resulting in 100% mortality. One of the isolates also demonstrated some pathogenicity in domestic ducks. The present study suggests that more than one genotype of NDV circulates in domestic ducks in China and viral transmission may occur among chickens and domestic ducks. PMID:21949828

Zhang, Shouping; Wang, Xiaoting; Zhao, Changguang; Liu, Dehua; Hu, Yanxin; Zhao, Jixun; Zhang, Guozhong

2011-01-01

281

Three unrelated viruses occur in a single isolate of Gremmeniella abietina var. abietina type A.  

PubMed

Five enclosed double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) bands in electrophoresis, probably of viral origin, were found from a single isolate (SurS4) of Gremmeniella abietina var. abietina type A. Analysis of the dsRNAs revealed that they represented three different viruses, named as Gremmeniella abietina mitochondrial RNA virus S2 (GaMRV-S2), Gremmeniella abietina RNA virus MS2 (GaRV-MS2) and Gremmeniella abietina RNA virus L2 (GaRV-L2). The genome of GaMRV-S2 was 2587 base pairs (bp) long and had a very low GC content (31%). Sequence variations occurred at both ends. The genome coded for a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) under a mitochondrial translation code. The GaRV-MS2 genome was composed of three dsRNA molecules (1781 bp, 1586 bp and 1186 bp). They coded for a putative RdRp, a coat protein (CP) and a protein with an unknown function, respectively. The GaRV-L2 genome was 5129 bp long and contained two ORFs. The 5'-proximal ORF coded for a putative CP, whereas the 3'-proximal ORF encoded for a putative RdRp. The buoyant density of GaRV-MS2 and GaRV-L2 were 1.37 and 1.42 g/ml, respectively. GaMRV-S2, GaRV-MS2 and GaRV-L2 were closely related to the previously described viruses GaMRV-S1, GaRV-MS1 and GaRV-L1, respectively, and are putative members of the genera Mitovirus, Partitivirus and Totivirus, respectively. This is the first report on the occurrence of viruses of all these different genera in a single fungal isolate. PMID:15845253

Tuomivirta, Tero T; Hantula, Jarkko

2005-06-01

282

Receptor Specificity and Transmission of H2N2 Subtype Viruses Isolated from the Pandemic of 1957  

E-print Network

Influenza viruses of the H2N2 subtype have not circulated among humans in over 40 years. The occasional isolation of avian H2 strains from swine and avian species coupled with waning population immunity to H2 hemagglutinin ...

Pappas, Claudia

283

Avian Influenza (H5N1) Viruses Isolated from Humans in Asia in 2004 Exhibit Increased Virulence in Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses across Asia in 2003 and 2004 devastated domestic poultry populations and resulted in the largest and most lethal H5N1 virus outbreak in humans to date. To better understand the potential of H5N1 viruses isolated during this epizootic event to cause disease in mammals, we used the mouse and ferret models to

Taronna R. Maines; Xui Hua Lu; Steven M. Erb; Lindsay Edwards; Jeannette Guarner; Patricia W. Greer; Doan C. Nguyen; Kristy J. Szretter; Li-Mei Chen; Pranee Thawatsupha; Malinee Chittaganpitch; Sunthareeya Waicharoen; Diep T. Nguyen; Tung Nguyen; Hanh H. T. Nguyen; Jae-Hong Kim; Long T. Hoang; Chun Kang; Lien S. Phuong; Wilina Lim; Sherif Zaki; Ruben O. Donis; Nancy J. Cox; Jacqueline M. Katz; Terrence M. Tumpey

2005-01-01

284

Complete Genome Sequence of a Wild-Type Measles Virus Isolated during the Spring 2013 Epidemic in Germany.  

PubMed

Measles virus induces an acute disease with rash and fever. Despite ongoing vaccination and elimination campaigns, the measles virus still sustains long-lasting transmission chains in Europe. Here we report the complete genome sequence of a wild-type measles virus isolated from a patient in Munich (MVi/Muenchen.DEU/19.13[D8]) during a German measles outbreak in 2013. PMID:24744323

Sparrer, Konstantin M J; Krebs, Stefan; Jäger, Gundula; Santibanez, Sabine; Mankertz, Annette; Blum, Helmut; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus

2014-01-01

285

Characterization of simian and human immunodeficiency chimeric viruses re-isolated from vaccinated macaque monkeys after challenge infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Monkeys that have been vaccinated with nef-deleted SHIVs were either fully or partially protected against challenge with acute pathogenic SHIV-89.6?P. Viruses isolated\\u000a from these vaccinated monkeys were all found to be the 89.6?P challenge virus using PCR amplification and restriction enzyme\\u000a analysis of the env region of the viruses. Analysis of the 3?-end of the env region and 5?-half of

T. B. Kwofie; T. Miura; K. Ibuki; Y. Enose; H. Suzuki; M. Ui; T. Kuwata; M. Hayami

2002-01-01

286

The use of mouse embryo cell cultures in primary isolation of chikungunya virus  

PubMed Central

Successful primary isolation of chikungunya virus from clinical specimens was carried out using mouse embryo cell cultures. Parallel isolation studies using the classical intracerebral inoculation of suckling mice showed that both systems are about equally sensitive. However, the mouse embryo cultures seem to have certain advantages over the use of mice; these include economy of materials and time, precision, and a greater uniformity of reaction. Furthermore, the infective tissue-culture fluid provides a more convenient source of complement-fixing antigen. Compared with other cell cultures, mouse embryo cultures have the advantage of being readily available in all arbovirus laboratories. The method should be particularly useful in epidemic situations. PMID:5317083

David-West, Tam S.

1971-01-01

287

Sequence determination of a quadripartite dsRNA virus isolated from Aspergillus foetidus.  

PubMed

Virus infection of Aspergillus foetidus was documented over 40 years ago and was one of the first mycovirus infections described in a filamentous fungus. The virus, named Aspergillus foetidus virus (AfV), contains at least two types of icosahedral particles, called AfV-fast (-F) and AfV-slow (-S) virions, based on their relative electrophoretic mobilities. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the AfV-F genome isolated from virions purified from the prototype isolate of the fungus. The AfV-F double-stranded (ds) RNA genome is tetra-segmented, and the plus strands of each of the four segments, but not the minus strands, are polyadenylated. The organisation and sequences of the four AfV-F dsRNAs are similar to those described for Alternaria alternata virus 1, which we propose is a member of an emerging mycovirus genus ("Alternavirus") and family ("Alternaviridae"), which also includes AfV-F. PMID:22760661

Kozlakidis, Zisis; Herrero, Noemi; Ozkan, Selin; Kanhayuwa, Lakkhana; Jamal, Atif; Bhatti, Muhammad F; Coutts, Robert H A

2013-01-01

288

Derivation of the nucleoproteins (NP) of influenza A viruses isolated from marine mammals.  

PubMed

The nucleoprotein (NP) genes of influenza viruses were sequenced from a variety of virus isolates derived from marine mammals: whales from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, seal and gull from the Western Atlantic, and a tern from the Caspian Sea. In comparison to published NP sequences, we found pairs of NPs derived from avian and marine mammal isolates to be closely related, e.g., the gull-whale and mallard-seal pairs from the Atlantic Coast of the USA and the tern-Pacific Ocean whale pair of the Eastern Hemisphere. Our analysis suggests that influenza viruses have been independently introduced into marine mammals from avian sources for each of our three examples. Furthermore, the closeness of the relationship in these avian-mammalian NP pairs indicates that the introductions are relatively recent. The sequences of these marine mammal NPs are avian-like and can be clearly distinguished from human NPs. Our results provide further support of interspecies transmission of influenza A viruses from the avian host reservoir directly to mammalian hosts. PMID:2330674

Mandler, J; Gorman, O T; Ludwig, S; Schroeder, E; Fitch, W M; Webster, R G; Scholtissek, C

1990-05-01

289

Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of Mucambo virus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex subtype IIIA) in Trinidad.  

PubMed

In the 1950s and 1960s, alphaviruses in the Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) antigenic complex were the most frequently isolated arboviruses in Trinidad. Since then, there has been very little research performed with these viruses. Herein, we report on the isolation, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses of Mucambo virus (MUCV; VEE complex subtype IIIA), including 6 recently isolated from Culex (Melanoconion) portesi mosquitoes and 11 previously isolated in Trinidad and Brazil. Results show that nucleotide and amino acid identities across the complete structural polyprotein for the MUCV isolates were 96.6-100% and 98.7-100%, respectively, and the phylogenetic tree inferred for MUCV was highly geographically- and temporally-structured. Bayesian analyses suggest that the sampled MUCV lineages have a recent common ancestry of approximately 198 years (with a 95% highest posterior density (HPD) interval of 63-448 years) prior to 2007, and an overall rate of evolution of 1.28 x 10(-4) substitutions/site/yr. PMID:19631956

Auguste, Albert J; Volk, Sara M; Arrigo, Nicole C; Martinez, Raymond; Ramkissoon, Vernie; Adams, A Paige; Thompson, Nadin N; Adesiyun, Abiodun A; Chadee, Dave D; Foster, Jerome E; Travassos Da Rosa, Amelia P A; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C; Carrington, Christine V F

2009-09-15

290

Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various terrestrial plants and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti–WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. The best anti–WSSV plant isolate, TP22C was isolated and further analyzed. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Seven plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug TP22C thus formulated showed 86% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of TP22C required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 86%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug TP22C derived from Momordica charantia is a potent anti-white spot syndrome virus drug. PMID:25183066

Ghosh, Upasana; Chakraborty, Somnath; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

2014-01-01

291

Genomic characterisation of two virulent Newcastle disease viruses isolated from crested ibis (Nipponia nippon) in China.  

PubMed

This paper describes the complete genomic sequences of two virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates, Shaanxi06 (prevalent genotype VIId) and Shaanxi10 (novel sub-genotype VIi), from sick crested ibises. The genomes of both isolates were 15,192nt long and consisted of six genes in the order of 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. The genomes of the two isolates were highly similar to other reference NDV strains. However, some unique features were found in the HN protein of Shaanxi06 and the F gene end of Shaanxi10. Shaanxi06 and Shaanxi10 shared the same virulent motif (112-)R-R-Q-K-R-F(-117) at the F protein cleavage site, which coincided with previous pathogenicity test results. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both isolates were clustered within class II NDV, with Shaanxi06 in genotype VII and Shaanxi10 in genotype VI. Both isolates shared high homology with the prevalent genotype NDV strains that circulate in fowls and waterfowls. This study is the first to provide genomic information about a novel sub-genotype VIi NDV strain and another genotype VIId virus, which will be useful for subsequent investigations. PMID:25281014

Hao, Huafang; Chen, Shengli; Wu, Pengpeng; Wang, Jie; Duan, Xuji; Du, Enqi; Wang, Xinglong; Yang, Zengqi

2014-12-15

292

Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea.  

PubMed

Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP) gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD) and single breakpoint recombination (SBP) analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS) below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea. PMID:25289003

Yoon, Ju Yeon; Joa, Jae Ho; Choi, Kyung San; Do, Ki Seck; Lim, Han Cheol; Chung, Bong Nam

2014-06-01

293

Isolation and partial characterisation of a new strain of Ebola virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a new strain of Ebola virus from a non-fatal human case infected during the autopsy of a wild chimpanzee in the Cote-d'Ivoire. The wild troop to which this animal belonged has been decimated by outbreaks of haemorrhagic syndromes. This is the first time that a human infection has been connected to naturally-infected monkeys in Africa. Data from

B. Le Guenno; P Formentry; M. Wyers; P. Gounon; F. Walker; C. Boesch

1995-01-01

294

Complete Genome Sequence of Nervous Necrosis Virus Isolated from Sevenband Grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus) in South Korea  

PubMed Central

The draft genome sequence of the nervous necrosis virus (NNV) SGYeosu08, isolated from sevenband grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus) in Yeosu, South Korea, was cloned and analyzed. The full-length RNA1 was a 3,103-nucleotide-encoding region of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the RNA2 encoding a coat protein was 1,433 nucleotides in length. This genome sequence might be useful in the development of an accurate diagnostic tool. PMID:25502666

Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Cho, Jae-Kwon; Kim, Kyong-Min; Son, Maeng-Hyun

2014-01-01

295

Agroinoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana with cloned honeysuckle yellow vein virus isolated from Lonicera japonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new honeysuckle yellow vein geminivirus (HYVV) isolate (2,763 nucleotides) and the HYVV-? satellite (1,227 nucleotides)\\u000a from Korea were cloned and characterized from symptomatic leaves of Lonicera japonica with a yellow net mosaic appearance. Phylogenetic analysis of HYVV and 13 other begomoviruses revealed that HYVV has the\\u000a highest nucleotide sequence homology to HYVV-UK2. Grafting challenge of a virus-free L. japonica

Gunsup Lee; Sunghan Kim; Jihye Jung; Chung-Kyoon Auh; Eunseok Choi; Mooung Chang; Sukchan Lee

2011-01-01

296

Ultrastructural Characterisation of isolate 127 of egg drop syndrome 1976 virus as an adenovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus isolate 127 causing egg drop syndrome 1976 was purified and examined by electron microscopy. In CsCl equilibrium density gradients three bands could be visualised. Two bands at an apparent density of 1.32 g\\/ml, which could not be separated by fractionation, harboured high amounts of HA?activity and infectivity. Electron microscopic examination of these bands revealed particles of typical adenovirus morphology.

V. Kraft; S. Grund; G. Monreal

1979-01-01

297

Characterization of Tomato bushy stunt virus newly isolated from nipplefruit ( Solanum mammosum ) in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was isolated from nipplefruit (Solanum mammosum) in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, with mosaic symptoms, leaf deformation, and stunting. The genomic structure of the TBSV-nipplefruit strain (TBSV-Nf) is identical to that of the TBSV-cherry strain (TBSV-Ch). Transcripts from its full-length cDNA clone without a cap analog at the 5' terminus infected Nicotiana glutinosa, Nicotiana benthamiana, S. mammosum,

Takehiro Ohki; Seiji Uematsu; Dietrich-Eckhardt Lesemann; Yohachiro Honda; Shinya Tsuda; Ichiro Fujisawa

2005-01-01

298

Genetic Structure and Molecular Variability of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolates in the United States  

PubMed Central

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has a worldwide distribution and the widest host range of any known plant virus. From 2000 to 2012, epidemics of CMV severely affected the production of snap bean (Phaseulos vulgaris L.) in the Midwest and Northeastern United States. Virus diversity leading to emergence of new strains is often considered a significant factor in virus epidemics. In addition to epidemics, new disease phenotypes arising from genetic exchanges or mutation can compromise effectiveness of plant disease management strategies. Here, we captured a snapshot of genetic variation of 32 CMV isolates collected from different regions of the U.S including new field as well as historic isolates. Nucleotide diversity (?) was low for U.S. CMV isolates. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CMV subgroup I is predominant in the US and further showed that the CMV population is a mixture of subgroups IA and IB. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggests likely reassortment between subgroups IA and IB within five CMV isolates. Based on phylogenetic and computational analysis, recombination between subgroups I and II as well as IA and IB in RNA 3 was detected. This is the first report of recombination between CMV subgroups I and II. Neutrality tests illustrated that negative selection was the major force operating upon the CMV genome, although some positively selected sites were detected for all encoded proteins. Together, these data suggest that different regions of the CMV genome are under different evolutionary constraints. These results also delineate composition of the CMV population in the US, and further suggest that recombination and reassortment among strain subgroups does occur but at a low frequency, and point towards CMV genomic regions that differ in types of selection pressure. PMID:24801880

Nouri, Shahideh; Arevalo, Rafael; Falk, Bryce W.; Groves, Russell L.

2014-01-01

299

Genetic structure and molecular variability of Cucumber mosaic virus isolates in the United States.  

PubMed

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has a worldwide distribution and the widest host range of any known plant virus. From 2000 to 2012, epidemics of CMV severely affected the production of snap bean (Phaseulos vulgaris L.) in the Midwest and Northeastern United States. Virus diversity leading to emergence of new strains is often considered a significant factor in virus epidemics. In addition to epidemics, new disease phenotypes arising from genetic exchanges or mutation can compromise effectiveness of plant disease management strategies. Here, we captured a snapshot of genetic variation of 32 CMV isolates collected from different regions of the U.S including new field as well as historic isolates. Nucleotide diversity (?) was low for U.S. CMV isolates. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CMV subgroup I is predominant in the US and further showed that the CMV population is a mixture of subgroups IA and IB. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggests likely reassortment between subgroups IA and IB within five CMV isolates. Based on phylogenetic and computational analysis, recombination between subgroups I and II as well as IA and IB in RNA 3 was detected. This is the first report of recombination between CMV subgroups I and II. Neutrality tests illustrated that negative selection was the major force operating upon the CMV genome, although some positively selected sites were detected for all encoded proteins. Together, these data suggest that different regions of the CMV genome are under different evolutionary constraints. These results also delineate composition of the CMV population in the US, and further suggest that recombination and reassortment among strain subgroups does occur but at a low frequency, and point towards CMV genomic regions that differ in types of selection pressure. PMID:24801880

Nouri, Shahideh; Arevalo, Rafael; Falk, Bryce W; Groves, Russell L

2014-01-01

300

Macrophage Transcriptional Responses following In Vitro Infection with a Highly Virulent African Swine Fever Virus Isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a porcine microarray containing 2,880 cDNAs to investigate the response of macrophages to infection by a virulent African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolate, Malawi LIL20\\/1. One hundred twenty-five targets were found to be significantly altered at either or both 4 h and 16 h postinfection compared with targets after mock infection. These targets were assigned into three groups

Fuquan Zhang; Paul Hopwood; Charles C. Abrams; Alison Downing; Frazer Murray; Richard Talbot; Alan Archibald; Stewart Lowden; Linda K. Dixon

2006-01-01

301

Complete genome analysis of a highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus isolated from a tiger in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

An influenza A virus (A\\/Tig\\/SH\\/01\\/2005 (H5N1) was isolated from lung tissue samples of a dead zoo tiger with respiratory disease\\u000a in China in July 2005. Complete genome analysis indicated that the isolate was highly identical to an H5N1 virus isolated\\u000a from a migratory duck at Poyang lake in China in that year. The genotype of the isolate was K,G,D,5J,F,1J,F,1E, and

Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq; Huang Juan; Ping Jiang; Yufeng Li; TianXian Li; Yijun Du; Muhammad Mahmood Mukhtar

2008-01-01

302

Phylogenetic and biological characterization of virulent Newcastle disease viruses isolated in wild birds during 2002-2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As part of a West Nile virus surveillance program in the Houston Metropolitan Area and in Rhode Island, extracts from brain from 5608 dead birds representing 21 avian orders, were cultured in Vero cells. Sixteen Newcastle disease virus isolates were recovered from birds of the order Columbiformes. ...

303

Complete genome sequence of a velogenic newcastle disease virus isolated from an apparently healthy village chicken in South India.  

PubMed

We report the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate, NDV-D1/1998, from an apparently healthy village chicken in South India. This class II, genotype II virus is 15,186 nucleotides in length with unique amino acid variations and was found to be a velogenic pathotype by standard pathogenicity tests. PMID:24948766

Uthrakumar, Arumugam; Vijayarani, Kumanan; Kumanan, Kathaperumal; Bhuvaneswari, Srinivasan; Kuchipudi, Suresh Varma; Elankumaran, Subbiah

2014-01-01

304

Complete Genome Sequence of a Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from an Apparently Healthy Village Chicken in South India  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate, NDV-D1/1998, from an apparently healthy village chicken in South India. This class II, genotype II virus is 15,186 nucleotides in length with unique amino acid variations and was found to be a velogenic pathotype by standard pathogenicity tests. PMID:24948766

Uthrakumar, Arumugam; Vijayarani, Kumanan; Kumanan, Kathaperumal; Bhuvaneswari, Srinivasan; Kuchipudi, Suresh Varma

2014-01-01

305

Evaluation and optimization of avian embryos and cell culture methods for efficient isolation and propagation of avian influenza viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surveillance of wild bird populations for avian influenza viruses (AIV) contributes to our understanding of AIV evolution and ecology. Both real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) and virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs (ECE) are standard methods for detecting A...

306

Molecular characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in Sweden in 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The analysis of the nonstructural (NS) gene of the highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) isolated in Sweden early 2006 indicated the co-circulation of two sub-lineages of these viruses at that time. In order to complete the information on their genetic features and relation to other HP H5N1 AIVs the seven additional genes of twelve Swedish isolates

István Kiss; Péter Gyarmati; Siamak Zohari; Karin Wilbe Ramsay; Giorgi Metreveli; Elisabeth Weiss; Maria Brytting; Marielle Stivers; Sofia Lindström; Ake Lundkvist; Kirill Nemirov; Peter Thorén; Mikael Berg; György Czifra; Sándor Belák

2008-01-01

307

[Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of Chatanga virus strains, the new representative of California encephalitis serocomplex, isolated in different regions of the Russian Federation].  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequences of the S segment and the fragments of M and L segments (on 900 and 410 nucleotides, respectively) were determined in 14 California encephalitis serocomplex (CES) strains isolated from different regions of the Russian Federation. Phylogenetic analysis by the sequences of genomic S, M, and L segments indicated that all Russian strains were an individual independent CES virus. The new virus is named Chatanga for the place of isolation of one of the strains. Two genetic groups of Chatanga virus have been identified. Snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) virus and La Crosse virus are closest to Chatanga virus among CES viruses. PMID:19172903

Lavrent'ev, M V; Prilipov, A G; L'vov, S D; L'vov, D K

2008-01-01

308

Citrus Viruses in Guatemala: Application of Laboratory-Based Assays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In preparation for a citrus certification in Guatemala, there was an urgent need to determine which graft transmissible citrus pathogens were present. Because of the lack of biological indicator plants, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent for citrus variegated chlorosis...

309

Molecular characterization of Korean Pepper mottle virus isolates and its relationship to symptom variations.  

PubMed

The symptom variations among Korean Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV) isolates infecting pepper, tomato and potato were described and the cause of variations in relation to molecular variability were investigated. In addition, the entire genome of the 13 PepMoV isolates, collected from five provinces (Kyonggi, Chungnam, Gyeongnam, Jeonbuk and Jeonnam) in Korea, were determined and compared including the previously reported Korean-Vb isolate and 2 other PepMoV isolates isolated from America (CA and FL). Our results showed that the nucleotide sequence of all Korean isolates tested were nearly identical (98-99%) and only 94% similar to American isolates. In general, the complete nucleotide sequences and deduced polyprotein sequences indicated low genetic variation among isolates showing 0.1-3% nucleotide changes per site. However, based on ratio between nucleotide diversity values in nonsynonymous and synonymous position (dN/dS ratio) surprisingly, P1 and 6K2 genes showed relatively high nucleotide substitution ratio (0.8 and 1.0 nucleotide, respectively). When the 6K2 amino acid were aligned, there were 15 amino acid substitutions found in PepMoV-infected potato and only 1 amino acid change from two isolates of PepMoV-infected bell pepper. Interestingly, three isolates including isolate numbers 731, 205135 and 205136 that possessed different aa changes at 6K2 region also showed distinct symptom differentiation in indicator hosts and cosegregated in the phylogenetic analysis. These results further proved previous studies that P1 and 6K2 genes with other proteins might have some involvement on host specificity and pathogenicity. PMID:19374928

Kim, Yu-Jeong; Jonson, Miranda Gilda; Choi, Hong Soo; Ko, Sug-Ju; Kim, Kook-Hyung

2009-09-01

310

A highly divergent Encephalomyocarditis virus isolated from nonhuman primates in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Background In 2001 and 2002, fatal myocarditis resulted in the sudden deaths of four, two adult and two juvenile, orang utans out of a cohort of 26 in the Singapore Zoological Gardens. Methods Of the four orang utans that underwent post-mortem examination, virus isolation was performed from the tissue homogenates of the heart and lung obtained from the two juvenile orang utans in Vero cell cultures. The tissue culture fluid was examined using electron microscopy. Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction with Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV)-specific primers targeting the gene regions of VP3/VP1 and 3D polymerase (3Dpol) confirmed the virus genus and species. The two EMCV isolates were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the virus genes performed. Serological testing on other animal species in the Singapore Zoological Gardens was also conducted. Results Electron microscopy of the two EMCV isolates, designated Sing-M100-02 and Sing-M105-02, revealed spherical viral particles of about 20 to 30 nm, consistent with the size and morphology of members belonging to the family Picornaviridae. In addition, infected-Vero cells showed positive immunoflorescence staining with antiserum to EMCV. Sequencing of the viral genome showed that the two EMCV isolates were 99.9% identical at the nucleotide level, indicating a similar source of origin. When compared with existing EMCV sequences in the VP1 and 3Dpol gene regions, the nucleotide divergence were at a maximum of 38.8% and 23.6% respectively, while the amino acid divergence were at a maximum of 33.9% and 11.3% respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of VP1 and 3Dpol genes further grouped the Sing-M100-02 and Sing-M105-02 isolates to themselves, away from existing EMCV lineages. This strongly suggested that Sing-M100-02 and Sing-M105-02 isolates are highly divergent variants of EMCV. Apart from the two deceased orang utans, a serological survey conducted among other zoo animals showed that a number of other animal species had neutralizing antibodies to Sing-M105-02 isolate, indicating that the EMCV variant has a relatively wide host range. Conclusions The etiological agent responsible for the fatal myocarditis cases among two of the four orang utans in the Singapore Zoological Gardens was a highly divergent variant of EMCV. This is the first report of an EMCV infection in Singapore and South East Asia. PMID:23914943

2013-01-01

311

Identification of a new Newcastle disease virus isolate from Indonesia represents an ancestral lineage of class II genotype XIII.  

PubMed

An unknown virus was isolated from a mosquito pool collected in Jakarta during routine surveillance in 1979. Analysis of the sample using the Illumina platform resulted in the identification of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate. The sequence of the isolate indicated that it is an ancestral lineage of class II, genotype XIII. The source of the isolate is unusual, as newcastle disease virus is not believed to be vector-borne, although this mosquito pool was processed in a laboratory also handling samples for avian influenza surveillance and it is possible that this resulted in cross-contamination. This NDV isolate is still ancestral to most extant genotype XIII strains and provides a useful insight into historic NDV evolution. PMID:23584722

Forrester, Naomi L; Widen, Steve G; Wood, Thomas G; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Vasilakis, Nikos; Tesh, Robert B

2013-08-01

312

[Isolation, identification and full-length genome sequence analysis of encephalomyocarditis virus from local aardvarks].  

PubMed

Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a natural epidemic zoonotic pathogen. However, no reports have been published regarding the isolation, identification and full-length genome of EMCV from a local aardvark population. In present study, an EMCV isolate HNXX13 was isolated from aardvarks named Huainan-pig in Henan Province. The systematic identification, full-length genome sequencing and molecular characteristic analysis of the isolate HNXX13 were conducted. The result showed that the isolate was spherical with a diameter of 24-30 nm, neither heat- nor acid-resistant, sensitive to trypsin, insensitive to chloroform, not protected by bivalent cationic, and the specific fluorescence was observed in the cytoplasm of BHK-21 cells infected with the isolate by using indirect fluorescence assay. The full-length genome of EMCV HNXX13 generated a 7 725bp sequence (GenBank: F771002), with 81.0%-99.9% nucleotide identity to reference strains from different animals, and 99.5% with a Chinese reference strain isolated earlier from a commercial pig herd. The phylogenetic tree based on the full-length genome and ORF sequences identified that all EMCV strains were divided into three groups G1, G2 and G3, and strain HNXX13 belonging to the G1 group with other Chinese reference strains. The result also identified that this EMCV infection could cause severe clinical signs in a local aardvark population, and enriches the molecular epidemiological data of EMCV in China. Regional differences exist in EMCV genome and transmission is limited within a certain area. However, the cross-infection and transmission of EMCV between aardvark and mice appears most likely. Mutations have occurred in some amino acids of EMCV strain HNXX13 during the transmission in local aardvark herd and these mutations might make the virus easier to infect the aardvark. PMID:25272589

Chang, Hong-Tao; Liu, Hui-Min; He, Xiu-Yuan; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Lu; Wang, Xin-Wei; Yang, Xia; Yao, Hui-Xia; Wang, Chuan-Qing

2014-07-01

313

Adaptation and growth kinetics study of an Indian isolate of virulent duck enteritis virus in Vero cells.  

PubMed

Duck virus enteritis, also known as duck plague, is a viral infection of ducks caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV). The control of the disease is mainly done by vaccination with chicken embryo adapted live virus that is known to be poorly immunogenic and elicits only partial protection. Further, the embryo propagated vaccine virus pose a threat of harboring other infectious agents. Seeing these limitations, the present study reports for the first time regarding propagation and adaptation of a virulent Indian isolate of duck enteritis virus in Vero cell line. In this study isolation of an outbreak virus from Kerala state was done in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEF). Then adapted the DEV isolate in the Vero cell line. The characteristic cytopathic effects (CPE) of clumping and fusion of Vero cells were observed starting from the 7th passage onwards. The presence of the virus and its multiplication in Vero cells was confirmed by detection of viral specific DNA and antigen by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immuno fluorescent assay (IIFA), respectively. PCR detection of DEV using self designed primers for US4 (gD) and UL30 (DNA Polymerase) gene has been reported for the in the present study. The kinetics of DEV in Vero cells revealed a maximum infectivity titer of 10(5.6) TCID 50/ml after 48hr of viral infection. Compared to chicken embryo adapted DVE vaccine virus, the Vero cell culture system is free from other infectious agents. So it will be a good candidate for cultivation and propagation of duck enteritis virus vaccine strain. Further research studies are suggested to explore the feasibility of utilizing this Vero cell culture adapted DEV isolate for developing an attenuated vaccine virus against duck virus enteritis. PMID:25450886

Aravind, S; Kamble, Nitin M; Gaikwad, Satish S; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan

2015-01-01

314

Molecular identification of Cucumber mosaic virus isolates of subgroup IB associated with mosaic disease of eggplant in India.  

PubMed

Association of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) with severe mosaic disease of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) collected from Lucknow and Kanpur, India was initially detected by host reaction and serological assay and confirmed by RT-PCR employing coat protein gene specific primers. Further, molecular identification of the virus isolates was done by cloning and sequence analysis of the complete RNA3 genome. Based on 97-99 % identities and phylogenetic relationships, the virus isolates infecting eggplant were identified as members of CMV subgroup IB. PMID:24426321

Kumar, Susheel; Gautam, Karmveer Kumar; Raj, Shri Krishna

2014-01-01

315

Influenza A viruses isolated from waterfowl in two wildlife management areas of Pennsylvania.  

PubMed

A survey was conducted at two wildlife management areas of Pennsylvania (USA) to evaluate an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) for the detection of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in cloacal swabs from waterfowl and to determine the influenza A virus subtypes and the distribution of these viruses among waterfowl. We collected 330 cloacal swabs from hunter-killed waterfowl in the fall of 1990 and from cage-captured waterfowl in the summer of 1991. Thirty-one hemagglutinating agents were isolated by chicken embryo inoculation (CEI) of which 27 were influenza A viruses and four Newcastle disease viruses (NDV). The prevalence of AIV infection was 8.2%. Compared to CEI, AC-ELISA was only 15% sensitive and 61% specific. Based on the distribution of AIV by species of waterfowl, mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and American wigeons (Anas americana) were at equal risk of AIV infection even though most of the AIV isolates came from mallards. Although significant crude effects of sampling site and season on AIV recovery could be established, juvenile age was identified as the primary risk factor of AIV recovery. Twelve AIV subtypes were identified by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) tests. The most prevalent subytpes were H4N8 and H6N8. We concluded that AC-ELISA was not useful for the detection of AIV in cloacal swabs from waterfowl and that CEI, HI, and NI tests remain as the method of choice for AIV screening in waterfowl. Based on the results AIV infected preferentially the young which represent the high risk group in waterfowl populations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8583635

Alfonso, C P; Cowen, B S; van Campen, H

1995-04-01

316

Isolation and characterization of a variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in China  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of diarrhea in pigs started in Guangdong, South China in January 2011. Cases were characterized by watery diarrhea, dehydration and vomiting, with 80–100% morbidity and 50–90% mortality in suckling piglets. The causative agent of the diarrhea was ultimately identified as porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). In this study, we isolated a PEDV strain designated CHGD-01 from piglet intestines using Vero cell cultures, and its specific cytopathic effects were confirmed in susceptible cells by direct immunofluorescence testing and electron microscopy. The complete genome of CHGD-01 was shown to be 28,035 nucleotides in length, with a similar structure to that of PEDV reference strains. Phylogenetic analyses based on the whole genome revealed that CHGD-01 shared nucleotide sequence identities of 98.2–98.4% with two other Chinese isolates reported in the same year, thus constituting a new cluster. Amino acid sequence analysis based on individual virus genes indicated a close relationship between the spike protein gene of CHGD-01 and the field strain KNU0802 in Korea. Its ORF3 and nucleoprotein genes, however, were divergent from all other sequenced PEDV isolate clusters and therefore formed a new group, suggesting a new variant PEDV isolate in China. Further studies will be required to determine the immunogenicity and pathogenicity of this new variant. PMID:22967434

2012-01-01

317

Genetic and antigenic characterization of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2 isolated from cattle in India.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) subtype b is predominantly circulating in Indian cattle. During testing for exotic pestiviruses between 2007 and 2010, BVDV-2 was identified by real time RT-PCR in two of 1446 cattle blood samples originating from thirteen states of India. The genetic analysis of the isolated virus in 5' UTR, N(pro), entire structural genes (C, E(rns), E1 and E2), nonstructural genes NS2-3 besides 3' UTR demonstrated that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed highest similarity with BVDV-2. The entire 5' and 3' UTR consisted of 387 and 204 nucleotides, respectively, and an eight nucleotide repeat motif was found twice within the variable part of 3' UTR that may be considered as a characteristic of BVDV-2. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cattle isolate and earlier reported goat BVDV-2 isolate fall into separate clades within BVDV-2a subtype. Antigenic typing with monoclonal antibodies verified the cattle isolate also as BVDV-2. In addition, cross-neutralization tests using antisera raised against Indian BVDV strains circulating in ruminants (cattle, sheep, goat and yak) displayed significant antigenic differences only between BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 strains. This is the first identification of BVDV-2 in Indian cattle that may have important implications for immunization strategies and molecular epidemiology of BVD. PMID:21112633

Behera, Sthita Pragnya; Mishra, Niranjan; Vilcek, Stefan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Nema, Ram Kumar; Prakash, Anil; Kalaiyarasu, S; Dubey, Shiv Chandra

2011-03-01

318

Molecular characterization of an infectious bronchitis virus strain isolated from an outbreak in vaccinated layers.  

PubMed

An infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain CT/7852/97 was isolated from a commercial layer flock experiencing decreased egg production and poor egg quality. Reciprocal virus neutralization test demonstrated that the isolate was closely related to Massachusetts, Arkansas, and JMK. With the use of both reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and multiplex polymerase chain reaction methods, results consistently showed that CT/7852/97 isolate was Massachusetts serotype specific only. The nucleotide sequence of S1 polypeptide coding region of CT/7852/97 was determined and compared with the published sequences of 12 IBV strains from North America. The highest nucleotide homology with H120 (97%) and the least homology (62%) with Delaware (De/072/92) were observed. Massachusetts 41 and Beaudette shared 94% and 93%, respectively, nucleotide similarity with CT/7852/97, and Connecticut, JMK, and Arkansas 99 had 94%, 83%, and 78%, respectively, nucleotide similarity with CT/7852/97. Furthermore, no possible recombination site on S1 gene among Massachusetts 41, Arkansas 99, and JMK was detected in the isolate. PMID:11195625

Wang, X; Khan, M I

2000-01-01

319

Biochemical analysis of murine leukemia viruses isolated from radiation-induced leukemias of strain BALB/c  

SciTech Connect

Murine leukemia viruses isolated from radiation-induced BALB/c leukemias were characterized with respect to viral proteins and RNA. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral structural proteins revealed that for p12, p15, p30, and gp70, three to four electrophoretic variants of each could be detected. There was no correlation found between any of these mobilities and N- or B-tropism of the viruses. Proteins of all xenotropic viral isolates were identical in their gel electrophoretic profiles. The similar phenotypes of multiple viral clones from individual leukemias and of isolates grown in different cells suggest that the polymorphism of ecotropic viruses was generated in vivo rather than during in vitro virus growth. By two-dimensional fingerprinting of RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotides from 70S viral RNA, the previously reported association of N- and B-tropism with two distinct oligonucleotides was confirmed. The presence of two other oligonucleotides was correlated with positive and negative phenotypes of the virus-coded G/sub IX/ cell surface antigen. The RNAs of two B-tropic isolates with distinctive p15 and p12 phenotypes differed from the RNA of a prototype N-tropic virus by the absence of three oligonucleotides mapping in the 5' portion (gag region) of the prototype RNA. In addition, one small-plaque B-tropic virus displayed extensive changes in the RNA sequences associated with the env region of the prototype.

Ellis, R.W. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY); Hopkins, N.; Fleissner, E.

1980-02-01

320

Characterization of pigeon paramyxoviruses (Newcastle disease virus) isolated in Kazakhstan in 2005.  

PubMed

Isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from deceased wild and domestic pigeons in Kazakhstan were obtained from the Almaty region during 2005 and were genotypically analyzed by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with primers specific to the viral fusion (F) protein gene. Part of the amplified F protein DNA product (nucleotide sequence 47-422) and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared phylogenetically with those from strains previously reported in other geographic regions. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Kazakhstanian pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) isolates belong to genotype VI or 4bii. To our knowledge, this is the first reported VI isolates that possess the sequences of ¹¹²GKRQKR¹¹? * F¹¹? within the F0 protein. The information is fundamental to improving the efficiency of control strategies and vaccine development for NDV. PMID:22492000

Bogoyavlenskiy, Andrey; Berezin, Vladimir; Prilipov, Alexey; Usachev, Eugeniy; Korotetskiy, Ilya; Zaitceva, Irina; Kydyrmanov, Aydyn; Sayatov, Marat

2012-04-01

321

Isolation and characterization of mayaro virus from a human in acre, Brazil.  

PubMed

Mayaro virus (MAYV) is widely distributed throughout South America and is the etiologic agent of Mayaro fever, an acute febrile illness often presenting with arthralgic manifestations. The true incidence of MAYV infection is likely grossly underestimated because the symptomatic presentation is very similar to that of dengue fever and other acute febrile tropical diseases. We report the complete genome sequence of a MAYV isolate detected from an Acrelândia patient presenting with fever, chills, and sweating, but with no arthralgia. Results show that this isolate belongs to genotype D and is closely related to Bolivian strains. Our results suggest that the Acre/Mayaro strain is closely related to the progenitor of these Bolivian strains that were isolated between 2002 and 2006. PMID:25510721

Terzian, Ana Carolina B; Auguste, Albert J; Vedovello, Danila; Ferreira, Marcelo U; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Sperança, Márcia A; Suzuki, Rodrigo B; Juncansen, Camila; Araújo, João P; Weaver, Scott C; Nogueira, Maurício L

2015-02-01

322

Isolation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus from Saker falcons (Falco cherrug) in the Middle East.  

PubMed

There is accumulating evidence that birds of prey are susceptible to fatal infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. We studied the antigenic, molecular, phylogenetic, and pathogenic properties of 2 HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated from dead falcons in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait in 2005 and 2007, respectively. Phylogenetic and antigenic analyses grouped both isolates in clade 2.2 (Qinghai-like viruses). However, the viruses appeared to have spread westward via different flyways. It remains unknown how these viruses spread so rapidly from Qinghai after the 2005 outbreak and how they were introduced into falcons in these two countries. The H5N1 outbreaks in the Middle East are believed by some to be mediated by wild migratory birds. However, sporting falcons may be at additional risk from the illegal import of live quail to feed them. PMID:20148178

Marjuki, Henju; Wernery, Ulrich; Yen, Hui-Ling; Franks, John; Seiler, Patrick; Walker, David; Krauss, Scott; Webster, Robert G

2009-01-01

323

Genetic characterization of avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza viruses isolated from Guangdong during 2006-2012.  

PubMed

Canine influenza virus (CIV) is an emerging pathogen that causes severe and acute respiratory disease in dogs. In 2006, the H3N2 canine influenza virus was first identified in dogs from Guangdong province in China. Up to now, nine CIVs have been isolated from different populations in Guangdong. The nine isolates were grouped together with the canine H3N2 viruses isolated from dogs and felines in Korea, when the eight phylogenetic trees constructed were compared. These findings emphasize the importance of CIV surveillance in this region for understanding the genesis of this virus, and it is important to remain aware of the potential of H3N2 CIV to be transmitted from dogs to the human population. PMID:23463173

Wang, Heng; Jia, Kun; Qi, Wenbao; Zhang, Minze; Sun, Long; Liang, Huanbin; Du, Guohao; Tan, Likai; Shao, Zhenwen; Ye, Jiahui; Sun, Lingshuang; Cao, Zhenpeng; Chen, Ye; Zhou, Pei; Su, Shuo; Li, Shoujun

2013-06-01

324

HoMuLV: a novel pathogenic ecotropic virus isolated from the European mouse, Mus hortulanus.  

PubMed

We isolated a novel infectious murine leukemia virus (HoMuLV) from the wild mouse Mus hortulanus. HoMuLV has an ecotropic virus host range, but the viral DNA fails to hybridize to viral envelope segments specific for the known inbred and wild mouse ecotropic as well as nonecotropic MuLVs. Despite this difference in its env gene, HoMuLV appears to use the same ecotropic cell-surface receptor since it infects only hamster and mouse somatic cell hybrids which contain the Rec-1 ecotropic virus receptor on chromosome 5. Furthermore, HoMuLV does not infect mice carrying the Fv-4r allele which is thought to prevent ecotropic virus infection through an interference mechanism. HoMuLV is NB-tropic and, unlike other infectious MuLVs, does not grow in cells derived from the wild mouse species. M. dunni. Five to ten months after neonatal inoculation with HoMuLV, 72% of female NIH Swiss mice (8/11) contracted lymphoma or erythroid leukemia, but 33% of the inoculated males (5/15) developed erythroid or myelogenous leukemia within 8-16 months. These data suggest that NIH Swiss males and females differ in their susceptibility to HoMuLV-induced disease. Furthermore, NIH Swiss mice were found to be more susceptible to HoMuLV-induced disease than NFS/N mice. Tumors contained infectious MCF virus, which is consistent with the hypothesis that MCF virus may mediate tumorigenesis by HoMuLV. PMID:2841796

Voytek, P; Kozak, C

1988-08-01

325

INFLUENCE OF COAT PROTEIN TRANSGENE COPY NUMBER ON RESISTANCE IN TRANSGENIC LINE 63-1 AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS ISOLATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Line 63-1 is a ‘Sunset’-derived transgenic papaya expressing the coat protein (CP) gene from a mild mutant of a Hawaiian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Previous work showed that line 63-1 R1 plants exhibited a range of resistance to severe PRSV isolates from Hawaii (HA), Jamaica (JA), Thai...

326

Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from a Rock Dove (Columba livia) in the Russian Federation  

PubMed Central

We report here the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate, NDV/Altai/pigeon/770/2011, isolated from a rock dove in the Russian Federation. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, this strain was clustered into genotype VIb class II. PMID:25635008

Sivay, Mariya V.; Glushchenko, Alexandra V.; Alkhovsky, Sergey V.; Shchetinin, Alexey M.; Shchelkanov, Michail Y.; Shestopalov, Alexander M.

2015-01-01

327

Pathogenesis and antigenic characterization of a new East European subtype 3 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is divided into a European and North American genotype. East European PRRSV isolates have been found to be of the European genotype, but form different subtypes. In the present study, PRRSV was isolated from a Belarusian farm with reproductive and respiratory failure and designated \\

Uladzimir U Karniychuk; Marc Geldhof; Merijn Vanhee; Jan Van Doorsselaere; Tamara A Saveleva; Hans J Nauwynck

2010-01-01

328

Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from a Rock Dove (Columba livia) in the Russian Federation.  

PubMed

We report here the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate, NDV/Altai/pigeon/770/2011, isolated from a rock dove in the Russian Federation. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, this strain was clustered into genotype VIb class II. PMID:25635008

Yurchenko, Kseniya S; Sivay, Mariya V; Glushchenko, Alexandra V; Alkhovsky, Sergey V; Shchetinin, Alexey M; Shchelkanov, Michail Y; Shestopalov, Alexander M

2015-01-01

329

Whole-Genome Sequence of a Reassortant H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from a Live Poultry Market in China, 2013  

PubMed Central

An avian influenza virus, A/environment/Zhenjiang/C13/2013(H5N6), was isolated from a live poultry market in eastern China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate was a novel reassortant virus with a neuraminidase (NA) gene from H6N6 viruses and the other seven genes from H5N1 viruses, which may pose a potential threat to human and animal health. PMID:25212611

Qi, Xian; Cui, Lunbiao; Yu, Huiyan; Ge, Yiyue

2014-01-01

330

Molecular and biological properties of BK virus-IR, a BK virus variant isolated from a human tumor.  

PubMed Central

We describe the molecular and biological properties of BK virus (BKV)-IR, a new BKV variant isolated from a human tumor of pancreatic islets. BKV-IR bears a 253-base-pair (bp) deletion and an 80-bp insertion in the early region of the genome. The deletion abolishes the expression of small-t antigen. The inserted sequences, grouped in four clusters, produce rearrangements in the first and second enhancer elements. They are bound by 12-bp direct repeats and could form a 217-base stem-loop structure suggestive of an insertion sequence. As compared with wild-type BKV, BKV-IR transformed hamster cells with a reduced efficiency and induced ependymomas in hamsters at a lower frequency and with a longer latency period. Tumors induced by BKV-IR, however, showed features of higher malignancy. The possible role of the insertion sequence-like element in transformation by BKV-IR is discussed. Images PMID:3016311

Pagnani, M; Negrini, M; Reschiglian, P; Corallini, A; Balboni, P G; Scherneck, S; Macino, G; Milanesi, G; Barbanti-Brodano, G

1986-01-01

331

Molecular characterization of an influenza A virus (H4N2) isolated from waterfowl habitats in the State of Mexico.  

PubMed

Wild waterfowl and their habitats are the main reservoirs of influenza A virus (IAV) mainly during the breeding season and prior to migration. This study describes the molecular characterization of an IAV isolated from 240 water samples of a small wetland during non-breeding season of migratory wild ducks in the State of Mexico, Mexico. The results showed that the virus belongs to the H4N2 subtype and each of its eight segments of the viral genome has similarity to IAV isolated from ducks in North America. This study suggests that IAV can be isolated from small wetland during non-breeding season of migrating waterfowl. PMID:25482497

Ornelas-Eusebio, Erika; Obregón-Ascencio, Alejandro; Chávez-Maya, Fernando; García-Espinosa, Gary

2014-12-01

332

A novel highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza virus isolated from a wild duck in China.  

PubMed

Migrating wild birds are considered natural reservoirs of influenza viruses and serve as a potential source of novel influenza strains in humans and livestock. During routine avian influenza surveillance conducted in eastern China, a novel H5N8 (SH-9) reassortant influenza virus was isolated from a mallard duck in China. blast analysis revealed that the HA, NA, PB1, PA, NP, and M segments of SH-9 were most closely related to the corresponding segments of A/duck/Jiangsu/k1203/2010 (H5N8). The SH-9 virus preferentially recognized avian-like influenza virus receptors and was highly pathogenic in mice. Our results suggest that wild birds could acquire the H5N8 virus from breeding ducks and spread the virus via migratory bird flyways. PMID:25363159

Fan, Shengtao; Zhou, Lichen; Wu, Di; Gao, Xiaolong; Pei, Enle; Wang, Tianhou; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

2014-11-01

333

[Isolation of rabies virus from brain, salivary and interscapular glands, heart, lungs and testis of the bat Desmodus rotundus, in the State of São Paulo (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Rabies virus was isolated from the brain, salivary and interscapular (brown fat) glands, heart, lungs and testis of naturally infected vampire bat Desmodus rotundus found paralyzed in the day at Barueri, São Paulo State. The rabies virus isolations were made by intracerebral inoculation in 4-5 days and 30 days old mice. The virus strain was identified as rabies virus by the Sellers and Faraco (Mann) techniques, the fluorescent antibody test and intracerebral inoculation of mice. The isolation of virus from lungs and testis was made only in suckling mice. Only one of eight and two of eight mice inoculated died with rabies. PMID:1236047

Nilsson, M R; Nagata, C A

1975-01-01

334

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Iran, 2010-2012.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious viral disease and has been a constant threat to the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, partial sequences of ND virus (NDV) fusion genome collected from some provinces in Iran during 2010-2012 in vaccinated commercial farms were characterized and compared with other NDV sequences. All viruses showed the amino acid sequence 112 RRQKRF117 at the C-terminus of the F2 protein and phenylalanine at the N-terminus of the F1 protein, residue 117. These amino acid sequences were identical to a known virulent motif. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the Iranian ND isolates in this study are closely related to the genotype VIId of class II NDV strains. The emergence and identification of new sublineages provide an insight into the high rate of genetic drift occurring in NDV strains in Iran, and raise many concerns about the efficacy of current ND control measures in the country. PMID:25518430

Hosseini, Hossein; Langeroudi, Arash Ghalyanchi; Torabi, Reza

2014-09-01

335

Research note: the isolation of a herpes virus from captive cranes with an inclusion body disease  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A viral agent, identified as a herpesvirus and tentatively called 'inclusion body disease of cranes' (IBDC), was isolated from captive cranes involved in a die-off at the International Crane Foundation near Baraboo, Wisconsin. Preliminary animal susceptibility tests, based on experimental infections, suggested that White Pekin ducklings up to 17 days old and adult coots were susceptible to the IBDC virus whereas 16-day-old White Leghorn chicks and 64-day-old Muscovy ducks were not. No serum antibody to IBDC virus was detected in 95 wild sandhill cranes collected in Wisconsin or Indiana in 1976 and 1977. However, 9 of 11 captive cranes in the affected area at the ICF had antibody to this agent.

Docherty, D.E.; Henning, D.J.

1980-01-01

336

A comparison of virulence of influenza A virus isolates from mallards in experimentally inoculated turkeys.  

PubMed

Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) from wild waterfowl can and do cross species barriers, infecting and sometimes becoming established in domestic poultry. Turkeys are naturally highly susceptible to LPAIV infections, especially with viruses from ducks. In this study, we describe clinical signs and lesions in experimentally inoculated commercial turkeys produced by a LPAIV, A/mallard/MN/1714/09 (H7N1), isolated from a mallard duck. Our results demonstrate that this H7N1 isolate produced clinical signs, including severe edema of the head and face because of an early inflammatory response in both inoculated and contact turkeys. In comparison, an isolate, A/mallard/MN/2749/09 (H6N8) from the same mallard population, infected and was transmitted between naive turkeys but did not cause clinical disease or lesions. Our data indicate that proinflammatory (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6) and antiviral (IFN-gamma and IL-2) cytokines are expressed at different levels in H7N1- and H6N8-infected turkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These differences correlate inversely with clinical lesions, suggesting that differences in host responses result in variances in viral pathogenesis and in virulence of LPAIV in commercial turkeys. Based on these results, we can conclude that turkeys may exhibit variable immunologic responses to infection with different AIV strains. PMID:24597123

Mondal, Shankar; Xing, Zheng; Cardona, Carol

2013-12-01

337

Complete Genomic Sequences of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus G1 Strains Isolated in the European Rabbit Original Range  

PubMed Central

The complete genomic sequences of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains isolated in 1995 (CB137) and 2006 (CB194) from wild European rabbits from Portugal are described. The strains were isolated in the original range of the European rabbit and assigned to genogroup 1 (G1), which is known to have persisted only in the Iberian Peninsula. ORF2 of isolate CB137 might encode a shorter minor structural protein, VP10. PMID:23166278

Lopes, Ana M.; Esteves, Pedro J.

2012-01-01

338

Characteristics of a Lettuce mosaic virus Isolate Infecting Lettuce in Korea  

PubMed Central

Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) causes disease of plants in the family Asteraceae, especially lettuce crops. LMV isolates have previously been clustered in three main groups, LMV-Yar, LMV-Greek and LMVRoW. The first two groups, LMV-Yar and LMV-Greek, have similar characteristics such as no seed-borne transmission and non-resistance-breaking. The latter one, LMV-RoW, comprising a large percentage of the LMV isolates contains two large subgroups, LMV-Common and LMV-Most. To date, however, no Korean LMV isolate has been classified and characterized. In this study, LMV-Muju, the Korean LMV isolate, was isolated from lettuce showing pale green and mottle symptoms, and its complete genome sequence was determined. Classification method of LMV isolates based on nucleotide sequence divergence of the NIb-CP junction showed that LMV-Muju was categorized as LMV-Common. LMV-Muju was more similar to LMV-O (LMV-Common subgroup) than to LMV-E (LMV-RoW group but not LMV-Common subgroup) even in the amino acid domains of HC-Pro associated with pathogenicity, and in the CI and VPg regions related to ability to overcome resistance. Taken together, LMV-Muju belongs to the LMV-Common subgroup, and is expected to be a seed-borne, non-resistance-breaking isolate. According to our analysis, all other LMV isolates not previously assigned to a subgroup were also included in the LMV-RoW group. PMID:25289001

Lim, Seungmo; Zhao, Fumei; Yoo, Ran Hee; Igori, Davaajargal; Lee, Su-Heon; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

2014-01-01

339

Further support of genetic conservation in Indian isolates of Rice tungro bacilliform virus by sequence analysis of an isolate from North-Western India.  

PubMed

The genomic sequence of an isolate of Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), collected from the state of Punjab (Pb), a non-endemic tungro region from North-Western India was determined. In silico comparison of the 7931-bp sequence with isolates from Southeast Asia and the three previously characterized Indian isolates, revealed not only similar genome size to other Indian isolates but also high degree of homology both at nucleotide (>93 %) and amino acid (>96 %) levels among them. On the other hand, like the other Indian isolates, RTBV-Pb showed much lower nucleotide (<87 %) and amino acid (<90 % in most of the open reading frames) identities with the Southeast Asian isolates owing to several nucleotide substitutions and indels. In-depth annotation comparisons reinforce the hypothesis that Indian isolates of RTBV have diverged sufficiently from the Southeast Asian ones to form a separate group. PMID:23197138

Mathur, Saloni; Dasgupta, Indranil

2013-04-01

340

Genotypic lineages and restriction fragment length polymorphism of canine distemper virus isolates in Thailand.  

PubMed

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is known to cause multisystemic disease in all families of terrestrial carnivores. Attenuated live vaccines have been used to control CDV in a variety of species for many decades, yet a number of CDV infections in vaccinated dogs are still observed. The aims of this study were to investigate the genetic diversity of CDV lineages based on phosphoprotein (P), hemagglutinin (H) and fusion protein (F) genes and to develop the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique for effective differentiation among individual wild-type and vaccine lineages in Thailand. Four commercial vaccine products, thirteen conjunctival swabs and various tissues from 9 necropsied dogs suspected of having CDV infections were included. Virus isolation was performed using Vero cell expressing canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (Vero-DST cells). Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on 3 gene regions from the dog derived specimens and the vaccines were carried out, then RFLP analysis upon F-gene amplified fragments was developed. Nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis were compared with other CDV lineages in Genbank. Phylogenetic relationships revealed that CDV field isolates were separated from the vaccine lineage and could be divided into two clusters; one of which belonged to the Asia-1 lineage and another, not related to any previous recognized lineages was proposed as 'Asia-4'. RFLP patterns demonstrating concordance with phylogenetic trees of the distemper virus allowed for differentiation between the Asia-1, Asia-4 and vaccine lineages. Thus, RFLP technique is able to effectively distinguish individual wild-type canine distemper virus from vaccine lineages in Thailand. PMID:23830775

Radtanakatikanon, Araya; Keawcharoen, Juthatip; Charoenvisal, Na Taya; Poovorawan, Yong; Prompetchara, Eakachai; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Techangamsuwan, Somporn

2013-09-27

341

Novel phenotype of RNA synthesis expressed by vesicular stomatitis virus isolated from persistent infection.  

PubMed Central

Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) stocks isolated from two persistently infected mouse L-cell lines (designated VSV-PI stocks) express an altered phenotype of RNA synthesis. This phenotype is different from the RNA synthesis phenotype expressed by the viruses used to initiate the persistently infected lines, wild-type VSV and VSV ts-0-23 (a group III, ts-, RNA+ mutant). At 34 and 37 degrees C in L cells productively infected with VSV-PI stocks derived from the two cell lines, transcription of virus mRNA was significantly reduced, whereas replication of the 40S genomic RNA species was enhanced compared with wild-type VSV or ts-0-23. At 34 and 37 degrees C, both VSV-PI stocks replicated with equal or greater efficiency than wild-type VSV; 37 degrees C was the temperature at which the persistently infected cultures were maintained. At 40 degrees C, both VSV-PI stocks were temperature sensitive, and clonal VSV-PI isolates from both cell lines belong to complementation group I (RNA-). Standard ts- mutants (derived by mutagenesis of wild-type VSV) belonging to RNA- complementation groups I, II, and IV do not express the VSV-PI RNA synthesis phenotype at the permissive temperature, making this phenotype distinctive to persistent infection. Since the two VSV-PI populations from persistently infected cell lines initiated with different viruses both evolved this unique phenotype of RNA synthesis, the expression of this phenotype may play an important role in the maintenance of persistence. Images PMID:6292483

Frey, T K; Youngner, J S

1982-01-01

342

Sequence Variability in Clinical and Laboratory Isolates of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Reveals New Mutations? †  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a well-adapted human pathogen that can invade the peripheral nervous system and persist there as a lifelong latent infection. Despite their ubiquity, only one natural isolate of HSV-1 (strain 17) has been sequenced. Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing of viral DNA, we obtained the genome sequences of both a laboratory strain (F) and a low-passage clinical isolate (H129). These data demonstrated the extent of interstrain variation across the entire genome of HSV-1 in both coding and noncoding regions. We found many amino acid differences distributed across the proteome of the new strain F sequence and the previously known strain 17, demonstrating the spectrum of variability among wild-type HSV-1 proteins. The clinical isolate, strain H129, displays a unique anterograde spread phenotype for which the causal mutations were completely unknown. We have defined the sequence differences in H129 and propose a number of potentially causal genes, including the neurovirulence protein ICP34.5 (RL1). Further studies will be required to demonstrate which change(s) is sufficient to recapitulate the spread defect of strain H129. Unexpectedly, these data also revealed a frameshift mutation in the UL13 kinase in our strain F isolate, demonstrating how deep genome sequencing can reveal the full complement of background mutations in any given strain, particularly those passaged or plaque purified in a laboratory setting. These data increase our knowledge of sequence variation in large DNA viruses and demonstrate the potential of deep sequencing to yield insight into DNA genome evolution and the variation among different pathogen isolates. PMID:20219902

Szpara, Moriah L.; Parsons, Lance; Enquist, L. W.

2010-01-01

343

Sequence variability in clinical and laboratory isolates of herpes simplex virus 1 reveals new mutations.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a well-adapted human pathogen that can invade the peripheral nervous system and persist there as a lifelong latent infection. Despite their ubiquity, only one natural isolate of HSV-1 (strain 17) has been sequenced. Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing of viral DNA, we obtained the genome sequences of both a laboratory strain (F) and a low-passage clinical isolate (H129). These data demonstrated the extent of interstrain variation across the entire genome of HSV-1 in both coding and noncoding regions. We found many amino acid differences distributed across the proteome of the new strain F sequence and the previously known strain 17, demonstrating the spectrum of variability among wild-type HSV-1 proteins. The clinical isolate, strain H129, displays a unique anterograde spread phenotype for which the causal mutations were completely unknown. We have defined the sequence differences in H129 and propose a number of potentially causal genes, including the neurovirulence protein ICP34.5 (RL1). Further studies will be required to demonstrate which change(s) is sufficient to recapitulate the spread defect of strain H129. Unexpectedly, these data also revealed a frameshift mutation in the UL13 kinase in our strain F isolate, demonstrating how deep genome sequencing can reveal the full complement of background mutations in any given strain, particularly those passaged or plaque purified in a laboratory setting. These data increase our knowledge of sequence variation in large DNA viruses and demonstrate the potential of deep sequencing to yield insight into DNA genome evolution and the variation among different pathogen isolates. PMID:20219902

Szpara, Moriah L; Parsons, Lance; Enquist, L W

2010-05-01

344

Vaccine Potential of Two Previously Uncharacterized African Swine Fever Virus Isolates from Southern Africa and Heterologous Cross Protection of an Avirulent European Isolate.  

PubMed

African swine fever (ASF) is a mostly fatal viral infection of domestic pigs for which there is no vaccine available. The disease is endemic to most of sub-Saharan Africa, causes severe losses and threatens food security in large parts of the continent. Naturally occurring attenuated ASF viruses have been tested as vaccine candidates, but protection was variable depending on the challenge virus. In this study, the virulence of two African isolates, one from a tick vector and the other from an indigenous pig, was determined in domestic pigs to identify a potential vaccine strain for southern Africa. Neither isolate was suitable as the tick isolate was moderately virulent and the indigenous pig virus was highly virulent. The latter was subsequently used as heterologous challenge in pigs first vaccinated with a naturally attenuated isolate previously isolated in Portugal. Although a statistically significant reduction in death rate and virus load was observed compared with unvaccinated pigs post-challenge, all pigs succumbed to infection and died. PMID:25073549

Souto, R; Mutowembwa, P; van Heerden, J; Fosgate, G T; Heath, L; Vosloo, W

2014-07-30

345

Genome Sequence Analysis of In Vitro and In Vivo Phenotypes of Bunyamwera and Ngari Virus Isolates from Northern Kenya  

PubMed Central

Biological phenotypes of tri-segmented arboviruses display characteristics that map to mutation/s in the S, M or L segments of the genome. Plaque variants have been characterized for other viruses displaying varied phenotypes including attenuation in growth and/or pathogenesis. In order to characterize variants of Bunyamwera and Ngari viruses, we isolated individual plaque size variants; small plaque (SP) and large plaque (LP) and determined in vitro growth properties and in vivo pathogenesis in suckling mice. We performed gene sequencing to identify mutations that may be responsible for the observed phenotype. The LP generally replicated faster than the SP and the difference in growth rate was more pronounced in Bunyamwera virus isolates. Ngari virus isolates were more conserved with few point mutations compared to Bunyamwera virus isolates which displayed mutations in all three genome segments but majority were silent mutations. Contrary to expectation, the SP of Bunyamwera virus killed suckling mice significantly earlier than the LP. The LP attenuation may probably be due to a non-synonymous substitution (T858I) that mapped within the active site of the L protein. In this study, we identify natural mutations whose exact role in growth and pathogenesis need to be determined through site directed mutagenesis studies. PMID:25153316

Odhiambo, Collins; Venter, Marietjie; Limbaso, Konongoi; Swanepoel, Robert; Sang, Rosemary

2014-01-01

346

Isolation and propagation of Dengue virus in Vero and BHK-21 cells expressing human DC-SIGN stably.  

PubMed

The "standard" methods of isolating dengue virus (DENV) utilize the mosquito cell line C6/36, monkey kidney LLC-MK2 cells, Vero cells, or baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells. However, these cells lines lack a particular DENV receptor, known as dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), which is expressed on immature dendritic cells and monocytes/macrophages. This may result in less efficient virus isolation and propagation. The present study used a lentivirus vector to establish Vero and BHK-21 cell lines (Vero-DC and BHK-DC) that express human DC-SIGN stably. Five DENV strains, each passaged several times in C6/36 cells, replicated more efficiently in Vero-DC and BHK-DC than in the parental Vero or BHK-21 cells. Vero/Vero-DC and BHK-21/BHK-DC were used to isolate virus from buffy coats and plasma samples derived from 13 patients infected with DENV. Most of the viruses showed increased production in cell lines expressing DC-SIGN. However, the isolation rate was lower (15.4-46.2%) than that from C6/36 cells (84.6%). Interestingly, when the viruses were isolated in C6/36 cells prior to infecting Vero/Vero-DC and BHK-21/BHK-DC, the rate of virus production increased markedly, reaching levels higher than those initially achieved in C6/36 cells. These data suggest that Vero-DC and BHK-DC could be useful tools for virus propagation, and that human specimens may contain a factor that interferes with virus growth in mammalian cells. PMID:25205264

Phanthanawiboon, Supranee; A-nuegoonpipat, Atchareeya; Panngarm, Narawan; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Anantapreecha, Surapee; Kurosu, Takeshi

2014-12-01

347

[The isolation of Dhori viruses (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) from the hare (Lepus europaeus) and its ticks Hyalomma marginatum in the middle zone of the Volga delta, Astrakhan region, 2001].  

PubMed

In August, 2001, in the middle zone of the delta of the Volga River, the Astrakhan region, during investigation of the natural foci of West Nile fever and Crimean--Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), the material from the hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas, 1778 (Lagomorpha, Leporidae) and collected from it the ticks Hyalomna marginatum Koch 1844, was obtained. 4 strains of Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) and 2 strains of CCHF virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) were isolated. This is the first isolation of Thogotovirus genus virus from the wild vertebrates. Considering the overlap of the Dhori virus and CCHF virus areas, similar ecology and the isolation both viruses from the same pool of the ticks, the necessity for the use of the test-system for indication of the viruses, differential diagnosis and accumulation of the data concerning the role of Dhori virus in the human and farm animals pathology is discussed. PMID:12271723

L'vov, D N; Dzharkenov, A F; Aristova, V A; Kovtunov, A I; Gromashevski?, V L; Vyshemirski?, O I; Galkina, I V; Larichev, V F; Butenko, A M; L'vov, D K

2002-01-01

348

The first complete genome sequences of two distinct European tomato spotted wilt virus isolates.  

PubMed

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) represents a major constraint to the production of important vegetable and ornamental crops in several countries around the world, including those in Europe. In spite of their economic importance, European TSWV isolates have only been partially characterized, and a complete genome sequence has not been determined yet. In this study, we completed the whole genome sequence of two distinct TSWV isolates from Italy, p105 and p202/3WT. The sequences of the L and M segments of p105 and of the L segment of p202/3WT were determined using a combined approach of RT-PCR and small RNA (sRNAs) contig assembly. Phylogenetic analysis based on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and GN/GC protein sequences grouped the two isolates in two different clades, showing that different evolutive lineages are present among Italian TSWV isolates. Analysis of possible recombination/reassortment events among our isolates and other available full-length genome TSWV sequences showed a likely reassortment event involving the L segment. PMID:25326756

Margaria, P; Miozzi, L; Ciuffo, M; Pappu, H R; Turina, M

2014-10-19

349

Study of oseltamivir and zanamivir resistance-related mutations in influenza viruses isolated from wild mallards in Sweden.  

PubMed

Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) is a growing problem in battle against influenza A virus. However, little is known about the resistance of viruses isolated from dabbling ducks, the natural reservoir of the influenza virus. To our knowledge, no low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus resistant to NAIs has been detected. The aim of this study was to investigate mallard isolates of influenza A virus previously identified to carry oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) or zanamivir (ZA) resistance-related mutations. In this work, 21 viruses belonging to the N1, N3, N6 and N9 subtypes were analyzed using a colorimetric NA inhibition assay. The results of assay showed no NAIs-resistant phenotype for any of the viruses. The R118K mutation was the most recurrent, as it was observed in all subtypes except for N6. IC50 values confirmed the differences in sensitivity to OC or ZA observed in the N1 and N2 groups of NAs. Furthermore, both wild types (WTs) in the N6 and one WT in the N9 subtype were less sensitive to ZA than were genotypically related mutants with R152K and R118K change in the respective subtypes. This may indicate that these and probably even other NAIs resistance-related mutations found in our virus collection were not induced by NAIs residuals in the environment and that the impact of such mutations in an avian influenza could be dependent on subtype, strain and host species. PMID:24558492

Orozovic, Goran; Orozovic, Kanita; Järhult, Josef D; Olsen, Björn

2014-01-01

350

Varicella zoster virus infection presenting as isolated diplopia: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Involvement of trochlear nerve during Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) Infection has been rarely described, and always in association with skin rash. Case presentation We describe the case of a patient with VZV infection presenting as isolated diplopia due to fourth cranial nerve palsy. The diagnosis has been obtained through the application of a standardized molecular diagnostic panel, and diplopia resolved after specific antiviral and corticosteroid therapy. Conclusion This case evidences that clinicians should be aware of atypical VZV infection, even in the absence of the typical skin rash. PMID:23497310

2013-01-01

351

Hepatitis B virus subgenotype A1: evolutionary relationships between Brazilian, African and Asian isolates.  

PubMed

Brazil is a country of low hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity in which the genotype A of HBV (HBV/A) is the most prevalent. The complete nucleotide sequences of 26 HBV/A isolates, originating from eight Brazilian states, were determined. All were adw2. Twenty-three belonged to subgenotype A1 and three to A2. By phylogenetic analysis, it was shown that all the 23 HBV/A1 isolates clustered together with isolates from Bangladesh, India, Japan, Nepal, the Philippines and United Arab Emirates, but not with those of Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Four amino acid residues in the polymerase (His138 in the terminal protein domain, Pro18 and His90 in the spacer, and Ser109 in the reverse transcriptase), and one (Phe17) in the precore region, predominated in Latin American and Asian HBV/A1 isolates, but were rarely encountered in African isolates, with the exception of those from Somalia. Specific variations of two adjacent amino acids in the C-terminal domain of the HBx protein, namely Ala146 and Pro147, were found in all the Brazilian, but rarely in the other HBV/A1 isolates. By Bayesian analysis, the existence of an 'Asian-American' clade within subgenotype A1 was supported by a posterior probability value of 0.996. The close relatedness of the Brazilian, Asian and Somalian isolates suggests that the HBV/A1 strains predominant in Brazil did not originate from the five million slaves who were imported from Central and Western Africa from 1551 to 1840, but rather from the 300-400,000 captives forcibly removed from southeast Africa at the middle of the 19th century. PMID:25122004

Lago, Bárbara V; Mello, Francisco C; Kramvis, Anna; Niel, Christian; Gomes, Selma A

2014-01-01

352

Hepatitis B Virus Subgenotype A1: Evolutionary Relationships between Brazilian, African and Asian Isolates  

PubMed Central

Brazil is a country of low hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity in which the genotype A of HBV (HBV/A) is the most prevalent. The complete nucleotide sequences of 26 HBV/A isolates, originating from eight Brazilian states, were determined. All were adw2. Twenty-three belonged to subgenotype A1 and three to A2. By phylogenetic analysis, it was shown that all the 23 HBV/A1 isolates clustered together with isolates from Bangladesh, India, Japan, Nepal, the Philippines and United Arab Emirates, but not with those of Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Four amino acid residues in the polymerase (His138 in the terminal protein domain, Pro18 and His90 in the spacer, and Ser109 in the reverse transcriptase), and one (Phe17) in the precore region, predominated in Latin American and Asian HBV/A1 isolates, but were rarely encountered in African isolates, with the exception of those from Somalia. Specific variations of two adjacent amino acids in the C-terminal domain of the HBx protein, namely Ala146 and Pro147, were found in all the Brazilian, but rarely in the other HBV/A1 isolates. By Bayesian analysis, the existence of an ‘Asian-American’ clade within subgenotype A1 was supported by a posterior probability value of 0.996. The close relatedness of the Brazilian, Asian and Somalian isolates suggests that the HBV/A1 strains predominant in Brazil did not originate from the five million slaves who were imported from Central and Western Africa from 1551 to 1840, but rather from the 300–400,000 captives forcibly removed from southeast Africa at the middle of the 19th century. PMID:25122004

Lago, Bárbara V.; Mello, Francisco C.; Kramvis, Anna; Niel, Christian; Gomes, Selma A.

2014-01-01

353

Characterization of Newly Emerging Newcastle Disease Virus Isolates from the People's Republic of China and Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Seven Newcastle disease (ND) virus (NDV) isolates which were recovered from ND outbreaks in chicken and pigeon flocks in China and Taiwan between 1996 and 2000 were genotypically and pathotypically characterized. By phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein genes, isolates Ch-A7/96, Ch/98-3, Ch/99, Ch/2000, and TW/2000 were placed into two novel subgenotypes, VIIc and VIId. Isolate Ch/98-1 was grouped into subgenotype VIb, while Ch-W6/96 was proven to be a mixture of isolates Ch-A7/96 and Ch/98-1. These isolates were pathotyped as viscerotropic velogenic for Ch/98-3, Ch/99, Ch/2000, and TW/2000; neurotropic velogenic for Ch-A7/96; and mesogenic for Ch/98-1. Three separate, comparative, genetic analyses of the F genes, including genetic distance measurement, phylogenetic tree analysis, and residue substitution analysis, were performed with our isolates and selected NDV strains from GenBank. Results showed that the close genetic similarity provided evidence for the epidemiological linkage between the outbreaks in China and Taiwan and that the 1990s outbreaks in Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Europe constituted the fourth panzootic of ND. In combination with epidemiological analysis, an evolutionary model of the NDV strains, representative of the direction of transmission within the NDV strains, was proposed, and epidemiology of NDV transmission was evaluated with emphasis on molecular aspects. Finally, a cross-protective experiment indicated that at least one strain (Ch-A7/96) among our NDV isolates was an antigenic variant, responsible for recent outbreaks of ND in vaccinated chicken flocks. PMID:11574565

Yu, Li; Wang, Zhiliang; Jiang, Yihai; Chang, Leo; Kwang, Jimmy

2001-01-01

354

Mammalian pathogenesis of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus isolated in South Korea.  

PubMed

Oseltamivir, a neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor, has been widely used for the treatment of patients infected with the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus. With the increasing use of oseltamivir, drug-resistant mutants emerged rapidly and 11 cases of resistant viruses were detected during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in South Korea. To better understand the differences between oseltamivir-susceptible and oseltamivir-resistant virus, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of the NA H275Y mutant virus, A/Gyeongnam/1820/2009, in ferrets and mice with those of oseltamivir-susceptible A/Korea/01/2009 virus. Oseltamivir-resistant virus infected ferrets showed mild clinical signs and the virus replicated well in the upper respiratory tract and slightly in the lower respiratory tract. No virus was detected in the extrapulmonary organs. Severe bronchopneumonia and thickening of alveolar walls were detected in the lungs. Viral antigens were detected mainly in the bronchiolar epithelial cells, cells present in the interstitial septa, pneumocytes and peribronchial glands with severe peribronchitis. A/Gyeongnam/1820/2009 virus-infected mice showed weight loss and the virus replicated in lungs with high titer. Histopathologically, the mice showed mild to moderate alveolitis, interstitial pneumonia and perivascular lymphoid tissue hyperplasia. In lungs, bronchiolar epithelial cells, pneumocytes and interstitial inflammatory cells were infected by influenza virus and trachea epithelial cells were the sites of infection. When compared with the results of A/Korea/01/2009 oseltamivir-susceptible pandemic influenza virus, an oseltamivir-resistant virus isolated in South Korea showed fewer pathogenic properties in ferrets and similar fitness in mice. PMID:24657788

Kwon, Donghyok; Shin, Kyeongcheol; Kim, Su-Jin; Lee, Joo-Yeon; Kang, Chun

2014-06-24

355

Molecular and biological characterization of a recombinant isolate of potato virus Y from Mexico.  

PubMed

An isolate of potato virus Y (PVY), PVY-M3, was subjected to biological characterization on potato indicators and to whole-genome sequencing. PVY-M3 induced a local and systemic hypersensitive resistance (HR) response in potato cultivar Maris Bard expressing the Nz gene while inducing no HR in potato cultivars Desiree and King Edward, carrying Ny and Nc genes, respectively. These HR responses, combined with a lack of vein necrosis in tobacco, clearly defined PVY-M3 as an isolate of the PVY(Z) strain. Recombination analysis demonstrated that PVY-M3 had a typical European PVY(NTN) genome with three recombinant junctions, and PVY(N) and PVY(O) were identified as parents. PMID:24402633

Quintero-Ferrer, Arturo; Robles-Hernandez, Loreto; Gonzalez-Franco, Ana C; Kerlan, Camille; Karasev, Alexander V

2014-07-01

356

Complete genome sequence of three tomato ringspot virus isolates: evidence for reassortment and recombination.  

PubMed

The genome sequence of tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV, a subgroup C nepovirus) is currently available for one raspberry isolate. In this study, we describe the complete genome sequence of three additional isolates from raspberry (Rasp1-2014), grapevine (GYV-2014) and prunus (13C280). The degree of nucleotide sequence identity shared between RNA1 and RNA2 in the 5'-terminal 900 nucleotides and 3' untranslated region varied from 98-99 % (13C280, GYV-2014) to 80 % (Rasp1-2014). Phylogenetic studies revealed distinct origins for Rasp1-2014 RNA1 and RNA2, suggesting reassortment. Two recombination events were also identified in the 3' UTR and 5'-terminal region of RNA1. PMID:25267178

Walker, Melanie; Chisholm, Joan; Wei, Ting; Ghoshal, Basudev; Saeed, Hanna; Rott, Michael; Sanfaçon, Hélène

2015-02-01

357

The Surface Glycoproteins of H5 Influenza Viruses Isolated from Humans, Chickens, and Wild Aquatic Birds Have Distinguishable Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, 18 confirmed cases of human influenza arising from multiple independent transmissions of H5N1 viruses from infected chickens were reported from Hong Kong. To identify possible phenotypic changes in the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of the H5 viruses during interspecies transfer, we compared the receptor-binding properties and NA activities of the human and chicken H5N1 isolates from Hong

MIKHAIL MATROSOVICH; NANNAN ZHOU; YOSHIHIRO KAWAOKA; ROBERT WEBSTER; M. P. Chumakov

1999-01-01

358

Full-Genome Sequence of a Reassortant H1N2 Influenza A Virus Isolated from Pigs in Brazil  

PubMed Central

In this study, the full-genome sequence of a reassortant H1N2 swine influenza virus is reported. The isolate has the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from human lineage (H1-? cluster and N2), and the internal genes (polymerase basic 1 [PB1], polymerase basic 2 [PB2], polymerase acidic [PA], nucleoprotein [NP], matrix [M], and nonstructural [NS]) are derived from human 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) virus. PMID:25523775

Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Muterle Varela, Ana Paula; Mengue Scheffer, Camila; Wendlant, Adrieli; Quoos Mayer, Fabiana; Lopes de Almeida, Laura; Franco, Ana Cláudia

2014-01-01

359

Full-Genome Sequence of a Reassortant H1N2 Influenza A Virus Isolated from Pigs in Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, the full-genome sequence of a reassortant H1N2 swine influenza virus is reported. The isolate has the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from human lineage (H1-? cluster and N2), and the internal genes (polymerase basic 1 [PB1], polymerase basic 2 [PB2], polymerase acidic [PA], nucleoprotein [NP], matrix [M], and nonstructural [NS]) are derived from human 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) virus. PMID:25523775

Schmidt, Candice; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Muterle Varela, Ana Paula; Mengue Scheffer, Camila; Wendlant, Adrieli; Quoos Mayer, Fabiana; Lopes de Almeida, Laura; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Roehe, Paulo Michel

2014-01-01

360

Molecular epidemiology of Nigerian and Ghanaian measles virus isolates reveals a genotype circulating widely in western and central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions of the globe with the highest measles-related morbidity and mortality. Yet only seven virus isolates from this vast region have been phylogenetically characterized on the basis of their nucleoprotein, the last one in 1991. To characterize the prevalent wild-type viruses and to understand their circulation pattern, a large panel (n fl 45) of

Frank Hanses; Anh T. Truong; Wim Ammerlaan; Oyewole Ikusika; Festus Adu; Akeeb O. Oyefolu; Sunday A. Omilabu; Claude P. Muller

1999-01-01

361

[Antigenic and biological characteristics of influenza virus A strains isolated in 1985].  

PubMed

The antigenic structure of hemagglutinin of influenza A virus (H3N2) strains isolated in 1985 was studied using a series of monoclonal antibody to A/Dunedin/4/73/A (H3N2) and A/Bangkok/1/79/A (H3N2), and biological and physico-chemical properties of these strains were compared with those of influenza A (H3N2) virus of 1983 and reference A (H3N2) of 1979-1984 (the rate of adsorption on chick erythrocytes and eluting activity, thermostability of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, sensitivity to nonionic detergents, sensitivity to remantadine, analysis of virion polypeptide composition). A high degree of heterogeneity of the 1985 strain population of influenza A (H3N2) virus was revealed both in the antigenic structure of hemagglutinin and in all the biological and physico-chemical parameters tested. It was suggested that the A/Caen/1/84 strain originated not from A/Philippines/2/82 but directly from A/Texas/1/77. PMID:3686980

Shenderovich, S F; Iakhno, M A; Ivanova, V T; Liubovtseva, O V; Isachenko, V A

1987-01-01

362

Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1?000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug. PMID:25183065

Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

2014-01-01

363

Differential tomato transcriptomic responses induced by pepino mosaic virus isolates with differential aggressiveness.  

PubMed

Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a highly infectious potexvirus and a major disease of greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops worldwide. Damage and economic losses caused by PepMV vary greatly and can be attributed to differential symptomatology caused by different PepMV isolates. Here, we used a custom-designed Affymetrix tomato GeneChip array with probe sets to interrogate over 22,000 tomato transcripts to study transcriptional changes in response to inoculation of tomato seedlings with a mild and an aggressive PepMV isolate that share 99.4% nucleotide sequence identity. The two isolates induced a different transcriptomic response, despite accumulating to similar viral titers. PepMV inoculation resulted in repression of photosynthesis. In addition, defense responses were stronger upon inoculation with the aggressive isolate, in both cases mediated by salicylic acid signaling rather than by jasmonate signaling. Our results furthermore show that PepMV differentially regulates the RNA silencing pathway, suggesting a role for a PepMV-encoded silencing suppressor. Finally, perturbation of pigment biosynthesis, as shown by differential regulation of the flavonoid and lycopene biosynthesis pathways, was monitored. Metabolite analyses on mature fruits of PepMV-infected tomato plants, which showed typical fruit marbling, revealed a decrease in carotenoids, likely responsible for the marbled phenotype, and an increase in alkaloids and phenylpropanoids that are associated with pathogen defense in the yellow sectors of the fruit. PMID:21427280

Hanssen, Inge M; van Esse, H Peter; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Hogewoning, Sander W; Parra, Nelia Ortega; Paeleman, Anneleen; Lievens, Bart; Bovy, Arnaud G; Thomma, Bart P H J

2011-05-01

364

Epidemiology and genetic characterization of equine infectious anaemia virus strains isolated in belgium in 2010.  

PubMed

In January 2010, the United Kingdom notified cases of equine infectious anaemia (EIA) in two horses introduced from Belgium. The animals came from one assembly centre in Romania and had transited through Belgium with 16 other horses. Nine of them, bought by a Belgian horse breeder, were investigated in Belgium and revealed one additional EIA-positive animal. Afterwards, the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC) organized a serological EIA survey of the horses introduced into Belgium from Romania between 2007 and 2009. Among the 95 horses identified, six additional serological positive cases were found that had been introduced into Belgium in 2008 (n = 4) and in 2009 (n = 2). The survey was extended to the horses in contact with the positive cases, but all contact animals were negative, indicating the absence of transmission. Virological examination performed on tissue samples collected from two seropositive animals demonstrated the presence of viral DNA of EIA virus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of EIA virus gag gene clustered the Belgian isolates with Romanian strains isolated in 2009. The presumption of a common Belgian origin could be rejected. PMID:23173784

Caij, A B; Tignon, M

2014-10-01

365

The genome sequence of ectromelia virus Naval and Cornell isolates from outbreaks in North America  

PubMed Central

Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is the causative agent of mousepox, a disease of laboratory mouse colonies and an excellent model for human smallpox. We report the genome sequence of two isolates from outbreaks in laboratory mouse colonies in the USA in 1995 and 1999: ECTV-Naval and ECTV-Cornell, respectively. The genome of ECTV-Naval and ECTV-Cornell was sequenced by the 454-Roche technology. The ECTV-Naval genome was also sequenced by the Sanger and Illumina technologies in order to evaluate these technologies for poxvirus genome sequencing. Genomic comparisons revealed that ECTV-Naval and ECTV-Cornell correspond to the same virus isolated from independent outbreaks. Both ECTV-Naval and ECTV-Cornell are extremely virulent in susceptible BALB/c mice, similar to ECTV-Moscow. This is consistent with the ECTV-Naval genome sharing 98.2% DNA sequence identity with that of ECTV-Moscow, and indicates that the genetic differences with ECTV-Moscow do not affect the virulence of ECTV-Naval in the mousepox model of footpad infection. PMID:24999046

Mavian, Carla; López-Bueno, Alberto; Bryant, Neil A.; Seeger, Kathy; Quail, Michael A.; Harris, David; Barrell, Bart; Alcami, Antonio

2014-01-01

366

Mechanistic variations among reverse transcriptases of simian immunodeficiency virus variants isolated from African green monkeys.  

PubMed

Here we report enzymatic variations among the reverse transcriptases (RTs) of five simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, Sab-1, 155-4, Gri-1, 9063-2, and Tan-1, which were isolated from four different species of naturally infected African green monkeys living in different regions across Africa. First, Sab-1 RT exhibits the most efficient dNTP incorporation efficiency at low dNTP concentrations, whereas the other four SIVagm RT proteins display different levels of reduced polymerase activity at low dNTP concentrations. Tan-1 RT exhibited the most restricted dNTP incorporation efficiency. Indeed, the pre-steady state analysis revealed that Sab-1 RT displays tight dNTP binding affinity (K(d) approximately 1-5 microM), comparable to values observed for NL4-3 and HXB2 HIV-1 RTs, whereas the dNTP binding affinity of Tan-1 RT is 6.2, approximately 34.8-fold lower than that of Sab-1 RT. Second, Tan-1 RT fidelity was significantly higher than that of Sab-1 RT. Indeed, Tan-1 RT enzymatically mimics oncoretroviral murine leukemia virus RT which is characterized by its low dNTP binding affinity and high fidelity. This study reports that simultaneous changes in dNTP binding affinity and fidelity of RTs appear to occur among natural SIV variants isolated from African green monkeys. PMID:19408961

Skasko, Mark; Diamond, Tracy L; Kim, Baek

2009-06-16

367

Ecologic studies of mosquitoes and birds as hosts of Ockelbo virus in Sweden and isolation of Inkoo and Batai viruses from mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Field studies were conducted in central Sweden from 1983 through 1985 to obtain information on the etiologic agent of Ockelbo disease, described in Sweden in the 1960s and probably identical to Pogosta disease in Finland and to Karelian fever in the western USSR. Mosquitoes (63,644) collected during this 3 year period yielded 21 virus strains. Ockelbo virus isolations were from Culiseta morsitans (5 strains), Culex pipiens and/or Cx. torrentium (6 strains), and Aedes cinereus (3 strains). Inkoo (6 strains) and Batai (1 strain) viruses were recovered from Ae. communis. Blood samples collected March-May from migrating birds on the southeast and est coast of Sweden and in July and August from resident birds in east-central Sweden were tested for neutralizing antibody to Ockelbo virus. Antibody was not detected in 328 birds sampled during spring migrations. Two of 58 (3.4%) birds bled in July and 8 of 78 birds (10%) bled in August had antibody to Ockelbo virus. Ockelbo virus circulates in a mosquito-bird-mosquito cycle, with Cs. morsitans and Cx. pipiens and/or Cx. torrentium as enzootic vectors. Antibody was detected in passerine birds. Other classes of birds or other vertebrates were not sampled. Aedes cinereus may serve primarily to transmit virus to people. The role of other mosquito species as vectors for people is unknown. PMID:2572178

Francy, D B; Jaenson, T G; Lundström, J O; Schildt, E B; Espmark, A; Henriksson, B; Niklasson, B

1989-09-01

368

An experimental infection in pigs using a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from the 2010 epidemic in Japan.  

PubMed

In this study, we carried out an experimental infection in pigs using a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from the 2010 epidemic in Japan to analyze the clinical manifestation, antibody response and virus shedding patterns in pigs. We found that the virus was virulent in pigs, producing a synchronous disease in the inoculated pigs and efficient spread to direct contact pigs. These results are useful for epidemiologically investigating the 2010 epidemic in Japan and improving the measures for controlling possible future FMD outbreaks in Japan or elsewhere. PMID:21532260

Fukai, Katsuhiko; Morioka, Kazuki; Yoshida, Kazuo

2011-09-01

369

Genetic characteristics of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza a viruses isolated from Mainland China.  

PubMed

A total of 100 H1N1 flu real-time-PCR positive throat swabs collected from fever patients in Zhejiang, Hubei and Guangdong between June and November 2009, were provided by local CDC laboratories. After MDCK cell culture, 57 Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) viruses were isolated and submitted for whole genome sequencing. A total of 39 HA sequences, 52 NA sequences, 36 PB2 sequences, 31 PB1 sequences, 40 PA sequences, 48 NP sequences, 51 MP sequences and 36 NS sequences were obtained, including 20 whole genome sequences. Sequence comparison revealed they shared a high degree of homology (96%-99%) with known epidemic strains (A/California/04/2009(H1N1). Phylogenetic analysis showed that although the sequences were highly conserved, they clustered into a small number of groups with only a few distinct strains. Site analysis revealed three substitutions at loop 220 (221-228) of the HA receptor binding site in the 39 HA sequences: A/Hubei/86/2009 PKVRDQEG ? PKVRDQEA, A/Zhejiang/08/2009 PKVRDQEG ? PKVRDQER, A/Hubei/75/2009 PKVRDQEG ? PKVRDQGG, the A/Hubei/75/2009 was isolated from an acute case, while the other two were from patients with mild symptoms. Other key sites such as 119, 274, 292 and 294 amino acids of NA protein, 627 of PB2 protein were conserved. Meanwhile, all the M2 protein sequences possessed the Ser32Asn mutation, suggesting that these viruses were resistant to adamantanes. Comparison of these sequences with other H1N1 viruses collected from the NCBI database provides insight into H1N1 transmission and circulation patterns. PMID:22160942

Zhao, Jiu-Ru; Li, Yong-Dong; Pan, Li-Min; Zhu, Na; Ni, Hong-Xia; Xu, Guo-Zhang; Jiang, Yong-Zhong; Huo, Xi-Xiang; Xu, Jun-Qiang; Xia, Han; Han, Na; Tang, Shuang; Zhang, Zhong; Kou, Zheng; Rayner, Simon; Li, Tian-Xian

2011-12-01

370

Complete genome sequencing and evolutionary phylogeography analysis of Indian isolates of Dengue virus type 1.  

PubMed

Dengue is now hyper-endemic in most parts of south and southeast Asia including India. The northern India particularly national capital New Delhi witnessed major Dengue outbreaks with Dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) as the dominant serotype since last five years. This study was initiated to decipher the complete genome information of recently circulating DENV-1 (2009-2011) along with the prototype Indian DENV-1, isolated in 1956. Further extensive ML phylogenetic and Bayesian phylogeography analysis was carried out to investigate the evolution of this virus and understand its spatiotemporal diffusion across the globe. The complete genome analysis revealed deletion of a unique 21-nucleotide stretch in the 3' un-translated region of recent Indian DENV-1. The north Indian DENV-1 revealed up to 5.2% nucleotide sequence difference compared to recent isolates from southern India. Selection pressure analysis revealed positive selection in few amino acid sites of both structural and non-structural proteins. The molecular phylogeny classified the Indian DENV-1 into genotype III, which is also known as cosmopolitan genotype. The northern and southern Indian DENV-1 were grouped into distinct clades. The molecular clock analysis estimated a mean evolutionary rate of 7.08×10(-4) substitutions/site/year for cosmopolitan genotype. The phylogeography analysis revealed that the cosmopolitan genotype DENV-1 originated ?1938 in India and subsequently spread globally. The diffusion of virus from India to Caribbean and South America was confirmed through SPREAD analysis. This study also confirmed the temporal displacement of different clades of DENV-1 in India over last five decades. PMID:25197040

Dash, Paban Kumar; Sharma, Shashi; Soni, Manisha; Agarwal, Ankita; Sahni, Ajay Kumar; Parida, Manmohan

2015-01-01

371

Characterization of a herpes virus isolated from domestic geese in Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A herpesvirus (GHV 552/89) associated with high mortality in a flock of domestic geese in Australia was compared with duck virus enteritis (DVE) herpesvirus by cross-protection studies in domestic geese, Muscovy ducks and commercial Pekin ducks. In DVE-vaccinated geese, Muscovy ducks and Pekin ducks, mortality levels of 100, 50 and 0%, respectively, were recorded following challenge with GHV 552/89. Conversely, in geese, Muscovy ducks and Pekin ducks immunized with inactivated GHV 552/89, 100% mortality was observed in the geese and Muscovy ducks, and 80% in the Pekin ducks following challenge with DVE virus. The isolate was also compared with six other avian herpesviruses using cross-neutralization tests in cell cultures. No detectable cross-neutralization occurred with any of the avian herpesviruses tested. Further characterization of GHV 552/89 was undertaken by comparing its genome with strains of DVE herpesvirus using restriction endonuclease analysis of the viral DNA and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Following digestion with HindIII, the DNA fragment pattern of GHV 552/89 was found to be completely different from the DVE viruses. Similarities were found between the digestion patterns of a UK and a US DVE isolate, but both were distinguishable from a UK vaccine strain. The results of the PCR analysis and comparison using two DVE-specific primer sets did not produce specific amplification products of expected molecular weights (603 and 446 base pairs) from the GHV 552/89 genome. The PCR products derived from the DVE strains were similar to those derived from the DVE control DNA. From the results of this study, it is concluded that the goose herpesvirus GHV 552/89 is antigenically and genomically distinct from DVE herpesvirus.

Gough, R.E.; Hansen, W.R.

2000-01-01

372

Isolation and Characterization of a Single-Stranded RNA Virus Infecting the Bloom-Forming Diatom Chaetoceros socialis?  

PubMed Central

Diatoms are very significant primary producers in the world's oceans. Various environmental factors affect the depletion of diatom populations. The importance of viruses as a potential mortality source has recently been recognized. We isolated and characterized a new diatom virus (Chaetoceros socialis f. radians RNA virus [CsfrRNAV]) causing the lysis of the bloom-forming species Chaetoceros socialis Lauder f. radians (Schütt) Proschkina-Lavrenko. The virus infectious to C. socialis f. radians was isolated from water samples collected in Hiroshima Bay. Here we show the physiology, morphology, and genome characteristics of the virus clone. Virions were 22 nm in diameter and accumulated in the cytoplasm of the host cells. The latent period and the burst size were estimated to be <48 h and 66 infectious units per host cell, respectively. CsfrRNAV harbors a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome and encodes at least three polypeptides of 32.0, 28.5, and 25.0 kDa. Sequencing analysis shows the length of the genome is 9,467 bases, excluding a poly(A) tail. The monophyly of CsfrRNAV and other diatom-infecting RNA viruses, Rhizosolenia setigera RNA virus and Chaetoceros tenuissimus RNA virus, was strongly supported by phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains. This suggested a new ssRNA virus family, Bacillariornaviridae. This discovery of CsfrRNAV may aid in further understanding the ecological dynamics of the C. socialis f. radians population in nature and the relationships between ssRNA diatom viruses and their hosts. PMID:19233955

Tomaru, Yuji; Takao, Yoshitake; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Nagumo, Tamotsu; Nagasaki, Keizo

2009-01-01

373

A new eriophyid mite-borne membrane-enveloped virus-like complex isolated from plants.  

PubMed

A decade ago, a new mite-transmitted disease was described on wheat (Triticum aesativum) and maize (Zea mays) that due to its geographical location was referred to as High Plains Disease (HPD). To determine the etiology, we established colonies of HPD pathogen-transmitting eriophyid wheat curl mites (Aceria tosichella) on wheat plants for maintenance of a continuous source of infected material. Analyses of nucleic acid obtained from infected plants showed the presence of HPD-specific RNAs ranging from 1.5 to 8 kilobases, but comparisons between the sequence of cDNAs and the databases did not reveal any clear identity with known viruses. We demonstrate that a diagnostic HPD-specific 32-kDa protein that accumulates in plants is encoded by a small RNA species (RNA-s). Upon infestation of upper wheat parts with viruliferous mites, the RNA-s encoded protein becomes detectable within a few days in the roots, indicative of an effective virus-like mode of transport. Membranous particles, resembling those observed in thin sections of infected plants, were isolated and shown to envelope a thread-like ribonucleoprotein complex containing the RNA-s encoded 32-kDa protein. This complex was associated with single-stranded (-)-sense RNAs, whereas free (+)-sense RNA was only detected in total RNA of infected plants. Based on the collective properties, we conclude that HPD is caused by a newly emerged mite-borne virus, for which we propose the name Maize red stripe virus (MRStV). PMID:16412487

Skare, Joanna M; Wijkamp, Ineke; Denham, Ivey; Rezende, Jorge A M; Kitajima, Elliot W; Park, Jong-Won; Desvoyes, Benedicte; Rush, Charles M; Michels, Gerald; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G; Scholthof, Herman B

2006-04-10

374

Macrophage Tropism of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates from Brain and Lymphoid Tissues Predicts Neurotropism Independent of Coreceptor Specificity  

PubMed Central

The viral determinants that underlie human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neurotropism are unknown, due in part to limited studies on viruses isolated from brain. Previous studies suggest that brain-derived viruses are macrophage tropic (M-tropic) and principally use CCR5 for virus entry. To better understand HIV-1 neurotropism, we isolated primary viruses from autopsy brain, cerebral spinal fluid, blood, spleen, and lymph node samples from AIDS patients with dementia and HIV-1 encephalitis. Isolates were characterized to determine coreceptor usage and replication capacity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), and microglia. Env V1/V2 and V3 heteroduplex tracking assay and sequence analyses were performed to characterize distinct variants in viral quasispecies. Viruses isolated from brain, which consisted of variants that were distinct from those in lymphoid tissues, used CCR5 (R5), CXCR4 (X4), or both coreceptors (R5X4). Minor usage of CCR2b, CCR3, CCR8, and Apj was also observed. Primary brain and lymphoid isolates that replicated to high levels in MDM showed a similar capacity to replicate in microglia. Six of 11 R5 isolates that replicated efficiently in PBMC could not replicate in MDM or microglia due to a block in virus entry. CD4 overexpression in microglia transduced with retroviral vectors had no effect on the restricted replication of these virus strains. Furthermore, infection of transfected cells expressing different amounts of CD4 or CCR5 with M-tropic and non-M-tropic R5 isolates revealed a similar dependence on CD4 and CCR5 levels for entry, suggesting that the entry block was not due to low levels of either receptor. Studies using TAK-779 and AMD3100 showed that two highly M-tropic isolates entered microglia primarily via CXCR4. These results suggest that HIV-1 tropism for macrophages and microglia is restricted at the entry level by a mechanism independent of coreceptor specificity. These findings provide evidence that M-tropism rather than CCR5 usage predicts HIV-1 neurotropism. PMID:11581376

Gorry, Paul R.; Bristol, Greg; Zack, Jerome A.; Ritola, Kimberly; Swanstrom, Ronald; Birch, Chris J.; Bell, Jeanne E.; Bannert, Norbert; Crawford, Keith; Wang, Hui; Schols, Dominique; De Clercq, Erik; Kunstman, Kevin; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Gabuzda, Dana

2001-01-01

375

Newcastle disease virus isolates from US waterfowl reveal novel genomic subgroups with diverse and evolving genetics and the potential for spillover into US live bird markets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distribution of genetic groups (genogroups) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated during 1986 to 2005 in the U.S. from 209 waterfowl and shorebirds (W&S) and 17 live bird market (LBM) samples was investigated. Waterfowl and shorebirds viruses were distinct from vaccine viruses and from the viru...

376

Epidemiological aspects of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus genotype II isolated from Baltic herring, Clupea harengus membras L.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to clarify the role of wild fish, especially Baltic herring, Clupea harengus membras L., in the epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in brackish water in Finland. Baltic herring with no visible signs of disease were collected from the Archipelago Sea, the Gulf of Bothnia and the eastern Gulf of Finland. In total, 7580 herring were examined by virus isolation as 758 pooled samples and 3029 wild salmonid broodfish as pooled samples during 2004-2006. VHSV was isolated from 51 pooled herring samples in bluegill fibroblast-2 cells, but not in epithelioma papulosum cyprini cells. The majority of isolations were from the coastal archipelago and from fish caught during the spawning season. Based on glycoprotein (G) gene sequences, the virus was classified as a member of genotype II of VHSV. Pairwise comparisons of the G gene regions of herring isolates revealed that all the isolates were closely related, with 98.8-100% nucleotide homology. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that they were closely related to the strains isolated previously from herring and sprat, Sprattus sprattus (L.), in Gotland and to the VHSV isolates from European river lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis (L.), in the rivers that flow into the Bothnian Bay. The infection in Baltic herring is likely to be independent of the VHSV Id epidemic in farmed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). PMID:21623835

Gadd, T; Jakava-Viljanen, M; Tapiovaara, H; Koski, P; Sihvonen, L

2011-07-01

377

Characterization of West Nile virus (WNV) isolates from Assam, India: insights into the circulating WNV in northeastern India.  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes subclinical symptoms, febrile illness with possible kidney infarction and encephalitis. Since WNV was first serologically detected in Assam during 2006, it has become recognized as an important etiological agent that causes acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in addition to endemic Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Therefore, isolating and characterizing the currently circulating strain of WNV is important. The virus was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of two patients that presented with AES. The genotyping of the isolates HQ246154 (WNIRGC07) and JQ037832 (WNIRTC08) based on the partial sequencing of 921 nucleotides (C-prM-E) of the genome placed them within lineage 5 along with other Indian strains isolated prior to 1982, but the present circulating virus formed a distinct subclade. The derived amino acid sequence alignment indicated substitution in A81T and A84P of the capsid region in HQ246154. A cross-neutralization assay suggested substantial antigenic variation between isolates. The pathogenesis in mice that suggested the circulating WNV was neuroinvasive and comparatively more pathogenic than previous strains from India. PMID:24268432

Chowdhury, Pritom; Khan, Siraj Ahmed; Dutta, Prafulla; Topno, Rashmee; Mahanta, Jagadish

2014-01-01

378

The zoonotic potential of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia.  

PubMed

Whilst remarkable progress in elucidating the mechanisms governing interspecies transmission and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been made, similar studies focusing on low-pathogenic AIVs isolated from the wild waterfowl reservoir are limited. We previously reported that two AIV strains (subtypes H6N2 and H3N8) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia harbored some amino acid residues preferentially associated with human influenza virus proteins (so-called human signatures) and replicated better in the lungs of infected mice and caused more morbidity than a strain lacking such residues. To further substantiate these observations, we infected chickens and mice intranasally with AIV strains of various subtypes (H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H6N2, H9N1 and H11N9) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia. Although some strains induced seroconversion, all of the tested strains replicated poorly and were nonpathogenic for chickens. In contrast, most of the strains having human signatures replicated well in the lungs of mice, and one of these strains caused severe illness in mice and induced lung injury that was characterized by a severe accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results suggest that some strains tested in this study may have the potential to infect mammalian hosts directly without adaptation, which might possibly be associated with the possession of human signature residues. Close monitoring and evaluation of host-associated signatures may help to elucidate the prevalence and emergence of AIVs with potential for causing zoonotic infections. PMID:24862188

Simulundu, Edgar; Nao, Naganori; Yabe, John; Muto, Nilton A; Sithebe, Thami; Sawa, Hirofumi; Manzoor, Rashid; Kajihara, Masahiro; Muramatsu, Mieko; Ishii, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hirohito; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato

2014-10-01

379

Complete genome sequencing and evolutionary analysis of Indian isolates of Dengue virus type 2  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Complete genome of Indian DENV-2 was deciphered for the first time in this study. •The recent Indian DENV-2 revealed presence of many unique amino acid residues. •Genotype shift (American to Cosmopolitan) characterizes evolution of DENV-2 in India. •Circulation of a unique clade of DENV-2 in South Asia was identified. -- Abstract: Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of global public health significance. It is now endemic in most parts of the South East Asia including India. Though Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) is predominantly associated with major outbreaks in India, complete genome information of Indian DENV-2 is not available. In this study, the full-length genome of five DENV-2 isolates (four from 2001 to 2011 and one from 1960), from different parts of India was determined. The complete genome of the Indian DENV-2 was found to be 10,670 bases long with an open reading frame coding for 3391 amino acids. The recent Indian DENV-2 (2001–2011) revealed a nucleotide sequence identity of around 90% and 97% with an older Indian DENV-2 (1960) and closely related Sri Lankan and Chinese DENV-2 respectively. Presence of unique amino acid residues and non-conservative substitutions in critical amino acid residues of major structural and non-structural proteins was observed in recent Indian DENV-2. Selection pressure analysis revealed positive selection in few amino acid sites of the genes encoding for structural and non-structural proteins. The molecular phylogenetic analysis based on comparison of both complete coding region and envelope protein gene with globally diverse DENV-2 viruses classified the recent Indian isolates into a unique South Asian clade within Cosmopolitan genotype. A shift of genotype from American to Cosmopolitan in 1970s characterized the evolution of DENV-2 in India. Present study is the first report on complete genome characterization of emerging DENV-2 isolates from India and highlights the circulation of a unique clade in South Asia.

Dash, Paban Kumar, E-mail: pabandash@rediffmail.com; Sharma, Shashi; Soni, Manisha; Agarwal, Ankita; Parida, Manmohan; Rao, P.V.Lakshmana

2013-07-05

380

Development of a surveillance scheme for equine influenza in the UK and characterisation of viruses isolated in Europe, Dubai and the USA from 2010-2012.  

PubMed

Equine influenza viruses are a major cause of respiratory disease in horses worldwide and undergo antigenic drift. Several outbreaks of equine influenza occurred worldwide during 2010-2012, including in vaccinated animals, highlighting the importance of surveillance and virus characterisation. Virus isolates were characterised from more than 20 outbreaks over a 3-year period, including strains from the UK, Dubai, Germany and the USA. The haemagglutinin-1 (HA1) sequence of all isolates was determined and compared with OIE-recommended vaccine strains. Viruses from Florida clades 1 and 2 showed continued divergence from each other compared with 2009 isolates. The antigenic inter-relationships among viruses were determined using a haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay with ferret antisera and visualised using antigenic cartography. All European isolates belonged to Florida clade 2, all those from the USA belonged to Florida clade 1. Two subpopulations of clade 2 viruses were isolated, with either substitution A144V or I179V. Isolates from Dubai, obtained from horses shipped from Uruguay, belonged to Florida clade 1 and were similar to viruses isolated in the USA the previous year. The neuraminidase (NA) sequence of representative strains from 2007 and 2009 to 2012 was also determined and compared with that of earlier isolates dating back to 1963. Multiple changes were observed at the amino acid level and clear distinctions could be made between viruses belonging to Florida clade 1 and clade 2. PMID:24480583

Woodward, Alana L; Rash, Adam S; Blinman, Donna; Bowman, Samantha; Chambers, Thomas M; Daly, Janet M; Damiani, Armando; Joseph, Sunitha; Lewis, Nicola; McCauley, John W; Medcalf, Liz; Mumford, Jenny; Newton, J Richard; Tiwari, Ashish; Bryant, Neil A; Elton, Debra M

2014-03-14

381

Characterization of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Isolates Obtained From Broiler Breeders, Turkeys, and Prairie Chickens Located in Various Geographical Regions in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nine reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) isolates obtained from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens located in three different geographical regions in the USA, and three isolates obtained from known contaminated live-virus vaccines were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) a...

382

Complete genome sequence of a banana bract mosaic virus isolate infecting the French plantain cv. Nendran in India.  

PubMed

The first complete genome sequence of an Indian isolate (TRY) of Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) was determined following virus RNA extraction from the French plantain cv. Nendran (AAB). The complete genome was 9711 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail and had a genome organization similar to that of a Philippine (PHI) isolate characterized earlier. When compared to BBrMV-PHI, the complete genome sequence of BBrMV-TRY was 94% identical at the nucleotide level and its ten mature proteins had amino acid sequence identities ranging from 88 to 98%. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the BBrMV-TRY isolate is closely related to the BBrMV-PHI isolate. PMID:22134527

Balasubramanian, V; Selvarajan, R

2012-02-01

383

Sequence analysis of the nucleocapsid gene of measles virus isolates from South Africa identifies a new genotype.  

PubMed

Sequence analysis was performed on 20 measles virus (MV) isolates from South Africa, five of which were obtained between 1986 and 1989 and 15 isolates collected during the 1994/95 measles season. A 590 bp fragment of the carboxyl terminus of the nucleocapsid (N) was amplified by PCR and subjected to sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Comparison of the South African MV strains with those previously described revealed that at least two distinct groups of wild-type (wt) MV exist, one of which has been circulating since 1986. The major genotype (I) was represented by the more recent isolates which showed three characteristic amino acid substitutions. Furthermore, three vaccine-like viruses with sequences very similar to the Edmonston wt strain were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of 100 MV strains allowed the assignment of new definitions for MV genotypes and subgroups. Employing these definitions, the majority of South African isolates analysed here formed a new genotype. PMID:9225033

Kreis, S; Vardas, E; Whistler, T

1997-07-01

384

Isolation and complete nucleotide sequence of a Batai virus strain in Inner Mongolia, China  

PubMed Central

Background Batai virus (BATV) is a member of the Orthobunyavirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae, and a vector-borne pathogen. Genomic variations of BATV exist in different regions of the world, due to genetic reassortment. Whole-genome sequencing of any isolate is necessary for a phylogenetic analysis. In 1998, a BATV strain was isolated from an Anopheles philippines mosquito in Yunnan Province, China. This strain has not been found to infect any other host. We investigated BATV infection in cattle in Inner Mongolia, China and performed deep sequencing of the genome of the BATV isolate. Findings Ninety-five blood samples were collected from cattle in Inner Mongolia, China in 2012. The BATV infection rate was 2.1%. Previously, BATV strain NM/12 was isolated from two cattle in Inner Mongolia, China, and the whole genomic sequence of the strain has been available. We determined the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of the small (S), medium (M), and large (L) genome segments using bovine blood obtained in 2012, and the nucleotide homologies of these segments with those from GenBank were 88.7%-97%, 84%-95.4%, and 72.6%-95.8%, respectively. The deduced amino acid identities were 87.2-99.7%, 64.2-96.8%, and 81.1-98.6%. Phylogenetic analyses based on full-length genomic sequences indicated that the M and L segments, and a portion of the S segment, of NM/12 are most closely related to the BATV strains isolated in Asia. The S and M segments of NM/12 were independent of phylogenetic lineages. The L segment was the most closely related to Chittoor/IG-20217 (isolated in India), and distantly related to isolated strains in Italy. Nucleotide substitution rates in the nucleotide sequences that code for the nucleocapsid, envelope glycoprotein, and polymerase protein of NM/12 strain were 2.56%, 4.69%, and 4.21%, respectively, relative to the original strain of MM2222. Conclusion A novel BATV NM/12 strain from bovine serum collected in Inner Mongolia was isolated from cattle in China for the first time. Our findings elucidate the evolutionary status of the BATV NM/12 strain among different orthobunyavirus strains and may provide some clues to prevent the emergence of BATV infection in cattle and humans. PMID:25100223

2014-01-01

385

Evaluation of Neuraminidase Enzyme Assays Using Different Substrates To Measure Susceptibility of Influenza Virus Clinical Isolates to Neuraminidase Inhibitors: Report of the Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NIs) necessitates the development of reliable methods for assessing the NI susceptibility of clinical isolates. We evaluated three NA inhibition assays against a panel of five clinical isolates each of influenza virus A\\/H1N1, A\\/H3N2, and B strains and four viruses with a defined resistance genotype (R292K, H274Y, R152K, and E119V). For

N. T. Wetherall; T. Trivedi; J. Zeller; C. Hodges-Savola; J. L. McKimm-Breschkin; M. Zambon; F. G. Hayden

2003-01-01

386

Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Reassortant H3N6 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Domestic Green-Winged Teal  

PubMed Central

An avian influenza virus strain, A/domestic green-winged teal/Hunan/2036/2007(H3N6) (DGW-T2036), was isolated from healthy domestic green-winged teals (Anas crecca) in Hunan Province, South China. All eight gene segments of the isolate were sequenced. Genomic analysis demonstrated that this H3N6 virus is a novel reassortant avian influenza virus with a gene constellation originating from multiple ancestors. PMID:23682150

Xiong, Chaochao; Liu, Qian; Chen, Quanjiao; Yao, Yanfeng; Wang, Huadong

2013-01-01

387

Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Reassortant H3N6 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Domestic Green-Winged Teal.  

PubMed

An avian influenza virus strain, A/domestic green-winged teal/Hunan/2036/2007(H3N6) (DGW-T2036), was isolated from healthy domestic green-winged teals (Anas crecca) in Hunan Province, South China. All eight gene segments of the isolate were sequenced. Genomic analysis demonstrated that this H3N6 virus is a novel reassortant avian influenza virus with a gene constellation originating from multiple ancestors. PMID:23682150

Xiong, Chaochao; Liu, Qian; Chen, Quanjiao; Yao, Yanfeng; Wang, Huadong; Chen, Jianjun

2013-01-01

388

Characterization of sour cherry isolates of plum pox virus from the Volga Basin in Russia reveals a new cherry strain of the virus.  

PubMed

Plum pox virus (PPV) is the causal agent of sharka, the most detrimental virus disease of stone fruit trees worldwide. PPV isolates have been assigned into seven distinct strains, of which PPV-C regroups the genetically distinct isolates detected in several European countries on cherry hosts. Here, three complete and several partial genomic sequences of PPV isolates from sour cherry trees in the Volga River basin of Russia have been determined. The comparison of complete genome sequences has shown that the nucleotide identity values with other PPV isolates reached only 77.5 to 83.5%. Phylogenetic analyses clearly assigned the RU-17sc, RU-18sc, and RU-30sc isolates from cherry to a distinct cluster, most closely related to PPV-C and, to a lesser extent, PPV-W. Based on their natural infection of sour cherry trees and genomic characterization, the PPV isolates reported here represent a new strain of PPV, for which the name PPV-CR (Cherry Russia) is proposed. The unique amino acids conserved among PPV-CR and PPV-C cherry-infecting isolates (75 in total) are mostly distributed within the central part of P1, NIa, and the N terminus of the coat protein (CP), making them potential candidates for genetic determinants of the ability to infect cherry species or of adaptation to these hosts. The variability observed within 14 PPV-CR isolates analyzed in this study (0 to 2.6% nucleotide divergence in partial CP sequences) and the identification of these isolates in different localities and cultivation conditions suggest the efficient establishment and competitiveness of the PPV-CR in the environment. A specific primer pair has been developed, allowing the specific reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction detection of PPV-CR isolates. PMID:23581702

Glasa, Miroslav; Prikhodko, Yuri; Predaj?a, Lukáš; Nagyová, Alžbeta; Shneyder, Yuri; Zhivaeva, Tatiana; Subr, Zdeno; Cambra, Mariano; Candresse, Thierry

2013-09-01

389

Comparison of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from cormorants in Canada and the USA in 1975, 1990 and 1992.  

PubMed Central

Seventeen Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates obtained from cormorants, turkeys, a pelican, and a gull in Canada and the USA collected in 1975, 1990 and 1992 were analyzed for relatedness by monoclonal antibody profiling. In addition, nucleotide sequence analysis was performed in two areas of the fusion (F) gene for 5 of the isolates. No difference in the antigenicity of these 17 viruses, as determined by monoclonal antibody binding patterns, was seen. The amino acid sequences obtained via nucleotide sequencing at the cleavage site of the F protein showed that all the isolates tested had two pairs of basic amino acids immediately upstream of the cleavage site, and a phenylalanine residue at the N-terminus of the F1 protein, which is consistent with velogenic NDV. The deduced amino acid sequence obtained at the cleavage site of the F protein from 6 of the isolates was virtually identical regardless of the species, year of isolation, or location. However, the 1975 cormorant isolate showed marked differences from the 1990-1992 isolates in the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the F gene signal region. These data indicate that the 1990 and 1992 outbreaks were caused by the same epizootic virus and further suggest that the population of NDV in these wild birds may be very stable. The belief that the velogenic NDV circulating in cormorants in 1992 was transmitted into the free-ranging turkey flocks located near the cormorants in North Dakota is supported by the present study in which no distinction could be made between the viruses isolated from turkeys or wild birds. PMID:8825994

Heckert, R A; Collins, M S; Manvell, R J; Strong, I; Pearson, J E; Alexander, D J

1996-01-01

390

Langerhans Cell Tropism of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype A through F Isolates Derived from Different Transmission Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that some subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), especially subtype E, are more likely to infect mature Langerhans cells (mLC), we titrated a panel of 26 primary HIV-1 isolates of subtypes A through F on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and mLC. The majority of HIV-1 isolates from heterosexually infected patients did not show

MATTHIAS T. DITTMAR; GRAHAM SIMMONS; SAM HIBBITTS; SUDA LOUISIRIROTCHANAKUL; SIMON BEDDOWS; JONATHAN WEBER; PAUL R. CLAPHAM; ROBIN A. WEISS

1997-01-01

391

Complete genome sequence of a novel Plum pox virus strain W isolate determined by 454 pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

The near-complete (99.7 %) genome sequence of a novel Russian Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate Pk, belonging to the strain Winona (W), has been determined by 454 pyrosequencing with the exception of the thirty-one 5'-terminal nucleotides. This region was amplified using 5'RACE kit and sequenced by the Sanger method. Genomic RNA released from immunocaptured PPV particles was employed for generation of cDNA library using TransPlex Whole transcriptome amplification kit (WTA2, Sigma-Aldrich). The entire Pk genome has identity level of 92.8-94.5 % when compared to the complete nucleotide sequences of other PPV-W isolates (W3174, LV-141pl, LV-145bt, and UKR 44189), confirming a high degree of variability within the PPV-W strain. The isolates Pk and LV-141pl are most closely related. The Pk has been found in a wild plum (Prunus domestica) in a new region of Russia indicating widespread dissemination of the PPV-W strain in the European part of the former USSR. PMID:23813250

Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Speranskaya, Anna; Belenikin, Maxim; Melnikova, Natalia; Chirkov, Sergei

2013-10-01

392

Genome sequence of two isolates of Yellow oatgrass mosaic virus, a new grass-infecting Tritimovirus.  

PubMed

Complete genome sequences of two Yellow oatgrass mosaic virus (YOgMV) isolates have been determined to be 9,292 nucleotides excluding the 3' polyadenylated tail. The viral RNA encodes a large putative open reading frame (ORF) of a single polyprotein consisting of 3,002 amino acids with typical genome organization of monopartite potyvirids. A small overlapping ORF encoding a pretty interesting Potyviridae ORF of 122 amino acids is found in the P3 cistron of both YOgMV isolates. The nucleotide and amino acid identities between the two YOgMV isolates are 90 and 97 %, respectively. Pairwise comparison of YOgMV putative mature proteins and proteinase cleavage sites with those of representative members of the family Potyviridae indicated that YOgMV is more closely related to members of the genus Tritimovirus. In phylogenetic trees constructed with sequences of putative polyprotein, YOgMV consistently groups with members of the genus Tritimovirus. These results suggest that YOgMV should be classified as a distinct species in the genus Tritimovirus in the family Potyviridae. PMID:24818694

Hassan, Mohamed

2014-08-01

393

Molecular characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in Sweden in 2006  

PubMed Central

Background The analysis of the nonstructural (NS) gene of the highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) isolated in Sweden early 2006 indicated the co-circulation of two sub-lineages of these viruses at that time. In order to complete the information on their genetic features and relation to other HP H5N1 AIVs the seven additional genes of twelve Swedish isolates were amplified in full length, sequenced, and characterized. Results The presence of two sub-lineages of HP H5N1 AIVs in Sweden in 2006 was further confirmed by the phylogenetic analysis of approximately the 95% of the genome of twelve isolates that were selected on the base of differences in geographic location, timing and animal species of origin. Ten of the analyzed viruses belonged to sub-clade 2.2.2. and grouped together with German and Danish isolates, while two 2.2.1. sub-clade viruses formed a cluster with isolates of Egyptian, Italian, Slovenian, and Nigerian origin. The revealed amino acid differences between the two sub-groups of Swedish viruses affected the predicted antigenicity of the surface glycoproteins, haemagglutinin and neuraminidase, rather than the nucleoprotein, polymerase basic protein 2, and polymerase acidic protein, the main targets of the cellular immune responses. The distinctive characteristics between members of the two subgroups were identified and described. Conclusion The comprehensive genetic characterization of HP H5N1 AIVs isolated in Sweden during the spring of 2006 is reported. Our data support previous findings on the coincidental spread of multiple sub-lineage H5N1 HPAIVs via migrating aquatic birds to large distance from their origin. The detection of 2.2.1. sub-clade viruses in Sweden adds further data regarding their spread in the North of Europe in 2006. The close genetic relationship of Swedish isolates sub-clade 2.2.2. to the contemporary German and Danish isolates supports the proposition of the introduction and spread of a single variant of 2.2.2. sub-clade H5N1 avian influenza viruses in the Baltic region. The presented findings underline the importance of whole genome analysis. PMID:18837987

Kiss, István; Gyarmati, Péter; Zohari, Siamak; Ramsay, Karin Wilbe; Metreveli, Giorgi; Weiss, Elisabeth; Brytting, Maria; Stivers, Marielle; Lindström, Sofia; Lundkvist, Ake; Nemirov, Kirill; Thorén, Peter; Berg, Mikael; Czifra, György; Belák, Sándor

2008-01-01

394

“Sakhalin” virus — a new arbovirus isolated from Ixodes (Ceratixodes) putus Pick.-Camb. 1878 collected on Tuleniy Island, Sea of Okhotsk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fifteen antigenically related virus strains isolated in 1969–1971 fromIxodes putus ticks at a seabird colony (Uria aalge) of the south-east coast of Sakhalin Island, Sea of Okhotsk, were studied. Sakhalin virus was shown to be a RNA-containing virus, sensitive to ether and sodium deoxycholate, pathogenic for infant mice after intracerebral inoculation. The virus did not agglutinate goose erythrocytes. No

D. K. Lvov; A. A. Timofeeva; V. L. Gromashevski; V. I. Chervonsky; A. I. Gromov; Yu. M. Tsyrkin; A. G. Pogrebenko; I. N. Kostyrko

1972-01-01

395

Avian Influenza Virus with Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Combination H3N6, Isolated from a Domestic Pigeon in Guangxi, Southern China.  

PubMed

The H3 subtype of avian influenza virus can provide genes for human influenza virus through gene reassortment, which has raised great concerns about its potential threat to human health. An H3N6 subtype of avian influenza virus was isolated from Guangxi Province, China, in 2009. All eight gene segments of the strain were sequenced. The sequence analysis indicated that this H3N6 virus was a nature reassortant virus. The genome sequences now can be used to understand the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of the H3N6 influenza virus in southern China. PMID:25657287

Liu, Tingting; Xie, Zhixun; Wang, Guoli; Song, Degui; Huang, Li; Xie, Zhiqing; Deng, Xianweng; Luo, Sisi; Huang, Jiaoling; Zeng, Tingting

2015-01-01

396

Pathogenesis and phylogenetic analyses of canine distemper virus strain ZJ7 isolate from domestic dogs in China  

PubMed Central

A new isolate of canine distemper virus (CDV), named ZJ7, was isolated from lung tissues of a dog suspected with CDV infection using MDCK cells. The ZJ7 isolate induced cytopathogenic effects of syncytia in MDCK cell after six passages. In order to evaluate pathogenesis of ZJ7 strain, three CDV sero-negative dogs were intranasally inoculated with its virus suspension. All infected dogs developed clinical signs of severe bloody diarrhea, conjunctivitis, ocular discharge, nasal discharge and coughing, fever and weight loss at 21 dpi, whereas the mock group infected with DMEM were normal. The results demonstrated that CDV-ZJ7 strain isolated by MDCK cell was virulent, and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of strain ZJ7 had no change after isolation by MDCK cell when compared with the original virus from the fresh tissues. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses for the nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P) and receptor binding haemagglutinin (H) gene of the ZJ7 isolate clearly showed it is joins to the Asia 1 group cluster of CDV strains, the predominant genotype in China. PMID:22087872

2011-01-01

397

Avian Influenza Virus Isolated in Wild Waterfowl in Argentina: Evidence of a potentially unique phylogenetic lineage in South America  

PubMed Central

Avian Influenza (AI) viruses have been sporadically isolated in South America. The most recent reports are from an outbreak in commercial poultry in Chile in 2002 and its putative ancestor from a wild bird in Bolivia in 2001. Extensive surveillance in wild birds was carried out in Argentina during 2006-2007. Using RRT-PCR, 12 AI positive detections were made from cloacal swabs. One of those positive samples yielded an AI virus isolated from a wild kelp gull (Larus dominicanus) captured in the South Atlantic coastline of Argentina. Further characterization by nucleotide sequencing reveals that it belongs to the H13N9 subtype. Phylogenetic analysis of the 8 viral genes suggests that the 6 internal genes are related to the isolates from Chile and Bolivia. The analysis also indicates that a cluster of phylogenetically related AI viruses from South America may have evolved independently, with minimal gene exchange, from influenza viruses in other latitudes. The data produced from our investigations are valuable contributions to the study of AI viruses in South America. PMID:18632129

Pereda, Ariel J.; Uhart, Marcela; Perez, Alberto A.; Zaccagnini, Maria E.; La Sala, Luciano; Decarre, Julieta; Goijman, Andrea; Solari, Laura; Suarez, Romina; Craig, Maria I.; Vagnozzi, Ariel; Rimondi, Agustina; König, Guido; Terrera, Maria V.; Kaloghlian, Analia; Song, Haichen; Sorrell, Erin M.; Perez, Daniel R.

2008-01-01

398

Specificity of resistance to dengue virus isolates is associated with genotypes of the mosquito antiviral gene Dicer-2  

PubMed Central

In contrast to the prevailing view that invertebrate immunity relies on broad-spectrum recognition and effector mechanisms, intrinsic genetic compatibility between invertebrate hosts and their pathogens is often highly specific in nature. Solving this puzzle requires a better understanding of the molecular basis underlying observed patterns of invertebrate host–pathogen genetic specificity, broadly referred to as genotype-by-genotype interactions. Here, we identify an invertebrate immune gene in which natural polymorphism is associated with isolate-specific resistance to an RNA virus. Dicer-2 (dcr2) encodes a key protein upstream of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, a major antiviral component of innate immunity in invertebrates. We surveyed allelic polymorphism at the dcr2 locus in a wild-type outbred population and in three derived isofemale families of the mosquito Aedes aegypti that were experimentally exposed to several, genetically distinct isolates of dengue virus. We found that dcr2 genotype was associated with resistance to dengue virus in a virus isolate-specific manner. By contrast, no such association was found for genotypes at two control loci flanking dcr2, making it likely that dcr2 contains the yet-unidentified causal polymorphism(s). This result supports the idea that host–pathogen compatibility in this system depends, in part, on a genotype-by-genotype interaction between dcr2 and the viral genome, and points to the RNAi pathway as a potentially important determinant of intrinsic insect-virus genetic specificity. PMID:23193131

Lambrechts, Louis; Quillery, Elsa; Noël, Valérie; Richardson, Jason H.; Jarman, Richard G.; Scott, Thomas W.; Chevillon, Christine

2013-01-01

399

Isolation and characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary mutant cell line with altered sensitivity to vaccinia virus killing.  

PubMed Central

The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line is nonpermissive for vaccinia virus, and translation of viral intermediate genes was reported to be blocked (A. Ramsey-Ewing and B. Moss, Virology 206:984-993, 1995). However, cells are readily killed by vaccinia virus. A vaccinia virus-resistant CHO mutant, VV5-4, was isolated by retroviral insertional mutagenesis. Parental CHO cells, upon infection with vaccinia virus, die within 2 to 3 days, whereas VV5-4 cells preferentially survive this cytotoxic effect. The survival phenotype of VV5-4 is partial and in inverse correlation with the multiplicity of infection used. In addition, viral infection fails to shut off host protein synthesis in VV5-4. VV5-4 was used to study the relationship of progression of the virus life cycle and cell fate. We found that in parental CHO cells, vaccinia virus proceeds through expression of viral early genes, uncoating, viral DNA replication, and expression of intermediate and late promoters. In contrast, we detect only expression of early genes and uncoating in VV5-4 cells, whereas viral DNA replication appears to be blocked. Consistent with the cascade regulation model of viral gene expression, we detect little intermediate- and late-gene expression in VV5-4 cells. Since vaccinia virus is known to be cytolytic, isolation of this mutant therefore demonstrates a new mode of the cellular microenvironment that affects progression of the virus life cycle, resulting in a different cell fate. This process appears to be mediated by a general mechanism, since VV5-4 is also resistant to Shope fibroma virus and myxoma virus killing. On the other hand, VV5-4 remains sensitive to cowpox virus killing. To examine the mechanism of VV5-4 survival, we investigated whether apoptosis is involved. DNA laddering and staining of apoptotic nuclei with Hoechst 33258 were observed in both CHO and VV5-4 cells infected with vaccinia virus. We concluded that the cellular pathway, which blocks viral DNA replication and allows VV5-4 to survive, is independent of apoptosis. This mutant also provides evidence that an inductive signal for apoptosis upon vaccinia virus infection occurs prior to viral DNA replication. PMID:8676492

Bair, C H; Chung, C S; Vasilevskaya, I A; Chang, W

1996-01-01

400

Molecular characterization of H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from Ontario swine in 2011 and 2012.  

PubMed

BackgroundData about molecular diversity of commonly circulating type A influenza viruses in Ontario swine are scarce. Yet, this information is essential for surveillance of animal and public health, vaccine updates, and for understanding virus evolution and its large-scale spread.MethodsThe study population consisted of 21 swine herds with clinical problems due to respiratory disease. Nasal swabs from individual pigs were collected and tested by virus isolation in MDCK cells and by rtRT-PCR. All eight segments of 10 H3N2 viruses were sequenced using high-throughput sequencing and molecularly characterized.ResultsWithin-herd prevalence ranged between 2 and 100%. Structurally, Ontario H3N2 viruses could be classified into three different groups. Group 1 was the most similar to the original trH3N2 virus from 2005. Group 2 was the most similar to the Ontario turkey H3N2 isolates with PB1 and NS genes originating from trH3N2 virus and M, PB2, PA and NP genes originating from the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. All Group 3 internal genes were genetically related to A(H1N1)pdm09. Analysis of antigenic sites of HA1 showed that Group 1 had 8 aa changes within 4 antigenic sites, A(1), B(3), C(2) and E(2). The Group 2 viruses had 8 aa changes within 3 antigenic sites A(3), B(3) and C(2), while Group 3 viruses had 4 aa changes within 3 antigenic sites, B(1), D(1) and E(2), when compared to the cluster IV H3N2 virus [A/swine/Ontario/33853/2005/(H3N2)].ConclusionsThe characterization of the Ontario H3N2 viruses clearly indicates reassortment of gene segments between the North American swine trH3N2 from cluster IV and the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. PMID:25416300

Grgi, Helena; Costa, Marcio; Friendship, Robert M; Carman, Susy; Nagy, Eva; Wideman, Greg; Weese, Scott; Poljak, Zvonimir

2014-11-22

401

Complete genome sequences of three rabies viruses isolated from rabid raccoon dogs and a cow in Korea.  

PubMed

The complete genomes of three rabies viruses (BD0406CC, BV9901PJ, and 08F40) of two raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis) and a cow were determined. The genomic organization is typical of rabies viruses, and the open reading frames of the N, P, M, G, and L genes are 1,353, 894, 609, 1,575, and 6,384 bases in length, respectively. The full genome length of the three strains was 11,928 nucleotides, and the sequence similarity between the rabies viruses at the nucleotide level was 98.5-99.5%. Sequence comparisons indicated that these rabies viruses belong to the "Arctic and Arctic-like" group, with high homology to the Eurasian cluster. All Korean strains were clustered with the Mongolia strains, which belong to Arctic-like 1 clade. The 08F40 and BD0406CC strains were constructed with rabies virus strains isolated in Gangwon province. The BV9901PJ strain was closely related to strains isolated in Gyeonggi province in Korea. Three strains were more dependent upon geographical distribution and time period than host species. Complete genome sequencing of different host-origin rabies viruses will provide information that should contribute to understanding the transmission cycle and genetic variability of rabies from different hosts. PMID:23975690

Oem, Jae-Ku; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki

2013-12-01

402

Mosquito surveillance for West Nile virus in Connecticut, 2000: isolation from Culex pipiens, Cx. restuans, Cx. salinarius, and Culiseta melanura.  

PubMed Central

Fourteen isolations of West Nile (WN) virus were obtained from four mosquito species (Culex pipiens [5], Cx. restuans [4], Cx. salinarius [2], and Culiseta melanura [3]) in statewide surveillance conducted from June through October 2000. Most isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected in densely populated residential locales in Fairfield and New Haven counties, where the highest rates of dead crow sightings were reported and where WN virus was detected in 1999. Minimum field infection rates per 1,000 mosquitoes ranged from 0.5 to 1.8 (county based) and from 1.3 to 76.9 (site specific). Cx. restuans appears to be important in initiating WN virus transmission among birds in early summer; Cx. pipiens appears to play a greater role in amplifying virus later in the season. Cs. melanura could be important in the circulation of WN virus among birds in sylvan environments; Cx. salinarius is a suspected vector of WN virus to humans and horses. PMID:11585530

Andreadis, T. G.; Anderson, J. F.; Vossbrinck, C. R.

2001-01-01

403

Isolation and analysis of a very virulent Marek’s disease virus strain in China  

PubMed Central

Background A severe MD was broken out at a farm in Shandong, China, despite FC126 vaccination of the chickens at 1-day-old. The mortality of the flocks reached up to 38.3%. The infected chickens were found to have MD pathological changes, including enlargement of spleens, livers and kidneys, and tumors occured on organs later. Samples were collected from the chickens for diagnosis. Methods The collected samples were inoculated into primary duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells, and the MDV strain named SD2012-1 was isolated. In order to identify the isolate, amplification by PCR and sequencing of oncogenic Meq and vIL-8 gene were processed, the obtained sequences were compared with the sequences of reference strains, and SD2012-1 was used to challenge immunized SPF chickens. Results A very virulent MDV isolate strain, SD2012-1, was isolated from a chicken flock in Shandong Province, China, the isolate had the characteristics of very virulent MDV-1, nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence comparisons of Meq and vIL-8 gene of SD2012-1 with those of reference strains showed SD2012-1 had high homology with MDV strains isolated from China, SD2012-1 could break through the protection provided by HVT vaccine and HVT?+?SB-1 vaccine immunization and caused the mortality of SPF chickens over 60%. The immune failure occured at the farm could be due to the improper selection of vaccines. SD2012-1 produced death later and the gross postmortem lesions of chickens died early and later were different. Conclusions MDV strain SD2012-1 isolated from Shandong Province, China was found to have the characteristics of very virulent MDV-1, which could break through the protection provided by HVT vaccine and HVT?+?SB-1 vaccine, the virus seemed to have a long latent period, and cause different gross postmortem lesions of chickens between chickens died early and later. A better immunization way should be chosen to prevent infection of this MDV strain in field. PMID:23687964

2013-01-01

404

Isolation of Newcastle disease virus and Salmonella typhimurium from the brain of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus).  

PubMed

Avian paramyxovirus type 1 (Newcastle disease virus) and Salmonella typhimurium were isolated from the brain and lung tissues of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from Lac Canard, Alberta, Canada. More than 100 birds died during this outbreak in 1999. Affected birds presented signs of central nervous system disease characterized by unilateral wing and leg paralysis. Other geographic locations in the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan have reported cases of cormorants suffering from diseases with signs compatible with Newcastle disease. The virus isolated in the 1999 outbreak was characterized as mesogenic. These findings suggest that other pathogens, like S. typhimurium, may influence the clinical presentation of disease caused by mesogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus in cormorants. PMID:11332490

Clavijo, A; Robinson, Y; López, J

2001-01-01

405

Isolation of measles virus from clinical specimens using B95a and Vero/hSLAM cell-lines.  

PubMed

The clinical presentation of acute measles is normally quite typical, especially in the presence of Koplik's spots, that laboratory test is seldom required to confirm the diagnosis. However, with wide measles vaccination coverage and the extensive use of immunosuppressive chemotherapy, the diagnosis of atypical manifestations of acute measles may require laboratory confirmation. When compared with B95a cell-line, this study shows that the Vero/hSLAM cell-line is sensitive and is recommended for use in the primary isolation of wild-type measles virus from clinical specimens. Throat swab and urine specimens are the clinical specimens of choice and both are recommended for optimal isolation of measles virus from patients suspected of acute measles virus infection. PMID:19852319

Keniscope, C; Juliana, R; Subri, H; Shangari, S R; Wan Nor Azlina, W A; Hamizah, A; Emmi, E E; Nor Azlina, M D; Norizah, I; Chua, K B

2009-03-01

406

Nearly Complete Genome Sequence of Curionopolis Virus, a Culicoides-Related Rhabdovirus Isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Region  

PubMed Central

We report here the first nearly complete genome sequence related to curionopolis virus (CURV), that of strain AR440009, isolated from a pool of Culicoides sp. midges in Serra Norte, Pará State, northern Brazil. All genes showed similarities to those belonging to members of the family Rhabdoviridae. PMID:25395636

Diniz Júnior, José Antonio P.; Cardoso, Jedson F.; Silva, Sandro Patroca; da Silva, Daisy Elaine Andrade; de Oliveira, Layanna F.; é Vasconcelos, Janaina M.; Chiang, Jannifer O.; Dias, Amarilis Aragão; Vianez Júnior, João Lídio da S. G.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.

2014-01-01

407

ISOLATION OF EGG DROP SYNDROME VIRUS AND ITS MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION USING SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six isolates of egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus were recovered from five different outbreaks of EDS in commercial laying hens in and around Faisalabad. The aberrant eggs were fed to the susceptible laying hens for experimental induction of infection. The samples from infected birds (egg washing, cloacal swabs, oviducts and spleens) were collected, processed and inoculated into 11-day old duck

M. H. Rasool; S. U. Rahman; M. K. Mansoor

2005-01-01

408

Isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with a concurrent pox virus infection.  

PubMed

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from the spleen, liver, lung, heart, kidney, and skin of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) which had a concurrent avian pox virus infection. The hawk had been housed on a farm with domestic turkeys, providing a possible source of the E. rhusiopathiae. PMID:2824865

Pace, L W; Chengappa, M M; Greer, S; Alderson, C

1987-10-01

409

Studies of two cucumber mosaic virus isolates from spinach in the winter garden area of Texas  

E-print Network

chrysanthemum aspermy virus (87, 113) because chrysanthemum is a very common host, although the virus was first described from diseased tomato plants ( 12). This virus is widespread in countries throughout the world where chrysanthemums are grown (87... group. These v1ruses are chrysanthemum mild mottle virus, which appears to be a strain of TAV, and robinia mosaic virus ( 169), presently cons1dered to be a strain of PSV ( 161). Cucumber mosaic virus deserves special treatment in this review because...

Wilson, Alphus Dan

2012-06-07

410

Amplification and cloning of herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein G from an Iranian isolate.  

PubMed

Herpes Simplex Virus type-2 (HSV-2) is the main cause of genital herpes infection. Its prevalence is increasing worldwide and varies widely with generally higher rate in developing than developed countries and urban than rural areas. HSV-2 Iranian isolate was propagated in HeLa cell line. The viral genome was extracted by phenol-chloroform and used as template in nested polymerase chain reactions (n-PCR) to amplify gG-2 gene. The amplified gene was cloned into a cloning vector (pTZ57R/T) and transformed into competent E. coli DH5a. The recombinant vector encoding the gene of interest was confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis and sequencing. PMID:19069897

Jamalidoost, Marzieh; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Fotouhi, Fatemeh; Meshkat, Zahra

2007-03-15

411

Isolation and Genetic Analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Infected Cattle in Indiana  

PubMed Central

Species and biotype distribution was determined in 44 bovine viral diarrhea virus- (BVDV-) positive samples submitted to the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (ADDL) in Indiana during 2006–2008. BVDV RNA was detected in the 5?-untranslated region and Npro region using reverse transcriptase PCR followed by sequencing analysis of the PCR product. Additionally, cases were classified into one of six categories according to history and/or lesions: acute symptomatic, hemorrhagic, respiratory distress, reproductive, persistent infection (PI), and mucosal disease (MD). Of 44 BVDV-positive samples, 33 were noncytopathic (ncp), 10 were cytopathic (cp), and one presented both ncp and cp biotypes. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that all samples belonged to BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, or BVDV-2. The most common isolate was ncp BVDV-1b, (44%) followed by ncp BVDV-2a (24%). Among the six categories, respiratory clinical signs were the most common (36%) followed by PI (25%) and MD (16%). PMID:21647344

Pogranichniy, Roman M.; Schnur, Megan E.; Raizman, Eran A.; Murphy, Duane A.; Negron, Maria; Thacker, H. Leon

2011-01-01

412

Genomic Sequence and Virulence of Clonal Isolates of Vaccinia Virus Tiantan, the Chinese Smallpox Vaccine Strain  

PubMed Central

Despite the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1979, the potential bioterrorism threat from variola virus and the ongoing use of vaccinia virus (VACV) as a vector for vaccine development argue for continued research on VACV. In China, the VACV Tiantan strain (TT) was used in the smallpox eradication campaign. Its progeny strain is currently being used to develop a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine. Here we sequenced the full genomes of five TT clones isolated by plaque purification from the TT (752-1) viral stock. Phylogenetic analysis with other commonly used VACV strains showed that TT (752-1) and its clones clustered and exhibited higher sequence diversity than that found in Dryvax clones. The ?190 kbp genomes of TT appeared to encode 273 open reading frames (ORFs). ORFs located in the middle of the genome were more conserved than those located at the two termini, where many virulence and immunomodulation associated genes reside. Several patterns of nucleotide changes including point mutations, insertions and deletions were identified. The polymorphisms in seven virulence-associated proteins and six immunomodulation-related proteins were analyzed. We also investigated the neuro- and skin- virulence of TT clones in mice and rabbits, respectively. The TT clones exhibited significantly less virulence than the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH) strain, as evidenced by less extensive weight loss and morbidity in mice as well as produced smaller skin lesions and lower incidence of putrescence in rabbits. The complete genome sequences, ORF annotations, and phenotypic diversity yielded from this study aid our understanding of the Chinese historic TT strain and are useful for HIV vaccine projects employing TT as a vector. PMID:23593246

Zhang, Qicheng; Tian, Meijuan; Feng, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Jing; Liu, Ying; Shao, Yiming

2013-01-01

413

Isolation and Characterization of the Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Terminase Complex  

PubMed Central

During herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection, empty procapsids are assembled and subsequently filled with the viral genome by means of a protein complex called the terminase, which is comprised of the HSV-1 UL15, UL28, and UL33 proteins. Biochemical studies of the terminase proteins have been hampered by the inability to purify the intact terminase complex. In this study, terminase complexes were isolated by tandem-affinity purification (TAP) using recombinant viruses expressing either a full-length NTAP-UL28 fusion protein (vFH476) or a C-terminally truncated NTAP-UL28 fusion protein (vFH499). TAP of the UL28 protein from vFH476-infected cells, followed by silver staining, Western blotting, and mass spectrometry, identified the UL15, UL28, and UL33 subunits, while TAP of vFH499-infected cells confirmed previous findings that the C terminus of UL28 is required for UL28 interaction with UL33 and UL15. Analysis of the oligomeric state of the purified complexes by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation revealed that the three proteins formed a complex with a molecular mass that is consistent with the formation of a UL15-UL28-UL33 heterotrimer. In order to assess the importance of conserved regions of the UL15 and UL28 proteins, recombinant NTAP-UL28 viruses with mutations of the putative UL28 metal-binding domain or within the UL15 nuclease domain were generated. TAP of UL28 complexes from cells infected with each domain mutant demonstrated that the conserved cysteine residues of the putative UL28 metal-binding domain and conserved amino acids within the UL15 nuclease domain are required for the cleavage and packaging functions of the viral terminase, but not for terminase complex assembly. PMID:24155374

Heming, Jason D.; Huffman, Jamie B.; Jones, Lisa M.

2014-01-01

414

Neurological lesions in chickens experimentally infected with virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates.  

PubMed

Distribution, character, and severity of lesions were evaluated in tissues from the central nervous system of chickens inoculated with 10 different Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates: CA 1083, Korea 97-147, Australia (all velogenic viscerotropic), Texas GB and Turkey North Dakota (both velogenic neurotropic), Nevada cormorant, Anhinga and Roakin (all mesogenic), and B1 and QV4 (lentogenic). Tissues for the present study included archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain (all strains) plus spinal cord (two strains). Encephalitis was observed in all velogenic viscerotropic and velogenic neurotropic strains, and in some mesogenic strains. In general, the encephalitic lesions began at 5 days post infection, with more severe lesions occurring around 10 days post infection. At this time point, especially in the grey matter of the brain, cerebellum and spinal cord, there were neuronal necrosis, neuronal phagocytosis, and clusters of cells with microglial morphology. Axonal degeneration and demyelination was also observed. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for viral nucleoprotein confirmed the presence of virus. In the areas of encephalomyelitis, IHC for CD3 revealed that many of the inflammatory cells were T lymphocytes. IHC using an antibody for glial fibrillar acid protein showed reactive astrogliosis, which was most pronounced at the later time points. PMID:21500034

Ecco, Roselene; Susta, Leonardo; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Brown, Corrie

2011-04-01

415

The nucleopolyhedroviruses of Rachiplusia ou and Anagrapha falcifera are isolates of the same virus.  

PubMed

The 7.8 kb EcoRI-G fragment of Rachiplusia ou multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (RoMNPV), containing the polyhedrin gene, was cloned and sequenced. The sequence of the fragment was 92.3% identical to the sequence of the corresponding region in the Autographa californica (Ac)MNPV genome. A comparison of the EcoRI-G sequence with other MNPV sequences revealed that RoMNPV was most closely related to AcMNPV. However, the predicted amino acid sequence of RoMNPV polyhedrin shared more sequence identity with the polyhedrin of Orygia pseudotsugata MNPV. In addition, the RoMNPV sequence was almost completely identical (99.9%) to a previously published 6.3 kb sequence of Anagrapha falcifera MNPV (AfMNPV). The EcoRI and HindIII restriction fragment profiles of RoMNPV and AfMNPV also were nearly identical, with an additional EcoRI band detected in RoMNPV DNA. Bioassays of these viruses with three different hosts (the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner, the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie, and the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens Fabricius) failed to detect any differences in the biological activities of RoMNPV and AfMNPV. These results indicate that RoMNPV and AfMNPV are different isolates of the same virus. The taxonomic relationship of Ro/AfMNPV and AcMNPV is discussed. PMID:10573177

Harrison, R L; Bonning, B C

1999-10-01

416

Two different genotypes of H1N2 swine influenza virus isolated in northern China and their pathogenicity in animals.  

PubMed

During 2006 and 2007, two swine-origin triple-reassortant influenza A (H1N2) viruses were isolated from pigs in northern China, and the antigenic characteristics of the hemagglutinin protein of the viruses were examined. Genotyping and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated different emergence patterns for the two H1N2 viruses, Sw/Hebei/10/06 and Sw/Tianjin/1/07. Sequences for the other genes encoding the internal proteins were compared with the existing data to determine their origins and establish the likely mechanisms of genetic reassortment. Sw/Hebei/10/06 is an Sw/Indiana/9K035/99-like virus, whereas Sw/Tianjin/1/07 represents a new H1N2 genotype with surface genes of classic swine and human origin and internal genes originating from the Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1 virus. Six-week-old female BALB/c mice infected with the Sw/HeB/10/06 and Sw/TJ/1/07 viruses showed an average weight loss of 12.8% and 8.1%, respectively. Healthy six-week-old pigs were inoculated intranasally with either the Sw/HeB/10/06 or Sw/TJ/1/07 virus. No considerable changes in the clinical presentation were observed post-inoculation in any of the virus-inoculated groups, and the viruses effectively replicated in the nasal cavity and lung tissue. Based on the results, it is possible that the new genotype of the swine H1N2 virus that emerged in China may become widespread in the swine population and pose a potential threat to public health. PMID:25542286

Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Chuantian; Yan, Minghua; Xin, Xiaoguang; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

2015-02-25

417

Sodium sulphite enhances RNA isolation and sensitivity of Cucumber mosaic virus detection by RT-PCR in black pepper.  

PubMed

Isolation of intact high quality RNA suitable for RT-PCR from black pepper is greatly hindered by the presence of polyphenols and polysaccharides. These compounds adversely affect the sensitivity of virus detection by RT-PCR. The present study evaluated the effect of sodium sulphite in enhancing RNA yield and quality in a modified acid guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform (AGPC) protocol. The results were compared with the standard AGPC method and RNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen) for detection of Cucumber mosaic virus through RT-PCR. The addition of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer increased the sensitivity of virus detection. Higher sensitivity of detection (than obtained from the kit) was seen when sodium sulphite was used at 0.5%. Similar levels of sensitivity were also observed for the detection of Cucumber mosaic virus from Piper longum. PMID:17275931

Siju, S; Madhubala, R; Bhat, A I

2007-04-01

418

Natural compounds isolated from Brazilian plants are potent inhibitors of hepatitis C virus replication in vitro.  

PubMed

Compounds extracted from plants can provide an alternative approach to new therapies. They present characteristics such as high chemical diversity, lower cost of production and milder or inexistent side effects compared with conventional treatment. The Brazilian flora represents a vast, largely untapped, resource of potential antiviral compounds. In this study, we investigate the antiviral effects of a panel of natural compounds isolated from Brazilian plants species on hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome replication. To do this we used firefly luciferase-based HCV sub-genomic replicons of genotypes 2a (JFH-1), 1b and 3a and the compounds were assessed for their effects on both HCV replication and cellular toxicity. Initial screening of compounds was performed using the maximum non-toxic concentration and 4 compounds that exhibited a useful therapeutic index (favourable ratio of cytotoxicity to antiviral potency) were selected for extra analysis. The compounds APS (EC50=2.3?M), a natural alkaloid isolated from Maytrenus ilicifolia, and the lignans 3(?)43 (EC50=4.0?M), 3(?)20 (EC50=8.2?M) and 5(?)362 (EC50=38.9?M) from Peperomia blanda dramatically inhibited HCV replication as judged by reductions in luciferase activity and HCV protein expression in both the subgenomic and infectious systems. We further show that these compounds are active against a daclatasvir resistance mutant subgenomic replicon. Consistent with inhibition of genome replication, production of infectious JFH-1 virus was significantly reduced by all 4 compounds. These data are the first description of Brazilian natural compounds possessing anti-HCV activity and further analyses are being performed in order to investigate the mode of action of those compounds. PMID:25557602

Jardim, A C G; Igloi, Z; Shimizu, J F; Santos, V A F F M; Felippe, L G; Mazzeu, B F; Amako, Y; Furlan, M; Harris, M; Rahal, P

2015-03-01

419

Evaluation of citrus somatic hybrids for tolerance to Phytophthora nicotianae and citrus tristeza virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic hybridization is a biotechnology tool that can be used in citrus breeding programs to produce somatic hybrids with the complete genetic combination of both parents. The goal of this work was to test the reaction of citrus somatic hybrids that may be useful as rootstocks to trunk and root infections caused by Phytophthora nicotianae van Breda de Haan (P.

Francisco de Assis Alves Mourão Filho; Rafael Pio; Beatriz Madalena Januzzi Mendes; Fernando Alves de Azevedo; Evandro Henrique Schinor; Fábio Albuquerque Entelmann; André Siqueira Rodrigues Alves; Tatiana Eugenia Cantuarias-Avilés

2008-01-01

420

Comparison of complete genome sequences of dog rabies viruses isolated from China and Mexico reveals key amino acid changes that may be associated with virus replication and virulence.  

PubMed

Rabies is a global problem, but its impact and prevalence vary across different regions. In some areas, such as parts of Africa and Asia, the virus is prevalent in the domestic dog population, leading to epidemic waves and large numbers of human fatalities. In other regions, such as the Americas, the virus predominates in wildlife and bat populations, with sporadic spillover into domestic animals. In this work, we attempted to investigate whether these distinct environments led to selective pressures that result in measurable changes within the genome at the amino acid level. To this end, we collected and sequenced the full genome of two isolates from divergent environments. The first isolate (DRV-AH08) was from China, where the virus is present in the dog population and the country is experiencing a serious epidemic. The second isolate (DRV-Mexico) was taken from Mexico, where the virus is present in both wildlife and domestic dog populations, but at low levels as a consequence of an effective vaccination program. We then combined and compared these with other full genome sequences to identify distinct amino acid changes that might be associated with environment. Phylogenetic analysis identified strain DRV-AH08 as belonging to the China-I lineage, which has emerged to become the dominant lineage in the current epidemic. The Mexico strain was placed in the D11 Mexico lineage, associated with the West USA-Mexico border clade. Amino acid sequence analysis identified only 17 amino acid differences in the N, G and L proteins. These differences may be associated with virus replication and virulence-for example, the short incubation period observed in the current epidemic in China. PMID:24395077

Yu, Fulai; Zhang, Guoqing; Zhong, Xiangfu; Han, Na; Song, Yunfeng; Zhao, Ling; Cui, Min; Rayner, Simon; Fu, Zhen F

2014-07-01

421

Measurement of the Infection and Dissemination of Bluetongue Virus in Culicoides Biting Midges Using a Semi-Quantitative RT-PCR Assay and Isolation of Infectious Virus  

PubMed Central

Background Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the biological vectors of globally significant arboviruses of livestock including bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and the recently emerging Schmallenberg virus (SBV). From 2006–2009 outbreaks of BTV in northern Europe inflicted major disruption and economic losses to farmers and several attempts were made to implicate Palaearctic Culicoides species as vectors. Results from these studies were difficult to interpret as they used semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqPCR) assays as the major diagnostic tool, a technique that had not been validated for use in this role. In this study we validate the use of these assays by carrying out time-series detection of BTV RNA in two colony species of Culicoides and compare the results with the more traditional isolation of infectious BTV on cell culture. Methodology/Principal Findings A BTV serotype 1 strain mixed with horse blood was fed to several hundred individuals of Culicoides sonorensis (Wirth & Jones) and C. nubeculosus (Mg.) using a membrane-based assay and replete individuals were then incubated at 25°C. At daily intervals 25 Culicoides of each species were removed from incubation, homogenised and BTV quantified in each individual using sqPCR (Cq values) and virus isolation on a KC-C. sonorensis embryonic cell line, followed by antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, comparisons were also drawn between the results obtained with whole C. sonorensis and with individually dissected individuals to determine the level of BTV dissemination. Conclusions/Significance Cq values generated from time-series infection experiments in both C. sonorensis and C. nubeculosus confirmed previous studies that relied upon the isolation and detection of infectious BTV. Implications on the testing of field-collected Culicoides as potential virus vectors by PCR assays and the use of such assays as front-line tools for use in diagnostic laboratories in this role are discussed. PMID:23940643

Veronesi, Eva; Antony, Frank; Gubbins, Simon; Golding, Nick; Blackwell, Alison; Mertens, Peter PC.; Brownlie, Joe; Darpel, Karin E.; Mellor, Philip S.; Carpenter, Simon

2013-01-01

422

A novel single-stranded RNA virus isolated from a phytopathogenic filamentous fungus, Rosellinia necatrix, with similarity to hypo-like viruses  

PubMed Central

Here we report a biological and molecular characterization of a novel positive-sense RNA virus isolated from a field isolate (NW10) of a filamentous phytopathogenic fungus, the white root rot fungus that is designated as Rosellinia necatrix fusarivirus 1 (RnFV1). A recently developed technology using zinc ions allowed us to transfer RnFV1 to two