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1

Isolates of Citrus tristeza virus that overcome Poncirus trifoliata resistance comprise a novel strain.  

PubMed

The economically important rootstock species Poncirus trifoliata is resistant to most isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), but not to members of the CTV resistance-breaking (RB) strain presently found in New Zealand. In this study, five known and suspected RB isolates were separated from field mixtures, and their genomes were sequenced in full. It was found that the RB isolates are members of a single phylogenetically distinct clade with an average of 90.3% genomic nucleotide sequence identity to the closest extant isolate, T36. These isolates also show evidence of multiple recombination events throughout their evolutionary history, with T36, T30 and VT-like isolates, and with each other. Finally, the genomic sequences of these isolates show that several genes contain unique polymorphisms that may or may not be involved in overcoming resistance. These data will aid in the understanding of host-virus interactions, and the mechanism of resistance in P. trifoliata. PMID:20352212

Harper, S J; Dawson, T E; Pearson, M N

2010-04-01

2

Nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene of citrus tristeza virus: Comparison of biologically diverse isolates collected in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequences of the coat protein genes of four seedling yellows (SY) and four non-SY (NSY) of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates, which were collected in Israel over a period of 30 years, were analyzed. Pairwise comparisons showed extensive similarities in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of six isolates designated the VT group. This group consists of three NSY

Munir Mawassi; Ron Gafny; Moshe Bar-Joseph

1993-01-01

3

Grouping and comparison of Indian citrus tristeza virus isolates based on coat protein gene sequences and restriction analysis patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is an aphid-transmitted closterovirus, which causes one of the most important citrus diseases worldwide. Isolates of\\u000a CTV differ widely in their biological properties. CTV-infected samples were collected from four locations in India: Bangalore\\u000a (CTV-B), Delhi (CTV-D), Nagpur (CTV-N), and Pune (CTV-P), and were maintained by grafting into Kagzi lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. Swing.). All isolates produced

A. Roy; P. Ramachandran; R. H. Brlansky

2003-01-01

4

Molecular analysis of the coat protein and minor coat protein genes of New Zealand Citrus tristeza virus isolates that overcome the resistance of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. and trifoliate orange hybrid species comprise 90% of the citrus rootstock used in NewZealand. The resistance expressed\\u000a by P. trifoliata to Citrus tristeza virus is in part responsible for the NewZealand citrus industry not suffering severe losses to this disease. However, isolates\\u000a of Citrus tristeza virus have been identified in NewZealand that can overcome this resistance

S. J. Harper; T. E. Dawson; P. A. Mooney; M. N. Pearson

2008-01-01

5

Genetic Variation of Citrus Tristeza Virus Isolates from California and Spain: Evidence for Mixed Infections and Recombination  

PubMed Central

We examined the population structure and genetic variation of four genomic regions within and between 30 Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates from Spain and California. Our analyses showed that most isolates contained a population of sequence variants, with one being predominant. Four isolates showed two major sequence variants in some genomic regions. The two major variants of three of these isolates showed very low nucleotide identity to each other but were very similar to those of other isolates, suggesting the possibility of mixed infections with two divergent isolates. Incongruencies of phylogenetic relationships in the different genomic regions and statistical analyses suggested that the genomes of some CTV sequence variants originated by recombination events between diverged sequence variants. No correlation was observed between geographic origin and nucleotide distance, and thus from a genetic view, the Spanish and Californian isolates analyzed here could be considered members of the same population.

Rubio, Luis; Ayllon, Maria Angeles; Kong, Ping; Fernandez, Andres; Polek, MaryLou; Guerri, Jose; Moreno, Pedro; Falk, Bryce W.

2001-01-01

6

Grouping and comparison of Indian citrus tristeza virus isolates based on coat protein gene sequences and restriction analysis patterns.  

PubMed

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is an aphid-transmitted closterovirus, which causes one of the most important citrus diseases worldwide. Isolates of CTV differ widely in their biological properties. CTV-infected samples were collected from four locations in India: Bangalore (CTV-B), Delhi (CTV-D), Nagpur (CTV-N), and Pune (CTV-P), and were maintained by grafting into Kagzi lime ( Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. Swing.). All isolates produced typical vein clearing and flecking symptoms 6-8 weeks after grafting. In addition, CTV-B and CTV-P isolates produced stem-pitting symptoms after 8-10 months. The CTV coat protein gene (CPG) was amplified by RT-PCR using CPG specific primers, yielding an amplicon of 672 bp for all the isolates. Sequence analysis of the CPG amplicon of all the four Indian isolates showed 93-94% nucleotide sequence homology to the Californian CTV severe stem pitting isolate SY568 and 92-93% homology to the Japanese seedling yellows isolate NUagA and Israeli VT p346 isolates. In phylogenetic tree analysis, Indian CTV isolates appeared far different from other isolates as they formed a separate branch. Comparison among the Indian isolates was carried out by restriction analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Specific primers to various genome segments of well-characterized CTV isolates were used to further classify the Indian CTV isolates. PMID:12664295

Roy, A; Ramachandran, P; Brlansky, R H

2003-04-01

7

Nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene of citrus tristeza virus: comparison of biologically diverse isolates collected in Israel.  

PubMed

The sequences of the coat protein genes of four seedling yellows (SY) and four non-SY (NSY) of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates, which were collected in Israel over a period of 30 years, were analyzed. Pairwise comparisons showed extensive similarities in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of six isolates designated the VT group. This group consists of three NSY isolates that cause a very mild CTV reaction on the sensitive combination of sweet orange (SwO) grafted on sour orange (SO), and three SY isolates that cause severe SY and SwO/SO reactions. MT, a CTV isolate that is consistently nontransmitted by Aphis gossypii, was found to be different in two amino acids (Val 103 and Glu 113) from each of the A. gossypii transmissible CTV isolates. Sequencing of the cDNA clones obtained from ST, a variably transmitted CTV isolate, showed extensive sequence variation among the tested clones. The sequence information indicates that the current CTV epidemics in Israel are caused by at least two CTV subspecies (VT and HT) displaying extensive differences in their coat protein genes. PMID:8279125

Mawassi, M; Gafny, R; Bar-Joseph, M

1993-09-01

8

Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting (SP) symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows (SY) symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in those mixtures interact with each other and cause diseases.

Dawson, W. O.; Garnsey, S. M.; Tatineni, S.; Folimonova, S. Y.; Harper, S. J.; Gowda, S.

2013-01-01

9

Emergence and Phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events.

Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F.; Rubio, Luis

2013-01-01

10

Transcriptional response of Citrus aurantifolia to infection by Citrus tristeza virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in gene expression of Mexican lime plants in response to infection with a severe (T305) or a mild (T385) isolate of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were analyzed using a cDNA microarray containing 12,672 probes to 6875 different citrus genes. Statistically significant (P<0.01) expression changes of 334 genes were detected in response to infection with isolate T305, whereas infection with

Mónica Gandía; Ana Conesa; Gema Ancillo; José Gadea; Javier Forment; Vicente Pallás; Ricardo Flores; Nuria Duran-Vila; Pedro Moreno; José Guerri

2007-01-01

11

EFFECTS OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS ON THE GROWTH OF IN VITRO-CULTURED CITRUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Citrus tristeza virus isolate YC (CTV-YC), a stem pit- ting-inducing strain, was graft-transmitted to seedlings of Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle), Pineapple sweet orange (C. sinensis (L.) Os- beck) and Arizona Etrog citron 861-SI (C. medica L.). Nodal stem segments from CTV-YC-infected and healthy seedlings of the three species were used as ex- plants for regeneration in vitro.

C. X. Wang; N. Hong; G. P. Wang; B. Jiang; X. D. Fan

2009-01-01

12

Citrus tristeza virus: Evolution of Complex and Varied Genotypic Groups  

PubMed Central

Amongst the Closteroviridae, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is almost unique in possessing a number of distinct and characterized strains, isolates of which produce a wide range of phenotype combinations among its different hosts. There is little understanding to connect genotypes to phenotypes, and to complicate matters more, these genotypes are found throughout the world as members of mixed populations within a single host plant. There is essentially no understanding of how combinations of genotypes affect symptom expression and disease severity. We know little about the evolution of the genotypes that have been characterized to date, little about the biological role of their diversity and particularly, about the effects of recombination. Additionally, genotype grouping has not been standardized. In this study we utilized an extensive array of CTV genomic information to classify the major genotypes, and to determine the major evolutionary processes that led to their formation and subsequent retention. Our analyses suggest that three major processes act on these genotypes: (1) ancestral diversification of the major CTV lineages, followed by (2) conservation and co-evolution of the major functional domains within, though not between CTV genotypes, and (3) extensive recombination between lineages that have given rise to new genotypes that have subsequently been retained within the global population. The effects of genotype diversity and host-interaction are discussed, as is a proposal for standardizing the classification of existing and novel CTV genotypes.

Harper, S. J.

2013-01-01

13

Genetic variation and recombination of RdRp and HSP 70h genes of Citrus tristeza virus isolates from orange trees showing symptoms of citrus sudden death disease  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus sudden death (CSD), a disease that rapidly kills orange trees, is an emerging threat to the Brazilian citrus industry. Although the causal agent of CSD has not been definitively determined, based on the disease's distribution and symptomatology it is suspected that the agent may be a new strain of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). CTV genetic variation was therefore assessed in two Brazilian orange trees displaying CSD symptoms and a third with more conventional CTV symptoms. Results A total of 286 RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp) and 284 heat shock protein 70 homolog (HSP70h) gene fragments were determined for CTV variants infecting the three trees. It was discovered that, despite differences in symptomatology, the trees were all apparently coinfected with similar populations of divergent CTV variants. While mixed CTV infections are common, the genetic distance between the most divergent population members observed (24.1% for RdRp and 11.0% for HSP70h) was far greater than that in previously described mixed infections. Recombinants of five distinct RdRp lineages and three distinct HSP70h lineages were easily detectable but respectively accounted for only 5.9 and 11.9% of the RdRp and HSP70h gene fragments analysed and there was no evidence of an association between particular recombinant mosaics and CSD. Also, comparisons of CTV population structures indicated that the two most similar CTV populations were those of one of the trees with CSD and the tree without CSD. Conclusion We suggest that if CTV is the causal agent of CSD, it is most likely a subtle feature of population structures within mixed infections and not merely the presence (or absence) of a single CTV variant within these populations that triggers the disease.

Gomes, Clarissa PC; Nagata, Tatsuya; de Jesus, Waldir C; Neto, Carlos R Borges; Pappas, Georgios J; Martin, Darren P

2008-01-01

14

Citrus tristeza virus: a pathogen that changed the course of the citrus industry.  

PubMed

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) (genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae) is the causal agent of devastating epidemics that changed the course of the citrus industry. Adapted to replicate in phloem cells of a few species within the family Rutaceae and to transmission by a few aphid species, CTV and citrus probably coevolved for centuries at the site of origin of citrus plants. CTV dispersal to other regions and its interaction with new scion varieties and rootstock combinations resulted in three distinct syndromes named tristeza, stem pitting and seedling yellows. The first, inciting decline of varieties propagated on sour orange, has forced the rebuilding of many citrus industries using tristeza-tolerant rootstocks. The second, inducing stunting, stem pitting and low bearing of some varieties, causes economic losses in an increasing number of countries. The third is usually observed by biological indexing, but rarely in the field. CTV polar virions are composed of two capsid proteins and a single-stranded, positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) of approximately 20 kb, containing 12 open reading frames (ORFs) and two untranslated regions (UTRs). ORFs 1a and 1b, encoding proteins of the replicase complex, are directly translated from the gRNA, and together with the 5' and 3'UTRs are the only regions required for RNA replication. The remaining ORFs, expressed via 3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs, encode proteins required for virion assembly and movement (p6, p65, p61, p27 and p25), asymmetrical accumulation of positive and negative strands during RNA replication (p23), or suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing (p25, p20 and p23), with the role of proteins p33, p18 and p13 as yet unknown. Analysis of genetic variation in CTV isolates revealed (1) conservation of genomes in distant geographical regions, with a limited repertoire of genotypes, (2) uneven distribution of variation along the gRNA, (3) frequent recombination events and (4) different selection pressures shaping CTV populations. Measures to control CTV damage include quarantine and budwood certification programmes, elimination of infected trees, use of tristeza-tolerant rootstocks, or cross protection with mild isolates, depending on CTV incidence and on the virus strains and host varieties predominant in each region. Incorporating resistance genes into commercial varieties by conventional breeding is presently unfeasible, whereas incorporation of pathogen-derived resistance by plant transformation has yielded variable results, indicating that the CTV-citrus interaction may be more specific and complex than initially thought. A deep understanding of the interactions between viral proteins and host and vector factors will be necessary to develop reliable and sound control measures. PMID:18705856

Moreno, Pedro; Ambrós, Silvia; Albiach-Martí, Maria R; Guerri, José; Peńa, Leandro

2008-03-01

15

A localized linkage map of the citrus tristeza virus resistance gene region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A localized genetic linkage map was developed of the region surrounding the citrus tristeza virus (CTV) resistance gene (designated Ctv) from Poncirus trifoliate L., a sexually compatible Citrus relative. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was used to identify potential resistance-associated RAPD fragment markers in four intergeneric backcross families that were segregating for CTV resistance. Eight RAPD fragments were found that were

F. G. Gmitter Jr; S. Y. Xiao; S. Huang; X. L. Hu; S. M. Garnsey; Z. Deng

1996-01-01

16

East Adriatic—a reservoir region of severe Citrus tristeza virus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) represents one of the major threats to citrus production worldwide. In the East Adriatic region, CTV symptoms are mostly\\u000a absent due to traditional citrus grafting on trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata), a CTV-tolerant rootstock. Therefore, the virus has been continuously spreading by the propagation of infected material.\\u000a The genetic variability of CTV was studied on nineteen citrus

Silvija Cerni; Dijana Skoric; Jelena Ruscic; Mladen Krajacic; Tatjana Papic; Khaled Djelouah; Gustavo Nolasco

2009-01-01

17

Citrus tristeza virus p23: a unique protein mediating key virus-host interactions  

PubMed Central

The large RNA genome of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV; ca. 20 kb) contains 12 open reading frames, with the 3?-terminal one corresponding to a protein of 209 amino acids (p23) that is expressed from an abundant subgenomic RNA. p23, an RNA-binding protein with a putative zinc-finger domain and some basic motifs, is unique to CTV because no homologs have been found in other closteroviruses, including the type species of the genus Beet yellows virus (despite both viruses having many homologous genes). Consequently, p23 might have evolved for the specific interaction of CTV with its citrus hosts. From a functional perspective p23 has been involved in many roles: (i) regulation of the asymmetrical accumulation of CTV RNA strands, (ii) induction of the seedling yellows syndrome in sour orange and grapefruit, (iii) intracellular suppression of RNA silencing, (iv) elicitation of CTV-like symptoms when expressed ectopically as a transgene in several Citrus spp., and (v) enhancement of systemic infection (and virus accumulation) in sour orange and CTV release from the phloem in p23-expressing transgenic sweet and sour orange. Moreover, transformation of Mexican lime with intron-hairpin constructs designed for the co-inactivation of p23 and the two other CTV silencing suppressors results in complete resistance against the homologous virus. From a cellular point of view, recent data indicate that p23 accumulates preferentially in the nucleolus, being the first closterovirus protein with such a subcellular localization, as well as in plasmodesmata. These major accumulation sites most likely determine some of the functional roles of p23.

Flores, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Soler, Nuria; Sanchez-Navarro, Jesus; Fagoaga, Carmen; Lopez, Carmelo; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Pena, Leandro

2013-01-01

18

Transgenic expression in citrus of single-chain antibody fragments specific to Citrus tristeza virus confers virus resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes one of the most destructive viral diseases of citrus worldwide. Generation of resistant citrus genotypes through\\u000a genetic engineering could be a good alternative to control CTV. To study whether production of single-chain variable fragment\\u000a (scFv) antibodies in citrus could interfere and immunomodulate CTV infection, transgenic Mexican lime plants expressing two\\u000a different scFv constructs, separately and

Magdalena Cervera; Olga Esteban; Maite Gil; M. Teresa Gorris; M. Carmen Martínez; Leandro Peńa; Mariano Cambra

2010-01-01

19

High codon adaptation in citrus tristeza virus to its citrus host  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the genus Closterovirus within the family Closteroviridae, is the causal agent of citrus tristeza disease. Previous studies revealed that the negative selection, RNA recombination and gene flow were the most important forces that drove CTV evolution. However, the CTV codon usage was not studied and thus its role in CTV evolution remains unknown. Results A detailed comparative analysis of CTV codon usage pattern was done in this study. Results of the study show that although in general CTV does not have a high degree of codon usage bias, the codon usage of CTV has a high level of resemblance to its host codon usage. In addition, our data indicate that the codon usage resemblance is only observed for the woody plant-infecting closteroviruses but not the closteroviruses infecting the herbaceous host plants, suggesting the existence of different virus-host interactions between the herbaceous plant-infecting and woody plant-infecting closteroviruses. Conclusion Based on the results, we suggest that in addition to RNA recombination, negative selection and gene flow, host plant codon usage selection can also affect CTV evolution.

2012-01-01

20

Citrus Tristeza Virus: Survival at the Edge of the Movement Continuum?  

PubMed Central

Systemic invasion of plants by viruses is thought to involve two processes: cell-to-cell movement between adjacent cells and long-distance movement that allows the virus to rapidly move through sieve elements and unload at the growing parts of the plant. There is a continuum of proportions of these processes that determines the degrees of systemic infection of different plants by different viruses. We examined the systemic distribution of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in citrus species with a range of susceptibilities. By using a “pure” culture of CTV from a cDNA clone and green fluorescent protein-labeled virus we show that both cell-to-cell and long-distance movement are unusually limited, and the degree of limitation varies depending on the citrus host. In the more-susceptible hosts CTV infected only a small portion of phloem-associated cells, and moreover, the number of infection sites in less-susceptible citrus species was substantially decreased further, indicating that long-distance movement was reduced in those hosts. Analysis of infection foci in the two most differential citrus species, Citrus macrophylla and sour orange, revealed that in the more-susceptible host the infection foci were composed of a cluster of multiple cells, while in the less-susceptible host infection foci were usually single cells, suggesting that essentially no cell-to-cell movement occurred in the latter host. Thus, CTV in sour orange represents a pattern of systemic infection in which the virus appears to function with only the long-distance movement mechanism, yet is able to survive in nature.

Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Folimonov, Alexey S.; Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Dawson, William O.

2008-01-01

21

Virus-Viroid Interactions: Citrus Tristeza Virus Enhances the Accumulation of Citrus Dwarfing Viroid in Mexican Lime via Virus-Encoded Silencing Suppressors  

PubMed Central

An assay to identify interactions between Citrus Dwarfing Viroid (CDVd) and Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) showed that viroid titer was enhanced by the coinfecting CTV in Mexican lime but not in etrog citron. Since CTV encodes three RNA silencing suppressors (RSSs), p23, p20 and p25, an assay using transgenic Mexican limes expressing each RSS revealed that p23 and, to a lesser extent, p25 recapitulated the effect observed with coinfections of CTV and CDVd.

Serra, Pedro; Bani Hashemian, Seyed M.; Fagoaga, Carmen; Romero, Juan; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Gorris, Maria T.; Bertolini, Edson

2014-01-01

22

Estimation of the number of aphids carrying Citrus tristeza virus that visit adult citrus trees.  

PubMed

Aphid species were counted on citrus trees in orchards in Valencia, Spain, in the spring and autumn of 1997, 1998 and 1999. Moericke yellow water traps, the 'sticky shoot' method and counts of established colonies were used in extensive surveys in which 29,502 aphids were recorded and identified. Aphis spiraecola and Aphis gossypii were the most abundant aphid species. The numbers of aphid species landing on mature trees of grapefruit, sweet orange, lemon and clementine and satsuma mandarins, were estimated by counting the numbers of young shoots/tree and aphids trapped on sticky shoots. The proportions of the different aphid species captured were: A. gossypii (53%), A. spiraecola (32%), Toxoptera aurantii (11%), Myzus persicae (1%), Aphis craccivora (1%) and other species (2%). Clementine was the most visited species with 266,700 aphids landing/tree in spring 2000, followed by lemon (147,000), sweet orange (129,150), grapefruit (103,200), and satsuma (92,400). The numbers and relative percentages of aphids carrying Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were assessed by nested RT-PCR in single closed tubes and analysed by extraction of RNA-CTV targets from trapped aphids. An average of 37,190 CTV-carrying aphids visited each tree in spring 2000 (29 per shoot). The percentage detection of viral RNA in the aphid species that landed were 27% for A. gossypii, 23% for A. spiraecola and 19% for T. aurantii. This high incidence of aphids carrying CTV is consistent with the high prevalence and rapid spread of CTV in sweet orange, clementine, and satsuma mandarins in recent years in the region. The infection rate was proportional to the number of aphids landing/tree. PMID:15036840

Marroquín, Carlos; Olmos, Antonio; Teresa Gorris, María; Bertolini, Edson; Carmen Martínez, M; Carbonell, Emilio A; Hermoso de Mendoza, Alfonso; Cambra, Mariano

2004-03-01

23

Construction of a 1.2Mb contig including the citrus tristeza virus resistance gene locus using a bacterial artificial chromosome library of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus tristeza virus resistance gene ( Ctv) is a single dominant gene in Poncirus trifoliata, a sexually compatible relative of citrus. To clone this gene, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library has been constructed from an individual plant that was homozygous for Ctv. This library contains 45 696 clones with an average insert size of 80 kb, corresponding to

Zhong-Nan Yang; Xin-Rong Ye; Sandong Choi; Joe Molina; Francis Moonan; Rod A. Wing; Mikeal L. Roose; T. Erik Mirkov

2001-01-01

24

Ectopic expression of the p23 silencing suppressor of Citrus tristeza virus differentially modifies viral accumulation and tropism in two transgenic woody hosts.  

PubMed

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a phloem-restricted closterovirus infecting citrus, encodes three different silencing suppressors (p25, p20 and p23), one of which (p23) is a pathogenicity determinant that induces aberrations resembling CTV symptoms when expressed ectopically in transgenic citrus hosts. In this article, the effect of p23 ectopic expression on virus infection was examined in sweet orange (SwO), a highly susceptible host, and sour orange (SO), which severely restricts CTV cell-to-cell movement. Transgenic plants of both species ectopically expressing p23, or transformed with an empty vector, were graft inoculated with the mild CTV isolate T385 or with CTV-BC1/GFP, a clonal strain derived from the severe isolate T36 carrying the gene for the green fluorescent protein (GFP). CTV distribution in infected tissues was assessed by direct tissue blot immunoassay and fluorescence emission, and virus accumulation was estimated by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. CTV accumulation in p23-expressing and control SwO plants was similar, whereas the viral load in transgenic SO expressing p23 was 10-10(5) times higher than in the cognate control plants. Although few infection foci composed of a single cell were observed in the phloem of CTV-infected control SO, the number of foci in p23-expressing plants was higher and usually comprised two to six cells, indicating viral cell-to-cell movement. CTV was detected in mesophyll protoplasts and cells from infected SO and SwO expressing p23, but not in similar protoplasts and cells from infected control plants. Our results show that the ectopic expression of p23 enables CTV to escape from the phloem and, in addition, facilitates systemic infection of the resistant SO host. This is the first report of a viral-encoded protein that enhances virus accumulation and distribution in woody hosts. PMID:21726389

Fagoaga, Carmen; Pensabene-Bellavia, Giovanni; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luís; Flores, Ricardo; Peńa, Leandro

2011-12-01

25

The position of the major QTL for Citrus tristeza virus resistance is conserved among Citrus grandis , C. aurantium and Poncirus trifoliata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus tristeza virus, CTV, is one of the most important citrus pathogens. Although CTV-resistant citrus rootstocks derived from Poncirus trifoliata are common, useful genetic resistance within the genus Citrus for scion improvement is very limited and no CTV-resistant sweet orange cultivar is yet available. Quantitative trait locus\\u000a (QTL) analysis of the accumulation and distribution of CTV was carried out in

Maria J. Asins; Jorge Fernández-Ribacoba; Guillermo P. Bernet; José Gadea; Mariano Cambra; María T. Gorris; Emilio A. Carbonell

26

A high-resolution linkage map of the citrus tristeza virus resistance gene region in Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.  

PubMed Central

Resistance to citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was evaluated in 554 progeny of 10 populations derived from Poncirus trifoliata. A dominant gene (Ctv) controlled CTV resistance in P. trifoliata. Twenty-one dominant PCR-based DNA markers were identified as linked to Ctv by bulked segregant analysis. Of the 11 closest markers to Ctv, only 2 segregated in all populations. Ten of these markers were cloned and sequenced, and codominant RFLP markers were developed. Seven RFLP markers were then evaluated in 10 populations. Marker orders were consistent in all linkage maps based on data of single populations or on combined data of populations with similar segregation patterns. In a consensus map, the six closest marker loci spanned 5.3 cM of the Ctv region. Z16 cosegregated with Ctv. C19 and AD08 flanked Ctv at distances of 0.5 and 0.8 cM, respectively. These 3 markers were present as single copies in the Poncirus genome, and could be used directly for bacterial artificial chromosome library screening to initiate a walk toward Ctv. BLAST searches of the GenBank database revealed high sequence similarities between 2 markers and known plant disease resistance genes, indicating that a resistance gene cluster exists in the Ctv region in P. trifoliata.

Fang, D Q; Federici, C T; Roose, M L

1998-01-01

27

Post-transcriptional gene silencing of the p23 silencing suppressor of Citrus tristeza virus confers resistance to the virus in transgenic Mexican lime.  

PubMed

Previously, we have shown that most Mexican limes (Citrus aurantifolia (Christ.) Swing.) expressing the p23 gene of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) exhibit aberrations resembling viral leaf symptoms. Here we report that five independent transgenic lines having normal phenotype displayed characteristics typical of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS): multiple copies of the transgene, low levels of the corresponding mRNA, methylation of the silenced transgene, and accumulation of p23-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). When graft- or aphid-inoculated with CTV, some propagations of these silenced lines were immune: they neither expressed symptoms nor accumulated virions and viral RNA as estimated by DAS-ELISA and Northern blot hybridization, respectively. Other propagations were moderately resistant because they became infected later and showed attenuated symptoms compared to controls. The susceptible propagations, in addition to symptom expression and elevated virus titer, accumulated p23-specific siRNAs at levels significantly higher than immune or non-inoculated propagations, and showed transgene demethylation. This variable response among clonal transformants indicates that factors other than the genetic background of the transgenic plants play a key role in PTGS-mediated resistance. PMID:16429257

Fagoaga, Carmen; López, Carmelo; de Mendoza, Alfonso Hermoso; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Flores, Ricardo; Peńa, Leandro

2006-01-01

28

Citrus tristeza virus infection induces the accumulation of viral small RNAs (21–24-nt) mapping preferentially at the 3?-terminal region of the genomic RNA and affects the host small RNA profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

To get an insight into the host RNA silencing defense induced by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and into the counter defensive reaction mediated by its three silencing suppressors (p25, p20 and p23), we have examined\\u000a by deep sequencing (Solexa-Illumina) the small RNAs (sRNAs) in three virus-host combinations. Our data show that CTV sRNAs:\\u000a (i) represent more than 50% of the

Susana Ruiz-RuizBeatriz; Beatriz Navarro; Andreas Gisel; Leandro Peńa; Luis Navarro; Pedro Moreno; Francesco Di Serio; Ricardo Flores

2011-01-01

29

Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).  

PubMed

A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372

Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

2014-04-20

30

Accumulation of transgene-derived siRNAs is not sufficient for RNAi-mediated protection against Citrus tristeza virus in transgenic Mexican lime.  

PubMed

Mexican lime plants transformed with the 3'-terminal 549 nucleotides of the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome in sense, antisense and intron-hairpin formats were analysed for transgene-derived transcript and short interfering RNA (siRNA) accumulation, and for CTV resistance. Propagations from all sense, antisense and empty-vector transgenic lines were susceptible to CTV, except for a single sense-line plant with a complex transgene integration pattern that showed transgene-derived siRNAs in association with low levels of the transgene-derived transcript. In contrast, nine of 30 intron-hairpin lines showed CTV resistance, with 9%-56% of bud-propagated plants, depending on the line, remaining uninfected on graft inoculation, and the others being susceptible. Although resistance was always associated with the presence of transgene-derived siRNAs, their level in different sense and intron-hairpin transformants was variable irrespective of the response to CTV infection. In intron-hairpin lines with single transgene integration, CTV resistance was correlated with low accumulation of the transgene-derived transcript rather than with high accumulation of transgene-derived siRNAs. PMID:20078774

López, Carmelo; Cervera, Magdalena; Fagoaga, Carmen; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Flores, Ricardo; Peńa, Leandro

2010-01-01

31

Transformation of Mexican lime with an intron-hairpin construct expressing untranslatable versions of the genes coding for the three silencing suppressors of Citrus tristeza virus confers complete resistance to the virus.  

PubMed

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), the causal agent of the most devastating viral disease of citrus, has evolved three silencing suppressor proteins acting at intra- (p23 and p20) and/or intercellular level (p20 and p25) to overcome host antiviral defence. Previously, we showed that Mexican lime transformed with an intron-hairpin construct including part of the gene p23 and the adjacent 3' untranslated region displays partial resistance to CTV, with a fraction of the propagations from some transgenic lines remaining uninfected. Here, we transformed Mexican lime with an intron-hairpin vector carrying full-length, untranslatable versions of the genes p25, p20 and p23 from CTV strain T36 to silence the expression of these critical genes in CTV-infected cells. Three transgenic lines presented complete resistance to viral infection, with all their propagations remaining symptomless and virus-free after graft inoculation with CTV-T36, either in the nontransgenic rootstock or in the transgenic scion. Accumulation of transgene-derived siRNAs was necessary but not sufficient for CTV resistance. Inoculation with a divergent CTV strain led to partially breaking the resistance, thus showing the role of sequence identity in the underlying mechanism. Our results are a step forward to developing transgenic resistance to CTV and also show that targeting simultaneously by RNA interference (RNAi) the three viral silencing suppressors appears critical for this purpose, although the involvement of concurrent RNAi mechanisms cannot be excluded. PMID:22405601

Soler, Nuria; Plomer, Montserrat; Fagoaga, Carmen; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Flores, Ricardo; Peńa, Leandro

2012-06-01

32

Chlorella viruses isolated in China  

SciTech Connect

Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

1988-09-01

33

HTLV III Virus Isolation Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A systematic viral isolation study has been performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from Air Force personnel positive for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) as assessed by HIV-ELISA and/or immunoblot assays. The co-culture t...

T. C. Chanh

1989-01-01

34

Mild strain cross protection of tristeza: a review of research to protect against decline on sour orange in Florida.  

PubMed

Tristeza, caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), has long been present in Florida but outbreaks of decline on sour orange rootstock were occasional events until the late 1970s. Sour orange rootstock was valued for the high quality of fruit produced and was widely used because of its tolerance of citrus blight, a disease of unknown etiology. Research was directed towards the selection and screening of mild strains of CTV which could protect against sour orange decline strains. Following the introduction of Toxoptera citricida (also known as the brown citrus aphid) in 1995 there was a greater concern for maintaining production of existing blocks of citrus on sour orange rootstock. Availability of the CTV genome sequence around the same time as well as molecular characterization of in planta CTV populations led to the selection of mild CTV isolates which when inoculated into existing field trees, extended the productive life of the groves and enabled a more graduate replanting of trees on CTV-tolerant rootstocks. The history of CTV in Florida and the methods developed to select mild isolates for use for mild strain cross protection will be reviewed. PMID:24046764

Lee, Richard F; Keremane, Manjunath L

2013-01-01

35

Comparison of cowpox-like viruses isolated from European zoos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Poxviruses isolated from captive carnivores in Russia (Moscow virus) and elephants in Germany (elephant virus) were very closely-related to cowpox virus. Immunological analysis with absorbed sera separated elephant virus but not cowpox and Moscow virus, whereas polypeptide analysis separated cowpox but not elephant and Moscow virus. A combination of biological tests separated all three. The epidemiological implications are briefly

D. Baxby; W. B. Shackleton; Jean Wheeler; A. Turner

1979-01-01

36

Genetic relationship of Borna disease virus isolates.  

PubMed

The infection of humans with Boma disease virus (BDV) is still a matter of debate. In a recent publication, we described a BDV (RW98) isolated from the blood of a psychiatric patient. The RNA of this virus differed more than 5% from that of the widely used strain He/80, which was supposed to represent our laboratory virus. Here, we show that the virus used in our laboratory was not He/80 and, furthermore, that RW98 has sequence identity to the laboratory strain. We also present data that BDV-specific nucleic acid detected in blood of the donor of the presumed RW98 isolate and one other patient differs from all known BDV-p24 sequences, arguing for the existence of BDV sequences in man. PMID:12680690

Planz, Oliver; Rziha, Hanns-Joachim; Stitz, Lothar

2003-01-01

37

Genetic Transformation of Citrus paradisi with Antisense and Untranslatable RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Genes of Citrus tristeza closterovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein and RNA-mediated forms of pathogen-derived resistance (PDR) have been developed against many viruses in different plants. However, no resistance has been reported against Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a closterovirus, in Citrus species transformed with coat protein genes or other sequences of CTV. The successful use of replication-associated genes in RNA-mediated resistance in other crops prompted the use of the

Richard F. LEE; Charles L. NIBLETT

38

Isolation of Usutu Virus in Germany  

PubMed Central

Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged 2001 in Austria and caused deaths in wild birds. In Germany, 70,378 female mosquitoes were captured in 2009 and 2010 and assayed for USUV. Virus was isolated in cell culture from one pool of Culex pipiens pipiens mosquitoes trapped exclusively in August 2010 in Weinheim, Germany. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the isolated USUV strain from Germany and a USUV strain from Austria, which was detected in a dead blackbird in 2004.

Jost, Hanna; Bialonski, Alexandra; Maus, Deborah; Sambri, Vittorio; Eiden, Martin; Groschup, Martin H.; Gunther, Stephan; Becker, Norbert; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

2011-01-01

39

DENGUE-TYPE VIRUSES ISOLATED IN SINGAPORE.  

PubMed

A dengue-like illness with marked haemorrhagic manifestations appeared in Singapore in 1960. Its similarity in many respects to the haemorrhagic fevers of Thailand and the Philippines led to its being described as "Singapore haemorrhagic fever".This paper describes the isolation and identification of dengue-type viruses from patients in Singapore between 1960 and 1962. In addition to the conventional complement-fixation and neutralization tests, a new test, called the "sensitized erythrocyte agglutination test", was employed; this test method is described.Altogether 21 dengue-type viruses were isolated, including dengue types 1, 2 and 4. Chikungunya virus, prominent in the Thailand disease, was not detected.The author suggests that study of the epidemiology of haemorrhagic fevers in South-East Asia would cast further light on the transmission of arboviruses. PMID:14153412

LIM, K A; CHAN, Y C; PHOON, W O; HANAM, E

1964-01-01

40

Molecular characterization of Korean rabies virus isolates  

PubMed Central

The nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) of 11 Korean rabies virus (RABV) isolates collected from animals diagnosed with rabies between 2008 and 2009 were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses. Six isolates originated from domestic animals (cattle and dogs) and five were obtained from wild free-ranging raccoon dogs. The similarities in the nucleotide sequences of the N gene among all Korean isolates ranged from 98.1 to 99.8%, while those of the G gene ranged from 97.9 to 99.3%. Based on the nucleotide analysis of the N and G genes, the Korean RABV isolates were confirmed as genotype I of Lyssavirus and classified into four distinct subgroups with high similarity. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Korean isolates were most closely related to the non-Korean NeiMeng1025B and 857r strains, which were isolated from rabid raccoon dogs in Eastern China and Russia, respectively. These findings suggest that the Korean RABV isolates originated from a rabid raccoon dog in Northeastern Asia. Genetic analysis of the Korean RABV isolates revealed no substitutions at several antigenic sites, indicating that the isolates circulating in Korea may be pathogenic in several hosts.

Park, Young-Nam; Hong, Gyeong-Soo; Kang, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Yoon-I; Cho, Soo-Dong; Song, Jae-Young

2011-01-01

41

Methods of Isolation of Weak Virus Cultures of Pasteurella Pestis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work presents a discussion of the isolation of weak virus strains of the plague virus from native rodents by the following methods: (1) The conventional method of inoculation -- organ imprints. Sections of liver, spleen, lungs and heart were touched ...

L. A. Timofeeva

1969-01-01

42

Isolation of Genetically Diverse Marburg Viruses from Egyptian Fruit Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31\\/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were

Jonathan S. Towner; Brian R. Amman; Tara K. Sealy; Serena A. Reeder Carroll; James A. Comer; Alan Kemp; Robert Swanepoel; Christopher D. Paddock; Stephen Balinandi; Marina L. Khristova; Pierre B. H. Formenty; Cesar G. Albarino; David M. Miller; Zachary D. Reed; John T. Kayiwa; James N. Mills; Deborah L. Cannon; Patricia W. Greer; Emmanuel Byaruhanga; Eileen C. Farnon; Patrick Atimnedi; Samuel Okware; Edward Katongole-Mbidde; Robert Downing; Jordan W. Tappero; Sherif R. Zaki; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Stuart T. Nichol; Pierre E. Rollin

2009-01-01

43

Isolation of pigeon herpes encephalomyelitis virus in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A virus was isolated from the brains of pigeons suffering from nervous disorders in different localities of the Eastern Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The new isolate caused a high morbidity, ranging from 33% to 50%, and a mortality rate which reached 40%. The virus produced pinpoint greyish pock lesions on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated hens' eggs and induced syncytial formation followed by rounding and lysis of the cells in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures. Virus infectivity was significantly reduced following treatment by 20% ether or chloroform. The isolated virus was identified as pigeon herpes encephalomyelitis virus by serum-neutralization, agar gel diffusion and fluorescent antibody staining techniques. PMID:2994283

Shalaby, M A; el-Sisi, M A; Ismail, O E; Afaleque, A I

1985-07-01

44

Analysis of Iranian Potato virus S isolates.  

PubMed

Two hundred forty potato samples with one or more symptoms of leaf mosaic, distortion, mottling and yellowing were collected between 2005 and 2008 from seven Iranian provinces. Forty-four of these samples tested positive with double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA) using a Potato virus S (PVS) polyclonal antibody. Of these 12 isolates of PVS were selected based on the geographical location for biological and molecular characterization. The full coat protein (CP) and 11K genes from 12 PVS isolates were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. All 12 PVS isolates showed mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana debneyii and N. tabacum cv. Whiteburly and local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and C. album. The Iranian isolates share between 93 and 100% pairwise nucleotide identity with other PVS(O) isolates. Based on maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis coupled with pairwise identity analysis, we propose 15 genotypes for the PVS(O) strain and 3 genotypes for the PVS(A) strain. PMID:21567245

Salari, Khadijeh; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Varsani, Arvind

2011-10-01

45

Complete Genome Sequence of Chikungunya Virus Isolated in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Chikungunya virus is an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, which causes a febrile illness with arthralgia in humans. We report here on the complete genome sequence of chikungunya virus strain CHIKV-13-112A isolated from a patient in the Philippines who was suspected to have dengue virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain is of the Asian genotype.

Kawashima, Kent D.; Suarez, Lady-Anne C.; Labayo, Hannah Karen M.; Liles, Veni R.; Salvoza, Noel C.; Klinzing, David C.; Natividad, Filipinas F.

2014-01-01

46

Complete genome sequence of chikungunya virus isolated in the Philippines.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus is an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, which causes a febrile illness with arthralgia in humans. We report here on the complete genome sequence of chikungunya virus strain CHIKV-13-112A isolated from a patient in the Philippines who was suspected to have dengue virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain is of the Asian genotype. PMID:24970822

Kawashima, Kent D; Suarez, Lady-Anne C; Labayo, Hannah Karen M; Liles, Veni R; Salvoza, Noel C; Klinzing, David C; Daroy, Maria Luisa G; Matias, Ronald R; Natividad, Filipinas F

2014-01-01

47

Isolation and characterization of orf viruses from Korean black goats  

PubMed Central

Five cases of orf virus infection in Korean black goats were diagnosed in our laboratory between 2010 and 2011. One orf virus (ORF/2011) was isolated from an ovine testis cell line (OA3.Ts) for use as a vaccine candidate. Sequences of the major envelope protein and orf virus interferon resistance genes were determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that orf viruses from Korean black goats were most closely related to an isolate (ORF/09/Korea) from dairy goats in Korea. This result indicates that the orf viruses might have been introduced from dairy goats into the Korean black goat population.

Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kim, Yong-Joo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Jung, Byeong-Yeal

2013-01-01

48

Isolation and characterization of orf viruses from Korean black goats.  

PubMed

Five cases of orf virus infection in Korean black goats were diagnosed in our laboratory between 2010 and 2011. One orf virus (ORF/2011) was isolated from an ovine testis cell line (OA3.Ts) for use as a vaccine candidate. Sequences of the major envelope protein and orf virus interferon resistance genes were determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that orf viruses from Korean black goats were most closely related to an isolate (ORF/09/Korea) from dairy goats in Korea. This result indicates that the orf viruses might have been introduced from dairy goats into the Korean black goat population. PMID:23814477

Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kim, Yong-Joo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Jung, Byeong-Yeal; Hyun, Bang-Hun

2013-01-01

49

Virus Isolation and Identification in Cervical Cancer Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

7 strains of viruses were isolated from cervical specimens of cervical cancer patients. The viral isolates were herpes simplex viruses according to the morphologic, biologic as well as serologic characteristics. 5 of the 7 strains were typed and 3 were he...

J. Xiang J. Feng P. Huang W. Chen J. Wu

1982-01-01

50

Characterisation of strains of infectious bronchitis virus isolated in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine isolates of infectious bronchitis (IB)?like viruses were made from 23 flocks (broilers or layers) in Chile experiencing the types of disease problems commonly associated with IBV. Their identity as IB viruses was confirmed. The histological changes they caused in tracheal organ cultures (OC) are described.Serum neutralisation tests performed in embryonated eggs (??method) suggested that four of the isolates were

Aida Cubillos; Jorge Ulloa; Victor Cubillos; Jane K. A. Cook

1991-01-01

51

Isolation of Genetically Diverse Marburg Viruses from Egyptian Fruit Bats  

PubMed Central

In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans.

Towner, Jonathan S.; Amman, Brian R.; Sealy, Tara K.; Carroll, Serena A. Reeder; Comer, James A.; Kemp, Alan; Swanepoel, Robert; Paddock, Christopher D.; Balinandi, Stephen; Khristova, Marina L.; Formenty, Pierre B. H.; Albarino, Cesar G.; Miller, David M.; Reed, Zachary D.; Kayiwa, John T.; Mills, James N.; Cannon, Deborah L.; Greer, Patricia W.; Byaruhanga, Emmanuel; Farnon, Eileen C.; Atimnedi, Patrick; Okware, Samuel; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.

2009-01-01

52

Tobacco streak virus isolated from lettuce.  

PubMed

Tobacco streak virus (TSV) is an ilarvirus with a worldwide distribution. This virus infects many plants and causes significant yield losses. In this study, 300 samples of lettuce were collected from lettuce fields in Tehran Province. Infected plants show symptoms such as: mosaic, vein clearing, vein necrosis, yellowing and leaf distortion. DAS-ELISA (Double Antibody Sandwich-ELISA) was used with a polyclonal antiserum against TSV. Five isolates (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5), which are collected, respectively from Mohammad Abad (Karaj), Malek Abad (Karaj), Hashtgerd (Karaj), Tarand Balla (Varamin) and Deh mah sin (Pishva) were inoculated on 29 species of Cucurbitaceae, Amaranthaceae, Solanacea, Compositae, Leguminosae and Chenopodiacea. Chenopodium quinoa 6 days after inoculation showed necrotic local lesions. Gomphrena globosa 10 days after inoculation developed chlorotic local lesions. Systemic symptoms were produced in Datura stramonium. Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Red Kidney 5 days after inoculation developed necrotic local lesions. Nicotiana tabacum 7 days after inoculation showed necrotic and chlorotic local lesions. Nicotiana clevelandii 15 days after inoculation developed leaf distortion and vein necrosis. Lactuca sativa 10-15 days after inoculation developed leaf istortion and mosaic. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using one primer pairs designed by DSMZ. An approximately 710 bp fragment was amplified with a specific primer. PMID:19634475

Abtahi, F S; Khodai Motlagh, M

2009-05-01

53

Tanay virus, a new species of virus isolated from mosquitoes in the Philippines.  

PubMed

In 2005, we isolated a new species of virus from mosquitoes in the Philippines. The virion was elliptical in shape and had a short single projection. The virus was named Tanay virus (TANAV) after the locality in which it was found. TANAV genomic RNA was a 9562 nt+poly-A positive strand, and polycistronic. The longest ORF contained putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP); however, conserved short motifs in the RdRP were permuted. TANAV was phylogenetically close to Negevirus, a recently proposed taxon of viruses isolated from haemophagic insects, and to some plant viruses, such as citrus leprosis virus C, hibiscus green spot virus and blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus. In this paper, we describe TANAV and the permuted structure of its RdRP, and discuss its phylogeny together with those of plant viruses and negevirus. PMID:24646751

Nabeshima, Takeshi; Inoue, Shingo; Okamoto, Kenta; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Yu, Fuxun; Uchida, Leo; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Sakaguchi, Miako; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Buerano, Corazon C; Tadena, Florencio P; Orbita, Ildefonso B; Natividad, Filipinas F; Morita, Kouichi

2014-06-01

54

Evidence for two groups of banana bunchy top virus isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) DNA component 1 from isolates from 10 different countries was cloned and sequenced and the sequences were aligned and com- pared. This analysis indicated two groups: the South Pacific group (isolates from Australia, Burundi, Egypt, Fiji, India, Tonga and Western Samoa) and the Asian group (isolates from the Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam). The mean sequence

Mirko Karan; Robert M. Harding; James L. Dale

1994-01-01

55

Interaction between isolates of barley yellow dwarf virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Some isolates of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) differing in vector transmission characteristics and in host plant reactions were studied in single and mixed inoculations in glass-house trials.2. The symptoms obtained depended on the isolate of BYDV, and the interval between the protective and test inoculation and the variety of host plant.3. Two of the isolates showed complete protection

Harvey C. Smith

1963-01-01

56

West Nile Virus Isolation in Human and Mosquitoes, Mexico  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus has been isolated for the first time in Mexico, from a sick person and from mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus). Partial sequencing and analysis of the 2 isolates indicate that they are genetically similar to other recent isolates from northern Mexico and the western United States.

Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Davis, C. Todd; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Escobar-Lopez, Roman; Olmos, Dolores Velasco; Gastalum, Lourdes Cecilia Soto; Acosta, Magaly Aviles; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando; Gonzalez-Rojas, Jose I.; Cordero, Juan F. Contreras; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Barrett, Alan D.T.; Beaty, Barry J.

2005-01-01

57

The diversity of Banana streak virus isolates in Uganda.  

PubMed

In a study of the variation among isolates of Banana streak virus (BSV) in Uganda, 140 sequences were obtained from 49 samples by PCR across the conserved reverse transcriptase/RNaseH region of the genome. Pairwise comparison of these sequences suggested that they represented 15 different species and phylogenetic analyses showed that all species fell into three major clades based on 28% sequence difference. In addition to the Ugandan sequences, clade I also contained BSV species that are known as both integrated sequences and episomal viruses; clade II also contained integrated BSV sequences but which have not previously been identified as episomal viruses. Clade III comprised of Sugarcane bacilliform virus isolates and Ugandan BSV sequences and for which there is no evidence of integration. The possible reasons for the extraordinary levels of virus sequence variation and the potential origins and epidemiology of these viruses causing banana streak disease are discussed. PMID:16096705

Harper, G; Hart, D; Moult, S; Hull, R; Geering, A; Thomas, J

2005-12-01

58

[Isolation of the virus of Syr-Darya Valley fever].  

PubMed

In the course of studies on the ecological structure of acute febrile diseases in the season of activity of blood-sucking arthropods strains of a virus antigenically related to Sikhote-Alyń virus were isolated from the blood of a patient and from Ixodid ticks. This paper presents the results of the study on the causative agent and the clinical picture of the disease caused by this virus. The virus was found to be a new one for science; its appurtenance to the family Picornaviridae, genus Cardiovirus, the antigenic group of encephalomyocarditis has been determined. The virus has been designated "Syr-Darya Valley fever virus" by the area of its isolation. PMID:6097042

L'vov, D K; Karimov, S K; Kiriushchenko, T V; Chun-Siun, F; Skvortsova, T M

1984-01-01

59

Isolation and Phylogenetic Grouping of Equine Encephalosis Virus in Israel  

PubMed Central

During 2008–2009 in Israel, equine encephalosis virus (EEV) caused febrile outbreaks in horses. Phylogenetic analysis of segment 10 of the virus strains showed that they form a new cluster; analysis of segment 2 showed ?92% sequence identity to EEV-3, the reference isolate. Thus, the source of this emerging EEV remains uncertain.

Aharonson-Raz, Karin; Steinman, Amir; Bumbarov, Velizar; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender Singh; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Batten, Carrie; Potgieter, Christiaan; Gottlieb, Yuval; Mertens, Peter

2011-01-01

60

[Some biologic characteristics of two tomato spotted wilt virus isolates].  

PubMed

Biological properties of two tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) isolates from the tomatoes, grown on plantations of the Crimean tobacco-plant experimental stations have been investigated. These isolates were slightly differentiated by thermal inactivation point, by terms of virus storage in juice and by dilution end point. As a result the growth of the induced resistance effective with respect to TMV was observed in tobacco-plants of Immunny-580 and N. sanderae varieties affected by TSWV. PMID:16396117

Shepelevych, V V

2005-01-01

61

Monoclonal antibodies of African swine fever virus: antigenic differences among field virus isolates and viruses passaged in cell culture.  

PubMed

An analysis of the binding properties of a collection of monoclonal antibodies to African swine fever virus particles showed that virus field isolates passaged in porcine macrophages changed antigenically more than a strain of a cell-adapted virus passaged in Vero cells. From seven clones isolated from the spleen of a field-infected pig, we found four clones that had the same antigenic properties, one clone that had large changes in proteins p150 and p27 and small changes in proteins p37 and p14, and two clones that had minor changes in proteins p150 and p27, respectively. An analysis of the binding properties of the monoclonal antibodies to 23 field isolates from Africa, Europe, and America showed that the African isolates differed among themselves more than the European and the American isolates; in this study we found changes in 8 of the 10 virus proteins tested. The most variable proteins in the African isolates were p150, p27, p14, and p12. In contrast to the African isolates, protein p12 from the non-African viruses did not change. The clustering of the field virus isolates in six antigenic homology groups indicated the existence of a complex variety of African swine fever virus serotypes. PMID:2422393

García-Barreno, B; Sanz, A; Nogal, M L; Vińuela, E; Enjuanes, L

1986-05-01

62

Monoclonal antibodies of African swine fever virus: antigenic differences among field virus isolates and viruses passaged in cell culture.  

PubMed Central

An analysis of the binding properties of a collection of monoclonal antibodies to African swine fever virus particles showed that virus field isolates passaged in porcine macrophages changed antigenically more than a strain of a cell-adapted virus passaged in Vero cells. From seven clones isolated from the spleen of a field-infected pig, we found four clones that had the same antigenic properties, one clone that had large changes in proteins p150 and p27 and small changes in proteins p37 and p14, and two clones that had minor changes in proteins p150 and p27, respectively. An analysis of the binding properties of the monoclonal antibodies to 23 field isolates from Africa, Europe, and America showed that the African isolates differed among themselves more than the European and the American isolates; in this study we found changes in 8 of the 10 virus proteins tested. The most variable proteins in the African isolates were p150, p27, p14, and p12. In contrast to the African isolates, protein p12 from the non-African viruses did not change. The clustering of the field virus isolates in six antigenic homology groups indicated the existence of a complex variety of African swine fever virus serotypes.

Garcia-Barreno, B; Sanz, A; Nogal, M L; Vinuela, E; Enjuanes, L

1986-01-01

63

Phylogenetic Analysis of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Isolates from Florida  

PubMed Central

Florida has the highest degree of endemicity for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) of any state in the United States and is the only state with year-round transmission of EEEV. To further understand the viral population dynamics in Florida, the genome sequence of six EEEV isolates from central Florida were determined. These data were used to identify the most polymorphic regions of the EEEV genome from viruses isolated in Florida. The sequence of these polymorphic regions was then determined for 18 additional Florida isolates collected in four geographically distinct regions over a 20-year period. Phylogenetic analyses of these data suggested a rough temporal association of the Florida isolates, but no clustering by region or by source of the isolate. Some clustering of northeastern isolates with Florida isolates was seen, providing support for the hypothesis that Florida serves as a reservoir for the periodic introduction of EEEV into the northeastern United States.

White, Gregory S.; Pickett, Brett E.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Johnson, Amelia G.; Ottendorfer, Christy; Stark, Lillian M.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

2011-01-01

64

Isolation of border disease virus from twin lambs in Alberta  

PubMed Central

We describe herein a field case of border disease (BD) in twin lambs. Both lambs were unthrifty, stunted, and one exhibited nervous signs characteristic of BD, with tremors of the head, neck, hind legs, and pelvis. Hairiness of the coat and excessive pigmentation, often seen in lambs with BD, were not observed. A noncytopathic virus, which showed cross-reactivity with bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus antiserum and BVD virus monoclonal antibodies, was isolated repeatedly from leukocytes from one lamb and from tissues of the other. Although the source of the virus is unknown, our results suggest that the dam of the affected twins had been infected during pregnancy. We used the BD virus isolated to inoculate pregnant ewes and experimentally reproduce the disease in a newborn lamb. Our findings indicate that leukocytes, rather than serum, should be utilized for BD virus isolation. Further, it is recommended that BD virus, rather than BVD virus, be used in serum neutralization tests when screening sheep for antibody titers.

Lees, V. Wayne; Loewen, Ken G.; Deregt, Dirk; Knudsen, Robin

1991-01-01

65

Isolation of herpes simplex viruses by chick embryo culture.  

PubMed

The chick embryo is a versatile host system in diagnostic virology, especially for isolation of herpes simplex viruses. In this study, samples obtained from 57 clinically diagnosed patients with active herpetic lesions (35 genital & 22 non-genital) were cultured by chick embryo method for isolation of herpes simplex virus. After inoculation onto the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 10-11 days old chick embryo, typical CAM reactions (pocks) appeared in 23(40.3%) samples after 3 days. CAM reactions were identified and typed by direct fluorescence antibody test and 22(95.6%) of 23 isolates gave positive results. Of this, 9(40.9%) were HSV-1 & 13(59.1%) were HSV-2. HSV-1 was isolated from 8(36.4%) of non-genital samples and from 1(7.1%) genital sample. HSV-2 was isolated from 13(92.8%) of genital samples, but none were isolated from non-genital samples. High isolation rate was obtained from vesicular stage of both non-genital (71.5%) and genital (57.1%) samples and from early lesions (sampled within 72 hours) of non-genital (50%) and genital (52.9%) specimen. The chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryo it is a simple, cheap and efficient method of cultivation of some viruses, including HSV. Thus, in settings where cell culture facilities are not available, it can be used for the isolation of herpes simplex viruses from clinical samples. PMID:23715363

Akter, T; Tabassum, S; Jahan, M; Nessa, A; Islam, M N; Giasuddin, M

2013-04-01

66

West Nile Virus Isolation from Equines in Argentina, 2006  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated from the brains of 3 horses that died from encephalitis in February 2006. The horses were from different farms in central Argentina and had not traveled outside the country. This is the first isolation of WNV in South America.

Barrandeguy, Maria; Fabbri, Cintia; Garcia, Jorge B.; Vissani, Aldana; Trono, Karina; Gutierrez, Geronimo; Pigretti, Santiago; Menchaca, Hernan; Garrido, Nelson; Taylor, Nora; Fernandez, Fernando; Levis, Silvana; Enria, Delia

2006-01-01

67

Molecular characterization and heterogeneity of feline immunodeficiency virus isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We have molecularly cloned the complete genomic DNA of TM2 strain of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) isolated in Japan and compared its nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequence with those of previously described U.S. isolates, FIV Petaluma and FIV PPR. The infectious molecular clone of FIV TM2 is different from FIV Petaluma in host cell range; the clone

N. Maki; T. Miyazawa; M. Fukasawa; A. Hasegawa; M. Hayami; K. Miki; T. Mikami

1992-01-01

68

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction method for reliable, sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple viruses in citrus trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay was developed to detect six RNA and one DNA citrus virus: Citrus leaf rugose virus (CLRV), Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV), Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), Citrus variegation virus (CVV), Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV), and Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) from citrus plants. These seven viruses are classified in

Avijit Roy; Amer Fayad; G. Barthe; R. H. Brlansky

2005-01-01

69

Vaccine efficacy against Ontario isolates of infectious bronchitis virus.  

PubMed

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an economically important viral disease with worldwide distribution. Every country with an intensive poultry industry has infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The virus rapidly spreads from bird to bird through horizontal transmission by aerosol or ingestion. Sentinel bird studies were carried out in southern Ontario and IBV has been isolated from layer flocks. Genetic analysis of the S1 region of the strains showed that they were not vaccine related. The pathogenicity of selected Ontario variants of IBV isolates was studied and the subsequent work was to determine the degree of protection against field isolates provided by a commonly used vaccine MILDVAC-Ma5 in Ontario. The protection was evaluated by challenging immunized chickens with the respiratory (IBV-ON1) and nephropathogenic (IBV-ON4) viruses. The mean vaccine efficacy for IBV-ON1 was 66.7% indicating that a Massachusetts serotype vaccine would provide some protection against IBV field isolates. PMID:19794894

Grgi?, Helena; Hunter, D Bruce; Hunton, Peter; Nagy, Eva

2009-07-01

70

Vaccine efficacy against Ontario isolates of infectious bronchitis virus  

PubMed Central

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an economically important viral disease with worldwide distribution. Every country with an intensive poultry industry has infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The virus rapidly spreads from bird to bird through horizontal transmission by aerosol or ingestion. Sentinel bird studies were carried out in southern Ontario and IBV has been isolated from layer flocks. Genetic analysis of the S1 region of the strains showed that they were not vaccine related. The pathogenicity of selected Ontario variants of IBV isolates was studied and the subsequent work was to determine the degree of protection against field isolates provided by a commonly used vaccine MILDVAC-Ma5 in Ontario. The protection was evaluated by challenging immunized chickens with the respiratory (IBV-ON1) and nephropathogenic (IBV-ON4) viruses. The mean vaccine efficacy for IBV-ON1 was 66.7% indicating that a Massachusetts serotype vaccine would provide some protection against IBV field isolates.

Grgic, Helena; Hunter, D. Bruce; Hunton, Peter; Nagy, Eva

2009-01-01

71

Genome Differences among Varicella-Zoster Virus Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The DNAs of 17 isolates of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) were analysed by restriction endonuclease cleavage and agarose gel electrophoresis. By comparing gel patterns of DNAs cleaved with only a few enzymes, all epidemiologically distinct isolates were shown to be unique. Two isolates recovered from members of a family infected in a common-source outbreak were identical to each other (4\\/4

STEPHEN E. STRAUS; JOHN HAY; HOLLY SMITH; JOHN OWENS

1983-01-01

72

Genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhoea virus isolates from India.  

PubMed

Thirteen BVDV isolates collected in four geographic regions of India between 2000 and 2002 were typed in 5'-UTR. To confirm results of genetic typing, selected viruses were also analysed in the N(pro) region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Indian BVDV isolates belong to BVDV-1b (Osloss-like group). Despite a long distance between the farms from which the viruses were isolated there was no correlation between the origin of viral isolates and their position in a phylogenetic tree. Higher genetic similarity of Indian BVDV isolates was observed most probably due to the uncontrolled movement of cattle as well as the uncontrolled use of semen from bulls for breeding of local and farm cattle in different states of India. PMID:15564029

Mishra, N; Pattnaik, B; Vilcek, S; Patil, S S; Jain, P; Swamy, N; Bhatia, S; Pradhan, H K

2004-12-01

73

Herpes simplex virus: isolation, cytopathological characterization and antiviral sensitivity*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is an endemic disease and it is estimated that 6095% of the adult population are infected with symptoms that are usually self-limiting, though they can be serious, extensive and prolonged in immunocompromised individuals, highlighted by the emergence of drug-resistant strains. The study of the wild-type HSV strains based on the cytopathogenic features and its antiviral sensitivity are important in the establishment of an antivirogram for controlling the infection. OBJECTIVE This study sought to isolate and examine the cytopathological characteristics of circulating strains of the Herpes simplex virus, from clinical specimens and their sensitivity to commercially available antiherpesvirus drugs, acyclovir, phosphonophormic acid and trifluridine. METHODS Herpes simplex virus isolation, cytopathological features and antiviral sensitivity assays were performed in cell culture by tissue culture infectious dose or plaque forming unit assay. RESULTS From twenty-two clinical specimens, we isolated and adapted nine strains. Overall, the cytopathic effect was detected 24 h post-infection (p.i.) and the presence of syncytia was remarkable 48 h p.i., observed after cell staining. Out of eight isolates, four developed plaques of varying sizes. All the isolates were sensitive to acyclovir, phosphonophormic and trifluridine, with the percentage of virus inhibition (%VI) ranging from 49.7-100%. CONCLUSIONS The methodology for HSV isolation and characterization is a straightforward approach, but the drug sensitivity test, regarded as being of great practical importance, needs to be better understood.

Nozawa, Carlos; Hattori, Lilian Yumi; Galhardi, Ligia Carla Faccin; Lopes, Nayara; Bomfim, Wesley Andrade; de Candido, Ligyana Korki; de Azevedo, Elbens Marcos Minoreli; Gon, Airton dos Santos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

2014-01-01

74

Characteristics of a Virus Isolated from a Feline Fibrosarcoma  

PubMed Central

A virus was isolated from a radioresistant feline fibrosarcoma. It induced multi-nucleated giant-cell formation and lysis in a cell line derived from a canine fibro-sarcoma, which was used to characterize the virus. End-point titrations in these cells required 28 days. The virus was sensitive to ether and heat and was destroyed at pH 3. Replication was not inhibited by 5-bromodeoxyuridine. Electron microscopy revealed assembly by a budding process from the plasma membrane of infected cells. The average diameter of the virion was 106 nm. Intracisternal particles with an average diameter of 45 nm were present within infected cells. In two instances secondary monolayers of feline renal cells underwent morphological transformation after inoculation of the virus. The two strains of transformed cells are now in continuous culture and do not yield infectious virus. Images

McKissick, G. E.; Lamont, P. H.

1970-01-01

75

ISOLATION OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN ONTARIO DURING 1960-1962.  

PubMed

During the past three years at the Central Laboratory, Ontario Department of Health, 681 isolations were made in tissue culture from 6822 specimens submitted for virus studies by physicians and hospitals from all over Ontario. Nearly 74% of the isolates were enteroviruses, approximately 5% adenoviruses and about 1% reoviruses. The remaining 20% are still to be identified.Although the bulk of isolations was made during the same three-month period (August, September and October) of each year, the predominant virus types varied from year to year. Poliovirus 1 was most commonly encountered in 1960, Coxsackie B5 in 1961 and Echo 9 in 1962.Among other types isolated in smaller numbers were Coxsackie A1, 9 and 10, Coxsackie B1, 2, 3 and 4, Echo 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, 17, 18 and 19, Reovirus 1, 2 and 3, Adenovirus 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 16, as well as Frater-type virus. Most of these types were isolated for the first time in Ontario and represent additions to the existing list of viruses known to occur in this province. PMID:14052975

KELEN, A E; BELBIN, D; LESIAK, J M; LABZOFFSKY, N A

1963-11-01

76

Concurrent isolation of chikungunya virus and dengue virus from a patient with coinfection resulting from a trip to Singapore.  

PubMed

We report two cases of imported infection in patients who had returned to Taiwan from Singapore: one was coinfected with chikungunya virus and dengue virus type 2, and the other was infected with the same dengue virus. Both viruses were successfully isolated from the coinfected case by using antibody neutralization and a plaque purification technique. PMID:20881182

Chang, Shu-Fen; Su, Chien-Ling; Shu, Pei-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Fen; Liao, Tsai-Ling; Cheng, Chia-Hsin; Hu, Huai-Chin; Huang, Jyh-Hsiung

2010-12-01

77

Isolation of Newcastle disease virus from birds of prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 4 year period 1971–74 11 isolations of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) were made from 44 birds of prey that died in captivity. Three species of Falconiformes were involved, including one red?headed falcon (Falco chicquera), 5 European kestrels (F. tinnunculus), and 2 secretary birds (Sagittarius serpentarius), also 2 species of Strigiformes, comprising 2 barn owls (Tyto alba) and one

H. P. Chu; E. W. Trow; A. G. Greenwood; A. R. Jennings; I. F. Keymer

1976-01-01

78

Isolation and characterization of an H9N2 influenza virus isolated in Argentina.  

PubMed

As part of our ongoing efforts on animal influenza surveillance in Argentina, an H9N2 virus was isolated from a wild aquatic bird (Netta peposaca), A/rosy-billed pochard/Argentina/CIP051-559/2007 (H9N2) - herein referred to as 559/H9N2. Due to the important role that H9N2 viruses play in the ecology of influenza in nature, the 559/H9N2 isolate was characterized molecularly and biologically. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene revealed that the 559/H9N2 virus maintained an independent evolutionary pathway and shared a sister-group relationship with North American viruses, suggesting a common ancestor. The rest of the genome segments clustered with viruses from South America. Experimental inoculation of the 559/H9N2 in chickens and quail revealed efficient replication and transmission only in quail. Our results add to the notion of the unique evolutionary trend of avian influenza viruses in South America. Our study increases our understanding of H9N2 viruses in nature and emphasizes the importance of expanding animal influenza surveillance efforts to better define the ecology of influenza viruses at a global scale. PMID:22709552

Xu, Kemin; Ferreri, Lucas; Rimondi, Agustina; Olivera, Valeria; Romano, Marcelo; Ferreyra, Hebe; Rago, Virgina; Uhart, Marcela; Chen, Hongjun; Sutton, Troy; Pereda, Ariel; Perez, Daniel R

2012-09-01

79

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction method for reliable, sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple viruses in citrus trees.  

PubMed

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay was developed to detect six RNA and one DNA citrus virus: Citrus leaf rugose virus (CLRV), Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV), Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), Citrus variegation virus (CVV), Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV), and Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) from citrus plants. These seven viruses are classified in six different virus genera. Degenerate primers were designed based on the respective virus isolate sequence data available from the GenBank and were used for reliable detection of the different viruses by simplex- and mPCR. The sensitive and simultaneous detection of RNA and DNA viruses using the mPCR decreases the risk of contamination, saves time and reduces the cost as compared to other conventional methods for citrus virus detection. Seven different fragments (245-942 bp) specific to the viruses were simultaneously amplified using mPCR and were identified on the basis of their molecular sizes. The consistent results of the mPCR were compared with simplex PCR for detection of each virus pathogen. The mPCR results were confirmed with sequencing analysis. The mPCR provides a useful rapid method for detecting multiple viruses in citrus plants that will aid in the production of virus-free citrus plants for certification programs. PMID:15951030

Roy, Avijit; Fayad, Amer; Barthe, G; Brlansky, R H

2005-10-01

80

Isolation and molecular characterization of canine distemper virus from India.  

PubMed

Ocular swabs from canine distemper virus (CDV) suspected live or brain tissue from dead dogs were tested for the presence of CDV nucleoprotein (N) gene using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Partial "N" gene sequencing of the RT-PCR-positive samples and the local vaccine virus revealed that the Ind/Andaman 01/07 virus was highly divergent from the rest of the CDV isolates and from the vaccine strain. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using SYBR Green I chemistry for CDV haemagglutinin "H" gene quantification showed C(t) values ranging from 29.76-30.67 in the RT-PCR-positive samples. Two of the positive samples, designated Ind/TN 01/07 and Ind/Andaman 01/07 were used for virus isolation in B95a cell line. Characteristic cytopathic changes such as rounding of cells, syncytia formation, and ballooning were seen from the first passage onwards. Specific cytoplasmic fluorescence was seen in infected cells with a commercial reference serum against CDV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CDV isolation from clinical cases in India. PMID:21626062

Pawar, Rahul Mohanchandra; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Gopinath, Vadivel Ponnuswamy; Ashok, Ardhanari; Raja, Angamuthu

2011-12-01

81

Deep sequencing as a method of typing bluetongue virus isolates.  

PubMed

Bluetongue (BT) is an economically important endemic disease of livestock in tropics and subtropics. In addition, its recent spread to temperate regions like North America and Northern Europe is of serious concern. Rapid serotyping and characterization of BT virus (BTV) is an essential step in the identification of origin of the virus and for controlling the disease. Serotyping of BTV is typically performed by serum neutralization, and of late by nucleotide sequencing. This report describes the near complete genome sequencing and typing of two isolates of BTV using Illumina next generation sequencing platform. Two of the BTV RNAs were multiplexed with ten other unknown samples. Viral RNA was isolated and fragmented, reverse transcribed, the cDNA ends were repaired and ligated with a multiplex oligo. The genome library was amplified using primers complementary to the ligated oligo and subjected to single and paired end sequencing. The raw reads were assembled using a de novo method and reference-based assembly was performed based on the contig data. Near complete sequences of all segments of BTV were obtained with more than 20× coverage, and single read sequencing method was sufficient to identify the genotype and serotype of the virus. The two viruses used in this study were typed as BTV-1 and BTV-9E. PMID:23831448

Rao, Pavuluri Panduranga; Reddy, Yella Narasimha; Ganesh, Kapila; Nair, Shreeja G; Niranjan, Vidya; Hegde, Nagendra R

2013-11-01

82

Relationships and host range of human, canine, simian and porcine isolates of simian virus 5 (parainfluenza virus 5).  

PubMed

Sequence comparison of the V/P and F genes of 13 human, canine, porcine and simian isolates of simian virus 5 (SV5) revealed a surprising lack of sequence variation at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels (0-3%), even though the viruses were isolated over 30 years and originated from countries around the world. Furthermore, there were no clear distinguishing amino acid or nucleotide differences among the isolates that correlated completely with the species from which they were isolated. In addition, there was no evidence that the ability of the viruses to block interferon signalling by targeting STAT1 for degradation was confined to the species from which they were isolated. All isolates had an extended cytoplasmic tail in the F protein, compared with the original W3A and WR monkey isolates. Sequence analysis of viruses that were derived from human bone-marrow cells isolated in London in the 1980s revealed that, whilst they were related more closely to one another than to the other isolates, they all had identifying differences, suggesting that they were independent isolates. These results therefore support previous data suggesting that SV5 can infect humans persistently, although the relationship of SV5 to any human disease remains highly contentious. Given that SV5 has been isolated on multiple occasions from different species, it is proposed that the term simian virus 5 is inappropriate and suggested that the virus should be renamed parainfluenza virus 5. PMID:15448364

Chatziandreou, N; Stock, N; Young, D; Andrejeva, J; Hagmaier, K; McGeoch, D J; Randall, R E

2004-10-01

83

Xiburema Virus, a Hitherto Undescribed Virus within the Family Rhabdoviridae Isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Region.  

PubMed

We report here the first complete open reading frame (ORF) genome sequence of Xiburema virus (XIBV), that of strain BE AR362159, isolated from mosquitoes (Sabethes intermedius) in Sena Madureira, Acre state, northern Brazil. All genes showed similarities with those belonging to members of the family Rhabdoviridae. PMID:24948755

Wanzeller, Ana Lucia M; Martins, Lívia C; Diniz Júnior, José Antonio P; de Almeida Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa; Cardoso, Jedson F; da Silva, Daisy E A; de Oliveira, Layanna F; de Vasconcelos, Janaina M; Nunes, Márcio R T; Vianez Júnior, Joăo Lídio da S G; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

2014-01-01

84

Xiburema Virus, a Hitherto Undescribed Virus within the Family Rhabdoviridae Isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Region  

PubMed Central

We report here the first complete open reading frame (ORF) genome sequence of Xiburema virus (XIBV), that of strain BE AR362159, isolated from mosquitoes (Sabethes intermedius) in Sena Madureira, Acre state, northern Brazil. All genes showed similarities with those belonging to members of the family Rhabdoviridae.

Martins, Livia C.; Diniz Junior, Jose Antonio P.; de Almeida Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa; Cardoso, Jedson F.; da Silva, Daisy E. A.; de Oliveira, Layanna F.; de Vasconcelos, Janaina M.; Vianez Junior, Joao Lidio da S. G.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.

2014-01-01

85

Genetic characterization of H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from chickens in Indonesia in 2010.  

PubMed

Since 2003, highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have caused outbreaks among poultry in Indonesia every year, producing the highest number of human victims worldwide. However, little is known about the H5N1 influenza viruses that have been circulating there in recent years. We therefore conducted surveillance studies and isolated eight H5N1 viruses from chickens. Phylogenic analysis of their hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes revealed that all eight viruses belonged to clade 2.1.3. However, on the basis of nucleotide differences, these viruses could be divided into two groups. Other viruses genetically closely related to these two groups of viruses were all Indonesian isolates, suggesting that these new isolates have been evolving within Indonesia. Among these viruses, two distinct viruses circulated in the Kalimantan islands during the same season in 2010. Our data reveal the continued evolution of H5N1 viruses in Indonesia. PMID:22323117

Nidom, Chairul A; Yamada, Shinya; Nidom, Reviany V; Rahmawati, Kadek; Alamudi, Muhamad Y; Kholik; Indrasari, Setyarina; Hayati, Ratnani S; Iwatsuki Horimoto, Kiyoko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2012-06-01

86

Isolation of infectious bursal disease virus from the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer).  

PubMed

Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was isolated from adult lesser mealworms, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), up to 14 d after exposure, but isolation of the virus was erratic over this period of time. The virus was undetected after 24 h in beetle larvae. Virus was isolated from the adult beetle's mouth parts, foregut, midgut, hindgut, and blood 24 h after they fed on feed inoculated with IBDV. Ten days after exposure, virus was isolated from the foregut but not the blood, mouth parts, or remaining digestive tract of the adult beetles. The adult lesser mealworm is capable of serving as a reservoir for IBDV, rather than a fomite, between broiler growouts. PMID:7899212

McAllister, J C; Steelman, C D; Newberry, L A; Skeeles, J K

1995-01-01

87

Complete Genome Sequence of a Rabies Virus Isolated from a Human in Central African Republic  

PubMed Central

To validate the feasibility of using next-generation sequencing in an African context, the complete genome of a rabies virus isolated from a human patient was obtained by high-throughput sequencing after virus isolation in mice and random unbiased amplification. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that this virus belongs to the Africa II clade.

Berthet, Nicolas; Nakoune, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

2014-01-01

88

Serological comparison of tospovirus isolates from Taiwan and India with impatiens necrotic spot virus and different tomato spotted wilt virus isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Tospovirus isolates from tomato and watermelon in Taiwan and from peanut in India reacted neither with antibodies to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), nor with antibodies to impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), in ELISA and in electroblot immunoassays. Additionally, all three tospovirus isolates had an N protein with a molecular weight of 32 kDa as compared to 29 kDa

G. Adam; S.-D. Yeh; D. V. R. Reddy; S. K. Green

1993-01-01

89

Cedar Virus: A Novel Henipavirus Isolated from Australian Bats  

PubMed Central

The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV), which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt) and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin- B2) for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-? response than HeV.

Barr, Jennifer A.; Tachedjian, Mary; Smith, Craig; Middleton, Deborah; Yu, Meng; Todd, Shawn; Foord, Adam J.; Haring, Volker; Payne, Jean; Robinson, Rachel; Broz, Ivano; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E.; Wang, Lin-Fa

2012-01-01

90

Cedar virus: a novel Henipavirus isolated from Australian bats.  

PubMed

The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV), which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt) and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin-B2) for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-? response than HeV. PMID:22879820

Marsh, Glenn A; de Jong, Carol; Barr, Jennifer A; Tachedjian, Mary; Smith, Craig; Middleton, Deborah; Yu, Meng; Todd, Shawn; Foord, Adam J; Haring, Volker; Payne, Jean; Robinson, Rachel; Broz, Ivano; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E; Wang, Lin-Fa

2012-01-01

91

Superinfection exclusion is an active virus-controlled function that requires a specific viral protein.  

PubMed

Superinfection exclusion, a phenomenon in which a preexisting viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or a closely related virus, has been described for various viruses, including important pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. The phenomenon was initially used to test the relatedness of plant viruses. Subsequently, purposeful infection with a mild isolate has been implemented as a protective measure against virus isolates that cause severe disease. In the medical and veterinary fields, superinfection exclusion was found to interfere with repeated applications of virus-based vaccines to individuals with persistent infections and with the introduction of multicomponent vaccines. In spite of its significance, our understanding of this phenomenon is surprisingly incomplete. Recently, it was demonstrated that superinfection exclusion of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a positive-sense RNA closterovirus, occurs only between isolates of the same strain, but not between isolates of different strains of the virus. In this study, I show that superinfection exclusion by CTV requires production of a specific viral protein, the p33 protein. Lack of the functional p33 protein completely eliminated the ability of the virus to exclude superinfection by the same or a closely related virus. Remarkably, the protein appeared to function only in a homology-dependent manner. A cognate protein from a heterologous strain failed to confer the exclusion, suggesting the existence of precise interactions of the p33 protein with other factors involved in this complex phenomenon. PMID:22398285

Folimonova, Svetlana Y

2012-05-01

92

Genetic evolution of equine influenza viruses isolated in China.  

PubMed

China experienced an outbreak of equine influenza during 2007-2008. Meanwhile, its neighbor countries, such as Mongolia, India and Japan, have also been affected by various influenza virus strains in each country. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the newly emerging Chinese strains belong to Florida sublineage clade 2, as well as the Indian strain Jammu-Katra/6/08 and the Mongolian strain Mongolia/1/08. All of these strains were derived from European strains of this clade, such as the Newmarket/1/07 and Cheshire/1/07 strains, but these were not related to Japanese strains isolated around the same time (Florida sublineage clade 1) or to Chinese strains isolated in the 1990s (European lineage). Some unique amino acid changes were found in the antigenic sites in Asian strains of Florida sublineage clade 2. Moreover, the loss of a glycosylation site was found in the Liaoning/9/08 strain. From these studies, we have determined that equine influenza viruses in China have evolved with some new characteristics during recent years, and this emphasizes the importance of continued equine influenza virus surveillance in China. PMID:20559670

Qi, Ting; Guo, Wei; Huang, Wen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Li-Ping; Dai, Ling-Li; He, Na; Hao, Xiao-Fang; Xiang, Wen-Hua

2010-09-01

93

Evaluation of rabies biologics against Irkut virus isolated in China.  

PubMed

An Irkut virus (IRKV) was recently isolated from a bat in China. The protective ability of rabies biologics available in the Chinese market and experimental biologics against the rabies virus (RABV) and IRKV were assessed in a hamster model via preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) experiments. The results demonstrated that a single dose of rabies vaccine did not induce adequate protection against IRKV infection. However, routine PrEP with three doses of vaccine induced complete protection against IRKV infection. Higher doses of RABV immunoglobulins and alpha interferon were required during PEP to protect hamsters against IRKV versus RABV infection. Experimental recombinant vaccines containing IRKV glycoproteins induced more-reliable protection against IRKV than against RABV infection. Those findings may be explained by limited cross-neutralization of these viruses (confirmed via in vitro tests) in conjunction with antigenic distances between RABV and IRKV. These results indicate that the development and evaluation of new biologics for PrEP and PEP are required to ensure sufficient protection against IRKV infection in China and other territories where this virus is present. PMID:23946522

Liu, Ye; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Shoufeng; Li, Nan; Lian, Hai; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Jinxia; Hu, Rongliang

2013-11-01

94

Evaluation of Rabies Biologics against Irkut Virus Isolated in China  

PubMed Central

An Irkut virus (IRKV) was recently isolated from a bat in China. The protective ability of rabies biologics available in the Chinese market and experimental biologics against the rabies virus (RABV) and IRKV were assessed in a hamster model via preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) experiments. The results demonstrated that a single dose of rabies vaccine did not induce adequate protection against IRKV infection. However, routine PrEP with three doses of vaccine induced complete protection against IRKV infection. Higher doses of RABV immunoglobulins and alpha interferon were required during PEP to protect hamsters against IRKV versus RABV infection. Experimental recombinant vaccines containing IRKV glycoproteins induced more-reliable protection against IRKV than against RABV infection. Those findings may be explained by limited cross-neutralization of these viruses (confirmed via in vitro tests) in conjunction with antigenic distances between RABV and IRKV. These results indicate that the development and evaluation of new biologics for PrEP and PEP are required to ensure sufficient protection against IRKV infection in China and other territories where this virus is present.

Liu, Ye; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Shoufeng; Li, Nan; Lian, Hai; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Jinxia

2013-01-01

95

Genomic characterization of pseudorabies virus strains isolated in Italy.  

PubMed

In this study, we undertook the genomic characterization of 54 pseudorabies virus (PRV) strains isolated in Italy during 1984-2010. The characterization was based on partial sequencing of the UL44 (gC) and US8 (gE) genes; 44 strains (38 for gene gE and 36 for gC) were isolated on pig farms; 9 originated from dogs and 1 from cattle. These porcine PRV strains, which were closely related to those isolated in Europe and America in the last 20 years, and the bovine strain bovine/It/2441/1992 belong to cluster B in both phylogenetic trees. Six porcine strains that do not belong to cluster B are related in both gE and gC phylogenetic trees to the 'old' porcine PRV strains isolated in the 1970s and 1980s. In the last two decades, the presence of these strains in domestic pig populations has been reduced drastically, whereas they are prevalent in wild boar. The two remaining strains have an interesting genomic profile, characterized by the gC gene being closely related to the old porcine PRV strains, and the gE gene being similar to that of recently isolated strains. Three strains originating from working dogs on pig farms are located in cluster B in both phylogenetic trees. Five strains isolated from hunting dogs have a high degree of correlation with PRV strains circulating in wild boar. The last isolate has a gC gene similar to that in the two porcine strains mentioned previously, and the gE gene is correlated with the strains isolated from hunting dogs. These results provide interesting insight into the genomic characterization of PRV strains and reveal a clear differentiation between the strains isolated from hunting dogs that are related to the wild boar strains and those originating from domestic pigs. PMID:23331342

Sozzi, E; Moreno, A; Lelli, D; Cinotti, S; Alborali, G L; Nigrelli, A; Luppi, A; Bresaola, M; Catella, A; Cordioli, P

2014-08-01

96

Phylogenetic and Biological Characterization of Newcastle Disease Virus Isolates from Pakistan? †  

PubMed Central

Eight Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan were sequenced and characterized. A PCR matrix gene assay, designed to detect all avian paramyxovirus 1, did not detect four of the isolates. A new matrix gene test that detected all isolates was developed. Phylogenetic analysis and pathotyping confirmed that virulent viruses of different genotypes are circulating in Pakistan.

Khan, Taseer Ahmed; Rue, Cary A.; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima; Ahmed, Ayaz; Wasilenko, Jamie L.; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.

2010-01-01

97

Recovery of H14 influenza A virus isolates from sea ducks in the Western Hemisphere.  

PubMed

In 2010, H14 influenza A viruses were recovered from clinically normal sea ducks in the United States. These are the first H14 isolates recovered in the Western Hemisphere and represent the only documented H14 influenza A viruses isolated since the original isolates were recovered from near the Caspian Sea during 1982. PMID:22307173

Nolting, Jacqueline; Fries, Anthony C; Slemons, Richard D; Courtney, Chad; Hines, Nichole; Pedersen, Janice

2012-01-01

98

Divergence and Recombination of Clinical Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and is one of the most common sexually transmitted viruses. Here we sequenced a segment comprising 3.5% of the HSV-2 genome, including genes coding for glycoproteins G, I, and E, from 27 clinical isolates from Tanzania, 10 isolates from Norway, and 10 isolates from Sweden. The sequence variation was low

Peter Norberg; Mabula J. Kasubi; Lars Haarr; Tomas Bergstrom; Jan-Ĺke Liljeqvist

2007-01-01

99

Investigation of the unstable attenuation exhibited by a chicken anaemia virus isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attenuated chicken anaemia virus (CAV) isolate, cloned isolate 10, which was molecularly cloned from the Cuxhaven-1 CAV after 173 cell-culture passages, was shown previously to recover pathogenicity following 10 passages in young chicks. The consensus nucleotide sequence of the ‘revertant’ (Rev) virus, present as a tissue homogenate, differed from cloned isolate 10 at a single nucleotide residue (nucleotide 1739)

Daniel Todd; Julie L. Creelan; Thomas J. Connor; Neris W. Ball; Alistair N. J. Scott; Brian M. Meehan; Gerard F. Mckenna; M. S. Mcnulty

2003-01-01

100

Serotypes of avian infectious bronchitis virus isolates from field cases in Japan.  

PubMed

Eight etiologic agents isolated from field cases in Japan were identified as isolates of infectious bronchitis virus by agar-gel diffusion, buoyant-density determination on sucrose-density centrifugation, and morphological study by electron microscope of the purified viruses. In studies of the antigenic relationships of the eight isolates and six known infectious bronchitis viruses, antigenic diversity of these viruses was recognized from the degrees of relatedness using a plaque reduction in the "constant-virus decreasing-serum" method. PMID:6186239

Doi, M; Yamakami, T; Koimaru, H; Yoshimura, M; Masu, S; Shirai, J; Kawamura, H

1982-01-01

101

Genotype of Varicella-Zoster Virus Isolates in South Korea?  

PubMed Central

Information about the genotype of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is useful to monitor outbreaks of vaccine strains. However, in South Korea, where varicella vaccine was introduced in 1988, there are limited data about the genotype of VZV. VZV was isolated from vesicular lesions of patients with herpes zoster or varicella in South Korea between January 2007 and June 2009. DNAs were purified from single-passage isolates. The genotype was determined by sequence analysis of open reading frame (ORF) 22. The PstI restriction enzyme site in ORF 38 and the BglI restriction enzyme site in ORF 54 were evaluated by restriction enzyme analysis. Forty-four patients with herpes zoster and nine patients with varicella were enrolled. The median age of patients with herpes zoster was 59.5 (range, 10 to 77) years, and the median age of patients with varicella was 8 (range, 6 to 9) years. In sequence analysis of ORF 22, all isolates were genotype J, irrespective of the age group. In restriction enzyme analysis, 51 of 54 (94.3%) isolates contained a PstI site in ORF 38, and all isolates contained a BglI site in ORF 54. Our data suggest that genotype J has been circulating since the 1940s in South Korea.

Kim, Kye-Hyung; Choi, Young Ju; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Wan Beom; Jeon, Jae-Hyun; Park, Sang-Won; Kim, Hong Bin; Kim, Nam Joong; Oh, Myoung-don

2011-01-01

102

Cross-neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolates.  

PubMed Central

In contrast to infrequent and low-titer cross-neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates by HIV-2- and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive sera, extensive cross-neutralization of HIV-2NIH-Z, SIVMAC251, and SIVAGM208K occurs with high titer, suggesting conservation of epitopes and mechanism(s) of neutralization. The V3 regions of HIV-2 and SIV isolates, minimally related to the HIV-1 homolog, share significant sequence homology and are immunogenic in monkeys as well as in humans. Whereas the crown of the V3 loop is cross-reactive among HIV-1 isolates and elicits neutralizing antibodies of broad specificity, the SIV and especially HIV-2 crown peptides were not well recognized by cross-neutralizing antisera. V3 loop peptides of HIV-2 isolates did not elicit neutralizing antibodies in mice, guinea pigs, or a goat and together with SIV V3 peptides did not inhibit serum neutralization of HIV-2 and SIV. Thus, the V3 loops of HIV-2 and SIV do not appear to constitute simple linear neutralizing epitopes. In view of the immunogenicity of V3 peptides, the failure of conserved crown peptides to react with natural sera implies a significant role of loop conformation in antibody recognition. Our studies suggest that in addition to their grouping by envelope genetic relatedness, HIV-2 and SIV are neutralized similarly to each other but differently from HIV-1. The use of linear peptides of HIV-2 and SIV as immunogens may require greater attention to microconformation, and alternate subunit approaches may be needed in exploiting these viruses as vaccine models. Such approaches may also be applicable to the HIV-1 system in which conformational epitopes, in addition to the V3 loop, participate in virus neutralization.

Robert-Guroff, M; Aldrich, K; Muldoon, R; Stern, T L; Bansal, G P; Matthews, T J; Markham, P D; Gallo, R C; Franchini, G

1992-01-01

103

Comparison of the sequence of the gene encoding African swine fever virus attachment protein p12 from field virus isolates and viruses passaged in tissue culture.  

PubMed Central

Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the African swine fever virus attachment protein p12 from different field virus isolates, deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the gene, revealed a high degree of conservation. No mutations were found after adaptation to Vero cells, and a polypeptide with similar characteristics was present in an IBRS2-adapted virus. The sequence of the 5' flanking region was conserved among the isolates, whereas sequences downstream of the gene were highly variable in length and contained direct repeats in tandem that may account for the deletions found in different isolates. Protein p12 was synthesized in swine macrophages infected with all of the viruses tested.

Angulo, A; Vinuela, E; Alcami, A

1992-01-01

104

Characterisation of potato virus Y isolates from Iran.  

PubMed

A survey of Potato virus Y (PVY) was conducted in cultivated fields in six Iranian provinces between January 2005 to July 2007. Two hundred samples from potato and tomato were collected and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for potyviruses. Almost one fourth of the samples were found to be infected by PVY. Analysis of these PVY-positive samples using three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) facilitating the simultaneous detection of three main strains namely the ordinary (PVY(O)), strain (PVY(N)) and C (PVY(C)) strains. However, the fourth strain (PVY(NTN)) and some others recombinant isolates were also identified by molecular methods. Host range and symptoms analysis using sap inoculation of four different strains of PVY onto a range of plants revealed that the four strains showed biological properties that seemed to be consistent with their molecular grouping. Fourteen isolates of PVY were chosen based on the host and geographical location, primer specificity and serology for further biological and molecular characterisation. The coat protein (CP) and P1 genes and 3'-non-translated region (3'NTR) from 14 representative isolates were sequenced and analysed with the sequences available in GenBank. Composite analysis of the P1, CP and 3'-UTR sequences with all full genome sequences of PVY revealed that there are three potential strains of PVY in Iran, PVY(O), PVY(N)-W and PVY(NTN). Isolate KER.SA(N) was the most divergent of all the 14 isolates reacted with PVY(N) specific MAbs but grouped with PVY(O) strains in maximum likelihood phylogentic analysis. The PVY(NTN) isolates from Iran more closely related to the European than North American PVY(NTN) isolates. PMID:21082231

Hosseini, Atefe; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Varsani, Arvind

2011-02-01

105

A naturally occurring recombinant isolate of Lettuce mosaic virus.  

PubMed

LMV-Common and LMV-Most are two seed-borne types of Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), genus Potyvirus. LMV-Most, but not LMV-Common, overcomes the resistance afforded to lettuce by two recessive genes, mo11 and mo12. An RT-PCR-based assay thought to be specific for LMV-Most also amplified LMV-Tn2, previously typified as LMV-Common. The sequence of selected regions along the genome indicated that LMV-Tn2 is a natural recombinant between LMV-Most and LMV-Common isolates, with a putative recombination site located within the P3 coding region. This is the first evidence of a naturally occurring LMV recombinant isolate. PMID:14689284

Krause-Sakate, R; Fakhfakh, H; Peypelut, M; Pavan, M A; Zerbini, F M; Marrakchi, M; Candresse, T; Le Gall, O

2004-01-01

106

The classification of new serotypes of infectious bronchitis virus isolated from poultry flocks in Britain between 1981 and 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1981 and 1983 10 isolations of infectious bronchitis (IB) virus were made from broiler chickens with respiratory infection and five from breeder chickens showing aberrant egg production. One isolate was serologically similar to an IB virus isolated in England in 1976; the remainder were related to three of the four serotypes of IB virus first isolated in The Netherlands

Jane K. A. Cook

1984-01-01

107

Pathogenicity of infectious bronchitis virus isolates from Ontario chickens  

PubMed Central

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the important viral diseases of chickens, and in spite of regular vaccination, IB is a continuous problem in Canadian poultry operations. In an earlier study using sentinel chickens we determined the incidence of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in Ontario commercial layer flocks. The objective of this study was to determine the pathogenicity of 5 nonvaccine-related IBV isolates recovered from the sentinel birds. The clinical signs, gross, and histological lesions in specific pathogen-free chickens indicated that all 5 isolates caused mild lesions in the respiratory tract. An important finding of this study was the significantly lower average daily weight gain among virus-inoculated groups of chickens during the acute phase of infection. Based on sequences of part of the S1 gene IBV-ON2, IBV-ON3, and IBV-ON5 formed a cluster and they were closely related to strain CU-82792. IBV-ON4 had 98.7% identity with the strain PA/1220/9, a nephropathogenic variant.

Grgiae, Helena; Hunter, D. Bruce; Hunton, Peter; Nagy, Eva

2008-01-01

108

In vitro and in vivo characterization of herpes simplex virus clinical isolates recovered from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed Central

A total of 100 herpes simplex viruses isolated from lesions not responding to acyclovir (ACV) therapy were recovered from 51 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. In vitro analysis of these isolates included testing their susceptibility to ACV and determining their thymidine kinase (TK) phenotypes. Of the 100 isolates evaluated, 23 were ACV sensitive and 77 were ACV resistant. Seventy-four of these ACV-resistant isolates were of the TK-deficient or low-TK-producer phenotype and three were of the TK-altered phenotype. The TKs isolates that represented each of the different autoradiographic phenotypes were further characterized by enzyme kinetics. The ability of selected isolates to cause disease in vivo was evaluated by using several mouse virulence models. Cutaneous virulence in normal and immunocompromised mice was evaluated, and neurovirulence in normal mice was determined. Latent infections were assayed by the cocultivation of trigeminal ganglia recovered from mice that had survived acute infection. These reactivated viruses were evaluated in vitro and compared with the original infecting isolate. The mechanisms of resistance and pathogenicity of these herpes simplex virus isolates recovered from patients positive for human immunodeficiency virus are similar to those reported for isolates recovered from normal and immunocompromised patients without AIDS.

Hill, E L; Hunter, G A; Ellis, M N

1991-01-01

109

Complete Genome Sequence of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Isolated from an Olive Flounder in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a seriously problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture farms in South Korea. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of VHSV which was isolated from spleen and kidney tissues of dead fish at an aquaculture farm in 2005. This genome sequence will be useful for virus diagnostics and in comparative analyses with other virus genotypes.

Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Nishizawa, Toyohiko

2013-01-01

110

Intracerebral pathogenicity for chickens of avian influenza viruses isolated from free-living waterfowl in Japan.  

PubMed

The pathogenicity for chickens of 91 strains of avian influenza A virus isolated from such free-living waterfowl as whistling swan, pintail, tufted duck, mallard and black-tailed gull in Japan was tested. The majority of the virus strains infected and were pathogenic for the chickens. The virulence of these viruses seemed not to be as high as that of fowl plague virus. There were no significant differences in the intracerebral index score among the viruses belonging to the same subtype, irrespective of year of isolation or host. PMID:3232319

Otsuki, K; Yamazaki, K; Kawaoka, Y; Tsubokura, M

1988-12-01

111

Comparison of mosquito densoviruses: two clades of viruses isolated from indigenous mosquitoes.  

PubMed

We analyzed the phylogenetic tree of densoviruses isolated from indigenous mosquitoes and mosquito cell lines. Our findings suggest two distinct clades of densovirus. The viruses in the first clade were isolated from an indigenous mosquito which had the Aedes aegypti densovirus (AaeDNV) as a representative virus. The other clade of viruses was isolated from mosquito indigenous cell line which had the Aedes albopictus densovirus (AalDNV) as the representative virus. The origin of the two clades of DNVs is unclear but the phylogenetic trees were significantly different from each other. The two major densoviruses, AaeDNV and AalDNV, that infect mosquitoes that are known to carry viruses responsible for dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. Understanding the evolution of these two clades of densoviruses is important for studying the distribution of these viruses in mosquito cell lines and the information gained may be applied to understanding other viruses in various mosquito cell lines. PMID:24050091

Sangdee, Kusavadee; Pattanakitsakul, Sa-Nga

2013-07-01

112

Antigenic and immunogenic characterization of infectious bronchitis virus strains isolated in China between 1986 and 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were isolated between 1986 and 1995 from broilers and layers at eight different farms in four provinces in China. The viruses were isolated from flocks which suffered from either respiratory disease or nephritis and the majority had not been vaccinated against IBV. Six strains were shown by monoclonal antibodies to differ from H120,

Z. Q. Wu; Q. W. Yang; C. FU; X. Y. Zhao; J. Ignjatovic

1998-01-01

113

Sequence data to settle the taxonomic position of bean common mosaic virus and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequences of the coat protein genes and 3' non-translated regions (3'-NTRs) of three isolates of bean common mosaic virus (NL1, NL3 and NY15) and one isolate of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (W) were determined. Comparison of these sequences revealed that the coat proteins of NL1, NY15 and W were identical in size (287 amino acids) and exhibited an

Jawaid A. Khan; Dick Lohuis; Rob Goldbach; Jeanne Dijkstra

1993-01-01

114

Chemokine Coreceptor Usage by Diverse Primary Isolates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested chemokine receptor subset usage by diverse, well-characterized primary viruses isolated from peripheral blood by monitoring viral replication with CCR1, CCR2b, CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4 U87MG.CD4 transformed cell lines and STRL33\\/BONZO\\/TYMSTR and GPR15\\/BOB HOS.CD4 transformed cell lines. Primary viruses were isolated from 79 men with confirmed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection from the Chicago component of the

LINQI ZHANG; TIAN HE; YAOXING HUANG; ZHIWEI CHEN; YOUNG GUO; SAM WU; KEVIN J. KUNSTMAN; R. CLARK BROWN; JOHN P. PHAIR; AVIDAN U. NEUMANN; DAVID D. HO; STEVEN M. WOLINSKY

1998-01-01

115

Leakey Virus: a New Hantavirus Isolated from Mus musculus in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A hantavirus, designated Leakey virus, was isolated from a Mus musculus captured in Real County, Texas, U.S.A. in August 1986. Virus-specific fluorescence was first detected 13 days after inoculation of Vero-E6 cells with spleen tissue from the seropositive M. musculus. Ultrastructurally, the new isolate resembled other hantaviruses. Leakey virus induced a fatal meningoencephalitis in infant Fischer rats, with viral

L. J. Baek; R. Yanagihara; C. J. Gibbs; M. Miyazaki; D. C. Gajdusek

1988-01-01

116

Differences in interferon sensitivity and biological properties of two related isolates of simian virus 5: a model for virus persistence.  

PubMed

CPI(+) and CPI(-) are two canine isolates of simian virus 5 (SV5). CPI(+) was originally isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a dog with temporary posterior paralysis and CPI(-) was recovered at 12 days p.i. from the brain tissue of a dog experimentally infected with CPI(+). We have previously shown that the V protein of SV5 blocks interferon (IFN) signalling by targeting STAT1 for degradation. Here we report that whilst CPI(+) targets STAT1 for degradation, CPI(-) fails to and as a consequence, CPI(+) blocks IFN signalling but CPI(-) does not. Three amino acid differences in the P/V N-terminal common domain of the V protein are responsible for the observed difference in the abilities of CPI(+) and CPI(-) to block IFN signalling. In cells persistently infected with CPI(-) the virus may become repressed in response to IFN, under which circumstances virus glycoproteins are lost from the surface of infected cells and virus nucleocapsid proteins accumulate in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. We suggest that in vivo cells infected with IFN-resistant viruses (in which there would be continuous virus protein synthesis) may be more susceptible to killing by cytotoxic T cells than cells infected with IFN-sensitive viruses (in which virus protein synthesis was repressed), and a model of virus persistence is put forward in which there is alternating selection of IFN-resistant and IFN-sensitive viruses depending upon the state of the adaptive immune response. PMID:11886243

Chatziandreou, N; Young, D; Andrejeva, J; Goodbourn, S; Randall, R E

2002-02-15

117

Phylogenetic studies of influenza B viruses isolated in southern Africa: 1998-2001.  

PubMed

Influenza B viruses isolated in southern Africa during the period from 1998 to 2001 were analysed by sequence analysis of the viral haemagglutinin HA1 subunit and the phylogenetic relationships were determined. Influenza B activity varied considerably in South Africa during the 4-year study period with no activity detected in 2000. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that viruses isolated in 1998 from a localised outbreak in Durban belonged to two distinct sub-lineages. Some of the influenza B viruses isolated throughout South Africa in 1999 as well as several viruses obtained from Mozambique in the same year were closely related to the B/Yamanashi/166/98-like viruses. In contrast, the majority of the 1999 isolates, represented by B/Johannesburg/5/99, exhibited considerable drift from the B/Yamanashi/166/98 stain. The viruses isolated during the 2001 season fell into two sub-lineages, one of which had evolved from the B/Johannesburg/5/99-like viruses and the other which had evolved from the group of viruses that included one of the 1998 Durban isolates. These molecular epidemiological studies reveal a diverse and complex pattern of influenza B virus strains circulating in southern Africa. PMID:15163490

Besselaar, Terry G; Botha, Lizelle; McAnerney, Jo M; Schoub, Barry D

2004-07-01

118

Serological comparison of tospovirus isolates from Taiwan and India with impatiens necrotic spot virus and different tomato spotted wilt virus isolates.  

PubMed

Tospovirus isolates from tomato and watermelon in Taiwan and from peanut in India reacted neither with antibodies to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), nor with antibodies to impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), in ELISA and in electroblot immunoassays. Additionally, all three tospovirus isolates had an N protein with a molecular weight of 32 kDa as compared to 29 kDa for the N protein to TSWV and INSV. The observed physicochemical and serological differences suggest the generation of a new, third species in the genus tospovirus for which we propose the name groundnut bud necrosis virus. PMID:7686004

Adam, G; Yeh, S D; Reddy, D V; Green, S K

1993-01-01

119

Genetic characterisation of infectious bursal disease virus isolates in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

The objective of the investigation was to characterise infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDV) circulating in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia between 2009 and 2011. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence for VP2 hypervariable region of ten IBDVs were determined by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to well characterised IBDV isolates worldwide. IBDV genetic material was amplified directly from bursa or cell passaged material. Phylogenetically, Ethiopian IBDVs represented two genetic lineages: very virulent (vv) IBDVs or variants of the classical attenuated vaccine strain (D78). The nucleotide identity between Ethiopian vvIBDVs ranged between 0% and 2.6%. Ethiopian vvIBDVs are clustered phylogenetically with the African IBDV genetic lineage, independent of the Asian/European lineage. This report demonstrates the circulation of vvIBDV in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia.

Jenberie, Shiferaw; Lynch, Stacey E.; Kebede, Fekadu; Christley, Robert M.; Gelaye, Esayas; Negussie, Haileleul; Asmare, Kassahun; Ayelet, Gelagay

2014-01-01

120

Genetic characterization of Aleutian mink disease viruses isolated in China.  

PubMed

Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a parvovirus that causes an immune complex mediated disease in minks. To understand the genetic characterization of AMDV in China, the genomic sequences of three isolates, ADV-LN1, ADV-LN2, and ADV-LN3, from different farms in the Northern China were analyzed. The results showed that the lengths of genomic sequences of three isolates were 4,543, 4,566, and 4,566 bp, respectively. They shared only 95.5-96.3 % nucleotide identity with each other. The nucleotide and amino acid homology of genome sequence between the Chinese isolates and European or American strains (ADV-G, ADV-Utah1, and ADV-SL3) were 92.4-95.0 % and 92.1-93.8 %, respectively. The amino acid substitutions randomly distributed in the genome, especially NS gene. ADV-LN1 strain had a 9-amino-acid deletion at amino acid positions 70 and 72-79 in the VP1 gene, comparing with ADV-G strain; ADV-LN2 and ADV-LN3 strains had 1-amino-acid deletion at amino acid positions 70 in the VP1. Some potential glycosylation site mutations in VP and NS genes were also observed. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that the three strains belonged to two different branches based on the complete coding sequence of VP2 gene. However, they all were in the same group together with the strains from United States based on the NS1 sequence. It indicated that Chinese AMDV isolates had genetic diversity. The origin of the ancestors of the Chinese AMDV strains might be associated with the American strains. PMID:22415541

Li, Yanwu; Huang, Juan; Jia, Yun; Du, Yijun; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Rui

2012-08-01

121

Cross-challenge studies in rhesus monkeys employing different Indian isolates of hepatitis E virus.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine if rhesus monkeys infected with one isolate of hepatitis E virus (HEV) were immune to subsequent challenge with other isolates of the virus. Three epidemic and one sporadic Indian HEV isolates were employed in the study. The interval between primary inoculation and challenge varied from 1 year and 6 months to 2 years and 9 months. Evidence of HEV infection was ascertained by rise in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels and/or seroconversion to antibodies to HEV (anti-HEV), and the presence of HEV-RNA in the bile or faeces of the infected monkeys. No evidence for multiplication of virus in monkeys challenged with different HEV isolates was obtained. These results show that immunity generated by one isolate of HEV protects against different isolates of hepatitis E virus. PMID:7595413

Arankalle, V A; Chadha, M S; Chobe, L P; Nair, R; Banerjee, K

1995-08-01

122

[Khurdun virus, a presumably new RNA-containing virus associated with coots (Fulica atra), isolated in the Volga river delta].  

PubMed

The prototype strain LEIV-Ast 01-5 of the unclassified enveloped RNA-containing Khurdun virus, less than 220 nm in size, which is widely distributed among coots (Fulica atra) in the Volga River delta, was deposited on November 4, 2004, at the State Virus Collection (SVC # 992). The virus was isolated annually (2001-2004) with a frequency of 2.3-8.5% (mean 6.3%) when examining 348 coots caught in the lower and middle zones of the Volga River delta. Virological examinations used mixed pools of the brain and spleen to inoculate neonatal albino mice and the cellular line Vero-E6. One strain was isolated from a pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus). The virus could not be isolated from other species of 1080 birds, 20 hares, 140,000 mosquitoes of 5 predominant species, and 6,700 Hyalomma marginatum ticks. Any antigenic relationship of the virus with all the viruses early isolated in the Northern Caspian Sea region has not been found. ELISA has been developed to detect and identify Khurdun virus antigen. PMID:16104519

Galkina, I V; L'vov, L N; Gromashevski?, V L; Moskvina, T M

2005-01-01

123

Isolation of Herpes-T virus from a spontaneous disease in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Herpes-T virus was isolated from 2 of 4 clinically ill squirrel monkeys. The clinical manifestations of the disease in the monkeys was characterized by oral and labial lesions. From one of two animals sacrificed for histopathological examination, Herpes-T virus was isolated from the tongue and salivary gland. Herpes-T was isolated from the oral swab of one of the two

M. D. Daniel; A. Karpas; L. V. Meléndez; N. W. King; R. D. Hunt

1967-01-01

124

Comparative Analysis of G1 Glycoprotein-Coding Sequences of Cache Valley Virus (Bunyaviridae: Bunyavirus) Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete 4463 nucleotide sequence for the medium segment viral RNA of Cache Valley virus has been cloned and sequenced in four isolates; in addition, the G1 glycoprotein extracellular coding domains are completed for nine additional isolates, including two subtypes, Ft. Sherman (86MSP18) and Tlacotalpan (61D240) viruses. The 13 represent isolations spanning over 45 years and a large geographic area,

Catherine L. Brockus; Paul R. Grimstad

2001-01-01

125

Variability in the coat protein gene of Papaya ringspot virus isolates from multiple locations in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The coat protein (CP) sequences of eleven Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolates originating from different locations in India were determined, analysed and compared with the sequences of other isolates of PRSV. The virus isolates from India exhibited considerable heterogeneity in the CP sequences. The CP-coding region varied in size from 840–858 nucleotides, encoding protein of 280–286 amino acids. Comparative

R. K. Jain; J. Sharma; A. S. Sivakumar; P. K. Sharma; A. S. Byadgi; A. K. Verma; A. Varma

2004-01-01

126

Use of superparamagnetic beads for the isolation of a peptide with specificity to cymbidium mosaic virus.  

PubMed

A modified method for the rapid isolation of specific ligands to whole virus particles is described. Biopanning against cymbidium mosaic virus was carried out with a commercial 12-mer random peptide display library. A solution phase panning method was devised using streptavidin-coated superparamagnetic beads. The solution based panning method was more efficient than conventional immobilized target panning when using whole viral particles of cymbidium mosaic virus as a target. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of cymbidium mosaic virus-binding peptides isolated from the library identified seven peptides with affinity for cymbidium mosaic virus and one peptide which was specific to cymbidium mosaic virus and had no significant binding to odontoglossum ringspot virus. This method should have broad application for the screening of whole viral particles towards the rapid development of diagnostic reagents without the requirement for cloning and expression of single antigens. PMID:16781785

Ooi, Diana Jia Miin; Dzulkurnain, Adriya; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Lim, Saw Hoon; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

2006-09-01

127

Characterization of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H6N1) Isolated from Turkeys  

PubMed Central

An avian influenza virus (AIV), A/turkey/Israel/09 subtype H6N1, was isolated from turkey poults exhibiting typical pathology associated with AIV infection. The virus was characterized by RT-PCR using AIV subtype-specific primers and by the haemagglutination inhibition test using AIV subtype-specific antisera. The virus has an intravenous pathogenicity index of 0 and possessed a nucleotide sequence at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin gene, PQIETR*GLF, associated with avian influenza viruses of low pathogenicity. Unlike the two previous H6N2 isolates originating from domestic ducks and mallard, the A/turkey/Israel/09 (H6N1) was isolated from turkeys. The gene sequences of the A/turkey/Israel/09 (H6N1) virus show divergence from the former Israeli H6 isolates.

Shkoda, I.; Lapin, E.; Rosenbluth, E.; Perk, S.; Geva, Z.; Inbar, A.; Davidson, I.

2011-01-01

128

Effect of centrifugation on herpes simplex virus isolation.  

PubMed

The effects of high-speed centrifugation on the isolation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) were studied. Aliquots of laboratory or clinical specimens were inoculated into test tubes and flat-bottomed tubes containing HEp2 monolayers. Test tubes were incubated at 35 degrees C on roller drums (standard method), and flat-bottomed tubes were centrifuged at 15,000g at 35 degrees C for 1 hr, before being incubated at 35 degrees C without rolling (centrifuged method). Centrifugation of clinical and laboratory specimens of HSV type 1 and HSV type 2 produced significantly increased isolation rates compared with the standard method. When clinical and laboratory specimens were diluted, the centrifuged method was more sensitive at all dilutions. When 20 specimens were used for end-point titrations, the centrifuged method was 10 times more sensitive for 15 specimens and 100 times more sensitive for five specimens. There was no difference in the time taken for the appearance of cytopathic effect (CPE) between the standard and centrifuged methods. PMID:6278068

Darougar, S; Gibson, J A; Thaker, U

1981-01-01

129

Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru.  

PubMed

As part of a comprehensive study on the ecology of arthropod-borne viruses in the Amazon Basin region of Peru, we assayed 539,694 mosquitoes captured in Loreto Department, Peru, for arboviruses. Mosquitoes were captured either by dry ice-baited miniature light traps or with aspirators while mosquitoes were landing on human collectors, identified to species, and later tested on Vero cells for virus. In total, 164 virus isolations were made and included members of the Alphavirus (eastern equine encephalomyelitis, Trocara, Una, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses), Flavivirus (Ilheus and St. Louis encephalitis), and Orthobunyavirus (Caraparu, Itaqui, Mirim, Murutucu, and Wyeomyia viruses) genera. In addition, several viruses distinct from the above-mentioned genera were identified to the serogroup level. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was associated primarily with Culex pedroi Sirivanakarn & Belkin, whereas Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus was associated primarily with Culex gnomatos Sallum, Huchings & Ferreira. Most isolations of Ilheus virus were made from Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt). Although species of the Culex subgenus Melanoconion accounted for only 45% of the mosquitoes collected, 85% of the virus isolations were made from this subgenus. Knowledge of the viruses that are being transmitted in the Amazon Basin region of Peru will enable the development of more effective diagnostic assays, more efficient and rapid diagnoses of clinical illnesses caused by these pathogens, risk analysis for military/civilian operations, and development of potential disease control measures. PMID:16366001

Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M L; Jones, J W; Sardelis, M R; Dohm, D J; Watts, D M; Fernandez, R; Travassos da Rosa, A; Guzman, H; Tesh, R; Rossi, C A; Ludwig, V; Mangiafico, J A; Kondig, J; Wasieloski, L P; Pecor, J; Zyzak, M; Schoeler, G; Mores, C N; Calampa, C; Lee, J S; Klein, T A

2005-09-01

130

Reptilian viruses: adenovirus-like agent isolated from royal python (Python regius).  

PubMed

An adenovirus-like agent was isolated from a moribund royal python (Python regius). The DNA containing virus replicated in IgH2-cells at 30 degrees C forming eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. The virus proved to be stabile to treatment with chloroform, pH3 und pH 12 but it was labile to heat (56 degrees C). Infected IgH2 cells revealed symmetric hexagonal virus particles measuring 67-79 nm in the nucleus. The isolate shared characteristics with the viruses of the family Adenoviridae. PMID:1337233

Ogawa, M; Ahne, W; Essbauer, S

1992-12-01

131

Characterization of two low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated in Hungary in 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza virus strains, A\\/mallard\\/Hungary\\/19616\\/07 (H3N8) and A\\/mute swan\\/Hungary\\/5973\\/07 (H7N7), isolated as part of the National Surveillance Program in Hungary, were fully sequenced and characterized. The two viruses showed the closest phylogenetic relationship regarding their acidic polymerase genes. The H7N7 Hungarian virus and some H5N2 influenza viruses isolated from Korean pigs appeared to have their basic

Zsófia Szeleczky; Ádám Bálint; Péter Gyarmati; Giorgi Metreveli; Ádám Dán; Krisztina Ursu; Sándor Belák; Béla Lomniczi; István Kiss

2010-01-01

132

Characterisation of influenza a viruses isolated from turkeys in england during March?May 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the early spring of 1979 turkeys on at least twelve sites in England became infected with influenza A viruses. On five of these sites no virus was isolated but birds were shown to have antibodies to Havl (four sites) and Hav2 antigenic subtypes of influenza A viruses. The eight viruses isolated were typed:A\\/turkey\\/England\\/192–328\\/79 (Havl Nav2\\/3), A\\/turkey\\/England\\/192–329\\/79 (Hav1 N2), A\\/turkey\\/England\\/199\\/79

D. J. Alexander; D. Spackman

1981-01-01

133

Isolation of simian virus 40-transformed inbred hamster cell lines heterogeneous for virus induction by chemicals or radiation. [UV and gamma radiation, BUDR, mitomycin C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloned cell lines have been isolated after simian virus 40 (SV40) transformation of kidney cells of an inbred hamster strain. Considerable heterogeneity for the induction of infectious virus was observed between the lines, ranging from the spontaneous production of infectious virus to nonproducer characteristics. In spite of their differences in virus inducibility, all the clones were found to contain equivalent

J. C. Kaplan; S. M. Wilbert; J. J. Collins; T. Rakusanova; G. B. Zamansky; P. H. Black

1975-01-01

134

Recombinant virus assay: a rapid, phenotypic assay for assessment of drug susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates.  

PubMed Central

Antiviral drug susceptibility assays for clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates are required to monitor the development of drug resistance during clinical trials and antiretroviral drug therapy. First-generation phenotypic assays possess a number of drawbacks, not least the selection of unrepresentative virus populations during cocultivation. Here we describe a rapid phenotypic assay for the assessment of the susceptibility of clinical isolates to reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors. This procedure, called the recombinant virus assay, allows the generation of viable virus by homologous recombination of a PCR-derived pool of RT coding sequences into an RT-deleted, noninfectious proviral clone, pHIV delta BstEII. A nested PCR procedure has been optimized to allow the amplification of an RT pool from both uncultured and cocultured infected patient peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) DNA for subsequent use in the creation of recombinant viruses. Analysis of two patients during the course of zidovudine therapy showed that this approach produced viruses which accurately exhibited the same genotype and phenotype as that of the original infected PBL DNA. The recombinant virus assay can be performed in approximately 3 weeks without the use of donor PBLs and therefore represents a rapid, nonselective procedure for the assay of clinical isolates. Images

Kellam, P; Larder, B A

1994-01-01

135

Emergence of a new arbovirus disease in Brazil. I. Isolation and characterization of the etiologic agent, Rocio virus.  

PubMed

In April, 1975, an epidemic of human encephalitis was detected in several counties in the State of Săo Paulo, Brazil; the epidemic continued into 1976. A virus was isolated from central nervous system (CNS) tissues of a 39-year-old male who died on December 8, 1975; the virus was found to be a new flavivirus for which the name Rocio virus is proposed. Nine further isolations of Rocio virus were obtained from CNS tissues of 17 patients who died with clinical symptoms of encephalitis. Isolations of virus and serologic evidence of Rocio virus infection in a significant proportion of the encephalitis patients suggested that Rocio virus was the etiologic agent of the epidemic. Rocio virus was isolated only from patients who died within 5 days of onset of illness. The virus was isolated from two sentinel mice exposed in the epidemic zone and from a rufous collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) collected in the area. PMID:665659

de Souza Lopes, O; Coimbra, T L; de Abreu Sacchetta, L; Calisher, C H

1978-05-01

136

Molecular characterization of a severe isolate of papaya ringspot virus in Mexico and its relationship with other isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virus most often reported in papaya (Carica papaya L.) is papaya ringspot (PRSV). The aim of this work was the molecular genomic characterization of a Mexican severe isolate\\u000a of PRSV-P “Mex-VrPO” (isolate from the State of Veracruz in Paso de Ovejas) as well as its comparison with other isolates\\u000a from other world regions. The linear, assembled, single-strand positive sense

Juan Carlos Noa-Carrazana; Diego González-de-León; Laura Silva-Rosales

2007-01-01

137

Comparison of methods for isolation and titration of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.  

PubMed Central

The fluorescence focus assay and the plaque assay in CER cells were compared with mouse inoculation for the isolation and titration of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. The fluorescence focus assay and the plaque assay were of similar sensitivity, but both produced 10- to 100-fold lower titers than did mouse inoculation. For specimens from 26 Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever patients in South Africa, virus was isolated from 20 by mouse inoculation and from only 11 by cell culturing. Although cell cultures were less sensitive for the isolation of virus from clinical specimens, they produced diagnostic results much more rapidly.

Shepherd, A J; Swanepoel, R; Leman, P A; Shepherd, S P

1986-01-01

138

Pathogenicity and immunogenicity in chickens of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from wild ducks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) isolated from wild ducks in Japan were evaluated for their biological activities, pathogenicity and immunogenicity against one-day-old chickens. One isolate was of the mesogenic type and the other two were of the lentogenic type for chicken. The lentogenic isolates could induce enough immunity in chickens to protect them from challenge with a virulent strain

M. Kawamura; T. Mikami; H. Kodama; H. Izawa

1987-01-01

139

Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E virus isolates from India (1976-1993)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen Indian hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates, representing epidemic and sporadic hepatitis E cases during 1976-1991, were sequenced in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) region. Five isolates were also sequenced in the non-structural hypervariable region of open reading frame 1. Open reading frames 2 and 3 were sequenced only for the prototype isolate. On the basis of the comparison of all

V. A. Arankalle; S. Paranjape; S. U. Emerson; R. H. Purcell; A. M. Walimbe

140

The nucleotide sequence of a Polish isolate of Tomato torrado virus.  

PubMed

A new virus was isolated from greenhouse tomato plants showing symptoms of leaf and apex necrosis in Wielkopolska province in Poland in 2003. The observed symptoms and the virus morphology resembled viruses previously reported in Spain called Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) and that in Mexico called Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV). The complete genome of a Polish isolate Wal'03 was determined using RT-PCR amplification using oligonucleotide primers developed against the ToTV sequences deposited in Genbank, followed by cloning, sequencing, and comparison with the sequence of the type isolate. Phylogenetic analyses, performed on the basis of fragments of polyproteins sequences, established the relationship of Polish isolate Wal'03 with Spanish ToTV and Mexican ToMarV, as well as with other viruses from Sequivirus, Sadwavirus, and Cheravirus genera, reported to be the most similar to the new tomato viruses. Wal'03 genome strands has the same organization and very high homology with the ToTV type isolate, showing only some nucleotide and deduced amino acid changes, in contrast to ToMarV, which was significantly different. The phylogenetic tree clustered aforementioned viruses to the same group, indicating that they have a common origin. PMID:18781383

Budziszewska, Marta; Obrepalska-Steplowska, Aleksandra; Wieczorek, Przemys?aw; Pospieszny, Henryk

2008-12-01

141

[Phylogenetic analysis of rabies viruses isolated from animals in Tokyo in the 1950s].  

PubMed

Molecular epidemiological analysis of 96 rabies viruses isolated from animals in Tokyo in the 1950s involves Japanese fixed virus, Komatsugawa, Takamen, and Nishigahara strains. Strains isolated in Tokyo were divided into Tokyo 1 and Tokyo 2, and grouped into a worldwide distribution cluster differing from Takamen and Nishigahara. Tokyo 1 was grouped into the same cluster as viruses isolated from United States west coast dogs in the 1930s and 1940s. Tokyo 2 was grouped into the same cluster as the Komatsugawa strain, also known as a cluster of viruses from the Khabarovsk raccoon dog, and the Lake Baikal stepped fox in Russia. These findings suggest that 1950s Tokyo rabies viruses were related to those in Russia and the USA. PMID:21706842

Hatakeyama, Kaoru; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

2011-05-01

142

Molecular characterization of the complete genome of a street rabies virus isolated in China.  

PubMed

In this study, the complete genomic sequence of a rabies virus isolate HN10, recovered from brain tissue of a rabid patient in China, was determined. This is the first Chinese street isolate that has been fully characterized. The overall organization of this virus is typical of that observed for all other rabies viruses. Alignments of amino acid sequences of the phosphoprotein, glycoprotein and large protein of HN10 with those of other rabies viruses were used to examine the extent of conservation of known functional regions. Phylogenetic analysis using either the complete or partial genomic sequence of HN10 determined that this isolate is most closely associated with viruses previously shown to circulate in Guangxi and Hunan provinces. In addition, of all vaccine strains used for comparison, the attenuated Chinese vaccine strain CTN181 is most closely related to HN10. PMID:19463716

Ming, Pinggang; Du, Jialiang; Tang, Qing; Yan, Jiaxin; Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Li, Hao; Tao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Ying; Hu, Rongliang; Liang, Guodong

2009-07-01

143

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Viruses Isolated from Chimpanzees with Pathogenic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections  

PubMed Central

We have previously described the development of AIDS in a chimpanzee (C499) infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the subsequent pathogenic HIV-1 infection in another chimpanzee (C455) transfused with blood from C499 (F. J. Novembre et al., J. Virol. 71:4086–4091, 1997). In the present study, two virus isolates were derived from these animals: HIV-1JC from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of C499, and HIV-1NC from plasma of C455. These virus isolates were used to generate two infectious molecular clones, termed HIV-1JC16 and HIV-1NC7 (JC16 and NC7, respectively). Comparative analyses of the sequences of the two clones showed that they were highly interrelated but distinct. Based on heteroduplex mobility assays, JC16 and NC7 appear to represent dominant viruses in the uncloned stock population. Compared with amino acid sequences of the parental viruses HIV-1SF2, HIV-1LAV-1b, and HIV-1NDK, JC16 and NC7 showed a number of differences, including insertions, deletions, and point mutations spread throughout the genome. However, insertion/deletion footprints in several genes of both JC16 and NC7 suggested that recombination between SF2 and LAV-1b could have occurred, possibly contributing to the generation of a pathogenic virus. Comparative in vitro analyses of the molecular clones and the uncloned stocks of HIV-1JC and HIV-1NC revealed that these viruses had strikingly similar replicative abilities in mitogen-stimulated PBMC and in macrophages. Compared to the SF2 and LAV-1b isolates of HIV-1, HIV-1JC and HIV-1NC isolates were more similar to LAV-1b with respect to the ability to replicate in mitogen-stimulated PBMC and macrophages. These viruses should prove to be useful in mapping determinants of pathogenesis.

Mwaengo, Dufton M.; Novembre, Francis J.

1998-01-01

144

Use of muscovy duck embryo fibroblasts for the isolation of viruses from wild birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Techniques are described for the preparation, cryopreservation, and inoculation of Muscovy duck embryo cell cultures. The procedure yields a susceptible reproducible cell culture system for the isolation and cultivation of viruses from wild birds.

Douglas E. Docherty; Paul G. Slota

1988-01-01

145

Isolation and characterization of a RNA-virus like particle from Candida curvata.  

PubMed

A virus-like particle (VLP) of 35 nm diameter has been isolated from the lipolytic yeast Candida curvata. The VLP contains a linear, double stranded RNA molecule of 1.55 microns in length. PMID:2357491

Matte, O; Chabalier, C; Ratomahenina, R; Bossy, J P; Galzy, P

1990-01-01

146

Isolation of a Mutant of Cowpea Mosaic Virus which is Unable to Grow in Cowpeas  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Following nitrous acid mutagenesis of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) virion RNA, a mutant has been isolated which is able to grow in Phaseolus vulgaris but is unable to grow in the 'Early Red' or 'Blackeye Early Ramshorn' varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Dot blot analysis failed to detect virus-specific RNA in 'Blackeye Early Ramshorn' plants which had been inoculated

DAVID EVANS

1985-01-01

147

Isolation and Serologic Studies of Japanese Encephalitis Virus from Snakes in Korea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In studies designed to investigate the role of snakes in the ecology of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus in Korea, 747 snakes representing 4 different species were collected during 1966 and 1967. Two strains of JE virus were isolated from the snakes, E. r...

B. W. Min H. W. Lee Y. W. Lim

1972-01-01

148

West Nile Virus Isolates from Mosquitoes in New York and New Jersey, 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of encephalitis due to West Nile (WN) virus occurred in New York City and the surrounding areas during 1999. Mosquitoes were collected as part of a comprehensive surveillance program implemented to monitor the outbreak. More than 32,000 mosquitoes representing 24 species were tested, and 15 WN virus isolates were obtained. Molecular techniques were used to identify the species

Roger Nasci; Dennis J. White; Helen Stirling; JoAnne Oliver; Thomas J. Daniels; Richard C. Falco; Scott Campbell; Wayne J. Crans; Harry M. Savage; Robert S. Lanciotti; Chester G. Moore; Marvin S. Godsey; Kristy L. Gottfried; Carl J. Mitchell

2001-01-01

149

Paramaribo virus. Properties of a group A arbovirus isolated from human blood in Surinam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The isolation of a group A arbovirus (Paramaribo virus) from the blood of an adult male in Surinam is reported. The virus is pathogenic for both suckling mice and weaned mice following either intracerebral or peripheral inoculation, for hamsters, rats and suckling-guinea pigs. It multiplies in embryonated eggs and produces a distinct cytopathic effect in mouse embryo cell cultures.

D. Metselaar; J. D. Verlinde; J. Versteeg

1964-01-01

150

Biological and molecular characterisation of Coimbatore isolate of Papaya ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed investigation was carried out on the Coimbatore isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) with regard to its transmission, host range and physical properties. Molecular diagnostic tools were also used to detect the virus. Symptoms of papaya ringspot disease included mottling, chlorophyll lobing, filiformity and oily streaks on stem which appeared within 18–22 days of mechanical inoculation. The dilution

S. Dhanam; K. Saveetha; A. Sankaralingam; R. Kannan; R. P. Pant

2011-01-01

151

Characterization of an H10N8 influenza virus isolated from Dongting lake wetland  

PubMed Central

Background Wild birds, especially those in wetlands and aquatic environments, are considered to be natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses. It is accepted that water is an important component in the transmission cycle of avian influenza virus. Monitoring the water at aggregation and breeding sites of migratory waterfowl, mainly wetland, is very important for early detection of avian influenza virus. The epidemiology investigation of avian influenza virus was performed in Dongting lake wetland which is an international important wetland. Results An H10N8 influenza virus was isolated from Dongting Lake wetland in 2007. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the virus was generated by multiple gene segment reassortment. The isolate was lowly pathogenic for chickens. However, it replicated efficiently in the mouse lung without prior adaptation, and the virulence to mice increased rapidly during adaptation in mouse lung. Sequence analysis of the genome of viruses from different passages showed that multiple amino acid changes were involved in the adaptation of the isolates to mice. Conclusions The water might be an important component in the transmission cycle of avian influenza virus, and other subtypes of avian influenza viruses (other than H5, H7 and H9) might evolve to pose a potential threat to mammals and even humans.

2011-01-01

152

Complete genome sequences of two waterfowl-origin tembusu virus strains isolated in shandong province, china.  

PubMed

Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two tembusu virus strains, ZC-1 and LQ-1, isolated from ducks and geese, respectively, in 2012. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the two strains are closely related to those of the TMUV isolates around Shandong province. The full-length genome sequences of two waterfowl-origin TMUVs provided herein will help to understand the molecular epidemiology of tembusu virus in China, which deserves further investigation. PMID:24356821

Chen, Hao; Liu, Xin; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Ti, Jinfeng; Gao, Xuhui; Diao, Youxiang

2013-01-01

153

Studies on antigenic and genomic properties of Brazilian rabies virus isolates.  

PubMed

Despite the recognized stability of rabies virus, differences among isolates from different species have been found. This work was carried out with the aim to identify antigenic and genomic differences in Brazilian rabies virus isolates and to verify whether such alterations would bear any relationship with the different hosts for the virus in nature. For that, 79 Brazilian rabies viruses isolated from different host species and from distinct regions within Brazil were submitted to antigenic characterization with a panel of 11 monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) directed to lyssavirus antigens and to genomic analyses by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of the N gene followed by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA). In addition, the nucleotide sequences of part of the N gene (225 bp) of seven isolates, taken as representative of the majority of the viruses under study, were determined. The analyses with the Mabs and RT-PCR/REA allowed the identification of two major groups of variants, the first formed by most isolates of cattle and bats and the second formed by viruses of dog origin. Partial sequencing of the N gene confirmed the similarity among isolates from cattle origin and those of vampire bats. However, viruses from non-haematophagous bats exhibited consistent differences from those of vampire bat isolates. Such findings suggest that the variants have evolved fairly stable modifications, which are not altered after passage in a dead-end host of a distinct species. No association could be established between antigenic or genomic alterations and geographic distribution of the isolates, which suggests that evolution of the virus has been directed to adaptation to the host species. PMID:15863275

Schaefer, R; Batista, H B R; Franco, A C; Rijsewijk, F A M; Roehe, P M

2005-05-20

154

Genetic analysis of influenza B viruses isolated in Uganda during the 2009-2010 seasons  

PubMed Central

Background Influenza B viruses can cause morbidity and mortality in humans but due to the lack of an animal reservoir are not associated with pandemics. Because of this, there is relatively limited genetic sequences available for influenza B viruses, especially from developing countries. Complete genome analysis of one influenza B virus and several gene segments of other influenza B viruses isolated from Uganda from May 2009 through December 2010 was therefore undertaken in this study. Methods Samples were collected from patients showing influenza like illness and screened for influenza A and B by PCR. Influenza B viruses were isolated on Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells and selected isolates were subsequently sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Findings Of the 2,089 samples collected during the period, 292 were positive by PCR for influenza A or B; 12.3% of the PCR positives were influenza B. Thirty influenza B viruses were recovered and of these 25 that grew well consistently on subculture were subjected to further analysis. All the isolates belonged to the B/Victoria-lineage as identified by hemagglutination inhibition assay and genetic analysis except one isolate that grouped with the B-Yamagata-lineage. The Ugandan B/Victoria-lineage isolates grouped in clade 1 which was defined by the N75K, N165K and S172P substitutions in hemagglutinin (HA) protein clustered together with the B/Brisbane/60/2008 vaccine strain. The Yamagata-like Ugandan strain, B/Uganda/MUWRP-053/2009, clustered with clade 3 Yamagata viruses such as B/Bangladesh/3333/2007 which is characterized by S150I and N166Y substitutions in HA. Conclusion In general there was limited variation among the Ugandan isolates but they were interestingly closer to viruses from West and North Africa than from neighboring Kenya. Our isolates closely matched the World Health Organization recommended vaccines for the seasons.

2013-01-01

155

Biochemical and biological characterization of four isolates of Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological and biochemical properties of four nuclear polyhedrosis virus isolates from beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, were investigated. The isolates originated from the United States (SeNPV?US), Thailand (SeNPV?TH) and from two locations in Spain (SeNPV?SP1 and SeNPV?SP2). Restriction endonuclease analysis of the viral genomes revealed limited restriction fragment length polymorphism and indicated that these viruses contained distinct, but closely related, genotypes

P. Caballero; D. Zuidema; J. M. Vlak

1992-01-01

156

Complete Genome Sequence of a Street Rabies Virus Isolated from a Rabid Dog in China  

PubMed Central

A rabies virus (RABV) was isolated from a dog in Anhui Province, China, in 2008. The virus was designated DRV-AH08. Its entire genome was sequenced and found to be closely related to RABV recently isolated in China and other Asian countries (homology of 87 to 98%) but distantly related to RABV in the “cosmopolitan” group (homology of 84 to 85%) in the clade I of RABV.

Yu, Fulai; Zhang, Guoqing; Xiao, Shaobo; Fang, Liurong; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Jiaxing; Chen, Huanchun

2012-01-01

157

Viruses isolated from Aedeomyia squamipennis mosquitoes collected in Panama, Ecuador, and Argentina: establishment of the Gamboa serogroup.  

PubMed

Twenty-four virus strains were isolated from Aedeomyia squamipennis mosquitoes collected in Ecuador. One additional strain each was isolated from this species from Panama and ARgentina. All 26 isolates were shown to be related serologically to prototype Gamboa virus, originally isolated from Ad. squamipennis mosquitoes collected in Panama. Antigenic comparisons of eight strains, including prototype Gamboa virus, indicated the existence of four distinct viruses. Neutralization tests with sera from a variety of mammalian and avian species from Argentina provided further evidence that Gamboa serogroup viruses are transmitted between Ad. squamipennis and birds. PMID:6111232

Calisher, C H; Lazuick, J S; Justines, G; Francy, D B; Monath, T P; Gutierrez, E; Sabattini, M S; Bowen, G S; Jakob, W L

1981-01-01

158

Generation of representative primary virus isolates from blood plasma after isolation of HIV1 with CD44 MicroBeads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of cell cultures with cell-free virus isolated from HIV-infected patients is notoriously difficult and results in\\u000a a loss of viral variation. Here, we describe viral sequences from PBMC, U87.CD4.CCR5 and U87.CD4.CXCR4 cell cultures and compare\\u000a them to those from blood plasma from 12 patients from whom virus particles were isolated using CD44 MicroBeads. In both PBMC\\u000a and U87.CD4.CCR5 cultures,

Marion Cornelissen; Edwin J. Heeregrave; Fokla Zorgdrager; Georgios Pollakis; William A. Paxton; Antoinette C. van der Kuyl

2010-01-01

159

Clinical isolates of dengue virus with distinctive susceptibility to nitric oxide radical induce differential gene responses in THP1 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, 10 clinical isolates of dengue virus were selected according to their susceptibility to the inhibitory effect of nitric oxide radical, NO. Five of them are nitric oxide-susceptible viruses while the other five are nitric oxide-resistant viruses. These isolates were investigated to identify genetic factors that are responsible for the different phenotypes. Due to the evidence showing

Sukathida Ubol; Takol Chareonsirisuthigul; Jitra Kasisith; Chonticha Klungthong

2008-01-01

160

Pathogenesis of Newcastle Disease in Vaccinated Chickens: Pathogenicity of Isolated Virus and Vaccine Effect on Challenge of Its Virus  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The pathogenicity of Newcastle disease (ND) virus, isolated from ND outbreak in vaccinated chickens, was evaluated through experiments. The pathogenicity indexes (mean death time (MDT); 58 hr, intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI); 1.7 and intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI); 2.51) indicated that the ND virus was velogenic. The ND virus caused lymphocytic necrosis in the spleen with fibrinous exudation and proliferation of macrophages, sinusoidal fibrin exudation in the liver, proliferation of macrophages in the lung, lymphocytic necrosis and depletion in the bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils and thymus, necrosis of bone marrow, tracheitis, conjunctivitis and necrosis of feather epithelial cells in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Immunohistochemically, ND virus antigens were seen in the lesions mentioned above. The ND virus could not induce the encephalitis and pancreatitis that were observed in the natural case of ND in vaccinated chickens. There was no clinical disease in vaccinated chickens after the challenge of the ND virus. In diluted ND vaccine experiments, chickens vaccinated with a high dilution of vaccine and then challenged with the ND virus showed clinical sign and mortality with pancreatic focal necrosis. Vaccine diluted with fresh tap water had no effect on protection against the challenge of the ND virus. This study suggests that improper vaccination may be involved in outbreaks of ND in vaccinated chickens.

NAKAMURA, Kikuyasu; ITO, Mitsuru; NAKAMURA, Toshiki; YAMAMOTO, Yu; YAMADA, Manabu; MASE, Masaji; IMAI, Kunitoshi

2013-01-01

161

Pathogenesis of Newcastle disease in vaccinated chickens: pathogenicity of isolated virus and vaccine effect on challenge of its virus.  

PubMed

The pathogenicity of Newcastle disease (ND) virus, isolated from ND outbreak in vaccinated chickens, was evaluated through experiments. The pathogenicity indexes (mean death time (MDT); 58 hr, intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI); 1.7 and intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI); 2.51) indicated that the ND virus was velogenic. The ND virus caused lymphocytic necrosis in the spleen with fibrinous exudation and proliferation of macrophages, sinusoidal fibrin exudation in the liver, proliferation of macrophages in the lung, lymphocytic necrosis and depletion in the bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils and thymus, necrosis of bone marrow, tracheitis, conjunctivitis and necrosis of feather epithelial cells in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Immunohistochemically, ND virus antigens were seen in the lesions mentioned above. The ND virus could not induce the encephalitis and pancreatitis that were observed in the natural case of ND in vaccinated chickens. There was no clinical disease in vaccinated chickens after the challenge of the ND virus. In diluted ND vaccine experiments, chickens vaccinated with a high dilution of vaccine and then challenged with the ND virus showed clinical sign and mortality with pancreatic focal necrosis. Vaccine diluted with fresh tap water had no effect on protection against the challenge of the ND virus. This study suggests that improper vaccination may be involved in outbreaks of ND in vaccinated chickens. PMID:23966012

Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Ito, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Yu; Yamada, Manabu; Mase, Masaji; Imai, Kunitoshi

2014-01-01

162

RNA interference inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of RNA interference to inhibit herpes simplex virus type-1 replication in vitro. For herpes simplex virus type-1 gene silencing, three different small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 gene (sequence si-UL 39-1, si-UL 39-2, and si-UL 39-3) were used, which encode the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, an essential enzyme for DNA synthesis. Herpes simplex virus type-1 was isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions from infected patients. All mucocutaneous lesions' samples were positive for herpes simplex virus type-1 by real-time PCR and by virus isolation; all herpes simplex virus type-1 from saliva samples were positive by real-time PCR and 50% were positive by virus isolation. The levels of herpes simplex virus type-1 DNA remaining after siRNA treatment were assessed by real-time PCR, whose results demonstrated that the effect of siRNAs on gene expression depends on siRNA concentration. The three siRNA sequences used were able to inhibit viral replication, assessed by real-time PCR and plaque assays and among them, the sequence si-UL 39-1 was the most effective. This sequence inhibited 99% of herpes simplex virus type-1 replication. The results demonstrate that silencing herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 expression by siRNAs effectively inhibits herpes simplex virus type-1 replication, suggesting that siRNA based antiviral strategy may be a potential therapeutic alternative. PMID:24835621

da Silva, Amanda Perse; Lopes, Juliana Freitas; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

2014-01-01

163

Influenza A (H15N4) virus isolation in Western Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

The rarely identified influenza A viruses of the H15 hemagglutinin subtype have been isolated exclusively in Australia. Here we report the isolation of an H15N4 influenza A virus (A/teal/Chany/7119/2008) in Western Siberia, Russia. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the internal genes of the A/teal/Chany/7119/2008 strain belong to the Eurasian clade and that the H15 and N4 genes were introduced into the gene pool of circulating endemic avian influenza viruses through reassortment events. PMID:23283950

Sivay, Mariya V; Baranovich, Tatiana; Marchenko, Vasiliy Y; Sharshov, Kirill A; Govorkova, Elena A; Shestopalov, Aleksander M; Webby, Richard J

2013-03-01

164

Influenza A (H15N4) Virus Isolation in Western Siberia, Russia  

PubMed Central

The rarely identified influenza A viruses of the H15 hemagglutinin subtype have been isolated exclusively in Australia. Here we report the isolation of an H15N4 influenza A virus (A/teal/Chany/7119/2008) in Western Siberia, Russia. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the internal genes of the A/teal/Chany/7119/2008 strain belong to the Eurasian clade and that the H15 and N4 genes were introduced into the gene pool of circulating endemic avian influenza viruses through reassortment events.

Sivay, Mariya V.; Baranovich, Tatiana; Marchenko, Vasiliy Y.; Sharshov, Kirill A.; Govorkova, Elena A.; Shestopalov, Aleksander M.

2013-01-01

165

Adenoviruses isolated from wild gorillas are closely related to human species C viruses.  

PubMed

We have isolated and cultured three distinct adenoviruses from wild gorillas. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the viruses with human adenovirus species C based on DNA polymerase, hexon, and E4ORF6 genes. The three wild gorilla adenoviruses clustered with the other species C captive gorilla adenoviruses, forming a branch separate from human and chimpanzee/bonobo adenoviruses. Animal sera to the three newly isolated viruses did not cross-neutralize, demonstrating serological distinctiveness. The human adenovirus 5 fiber knob blocked infection, suggesting use of the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor. These viruses may provide viral vectors with properties distinct from chimpanzee adenovirus and human adenovirus vectors. PMID:23806387

Duncan, McVey; Cranfield, Michael R; Torano, Holly; Kuete, Hubert M; Lee, Grace P; Glenn, Andrew; Bruder, Joseph T; Rangel, David; Brough, Douglas E; Gall, Jason G

2013-09-01

166

[Molecular characterization of aphthous fever virus isolated during the years 1993-1994 in Argentina].  

PubMed

Nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 structural protein have been used extensively as diagnostic and epidemiological tools for foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). In this report we have applied this methodology to the analysis of the VP1 coding sequence from FMDV strains isolated in Argentina during 1993-1994. The results demonstrated that the field isolates were related to the vaccine strains used at that time. However the involvement of the vaccine virus appeared to be different for outbreaks caused by FMD viruses type O or C. These data provide a database essential for determining the origin of new epizootics. PMID:11494760

König, G; Blanco, C; Feigelstock, D; Chimeno Zoth, S; Pereda, A; Palma, E L; Maradei, E; Piccone, M E

2001-01-01

167

Isolation and molecular characterization of canine distemper virus from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocular swabs from canine distemper virus (CDV) suspected live or brain tissue from dead dogs were tested for the presence\\u000a of CDV nucleoprotein (N) gene using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Partial “N” gene sequencing\\u000a of the RT-PCR-positive samples and the local vaccine virus revealed that the Ind\\/Andaman 01\\/07 virus was highly divergent\\u000a from the rest of the CDV

Rahul Mohanchandra Pawar; Gopal Dhinakar Raj; Vadivel Ponnuswamy Gopinath; Ardhanari Ashok; Angamuthu Raja

168

Complete Genome Sequence of Lymphocystis Disease Virus Isolated from China  

PubMed Central

Lymphocystis diseases in fish throughout the world have been extensively described. Here we report the complete genome sequence of lymphocystis disease virus isolated in China (LCDV-C), an LCDV isolated from cultured flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) with lymphocystis disease in China. The LCDV-C genome is 186,250 bp, with a base composition of 27.25% G+C. Computer-assisted analysis revealed 240 potential open reading frames (ORFs) and 176 nonoverlapping putative viral genes, which encode polypeptides ranging from 40 to 1,193 amino acids. The percent coding density is 67%, and the average length of each ORF is 702 bp. A search of the GenBank database using the 176 individual putative genes revealed 103 homologues to the corresponding ORFs of LCDV-1 and 73 potential genes that were not found in LCDV-1 and other iridoviruses. Among the 73 genes, there are 8 genes that contain conserved domains of cellular genes and 65 novel genes that do not show any significant homology with the sequences in public databases. Although a certain extent of similarity between putative gene products of LCDV-C and corresponding proteins of LCDV-1 was revealed, no colinearity was detected when their ORF arrangements and coding strategies were compared to each other, suggesting that a high degree of genetic rearrangements between them has occurred. And a large number of tandem and overlapping repeated sequences were observed in the LCDV-C genome. The deduced amino acid sequence of the major capsid protein (MCP) presents the highest identity to those of LCDV-1 and other iridoviruses among the LCDV-C gene products. Furthermore, a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the multiple alignments of nine MCP amino acid sequences. Interestingly, LCDV-C and LCDV-1 were clustered together, but their amino acid identity is much less than that in other clusters. The unexpected levels of divergence between their genomes in size, gene organization, and gene product identity suggest that LCDV-C and LCDV-1 shouldn't belong to a same species and that LCDV-C should be considered a species different from LCDV-1.

Zhang, Qi-Ya; Xiao, Feng; Xie, Jian; Li, Zheng-Qiu; Gui, Jian-Fang

2004-01-01

169

The complete sequence of the genomic RNA of an isolate of Lily virus X (genus Potexvirus).  

PubMed

The complete sequence of the genomic RNA of an isolate of Lily virus X (LVX) has been determined for the first time. The isolate from the Netherlands was 5823 nucleotide (nt) long excluding the 3'-poly(A) tail, making it the shortest reported potexvirus sequence. The 5'-non-coding region begins with GGAAAA like that of Scallion virus X (ScaVX) and some isolates of Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV), whereas those of other sequenced potexviruses probably all begin with GAAAA. The genome organisation was similar to that of other members of the genus except that a TGBp3-like region lacked a normal AUG start codon. A phylogenetic analysis based on the entire coding sequence showed that LVX was most closely related to Strawberry mild yellow edge virus and belonged in a subgroup of the genus that also contains CymMV, Narcissus mosaic virus, ScaVX, Pepino mosaic virus, Potato aucuba mosaic virus and White clover mosaic virus. PMID:15578239

Chen, J; Shi, Y-H; Adams, M J; Chen, J-P

2005-04-01

170

Epigallocatechin gallate inactivates clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

In the absence of a fully effective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine, topical microbicides represent an important strategy for preventing HSV transmission. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (molecular weight, 458.4) is the primary catechin in green tea. The present study shows that EGCG has greater anti-HSV activity than other green tea catechins and inactivates multiple clinical isolates of HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. EGCG reduced HSV-2 titers by >or=1,000-fold in 10 to 20 min and reduced HSV-1 titers by the same amount in 30 to 40 min. The anti-HSV activity of EGCG is due to a direct effect on the virion, and incubating Vero and CV1 cells with EGCG for 48 h prior to infection with HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively, does not reduce HSV production. Electron microscopic (EM) studies showed that purified virions exposed to EGCG were damaged, and EM immunogold labeling of the envelope glycoproteins gB and gD was significantly reduced following EGCG treatment while capsid protein labeling was unchanged. When purified HSV-1 envelope glycoproteins gB and gD were incubated with EGCG and then examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, lower-molecular-weight gB and gD bands decreased and new higher-molecular-weight bands appeared, indicating the EGCG-dependent production of macromolecular complexes. gB and gD are essential for HSV infectivity, and these results suggest that EGCG could inactivate HSV virions by binding to gB, gD, or another envelope glycoprotein. EGCG is stable in the pH range found in the vagina and appears to be a promising candidate for use in a microbicide to reduce HSV transmission. PMID:18195068

Isaacs, Charles E; Wen, Guang Y; Xu, Weimin; Jia, Jun Hua; Rohan, Lisa; Corbo, Christopher; Di Maggio, Vincenzo; Jenkins, Edmund C; Hillier, Sharon

2008-03-01

171

Epigallocatechin Gallate Inactivates Clinical Isolates of Herpes Simplex Virus?  

PubMed Central

In the absence of a fully effective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine, topical microbicides represent an important strategy for preventing HSV transmission. (?)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (molecular weight, 458.4) is the primary catechin in green tea. The present study shows that EGCG has greater anti-HSV activity than other green tea catechins and inactivates multiple clinical isolates of HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. EGCG reduced HSV-2 titers by ?1,000-fold in 10 to 20 min and reduced HSV-1 titers by the same amount in 30 to 40 min. The anti-HSV activity of EGCG is due to a direct effect on the virion, and incubating Vero and CV1 cells with EGCG for 48 h prior to infection with HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively, does not reduce HSV production. Electron microscopic (EM) studies showed that purified virions exposed to EGCG were damaged, and EM immunogold labeling of the envelope glycoproteins gB and gD was significantly reduced following EGCG treatment while capsid protein labeling was unchanged. When purified HSV-1 envelope glycoproteins gB and gD were incubated with EGCG and then examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, lower-molecular-weight gB and gD bands decreased and new higher-molecular-weight bands appeared, indicating the EGCG-dependent production of macromolecular complexes. gB and gD are essential for HSV infectivity, and these results suggest that EGCG could inactivate HSV virions by binding to gB, gD, or another envelope glycoprotein. EGCG is stable in the pH range found in the vagina and appears to be a promising candidate for use in a microbicide to reduce HSV transmission.

Isaacs, Charles E.; Wen, Guang Y.; Xu, Weimin; Jia, Jun Hua; Rohan, Lisa; Corbo, Christopher; Di Maggio, Vincenzo; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Hillier, Sharon

2008-01-01

172

Analysis of the fusion protein gene of Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Japan.  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequences of the fusion (F) protein gene of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) isolated in Japan from 1930 to 2007 (45 strains total) were determined and genetically analyzed. In the deduced amino acid sequences of fusion protein, the 5 potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites and 10 cysteine residues were all conserved in the NDV examined in this study. The major epitopes involved in virus neutralization are conserved in most of the NDV strains isolated in Japan except a few strains. By virus neutralization test, no major antigenic differences were observed among representative strains of each genotype in Japan. All chickens vaccinated with the B1 strain survived without clinical signs after challenge with 2 NDV strains isolated in Japan (velogenic strains, JP/Ibaraki/2000 and JP/Kagoshima/91), which possess amino acids substitutions involved in virus neutralization in the F protein gene. PMID:20736513

Mase, Masaji; Murayama, Kazunori; Karino, Ayako; Inoue, Toshikazu

2011-01-01

173

Characterization of Hawaiian isolates of Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) co-infecting Dendrobium orchid.  

PubMed

We report here the isolation and characterization of three distinct isolates of Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) co-infecting Dendrobium orchid in Hawaii. Isolates 1 and 2 were phylogenetically distinct from previously reported CymMV isolates. However, isolate 3 was highly similar to previously reported CymMV sequences and could be localised to CymMV subgroup A. Isolate 2 localised to CymMV subgroup B. Thus, we report here the first full-length CymMV subgroup B isolate. Isolate 1 represents a recombination event between isolates 2 and 3. Infectivity assays revealed that all three isolates are functional and individually infectious in both Dendrobium and indicator species. PMID:18458814

Vaughan, S P; Grisoni, M; Kumagai, M H; Kuehnle, A R

2008-01-01

174

Massilia virus, a novel Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) isolated from sandflies in the Mediterranean.  

PubMed

A new virus was isolated from three independent pools of Phlebotomus perniciosus sandflies (Diptera; Psychodidae) trapped in two regions of southeastern France, located 90 miles apart. Microscopic, antigenic and genetic analyses indicate that this novel virus belongs to the genus Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. The new virus is designated Massilia virus since the first isolate was obtained from sandflies collected in the suburban area of Marseille. The complete genome sequence was determined and used to compare the genetic and phylogenetic relationships of Massilia virus with other phleboviruses. Genetic and antigenic properties were employed to address whether or not Massilia virus should be considered a new species within the genus, or a member of a previously recognized species. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens, collected from local patients with central nervous system infections during the previous four-year period were tested for the presence of Massilia virus RNA, but gave negative results. In conclusion, Massilia virus is proposed as a member of the Sandfly fever Naples virus complex; its public health importance has yet to be determined. PMID:19055373

Charrel, Rémi N; Moureau, Grégory; Temmam, Sarah; Izri, Arezki; Marty, Pierre; Parola, Philippe; da Rosa, Amelia Travassos; Tesh, Robert B; de Lamballerie, Xavier

2009-10-01

175

Heterogeneity in Neutralization Sensitivities of Viruses Comprising the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVsmE660 Isolate and Vaccine Challenge Stock  

PubMed Central

The sooty mangabey-derived simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strain E660 (SIVsmE660) is a genetically heterogeneous, pathogenic isolate that is commonly used as a vaccine challenge strain in the nonhuman primate (NHP) model of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Though it is often employed to assess antibody-based vaccine strategies, its sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization has not been well characterized. Here, we utilize single-genome sequencing and infectivity assays to analyze the neutralization sensitivity of the uncloned SIVsmE660 isolate, individual viruses comprising the isolate, and transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses arising from low-dose mucosal inoculation of macaques with the isolate. We found that the SIVsmE660 isolate overall was highly sensitive to neutralization by SIV-infected macaque plasma samples (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] < 10?5) and monoclonal antibodies targeting V3 (IC50 < 0.01 ?g/ml), CD4-induced (IC50 < 0.1 ?g/ml), CD4 binding site (IC50 ? 1 ?g/ml), and V4 (IC50, ?5 ?g/ml) epitopes. In comparison, SIVmac251 and SIVmac239 were highly resistant to neutralization by these same antibodies. Differences in neutralization sensitivity between SIVsmE660 and SIVmac251/239 were not dependent on the cell type in which virus was produced or tested. These findings indicate that in comparison to SIVmac251/239 and primary HIV-1 viruses, SIVsmE660 generally exhibits substantially less masking of antigenically conserved Env epitopes. Interestingly, we identified a minor population of viruses (?10%) in both the SIVsmE660 isolate and T/F viruses arising from it that were substantially more resistant (>1,000-fold) to antibody neutralization and another fraction (?20%) that was intermediate in neutralization resistance. These findings may explain the variable natural history and variable protection afforded by heterologous Env-based vaccines in rhesus macaques challenged by high-dose versus low-dose SIVsmE660 inoculation regimens.

Lopker, Michael; Easlick, Juliet; Sterrett, Sarah; Decker, Julie M.; Barbian, Hannah; Learn, Gerald; Keele, Brandon F.; Robinson, James E.; Li, Hui; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Shaw, George M.

2013-01-01

176

[First isolation of quang binh-like virus from mosquitoes in China].  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate the distribution patterns of mosquito-borne viruses in Menghai County, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China and to provide evidence for the prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquito samples were collected using mosquito lamps. Viruses were isolated from the samples by cell culture, and the isolates were identified by RT-PCR. The genomes of isolates were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. In July 2012, a total of 1468 mosquitoes were captured in Daluo Town of Menghai County; they were divided into 32 pools, including Culex tritaeniorhynchus (28 pools, 1383 mosquitoes), Culex quinquefasciatus (2 pools, 66 mosquitoes), and Anopheles (2 pools, 19 mosquitoes). Golden hamster kidney cells (BHK-21) and Aedes albopictus cells (C6/36) were used for virus isolation. The results showed that C6/36 cells were susceptible to two isolates recovered from Culex tritaeniorhynchus (BNDL1205 and BNDL1227), with marked cytopathic effect (CPE) of cell fusion. By contrast, the two isolates could not cause CPE in BHK-21 cells. RT-PCR was performed for the two isolates using the flavivirus-specific primers FU2/cFD3, and a 800-bp amplicon was obtained from both of them. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the two isolates shared the same evolutionary branch with the Quang Binh virus (QBV) strain VN180, which had been isolated from Vietnam, with nucleotide sequence homologies of 83.4% and 82.9%, respectively. However, there existed relatively large differences in nucleotide sequence between them and other Culex flavivirus strains previously isolated in China and other regions. In light of the similarity between the two isolates and QBV, BNDL1205 and BNDL122 were referred to as Quang Binh-like virus, which were first reported in China. PMID:24772899

Feng, Yun; Li, Hong-Bin; Zhu, Jin; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Yang, Wei-Hong; Fan, Jian-Hua; Liang, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Hai-Lin

2014-01-01

177

Isolation of Feline Leukemia Virus from Clinical Specimens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Specimens obtained from feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-positive cats were examined for infectious FeLV. Feline leukemia virus was detected by a focus-forming assay and confirmed by florescent antibody. Techniques of sample processing were evaluated and adju...

V. S. Hinshaw H. F. Blank

1976-01-01

178

Type-A Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Free-Flying Ducks in California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From 6 October 1972 to 3 December 1972, 41 type-A influenza virus isolants were recovered from free-flying wild ducks, and seven isolants from domestic ducks in southern California. The type-specific antigen (ribonucleoprotein) was identified by the agar-...

D. C. Johnson F. Hayes J. S. Osborn R. D. Slemons

1973-01-01

179

Genetic Detection and Isolation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Kosovo, Yugoslavia  

PubMed Central

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (C-CHFV) strains were isolated from a fatal case and the attending physician in Kosovo, Yugoslavia. Early, rapid diagnosis of the disease was achieved by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The physician was successfully treated with oral ribavirin. These cases yielded the first genetically studied C-CHFV human isolates in the Balkans.

Bozovic, Bojana; Pavlidou, Vassiliki; Papadimitriou, Evangelia; Pelemis, Mijomir; Antoniadis, Aantonis

2002-01-01

180

In Vitro Phenotypic Susceptibility of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 Clinical Isolates to Protease Inhibitors?  

PubMed Central

We determine phenotypic susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) isolates to amprenavir, atazanavir, darunavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, and tipranavir. Saquinavir, lopinavir, and darunavir are potent against wild-type HIV-2 isolates and should be preferred as first-line options for HIV-2-infected patients. Other protease inhibitors are less active against HIV-2 than against HIV-1.

Desbois, Delphine; Roquebert, Benedicte; Peytavin, Gilles; Damond, Florence; Collin, Gilles; Benard, Antoine; Campa, Pauline; Matheron, Sophie; Chene, Genevieve; Brun-Vezinet, Francoise; Descamps, Diane

2008-01-01

181

Biological characterization and complete nucleotide sequence of a Tunisian isolate of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus.  

PubMed

During a survey conducted in October 2005, cucurbit leaf samples showing virus-like symptoms were collected from the major cucurbit-growing areas in Tunisia. DAS-ELISA showed the presence of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV, Potyvirus), detected for the first time in Tunisia, in samples from the region of Cap Bon (Northern Tunisia). MWMV isolate TN05-76 (MWMV-Tn) was characterized biologically and its full-length genome sequence was established. MWMV-Tn was found to have biological properties similar to those reported for the MWMV type strain from Morocco. Phylogenetic analysis including the comparison of complete amino-acid sequences of 42 potyviruses confirmed that MWMV-Tn is related (65% amino-acid sequence identity) to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolates but is a member of a distinct virus species. Sequence analysis on parts of the CP gene of MWMV isolates from different geographical origins revealed some geographic structure of MWMV variability, with three different clusters: one cluster including isolates from the Mediterranean region, a second including isolates from western and central Africa, and a third one including isolates from the southern part of Africa. A significant correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances between isolates. Isolates from countries in the Mediterranean region where MWMV has recently emerged (France, Spain, Portugal) have highly conserved sequences, suggesting that they may have a common and recent origin. MWMV from Sudan, a highly divergent variant, may be considered an evolutionary intermediate between MWMV and PRSV. PMID:17978887

Yakoubi, S; Desbiez, C; Fakhfakh, H; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Marrakchi, M; Lecoq, H

2008-01-01

182

Isolation and serological studies with infectious bursal disease viruses from fowl, turkeys and ducks: Demonstration of a second serotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation of a number of strains of infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus from fowl, turkeys and ducks is described. These isolates could be grouped into two serotypes using the neutralisation test. It is proposed that the cell culture adapted vaccine strain from fowl should be the prototype virus for serotype 1 and that the TY89 isolate from a turkey

J. B. McFerran; M. S. McNulty; E. R. McKillop; T. J. Connor; R. M. McCracken; D. S. Collins; G. M. Allan

1980-01-01

183

Complete Genome and Clinicopathological Characterization of a Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Isolate from South America  

PubMed Central

Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry, negatively affecting poultry production worldwide. The disease is caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) or avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1), a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Avulavirus, family Paramyxoviridae. Although all NDV isolates characterized to date belong to a single serotype of APMV-1, significant genetic diversity has been described between different NDV isolates. Here we present the complete genome sequence and the clinicopathological characterization of a virulent Newcastle disease virus isolate (NDV-Peru/08) obtained from poultry during an outbreak of ND in Peru in 2008. Phylogenetic reconstruction and analysis of the evolutionary distances between NDV-Peru/08 and other isolates representing established NDV genotypes revealed the existence of large genomic and amino differences that clearly distinguish this isolate from viruses of typical NDV genotypes. Although NDV-Peru/08 is a genetically distinct virus, pathogenesis studies conducted with chickens revealed that NDV-Peru/08 infection results in clinical signs characteristic of velogenic viscerotropic NDV strains. Additionally, vaccination studies have shown that an inactivated NDV-LaSota/46 vaccine conferred full protection from NDV-Peru/08-induced clinical disease and mortality. This represents the first complete characterization of a virulent NDV isolate from South America.

Diel, Diego G.; Susta, Leonardo; Cardenas Garcia, Stivalis; Killian, Mary L.; Brown, Corrie C.; Afonso, Claudio L.

2012-01-01

184

Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of a Dengue-1 virus isolated on Easter Island, Chile.  

PubMed

Dengue-1 viruses responsible for the dengue fever outbreak in Easter Island in 2002 were isolated from acute-phase sera of dengue fever patients. In order to analyze the complete genome sequence, we designed primers to amplify contiguous segments across the entire sequence of the viral genome. RT-PCR products obtained were cloned, and complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were determined. This report constitutes the first complete genetic characterization of a DENV-1 isolate from Chile. Phylogenetic analysis shows that an Easter Island isolate is most closely related to Pacific DENV-1 genotype IV viruses. PMID:18815724

Cáceres, C; Yung, V; Araya, P; Tognarelli, J; Villagra, E; Vera, L; Fernández, J

2008-01-01

185

Differentiation among isolates of prunus necrotic ringspot virus by transcript conformation polymorphism.  

PubMed

A method based on differences in electrophoretic mobility of RNA transcripts made from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products was used for differentiation among virus isolates. A T7 RNA polymerase promoter was attached to amplified prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) sequences by PCR. The PCR products then served as a template for transcription. Single-stranded transcripts originated from different PNRSV isolates varied in electrophoretic mobility in polyacrylamide gels, presumably because of transcript conformation polymorphism (TCP). This procedure was applied for the differentiation of PNRSV isolates. PMID:9763134

Rosner, A; Maslenin, L; Spiegel, S

1998-09-01

186

Characterization of West Nile Viruses Isolated from Captive American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice.

Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik

2012-01-01

187

Comparison of RT-PCR assay and virus isolation in cell culture for the detection of alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus.  

PubMed

Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) is an emerging flavivirus that was isolated originally from Saudi Arabia in 1994-1995. The main tests used for the detection of AHFV are the real time (rt) RT-PCR and virus isolation in cell culture. In the present study the detection of AHFV by rtRT-PCR was compared with virus isolation in BHK-21, HEp-2, and LLC-MK2 cell lines. AHFV suspensions grown in BHK-21, HEp-2, and LLC-MK2 cell lines were serially diluted 10-fold from 10(-1) to 10(-11) . Samples from each dilution were used to inoculate four cell culture tubes and were also examined by the rtRT-PCR for AHFV RNA. Fifteen non-inoculated cell culture samples (five from each cell line) were included blindly in both tests. Thus, a total of 132 AHFV-positive and 15 negative control samples were tested. The rtRT-PCR could detect the viral RNA in all diluted specimens up to and including the 10(-10) dilution (40 specimens for each cell line), whereas, cell cultures were positive in 70% of specimens for BHK-21, 65% for LLC-MK2, and 45% for HEp-2 at this dilution. None of the three cell cultures nor the rtRT-PCR was positive at 10(-11) dilution. The specificity and positive predictive values of virus isolation compared to rtRT-PCR were each 100%, whereas the negative predictive values were 29.4% for BHK-21, 26.3% for LLC-MK2, and 18.5% for HEp-2. In conclusion, the rtRT-PCR is more sensitive than virus isolation for detecting AHFV. J. Med. Virol. 86:1176-1180, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24249525

Madani, Tariq A; Abuelzein, El-Tayb M E; Azhar, Esam I; Al-Bar, Hussein M S; Abu-Araki, Huda; Ksiazek, Thomas G

2014-07-01

188

Variability in the coat protein gene of Papaya ringspot virus isolates from multiple locations in India.  

PubMed

The coat protein (CP) sequences of eleven Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolates originating from different locations in India were determined, analysed and compared with the sequences of other isolates of PRSV. The virus isolates from India exhibited considerable heterogeneity in the CP sequences. The CP-coding region varied in size from 840-858 nucleotides, encoding protein of 280-286 amino acids. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that the PRSV isolates originating from India were divergent up to 11%. Though the PRSV isolates were differentiated in to two clusters, yet the sequence variation could not be correlated with the geographical origin of the isolates. Implication of the sequence variation in the coat protein derived transgenic resistance in papaya is discussed. PMID:15338325

Jain, R K; Sharma, J; Sivakumar, A S; Sharma, P K; Byadgi, A S; Verma, A K; Varma, A

2004-12-01

189

New isolates of the necrotic strain of potato virus Y (PVY N ) found recently in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In comparison to the previously known isolates of potato virus YN (PVYN), some isolates found in Poland since 1984 are more infectious to potato plants, reach faster a higher concentration and\\u000a induce milder disease symptoms.\\u000a \\u000a Potato cultivars resistant to the standard type of PVYN may be susceptible to the new isolates whereas those that are extremely resistant to PVY remain

M. Chrzanowska

1991-01-01

190

Genetic heterogeneity among isolates of Ross River virus from different geographical regions.  

PubMed Central

The RNase T1 maps of 80 isolates of Ross River virus from different regions of mainland Australia and the Pacific Islands were compared. Four different clusters of isolates with greater than an estimated 5 to 6% diversity at the nucleotide level were found. There was a pattern of differences between eastern and western Australian strains; however, the pattern was disturbed by overlaps and incursants. Pacific Islands isolates belonged to the eastern Australian topotype. Our findings suggest that certain genetic types of Ross River virus predominate in different geographical regions. In contrast, populations of other important Australian arboviruses (Murray Valley encephalitis, Kunjin, and Sindbis viruses) are distributed across the Australian continent as minor variants of one strain. Our data also show that in one region, strains of Ross River virus with identical RNase T1 maps circulate during both years when epidemics occur and years when they do not. This finding suggests that Ross River virus epidemics are not dependent on the introduction or evolution of new strains of the virus. Two strains, belonging to the eastern Australian topotype, were isolated in Western Australia. It is likely that viremic humans or possibly domestic livestock travelling by aircraft were responsible for this movement. Images

Lindsay, M D; Coelen, R J; Mackenzie, J S

1993-01-01

191

Molecular characterization of Belgian pseudorabies virus isolates from domestic swine and wild boar.  

PubMed

Aujeszky's disease is an economically important disease in domestic swine caused by suid herpesvirus 1, also called pseudorabies virus (PRV). In several European countries, including Belgium, the virus has successfully been eradicated from the domestic swine population. The presence of PRV in the wild boar population however poses a risk for possible reintroduction of the virus into the domestic pig population. It is therefore important to assess the genetic relatedness between circulating strains and possible epidemiological links. In this study, nine historical Belgian domestic swine isolates that circulated before 1990 and five recent wild boar isolates obtained since 2006 from Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were genetically characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and phylogenetic analysis. While all wild boar isolates were characterized as type I RFLP genotypes, the RFLP patterns of the domestic swine isolates suggest that a shift from genotype I to genotype II might have occurred in the 1980s in the domestic population. By phylogenetic analysis, Belgian wild boar isolates belonging to both clade A and B were observed, while all domestic swine isolates clustered within clade A. The joint phylogenetic analysis of both wild boar and domestic swine strains showed that some isolates with identical sequences were present within both populations, raising the question whether these strains represent an increased risk for reintroduction of the virus into the domestic population. PMID:24908275

Verpoest, Sara; Cay, Ann Brigitte; De Regge, Nick

2014-08-01

192

Sequence characterization of Dasheen mosaic virus isolates from cocoyam in Nicaragua.  

PubMed

Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV) is an important constraint to production of cocoyam (Xanthosoma spp.) in Nicaragua. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the coat protein (CP) region from ten Nicaraguan DsMV isolates. These isolates showed high nucleotide identity to DsMV isolates from the USA, eastern Asia and Australasia. All Nicaraguan isolates except one shared a tandem repeat in the N-terminus of the CP. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Nicaraguan isolates formed two distinct subgroups correlated with geographic origin. This can be explained by different origins of the cocoyam genotypes grown in these regions. PMID:19034605

Reyes, Guillermo; Ramsell, Jon N E; Nyman, Marie; Kvarnheden, Anders

2009-01-01

193

An Outbreak of African Swine Fever in Nigeria: Virus Isolation and Molecular Characterization of the VP72 Gene of a First Isolate from West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation of 98\\/ASF\\/NG, a strain of African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) associated with a 1998 epizootic in Nigeria, is reported. This first isolate of the virus from West Africa was identified through a successful polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of a 280 base pair (bp) fragment of the Major Capsid Protein (VP72) gene. Further amplification and sequence

Solomon O. Odemuyiwa; Isaac A. Adebayo; Wim Ammerlaan; Adebowale T. P. Ajuwape; Olugbenga O. Alaka; Oluwaseyi I. Oyedele; Kamil O. Soyelu; David O. Olaleye; Ebenezer B. Otesile; Claude P. Muller

2000-01-01

194

Sunguru virus: a novel virus in the family Rhabdoviridae isolated from a chicken in north-western Uganda.  

PubMed

Sunguru virus (SUNV), a novel virus belonging to the highly diverse Rhabdoviridae family, was isolated from a domestic chicken in the district of Arua, Uganda, in 2011. This is the first documented isolation of a rhabdovirus from a chicken. SUNV is related to, but distinct from, Boteke virus and other members of the unclassified Sandjimba group. The genome is 11?056 nt in length and contains the five core rhabdovirus genes plus an additional C gene (within the ORF of a phosphoprotein gene) and a small hydrophobic protein (between the matrix and glycoprotein genes). Inoculation of vertebrate cells with SUNV resulted in significant viral growth, with a peak titre of 7.8 log10 p.f.u. ml(-1) observed in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Little to no growth was observed in invertebrate cells and in live mosquitoes, with Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes having a 47.4?% infection rate in the body but no dissemination of the virus to the salivary glands; this suggests that this novel virus is not arthropod borne as some other members of the family Rhabdoviridae. PMID:24718834

Ledermann, Jeremy P; Zeidner, Nord; Borland, Erin M; Mutebi, John-Paul; Lanciotti, Robert S; Miller, Barry R; Lutwama, Julius J; Tendo, Joseph M; Andama, Vincent; Powers, Ann M

2014-07-01

195

Comparison of monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus isolation for detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in goat tissues and secretions.  

PubMed Central

A monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA) was developed for specific detection of peste des petits ruminants virus. Compared with virus isolation in Vero cell cultures using 89 paired tissue and secretion samples from six experimentally infected goats, S-ELISA was significantly more sensitive (71.9% versus 65.2%; P < 0.05). The S-ELISA is a suitable alternative to virus isolation.

Saliki, J T; House, J A; Mebus, C A; Dubovi, E J

1994-01-01

196

Isolation and partial characterization of a novel virus from different carp species suffering gill necrosis - ultrastructure and morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Two isolates of a novel enveloped RNA virus were obtained from carp and koi carp with gill necrosis. Both isolates behaved identically and could be propagated in different cyprinid cell lines forming large syncytia. The virus was sensitive to lipid solvents and neither exhibited haemadsorption/haemagglutination nor reverse transcriptase activity. Mature virus particles displayed a spherical shape with diameter of 100-350 nm after negative staining and 100-300 nm in ultrathin sections, covered by short projections of 8-10 nm in length. Maturation of virus progeny was shown to occur by budding and envelopment of the filamentous helical nucleocapsids at the cell surface. A detailed comparison of ultrastructure and morphogenesis of the novel virus isolates with selected arena-, ortho- and paramyxoviruses as possible candidates for evaluation of taxonomic classification yielded no consistency in all phenotypic features. Thus, on the basis of ultrastructure the novel virus isolates could not be assigned unequivocally to any established virus family. PMID:23865968

Granzow, H; Fichtner, D; Schütze, H; Lenk, M; Dresenkamp, B; Nieper, H; Mettenleiter, T C

2014-06-01

197

Receptor specificity and erythrocyte binding preferences of avian influenza viruses isolated from India  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hemagglutination (HA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays are conventionally used for detection and identification of influenza viruses. HI assay is also used for detection of antibodies against influenza viruses. Primarily turkey or chicken erythrocytes [red blood cells (RBCs)] are used in these assays, as they are large, nucleated, and sediment fast, which makes it easy to determine the titer. Human influenza viruses agglutinate RBCs from chicken, human, and guinea pig, but not from horse. Human influenza viruses bind preferentially to sialic acid (SA) linked to galactose (Gal) by ? 2, 6 linkage (SA ? 2, 6-Gal), whereas avian influenza (AI) viruses bind preferentially to SA ? 2, 3-Gal linkages. With this background, the present study was undertaken to study erythrocyte binding preferences and receptor specificities of AI viruses isolated from India. Materials and methods A total of nine AI virus isolates (four subtypes) from India and three reference AI strains (three subtypes) were tested in HA and HI assays against mammalian and avian erythrocytes. The erythrocytes from turkey, chicken, goose, guinea pig and horse were used in the study. The receptor specificity determination assays were performed using goose and turkey RBCs. The amino acids present at 190 helix, 130 and 220 loops of the receptor-binding domain of the hemagglutinin protein were analyzed to correlate amino acid changes with the receptor specificity. Results All tested highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses reacted with all five types of RBCs in the HA assay; AI H9N2 and H5N2 viruses did not react with horse RBCs. For H5N1 viruses guinea pig and goose RBCs were best for both HA and HI assays. For H9N2 viruses, guinea pig, fowl and turkey RBCs were suitable. For other tested AI subtypes, avian and guinea pig RBCs were better. Eight isolates of H5N1, one H4N6 and one H7N1 virus showed preference to avian sialic acid receptors. Importantly, two isolates of HPAI H5N1, H9N2 and H11N1 viruses showed receptor specificity preference to both avian and mammalian sialic acid (?-2, 3 and ?-2, 6) receptors. Conclusions Use of different types of RBCs resulted in titer variations in HA and HI assays. This showed that RBCs giving optimum HA and HI titers would increase sensitivity of detection and would be more appropriate for identification and antigenic analysis of AI viruses. Analysis of 16 amino acids in the receptor-binding domain of the hemagglutinin of HPAI H5N1 viruses revealed that the only variation observed was in S221P amino acid position. Two H5N1 viruses showed S221P amino acid change, out of which only one H5N1 virus showed preference to ? 2, 6 sialic acid receptor. One H5N1 virus isolate with amino acid S at 221 position, showed preference to ? 2,3 as well as ? 2,6 sialic acid receptors. This indicated that factor(s) other than S221P mutation in the hemagglutinin are probably involved in determining receptor specificity of H5N1 viruses. This is the first report of receptor specificity and erythrocyte binding preferences of AI viruses from India.

2012-01-01

198

Molecular characterization and experimental host range of an isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus.  

PubMed

Partial genome segments of a begomovirus were previously amplified from Wissadula amplissima exhibiting yellow-mosaic and leaf-curl symptoms in the parish of St. Thomas, Jamaica and this isolate assigned to a tentative begomovirus species, Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus. To clone the complete genome of this isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus, abutting primers were designed to PCR amplify its full-length DNA-A and DNA-B components. Sequence analysis of the complete begomovirus genome obtained, confirmed that it belongs to a distinct begomovirus species and this isolate was named Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus-[Jamaica:Albion:2005] (WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05]). The genome of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is organized similar to that of other bipartite Western Hemisphere begomoviruses. Phylogenetic analyses placed the genome components of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] in the Abutilon mosaic virus clade and showed that the DNA-A component is most closely related to four begomovirus species from Cuba, Tobacco leaf curl Cuba virus, Tobacco leaf rugose virus, Tobacco mottle leaf curl virus, and Tomato yellow distortion leaf virus. The putative Rep-binding-site motif in the common region of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] was observed to be identical to that of Chino del tomate virus-Tomato [Mexico:Sinaloa:1983], Sida yellow mosaic Yucatan virus-[Mexico:Yucatan:2005], and Tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus-[Nicaragua:Santa Lucia], suggesting that WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is capable of forming viable pseudo-recombinants with these begomoviruses, but not with other members of the Abutilon mosaic virus clade. Biolistic inoculation of test plant species with partial dimers of the WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] DNA-A and DNA-B components showed that the virus was infectious to Nicotiana benthamiana and W. amplissima and the cultivated species Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). Infected W. amplissima plants developed symptoms similar to symptoms observed under field conditions, confirming that this virus is a causal agent of Wissadula yellow mosaic disease in W. amplissima. PMID:19768650

Collins, A M; Mujaddad-ur-Rehman, Malik; Brown, J K; Reddy, C; Wang, A; Fondong, V; Roye, M E

2009-12-01

199

Existence of variant strains Fowlpox virus integrated with Reticuloendotheliosis virus in its genome in field isolates in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Fowlpox virus (FPV) is one example of poultry viruses which undergoes recombination with Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). Trepidation had been raised, and it was well established on augmented pathogenicity of the FPV upon integration of the full intact REV. In this study, we therefore intended at assessing the integration of REV into FPV genome of the field isolates obtained in samples collected from different regions of Tanzania. DNA extraction of 85 samples (scabs) was performed, and FPV-specific PCR was done by the amplification of the highly conserved P4b gene. Evaluation of FPV-REV recombination was done to FPV-specific PCR positively identified samples by amplifying the env gene and REV long terminal repeats (5' LTR). A 578-bp PCR product was amplified from 43 samples. We are reporting for the first time in Tanzania the existence of variant stains of FPV integrated with REV in its genome as 65 % of FPV identified isolates were having full intact REV integration, 21 % had partial FPV-REV env gene integration and 5 % had partial 5' LTR integration. Despite of the fact that FPV-REV integrated stains prevailed, FPV-REV-free isolates (9 %) also existed. In view of the fact that full intact REV integration is connected with increased pathogenicity of FPV, its existence in the FPV genome of most field isolates could have played a role in increased endemic, sporadic and recurring outbreaks in selected areas in Tanzania. PMID:24557589

Mzula, Alexanda; Masola, Selemani N; Kasanga, Christopher J; Wambura, Philemon N

2014-06-01

200

New Genotype of Avian Influenza H5N1 Viruses Isolated from Tree Sparrows in China  

PubMed Central

The 2004 outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 disease in China led to a great poultry loss and society attention. A survey of avian influenza viruses was conducted on tree sparrows (Passer montanus) collected in China in 2004. Four viruses were isolated from free-living tree sparrows. The results of the whole-genome analysis indicated that an H5N1 virus with a new genotype is circulating among tree sparrows. The hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the new genotype were derived from Gs/Gd/96-like viruses and the nuclear protein gene descended from the 2001 genotype A H5N1 viruses, while the other inner genes originated from an unknown influenza virus. In experimental infection, all four viruses were highly pathogenic to chickens but not pathogenic to ducks or mice. The four tree sparrow viruses were different from the 2003 tree sparrow strain (genotype Z) in Hong Kong. The results suggested that H5N1 viruses might be distributed widely in tree sparrows.

Kou, Z.; Lei, F. M.; Yu, J.; Fan, Z. J.; Yin, Z. H.; Jia, C. X.; Xiong, K. J.; Sun, Y. H.; Zhang, X. W.; Wu, X. M.; Gao, X. B.; Li, T. X.

2005-01-01

201

Characterization of the Double-stranded RNA Isolated from Cowpea Mosaic Virus-infected Vigna Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A standard procedure for the isolation of virus specific double-stranded RNA from cowpea mosaic virus-infected Vigna leaves is described. The double stranded RNA is characterized by its buoyant density in caesium sulphate and its melting temperature (Tin). The buoyant density and the Tm are compared with those of other double-stranded RNA's on basis of their guanine + cytosine content.

L. J. L. D. van Griensven; A. van Kammen; G. Rezelman

1973-01-01

202

Virulence differences between monkeypox virus isolates from West Africa and the Congo basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies indicate that West African and Congo basin isolates of monkeypox virus (MPXV) are genetically distinct. Here, we show Congo basin MPXV-ZAI-V79 is more virulent for cynomolgus monkeys as compared to presumed West African MPXV-COP-58. This finding may explain the lack of case-fatalities in the U.S. 2003 monkeypox outbreak, which was caused by a West African virus. Virulence differences between

Nanhai Chen; Guiyun Li; M. Kathryn Liszewski; John P. Atkinson; Peter B. Jahrling; Zehua Feng; Jill Schriewer; Charles Buck; Chunlin Wang; Elliot J. Lefkowitz; Joseph J. Esposito; Tiara Harms; Inger K. Damon; Rachel L. Roper; Chris Upton; R. Mark L. Buller

2005-01-01

203

Isolation and identification of African horse sickness virus during an outbreak in Lagos, Nigeria.  

PubMed

An outbreak of African horse sickness involving two horse stables in Lagos, Nigeria, was investigated. Inoculation of blood from infected horses into suckling albino mice resulted in isolation of a virus which was identified as African horse sickness virus by the complement fixation test. The clinical, pathological and epizootiological findings (reported elsewhere) were consistent with African horse sickness. Potential threats of the epidemic to international horse trade are briefly highlighted. PMID:8219337

Oladosu, L A; Olayeye, O D; Baba, S S; Omilabu, S A

1993-09-01

204

Avian flu: Isolation of drug-resistant H5N1 virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The persistence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in many Asian countries and their ability to cause fatal infections in humans have raised serious concerns about a global flu pandemic. Here we report the isolation of an H5N1 virus from a Vietnamese girl that is resistant to the drug oseltamivir, which is an inhibitor of the viral enzyme neuraminidase and is

Q. Mai Le; Maki Kiso; Kazuhiko Someya; Yuko T. Sakai; T. Hien Nguyen; Khan H. L. Nguyen; N. Dinh Pham; Ha H. Ngyen; Shinya Yamada; Yukiko Muramoto; Taisuke Horimoto; Ayato Takada; Hideo Goto; Takashi Suzuki; Yasuo Suzuki; Yoshihiro Kawaoka

2005-01-01

205

Isolation of Multiple TT Virus Genotypes from Spleen Biopsy Tissue from a Hodgkin's Disease Patient: Genome Reorganization and Diversity in the Hypervariable Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the isolation of 24 novel genotypes of TT viruses from a surgically removed spleen of a patient with Hodgkin's disease. The sequence analysis of our 24 isolates revealed the remarkable heterogeneity of TT virus isolates not only from the same patient but also from the same biopsy material. These isolates belong to four phylogenetic groups of TT viruses.

Ilijas Jelcic; Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt; Andreas Hunziker; H. zur Hausen; E.-M. de Villiers

2004-01-01

206

[Genetic variability of isolates of pandemic influenza A virus H1N1 isolated in Russia in 2009].  

PubMed

Complete nucleotide sequence of the genome segments encoding the surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin, and neuraminidase of influenza A virus H1N1 derived from the patients with influenza in the context of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was determined out of 14 isolates of pandemic influenza. The philogenetic analysis of these sequences demonstrated their genetic similarity to the corresponding genes of the pandemic influenza virus A (H1N1) 2009 isolates obtained in other countries; each gene homology was greater than 99%. Neuraminidase mutations causing virus resistance to oseltamivir and other neuraminidase inhibitors, known from the literature, were not detected. The hemagglutinin gene mutation D222G was found in 4 isolates from autopsy material. In the hemagglutinin of pandemic A/Salekhard/01/2009(H1N1) isolate a mutation G155E leading to the increase in viral replication in developing chick embryos was detected. The nature and frequency of nucleotides substitutions within HA and NA genes were determined in the current research. PMID:22312897

Shikov, A N; Sementsova, A O; Demina, O K; Sergeev, A A; Berillo, S A; Sergeeva, E I; Vinokurova, A V; Ishenina, A V; Ternovo?, V A; Agafonov, A P; Drozdov, I G

2011-01-01

207

Yellow fever 17D vaccine virus isolated from healthy vaccinees accumulates very few mutations.  

PubMed

The live attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine strain 17D is one of the safest vaccines in use today with only 22 cases of reversion to virulence documented from over 300 million doses administered. We have isolated virus in cell culture from sera of six volunteers who received 17D vaccine and found that very few nucleotide mutations were detected in the consensus sequence of the entire genome of each of the serum viruses. Moreover, most of these mutations accumulated in the non-structural protein genes, especially the NS5 protein gene. Although no nucleotide change was identified in the structural protein genes of any of these six serum viruses, minor sequence heterogeneity existed in the serum virus population. Our results indicate that 17D vaccine virus accumulates mutations at a very low frequency and may explain in part the excellent safety record of 17D vaccine. PMID:9712515

Xie, H; Cass, A R; Barrett, A D

1998-05-01

208

[Antigenic determinants of human influenza viruses among the influenza viruses isolated from animals].  

PubMed

Comparative studies of the antigenic properties of hemagglutinin (HA) of animal and human viruses revealed both similarities between them and complete differences in the composition of antigenic determinants. Avian influenza viruses A/chicken/Kamchatka/12/71, A/pintail/Primorie/730/76, and A/bat/Alma-Ata/73/77 were completely identical with human strains of influenza virus. Influenza A/horse/Miami/63 contains one antigenic determinant H3.1.HA of A/tern/Turkmenia/18/73 (Hav7) viruses has a peculiar set of antigens. Apart from two antigenic determinants H3.1 and H3.3 inherent in human virus strains, HA of A/tern/Turkmenia/18/73 virus contains an antigenic determinant the population of antibodies to which shows no relation to HA of subtypes Hav2-Hav9. PMID:6186090

Isaeva, E I; Belkina, T S; Rovnova, Z I; Kosiakov, P N; Selivanov, Ia M

1982-01-01

209

Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus Stability in Environmental and Clinical Substrates: Implications for Virus Detection and Isolation  

PubMed Central

Viruses are extremely diverse and abundant and are present in countless environments. Giant viruses of the Megavirales order have emerged as a fascinating research topic for virologists around the world. As evidence of their ubiquity and ecological impact, mimiviruses have been found in multiple environmental samples. However, isolation of these viruses from environmental samples is inefficient, mainly due to methodological limitations and lack of information regarding the interactions between viruses and substrates. In this work, we demonstrate the long-lasting stability of mimivirus in environmental (freshwater and saline water) and hospital (ventilator plastic device tube) substrates, showing the detection of infectious particles after more than 9 months. In addition, an enrichment protocol was implemented that remarkably increased mimivirus detection from all tested substrates, including field tests. Moreover, biological, morphological and genetic tests revealed that the enrichment protocol maintained mimivirus particle integrity. In conclusion, our work demonstrated the stability of APMV in samples of environmental and health interest and proposed a reliable and easy protocol to improve giant virus isolation. The data presented here can guide future giant virus detection and isolation studies.

de Almeida, Gabriel M.; Campos, Rafael K.; Boratto, Paulo V. M.; Franco-Luiz, Ana P. M.; La Scola, Bernard; Ferreira, Paulo C. P.; Kroon, Erna G.; Abrahao, Jonatas S.

2014-01-01

210

Induction of brain tumors by a newly isolated JC virus (Tokyo-1 strain).  

PubMed Central

A newly isolated virus from a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) (Tokyo-1 strain) was found serologically identical to JC virus (Mad-1 strain) and showed high neurooncogenicity in hamsters. Twenty-one animals inoculated intracerebrally with the virus developed brain tumors during a period that averaged 5 months. The tumors were cerebellar medulloblastoma (n = 20); plexus tumor (n = 2) occurred in 1 animal as a single tumor and in another in combination with a medulloblastoma. Thalamic gliomatosis was also present in 6 animals with medulloblastoma. Five mock-infected animals did not develop tumors. Medulloblastoma cells were shown to contain papovavirus T-antigen. In 20 animals examined the medulloblastoma showed a close resemblance to the human medulloblastoma in its histologic, immunocytochemical, and ultrastructural features. Examination of the incipient tumors indicated that the hamster medulloblastoma originated in cells in the neonatal external granular layer. Following infection the cells apparently migrated into the internal granular layer, carrying integrated virus genes and expressing phenotypical transformation. These findings confirm previous reports on the oncogenicity of virus isolates from PML (ZuRhein and Varakis, 1979), but are novel in that with this new isolate tumors could be induced with comparatively low levels of virus inocula. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10

Nagashima, K.; Yasui, K.; Kimura, J.; Washizu, M.; Yamaguchi, K.; Mori, W.

1984-01-01

211

Isolation of a protein kinase induced by herpes simplex virus type 1  

SciTech Connect

Researchers have isolated a new cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase activity induced in HeLa cells by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Induction of the enzyme does not occur in cells treated with cycloheximide at the time of infection, or in cells infected with UV-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1. The amount of enzyme induced in infected cells is dependent upon the multiplicity of infection. An enzyme with identical properties to the appearing in infected HeLa cells is also induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 in BHK cells.

Blue, W.T.; Stobbs, D.G.

1981-04-01

212

Arbovirus investigations in Argentina, 1977-1980. II. Arthropod collections and virus isolations from Argentine mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Prospective surveys for arboviruses were carried out in Santa Fe, Corrientes, and Chaco provinces, Argentina, aperiodically during 1977-1980. A total of 313,233 mosquitoes and 598 biting flies other than mosquitoes were collected and tested for virus in 5,197 and 45 pools, respectively. Forty virus strains were isolated, all from mosquitoes, as follows: Santa Fe Province: 4 Gamboa group viruses from Aedeomyia squamipennis, 1 strain each of St. Louis encephalitis virus from Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Culex (Culex) spp.; Corrientes Province: a single strain of a newly discovered Anopheles A serogroup virus, Las Maloyas, from Anopheles albitarsis; and Chaco Province: 4 Gamboa group viruses from Ad. squamipennis, 6 strains of new Bunyaviridae (1 Antequera, 1 Barranqueras, and 4 Resistencia) from Culex (Melanoconion) delpontei, 3 strains of a new subtype of western equine encephalitis virus and 1 strain of Para virus from the Cx. (Mel.) ocossa group, 12 strains of a newly discovered subtype (VI) of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex from Cx. (Mel.) delpontei, and 1 strain each from Ad. squamipennis, Aedes scapularis, Ae. spp., Cx. (Cux.) spp., Cx. (Mel.) ocossa group, Mansonia spp., and Psorophora spp. Bloodmeals from 265 engorged mosquitoes were identified by precipitin test. These data, coupled with data on engorgement rates for 25,995 mosquitoes from bait collections, provide information on the host feeding patterns of several mosquito species. This information is discussed, along with data on relative abundance of mosquito species, within the context of the vector relationships of the species from which viruses were isolated. The association of Cx. (Mel.) delpontei with 18 strains of 4 different viruses in Chaco Province, plus its catholic feeding habits, clearly indicate for the first time the importance of this species as an arbovirus vector. PMID:2863989

Mitchell, C J; Monath, T P; Sabattini, M S; Cropp, C B; Daffner, J F; Calisher, C H; Jakob, W L; Christensen, H A

1985-09-01

213

Evolutionary Changes Affecting Rapid Identification of 2008 Newcastle Disease Viruses Isolated from Double-Crested Cormorants? †  

PubMed Central

A morbidity-mortality event involving virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) occurred in North America in the summer of 2008. All 22 viruses isolated from cormorants were positively identified by the USDA-validated real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay targeting the matrix gene. However, the USDA-validated reverse transcription-PCR assay targeting the fusion gene that is specific for virulent isolates identified only 1 of these 22 isolates. Additionally, several of these isolates have been sequenced, and this information was used to identify genomic changes that caused the failure of the test and to revisit the evolution of NDV in cormorants. The forward primer and fusion probe were redesigned from the 2008 cormorant isolate sequence, and the revised fusion gene test successfully identified all 22 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses using both the full fusion sequence and the partial 374-nucleotide sequence identified these isolates as genotype V, with their nearest ancestor being an earlier isolate collected from Nevada in 2005. Histopathological analysis of this ancestral strain revealed morphological changes in the brain consistent with that of the traditional mesogenic pathotypes in cormorants. Intracerebral pathogenicity assays indicated that each of these isolates is virulent with values of >0.7 but not more virulent than earlier isolates reported from Canada.

Rue, Cary A.; Susta, Leonardo; Brown, Corrie C.; Pasick, John M.; Swafford, Seth R.; Wolf, Paul C.; Killian, Mary Lea; Pedersen, Janice C.; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.

2010-01-01

214

Genetic characterization of H5N1 influenza A viruses isolated from zoo tigers in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H5N1 avian influenza virus outbreak among zoo tigers in mid-October 2004, with 45 animals dead, indicated that the avian influenza virus could cause lethal infection in a large mammalian species apart from humans. In this outbreak investigation, six H5N1 isolates were identified and two isolates (A\\/Tiger\\/Thailand\\/CU-T3\\/04 and A\\/Tiger\\/Thailand\\/CU-T7\\/04) were selected for whole genome analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the 8

Alongkorn Amonsin; Sunchai Payungporn; Apiradee Theamboonlers; Roongroje Thanawongnuwech; Sanipa Suradhat; Nuananong Pariyothorn; Rachod Tantilertcharoen; Sudarat Damrongwantanapokin; Chantanee Buranathai; Arunee Chaisingh; Thaweesak Songserm; Yong Poovorawan

2006-01-01

215

Isolation and characterization of a naturally occurring parainfluenza 3 virus variant.  

PubMed Central

A parainfluenza 3 virus variant which failed to react with parainfluenza 3 virus-specific monoclonal anti-bodies from two commercial sources was isolated from a 14-month-old boy. Analysis of the coding region of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene identified 36 nucleotide changes and 4 amino acid changes compared with a consensus sequence derived from strains isolated from 1957 through 1983. Two unique amino acid changes occurred at positions 174 and 283, which are close to identified epitopes in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein. Ongoing viral surveillance to detect variants is important, particularly in regard to vaccine development.

Swierkosz, E M; Erdman, D D; Bonnot, T; Schneiderheinze, C; Waner, J L

1995-01-01

216

Xi River virus, a new bat reovirus isolated in southern China.  

PubMed

Nelson Bay orthoreovirus (NBV) is a species in the genus Orthoreovirus, family Reoviridae, containing 4, possibly 5, members. Here, we report a putative sixth member, Xi River virus (XRV), isolated from fruit bats collected in a location near the Xi River, Guangdong Province, China. This virus showed the same electron microscopic morphology as NBV, fusogenic CPE, and a 10-segmented double-strand RNA genome, as well as high sequence identity to NBV members. It is the first bat reovirus isolated in China. PMID:20495835

Du, Linfeng; Lu, Zongji; Fan, Yu; Meng, Keyin; Jiang, Yu; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Shumin; Gu, Wanjun; Zou, Xiaohuan; Tu, Changchun

2010-08-01

217

Biological and molecular variability of lettuce mosaic virus isolates.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Lettuce mosaic potyvirus (LMV) causes severe disease of commercial lettuce crops. LMV isolates show wide biological variability, particularly in their ability to overcome the resistance genes described in Lactuca sativa. For a better understanding of the molecular interaction between lettuce and LMV, biological and molecular characterization of a collection of 10 LMV isolates known to differ in virulence or aggressiveness was performed. The ability of these isolates to overcome the resistance genes was reevaluated under standardized conditions. To study the molecular variability of LMV, an immunocapture-reverse transcription-poly-merase chain reaction technique, coupled with direct sequencing, was used to obtain nucleotide sequence data from three short regions of the LMV genome. Clustering analysis was performed and compared to the biological properties of the 10 isolates. Three groups of LMV isolates were discriminated based on the molecular data. These groups appear to correlate with the geographic origin of the isolates rather than with their pathogenicity. Sequence comparison with California isolates clearly showed that the California isolates are related to the western European isolates, raising the possibility of past exchanges of LMV between western Europe and California. PMID:18945118

Revers, F; Lot, H; Souche, S; Le Gall, O; Candresse, T; Dunez, J

1997-04-01

218

Complete Genome Sequence of a Wild-Type Measles Virus Isolated during the Spring 2013 Epidemic in Germany  

PubMed Central

Measles virus induces an acute disease with rash and fever. Despite ongoing vaccination and elimination campaigns, the measles virus still sustains long-lasting transmission chains in Europe. Here we report the complete genome sequence of a wild-type measles virus isolated from a patient in Munich (MVi/Muenchen.DEU/19.13[D8]) during a German measles outbreak in 2013.

Sparrer, Konstantin M. J.; Krebs, Stefan; Jager, Gundula; Santibanez, Sabine; Mankertz, Annette; Blum, Helmut

2014-01-01

219

Response of Ethiopian human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates to antiviral compounds.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates of 8 Ethiopian and 8 Swedish untreated AIDS-patients were examined for their sensitivity to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI) and leukocyte-derived interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha). No significant difference in drug sensitivity was found between Ethiopian and Swedish isolates, which all were sensitive to AZT, ddI and IFN-alpha except for one Swedish isolate. This isolate exhibited a mutation at amino acid position 215. These results suggest that it should be possible to perform clinical trials in Ethiopia using the same dose regimens as in Sweden. PMID:1281393

Wondimu, Z; Sönnerborg, A; Ayehunie, S; Britton, S; Strannegĺrd, O

1992-10-01

220

Differential Pathogenesis of Primary CCR5-Using Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates in Ex Vivo Human Lymphoid Tissue  

PubMed Central

In the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, CCR5-utilizing HIV type 1 (HIV-1) variants (R5), which typically transmit infection and dominate its early stages, persist in approximately half of the infected individuals (nonswitch virus patients), while in the other half (switch virus patients), viruses using CXCR4 (X4 or R5X4) emerge, leading to rapid disease progression. Here, we used a system of ex vivo tonsillar tissue to compare the pathogeneses of sequential primary R5 HIV-1 isolates from patients in these two categories. The absolute replicative capacities of HIV-1 isolates seemed to be controlled by tissue factors. In contrast, the replication level hierarchy among sequential isolates and the levels of CCR5+ CD4+ T-cell depletion caused by the R5 isolates seemed to be controlled by viral factors. R5 viruses isolated from nonswitch virus patients depleted more target cells than R5 viruses isolated from switch virus patients. The high depletion of CCR5+ cells by HIV-1 isolates from nonswitch virus patients may explain the steady decline of CD4+ T cells in patients with continuous dominance of R5 HIV-1. The level of R5 pathogenicity, as measured in ex vivo lymphoid tissue, may have a predictive value reflecting whether, in an infected individual, X4 HIV-1 will eventually dominate.

Karlsson, Ingrid; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Chen, Silvia Sihui; Karlsson, Anders; Albert, Jan; Fenyo, Eva Maria; Margolis, Leonid B.

2005-01-01

221

Differential pathogenesis of primary CCR5-using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates in ex vivo human lymphoid tissue.  

PubMed

In the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, CCR5-utilizing HIV type 1 (HIV-1) variants (R5), which typically transmit infection and dominate its early stages, persist in approximately half of the infected individuals (nonswitch virus patients), while in the other half (switch virus patients), viruses using CXCR4 (X4 or R5X4) emerge, leading to rapid disease progression. Here, we used a system of ex vivo tonsillar tissue to compare the pathogeneses of sequential primary R5 HIV-1 isolates from patients in these two categories. The absolute replicative capacities of HIV-1 isolates seemed to be controlled by tissue factors. In contrast, the replication level hierarchy among sequential isolates and the levels of CCR5(+) CD4(+) T-cell depletion caused by the R5 isolates seemed to be controlled by viral factors. R5 viruses isolated from nonswitch virus patients depleted more target cells than R5 viruses isolated from switch virus patients. The high depletion of CCR5(+) cells by HIV-1 isolates from nonswitch virus patients may explain the steady decline of CD4(+) T cells in patients with continuous dominance of R5 HIV-1. The level of R5 pathogenicity, as measured in ex vivo lymphoid tissue, may have a predictive value reflecting whether, in an infected individual, X4 HIV-1 will eventually dominate. PMID:16103166

Karlsson, Ingrid; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Chen, Silvia Sihui; Karlsson, Anders; Albert, Jan; Fenyö, Eva Maria; Margolis, Leonid B

2005-09-01

222

Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from northern pintail (Anas acuta) in Japan.  

PubMed

A field isolate of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from northern pintail (Anas acuta) in Tohoku district, northeast Japan, was characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein indicated that the isolate belonged to genotype I and was closely related to isolates from the Far East corresponded to the migration route for this bird species. The isolate had the typical avirulent cleavage site of the fusion protein (112)GKQGR*L(117). In addition, pathogenicity tests indicated the isolate to have avirulent characteristics. However, the isolate has been shown to cause fusion cytopathic effects and form plaques on chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) in the absence of trypsin. The present results suggest that the CEF-adapted NDV, which is avirulent, is circulating among waterfowl populations. PMID:18176032

Sakai, Kouji; Sakabe, Genki; Tani, Orie; Watanabe, Yuko; Jahangir, Alam; Nakamura, Masayuki; Takehara, Kazuaki

2007-12-01

223

Receptor-Binding and Oncogenic Properties of Polyoma Viruses Isolated from Feral Mice  

PubMed Central

Laboratory strains of the mouse polyoma virus differ markedly in their abilities to replicate and induce tumors in newborn mice. Major determinants of pathogenicity lie in the sialic binding pocket of the major capsid protein Vp1 and dictate receptor-binding properties of the virus. Substitutions at two sites in Vp1 define three prototype strains, which vary greatly in pathogenicity. These strains replicate in a limited fashion and induce few or no tumors, cause a disseminated infection leading to the development of multiple solid tumors, or replicate and spread acutely causing early death. This investigation was undertaken to determine the Vp1 type(s) of new virus isolates from naturally infected mice. Compared with laboratory strains, truly wild-type viruses are constrained with respect to their selectivity and avidity of binding to cell receptors. Fifteen of 15 new isolates carried the Vp1 type identical to that of highly tumorigenic laboratory strains. Upon injection into newborn laboratory mice, the new isolates induced a broad spectrum of tumors, including ones of epithelial as well as mesenchymal origin. Though invariant in their Vp1 coding sequences, these isolates showed considerable variation in their regulatory sequences. The common Vp1 type has two essential features: 1) failure to recognize “pseudoreceptors” with branched chain sialic acids binding to which would attenuate virus spread, and 2) maintenance of a hydrophobic contact with true receptors bearing a single sialic acid, which retards virus spread and avoids acute and potentially lethal infection of the host. Conservation of these receptor-binding properties under natural selection preserves the oncogenic potential of the virus. These findings emphasize the importance of immune protection of neonates under conditions of natural transmission.

Velupillai, Palanivel; Dahl, Jean; Telford, Samuel; Bronson, Roderick; Benjamin, Thomas

2007-01-01

224

Use of Ultrafiltration To Isolate Viruses from Seawater Which Are Pathogens of Marine Phytoplankton †  

PubMed Central

Viruses may be major structuring elements of phytoplankton communities and hence important regulators of nutrient and energy fluxes in aquatic environments. In order to ascertain whether viruses are potentially important in dictating phytoplankton community structure, it is essential to determine the extent to which representative phytoplankton taxa are susceptible to viral infection. We used a spiral ultrafiltration cartridge (30,000-molecular-weight cutoff) to concentrate viruses from seawater at efficiencies approaching 100%. Natural virus communities were concentrated from stations in the Gulf of Mexico, a barrier island pass, and a hypersaline lagoon (Laguna Madre) and added to cultures of potential phytoplankton hosts. By following changes in in vivo fluorescence over time, it was possible to isolate several viruses that were pathogens to a variety of marine phytoplankton, including a prasinophyte (Micromonas pusilla), a pennate diatom (likely a Navicula sp.), a centric diatom (of unknown taxa), and a chroococcoid cyanobacterium (a Synechococcus sp.). As well, we observed changes in fluorescence in cultures of a cryptophyte (a Rhodomonas sp.) and a chlorophyte (Nannochloropsis oculata) which were consistent with the presence of viral pathogens. Although pathogens were isolated from all stations, all the pathogens were not isolated from every station. Filterability studies on the viruses infecting M. pusilla and the Navicula sp. showed that the viruses were consistently infective after filtration through polycarbonate and glass-fiber filters but were affected by most other filter types. Establishment of phytoplankton-pathogen systems will be important in elucidating the effect that viruses have on primary producers in aquatic systems.

Suttle, Curtis A.; Chan, Amy M.; Cottrell, Matthew T.

1991-01-01

225

Genetic Characterization and Geographic Distribution of Rabies Virus Isolates in Brazil: Identification of Two Reservoirs, Dogs and Vampire Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed 50 rabies virus samples isolated in Brazil from 12 dogs, 11 cats, 5 vampire bats, 15 cattle, 2 horses, 1 pig, 1 sheep, and 3 humans to investigate the molecular epidemiology of rabies viruses. We sequenced 203 nucleotides on the nucleoprotein gene by direct sequencing of the PCR-amplified products. All the isolates belonged to the genotype 1 and

Mikako Ito; Yohko T. Arai; Takuya Itou; Takeo Sakai; Fumio H. Ito; Tomohiko Takasaki; Ichiro Kurane

2001-01-01

226

Biological and molecular variation of Iranian Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) isolates.  

PubMed

Seventeen provinces of Iran were surveyed during 2003-2012 to find Brassicaceae hosts of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). A total 397 samples were collected from plants with virus-like symptoms. Among those tested by ELISA, 255 samples (67.2 %) were found to be infected with CaMV. Mechanical transmission tests showed that the Iranian isolates have similar biological properties on a number of Brassica and Raphanus plant species and cultivars tested. However, the isolates varied in the severity of symptoms they induced and in the capacity to infect B. oleracea var. capitata, on the basis of which they were grouped into two distinct biotypes L/MMo (latent/mild mottle) and severe (S) infection. The molecular diversity of natural population of CaMV were investigated based on the complete sequences of OFR 6 of 36 Iranian isolates collected from different geographically distant regions in Iran alongside the sequences of 14 previously reported isolates. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Iranian CaMV isolates belong to two groups (GI and GII). Most of the Iranian isolates fell into GI with other exotic isolates; however, the isolates from North-East Iran with Xinjiang from China fell into GII. The phylogenetic group GII (the North-East Iranian isolates) closely corresponded to the S biological group however other Iranian isolates corresponded to the L/MMo biological group. The within-population diversity was lower than the between population diversity suggesting the contribution of a founder effect on diversification of CaMV isolates. The Iranian isolates were differentiated from other exotic CaMV isolates and clustered into two RFLP groups using Hpy99I which closely corresponded to the biological and phylogenetic groups. This study showed the evolutionary process in CaMV isolates is shaped by a combination of host range differentiation and nucleotide substitution using the approach of population genetics. PMID:23828619

Farzadfar, Shirin; Pourrahim, Reza

2013-10-01

227

'Kwanzan Stunting' syndrome: detection and molecular characterization of an Italian isolate of Little cherry virus 1.  

PubMed

Evident stunting was observed for the first time on Prunus serrulata 'Kwanzan' indicator trees in Southern Italy during the indexing of two sour cherry accessions from cultivars 'Marasca di Verona' and 'Spanska'. Bud break and shooting were delayed and the developing leaves remained small. During the third year many Kwanzan plants died, regardless of the indexed cultivar. Electrophoretic analysis showed the presence of dsRNA pattern in extracts of stunted Kwanzan with a similar size to that of viruses of the family Closteroviridae. An identical pattern of more abundant dsRNA bands was obtained from GF305 seedlings grafted with the same sour cherry accessions. Observations by electron microscopy revealed the presence of long flexuous virus particles in both indicators (Kwanzan and GF305), characteristic of closteroviruses. Subsequent cloning work, starting from the dsRNA extracts of cultivar Marasca di Verona grafted on GF305 indicator, yielded 7 different clones, all showing high identity to the Little cherry virus 1 genome. Full sequencing of this virus isolate (ITMAR) was then done resulting in a complete genome composed of 16,936nt. Primers designed on the obtained sequences for RT-PCR detection confirmed the presence of Little cherry virus 1 in Kwanzan and GF305 trees, inoculated with both sour cherry cultivars. Phylogenetic analysis of the minor coat protein grouped virus isolates into two clusters: one including Italian isolates of sweet cherry, Japanese plum, peach and almond, together with German sweet cherry UW1 isolate, and a second one containing the Italian isolates of sour cherry (ITMAR and ITSPA), that were found associated with strong symptoms of 'Kwanzan Stunting'. PMID:19463722

Matic, Slavica; Minafra, Angelantonio; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús A; Pallás, Vicente; Myrta, Arben; Martelli, Giovanni P

2009-07-01

228

Types of variation in DNA-A among isolates of East African cassava mosaic virus from Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete nucleotide sequences of the DNA-A-like molecules of three East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV) isolates from Kenya (-K, 2801 nt) and Malawi (-MH and -MK, both 2804 nt) were determined. These sequences were compared with that published for a Tanzanian isolate (-T, 2801 nt) and the partial sequence of a third Malawian isolate. Intergenic region sequences of all isolates,

Xueping Zhou; David J. Robinson; Bryan D. Harrison

229

Characterization, pathogenicity and neutralization studies of a nervous necrosis virus isolated from grouper, Epinephelus tauvina, in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virus isolated from diseased marine fish, Grouper, Epinephelus tauvina, was cultured in sea bass (SB) cell line, characterized and its pathogenicity and neutralization studies were carried out. This isolated virus is an icosahedral virus with a mean diameter of 28–30 nm and has buoyant density of 1.30–1.35 g\\/ml. It replicates exclusively in the cytoplasm and forms paracrystalline array and

A Hegde; C. L Chen; Q. W Qin; T. J Lam; Y. M Sin

2002-01-01

230

“Zaliv Terpeniya” virus, a new Uukuniemi group arbovirus isolated from ixodes (Ceratixodes) putus Pick.-Camb. 1878 on tyuleniy island (Sakhalin region) and Commodore islands (Kamchatsk region)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three virus strains isolated fromIxodes putus ticks were shown to be related to, though not identical, with Uukuniemi virus by complement-fixation tests. No antigenic relations were detected in the cross-neutralization test performed with the virus isolated and Uukuniemi virus. Two virus strains were isolated in 1969 on Tyuleniy island, Zaliv Terpeniya (Patience Bay) of the Sea of Okhotsk (Sakhalin

D. K. Lvov; A. A. TIMOPI-IEEVA; V. L. GROMASttEVSKI; G. V. GOSTINSIICIIIKOVA; O. V. Veselovskaya; V. I. Chervonski; K. B. Fomina; A. I. Gromov; A. G. Pogrebenko; V. Yu. Zhezmer

1973-01-01

231

Genetic analysis of two porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses with different virulence isolated in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The S1 and SY0608 strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were individually isolated and had\\u000a different pathogenicity in pigs in 1997 and 2006. In order to understand their genomic characteristics, the full-length genome\\u000a of S1 and SY0608 isolates were sequenced and analyzed. The results indicated that their genome composition differed significantly\\u000a and shared only 88.5% nucleotide identity

Yufeng Li; Xinglong Wang; Ping Jiang; Wen Chen; Xianwei Wang

2008-01-01

232

In vitro phenotypic susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 clinical isolates to protease inhibitors.  

PubMed

We determine phenotypic susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) isolates to amprenavir, atazanavir, darunavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, and tipranavir. Saquinavir, lopinavir, and darunavir are potent against wild-type HIV-2 isolates and should be preferred as first-line options for HIV-2-infected patients. Other protease inhibitors are less active against HIV-2 than against HIV-1. PMID:18227188

Desbois, Delphine; Roquebert, Bénédicte; Peytavin, Gilles; Damond, Florence; Collin, Gilles; Bénard, Antoine; Campa, Pauline; Matheron, Sophie; Chęne, Genevičve; Brun-Vézinet, Françoise; Descamps, Diane

2008-04-01

233

Coreceptor usage of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates varies according to biological phenotype.  

PubMed Central

The biological phenotype of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates varies according to the severity of the HIV infection. Here we show that the two previously described groups of rapid/high, syncytium-inducing (SI) and slow/low, non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) isolates are distinguished by their ability to utilize different chemokine receptors for entry into target cells. Recent studies have identified the C-X-C chemokine receptor CXCR4 (also named fusin or Lestr) and the C-C chemokine receptor CCR5 as the principal entry cofactors for T-cell-line-tropic and non-T-cell-line-tropic HIV-1, respectively. Using U87.CD4 glioma cell lines, stably expressing the chemokine receptor CCR1, CCR2b, CCR3, CCR5, or CXCR4, we have tested chemokine receptor specificity for a panel of genetically diverse envelope glycoprotein genes cloned from primary HIV-1 isolates and have found that receptor usage was closely associated with the biological phenotype of the virus isolate but not the genetic subtype. We have also analyzed a panel of 36 well-characterized primary HIV-1 isolates for syncytium induction and replication in the same series of cell lines. Infection by slow/low viruses was restricted to cells expressing CCR5, whereas rapid/high viruses could use a variety of chemokine receptors. In addition to the regular use of CXCR4, many rapid/high viruses used CCR5 and some also used CCR3 and CCR2b. Progressive HIV-1 infection is characterized by the emergence of viruses resistant to inhibition by beta-chemokines, which corresponded to changes in coreceptor usage. The broadening of the host range may even enable the use of uncharacterized coreceptors, in that two isolates from immunodeficient patients infected the parental U87.CD4 cell line lacking any engineered coreceptor. Two primary isolates with multiple coreceptor usage were shown to consist of mixed populations, one with a narrow host range using CCR5 only and the other with a broad host range using CCR3, CCR5, or CXCR4, similar to the original population. The results show that all 36 primary HIV-1 isolates induce syncytia, provided that target cells carry the particular coreceptor required by the virus.

Bjorndal, A; Deng, H; Jansson, M; Fiore, J R; Colognesi, C; Karlsson, A; Albert, J; Scarlatti, G; Littman, D R; Fenyo, E M

1997-01-01

234

Characterization of a Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza A Virus Isolated from Duck Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1997 H5N1 influenza virus outbreak in humans and poultry in Hong Kong, the emergence of closely related viruses in poultry has raised concerns that additional zoonotic transmissions of influenza viruses from poultry to humans may occur. In May 2001, an avian H5N1 influenza A virus was isolated from duck meat that had been imported to South Korea from

Terrence M. Tumpey; David L. Suarez; Laura E. L. Perkins; Dennis A. Senne; Jae-gil Lee; Youn-Jeong Lee; In-Pil Mo; Haan-Woo Sung; David E. Swayne

2002-01-01

235

Differences in the electrophoretic migration rates of polypeptides and RNAs of recent isolates of influenza B viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The electrophoretic migration rates of structural and non-structural poly-peptides of 38 influenza B viruses isolated in epidemics in 1978–1980 and antigenically closely related to B\\/Singapore\\/222\\/79 virus were compared using high resolution SDS polyacrylamide gels. Thirty of the viruses could be distinguished from the prototype B\\/Singapore\\/222\\/79 virus by electrophoretic migration rate differences in HA, 17 by differences in NP and

A. L. Hugentobler; G. C. Schild; J. S. Oxford

1981-01-01

236

Characterization of an H3N2 canine influenza virus isolated from Tibetan mastiffs in China.  

PubMed

Ten 3-month-old Tibetan mastiffs became ill 2 days after they were bought from a Tibetan mastiff exhibition, and 4 of them died 2 weeks later. A canine influenza virus (ZJ0110) was isolated from the lung of a deceased Tibetan mastiff and was characterized in detail. Sequence analysis indicated that the 8 genes of the canine isolate were most similar to those of avian-origin canine influenza viruses (H3N2) isolated in South Korea in 2007, with which they shared >98% sequence identity. ZJ0110 could experimentally infect 6-month-old beagles by intranasal inoculation and by airborne transmission, causing severe respiratory syndrome. Moreover, ZJ0110 could replicate in the upper respiratory tracts of mice and guinea pigs, and the virus titer was comparable to that in the upper respiratory tracts of dogs. Although the virus was genetically of avian origin, ZJ0110 could not experimentally infect chicken or ducks by intranasal inoculation. These results suggest that dogs might be an intermediary host in which avian influenza viruses adapt to replicate in mammals. PMID:23107656

Teng, Qiaoyang; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Dawei; Zhou, Jiewen; Dai, Xiaoguang; Chen, Zhaoguo; Li, Zejun

2013-03-23

237

Molecular characterization of low pathogenicity H7N3 avian influenza viruses isolated in Italy.  

PubMed

The complete coding regions of the surface glycoproteins, nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase 2 (PB2), and matrix (M) of A/turkey/214845/02 and A/turkey/220158/99 (H7N3) low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses isolated in October 2002 in Italy were amplified and sequenced to determine the epidemiologic relationships with an A/turkey/Italy/4603/99 (H7N1/4603/99) LPAI virus isolated during the 1999-2001 epizootic in Italy. The hemagglutinin (HA) of H7N3 viruses showed 97.8% nucleotide similarity with A/turkey/Italy/4603/99 (H7N1), and NP, M, and PB2 gene similarities were 93.6%, 98.2%, and 96.2%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of HA, PB2, and M genes showed that H7N3 and H7N1 viruses were closely related. Sequence analysis revealed a 23 amino acid deletion in the stalk of the neuraminidase of H7N3 viruses and a unique deletion of amino acid glycine in position 17 in the NP gene of H7N1 virus. PMID:15283425

Di Trani, L; Bedini, B; Cordioli, P; Muscillo, M; Vignolo, E; Moreno, A; Tollis, M

2004-01-01

238

Size Heterogeneity in the 3? Noncoding Region of South American Isolates of Yellow Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

The 3? noncoding region (3? NCR) of flaviviruses contains secondary and tertiary structures essential for virus replication. Previous studies of yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue virus have found that modifications to the 3? NCR are sometimes associated with attenuation in vertebrate and/or mosquito hosts. The 3? NCRs of 117 isolates of South American YFV have been examined, and major deletions and/or duplications of conserved RNA structures have been identified in several wild-type isolates. Nineteen isolates (designated YF-XL isolates) from Brazil, Trinidad, and Venezuela, dating from 1973 to 2001, exhibited a 216-nucleotide (nt) duplication, yielding a tandem repeat of conserved hairpin, stem-loop, dumbbell, and pseudoknot structures. YF-XL isolates were found exclusively within one subclade of South American genotype I YFV. One Brazilian isolate exhibited, in addition to the 216-nt duplication, a deletion of a 40-nt repeated hairpin (RYF) motif (YF-XL-?RYF). To investigate the biological significance of these 3? NCR rearrangements, YF-XL-?RYF and YF-XL isolates, as well as other South American YFV isolates, were evaluated for three phenotypes: growth kinetics in cell culture, neuroinvasiveness in suckling mice, and ability to replicate and produce disseminated infections in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. YF-XL-?RYF and YF-XL isolates showed growth kinetics and neuroinvasive characteristics comparable to those of typical South American YFV isolates, and mosquito infectivity trials demonstrated that both types of 3? NCR variants were capable of replication and dissemination in a laboratory-adapted colony of A. aegypti.

Bryant, Juliet E.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.; Rijnbrand, Rene C. A.; Mutebi, J. P.; Higgs, Stephen; Barrett, Alan D. T.

2005-01-01

239

Serotype and genotype diversity of infectious bronchitis viruses isolated during 1985-2008 in Guangxi, China.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of the hypervariable region I of S1 gene (HVR I) of infectious bronchitis (IB) vaccine strains H120, Ma5 and 4/91 was compared to that of 26 infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains isolated from the field in Guangxi province of China during the years 1985-2008, and the field isolates were classified into five major genotypes. Monovalent antisera against three vaccine strains and seven field isolates of different genotypes were prepared by immunizing rabbits with mineral oil adjuvant preparations containing viruses propagated in chicken embryos. Virus neutralization (VN) tests were performed in tracheal organ cultures (TOCs) using these 10 strains with the antisera, and a one-way VN test was then used to compare the relationship of 10 monovalent antisera to the other 19 field isolates. As a result, seven different serotypes were classified based on the results of VN tests with the 26 isolates plus the three vaccine strains. We found that different serotypes were prevalent during different time periods, that more new serotypes have been prevalent in more recent years, and the prevalence of the original dominant serotype has been in constant decline since 2004. In addition, the concordance rate of the 26 field isolates between the S1 genotypes and serotypes was 57.7%. PMID:22198411

Li, Meng; Wang, Xiu-Ying; Wei, Ping; Chen, Qiu-Ying; Wei, Zheng-Ji; Mo, Mei-Lan

2012-03-01

240

Isolation of bluetongue and related viruses from Culicoides spp. in the Sudan.  

PubMed Central

Infection of domestic ruminants with bluetongue virus (BTV) is widespread in the Sudan but there are no records of vector species of Culicoides in that country. Therefore, light-trap collections of Culicoides for virus isolation procedures were made in the Khartoum and Um Benein areas of the Sudan during September-October 1982. Two virus isolates were made from pools of unengorged, female Culicoides. An isolate from a pool of C. kingi (schultzei gp) is a member of the Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease (EHD) serogroup. The other isolate from a pool of C. imicola, a known BTV vector in other parts of Africa, is type-5 BTV. In laboratory experiments, the North American vector of BTV, C. variipennis, supported replication of both Sudanese isolates to a high titre and transmission occurred after 10 days' incubation. This paper records the first isolation in the Sudan of arboviruses from Culicoides, with the identification of a BTV serotype and the presence of a member of the EHD (genus orbivirus, family Reoviridae) serogroup. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Mellor, P. S.; Osborne, R.; Jennings, D. M.

1984-01-01

241

Isolation and characterisation of tubular structures of cowpea mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tubular structures involved in the cell-to-cell move- ment of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) were partially purified from infected cowpea protoplasts to iden- tify the structural components. A relatively pure fraction could be obtained by differential centri- fugation and this was analysed by PAGE and immunoblotting. Besides the movement protein (MP) and capsid proteins (CP) of CPMV, no other major infection-specific

D. T. J. Kasteel; J. Wellink; R. W. Goldbach; Lent van J. W. M

1997-01-01

242

Genetic evolution of equine influenza viruses isolated in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China experienced an outbreak of equine influenza during 2007–2008. Meanwhile, its neighbor countries, such as Mongolia, India\\u000a and Japan, have also been affected by various influenza virus strains in each country. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the\\u000a newly emerging Chinese strains belong to Florida sublineage clade 2, as well as the Indian strain Jammu-Katra\\/6\\/08 and the\\u000a Mongolian strain Mongolia\\/1\\/08. All of

Ting QiWei; Wei Guo; Wen-Qiang Huang; Hong-Mei Li; Li-Ping Zhao; Ling-Li Dai; Na He; Xiao-Fang Hao; Wen-Hua Xiang

2010-01-01

243

Ilheus Virus Isolation in the Pantanal, West-Central Brazil  

PubMed Central

The wetlands of the Brazilian Pantanal host large concentrations of diverse wildlife species and hematophagous arthropods, conditions that favor the circulation of zoonotic arboviruses. A recent study from the Nhecolândia sub-region of Pantanal reported serological evidence of various flaviviruses, including West Nile virus and Ilheus virus (ILHV). According to the age of seropositive horses, at least three flaviviruses, including ILHV, circulated in the Brazilian Pantanal between 2005 and 2009. To extend this study, we collected 3,234 adult mosquitoes of 16 species during 2009 and 2010 in the same sub-region. Mosquito pool homogenates were assayed for infectious virus on C6/36 and Vero cell monolayers and also tested for flaviviral RNA by a group-specific real-time RT-PCR. One pool containing 50 non-engorged female specimens of Aedes scapularis tested positive for ILHV by culture and for ILHV RNA by real-time RT-PCR, indicating a minimum infection rate of 2.5 per 1000. Full-length genomic sequence exhibited 95% identity to the only full genome sequence available for ILHV. The present data confirm the circulation of ILHV in the Brazilian Pantanal.

Pauvolid-Correa, Alex; Kenney, Joan L.; Couto-Lima, Dinair; Campos, Zilca M. S.; Nogueira, Rita M. R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

2013-01-01

244

Molecular characterization of hepatitis a virus isolates from a transcontinental shellfish-borne outbreak.  

PubMed

One hundred eighty-four serologically confirmed cases of hepatitis A were reported in eastern Spain in 1999. A matched case-control study implicated imported coquina clams complying with European Union shellfish standards as the source of infection; this implication was confirmed by the detection by reverse transcription-PCR of hepatitis A virus (HAV) RNA in shellfish samples. In spite of the recognized low variability of HAV, genetic characterization of the complete capsid region of virus isolates from patient serum samples revealed the existence of both synonymous and nonsynonymous variants. Two antigenic variants were detected, one in a discontinuous epitope defined by monoclonal antibody K3-4C8 and a second in a linear VP1 epitope of the virus. In spite of these antigenic variants, all isolates were assigned to genotype IB, providing further evidence that the outbreak originated from a common source, although multiple strains were likely to be involved. PMID:12409389

Sánchez, Glňria; Pintó, Rosa M; Vanaclocha, Hermelinda; Bosch, Albert

2002-11-01

245

Variability of the NSS protein among Rift Valley fever virus isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen strains of Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus collected over a period of 38 years and isolated from diverse localities in Africa and from various hosts (human, animal and arthropod) were investi- gated by RT-PCR followed by sequencing of the NSS protein coding region. This region was chosen to analyse variability because, in contrast to the N protein, the NSS

A. A. Sall; A. Zanotto; H. G. Zeller; J. P. Digoutte; Y. Thiongane; M. Bouloy

1997-01-01

246

Four Chimpanzee Monoclonal Antibodies Isolated by Phage Display Neutralize Hepatitis A Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chimpanzee immunoglobulins are virtually identical to human immunoglobulins and may have clinically useful applications. Four chimpanzee monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the hepatitis A virus (HAV) capsid were isolated from a combinatorial cDNA library of ?1\\/? antibody genes using phage display. Competition assays indicated that three of the MAbs recognized the same or overlapping epitopes, whereas the fourth recognized a different,

D. J. Schofield; W. Satterfield; S. U. Emerson; R. H. Purcell

2002-01-01

247

Complete genome sequences of newcastle disease virus strains isolated from three different poultry species in china.  

PubMed

In 2000, three Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains were isolated from outbreaks of infection in layers, ducklings, and geese in the same region of China during the same time period. Here, we report their complete genome sequences, which belong to the NDV genotype VIId. This discovery might provide clues as to the evolution of the NDVs of different avian origins. PMID:23950112

Wang, Xuan; Gong, Zheng; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Jian; Sun, Gege; Liu, Yali; Tao, Peipei; Zhang, Huaikang; Li, Shangde; Jiang, Fei; Hu, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xunhai

2013-01-01

248

Avian Influenza Virus with Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Combination H8N8, Isolated in Russia  

PubMed Central

We report the genome sequence of an avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H8N8, isolated in Russia. The genome analysis shows that all genes belong to AIV Eurasian lineages. The PB2 gene was similar to a Mongolian low-pathogenic (LP) AIV H7N1 and a Chinese high-pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N2.

Sharshov, Kirill A.; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Muzyka, Vladimir V.; Shestopalov, Alexander M.

2014-01-01

249

Phylogenetic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus strains isolated in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To define the origin and evolution of recent avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in Japan, a genetic analysis was performed. By phylogenetic analysis based on the S1 gene including the sequence of the hypervariable regions, IBV isolates in Japan were classified into five genetic groups, which included two already-known groups (Mass and Gray). Among them, three major genetic groups

M. Mase; K. Tsukamoto; K. Imai; S. Yamaguchi

2004-01-01

250

Avian Influenza Virus with Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Combination H8N8, Isolated in Russia.  

PubMed

We report the genome sequence of an avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H8N8, isolated in Russia. The genome analysis shows that all genes belong to AIV Eurasian lineages. The PB2 gene was similar to a Mongolian low-pathogenic (LP) AIV H7N1 and a Chinese high-pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N2. PMID:24903874

Sivay, Mariya V; Sharshov, Kirill A; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Muzyka, Vladimir V; Shestopalov, Alexander M

2014-01-01

251

Analysis of genetic variability of Indian isolates of Hepatitis C virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The degree of genetic variability among Hepatitis C virus strains circulating in India is currently unknown. In order to get insight into this matter, sequence data obtained from the 5' non coding region from 8 patients from New Delhi were compared with sequences from 16 HCV isolates from different geographic locations of India. The phylogenetic analysis of most prevalent

S. Broor; A. V. Bhupatiraju; D. Ghosh; R. Anand; A. Rai; R. Colina; L. García; B. Khan; J. Cristina

2004-01-01

252

Complete Genome Sequences of Two Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses Isolated in China  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) strains, 79121M18 and YL04057, isolated in Xinjiang, China. Sequence analysis showed that they represent a genotype of CCHFV that has not been reported before.

Zhou, Zhaorui; Meng, Weiwei; Deng, Fei; Xia, Han; Li, Tianxian; Sun, Surong; Wang, Manli; Wang, Hualin

2013-01-01

253

Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strain Isolated in Southern China  

PubMed Central

We report here the full-length RNA genomic sequence of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain GX4, isolated from a cow in southern China. Studies indicate that BVDV GX4 belongs to the BVDV-1b subtype. This report will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of BVDV in southern China cattle.

Fan, Qing; Xie, Zhiqin; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Liji; Luo, Sisi

2014-01-01

254

Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Wild Peacock (Pavo cristatus) in India  

PubMed Central

We report here the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a wild peacock. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it belongs to genotype II, class II of NDV strains. This study helps to understand the ecology of NDV strains circulating in a wild avian host of this geographical region during the outbreak of 2012 in northwest India.

Khulape, Sagar A.; Gaikwad, Satish S.; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad

2014-01-01

255

Neurological lesions in chickens experimentally infected with virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution, character, and severity of lesions were evaluated in tissues from the central nervous system of chickens inoculated with 10 different Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates: CA 1083, Korea 97-147, Australia (all velogenic viscerotropic), Texas GB and Turkey North Dakota (both velogenic neurotropic), Nevada cormorant, Anhinga and Roakin (all mesogenic), and B1 and QV4 (lentogenic). Tissues for the present study

Roselene Ecco; Leonardo Susta; Claudio L. Afonso; Patti J. Miller; Corrie Brown

2011-01-01

256

Genome Sequence and Attenuating Mutations in West Nile Virus Isolate from Mexico  

PubMed Central

The complete genome sequence of a Mexican West Nile virus isolate, TM171-03, included 46 nucleotide (0.42%) and 4 amino acid (0.11%) differences from the NY99 prototype. Mouse virulence differences between plaque-purified variants of TM171-03 with mutations at the E protein glycosylation motif suggest the emergence of an attenuating mutation.

Davis, C. Todd; Estrada-Franco, Jose; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Campomanes-Cortes, Arturo; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Barrett, Alan D.T.

2004-01-01

257

Genetic Diversity of Pneumocystis carinii Isolated from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients in Turin, Italy  

PubMed Central

By DNA sequence analysis we identified two new strain types and five novel sporadic variations among 25 isolates of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis obtained from 19 human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. Of these, 13 were infected with a single strain and 6 were coinfected. Fifteen different combination types were identified among the 18 strains for which complete molecular typing was accomplished.

Volpe, Gisella; Sbaiz, Luca; Avanzini, Claudio; Caramello, Pietro; Savoia, Dianella

2001-01-01

258

[Evaluation of antigenic relationship of Guangxi isolates of infectious bronchitis virus].  

PubMed

Monovalent antisera of 3 vaccine strains and 7 representative field isolates were prepared based on the comparison of genetic diversity of the hypervariable region I of S1 gene (HVR I from 3 infectious bronchitis (IB) vaccine strains (H120, Ma5 and 4/91) ,one reference strain M41 and 26 IB field isolates. These 30 strains were classified in 7 different genotypes, respectively. Virus-neutralizing test on tracheal organ cultures (TOC) with chicken embryo were used to evaluate relatedness values of the antigenicity based on the antibody titer, to analyze the antigenic relationships between the isolates and vaccine strains, as well as to determine the serotypes of 26 IB viruses isolated from the field in Guangxi between 1985 and 2008. The results showed 30 strains were classified into 7 distinct serotypes and there were two predominant serotypes within the 26 isolates, serotypes 1 (totally 13 isolates) and serotype 2 (totally 5 isolates), respectively. In addition, there were some differences observed between the results of serotyping and the genotyping (including the S1, N, M and 3'UTR). The results of the study demonstrated that there were different predominant serotypes and multiple serotypes of IBV circulated in Guangxi in recent years, antigenic variation existed between Guangxi field isolates and vaccine strains. PMID:23367560

Wang, Xiu-Ying; Li, Meng; Wei, Ping; Chen, Qiu-Ying; Wei, Zheng-Ji; Mo, Mei-Lan; Wei, Tian-Chao

2012-11-01

259

Short communication: Molecular analysis of Potato leafroll virus isolates from the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

The complete genomes of three Czech isolates VIRUBRA 1/045, VIRUBRA 1/046, and VIRUBRA 1/047 of Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) were sequenced and compared with 13 complete sequences of PLRV isolates available in GenBank. Among the Czech isolates, VIRUBRA 1/046 and 1/047 showed the highest nucleotide (nt) identity (98.7%). PLRV was the most conserved virus in both open reading frames (ORFs) 3 and 4. The most variable regions were ORFs 0 and Rap1. Interestingly, isolate VIRUBRA 1/045 significantly differed from the other two Czech isolates in ORFs 0 and 1. Moreover, we identified mutations in the amino acid (aa) sequences, which were specific for the Czech isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on ORF0 showed that the Czech isolates could be classified in two of the three groupings of the phylogenetic tree obtained. This is the first report on sequence analysis of the genome sequences of PLRV isolates from the Czech Republic. PMID:19504234

Plchova, Helena; Cerovska, Noemi; Moravec, Tomas; Dedic, Petr

2009-08-01

260

Isolation of animal viruses from farm livestock waste, soil and water.  

PubMed Central

Ten porcine enteroviruses, 2 porcine adenoviruses and 1 coronavirus were isolated directly from 32 samples of slurry collected from a pig fattening house. Concentration of the same samples by adsorption with the polyelectrolyte PE-60 yielded 24 porcine enteroviruses and 3 porcine adenoviruses. A porcine enterovirus was isolated, following PE-60 concentration, from 1 to 6 slurry samples from a sow farrowing house. No virus was isolated from 12 samples of slurry from dairy cows nor from 6 slurry samples from a calf-rearing unit. A porcine enterovirus was isolated from soil samples, after concentration with PE-60, collected 1, 2 and 8 days after pig slurry was spread on hay stubble. Two porcine enteroviruses were isolated by membrane filtration from 26 samples of surface run-off from land on which pig slurry was routinely spread, and 2 bovine enteroviruses were isolated from cattle feedlot run-off after adsorption to layers of talc and celite followed by hydroextraction. A porcine enterovirus was also isolated from 1 of 33 samples of surface water collected on farms on which pig slurry was routinely spread on the land, but no virus was isolated from 36 samples of ground water from the same farms. The surface water and ground water samples were concentrated by talc-celite adsorption and hydroextraction.

Derbyshire, J. B.; Brown, E. G.

1978-01-01

261

Genetic variability in the coat protein genes of Cymbidium mosaic virus isolates from orchids.  

PubMed

The variability in the nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequences of the coat protein (CP) of Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV), which naturally infects orchids worldwide, was investigated. The CP genes of 55 CymMV isolates originating from different locations in Korea were amplified using RT-PCR and sequenced. The encoded CP consists of 223 aa. The CP sequences of the Korean isolates were compared with those of previously published CymMV isolates originating from different countries at both nt and aa levels. The Korean isolates shared 74.9-98.3 and 52.7-100% CP homology with CymMV isolates from other countries at the nt and aa levels, respectively. No particular region of variability could be found in either grouping of viruses. In the deduced CymMV CP aa sequence, the C-terminal region was more divergent than the N-terminal. The phylogenetic tree analysis based on nt sequence diversity of CP genes of CymMV isolates supported the hypothesis that CymMV isolates were divided into two subgroups. However, these subgroups were not formed by phylogenetic tree analysis of CP aa sequences. There was no distinct correlation between geographical locations and specific sequence identity, while recombination analysis revealed that there were no intra-specific recombination events among CymMV isolates. PMID:22015427

Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Chung, Bong-Nam; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Choi, Seung-Kook

2012-04-01

262

Isolation and Identification of a Novel Rabies Virus Lineage in China with Natural Recombinant Nucleoprotein Gene  

PubMed Central

Rabies virus (RABV) causes severe neurological disease and death. As an important mechanism for generating genetic diversity in viruses, homologous recombination can lead to the emergence of novel virus strains with increased virulence and changed host tropism. However, it is still unclear whether recombination plays a role in the evolution of RABV. In this study, we isolated and sequenced four circulating RABV strains in China. Phylogenetic analyses identified a novel lineage of hybrid origin that comprises two different strains, J and CQ92. Analyses revealed that the virus 3? untranslated region (UTR) and part of the N gene (approximate 500 nt in length) were likely derived from Chinese lineage I while the other part of the genomic sequence was homologous to Chinese lineage II. Our findings reveal that homologous recombination can occur naturally in the field and shape the genetic structure of RABV populations.

Yan, Hong-Yan; Ding, Nai-Zheng; He, Hong-Bin; Yan, Jia-Xin; Xu, Ge-Lin

2012-01-01

263

Arboretum and Puerto Almendras viruses: two novel rhabdoviruses isolated from mosquitoes in Peru.  

PubMed

Arboretum virus (ABTV) and Puerto Almendras virus (PTAMV) are two mosquito-associated rhabdoviruses isolated from pools of Psorophora albigenu and Ochlerotattus fulvus mosquitoes, respectively, collected in the Department of Loreto, Peru, in 2009. Initial tests suggested that both viruses were novel rhabdoviruses and this was confirmed by complete genome sequencing. Analysis of their 11?482 nt (ABTV) and 11?876 (PTAMV) genomes indicates that they encode the five canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins (N, P, M, G and L) with an additional gene (U1) encoding a small hydrophobic protein. Evolutionary analysis of the L protein indicates that ABTV and PTAMV are novel and phylogenetically distinct rhabdoviruses that cannot be classified as members of any of the eight currently recognized genera within the family Rhabdoviridae, highlighting the vast diversity of this virus family. PMID:24421116

Vasilakis, Nikos; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Widen, Steven G; Aguilar, Patricia V; Guzman, Hilda; Guevara, Carolina; Fernandez, Roberto; Auguste, Albert J; Wood, Thomas G; Popov, Vsevolod; Mundal, Kirk; Ghedin, Elodie; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Holmes, Edward C; Walker, Peter J; Tesh, Robert B

2014-04-01

264

The complete genome sequences of two isolates of potato black ringspot virus and their relationship to other isolates and nepoviruses.  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of the nepovirus potato black ringspot virus (PBRSV) from two different isolates were determined, as well as partial sequences from two additional isolates. RNA1 is 7,579-7,598 nucleotides long and contains one single open reading frame (ORF), which is translated into a large polyprotein with 2,325 amino acids and a molecular weight of 257 kDa. The complete sequence of RNA2 ranges from 3857 to 3918 nt between the different isolates. It encodes a polyprotein of 1079-1082 amino acids with a molecular weight of 120 kDa. Sequence comparison using the Pro-Pol region and CP showed that all four isolates formed two distinct groups, corresponding to potato and arracacha, that were closely related to each other and also to tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV). Comparing our data to those obtained with other nepoviruses, our results confirm that PBRSV belongs to a distinct species and is a member of subgroup A in the genus Nepovirus based on its RNA2 size, genome organization, and nucleotide sequence. PMID:24122155

Richards, R Souza; Adams, I P; Kreuze, J F; De Souza, J; Cuellar, W; Dullemans, A M; Van Der Vlugt, R A A; Glover, R; Hany, U; Dickinson, M; Boonham, N

2014-04-01

265

Genetic diversity of Sugarcane bacilliform virus isolates infecting Saccharum spp. in India.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bacilliform virus (SCBV), which causes leaf freckle in sugarcane, is a member of the genus Badnavirus. Studies were conducted to characterize SCBV in Saccharum officinarum germplasm and cultivated varieties in India by sequencing the complete genomes of five isolates. Genome lengths ranged from 7,553 to 7,884 nucleotides. Duplications in ORF3 and insertions in the RNase H-domain in some of the isolates were found to contribute to the large size of their genomes. The Indian SCBV isolates share identities of 69-85 % for the complete genomic sequence, indicating wide genetic diversity among them, and share 70-82 % identity with Sugarcane bacilliform Ireng Maleng virus (SCBIMV) and Sugarcane bacilliform Morocco virus (SCBMV), as well as 43-46 % identity with Banana streak virus (BSV) and BSV-related SCBV species from Guadeloupe, indicating that the Indian SCBV isolates are distinct from SCBV isolates reported to date. Irrespective of the region compared, SCBV isolates from India, Australia, and Morocco clustered together. BSV and BSV-related SCBV isolates from Guadeloupe formed another cluster. A phylogenetic analysis based on the partial RT/RNase H-sequence separated SCBV and BSV-related SCBV sequences into 11 SCBV groups viz. SCBV-A to -K. Among the 11 groups, the SCBV sequences separated under H, I, J, and K are newly identified in this study, representing three new species and are tentatively named as SCBBBV, SCBBOV, and SCBBRV. Thus, the PASC and phylogenetic analyses evidenced that the symptoms associated with badnaviruses in sugarcane in India are caused by at least three new species, SCBBBV, SCBBOV, and SCBBRV, besides SCBIMV and SCBMV represented by SCBV-BT and SCBV-Iscam, respectively. PMID:23430710

Karuppaiah, R; Viswanathan, R; Kumar, V Ganesh

2013-06-01

266

Comparison of the Pathogenicity of Nipah Virus Isolates from Bangladesh and Malaysia in the Syrian Hamster  

PubMed Central

Nipah virus is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are not well described. The first Nipah virus outbreak occurred in Malaysia, where human disease had a strong neurological component. Subsequent outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh and India and transmission and disease processes in these outbreaks appear to be different from those of the Malaysian outbreak. Until this point, virtually all Nipah virus studies in vitro and in vivo, including vaccine and pathogenesis studies, have utilized a virus isolate from the original Malaysian outbreak (NiV-M). To investigate potential differences between NiV-M and a Nipah virus isolate from Bangladesh (NiV-B), we compared NiV-M and NiV-B infection in vitro and in vivo. In hamster kidney cells, NiV-M-infection resulted in extensive syncytia formation and cytopathic effects, whereas NiV-B-infection resulted in little to no morphological changes. In vivo, NiV-M-infected Syrian hamsters had accelerated virus replication, pathology and death when compared to NiV-B-infected animals. NiV-M infection also resulted in the activation of host immune response genes at an earlier time point. Pathogenicity was not only a result of direct effects of virus replication, but likely also had an immunopathogenic component. The differences observed between NiV-M and NiV-B pathogeneis in hamsters may relate to differences observed in human cases. Characterization of the hamster model for NiV-B infection allows for further research of the strain of Nipah virus responsible for the more recent outbreaks in humans. This model can be used to study NiV-B pathogenesis, transmission, and countermeasures that could be used to control outbreaks.

DeBuysscher, Blair L.; de Wit, Emmie; Munster, Vincent J.; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

2013-01-01

267

Comparison of biological and molecular characterization of Iranian lettuce mosaic virus isolates.  

PubMed

Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) is one of the most damaging viruses in lettuce and endive cultivating regions. In order to review the characteristics of different LMV isolates of Iran during 2004-2005 samples were collected from lettuce fields in Esfahan, Ghom, Khorasan, Khuzestan and Tehran provinces. All of the isolates were detected by LMV polyclonal antiserum (AS-0155, DSMZ Germany) in ELISA and TIPA tests. Biological purification was done for the LMV isolates and then they were maintained and propagated on Chenopodium quinoa. A range of plant species such as C. amaranticolor, C. album, Carthamus tinctorius, Gazania sp., Gomphrena globosa, Pisum sativum, Spinacia oleracea were inoculated with these isolates using potassium phosphate buffer (0/05M). Molecular weight of coat protein was determined by Polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Immunocapture reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) was performed using LMV polyclonal antiserum and specific primer pairs of LMV as described by Zerbini et al. (1995). The amplified fragments were included the whole CP and 3'UTR regions and the nucleotide sequences of them determined. All isolates induced chlorotic local lesions on C. amaranticolor and chlorotic local lesions with symptoms of systemic infection (vein clearing) on C. album. Tehran isolate in addition, caused local lesions on Gomphrena globosa with red border and white centre. This isolate infected Pisum sativum without any symptoms. Back inoculation on C. quinoa and DAS-ELISA confirmed the latent infection. None of these isolates infected Carthamus tinctorius, Gazania sp. and Spinacia oleracea. The molecular weight of coat protein was determined 30.33 kDa. Western-blot proved this band as the coat protein of the virus. IC-RT-PCR amplification of LMV isolates produced the expected size IC-RT-PCR product of 1300 bps. The comparison of nucleotide sequences showed that there were 98% identities. PMID:17390892

Ormaz, B; Winter, S; Koohi-Habibi, M; Mosahebi, Gh; Izadpanah, K

2006-01-01

268

Two Hungarian isolates of cucumber mosaic virus from sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) and melon (Cucumis melo): Identification and antiserum preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Hungarian virus isolates from sweet pepper (K8) and melon (S4) were identified as cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of host plant reactions and serology. The isolates were purified and antisera prepared. Homologous antiserum titers in double-diffusion tests were 256 (K8) and 512 (S4). They were serologically closely related to each other and to other CMV isolates. On

I. Tóbiás; D. Z. Maat; H. Huttinga

1982-01-01

269

Isolation of Newcastle Disease Viruses of High Virulence in Unvaccinated Healthy Village Chickens in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three isolates of Newcastle disease virus obtained from normal village chickens, which were never vaccinated against Newcastle disease were characterized. These isolates namely D8, D53 and D58 were found to have an ICPI value of 1.59, 0.50 and 0.14 respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence at the FPCS of these three isolates between positions 112 and 119 were G-R-R-Q-K-R-F-I-G- -G-R-R-Q-K-R-F-

R. Ananth; J. John Kirubaharan; M. L. M. Priyadarshini; A. Albert

2008-01-01

270

Effectiveness of Reverse Transcription-PCR, Virus Isolation, and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Influenza A Virus Infection in Different Age Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 10 August 2001\\/Returned for modification 23 September 2001\\/Accepted 28 February 2002 The degrees of effectiveness of reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, virus isolation, and antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of influenza A virus were evaluated with nasopharyngeal swabs from 150 patients (1 week to 86 years old) with influenza A virus infection. RT-PCR had a sensitivity for influenza

Christoph Steininger; Michael Kundi; Stephan W. Aberle; Judith H. Aberle; Theresia Popow-Kraupp

2002-01-01

271

Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza (H7) Virus Infection in Mice and Ferrets: Enhanced Virulence of Eurasian H7N7 Viruses Isolated from Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before 2003, only occasional case reports of human H7 influenza virus infections occurred as a result of direct animal-to-human transmission or laboratory accidents; most of these infections resulted in conjuncti- vitis. An increase in isolation of avian influenza A H7 viruses from poultry outbreaks and humans has raised concerns that additional zoonotic transmissions of influenza viruses from poultry to humans

Jessica A. Belser; Xuihua Lu; Taronna R. Maines; Catherine Smith; Yan Li; Ruben O. Donis; Jacqueline M. Katz; Terrence M. Tumpey

2007-01-01

272

Complete nucleotide sequence of a Spanish isolate of alfalfa mosaic virus: evidence for additional genetic variability.  

PubMed

Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is a plant virus that is distributed worldwide and can induce necrosis and/or yellow mosaic on a large variety of plant species, including commercially important crops. It is the only virus of the genus Alfamovirus in the family Bromoviridae. AMV isolates can be clustered into two genetic groups that correlate with their geographic origin. Here, we report for the first time the complete nucleotide sequence of a Spanish isolate of AMV found infecting Cape honeysuckle (Tecoma capensis) and named Tec-1. The tripartite genome of Tec-1 is composed of 3643 nucleotides (nt) for RNA1, 2594 nt for RNA2 and 2037 nt for RNA3. Comparative sequence analysis of the coat protein gene revealed that the isolate Tec-1 is distantly related to subgroup I of AMV and more closely related to subgroup II, although forming a distinct phylogenetic clade. Therefore, we propose to split subgroup II of AMV into two subgroups, namely IIA, comprising isolates previously included in subgroup II, and IIB, including the novel Spanish isolate Tec-1. PMID:21327783

Parrella, Giuseppe; Acanfora, Nadia; Orílio, Anelise F; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

2011-06-01

273

Nucleotide sequences of two Korean isolates of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequences of the genomic RNAs of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus Korean watermelon isolate (CGMMV-KW) and Korean oriental melon isolate (CGMMV-KOM) were determined and compared to the sequences of other tobamoviruses including CGMMV strains W and SH. Each CGMMV isolate had a genome of 6,424 nucleotides. Each also had 60 and 176 nucleotides of 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs), respectively, and four open reading frames (ORF1-4). ORFs 1 to 4 encode proteins of 129, 186, 29, and 17.4 kDa, respectively. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of CGMMV-KOM and CGMMV-KW were more than 98.3% identical. When compared to other CGMMV strains in a phylogenetic analysis they were found to form a distinct virus clade, and were more distantly related to other tobamoviruses (23.5-56.7% identity). PMID:14744034

Kim, Sang-Min; Lee, Jung-Myung; Yim, Kyu-Ock; Oh, Man-Ho; Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Kook-Hyung

2003-12-31

274

Molecular characterization of a severe isolate of papaya ringspot virus in Mexico and its relationship with other isolates.  

PubMed

The virus most often reported in papaya (Carica papaya L.) is papaya ringspot (PRSV). The aim of this work was the molecular genomic characterization of a Mexican severe isolate of PRSV-P "Mex-VrPO" (isolate from the State of Veracruz in Paso de Ovejas) as well as its comparison with other isolates from other world regions. The linear, assembled, single-strand positive sense RNA genome of PRSV-P Mex-VrPO was 10320 nt in length (excluding the poly(A) tail) and contained a single large predicted ORF with 3344 aa. The comparative analysis of our PRSV isolates and five others reported before, showed the most variable proteins were P1, P3, 6 K and CP with 13-33%, 5-7%, 6-9% and 5-9% divergence respectively. The most conserved ones were CI, NIb and HC-Pro (2-3%, 3-5% and 4-5%). The phylogenetic analysis showed a close relation between the Mexican (Mex-VrPO) and Hawaiian (PRSV-P HA) isolates. This work provided the first opportunity to establish the foundation for (1) understanding whole genome and polyprotein variability between Asian and American PRSV isolates, and (2) elucidating major trends in the relative evolution of viral cistrons as deduced from in silico recombination analyses. PMID:17082995

Noa-Carrazana, Juan Carlos; González-de-León, Diego; Silva-Rosales, Laura

2007-08-01

275

Molecular detection, epidemiology, and genetic characterization of novel European field isolates of equine infectious anemia virus.  

PubMed

The application of molecular diagnostic techniques along with nucleotide sequence determination to permit contemporary phylogenetic analysis of European field isolates of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has not been widely reported. As a result, of extensive testing instigated following the 2006 outbreak of equine infectious anemia in Italy, 24 farms with a history of exposure to this disease were included in this study. New PCR-based methods were developed, which, especially in the case of DNA preparations from peripheral blood cells, showed excellent correlation with OIE-approved agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests for identifying EIAV-infected animals. In contrast, the OIE-recommended oligonucleotide primers for EIAV failed to react with any of the Italian isolates. Similar results were also obtained with samples from four Romanian farms. In addition, for the first time complete characterization of gag genes from five Italian isolates and one Romanian isolate has been achieved, along with acquisition of extensive sequence information (86% of the total gag gene) from four additional EIAV isolates (one Italian and three Romanian). Furthermore, in another 23 cases we accomplished partial characterization of gag gene sequences in the region encoding the viral matrix protein. Analysis of this information suggested that most Italian isolates were geographically restricted, somewhat reminiscent of the "clades" described for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Collectively this represents the most comprehensive genetic study of European EIAV isolates conducted to date. PMID:21084503

Cappelli, Katia; Capomaccio, Stefano; Cook, Frank R; Felicetti, Michela; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Coppola, Giacomo; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Coletti, Mauro; Passamonti, Fabrizio

2011-01-01

276

Molecular characterization of Dasheen mosaic virus isolates infecting edible aroids in India.  

PubMed

Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV) infecting three major edible aroids namely Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, Colocasia esculenta, and Xanthosoma sagittifolium cultivated in India was characterized. Infected plants showing typical DsMV symptoms were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and an amplification of a 963 bp fragment which encoded the coat protein (CP) gene was obtained. BLAST analysis of the cloned DNA amplicon revealed the identity of the virus to be that of DsMV. Sequence identity matrix of the nucleotide sequences among the three isolates showed that the DsMV isolate infecting A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta shared an identity as high as 93%, while the DsMV isolate from X. sagittifolium shared an identity of only 73% and 76% with the DsMV isolates from A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta, respectively. Comparative analysis of the coat protein of the three DsMV isolates showed the presence of DVG motif (A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta) and DTG motif in X. sagittifolium and several varying potential threonine and asparagine rich N-glycosylation motifs. Single amino acid substitution of the several conserved motifs occurs in all the three DsMV isolates. This is the first characterization of DsMV isolates infecting A. paeoniifolius, C. esculenta, and X. sagittifolium plants in India. PMID:24717027

Babu, B; Hegde, V

2014-01-01

277

Comparative analysis of G1 glycoprotein-coding sequences of Cache Valley virus (Bunyaviridae: Bunyavirus) isolates.  

PubMed

The complete 4463 nucleotide sequence for the medium segment viral RNA of Cache Valley virus has been cloned and sequenced in four isolates; in addition, the G1 glycoprotein extracellular coding domains are completed for nine additional isolates, including two subtypes, Ft. Sherman (86MSP18) and Tlacotalpan (61D240) viruses. The 13 represent isolations spanning over 45 years and a large geographic area, including the U.S., Mexico, Canada, and Panama. Glycosylation sites in G1 are generally conserved among all except the Ft. Davis, Panama (90P686) isolate, which loses a site otherwise conserved within the serogroup. Comparison of the G1 coding regions indicates a number of shared amino acid substitutions within a centrally located 70 amino acid hypervariable domain, which seems to fall outside the primary antigenic domains of G1, most of which are found within the amino half of the protein, while a less antigenic region is predicted for the carboxyl half of the protein encoded beyond the hypervariable domain. Numerous amino acid substitutions are found within various antigenic regions, which may be an indication of altered neutralization or hemagglutination sites. Putative phosphorylation sites are indicated, most of which are well conserved, with the exception of the absence of a specific protein kinase C site for the prototype (6V633) virus isolated in Utah. The overall nucleotide identity between isolates ranges from 91% (Ft. Sherman subtype, 86MSP18) to 99.4% (North Dakota, 1508-A52) as compared to the prototype virus (Utah, 6V633). PMID:11324749

Brockus, C L; Grimstad, P R

2001-03-01

278

Viral Replication, Persistence in Water and Genetic Characterization of Two Influenza A Viruses Isolated from Surface Lake Water  

PubMed Central

Water-borne transmission has been suggested as an important transmission mechanism for Influenza A (IA) viruses in wild duck populations; however, relatively few studies have attempted to detect IA viruses from aquatic habitats. Water-isolated viruses have rarely been genetically characterized and evaluation for persistence in water and infectivity in natural hosts has never been documented. In this study, we focused on two IA viruses (H3N8 and H4N6 subtypes) isolated from surface lake water in Minnesota, USA. We investigated the relative prevalence of the two virus subtypes in wild duck populations at the sampling site and their genetic relatedness to IA viruses isolated in wild waterbirds in North America. Viral persistence under different laboratory conditions (temperature and pH) and replication in experimentally infected Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were also characterized. Both viruses were the most prevalent subtype one year following their isolation in lake water. The viruses persisted in water for an extended time period at constant temperature (several weeks) but infectivity rapidly reduced under multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Furthermore, the two isolates efficiently replicated in Mallards. The complete genome characterization supported that these isolates originated from genetic reassortments with other IA viruses circulating in wild duck populations during the year of sampling. Based on phylogenetic analyses, we couldn't identify genetically similar viruses in duck populations in the years following their isolation from lake water. Our study supports the role for water-borne transmission for IA viruses but also highlights that additional field and experimental studies are required to support inter-annual persistence in aquatic habitats.

Lebarbenchon, Camille; Yang, My; Keeler, Shamus P.; Ramakrishnan, Muthannan A.; Brown, Justin D.; Stallknecht, David E.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

2011-01-01

279

Molecular analysis of the complete genomic sequences of four isolates of Gooseberry vein banding associated virus.  

PubMed

The presence of Gooseberry vein banding associated virus (GVBaV), a badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae, is strongly correlated with gooseberry vein banding disease in Ribes spp. In this study, full-length genomic sequences of four GVBaV isolates from different hosts and geographic regions were determined to be 7649-7663 nucleotides. These isolates share identities of 96.4-97.3% for the complete genomic sequence, indicating low genetic diversity among them. The GVBaV genome contains three open reading frames (ORFs) on the plus strand that potentially encode proteins of 26, 16, and 216 kDa. The size and organization of GVBaV ORFs 1-3 are similar to those of most other badnaviruses. The putative amino acid sequence of GVBaV ORF 3 contained motifs that are conserved among badnavirus proteins including aspartic protease, reverse transcriptase, and ribonuclease H. The highly conserved putative plant tRNA(met)-binding site is also present in the 935-bp intergenic region of GVBaV. The identities of the genomic sequences of GVBaV and other badnaviruses range from 49.1% (Sugarcane bacilliform Mor virus) to 51.7% (Pelargonium vein banding virus, PVBV). Phylogenetic analysis using the amino acid sequence of the ORF 3 putative protein shows that GVBaV groups most closely to Dioscorea bacilliform virus, PVBV, and Taro bacilliform virus. These results confirm that GVBaV is a pararetrovirus of the genus Badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae. PMID:21533750

Xu, Donglin; Mock, Ray; Kinard, Gary; Li, Ruhui

2011-08-01

280

First Isolation of Dengue Virus from the 2010 Epidemic in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Dengue is an emerging disease in Nepal and was first observed as an outbreak in nine lowland districts in 2006. In 2010, however, a large epidemic of dengue occurred with 4,529 suspected and 917 serologically-confirmed cases and five deaths reported in government hospitals in Nepal. The collection of demographic information was performed along with an entomological survey and clinical evaluation of the patients. A total of 280 serum samples were collected from suspected dengue patients. These samples were subjected to routine laboratory investigations and IgM-capture ELISA for dengue serological identification, and 160 acute serum samples were used for virus isolation, RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results showed that affected patients were predominately adults, and that 10% of the cases were classified as dengue haemorrhagic fever/ dengue shock syndrome. The genetic characterization of dengue viruses isolated from patients in four major outbreak areas of Nepal suggests that the DENV-1 strain was responsible for the 2010 epidemic. Entomological studies identified Aedes aegypti in all epidemic areas. All viruses belonged to a monophyletic single clade which is phylogenetically close to Indian viruses. The dengue epidemic started in the lowlands and expanded to the highland areas. To our knowledge, this is the first dengue isolation and genetic characterization reported from Nepal.

Pandey, Basu D.; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Pandey, Kishor; Rajendra, Saroj P.; Shah, Yogendra; Adhikari, Bal R.; Gupta, Govinda; Gautam, Ishan; Tun, Mya M. N.; Uchida, Reo; Shrestha, Mahendra; Kurane, Ichiro; Morita, Kouichi

2013-01-01

281

Full-Length Genomic Sequence of Subgenotype IIIA Hepatitis A Virus Isolate in Republic of Korea  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis A virus is known to cause acute hepatitis and has significant implications for public health throughout the world. In the Republic of Korea, the number of patients with hepatitis A virus infection has been increasing rapidly since 2006. In this study, the Kor-HAV-F strain was identified as subgenotype IIIA by RT-PCR, and its identity was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing and alignment analysis. Moreover, detailed phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Kor-HAV-F strain clustered into subgenotype IIIA, including strains isolated in Japan, Norway, and India. The entire amino acid sequence of the VP1 and 2A regions was compared with that of the reference strains isolated in various countries. We found 2 amino acid changes (T168A and L96P, resp.) in the VP1 and 2A regions, which had not been found in any other hepatitis A virus strain. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the full-length sequence of a hepatitis A virus isolated in the Republic of Korea.

Lee, Ah-Ra; Lee, Sung-Geun; Kang, Lae-Hyung; Jheong, Weon-Hwa

2013-01-01

282

[Complete genomic sequence of a watermelon isolate of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in northern China].  

PubMed

The complete genomic sequence of a watermelon isolate of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV-LN) in Liaoning province was determined and compared with other cucurbit-infecting tobamoviruses. The genomic RNA of CGMMV-LN comprised 6422 nt, and 5'- and 3'- noncoding regions consisted of 59 nt and 175 nt, respectively. The encoded four proteins were two replicase proteins of 186 kD and 129 kD, move protein of 29 kD and coat protein of 17.4 kD. The alignment results of complete nucleotide sequence showed that CGMMV-LN shared identities of 97.6%-99.3% with four other CGMMV isolates, but only shared identities of 61.7%-62.8% with three other tobamoviruses. Homology trees generated from replicase proteins of 186 kD and coat proteins suggested that cucurbit-infecting tobamoviruses could be separated into two subgroups: subgroup I comprising all the isolates of CGMMV and subgroup II comprising Cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus, Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus and Zucchini green mottle mosaic virus. PMID:19437890

Chen, Hong-yun; Lin, Shi-ming; Chen, Qing; Zhao, Wen-jun; Liao, Fu-rong; Chen, Hong-jun; Zhu, Shui-fang

2009-01-01

283

SPF Rabbits Infected with Rabbit Hepatitis E Virus Isolate Experimentally Showing the Chronicity of Hepatitis  

PubMed Central

This study focused on investigating the pathogenesis seen in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits following infection with a homologous rabbit HEV isolate (CHN-BJ-rb14) and comparing it to that seen following infection with a heterologous swine genotype 4 HEV isolate (CHN-XJ-SW13). Three of the four animals inoculated with the homologous rabbit HEV became infected, exhibiting an intermittent viremia, obvious fluctuations of liver function biomarkers alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and persistent fecal virus shedding throughout the nine month study. In addition, liver histopathology showed both chronic inflammation and some degree of fibrosis. Both positive and negative-stranded HEV RNA and HEV antigen expression were detected in liver, brain, stomach, duodenum and kidney from the necropsied rabbits. Inflammation of extrahepatic tissue (duodenum and kidney) was also observed. Three of the four rabbits inoculated with the heterologous genotype 4 swine HEV also became infected, showing similar levels of anti-HEV antibody to that generated following infection with the homologous virus isolate. The duration of both viremia and fecal shedding of virus was however shorter following infection with the heterologous virus and there was no significant elevation of liver function biomarkers. These results suggest that rabbit HEV infection may cause more severe hepatitis and prolong the course of the disease, with a possible chronic trend of hepatitis in SPF rabbits.

Han, Jian; Lei, Yaxin; Liu, Lin; Liu, Peng; Xia, Junke; Zhang, Yulin; Zeng, Hang; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

2014-01-01

284

Coat protein-mediated resistance against an Indian isolate of the Cucumber mosaic virus subgroup IB in Nicotiana benthamiana.  

PubMed

Coat protein (CP) -mediated resistance against an Indian isolate of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup IB was demonstrated in transgenic lines of Nicotiana benthamiana through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Out of the fourteen independently transformed lines developed, two lines were tested for resistance against CMV by challenge inoculations. The transgenic lines exhibiting complete resistance remained symptomless throughout life and showed reduced or no virus accumulation in their systemic leaves after virus challenge. These lines also showed virus resistance against two closely related strains of CMV. This is the first report of CP-mediated transgenic resistance against a CMV subgroup IB member isolated from India. PMID:18535359

Srivastava, A; Raj, S K

2008-06-01

285

Molecular Characterization of Geographically Different Banana bunchy top virus Isolates in India.  

PubMed

Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most devastating diseases of banana and poses a serious threat for cultivars like Hill Banana (Syn: Virupakshi) and Grand Naine in India. In this study, we have cloned and sequenced the complete genome comprised of six DNA components of BBTV infecting Hill Banana grown in lower Pulney hills, Tamil Nadu State, India. The complete genome sequence of this hill banana isolate showed high degree of similarity with the corresponding sequences of BBTV isolates originating from Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh State, India, and from Fiji, Egypt, Pakistan, and Australia. In addition, sixteen coat protein (CP) and thirteen replicase genes (Rep) sequences of BBTV isolates collected from different banana growing states of India were cloned and sequenced. The replicase sequences of 13 isolates showed high degree of similarity with that of South Pacific group of BBTV isolates. However, the CP gene of BBTV isolates from Shervroy and Kodaikanal hills of Tamil Nadu showed higher amino acid sequence variability compared to other isolates. Another hill banana isolate from Meghalaya state had 23 nucleotide substitutions in the CP gene but the amino acid sequence was conserved. This is the first report of the characterization of a complete genome of BBTV occurring in the high altitudes of India. Our study revealed that the Indian BBTV isolates with distinct geographical origins belongs to the South Pacific group, except Shervroy and Kodaikanal hill isolates which neither belong to the South Pacific nor the Asian group. PMID:23637489

Selvarajan, R; Mary Sheeba, M; Balasubramanian, V; Rajmohan, R; Dhevi, N Lakshmi; Sasireka, T

2010-10-01

286

Genetic heterogeneity found in the replicase gene of poinsettia mosaic virus isolates.  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequences of five isolates of poinsettia mosaic virus (PnMV) from Japan (JN, JO1, JO2, JO4, and JO5) were determined. These isolates contained a single large open reading frame in their genomes and shared 96.6-97.8% identity at the nucleotide level and 91.3-98.1% identity at the amino acid level with two previously reported European isolates. Interestingly, the JO isolates were found to possess eight common translational frameshift sites in the interdomain region between the methyltransferase and protease domains, resulting in considerable variation in the interdomain region compared to the other isolates. This suggests that PnMV might have evolved by creating variations in its genome by such translational frameshifts. PMID:20512653

Okano, Yukari; Maejima, Kensaku; Shiraishi, Takuya; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Senshu, Hiroko; Ozeki, Johji; Takahashi, Shuichiro; Komatsu, Ken; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

2010-08-01

287

Genotype Diversity of H9N2 Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds and Chickens in Hunan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Three H9N2 avian influenza viruses were isolated from the Dongting Lake wetland, among which one was from fresh egret feces, the other two were from chicken cloacal swabs in poultry markets. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that eight genes of the egret-derived H9N2 virus might come from Korean-like or American-like lineages. The two poultry-derived H9N2 viruses were reassortants between the CK/BJ/94-like and G1-like viruses. Except the PB1 genes (90.6%), the nucleotide sequence of other internal genes of the two viruses exhibited high homology (>95%). In addition, they also exhibited high homology (96–98.3%) with some genes of the H7N9 virus that caused an epidemic in China in 2013. Nucleotide sequence of the poultry-derived and egret-derived H9N2 viruses shared low homology. Infection studies showed that the egret-derived H9N2 virus was non-pathogenic to both mice and chickens, and the virus was unable to infect chickens even through 8 passages continuously in the lung. On the other hand, the chickens infected by poultry-derived viruses showed obvious clinical symptoms and even died; the infected mice showed no noticeable clinical symptoms and weight loss, but viruses could be detected in their lungs. In conclusion, for the egret-derived H9N2 virus, it would take a long adaptation process to achieve cross-species transmission in poultry and mammals. H9N2 viruses isolated at different times from the same host species in the same geographical region presented different evolutionary status, and virus isolated from different hosts in the same geographical region exhibited genetic diversity. Therefore, it is important to continue the H9N2 virus surveillance for understanding their evolutionary trends so as to provide guidance for disease control and prevention.

Wang, Ba; Liu, Zhihua; Chen, Quanjiao; Gao, Zhimin; Fang, Fang; Chang, Haiyan; Chen, Jianjun; Xu, Bing; Chen, Ze

2014-01-01

288

Molecular epidemiology of influenza virus isolated in Brazil from 1996 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular studies of influenza virus isolated during 1996–2000, from 0- to 85-year-old patients with influenza-like illness living in the southern, southeastern, central western, northern and northeastern regions of Brazil, are described. Molecular epidemiology of the influenza virus demonstrated that strains H1N1 (A\\/Texas\\/36\\/91, A\\/Bayern\\/07\\/95, A\\/Taiwan\\/01\\/86, A\\/New Caledonia\\/20\\/99 and A\\/Johannesburg\\/82\\/99), detected from 1996 through 2000, evolved gradually from the strain A\\/Taiwan\\/1\\/86. Similarly,

Terezinha Maria de Paiva; Alexander Klimov; Henrietta Hall; Catherine Bender; Kanta Subbarao; Nancy Cox

2004-01-01

289

Structure of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus assembly intermediate isolated from infected cells  

PubMed Central

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a prototypical enveloped ssRNA virus of the family Togaviridae. To better understand alphavirus assembly, we analyzed newly formed nucleocapsid particles (termed pre-viral nucleocapsids) isolated from infected cells. These particles were intermediates along the virus assembly pathway, and ultimately bind membrane-associated viral glycoproteins to bud as mature infectious virus. Purified pre-viral nucleocapsids were spherical with a unimodal diameter distribution. The structure of one class of pre-viral nucleocapsids was determined with single particle reconstruction of cryo-electron microscopy images. These studies showed that pre-viral nucleocapsids assembled into an icosahedral structure with a capsid stoichiometry similar to the mature nucleocapsid. However, the individual capsomers were organized significantly differently within the pre-viral and mature nucleocapsids. The pre-viral nucleocapsid structure implies that nucleocapsids are highly plastic and undergo glycoprotein and/or lipid-driven rearrangements during virus self-assembly. This mechanism of self-assembly may be general for other enveloped viruses.

Lamb, Kristen; Lokesh, GL; Sherman, Michael; Watowich, Stanley

2010-01-01

290

Isolation of tobacco necrosis virus from strawberry leaves in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

Leaves of symptomless Fragaria ananassa Duch cv. Cacanská raná were grafted onto Fragaria vesca indicator clones. Thirty-five of 72 grafted indicator plants developed leaf mottle symptoms. Isometric virus-like particles were observed in purified preparations from symptomatic leaves of F. vesca. The latter were mechanically inoculated to herbaceous host plants. A virus was successfully purified from Nicotiana occidentalis 37 B symptomatic plants by differential and sucrose density gradient centrifugations and a polyclonal antiserum to the virus was prepared. On the basis of serological reactions, symptomatology on herbaceous hosts and electron microscopy studies the virus was identified as tobacco necrosis virus (TNV) D-strain. This is the first isolation of TNV from strawberry leaves and its first finding on strawberry in the Czech Republic. The new experimental hosts N. aucalis, N. bentamiana, N. occidentalis 37 B (systemic hosts), and Ammobium alatum, N. bigelovi, Petunia hybrida (local hosts) for TNV are reported. These results may not exclude the presence of strawberry mottle virus as a causal agent of mottle symptoms in the tested plant samples. Further research is necessary to clarify the aetiology of the strawberry mottle. PMID:10358734

Fránová-Honetslegrová, J; Erbenová, M; Martin, R R

1998-11-01

291

Genetic diversity of the coat protein of olive latent virus 1 isolates.  

PubMed

The CP gene variability among 21 olive latent virus 1 (OLV-1) isolates obtained from different hosts and locations and at different times was assessed. Amplicons obtained by RT-PCR were cloned, and at least 10 sequences from each isolate were analyzed and compared. OLV-1 sequences available in GenBank were included. The encoded CPs consisted of 270 amino acids, except those of isolates G1S and C7 (269 aa) and G6 (271 aa). Comparison of CP genomic sequences of the isolates under study showed very low values of nucleotide diversity, 0.02, and maximum nucleotide distances between (0.087) or within isolates (0.001). Although very few nucleotide sequence differences were observed among the isolates, olive isolates exhibited lower diversity (0.012). In addition, at position 158 (157 in C7 and G1S and 159 in G6) of the deduced aa sequences, an alanine residue was found to be conserved among the olive isolates. In citrus and tulip isolates, a threonine residue was present at position 158, whereas a valine was present at this same position in tomato isolates. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that OLV-1 isolates clustered in five groups according to original host. However, G6, originally recovered from olive but repeatedly inoculated and maintained in N. benthamiana plants for 8 years in our laboratory, was separated from other isolates. This may be attributable to adaptation to the experimental host over time. There was no correlation of phylogenetic grouping of isolates based on geographical location or year of collection. Strong negative selection may have contributed to the low diversity among the OLV-1 CP isolates. PMID:24352437

Varanda, C M R; Nolasco, G; Clara, M I; Félix, M R

2014-06-01

292

Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from waterfowl in the Upper Midwest Region of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to characterize Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates obtained from waterfowl from the Upper Midwest region of the United States. A total of 43 NDVs were isolated by inoculation of cloacal samples in embryonated chicken eggs. These isolates were obtained from 24 mallards, seven American green-winged teals, six northern pintails, four blue-winged teals, and two wood

Naresh Jindal; Yogesh Chander; Ashok K Chockalingam; Martha de Abin; Patrick T Redig; Sagar M Goyal

2009-01-01

293

ISOLATION OF MURRAY VALLEY ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS AND OTHER ARBOVIRUSES IN THE ORD RIVER VALLEY 1972–1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the isolation of arboviruses from mosquitoes collected in the Ord Valley between 1972 and 1976. A total of one hundred and ninety five strains of at least fifteen antigenically distinct viruses have been isolated. Seven of these isolates appear to be ‘new’ antigenic types, and several are undergoing further testing. These are three new rhabdoviruses (Kununurra [OR194],

PFS Liehne; S Anderson; CG Liehne; AE Wright; KH Chan; S Leivers; DK Britten

1981-01-01

294

Characterization of H7N9 influenza A viruses isolated from humans  

PubMed Central

Summary Avian influenza A viruses rarely infect humans, but if they do and transmit among them, worldwide outbreaks (pandemics) can result. The recent sporadic infections of humans in China with a previously unrecognized avian influenza A virus of the H7N9 subtype (A(H7N9)) have caused concern due to the appreciable case fatality rate associated with these infections (>25%), potential instances of human-to-human transmission1, and the lack of pre-existing immunity among humans to viruses of this subtype. Here, we therefore characterized two early human A(H7N9) isolates, A/Anhui/1/2013 and A/Shanghai/1/2013 (H7N9; hereafter referred to as Anhui/1 and Shanghai/1, respectively). In mice, Anhui/1 and Shanghai/1 were more pathogenic than a control avian H7N9 virus (A/duck/Gunma/466/2011; H7N9; Dk/GM466) and a representative pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus (A/California/04/2009; H1N1; CA04). Anhui/1, Shanghai/1, and Dk/GM466 replicated well in the nasal turbinates of ferrets. In nonhuman primates (NHPs), Anhui/1 and Dk/GM466 replicated efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, whereas the replicative ability of conventional human influenza viruses is typically restricted to the upper respiratory tract of infected primates. By contrast, Anhui/1 did not replicate well in miniature pigs upon intranasal inoculation. Most critically, Anhui/1 transmitted via respiratory droplets in one of three pairs of ferrets. Glycan arrays demonstrated that Anhui/1, Shanghai/1, and A/Hangzhou/1/2013 (a third human A(H7N9) virus tested in this assay) bind to human virus-type receptors, a property that may be critical for virus transmissibility in ferrets. Anhui/1 was less sensitive than a pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus to neuraminidase inhibitors, although both viruses were equally susceptible to an experimental antiviral polymerase inhibitor. The robust replicative ability in mice, ferrets, and NHPs and the limited transmissibility in ferrets of Anhui/1 suggest that A(H7N9) viruses have pandemic potential.

Watanabe, Tokiko; Kiso, Maki; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Nakajima, Noriko; Imai, Masaki; Yamada, Shinya; Murakami, Shin; Yamayoshi, Seiya; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Takashita, Emi; McBride, Ryan; Noda, Takeshi; Hatta, Masato; Imai, Hirotaka; Zhao, Dongming; Kishida, Noriko; Shirakura, Masayuki; de Vries, Robert P.; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Tamura, Tomokazu; Tomita, Yuriko; Fujimoto, Naomi; Goto, Kazue; Katsura, Hiroaki; Kawakami, Eiryo; Ishikawa, Izumi; Watanabe, Shinji; Ito, Mutsumi; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Sugita, Yukihiko; Uraki, Ryuta; Yamaji, Reina; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Zhong, Gongxun; Fan, Shufang; Ping, Jihui; Maher, Eileen A.; Hanson, Anthony; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Takehiko; Ozawa, Makoto; Neumann, Gabriele; Kida, Hiroshi; Odagiri, Takato; Paulson, James C.; Hasegawa, Hideki; Tashiro, Masato; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2013-01-01

295

Molecular analysis of bovine viral diarrhoea virus isolates from South Africa.  

PubMed

The presence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in South Africa has been confirmed by several serological surveys. However, little is known about its biological properties. Twenty five isolates obtained by isolation in tissue culture and detected by means of the antigen capture ELISA from clinically sick cattle and from foetal calf serum in South Africa were characterized on the basis of analysis of the 5' non-translated (NTR) region of the genome. A reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to amplify specific sequences from the 5'NTR of the genome. The oligonucleotide primers corresponding to positions 105-125 and 399-378, respectively, in the sequence of BVDV strain NADL were used to generate the PCR products. Both strands were sequenced directly with these primers and fluorescence-labelled dideoxynucleotides in an automated nucleic acid sequencer. Reference strains of pestiviruses [(BVDV type I, BVDV type II, border disease virus (BDV) and hog cholera virus (HCV)] and isolates from a previous investigation on BVDV in southern Africa were included for comparative purposes. All the BVDV strains obtained during this study belong to subgroups of BVDV genotype I. No association could be demonstrated between the geographic origin of the isolates. A number of isolates formed another branch separate from the existing branches Ia, Ib and Ic. These findings suggest that extensive genetic diversity can be found within BVDV type I isolates from southern Africa. Isolates that group with the classical BVDV type I strains, particularly of American origin, coexist with variants that appear to represent a local genetic pool and or variants evolving from the classical strains. PMID:14971730

Kabongo, N; Baule, C; Van Vuuren, M

2003-12-01

296

Genetic typing of equine influenza virus isolated in Poland in 2005 and 2006.  

PubMed

Two equine influenza virus strains were isolated from horses during the local respiratory disease outbreaks in Poland in 2005 and 2006. The H3 equine influenza viral RNA was amplified directly from the clinical specimens with RT-PCR and HA1 fragments were sequenced. The highest homology of HA1 nucleotide sequences of A/eq/Pulawy/05 with A/eq/Aboyne/1/05 and A/eq/Pulawy/06 with A/eq/Essex/2/05 was found. The phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences of HA1 fragments of 84 equine influenza virus strains isolated in Europe during the period of 1976-2007 was conducted to determine the evolutionary relationship of the two Polish and the other European isolates. The resulting phylogenetic tree clearly clustered A/eq/Pulawy/05 with the strains belonging to the European lineage of the equine influenza virus. On the other hand A/eq/Pulawy/06 was placed in the Florida sub-lineage of the American type strains. The presence of the same amino acids: methionine, asparagine and threonine at the positions 48, 159 and 163 respectively, in both Polish isolates, despite the fact that the strains are grouped in two different lineages may indicate the existence of the common ancestor. It is possible that A/eq/Pulawy/06 evolved locally rather than was introduced. PMID:19580828

Rozek, Wojciech; Purzycka, Malgorzata; Polak, Miroslaw P; Gradzki, Zbigniew; Zmudzinski, Jan F

2009-10-01

297

Genetic characterization of hepatitis A virus isolates from Buenos Aires, Argentina.  

PubMed

The Hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been classified in seven different genotypes, which include human (I, II, III, and VII) and simian (IV, V, and VI) groups. The sequence analysis of HAV strains contributes to the molecular epidemiology of the virus. Although the infection with HAV is endemic in Argentina and vaccination is being implemented in this country, using both IA and IB strains, there are very few data on the genotypes of the circulating viruses. On the basis of the sequences of 20 isolates collected in Buenos Aires during a 2-year period (extended to 3 years by two additional specimens), we observed the presence of a single sub-genotype, IA, but with a high genetic diversity. We analyzed the VP1-2A junction and also the VP3-VP1 region. Most of the Argentine isolates grouped in at least two clusters. One of these was related to South American strains, thus suggesting a co-circulation of related isolates in neighbor countries. The other cluster was composed only of Argentine specimens. Other sequences were more scattered along the phylogenetic tree. However, we demonstrated that a consistent genetic relatedness of sequences could only be inferred on the basis of a more extensive sequencing of each isolate. PMID:12210404

Mbayed, Viviana Andrea; Sookoian, Silvia; Alfonso, Victoria; Campos, Rodolfo Héctor

2002-10-01

298

Unique RNA 2 sequences of two Brazilian isolates of Pepper ringspot virus, a tobravirus.  

PubMed

Pepper ringspot virus (PepRSV) is a tobravirus reported only in Brazil. Here, the sequences of the complete RNA 2 segments and the 3' end of the RNA 1 genomic regions of two new isolates from tomato plants were analyzed. The main ORF encodes the CP gene as other tobraviruses and termed ORF 1 of RNA 2. The second ORF was found only in one of the new isolates, although this gene was absent in the type isolate, CAM (collected in the 1960's). Interestingly, this ORF 2 gene did not show any nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarities with known 2b genes of tobraviruses, an essential gene of tobraviruses for nematodes-transmission. The 5'UTR sequence of RNA 2 segment of CAM isolate was previously reported showing two impaired direct repeats; however, the direct-repeats were absent in these new isolates. An additional ORF was predicted upstream of the CP gene. This putative protein possessed a transmembrane domain similar to the ORFN1 of RNA 2 of Tobacco rattle virus SYM isolate, although there was no sequence similarity. This is the first report on the diversity of the RNA 2 sequences of PepRSV. PMID:24756556

Batista, Adriana Ribeiro Silva; Nicolini, Cícero; Rodrigues, Kelly Barreto; Melo, Fernando Lucas; Vasques, Raquel Medeiros; de Macędo, Mônica Alves; Inoue-Nagata, Alice Kazuko; Nagata, Tatsuya

2014-08-01

299

Isolation and genetic characterization of Japanese encephalitis virus from equines in India  

PubMed Central

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important vector-borne viral disease of humans and horses in Asia. JE outbreaks occur regularly amongst humans in certain parts of India and sporadic cases occur among horses. In this study, JE seroprevalence and evidence of JE virus (JEV) infection among horses in Haryana (India) is described. Antibodies against JEV were detected in 67 out of 637 (10.5%) horses screened between 2006 and 2010. Two foals exhibiting neurological signs were positive for JEV RNA by RT-PCR; JEV was isolated from the serum of one of the foals collected on the second day of illness. This is the first report of JEV isolation from a horse in India. Furthermore, a pool of mosquitoes collected from the premises housing these foals was positive for JEV RNA by RT-PCR. Three structural genes, capsid (C), premembrane (prM), and envelope (E) of the isolated virus (JE/eq/India/H225/2009) spanning 2,500 nucleotides (from 134 to 2,633) were cloned and sequenced. BLAST results showed that these genes had a greater than 97% nucleotide sequence identity with different human JEV isolates from India. Phylogenetic analysis based on E- and C/prM genes indicated that the equine JEV isolate belonged to genotype III and was closely related to the Vellore group of JEV isolates from India.

Singha, Harisankar; Singh, Birendra K.; Virmani, Nitin; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Raj K.

2012-01-01

300

A simple procedure for the extraction of double-stranded RNA from virus-infected plants.  

PubMed

A simple procedure for the isolation of double-stranded (ds) RNA from virus-infected plants is described. The method is based on grinding plant tissue in 4% p-aminosalicylic acid and recovery of ds RNA by phenol extraction and precipitation with 30% ethanol. The presence of both negative and positive virus RNA strands in RNA fractionated in agarose gels was verified by Northern blot hybridization with polynucleotide kinase labelled genomic RNA or complementary DNA (cDNA) probes. The procedure enabled detection of three major ds RNA species (MWs 4.2, 1.05 and 0.48 X 10(6)) and at least 4 minor bands with estimated MWs of 3.5, 2.5, 2.2 and 2.0 X 10(6) in Nicotiana tabacum plants systemically infected with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected Pachystachys coccinea plants contained 2 minor bands of MWs 0.49 and 0.35 X 10(6) in addition to the previously described 4 major ds RNAs and ds CARNA 5 (MW 0.22 X 10(6)). The patterns of ds RNA are useful for diagnosing natural infections of CMV and TMV in N. glauca plants and of citrus tristeza virus in Citrus spp. PMID:6833446

Bar-Joseph, M; Rosner, A; Moscovitz, M; Hull, R

1983-01-01

301

Characterization of a naturally occurring recombinant isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus.  

PubMed

The naturally occurring Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) recombinant isolate A17b was recovered from its grapevine host by sap inoculation and serial passages onto Gomphrena globosa, a pseudo local lesion herbaceous host, and Chenopodium quinoa, a systemic herbaceous host, to characterize some of its biological properties. Sequence analysis of the CP gene, in which a recombinational event was previously detected, demonstrated the genetic stability of recombinant isolate A17b over a 5-year period in its natural host as well as in C. quinoa. Also, recombinant isolate A17b was graft transmissible, as shown by an in vitro heterologous approach, and transmitted by the nematode Xiphinema index as readily as nonrecombinant GFLV isolates. Furthermore, despite a lower pathogenicity on Chenopodium amaranticolor, recombinant isolate A17b had a similar host range and induced similar symptoms in type and severity to nonrecombinant GFLV isolates. Interestingly, the use of infectious chimeric RNA2 transcripts in combination to RNA1 transcripts of GFLV strain F13 suggested no implication of the recombination event in the CP gene of isolate A17b in the reduced pathogenicity on C. amaranticolor. Altogether, recombinant isolate A17b had similar biological properties to GFLV nonrecombinant isolates. PMID:15968475

Vigne, E; Demangeat, G; Komar, V; Fuchs, M

2005-11-01

302

Genetic diversity and biological variation among California isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity and biological variation were compared for California isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). These fell into five pathotypes based on their reactions on three cucurbits including a susceptible squash, a melon with conventional resistance and a commercial CMV-resistant transgenic squash. Thirty-three isolates infected and caused symptoms on CMV-resistant transgenic squash. Forty-two isolates infected the CMV-resistant melon, but only 25 isolates infected both. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was used to differentiate 81 California isolates into 14 groups, and the coat protein (CP) genes of 27 isolates with distinct and indistinguishable SSCP patterns were sequenced. Fourteen isolates corresponding to the different SSCP patterns were also used for phylogenetic analysis. Seventy-nine isolates belonged to CMV subgroup IA, but two belonged to CMV subgroup IB. This is the first report of subgroup IB isolates in the Americas. All CMV isolates had a nucleotide identity greater than or equal to 93.24 %. There was no correlation between CP gene variation and geographical origin, collection year, original host plant, or between the degree of CP amino acid sequence identity and the capacity to overcome transgenic and/or conventional resistance. SSCP and sequence analyses were used to compare 33 CMV isolates on CMV-resistant transgenic squash and susceptible pumpkin plants. One isolate showed sequence differences between these two hosts, but this was not due to recombination or selection pressure of transgenic resistance. CMV isolates capable of infecting cucurbits with conventional and transgenic CMV resistance were present in California, even before CMV transgenic material was available. PMID:12533721

Lin, Han-Xin; Rubio, Luis; Smythe, Ashleigh; Jiminez, Manuel; Falk, Bryce W

2003-01-01

303

Analysis of the biological and molecular variability of Watermelon mosaic virus isolates from Iran.  

PubMed

Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) is one of the most important viruses that causes different symptoms in Cucurbitaceae. WMV is a potyvirus with a worldwide distribution, but occurs most commonly in temperate and Mediterranean regions. Cucurbit species grown in Yazd, Esfahan, West Azerbaijan, Hormozgan, and Kerman provinces were surveyed for the relative incidence of WMV in 2004-2005. A total of 757 symptomatic cucurbit and 31 weed species were collected and assayed for infection with WMV. Of 788 leaf samples from cucurbit and weed plants, 190 samples were positive by double antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) using specific polyclonal antibody. Among the weed species tested only colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis) was found to be infected with WMV. The coat protein (CP) gene from 18 representative isolates was PCR amplified, cloned, sequenced, and compared with the sequences available in GeneBank. Phylogenetic analysis using 778 nucleotide long sequences of the coat protein gene showed that these isolates fell into two; groups I and II. Only one isolates (KER.JI.1) was classified in the group II. This isolate had a wider host range and infected Nicotiana debneyii and Datura metel. None of the other 17 isolates could infect these two species. Members of group I were divided into three subgroups; A, B, and C. The subgroup I(B) appears to be a new subgroup comprising only of the Iranian isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on 200 nucleotides coding for the N-terminal segment of the CP showed that all Iranian isolates except KER.JI.1 clustered with the previously reported WMV strains. All Iranian isolates had a DAG amino acid triplet which is involved in aphid transmissibility. This is the first report on sequence analysis of the nearly full-length CP cDNA clones of WMV isolates from Iran. PMID:18712590

Sharifi, Maraym; Massumi, Hossain; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Shaabanian, Mehdi; Rahimian, H

2008-12-01

304

Taxonomic relationships between distinct potato virus Y isolates based on detailed comparisons of the viral coat proteins and 3?-nontranslated regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Detailed comparisons were made of the sequences of the coat protein (CP) cistrons and 3'-nontranslated regions (3'-NTR) of 21 (geographically) distinct isolates of potato virus Y (PVY) and a virus isolate initially described as pepper mottle virus (PepMoV). Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic relationships based on these alignments resulted into a subgrouping of virus isolates which largely corresponded with

J. Leunissen; R. W. Goldbach

1993-01-01

305

Surveillance and characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from northern pintail (Anas acuta) in Japan during 2006-09.  

PubMed

A total of 38 Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates were obtained from 6060 fecal samples from northern pintail (Anas acuta) ducks collected in the Tohoku district in Japan during 2006-09. One isolate from each sampling location and date was selected for a total of 38 isolates, then 15 of these were characterized for their pathogenicity by mean death time of minimum lethal dose (MDT/MLD) using chicken embryos and by plaque formation on chicken embryo fibroblasts. Furthermore, nine isolates were randomly selected from these 15 isolates, and the fusion protein genes were sequenced to characterize amino acid sequences around the cleavage site. All 15 were confirmed to be nonvirulent by MDT/MLD test, and nine isolates were also confirmed as nonvirulent by the cleavage site of the fusion protein 112G/E-K/R-Q-G/E-R*L117 that was specific for nonvirulent NDVs. The characteristics of nine isolates identified by phylogenic analysis of the fusion protein gene indicated that the isolates belong to genotype I or II. In addition, we also isolated 68 avian influenza viruses and 28 other hemagglutinating viruses. Our data indicate that northern pintails are subclinically infected by, perpetuate, and distribute NDV along with different subtypes of avian influenza viruses and other hemagglutinating viruses during their migrations across vast areas over the Northern Hemisphere to Japan. PMID:21793438

Ruenphet, Sakchai; Jahangir, Alam; Shoham, Dany; Morikawa, Kae; Miyoshi, Yuki; Hanawa, Eiko; Okamura, Masashi; Nakamura, Masayuki; Takehara, Kazuaki

2011-06-01

306

Rapid subtyping of tick-borne encephalitis virus isolates using multiplex RT-PCR.  

PubMed

Tick-borne encephalitis virus, an emerging pathogen in several countries in Europe and Asia, has been divided into three subtypes (European, Siberian and Far Eastern). These subtypes are associated with different severities of the disease. For that reason, early determination of the subtype in a clinical sample or in ticks removed from a patient in areas of co-circulation of two or three subtypes is of high importance. The development of a simple method of multiplex RT-PCR for rapid and easy subtyping of tick-borne encephalitis virus isolates is reported to fill this requirement. The method is based on the unique combination of oligonucleotide primers hybridizing with subtype-specific "signature" positions of the sequence encoding the viral envelope protein. The developed multiplex RT-PCR also appears to be a useful method in studies focused on the molecular-epidemiology of tick-borne encephalitis virus. PMID:17548116

R?zek, Daniel; Stastná, Hana; Kopecký, Jan; Golovljova, Irina; Grubhoffer, Libor

2007-09-01

307

Molecular characterization of KGH, the first human isolate of rabies virus in Korea.  

PubMed

The complete genome sequence of the KGH strain of the first human rabies virus, which was isolated from a skin biopsy of a patient with rabies, whose symptoms developed due to bites from a raccoon dog in 2001. The size of the KGH strain genome was determined to be 11,928 nucleotides (nt) with a leader sequence of 58 nt, nucleoprotein gene of 1,353 nt, phosphoprotein gene of 894 nt, matrix protein gene of 609 nt, glycoprotein gene of 1,575 nt, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of 6,384 nt, and trailer region of 69 nt. Sequence similarity was compared with 39 fully sequenced rabies virus genomes currently available, and the result showed 70.6-91.6 % at the nucleotide level, and 82.8-97.9 % at the amino acid level. The deduced amino acids in the viral protein were compared with those of other rabies viruses, and various functional regions were investigated. As a result, we found that the KGH strain only had a unique amino acid substitution that was identified to be associated either with host immune response and pathogenicity in the N protein, or with a related region regulating STAT1 in the P protein, and related to pathogenicity in G protein. Based on phylogenetic analyses using the complete genome of 39 rabies viruses, the KGH strain was determined to be closely related with the NNV-RAB-H strain and transplant rabies virus serotype 1, which are Indian isolates, and was confirmed to belong to the Arctic-like 2 clade. The KGH strain was most closely related to the SKRRD0204HC and SKRRD0205HC strain when compared with Korean animal isolates, which was separated around the same time and place, and belonged to the Gangwon III subgroup. PMID:23242520

Park, Jun-Sun; Kim, Chi-Kyeong; Kim, Su Yeon; Ju, Young Ran

2013-04-01

308

Comparative study of influenza virus H2 (Asian) hemagglutinins isolated from human and avian sources.  

PubMed

The hemagglutinin of an influenza virus isolated from a wild duck (Pintail, Anas acuta) in the USSR in 1976 had been found to be antigenically indistinguishable from the hemagglutinin of H2N2 viruses of human origin isolated in 1957. The hemagglutinins from viral preparations of the A/Anas acuta/Primorie/695/76 (H2Nav2) and A/Singapore/1/57 (H2N2) strains were purified by SDS gel chromatography as the subunits HA1 and HA2. Comparison of amino acid compositions and peptide maps of tryptic peptides containing [14C]-carboxymethylcysteine showed a striking degree of similarity between the H2 hemagglutinins. PMID:7193663

Bucher, D J; Kharitonenkov, I G; Lvov, D K; Pysina, T V; Lee, H M

1980-01-01

309

First isolation of border disease virus in Japan is from a pig farm with no ruminants.  

PubMed

The first isolation of border disease virus (BDV) in Japan was from a pig farm of the farrow-to-finishing type that kept no small ruminants or cattle. The infection was detected in the course of sero-surveillance for classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in Japan. The infected pigs had no clinical symptoms of CSFV or other disease; nevertheless, a high sero-positive rate of 58.5% was identified. A persistently infected pig with the BDV was found and suspected to be the cause of sero-prevalence in the farm. The isolated BDV was genetically close to BDV strains from New Zealand, but there was no epidemiological evidence concerning the route(s) of the invasion into the farm. PMID:24735918

Kawanishi, Nahoko; Tsuduku, Satoko; Shimizu, Hiromi; Ohtani, Yoshiko; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Yamakawa, Makoto; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Matsuura, Katsuyoshi; Ohashi, Seiichi; Isobe, Takashi; Yamada, Shunji

2014-06-25

310

Sequence conservation in field and experimental isolates of Borna disease virus.  

PubMed Central

Coding and noncoding sequences were analyzed from field and experimental isolates of Borna disease virus. For a 24-kDa protein, maximum divergence was 1.5% at the predicted amino acid level and 3.1% at the nucleotide level. For a 40-kDa protein, maximum divergence was 1.1% at the predicted amino acid level and 4.1% at the nucleotide level. The highest variability in sequence (10%) was found in a 40-nucleotide stretch of genomic RNA between coding sequences for the 40- and 24-kDa proteins. The degree of sequence conservation in these isolates, passaged in various host species in vivo and in vitro over a period of 64 years, is unusual for negative-strand RNA viruses.

Schneider, P A; Briese, T; Zimmermann, W; Ludwig, H; Lipkin, W I

1994-01-01

311

Preliminary comparisons of the biological properties of two strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) isolated in Japan with FIV Petaluma strain isolated in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were isolated directly from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Japanese domestic cats or indirectly from PBMCs of specific pathogen free (SPF) cats inoculated with whole blood from naturally infected cats with FIV by cocultivation with primary PBMCs from SPF cats. Two isolates, designated as FIV TM 1 and FIV TM 2,

Takayuki Miyazawa; Tetsuya Furuya; Shin-ichi Itagaki; Yukinobu Tohya; Kenji Nakano; Eiji Takahashi I; Takeshi Mikami

1989-01-01

312

Characterization and pathogenicity for pigs of a hog cholera virus strain isolated from wild boars.  

PubMed

One hog cholera virus strain isolated from an outbreak of the disease in a wild boar breeding herd in Brittany (France) in 1990 has been characterized with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to hog cholera virus and ruminant pestiviruses: the strain was found to be indistinguishable from that of other domestic pig isolates. The pathogenicity of the strain to domestic pigs was evaluated by infecting intranasally, intramuscularly and by contact 17 specific pathogen-free 6-week- and 12-week-old pigs. Sixteen of the 17 pigs showed symptoms of hog cholera. The virus was detected in the blood of the 16 pigs during all phases of hyperthermia which persisted up to death or the terminal phase, ie between 16 and 29 days post-infection. One animal recovered after presenting a mild form of the disease. This pig was the only one which raised antibodies to the virus. Typical hog cholera lesions were observed in 2 pigs only; the other animal showed very few pathological changes. No relationship between intensity or duration of the disease and pathological changes could be established. PMID:1387299

Leforban, Y; Cariolet, R

1992-01-01

313

Sequence determination of a quadripartite dsRNA virus isolated from Aspergillus foetidus.  

PubMed

Virus infection of Aspergillus foetidus was documented over 40 years ago and was one of the first mycovirus infections described in a filamentous fungus. The virus, named Aspergillus foetidus virus (AfV), contains at least two types of icosahedral particles, called AfV-fast (-F) and AfV-slow (-S) virions, based on their relative electrophoretic mobilities. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the AfV-F genome isolated from virions purified from the prototype isolate of the fungus. The AfV-F double-stranded (ds) RNA genome is tetra-segmented, and the plus strands of each of the four segments, but not the minus strands, are polyadenylated. The organisation and sequences of the four AfV-F dsRNAs are similar to those described for Alternaria alternata virus 1, which we propose is a member of an emerging mycovirus genus ("Alternavirus") and family ("Alternaviridae"), which also includes AfV-F. PMID:22760661

Kozlakidis, Zisis; Herrero, Noemi; Ozkan, Selin; Kanhayuwa, Lakkhana; Jamal, Atif; Bhatti, Muhammad F; Coutts, Robert H A

2013-01-01

314

Comparative transmission of two cucumber mosaic virus isolates by two color morphs of Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris).  

PubMed

 Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most important legume-infecting viruses, which is transmitted effectively by pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hem: Aphididae). Transmission efficiency of two CMV isolates (As and Kh from cowpea and bean hosts, resp.) by red and green color morphs of pea aphid were evaluated on bean plants. Triple-antibody sandwich ELISA (TAS-ELISA) using CMV-specific monoclonal antibodies revealed that both CMV isolates belonged to the serotype II. Bean plants inoculated by viruliferous aphids were assayed by double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) at 16 days post inoculation (dpi). The results showed that the transmission rate of CMV-As by the red morph was significantly higher than by the green morph, resulting in significantly higher transmission rate of the virus (As + Kh) by the red morph than by the green morph, with p? 0.1. Similarly, the efficiency of CMV transmission by the red morph of A. pisum was higher than the efficiency of transmission by the green morph. The higher transmission rate and efficiency of CMV by red pea aphid would be important in the epidemiology. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the transmission efficiency of CMV is affected more by the difference in transmission determinants of A. pisum color morphs than by the sequence of virus coat protein determinants. Keywords: Aphididae; Bromoviridae; color polymorphism; transmission efficiency. PMID:22720705

Tahmasebi, A; Dizadji, A; Farhoudi, F; Allahyari, H; Koohi-Habibi, M

2012-01-01

315

Structural studies on Rauscher murine leukemia virus: isolation and characterization of viral envelopes.  

PubMed Central

A preparative method for isolating pure viral envelopes from a type-C RNA tumor virus, Rauscher murine leukemia virus, is described. Fractionation of virions of Rauscher murine leukemia virus was studied after disruption of the virions with the detergents sodium dodecyl sulfate of Nonidet P-40 in combination with ether. Fractionation was performed through flotation in a discontinuous sucrose gradient and, as appeared from electron microscopic examination, a pure viral envelope fraction was obtained in this way. By use of sensitive competition radioimmunoassays or sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after immunoprecipitation with polyvalent and monospecific antisera directed against Rauscher murine leukemia virus proteins, the amount of the gag and env gene-encoded structural polypeptides in the virions and the isolated envelope fraction was compared. The predominant viral structural polypeptides in the purified envelope fraction were the env gene-encoded polypeptides gp70, p15(E), and p12(E), whereas, except for p15, there was only a relatively small amount of the gag gene-encoded structural polypeptides in this fraction. Images

van de Ven, W J; Vermorken, A J; Onnekink, C; Bloemers, H P; Bloemendal, H

1978-01-01

316

Identification of syncytial mutations in a clinical isolate of herpes simplex virus 2  

SciTech Connect

Small polykaryocytes resulting from cell fusion are found in herpes simplex virus (HSV) lesions in patients, but their significance for viral spread and pathogenesis is unclear. Although syncytial variants causing extensive fusion in tissue culture can be readily isolated from laboratory strains, they are rarely found in clinical isolates, suggesting that extensive cell fusion may be deleterious in vivo. Syncytial mutations have previously been identified for several laboratory strains, but not for clinical isolates of HSV type 2. To address this deficiency, we studied a recent syncytial clinical isolate, finding it to be a mixture of two syncytial and one nonsyncytial strain. The two syncytial strains have novel mutations in glycoprotein B, and in vitro cell fusion assays confirmed that they are responsible for syncytium formation. This panel of clinical strains may be ideal for examining the effect of increased cell fusion on pathogenesis.

Muggeridge, Martin I. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130 (United States) and Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130 (United States) and Feist-Weiller Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130 (United States)]. E-mail: mmugge@lsuhsc.edu; Grantham, Michael L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130 (United States); Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130 (United States); Johnson, F. Brent [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

2004-10-25

317

Detection and partial molecular characterization of atypical plum pox virus isolates from naturally infected sour cherry.  

PubMed

Atypical isolates of plum pox virus (PPV) were discovered in naturally infected sour cherry in urban ornamental plantings in Moscow, Russia. The isolates were detected by polyclonal double antibody sandwich ELISA and RT-PCR using universal primers specific for the 3'-non-coding and coat protein (CP) regions of the genome but failed to be recognized by triple antibody sandwich ELISA with the universal monoclonal antibody 5B and by RT-PCR using primers specific to for PPV strains D, M, C and W. Sequence analysis of the CP genes of nine isolates revealed 99.2-100 % within-group identity and 62-85 % identity to conventional PPV strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the atypical isolates represent a group that is distinct from the known PPV strains. Alignment of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of CP demonstrated their close similarity to those of a new tentative PPV strain, CR. PMID:23404462

Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna

2013-06-01

318

Characterization of three infectious bursal disease virus isolates obtained from layer chickens in Iran.  

PubMed

Three infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDVs) were isolated from field outbreaks in IBDV-vaccinated and non-vaccinated layer chicken flocks. Agar gel precipitation test (AGPT), immunoperoxidase staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inoculation into embryonated eggs, and chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) confirmed that the isolates were IBDVs. RT-PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the isolates were very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) and showed a nucleotide sequence similarity of 96.3 to 99.8% in comparison with other vvIBDV strains. It was concluded that the Iranian isolates represented vvIBDV of serotype 1 originating from Europe, Japan, and China. PMID:18999891

Bahmaninejad, M A; Hair-Bejo, M; Omar, A R; Aini, I; Toroghi, R

2008-01-01

319

Complete Genome Sequence of a Wild-Type Measles Virus Isolated during the Spring 2013 Epidemic in Germany.  

PubMed

Measles virus induces an acute disease with rash and fever. Despite ongoing vaccination and elimination campaigns, the measles virus still sustains long-lasting transmission chains in Europe. Here we report the complete genome sequence of a wild-type measles virus isolated from a patient in Munich (MVi/Muenchen.DEU/19.13[D8]) during a German measles outbreak in 2013. PMID:24744323

Sparrer, Konstantin M J; Krebs, Stefan; Jäger, Gundula; Santibanez, Sabine; Mankertz, Annette; Blum, Helmut; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus

2014-01-01

320

Complete Genome Sequence of an H5N2 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from a Parrot in Southern China  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genome sequence of an H5N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) that was first isolated from a parrot in Guangdong in southern China in 2004. Genomic sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that it was highly homologous with the North American H5N2 viruses and all eight genes of this virus belonged to the North American gene lineage. These data will help in the investigation of the epidemiology and host range of AIVs in southern China.

Jiao, Peirong; Wei, Liangmeng; Yuan, Runyu; Gong, Lang; Cao, Lan; Song, Yafen; Luo, Kaijian; Ren, Tao

2012-01-01

321

Avian Influenza (H5N1) Viruses Isolated from Humans in Asia in 2004 Exhibit Increased Virulence in Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses across Asia in 2003 and 2004 devastated domestic poultry populations and resulted in the largest and most lethal H5N1 virus outbreak in humans to date. To better understand the potential of H5N1 viruses isolated during this epizootic event to cause disease in mammals, we used the mouse and ferret models to

Taronna R. Maines; Xui Hua Lu; Steven M. Erb; Lindsay Edwards; Jeannette Guarner; Patricia W. Greer; Doan C. Nguyen; Kristy J. Szretter; Li-Mei Chen; Pranee Thawatsupha; Malinee Chittaganpitch; Sunthareeya Waicharoen; Diep T. Nguyen; Tung Nguyen; Hanh H. T. Nguyen; Jae-Hong Kim; Long T. Hoang; Chun Kang; Lien S. Phuong; Wilina Lim; Sherif Zaki; Ruben O. Donis; Nancy J. Cox; Jacqueline M. Katz; Terrence M. Tumpey

2005-01-01

322

Pathogenicity of an isolate of infectious bursal disease virus in local Nigerian ducks.  

PubMed

Three to six-week old local Nigerian ducks were inoculated orally and intraocularly with an isolate of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 1 which was pathogenic for chickens. Neither clinical signs nor gross or microscopic lesions were observed. IBDV antigen was not detected in the bursa by the agar gel diffusion precipitation test. Precipitins and neutralising antibodies to IBDV were also not detected in the serum samples and IBDV was not isolated from the bursa, spleen and liver of the ducks. The above observations suggest that the ducks might be resistant to IBDV infection. PMID:2171174

Okoye, J O; Iguomu, E P; Nwosuh, C

1990-08-01

323

Phylogenetic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus strains isolated in Japan.  

PubMed

To define the origin and evolution of recent avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in Japan, a genetic analysis was performed. By phylogenetic analysis based on the S1 gene including the sequence of the hypervariable regions, IBV isolates in Japan were classified into five genetic groups, which included two already-known groups (Mass and Gray). Among them, three major genetic groups were associated with the recent outbreaks of IB in Japan. One group is indigenous to Japan and could not be placed within the known existing groups in other countries. The remaining two groups, which have emerged recently, are related to isolates in China and Taiwan. PMID:15290359

Mase, M; Tsukamoto, K; Imai, K; Yamaguchi, S

2004-10-01

324

Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates in Kosovo.  

PubMed

Three serum samples positive in Antigen ELISA BVDV have been tested to characterise genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Kosovo. Samples were obtained in 2011 from heifers and were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sequenced and analysed by computer-assisted phylogenetic analysis. Amplified products and nucleotide sequence showed that all 3 isolates belonged to BVDV 1 genotype and 1b sub genotype. These results enrich the extant knowledge of BVDV and represent the first documented data about Kosovo BVDV isolates. PMID:24715596

Goga, Izedin; Berxholi, Kristaq; Hulaj, Beqe; Sylejmani, Driton; Yakobson, Boris; Stram, Yehuda

2014-03-18

325

Isolation of a variant infectious bronchitis virus in Australia that further illustrates diversity among emerging strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Australian infectious bronchitis viruses (IBV) have undergone a separate evolution due to geographic isolation. Consequently,\\u000a changes occurring in Australian IBV illustrate, independently from other countries, types of variability that could occur\\u000a in emerging IBV strains. Previously, we have identified two distinct genetic groups of IBV, designated subgroups 1 and 2.\\u000a IBV strains of subgroup 1 have S1 and N proteins

J. Ignjatovic; G. Gould; S. Sapats

2006-01-01

326

Characterization of the complete genomic sequence of genotype II hepatitis A virus (CF53\\/Berne isolate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete genomic sequence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) CF53\\/Berne strain was determined. Pairwise comparison with other complete HAV genomic sequences demonstrated that the CF53\\/Berne isolate is most closely related to the single genotype VII strain, SLF88. This close relationship was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses of different genomic regions, and was most pronounced within the capsid region. These data indicated

Ling Lu; Karen Z. Ching; Vanessa Salete de Paula; Tatsunori Nakano; Gunter Siegl; Manfred Weitz; Betty H. Robertson

2004-01-01

327

Isolation and partial characterisation of a new strain of Ebola virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a new strain of Ebola virus from a non-fatal human case infected during the autopsy of a wild chimpanzee in the Cote-d'Ivoire. The wild troop to which this animal belonged has been decimated by outbreaks of haemorrhagic syndromes. This is the first time that a human infection has been connected to naturally-infected monkeys in Africa. Data from

B. Le Guenno; P Formentry; M. Wyers; P. Gounon; F. Walker; C. Boesch

1995-01-01

328

First Isolation of West Nile virus from a Patient with Encephalitis in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated from a patient who developed encephalitis while undergoing treatment with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydoxorubicin, vincristine (Oncovin), predisone) and rituximab for a non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. Both standard reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Taqman RT-PCR established the diagnosis of WNV infection from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Several whole blood samples and one serum sample underwent further testing.

Cinnia Huang; Brett Slater; Robert Rudd; Nandakishore Parchuri; Rene Hull; Michelle Dupuis; Alexander Hindenburg

2002-01-01

329

Optimization of methods for the isolation of Marek's disease viruses in primary chicken cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time PCR was used to measure increases in viral DNA in Marek's disease virus (MDV)-infected primary chicken cell cultures in order to optimize methods for viral isolation. Serotype-1 and -3 vaccine and serotype-1 challenge strains exhibited similar growth characteristics, with increases in viral DNA being proportional to inoculum size. Studies of viral growth revealed a linear relationship between increase

Jianming Tan; Julie Cooke; Nadeene Clarke; Gregory A. Tannock

2008-01-01

330

Genetic Structure and Molecular Variability of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolates in the United States  

PubMed Central

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has a worldwide distribution and the widest host range of any known plant virus. From 2000 to 2012, epidemics of CMV severely affected the production of snap bean (Phaseulos vulgaris L.) in the Midwest and Northeastern United States. Virus diversity leading to emergence of new strains is often considered a significant factor in virus epidemics. In addition to epidemics, new disease phenotypes arising from genetic exchanges or mutation can compromise effectiveness of plant disease management strategies. Here, we captured a snapshot of genetic variation of 32 CMV isolates collected from different regions of the U.S including new field as well as historic isolates. Nucleotide diversity (?) was low for U.S. CMV isolates. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CMV subgroup I is predominant in the US and further showed that the CMV population is a mixture of subgroups IA and IB. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggests likely reassortment between subgroups IA and IB within five CMV isolates. Based on phylogenetic and computational analysis, recombination between subgroups I and II as well as IA and IB in RNA 3 was detected. This is the first report of recombination between CMV subgroups I and II. Neutrality tests illustrated that negative selection was the major force operating upon the CMV genome, although some positively selected sites were detected for all encoded proteins. Together, these data suggest that different regions of the CMV genome are under different evolutionary constraints. These results also delineate composition of the CMV population in the US, and further suggest that recombination and reassortment among strain subgroups does occur but at a low frequency, and point towards CMV genomic regions that differ in types of selection pressure.

Nouri, Shahideh; Arevalo, Rafael; Falk, Bryce W.; Groves, Russell L.

2014-01-01

331

Complete genome sequences of four virulent rabies virus strains isolated from rabid animals in Russia.  

PubMed

Rabies virus (RABV) strains Rus(Lipetsk)-8052f, Rus(Lipetsk)-8053c, Rus(Lipetsk)-8054f, and Rus(Lipetsk)-8057f were isolated from foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and a cat (Felis catus) in the Lipetsk region of Russia in 2011. Close relationships between these strains and the members of the "Cosmopolitan" group from Russia (98% homology) and from Europe (95% homology) were estimated. PMID:23661472

Poleshchuk, E M; Deviatkin, A A; Dedkov, V G; Sidorov, G N; Ochkasova, J V; Hodjakova, I A; Schukina, I A; Savel'ev, S I; Golenskih, A G; Shipulin, G A

2013-01-01

332

The value of MLA 144 culture fluid for the isolation of human immunodeficiency virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was readily isolated by co-cultivation of patients' cells with phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood in 2 ml cultures in 24-well plates. Fluids from cultures of the MLA 144 cell line acted as an excellent source of interleukin-2, and promoted early replication of HIV in the primary cultures. Reverse transcriptase activity was commonly present at

JH Pope; F Bisshop; B McRandle; J Blok; CW Schmidt; RJ Kemp

1989-01-01

333

Full genome sequence and analysis of Indian swine hepatitis E virus isolate of genotype 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The full-length genomic sequence of an Indian swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolate (IND-SW-00-01) recovered from feces of a pig experimentally infected with swine HEV pool from western India was determined. The genome consisted of 7240 nucleotides, excluding the poly (A) tail of at least 22 residues and contained three open reading frames (ORFs), ORF-1 encoding 1707 amino acids, ORF-2

Leenata P. Chobe; Kavita S. Lole; Vidya A. Arankalle

2006-01-01

334

Isolation and characterization of Tula virus, a distinct serotype in the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Vero E6 cell culture isolate of Tula virus (TUL), a hantavirus first detected in European common voles (hficrotus arvalis and hr. rossiaemeridionolis) by RT-PCR was obtained after initial passaging of TUL- infected vole lung samples in laboratory-colonized hl. arvalis. TUL was defined as a classical serotype by a cross-focus-reduction neutralization test (FRNT) and was also shown to be distinct

Olli Vapalahti; A. Lundkvist; S. K. J. Kukkonen; Y. Cheng; M. Gilljam; M. Kanerva; T. Manni; M. Pejcoch; J. Niemimaa; A. Kaikusalo; H. Henttonen; A. Vaheri; A. Plyusnin

1996-01-01

335

Screening, isolation and optimization of anti-white spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various terrestrial plants and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti–WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. The best anti–WSSV plant isolate, TP22C was isolated and further analyzed. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Seven plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug TP22C thus formulated showed 86% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of TP22C required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 86%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug TP22C derived from Momordica charantia is a potent anti-white spot syndrome virus drug.

Ghosh, Upasana; Chakraborty, Somnath; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

2014-01-01

336

Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates in East China.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been reported to have evolved at a high evolutionary rate and the extensive genetic variation. In this study, 44 PRRSV positive cases obtained from different provinces of China were sequenced and analyzed. Comparative analysis of partial isolates based on nsp2 sequences revealed that highly pathogenic PRRSV were the dominant viruses in China from 2008 to 2010 and some novel strains with an extra deletion of 19aa. Phylogenetic analysis based on the GP5 genes showed that the PRRSV isolates from 1996 to 2010 had a great variation and the North American genotype was further divided into six subgenotypes. No apparent relationship between the heterogeneity and the geographic origin of isolates was observed. The 44 isolates and 29 representative strains were divided into six subgenotypes. Further analysis of the GP5 protein suggested that these strains of subgenotypes I, II and III exhibited variations in the primary neutralizing epitope and almost all isolates of subgenotypes II and III had more N-linked glycosylation sites. In addition, some mutations which could mirror the viral evolution and adaptation were also observed in this study. All these results might be useful to study the genetic variation and genetic relatedness among PRRSV strains in China. PMID:24607342

Wang, Xiaomin; He, Kongwang; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhou, Zhongtao; Mao, Aihua; Yu, Zhengyu

2014-06-01

337

Complete genome analysis of a highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus isolated from a tiger in China.  

PubMed

An influenza A virus (A/Tig/SH/01/2005 (H5N1) was isolated from lung tissue samples of a dead zoo tiger with respiratory disease in China in July 2005. Complete genome analysis indicated that the isolate was highly identical to an H5N1 virus isolated from a migratory duck at Poyang lake in China in that year. The genotype of the isolate was K,G,D,5J,F,1J,F,1E, and phylogenetically it was a clade 2.2 virus. Molecular characterization of all of the gene segments revealed characteristics of highly pathogenic influenza A viruses. These results may help to identify molecular determinants of virulence and highlight the necessity for continuous surveillance. PMID:18592132

Mushtaq, Muhammad Hassan; Juan, Huang; Jiang, Ping; Li, Yufeng; Li, TianXian; Du, Yijun; Mukhtar, Muhammad Mahmood

2008-01-01

338

Diversity Among Potato virus Y Isolates Obtained from Potatoes Grown in the United States.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Potato field isolates (Solanum tuberosum) of Potato virus Y (PVY) collected from the midwestern and western United States were characterized using serological, molecular, and biological assays. PVY field isolates were grouped into the previously defined categories: PVY(O), European PVY(NTN), North American PVY(NTN), and PVY(N:O) recombinant and four previously undefined groups. Studies reported here agree with published reports from Europe and elsewhere in North America as PVY isolates capable of causing veinal necrosis in tobacco indicator plants appear in high frequency. In contrast to European experiences, PVY tuber necrosis isolates have a PVY(O) coat protein rather than that of PVY(N). Several PVY(N:O) recombinant isolates induced potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) in the highly susceptible potato cv. Yukon Gold. The PTNRD symptoms produced by these PVY(N:O) recombinants were atypical compared with lesions found on the same cultivar infected with either the European or North American PVY(NTN) isolates. These PVY(N:O) isolates produced a roughly circular, sunken necrotic lesion on the surface of the tuber instead of the typical external sunken ring pattern displayed by PVY(NTN) isolates. This study establishes the complex nature of PVY populations within the U.S. potato industry and clearly demonstrates the diverse nature of PVY in the United States. PMID:18943708

Piche, L M; Singh, R P; Nie, X; Gudmestad, N C

2004-12-01

339

Isolation and Identification of Viruses from Adult Largemouth Bass during a 1997–1998 Survey in the Southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 452 largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (mostly adults) from 78 reservoirs, lakes, rivers, and state fish hatcheries in eight states of the southeastern USA were surveyed for largemouth bass virus (LMBV) between August 1997 and November 1998. Virus was isolated from ostensibly healthy electrofished largemouth bass from six reservoirs on four different river systems—Lakes Jordan (Coosa River) and

John A. Plumb; Andrew D. Noyes; Sara Graziano; Jun Wang; Jinghe Mao; V. Gregory Chinchar

1999-01-01

340

Genetic variation in open reading frame 2 of field isolates and laboratory strains of equine arteritis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of three laboratory strains, the live attenuated vaccine virus, and 18 field isolates of equine arteritis virus (EAV) from Europe and North America was sequenced. The ORF2 of EAV encodes the Gs protein that is abundantly expressed in infected cells but constitutes less than 2% of the virion protein mass. Variation of ORF2 among

Jodi F. Hedges; Udeni B. R. Balasuriya; Peter J. Timoney; William H. McCollum; N. James MacLachlan

1996-01-01

341

Genetic Variability of Immunomodulatory Genes in Ectromelia Virus Isolates Detected by Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography  

PubMed Central

The genetic variability of nine genes in 12 isolates and strains of ectromelia virus, which causes a smallpox-like disease (mousepox) in mice, was determined and allows for classification of ectromelia viruses. The low genetic variability suggests that evolutionary pressure maintains the activity of immunomodulatory genes in natural poxvirus infections.

Ribas, Gloria; Rivera, Jose; Saraiva, Margarida; Campbell, R. Duncan; Alcami, Antonio

2003-01-01

342

Serological and biochemical analysis of some recent type A foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates from the Middle East.  

PubMed Central

In 1986 and 1987 foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A was isolated from outbreaks of disease in Saudi Arabia and Iran. Selected virus isolates were antigenically distinct from the prototype A22 virus strain (A22/Iraq/64), but were serologically related to each other. However, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that whilst the respective Saudi Arabian structural polypeptides were homogeneous, those from an Iran isolate were distinct. Direct sequencing of part of the P-1D (VP1) gene demonstrated considerable difference in nucleotide homology between the two groups of viruses; the Saudi Arabian viruses were closely related to each other but only distantly related to both the A22 prototype virus strain and the Iranian virus isolate. The latter viruses were only slightly more closely related to each other. Thus there appeared to be at least two distinct FMDV type A variants co-circulating in the Middle East, both of which differed considerably from the classical A22 subtype. Images Fig. 1

Samuel, A. R.; Knowles, N. J.; Kitching, R. P.

1988-01-01

343

Whole-Genome Sequence of a Classical Swine Fever Virus Isolated from the Uttarakhand State of India  

PubMed Central

We report the first complete genome sequence of a classical swine fever (CSF) virus of subgenotype 2.2. The virus (CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290) was isolated from the Uttarakhand state of India from a backyard pig suspected of having CSF. This genome sequence will give useful insight for future molecular epidemiological studies and the development of an effective vaccine in India.

Kumar, Ravi; Chandra, Tribhuwan; Thapliyal, Ashish; Muthuchelvan, Dhanavelu; Sudhakar, Shashi Bhushan; Sharma, Kuldeep; Saxena, Arpit; Raut, Sachin D.; Singh, Vinod Kumar; Ahmad, Zubair; Kumar, Ajay; Chaudhary, Dheeraj; Singh, Raj Kumar; Pandey, Awadh Bihari

2014-01-01

344

Infectivity analysis of a blackgram isolate of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus and genetic assortment with MYMIV in selective hosts.  

PubMed

Yellow mosaic disease in grain legumes in Indian subcontinent is caused by two important virus species viz. Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) and Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), belonging to the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae. The genomic components of a begomovirus causing yellow mosaic disease in blackgram in southern India were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparison of DNA A component shows the virus isolate to be a variant of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus:-(MYMV-[IN:Vam:05]). However, DNA B component of the present virus isolate has greater similarity (92%) to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus. Agroinoculations of the viral clones produced typical yellow mosaic symptoms in blackgram and mungbean, severe leaf curl and stunting in French bean, similar to blackgram isolate of MYMIV. Blackgram isolates of both the virus species were only mildly infectious on cowpea, produced atypical leaf curl symptoms and not yellow or golden mosaic. In agroinoculations done by exchanging genomic components, symptom expression was seen only in French bean. In cowpea, blackgram and mungbean there was no visible symptoms though viral DNA could be detected by PCR. PMID:21380756

Haq, Q M I; Rouhibakhsh, A; Ali, Arif; Malathi, V G

2011-06-01

345

Complete Genome Sequence of a Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from an Apparently Healthy Village Chicken in South India  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate, NDV-D1/1998, from an apparently healthy village chicken in South India. This class II, genotype II virus is 15,186 nucleotides in length with unique amino acid variations and was found to be a velogenic pathotype by standard pathogenicity tests.

Uthrakumar, Arumugam; Vijayarani, Kumanan; Kumanan, Kathaperumal; Bhuvaneswari, Srinivasan; Kuchipudi, Suresh Varma

2014-01-01

346

Changuinola Virus Serogroup, New Genomes within the Genus Orbivirus (Family Reoviridae) Isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Region  

PubMed Central

We report here the first complete genome sequence of a Changuinola virus (CGLV) serotype Irituia virus (BE AN 28873) isolated from a wild rodent (Oryzomys goeldi) in the municipality of Ipixuna, State of Pará, northern Brazil. All genome segments showed similarity with those belonging to members of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae.

Dilcher, Meik; Weidmann, Manfred; Carvalho, Valeria L.; Casseb, Alexandre R.; Silva, Eliana V. P.; Nunes, Keley N. B.; Chiang, Jannifer O.; Martins, Livia C.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.

2013-01-01

347

Complete genome sequence of a velogenic newcastle disease virus isolated from an apparently healthy village chicken in South India.  

PubMed

We report the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate, NDV-D1/1998, from an apparently healthy village chicken in South India. This class II, genotype II virus is 15,186 nucleotides in length with unique amino acid variations and was found to be a velogenic pathotype by standard pathogenicity tests. PMID:24948766

Uthrakumar, Arumugam; Vijayarani, Kumanan; Kumanan, Kathaperumal; Bhuvaneswari, Srinivasan; Kuchipudi, Suresh Varma; Elankumaran, Subbiah

2014-01-01

348

Antigenic and immunogenic characterization of infectious bronchitis virus strains isolated in China between 1986 and 1995.  

PubMed

Eight strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were isolated between 1986 and 1995 from broilers and layers at eight different farms in four provinces in China. The viruses were isolated from flocks which suffered from either respiratory disease or nephritis and the majority had not been vaccinated against IBV. Six strains were shown by monoclonal antibodies to differ from H120, Connecticut and Arkansas 99 strains of IBV and also to differ from each other. Four of these strains were serotyped; one (NRZ) was of the Massachusetts serotype, three (HV, NB-90 and TJ) shared a degree of antigenic similarity and were of a serotype that differed from Massachusetts and Connecticut. NB-90 was similar to both Gray and T strains whereas TJ shared some similarity with the T strain. Four strains, HV, NB-90, YY and TJ induced 33, 47, 60 and 90% mortality, respectively, in 3-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens. Clinical signs and post-mortem findings were identical to those induced by the nephropathogenic T strain. Chickens vaccinated with H120 strain, and then challenged with four highly pathogenic strains HV, NB-90, YY and TJ were not protected as determined by both virus isolation and mortality. The results show that highly pathogenic IBV strains which induce clinical nephritis occur frequently in poultry flocks in China. They also confirm field observations on the lack of protection by currently used IB vaccines of the Massachusetts serotype against challenge with these nephropathogenic strains. PMID:18484046

Wu, Z Q; Yang, Q W; Fu, C; Zhao, X Y; Ignjatovic, J

1998-01-01

349

Molecular characterization of Rabies Virus isolates from dogs and crab-eating foxes in Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Thirty-eight samples of Rabies Virus isolated from dogs and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) in Northeastern Brazil were characterized genetically by analyzing the G gene and the psi region. The results show that there are two groups of Rabies Virus lineages circulating among domestic and wild animals in the region. The topologies of the phylogenetic trees of the G gene and psi region are similar and reveal the existence of geographic groups. The genetic diversity of the lineages isolated from wild animals (wild group) was approximately twice that of the lineages isolated from domestic animals (domestic group), and the genetic distance between the two groups was 9.93%. Polymorphism analysis revealed specific intra- and inter-group molecular signatures for both the G gene and psi region. Together with the analysis of the N gene undertaken previously, the results of this study confirm the existence of a Rabies Virus phylogroup in Northeastern Brazil (NB) circulating in the C. thous population, making this species a rabies biotype in the region. PMID:19185599

Carnieli, Pedro; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Fahl, Willian de Oliveira; Véras, Nazle Mendonça Collaço; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete

2009-04-01

350

Isolation, preliminary characterization, and full-genome analyses of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Mongolia.  

PubMed

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes one of the most important inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, namely severe encephalitis in Europe and Asia. Since the 1980s tick-borne encephalitis is known in Mongolia with increasing numbers of human cases reported during the last years. So far, however, data on TBEV strains are still sparse. We herein report the isolation of a TBEV strain from Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected in Mongolia in 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of the E-gene classified this isolate as Siberian subtype of TBEV. The Mongolian TBEV strain showed differences in virus titers, plaque sizes, and growth properties in two human neuronal cell-lines. In addition, the 10,242 nucleotide long open-reading frame and the corresponding polyprotein sequence were revealed. The isolate grouped in the genetic subclade of the Siberian subtype. The strain Zausaev (AF527415) and Vasilchenko (AF069066) had 97 and 94 % identity on the nucleotide level. In summary, we herein describe first detailed data regarding TBEV from Mongolia. Further investigations of TBEV in Mongolia and adjacent areas are needed to understand the intricate dispersal of this virus. PMID:22847274

Frey, Stefan; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Altantuul, Damdin; Battsetseg, Jigjav; Davaadorj, Rendoo; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Buyanjargal, Tsoodol; Otgonbaatar, Dashdavaa; Zöller, Lothar; Speck, Stephanie; Wölfel, Roman; Dobler, Gerhard; Essbauer, Sandra

2012-12-01

351

Human isolates of dengue type 1 virus induce apoptosis in mouse neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed Central

Human isolates of dengue (DEN) type 1 viruses FGA/89 and BR/90 differ in their membrane fusion properties in mosquito cell lines (P. Desprčs et al., Virology 196:209-216, 1993). FGA/89 and BR/90 were assayed for their neurovirulence in newborn mice, and neurons were the major target cells for both DEN-1 virus strains within the central nervous system. To study the susceptibility of neurons to DEN virus infection, DEN virus replication was analyzed in the murine neuroblastoma cell line Neuro 2a. Infection of Neuro 2a cells with FGA/89 or BR/90 induced apoptotic DNA degradation after 25 h of infection. Studies of DEN protein synthesis revealed that accumulation of viral proteins leads to apoptotic cell death. The apoptotic process progressed more rapidly following BR/90 infection than it did after FGA/89 infection. The higher cytotoxicity of BR/90 for Neuro 2a cells was linked to an incomplete maturation of the envelope proteins, resulting in abortive virus assembly. Accumulation of viral proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum may induce stress and thereby activate the apoptotic pathway in mouse neuroblastoma cells.

Despres, P; Flamand, M; Ceccaldi, P E; Deubel, V

1996-01-01

352

Complete genome analysis of a highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus isolated from a tiger in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

An influenza A virus (A\\/Tig\\/SH\\/01\\/2005 (H5N1) was isolated from lung tissue samples of a dead zoo tiger with respiratory disease\\u000a in China in July 2005. Complete genome analysis indicated that the isolate was highly identical to an H5N1 virus isolated\\u000a from a migratory duck at Poyang lake in China in that year. The genotype of the isolate was K,G,D,5J,F,1J,F,1E, and

Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq; Huang Juan; Ping Jiang; Yufeng Li; TianXian Li; Yijun Du; Muhammad Mahmood Mukhtar

2008-01-01

353

Genetic characterization of two low pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 isolates from Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomes of two low pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (LPAI) viruses, A\\/Turkey\\/ON\\/84\\/1983 and A\\/Mallard\\/ON\\/499\\/2005 from Ontario,\\u000a Canada were cloned and genetically characterized. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Canadian isolates cluster with other\\u000a North American AIVs and are distinct from the Euro-Asian H5N1 isolates. Individual gene comparisons demonstrated that the\\u000a Ontario isolates were most similar to the viruses isolated from around the

Yanlong Pei; Janet Swinton; Davor Ojkic; Shayan Sharif

2009-01-01

354

Purification and properties of arabis mosaic and tomato bushy stunt viruses isolated from lilac ( Syringa vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives more detailed characteristics of Arabis mosaic virus (AMV) and tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) isolated from\\u000a lilac, the latter being identified in lilac (from plants suffering from yellow ring disease) for the first time. The isolate\\u000a of TBSV from lilac, from which an antiserum with a titre of 1024 was prepared, is closely related to the artichoke

J. B. Novák; Julie Lanzová

1977-01-01

355

Molecular characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in Sweden in 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The analysis of the nonstructural (NS) gene of the highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) isolated in Sweden early 2006 indicated the co-circulation of two sub-lineages of these viruses at that time. In order to complete the information on their genetic features and relation to other HP H5N1 AIVs the seven additional genes of twelve Swedish isolates

István Kiss; Péter Gyarmati; Siamak Zohari; Karin Wilbe Ramsay; Giorgi Metreveli; Elisabeth Weiss; Maria Brytting; Marielle Stivers; Sofia Lindström; Ake Lundkvist; Kirill Nemirov; Peter Thorén; Mikael Berg; György Czifra; Sándor Belák

2008-01-01

356

CHARACTERIZATION OF H5N1 INFLUENZA VIRUSES ISOLATED FROM MIGRATORY BIRDS IN QINGHAI PROVINCE OF CHINA IN 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Avian influenza H5N1 viruses pose a significant threat to human health because of their ability to infect humans directly. In the paper, three highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses were isolated from three species of migratory birds in Qinghai Province of China in 2006. The analysis of the genome sequences indicated that the three isolates shared high homology with each

Fumin Lei; AF Shuang Tang; A Xiaowei Zhang; Zhong Zhang; A Shengliang Chen; D Dehai Zhang; D Baoping Yan; Zuohua Yin; Shengliang Chen; Sandan Li; Dehai Zhang; Baoping Yan; Tianxian Li

2007-01-01

357

Identification of potyvirus isolates from faba bean ( Vicia faba L.), and the relationships between bean yellow mosaic virus and clover yellow vein virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Clover yellow vein virus (CYVV) isolate H and the related potyvirus isolates E178, E197, and E242 could be distinguished from bean yellow mosaic (BYMV) isolates by their wider host range among non-legume test plant species, the peculiar enlargement of the nucleolus in infected plants, and the larger size of their coat protein as evidenced by slower migration in SDS-PAGE.

M. Fortass; L. Bos; R. W. Goldbach

1991-01-01

358

Surveillance for avirulent Newcastle disease viruses in domestic ducks (Anasplatyrhynchos and Cairina moschata) at live bird markets in Eastern China and characterization of the viruses isolated  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated and identified 201 Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) from domestic ducks in a 5-year surveillance study at live bird markets in Eastern China. Seventy-three of these isolates were characterized biologically and genetically. Fusion protein (F) genes of these isolates were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Intracerebral pathogenicity index tests in 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens and the mean

Xiaowen Liu; Xiaoquan Wang; Shuang Wu; Shunlin Hu; Yi Peng; Feng Xue; Xiufan Liu

2009-01-01

359

Molecular characterization of Korean Pepper mottle virus isolates and its relationship to symptom variations.  

PubMed

The symptom variations among Korean Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV) isolates infecting pepper, tomato and potato were described and the cause of variations in relation to molecular variability were investigated. In addition, the entire genome of the 13 PepMoV isolates, collected from five provinces (Kyonggi, Chungnam, Gyeongnam, Jeonbuk and Jeonnam) in Korea, were determined and compared including the previously reported Korean-Vb isolate and 2 other PepMoV isolates isolated from America (CA and FL). Our results showed that the nucleotide sequence of all Korean isolates tested were nearly identical (98-99%) and only 94% similar to American isolates. In general, the complete nucleotide sequences and deduced polyprotein sequences indicated low genetic variation among isolates showing 0.1-3% nucleotide changes per site. However, based on ratio between nucleotide diversity values in nonsynonymous and synonymous position (dN/dS ratio) surprisingly, P1 and 6K2 genes showed relatively high nucleotide substitution ratio (0.8 and 1.0 nucleotide, respectively). When the 6K2 amino acid were aligned, there were 15 amino acid substitutions found in PepMoV-infected potato and only 1 amino acid change from two isolates of PepMoV-infected bell pepper. Interestingly, three isolates including isolate numbers 731, 205135 and 205136 that possessed different aa changes at 6K2 region also showed distinct symptom differentiation in indicator hosts and cosegregated in the phylogenetic analysis. These results further proved previous studies that P1 and 6K2 genes with other proteins might have some involvement on host specificity and pathogenicity. PMID:19374928

Kim, Yu-Jeong; Jonson, Miranda Gilda; Choi, Hong Soo; Ko, Sug-Ju; Kim, Kook-Hyung

2009-09-01

360

S1 glycoprotein gene analysis of infectious bronchitis viruses isolated in Korea.  

PubMed

Fifteen isolates of Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were obtained from the kidney, trachea, and cecal tonsil of IB suspected chickens between 2001 and 2002 years in Korea. The S1 glycoprotein gene of IBV isolates were amplified by reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Fifteen Korean IBV isolates were classified into 4 groups by their RFLP patterns using restriction enzymes, HaeIII, BstYI, and XcmI. The RFLP patterns for 3, 1, and 1 of 15 isolates corresponded to the patterns of IBV Arkansas, Connecticut, and Massachusetts strains, respectively. Ten of 15 isolates generated unique KM91 RFLP pattern that was observed in the IBV KM 91 strain previously isolated in Korea. To confirm genetic diversity in the S1 genes of IBV isolates, viral RNAs of representative 9 of 15 IBV isolates were amplified, cloned, sequenced and compared with published sequences for non-Korean IBV strains. Korean IBV isolates showed amino acid sequence similarity between 61.8% (K446-01 and K161-02) and 96.1% (K281-01 and K210-02) with each other and they showed amino acid sequence similarity between 42.9% (K161-02 and GA980470) and 96.5% (K203-02 and KB8523) compared to non-Korean IBV strains. By phylogenetic tree analysis, Korean IBV field isolates were branched into five clusters in which 3 clusters were differentiated from non-Korean IBV strains. Especially, Korean IBV isolates K069-01, K507-01, K774-01 and K142-02 formed a separate cluster. It seems that IBVs continue to evolve and IBVs showing various genetic differences may cocirculate in Korea. PMID:14991438

Lee, S K; Sung, H W; Kwon, H M

2004-03-01

361

A highly divergent Encephalomyocarditis virus isolated from nonhuman primates in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Background In 2001 and 2002, fatal myocarditis resulted in the sudden deaths of four, two adult and two juvenile, orang utans out of a cohort of 26 in the Singapore Zoological Gardens. Methods Of the four orang utans that underwent post-mortem examination, virus isolation was performed from the tissue homogenates of the heart and lung obtained from the two juvenile orang utans in Vero cell cultures. The tissue culture fluid was examined using electron microscopy. Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction with Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV)-specific primers targeting the gene regions of VP3/VP1 and 3D polymerase (3Dpol) confirmed the virus genus and species. The two EMCV isolates were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the virus genes performed. Serological testing on other animal species in the Singapore Zoological Gardens was also conducted. Results Electron microscopy of the two EMCV isolates, designated Sing-M100-02 and Sing-M105-02, revealed spherical viral particles of about 20 to 30 nm, consistent with the size and morphology of members belonging to the family Picornaviridae. In addition, infected-Vero cells showed positive immunoflorescence staining with antiserum to EMCV. Sequencing of the viral genome showed that the two EMCV isolates were 99.9% identical at the nucleotide level, indicating a similar source of origin. When compared with existing EMCV sequences in the VP1 and 3Dpol gene regions, the nucleotide divergence were at a maximum of 38.8% and 23.6% respectively, while the amino acid divergence were at a maximum of 33.9% and 11.3% respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of VP1 and 3Dpol genes further grouped the Sing-M100-02 and Sing-M105-02 isolates to themselves, away from existing EMCV lineages. This strongly suggested that Sing-M100-02 and Sing-M105-02 isolates are highly divergent variants of EMCV. Apart from the two deceased orang utans, a serological survey conducted among other zoo animals showed that a number of other animal species had neutralizing antibodies to Sing-M105-02 isolate, indicating that the EMCV variant has a relatively wide host range. Conclusions The etiological agent responsible for the fatal myocarditis cases among two of the four orang utans in the Singapore Zoological Gardens was a highly divergent variant of EMCV. This is the first report of an EMCV infection in Singapore and South East Asia.

2013-01-01

362

MDCK-SIAT1 Cells Show Improved Isolation Rates for Recent Human Influenza Viruses Compared to Conventional MDCK Cells? †  

PubMed Central

The ability to isolate and propagate influenza virus is an essential tool for the yearly surveillance of circulating virus strains and to ensure accurate clinical diagnosis for appropriate treatment. The suitability of MDCK-SIAT1 cells, engineered to express increased levels of ?-2,6-linked sialic acid receptors, as an alternative to conventional MDCK cells for isolation of circulating influenza virus was assessed. A greater number of influenza A (H1N1 and H3N2) and B viruses from stored human clinical specimens collected between 2005 and 2007 were isolated following inoculation in MDCK-SIAT1 cells than in MDCK cells. In addition, a higher titer of virus was recovered following culture in MDCK-SIAT1 cells. All A(H1N1) viruses recovered from MDCK-SIAT1 cells were able to agglutinate both turkey and guinea pig red blood cells (RBC), while half of the A(H3N2) viruses recovered after passage in MDCK-SIAT1 cells lost the ability to agglutinate turkey RBC. Importantly, the HA-1 domain of the hemagglutinin gene was genetically stable after passaging in MDCK-SIAT1 cells, a feature not always seen following MDCK cell or embryonated chicken egg passage of human influenza virus. These data indicate that the MDCK-SIAT1 cell line is superior to conventional MDCK cells for isolation of human influenza virus from clinical specimens and may be used routinely for the isolation and propagation of current human influenza viruses for surveillance, diagnostic, and research purposes.

Oh, Ding Yuan; Barr, Ian G.; Mosse, Jenny A.; Laurie, Karen L.

2008-01-01

363

Surveillance for avirulent Newcastle disease viruses in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos and Cairina moschata) at live bird markets in Eastern China and characterization of the viruses isolated.  

PubMed

We isolated and identified 201 Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) from domestic ducks in a 5-year surveillance study at live bird markets in Eastern China. Seventy-three of these isolates were characterized biologically and genetically. Fusion protein (F) genes of these isolates were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Intracerebral pathogenicity index tests in 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens and the mean death time of embryonated fowl eggs in addition to the cleavage site analysis of the F-protein precursor for these viruses showed that they were all avirulent NDVs. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of the F gene showed that 30 isolates clustered into the class I clade and the other 43 isolates clustered into genotype I of class II, but diverged from the vaccine virus Queensland V4, which is extensively used in China. Most class I viruses (18/30) formed a separate branch closest to the Hong Kong live bird market strains that have been recently designated as genotype 3, while the rest (12/30) were closely related to some European viruses within genotype 2. All of the 43 class II genotype I viruses diverged from viruses originally assigned to genotype Ia and formed a separate sublineage designated as Ib with water bird isolates from the Far East, suggesting the possible transmission between the wild and domestic waterfowl. The results in the present study clearly showed that the domestic duck population carries avirulent NDVs with genetic divergence regularly and may act as one of the important reservoirs. PMID:19937525

Liu, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiaoquan; Wu, Shuang; Hu, Shunlin; Peng, Yi; Xue, Feng; Liu, Xiufan

2009-10-01

364

Properties and Dissemination of H5N1 Viruses Isolated during an Influenza Outbreak in Migratory Waterfowl in Western China †  

PubMed Central

H5N1 influenza A viruses are widely distributed among poultry in Asia, but until recently, only a limited number of wild birds were affected. During late April through June 2005, an outbreak of H5N1 virus infection occurred among wild birds at Qinghai Lake in China. Here, we describe the features of this outbreak. First identified in bar-headed geese, the disease soon spread to other avian species populating the lake. Sequence analysis of 15 viruses representing six avian species and collected at different times during the outbreak revealed four different H5N1 genotypes. Most of the isolates possessed lysine at position 627 in the PB2 protein, a residue known to be associated with virulence in mice and adaptation to humans. However, neither of the two index viruses possessed this residue. All of the viruses tested were pathogenic in mice, with the exception of one index virus. We also tested the replication of two viruses isolated during the Qinghai Lake outbreak and one unrelated duck H5N1 virus in rhesus macaques. The Qinghai Lake viruses did not replicate efficiently in these animals, producing no evidence of disease other than transient fever, while the duck virus replicated in multiple organs and caused symptoms of respiratory illness. Importantly, H5N1 viruses isolated in Mongolia, Russia, Inner Mongolia, and the Liaoning Province of China after August 2005 were genetically closely related to one of the genotypes isolated during the Qinghai outbreak, suggesting the dominant nature of this genotype and underscoring the need for worldwide intensive surveillance to minimize its devastating consequences.

Chen, Hualan; Li, Yanbing; Li, Zejun; Shi, Jianzhong; Shinya, Kyoko; Deng, Guohua; Qi, Qiaoling; Tian, Guobin; Fan, Shufang; Zhao, Haidan; Sun, Yingxiang; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2006-01-01

365

Phylogenetic characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Taiwan during 2003-2006.  

PubMed

Isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from chicken cases were obtained from various locations in Taiwan during 2003-2006 and were genotypically analyzed by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with primers specific to the viral fusion (F) protein gene (534 bp). Part of the amplified F protein DNA product (nucleotide sequence 47-418) and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared phylogenetically with those from strains previously reported in Taiwan and other geographic regions. Our results showed that all Taiwanese isolates (n=20) collected during 2003-2006, according to the phylogenetic tree, belong to the genotype VIId. In addition, all the six Taiwanese isolates obtained in 2003, carry the motif (112)R-R-Q-K-R(116) and have the amino acid L(23) replaced by F(23) (assigned as Group 1). On the other hand, 12 out of the 14 Taiwanese isolates obtained during 2004-2006 possess the motif (112)R-R-K-K-R(116) and have the amino acid G(74), instead of E(74) (assigned as Group 2). To our best knowledge, this is the first reported VIId isolates that possess the sequences of G(74)/(112)R-R-K-K-R(116) within the F0 protein. Since a high mortality, severe clinical signs, typical postmortem lesions, and a high intra-cerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) were observed in the NDV-infected chickens, these isolates acquired between 2003 and 2006 are considered as the velogenic type. The Group 2 viruses have become dominant and responsible for the majority of Taiwanese outbreaks during recent years. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, it can be postulated that these isolates were evolved from previously reported local strains, and the Group 2 family emerged the latest in the genotype VIId. The information is fundamental to improving the efficiency of controlling strategies and vaccine development for NDV. PMID:17499943

Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Jai-Wei; Su, Hung-Yi; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Tsai, Ming-Cheng; Hsieh, Chia-Yu; Tsai, Shinn-Shyong

2007-07-20

366

Complete nucleotide sequence of Alfalfa mosaic virus isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina.  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequence of an Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) isolate infecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina, AMV-Arg, was determined. The virus genome has the typical organization described for AMV, and comprises 3,643, 2,593, and 2,038 nucleotides for RNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. The whole genome sequence and each encoding region were compared with those of other four isolates that have been completely sequenced from China, Italy, Spain and USA. The nucleotide identity percentages ranged from 95.9 to 99.1 % for the three RNAs and from 93.7 to 99 % for the protein 1 (P1), protein 2 (P2), movement protein and coat protein (CP) encoding regions, whereas the amino acid identity percentages of these proteins ranged from 93.4 to 99.5 %, the lowest value corresponding to P2. CP sequences of AMV-Arg were compared with those of other 25 available isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis based on the CP gene was carried out. The highest percentage of nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene was 98.3 % with a Chinese isolate and 98.6 % at the amino acid level with four isolates, two from Italy, one from Brazil and the remaining one from China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AMV-Arg is closely related to subgroup I of AMV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete nucleotide sequence of AMV from South America and the first worldwide report of complete nucleotide sequence of AMV isolated from alfalfa as natural host. PMID:24510307

Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Bejerman, Nicolás; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

2014-06-01

367

The complete genome sequence of a south Indian isolate of Rice tungro spherical virus reveals evidence of genetic recombination between distinct isolates.  

PubMed

In this study, complete genome of a south Indian isolate of Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) from Andhra Pradesh (AP) was sequenced, and the predicted amino acid sequence was analysed. The RTSV RNA genome consists of 12,171 nt without the poly(A) tail, encoding a putative typical polyprotein of 3,470 amino acids. Furthermore, cleavage sites and sequence motifs of the polyprotein were predicted. Multiple alignment with other RTSV isolates showed a nucleotide sequence identity of 95% to east Indian isolates and 90% to Philippines isolates. A phylogenetic tree based on complete genome sequence showed that Indian isolates clustered together, while Vt6 and PhilA isolates of Philippines formed two separate clusters. Twelve recombination events were detected in RNA genome of RTSV using the Recombination Detection Program version 3. Recombination analysis suggested significant role of 5' end and central region of genome in virus evolution. Further, AP and Odisha isolates appeared as important RTSV isolates involved in diversification of this virus in India through recombination phenomenon. The new addition of complete genome of first south Indian isolate provided an opportunity to establish the molecular evolution of RTSV through recombination analysis and phylogenetic relationship. PMID:23925555

Sailaja, B; Anjum, Najreen; Patil, Yogesh K; Agarwal, Surekha; Malathi, P; Krishnaveni, D; Balachandran, S M; Viraktamath, B C; Mangrauthia, Satendra K

2013-12-01

368

First isolation of dengue virus from Lao PDR in a Chinese traveler  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemic dengue activity has been demonstrated in several southern regions of China, but not in Yunnan province, which borders countries in Southeast Asia where dengue is endemic. Many dengue cases imported from Southeast Asia to Yunnan have been reported, but dengue virus (DENV) has not been isolated from any patients. This study is the first to report the isolation of DENV from a Chinese traveler returning to Yunnan from Lao PDR. Findings A serum sample was collected from a patient presenting with a febrile illness who returned from Lao PDR in 2009 and was used to inoculate Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells for viral isolation. The viral isolate was identified using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and phylogenetic analyses based on the full E sequence were performed using Clustalx 1.8 software. The analyses detected DENV genome, and thus, a DENV isolate was obtained from the patient’s serum sample. The new DENV isolate was grouped into genotype Asia 1, serotype 2. The viral E protein shared the greatest nucleotide sequence identity (99.6%) with the D2/Thailand/0606aTw strain isolated from Thailand in 2006 and demonstrated 94.3% to 100% identity with the predicted amino acid sequence of other DENV 2 strains. Conclusions Our findings indicate that DENV serotype 2 is circulating in Lao PDR, and surveillance of patients suspected of infection with dengue should be conducted not only by a serological test but also by pathogenic detection methods.

2013-01-01

369

Diversity of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus promoters isolated from goat milk and passaged in vitro.  

PubMed

Transcriptional regulation in retroviruses resides in the U3 region of the proviral long terminal repeat (LTR). Transcription binding sites (TBS) in the U3 region of proviral sequences derived from the milk of 17 goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) were analysed by nested PCR and sequencing. U3 sequences shared a high degree of homology (86-99%) and were closely related to isolates previously ascribed to small ruminant lentivirus subtype B1. Multiple putative AP-1, AP-4, Ets-1, Stat-1 and TATA binding protein (TBP) sites were highly conserved (>85% of isolates), as were single AML(vis), GAS, IRF-1, NFAT and TAS sites. A 10 nucleotide insertion of undetermined relevance was identified in the U3 region of two isolates. To study the stability of TBS within the CAEV U3 region through in vitro passage, milk-derived isolates of CAEV from three infected dams were cultured in goat synovial membrane (GSM) cells; in one isolate the viral U3 region was completely stable during in vitro passage, in a second isolate the viral U3 region accumulated multiple deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions, while a third isolate had an intermediate degree of promoter stability. Promoter mutations arising during in vitro passage did not affect most of the conserved putative TBS identified in CAEV. PMID:23183018

Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Rowe, Joan; Collar, Carol; Murphy, Brian

2013-06-01

370

Pathogenicity of a low-virulence duck virus enteritis isolate with apparent immunosuppressive ability.  

PubMed

Duck enteritis virus (DEV) was isolated from commercial 2-to-6-wk-old white Pekin ducks experiencing 25%-30% mortality and high morbidity. Secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Escherichia coli were frequently seen in affected ducks. The isolated virus was identical to the prototype DEV by virus neutralization test but differed from the classic DEV by causing lymphoid organ atrophy and inconsistent hemorrhagic lesions in the intestinal annular bands. Attempts to reproduce the disease in white Pekin ducks were unsuccessful until the virulence of the virus was increased by three passages in Muscovy ducklings. Significant thymic atrophy (P < or = 0.001) was detected during the first 10 days postinfection (DPI), but thymus size returned to normal by 17-24 DPI. However, bursal atrophy increased significantly (P < or = 0.001) from 4 DPI until the end of the experiment (39 DPI). Reduction in body weight was significant (P < or = 0.05) between 4 and 6 DPI. There was massive depletion of thymic and bursal lymphocytes with lymphoid necrosis in the thymus, bursa, spleen, and Harderian gland. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions were observed in thymus, bursa, spleen, esophagus, cloaca, liver, conjunctiva, and Harderian gland. Occasional intracytoplasmic inclusions were also found scattered in the epithelial cells of conjunctiva, esophagus, bursa of Fabricius, and cloaca. Virus was recovered from experimentally infected ducks from thymus, bursa, spleen, liver, kidneys, trigeminal ganglion, and cloaca during the first 10 days of infection. These findings suggest that a low-virulent DEV can cause a massive lymphoid atrophy and can sustain immunosuppression as noted by the secondary bacterial infection. PMID:11007006

Shawky, S; Sandhu, T; Shivaprasad, H L

2000-01-01

371

Isolation of midgut escape mutants of two American genotype dengue 2 viruses from Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have shown that American genotype dengue 2 viruses (DENV2) have reduced viral fitness in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, compared to other DENV2 genotypes. Diminished replication efficiency or inability to efficiently traverse membrane barriers encompassing organs such as the midgut or salivary glands are considered major factors negatively impacting viral fitness in the mosquito. Results We analyzed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti for two American DENV2 strains, QR94 and PR159 originating from Mexico and Puerto-Rico, respectively. Both strains infected mosquito midguts following acquisition of infectious bloodmeals. However, DENV2-QR94 and DENV2-PR159 poorly disseminated from the midgut at 7 or 14 days post-bloodmeal (pbm). We detected one virus isolate, EM33, among 31 DENV2-QR94 infected mosquitoes, and one isolate, EM41, among 121 DENV2-PR159 infected mosquitoes, generating high virus titers in mosquito carcasses at 7 days pbm. In oral challenge experiments, EM33 and EM41 showed midgut dissemination rates of 40-50%. Replication efficiency of EM41 in secondary mosquito tissue was similar to that of a dissemination-competent control strain, whereas the replication efficiency of EM33 was significantly lower than that of the control virus. The genome sequence of DENV2-QR94 encoded seven unique amino acids (aa), which were not found in 100 of the most closely related DENV2 strains. EM33 had one additional aa change, E202K, in the E protein. DENV2-PR159 encoded four unique aa residues, one of them E202K, whereas EM41 had two additional aa substitutions, Q77E in the E protein and E93D in NS3. Conclusions Our results indicate that the midgut of Ae. aegypti acts as a selective sieve for DENV2 in which genetically distinct, dissemination-competent virus variants are rapidly selected from the viral quasispecies to be transmitted to vertebrates.

2013-01-01

372

Comparative effectiveness of isolation techniques for contemporary Influenza A virus strains circulating in exhibition swine.  

PubMed

The current study sought to compare the effectiveness of 2 virus isolation methods for the recovery of contemporary Influenza A virus (FLUAV) strains circulating in swine at agricultural exhibitions. Following the emergence of the influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus, increased surveillance of FLUAV strains among swine was recommended for early detection of emerging strains that threaten animal and human health. The increase in genetic drift and genomic reassortment among FLUAV strains infecting swine since 1998 necessitates that detection protocols be periodically validated for contemporary FLUAV strains. During 2009, nasal swabs were collected from 221 clinically healthy pigs at 12 agricultural exhibitions in Ohio. Nasal swabs were tested in parallel for the presence of FLUAV strains using 3 methodologies: 2 passages through Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells adapted to serum-free medium (SFM), 2 passages through embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs), and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR). Of the 221 samples, 40 (18.1%) were positive for FLUAV recovery in MDCK cell culture and 13 (5.9%) were positive in ECEs (P = 0.015). All samples positive in ECEs were also positive in MDCK cell culture. MDCK cell culture virus isolation results were in perfect agreement with results of the real-time RT-PCR. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase combinations of the recovered isolates were H1N2 and H3N2, which were consistent with FLUAV strains circulating in U.S. pigs. Effectiveness and cost savings justify the use of SFM-adapted MDCK cell culture over ECEs for the recovery of contemporary FLUAV strains from exhibition swine. PMID:23242667

Bowman, Andrew S; Nelson, Sarah W; Edwards, Jody L; Hofer, Christian C; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Davis, Ian C; Slemons, Richard D

2013-01-01

373

Complete genome sequence of a novel porcine parainfluenza virus 5 isolate in Korea.  

PubMed

A novel cytopathogenic paramyxovirus was isolated from a lung sample from a piglet, using continuous porcine alveolar macrophage cells. Morphologic and genetic studies indicated that this porcine virus (pPIV5) belongs to the species Parainfluenza 5 in the family Paramyxoviridae. We attempted to determine the complete nucleotide sequence of the first Korean pPIV5 isolate, designated KNU-11. The full-length genome of KNU-11 was found to be 15,246 nucleotides in length and consist of seven nonoverlapping genes (3'-N-V/P-M-F-SH-HN-L-5') predicted to encode eight proteins. The overall degree of nucleotide sequence identity was 98.7 % between KNU-11 and PIV5 (formerly simian virus 5, SV5), a prototype paramyxovirus, and the putative proteins had 74.4 to 99.2 % amino acid identity to those of PIV5. Phylogenetic analysis further demonstrated that the novel pPIV5 isolate is a member of the genus Rubulavirus of the subfamily Paramyxovirinae. The present study describes the identification and genomic characterization of a pPIV5 isolate in South Korea. PMID:23807746

Lee, Yu Na; Lee, Changhee

2013-08-01

374

Rift Valley fever virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus). Isolations from Diptera collected during an inter-epizootic period in Kenya.  

PubMed Central

A total of 134 876 Diptera collected in Kenya during a 3-year period were tested in 3383 pools for Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus. Nineteen pools of unengorged mosquitoes were found positive for RVF. All isolations were made from specimens collected at or near the naturally or artificially flooded grassland depressions that serve as the developmental sites for the immature stages of many mosquito species. The isolation of virus from adult male and female A. lineatopennis which had been reared from field-collected larvae and pupae suggests that transovarial transmission of the virus occurs in this species.

Linthicum, K. J.; Davies, F. G.; Kairo, A.; Bailey, C. L.

1985-01-01

375

Rift Valley fever virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus). Isolations from Diptera collected during an inter-epizootic period in Kenya.  

PubMed

A total of 134 876 Diptera collected in Kenya during a 3-year period were tested in 3383 pools for Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus. Nineteen pools of unengorged mosquitoes were found positive for RVF. All isolations were made from specimens collected at or near the naturally or artificially flooded grassland depressions that serve as the developmental sites for the immature stages of many mosquito species. The isolation of virus from adult male and female A. lineatopennis which had been reared from field-collected larvae and pupae suggests that transovarial transmission of the virus occurs in this species. PMID:2862206

Linthicum, K J; Davies, F G; Kairo, A; Bailey, C L

1985-08-01

376

Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of Cymbidium mosaic virus Indian isolate: further evidence for natural recombination among potexviruses.  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequence of an Indian strain of Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV)was determined and compared with other potexviruses. Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), triple gene block protein and coat protein (CP) amino acid sequences revealed that CymMV is closely related to the Narcissus mosaic virus (NMV), Scallion virus X (SVX), Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV)and Potato aucuba mosaic virus (PAMV). Different sets of primers were used for the amplification of different regions of the genome through RT-PCR and the amplified genes were cloned in a suitable vector. The full genome of the Indian isolate of CymMV from Phaius tankervilliae shares 96-97% similarity with isolates reported from other countries. It was found that the CP gene of CymMV shares a high similarity with each other and other potexviruses. One of the Indian isolates seems to be a recombinant formed by the intermolecular recombination of two other CymMV isolates. The phylogenetic analyses, Recombination Detection Program (RDP2)analyses and sequence alignment survey provided evidence for the occurrence of a recombination between an Indian isolate (AM055720) as the major parent, and a Korean type-2 isolate (AF016914) as the minor parent. Recombination was also observed between a Singapore isolate (U62963) as the major parent,and a Taiwan CymMV (AY571289) as the minor parent. PMID:17762139

Sherpa, Ang Rinzing; Hallan, Vipin; Pathak, Promila; Zaidi, Aijaz Asghar

2007-06-01

377

Symptomless infectious cDNA clone of a Norwegian isolate of Poinsettia mosaic virus.  

PubMed

An infectious cDNA clone of a Norwegian isolate of Poinsettia mosaic virus (PnMV) was generated. It consisted of 6,098 nucleotides and encoded a polyprotein of 219.5 kDa. Sequence comparisons indicated that this isolate shared 98.6% (nucleotide) and 97.1% (amino acid) identity with the previously sequenced isolate from Germany. RNA transcripts derived from this cDNA were infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana. However, plants did not present typical PnMV symptoms. Furthermore, RNA transcripts from this cDNA clone were not infectious in poinsettia. Serial propagation of this cDNA clone in N. benthamiana plants restored symptom induction in this host but did not re-establish infectivity in poinsettia. PMID:18504521

Spetz, Carl; Moe, Roar; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

2008-01-01

378

Demonstration of antigenic variation among rabies virus isolates by using monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid proteins.  

PubMed Central

Rabies virus isolates from terrestrial animals in six areas of the United States were examined with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid proteins. Characteristic differences in immunofluorescence reactions permitted the formation of four antigenically distinct reaction groups from the 231 isolates tested. The geographic distribution of these groups corresponded well with separate rabies enzootic areas recognized by surveillance of sylvatic rabies in the United States. Distinctive reaction patterns were also identified for viral proteins from four infected bat species, and identical patterns were found in eight isolated cases of rabies in terrestrial animals. These findings suggest that monoclonal antibodies can be used to study the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of rabies among wildlife species.

Smith, J S; Reid-Sanden, F L; Roumillat, L F; Trimarchi, C; Clark, K; Baer, G M; Winkler, W G

1986-01-01

379

Complete nucleotide sequence of a new isolate of passion fruit woodiness virus from Western Australia.  

PubMed

We determined the complete genome sequence of the passion fruit woodiness virus Gld-1 isolate (PWV-Gld-1) from Australia and compared it with that of PWV-MU-2, another Australian isolate of PWV. The genomes shared high sequence identity in both the complete nucleotide sequence and the ORF amino acid sequence. All of the cleavage sites of each protein were identical to those of MU-2, and the sequence identity for the individual proteins ranged from 97.2 % to 100.0 %. However, the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the Gld-1 isolate shared only 46.8 % sequence identity with that of PWV-MU-2 and was 177 nucleotides shorter. Re-sequencing of the 5'UTR of MU-2 revealed that the 5' end of the original sequence includes an artifact generated by deep sequencing. PMID:23508550

Fukumoto, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Masayuki; Wylie, Stephen J; Chiaki, Yuya; Iwai, Hisashi

2013-08-01

380

Single Strain Isolation Method for Cell Culture-Adapted Hepatitis C Virus by End-Point Dilution and Infection  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) culture system has enabled us to clarify the HCV life cycle and essential host factors for propagation. However, the virus production level of wild-type JFH-1 (JFH-1/wt) is limited, and this leads to difficulties in performing experiments that require higher viral concentrations. As the cell culture-adapted JFH-1 has been reported to have robust virus production, some mutations in the viral genome may play a role in the efficiency of virus production. In this study, we obtained cell culture-adapted virus by passage of full-length JFH-1 RNA-transfected Huh-7.5.1 cells. The obtained virus produced 3 log-fold more progeny viruses as compared with JFH-1/wt. Several mutations were identified as being responsible for robust virus production, but, on reverse-genetics analysis, the production levels of JFH-1 with these mutations did not reach the level of cell culture-adapted virus. By using the single strain isolation method by end-point dilution and infection, we isolated two strains with additional mutations, and found that these strains have the ability to produce more progeny viruses. On reverse-genetics analysis, the strains with these additional mutations were able to produce robust progeny viruses at comparable levels as cell culture-adapted JFH-1 virus. The strategy used in this study will be useful for identifying strains with unique characteristics, such as robust virus production, from a diverse population, and for determining the responsible mutations for these characteristics.

Sugiyama, Nao; Murayama, Asako; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Shiina, Masaaki; Liang, T. Jake; Wakita, Takaji; Kato, Takanobu

2014-01-01

381

Establishment of a novel ovine kidney cell line for isolation and propagation of viruses infecting domestic cloven-hoofed animal species.  

PubMed

A sheep kidney-derived cell line, FLK-N3, was successfully established after serial (>100) passages. Persistent infection of this cell line with viruses and mycoplasma was not detected. The cells grew well and showed susceptibility to a wide variety of viruses derived from ovine, bovine, and porcine species, including orf virus, maedi visna virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine parainfluenza virus 3, bovine viral diarrhea viruses 1 and 2, bovine coronavirus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine enterovirus, suid herpesvirus 1, and porcine enterovirus. These results suggest that the FLK-N3 cell line could be useful for isolation and propagation of viruses that affect cloven-hoofed animals. PMID:21695582

Matsuura, Katsuyoshi; Inoshima, Yasuo; Kameyama, Ken-ichiro; Murakami, Kenji

2011-08-01

382

Detection of bluetongue virus in the blood of inoculated calves: comparison of virus isolation, PCR assay, and in vitro feeding of Culicoides variipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The interval after infection when bluetongue virus (BTV) was present in the blood of calves inoculated with BTV serotype 10 (BTV 10) was evaluated by virus isolation (VI) in embryonated chicken eggs (ECE), BTV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and in vitro blood feeding of vectorCulicoides variipennis (C.v.) sonorensis. BTV nucleic acid was detected by PCR in blood cells for

N. J. MacLachlan; R. A. Nunamaker; J. B. Katz; M. M. Sawyer; G. Y. Akita; B. I. Osburn; W. J. Tabachnick

1994-01-01

383

The characterization of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in northern Vietnam from 2006 to 2009.  

PubMed

Due to concerns that wild birds could possibly spread H5N1 viruses, surveillance was conducted to monitor the types of avian influenza viruses circulating among the wild birds migrating to or inhabiting in northern Vietnam from 2006 to 2009. An H5N2 virus isolated from a Eurasian woodcock had a close phylogenetic relationship to H5 viruses recently isolated in South Korea and Japan, suggesting that H5N2 has been shared between Vietnam, South Korea, and Japan. An H9N2 virus isolated from a Chinese Hwamei was closely related to two H9N2 viruses that were isolated from humans in Hong Kong in 2009, suggesting that an H9N2 strain relevant to the human isolates had been transmitted to and maintained among the wild bird population in Vietnam and South China. The results support the idea that wild bird species play a significant role in the spread and maintenance of avian influenza and that this also occurs in Vietnam. PMID:24054984

Takakuwa, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Tetsu; Le, Mai Q; Phuong, Lien S; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Tsunekuni, Ryota; Usui, Tatsufumi; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Toshihiro; Murase, Toshiyuki; Ono, Etsuro; Otsuki, Koichi

2013-12-01

384

Characterization in vitro and in vivo of a novel porcine parainfluenza virus 5 isolate in Korea.  

PubMed

A novel porcine parainfluenza 5 (pPIV5), KNU-11, in the genus Rubulavirus of the subfamily Paramyxovirinae, was isolated from the lung of a piglet in Korea in 2011. To understand the importance of this virus as an infectious agent, in vitro and in vivo characteristics of KNU-11 virus was investigated. KNU-11 was remarkably cytopathogenic, showing distinct cell rounding and clumping evident in porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM), porcine kidney (PK-15), and swine testicle (ST) cells within 12h postinfection and capable of hemagglutinating guinea pig red blood cells. Interestingly, this cytopathology was found to be absent in cell lines from other mammalian species. To evaluate the in vitro immunity of the pPIV5 isolate, we sought to explore alteration of inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in PAM cells infected with KNU-11 by using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Most cytokine and chemokine genes including type 1 interferons (IFN-?/?) and IFN-related antiviral genes were found to be significantly elevated in KNU-11 virus-infected PAM cells. A serum neutralization test-based serosurvey demonstrated that neutralizing antibodies against KNU-11 are readily detected in domestic swine populations, suggesting high prevalence of pPIV5 in Korean pig farms. Animal studies showed that KNU-11 fails to establish an acute respiratory illness, indicating that pPIV5 is non- or very mildly pathogenic to pigs. PMID:24050998

Lee, Yu Na; Park, Choi-Kyu; Kim, Seong-Hee; Lee, Du Sik; Shin, Jae-Ho; Lee, Changhee

2013-12-26

385

Isolation and molecular identification of Sunshine virus, a novel paramyxovirus found in Australian snakes.  

PubMed

This paper describes the isolation and molecular identification of a novel paramyxovirus found during an investigation of an outbreak of neurorespiratory disease in a collection of Australian pythons. Using Illumina® high-throughput sequencing, a 17,187 nucleotide sequence was assembled from RNA extracts from infected viper heart cells (VH2) displaying widespread cytopathic effects in the form of multinucleate giant cells. The sequence appears to contain all the coding regions of the genome, including the following predicted paramyxoviral open reading frames (ORFs): 3'--Nucleocapsid (N)--putative Phosphoprotein (P)--Matrix (M)--Fusion (F)--putative attachment protein--Polymerase (L)--5'. There is also a 540 nucleotide ORF between the N and putative P genes that may be an additional coding region. Phylogenetic analyses of the complete N, M, F and L genes support the clustering of this virus within the family Paramyxoviridae but outside both of the current subfamilies: Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae. We propose to name this new virus, Sunshine virus, after the geographic origin of the first isolate--the Sunshine Coast of Queensland, Australia. PMID:22575820

Hyndman, Timothy H; Marschang, Rachel E; Wellehan, James F X; Nicholls, Philip K

2012-10-01

386

Detection and isolation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus on a broiler farm after a disease outbreak.  

PubMed

A broiler farm in North Alabama suffered a mild infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) outbreak, as determined by clinical disease and PCR. The poultry integrator sought help to control further outbreaks in subsequent flocks. Samples were collected from various areas of the poultry houses on the farm over an 8-wk period. The first sampling was conducted 8 days after the infected farm was depopulated; the second was conducted 2 days prior to subsequent flock placement; and the third was conducted when the new flock was 5 wk of age. Samples were examined for ILT virus (ILTV) DNA by real-time PCR and virus isolation in embryos. The infected houses were cleaned, disinfected, heated, litter composted, and curtains replaced after the first sampling and prior to placement of the next flock. Samples from all periods were positive for ILTV DNA. However, the number of positive samples and crossing point values indicated a decrease in the amount of viral DNA, while virus isolation in embryos was successful only on the first sampling. The subsequent flock was vaccinated against ILTV by in ovo route using a commercial recombinant vaccine. Cleaning and sanitation after the disease outbreak reduced the amount of ILTV on the farm and together with in ovo vaccination of the new flock may have prevented a recurrence of another ILT outbreak. PMID:24597126

Dormitorio, Teresa V; Giambrone, Joseph J; Macklin, Kenneth S

2013-12-01

387

Genetic diversity of avian infectious bronchitis virus isolates in Korea between 2003 and 2006.  

PubMed

Thirty-three field isolates of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were recovered from commercial chicken flocks in Korea between 2003 and 2006 and were characterized phylogenetically by nucleotide sequence analysis of the IBV S1 gene hyper-variable region. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that recent field isolates of IBV formed at least three distinct phylogenetic types, including K-I, K-II, and K-III. K-I type IBV consisted of indigenous, 13 IBV isolates which evolved from the Kr-EJ/95 strain and then separated into the lineages of type K-Ia and type K-Ib. K-II type IBV isolates (n = 19) were closely related to nephropathogenic IBV variants from China and Japan. The K-III type isolate (Kr/D064/05), first identified by this study, was closely related to enteric IBV variants from the Chinese strains that cause proventriculitis. Sequence comparisons showed amino acid differences of >27.5% between IBV types. The molecular epidemiologic characteristics of IBV field isolates are briefly discussed. PMID:18646466

Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Choi, Jun-Gu; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Choi, Kang-Seuk

2008-06-01

388

Serological reactions in sheep and cattle experimentally infected with three Australian isolates of bluetongue virus.  

PubMed

Serums from 103 sheep and 24 cattle experimentally infected with one of 3 serotypes of bluetongue virus isolated in Australia were tested for antibody to bluetongue virus in the serum neutralisation test and the agar gel diffusion precipitin test. Antibody to bluetongue virus was first detected by these tests 8 to 10 days after intravenous infection in 4 sheep that were bled daily for serum analysis. The agar gel diffusion test failed to detect antibody in 28% (29/103) of sheep which had seroconverted in the serum neutralisation test. A further 7% (7/103) of sheep serums were negative in both tests 14 to 22 d after infection. Both tests detected antibody to bluetongue virus in all cattle serums by 10 days after detection of viraemia. In comparison with the intravenous route of infection, extended prepatent periods for the commencement of viraemia resulting from intradermal, subcutaneous and intrauterine routes of infection in the cattle caused corresponding delays in the detection of antibody. For example, one cow that was infected by intrauterine inoculation did not become viraemic until 22 d after inoculation and antibody was not detected until 32 d after inoculation. PMID:2556101

Squire, K R

1989-08-01

389

Agnogene Deletion in a Novel Pathogenic JC Virus Isolate Impairs VP1 Expression and Virion Production  

PubMed Central

Infection of glial cells by the human polyomavirus JC (JCV) causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCV Encephalopathy (JCVE) is a newly identified disease characterized by JCV infection of cortical pyramidal neurons. The virus JCVCPN associated with JCVE contains a unique 143 base pair deletion in the agnogene. Contrary to most JCV brain isolates, JCVCPN has an archetype-like regulatory region (RR) usually found in kidney strains. This provided us with the unique opportunity to determine for the first time how each of these regions contributed to the phenotype of JCVCPN. We characterized the replication of JCVCPN compared to the prototype virus JCVMad-1 in kidney, glial and neuronal cell lines. We found that JCVCPN is capable of replicating viral DNA in all cell lines tested, but is unable to establish persistent infection seen with JCVMad-1. JCVCPN does not have an increased ability to replicate in the neuronal cell line tested. To determine whether this phenotype results from the archetype-like RR or the agnogene deletion, we generated chimeric viruses between JCVCPN of JCVMad-1. We found that the deletion in the agnogene is the predominant cause of the inability of the virus to maintain a persistent infection, with the introduction of a full length agnogene, either with or without agnoprotein expression, rescues the replication of JCVCPN. Studying this naturally occurring pathogenic variant of JCV provides a valuable tool for understanding the functions of the agnogene and RR form in JCV replication.

Ellis, Laura C.; Norton, Elizabeth; Dang, Xin; Koralnik, Igor J.

2013-01-01

390

Phylogenetic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in Argentina.  

PubMed

We have analysed complete or partial VPI sequences of 31 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses belonging to serotypes A, O and C to determine the genetic relatedness of field strains of FMD virus (FMDV) that have circulated in Argentina between 1961 and 1994. Phylogenetic analysis, which also included 15 previously published Argentinean sequences and six reference strains, revealed that (i) FMD type A strains showed the highest genetic heterogeneity and could be divided into five lineages with a sequence divergence of 0.9-18.5% between strains (ii) most of the FMD type O viruses grouped in two clusters (within cluster sequence divergence ranging from 0.2% to 6.0%) circulating in Argentina since the early 1960s, and (iii) FMD type C viruses were grouped in two clusters with a 13.4% nucleotide sequence divergence between each cluster. The availability of sequence data for many more field isolates from the region will enable us to understand the genetic relationships between FMDV strains and to rapidly trace the source of an FMD outbreak for epidemiological surveillance. PMID:11724271

König, G; Blanco, C; Knowles, N J; Palma, E L; Maradei, E; Piccone, M E

2001-01-01

391

Median infectious dose (ID??) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolate MN-184 via aerosol exposure.  

PubMed

The median infectious dose (ID(50)) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus isolate MN-184 was determined for aerosol exposure. In 7 replicates, 3-week-old pigs (n=58) respired 10l of airborne PRRS virus from a dynamic aerosol toroid (DAT) maintained at -4°C. Thereafter, pigs were housed in isolation and monitored for evidence of infection. Infection occurred at virus concentrations too low to quantify by microinfectivity assays. Therefore, exposure dose was determined using two indirect methods ("calculated" and "theoretical"). "Calculated" virus dose was derived from the concentration of rhodamine B monitored over the exposure sequence. "Theoretical" virus dose was based on the continuous stirred-tank reactor model. The ID(50) estimate was modeled on the proportion of pigs that became infected using the probit and logit link functions for both "calculated" and "theoretical" exposure doses. Based on "calculated" doses, the probit and logit ID(50) estimates were 1 × 10(-0.13)TCID(50) and 1 × 10(-0.14)TCID(50), respectively. Based on "theoretical" doses, the probit and logit ID(50) were 1 × 10(0.26)TCID(50) and 1 × 10(0.24)TCID(50), respectively. For each point estimate, the 95% confidence interval included the other three point estimates. The results indicated that MN-184 was far more infectious than PRRS virus isolate VR-2332, the only other PRRS virus isolate for which ID(50) has been estimated for airborne exposure. Since aerosol ID(50) estimates are available for only these two isolates, it is uncertain whether one or both of these isolates represent the normal range of PRRS virus infectivity by this route. PMID:21474258

Cutler, Timothy D; Wang, Chong; Hoff, Steven J; Kittawornrat, Apisit; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J

2011-08-01

392

Genetic Homology among Thirteen Encephalitozoon intestinalis Isolates Obtained from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients with Intestinal Microsporidiosis  

PubMed Central

The ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences of 13 unrelated Encephalitozoon intestinalis isolates obtained from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with intestinal microsporidiosis were analyzed by gene amplification and DNA sequencing. Among these isolates, we found only one genetic lineage which suggests that E. intestinalis may have a clonal distribution in HIV-infected patients.

Liguory, Olivier; Fournier, Sandra; Sarfati, Claudine; Derouin, Francis; Molina, Jean-Michel

2000-01-01

393

Isolation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Cores: Retention of Vpr in the Absence of p6gag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions contain a typically cone-shaped core that encases the viral genome. In this study, we established conditions which allowed the efficient isolation of morphologically intact HIV-1 cores from virions. The isolated cores consisted mostly of cones which appeared uniformly capped at both ends but were heterogeneous with respect to the shape of the

MOLLY A. ACCOLA; A. Ohagen; HEINRICH G. GOTTLINGER

2000-01-01

394

Mosquito Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Connecticut, 2000: Isolation from Culex pipiens, Cx. restuans, Cx. salinarius, and Culiseta melanura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen isolations of West Nile (WN) virus were obtained from four mosquito species (Culex pipiens (5), Cx. restuans (4), Cx. salinarius (2), and Culiseta melanura (3)) in statewide surveillance conducted from June through October 2000. Most isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected in densely populated residential locales in Fairfield and New Haven counties, where the highest rates of dead crow

Theodore Andreadis; John F. Anderson; Charles R. Vossbrinck

2001-01-01

395

Reassortant swine influenza viruses isolated in Japan contain genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009.  

PubMed

In 2013, three reassortant swine influenza viruses (SIVs)-two H1N2 and one H3N2-were isolated from symptomatic pigs in Japan; each contained genes from the pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 virus and endemic SIVs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two H1N2 viruses, A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 and A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013, were reassortants that contain genes from the following three distinct lineages: (i) H1 and nucleoprotein (NP) genes derived from a classical swine H1 HA lineage uniquely circulating among Japanese SIVs; (ii) neuraminidase (NA) genes from human-like H1N2 swine viruses; and (iii) other genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses. The H3N2 virus, A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013, comprised genes from two sources: (i) hemagglutinin (HA) and NA genes derived from human and human-like H3N2 swine viruses and (ii) other genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated that each of the reassortants may have arisen independently in Japanese pigs. A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013 were found to have strong antigenic reactivities with antisera generated for some seasonal human-lineage viruses isolated during or before 2003, whereas A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013 reactivities with antisera against viruses isolated after 2004 were clearly weaker. In addition, antisera against some strains of seasonal human-lineage H1 viruses did not react with either A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 or A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013. These findings indicate that emergence and spread of these reassortant SIVs is a potential public health risk. PMID:24750464

Kanehira, Katsushi; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Uchida, Yuko; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko

2014-06-01

396

First isolation of a rabies-related virus from a Daubenton's bat in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

On May 30, 1996, a sick Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) was recovered from the cellar of a public house in Newhaven, East Sussex. Its condition deteriorated rapidly, and it was euthanased and examined. Positive results, establishing the presence of a rabies or rabies-related virus in its brain, were obtained from the fluorescent antibody test, the rabies tissue culture isolation test, and a hemi-nested reverse-transcription PCR. The complete sequence of the nucleoprotein gene was determined and a phylogenetic analysis, based on the 470 nucleotide bases of the amino terminus of the nucleoprotein, established the genotype of the virus as European bat lyssavirus 2. Bat rabies had not previously been recorded in the UK but does occur in mainland Europe. A study of the back-trajectories of the wind on May 29 and 30, established that the infected bat possibly came from near the Franco-Swiss border. PMID:11073000

Whitby, J E; Heaton, P R; Black, E M; Wooldridge, M; McElhinney, L M; Johnstone, P

2000-09-30

397

H7 avian influenza virus vaccines protect chickens against challenge with antigenically diverse isolates.  

PubMed

Vaccination has been a critical tool in the control of some avian influenza viruses (AIV) and has been used routinely in Pakistan to help control sporadic outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H7 AIV since 1995. During that time, several AIV isolates were utilized as inactivated vaccines with varying degrees of success. In order to evaluate which H7 AIV strains may serve as optimal vaccines for diverse H7 AIVs from Pakistan we conducted vaccination-challenge studies with five H7 vaccines against challenge with two HPAIVs: A/chicken/Murree/NARC-1/1995 H7N3 and A/chicken/Karachi/SPVC-4/2004 H7N3. To further characterize the isolates antigenic cartography was used to visually demonstrate the antigenic relationships among the isolates. All vaccines provided similar protection against mortality, morbidity and shedding of challenge virus from the respiratory tract. However, some minor (not statistically significant) differences were observed and correlated with antibody levels induced by the vaccine prior to challenge. PMID:21803098

Abbas, Muhammad Athar; Spackman, Erica; Fouchier, Ron; Smith, Derek; Ahmed, Zaheer; Siddique, Naila; Sarmento, Luciana; Naeem, Khalid; McKinley, Enid T; Hameed, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat; Swayne, David E

2011-10-01

398

Isolation, molecular characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of encephalomyocarditis virus from South China tigers in China.  

PubMed

Although encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) can infect many host species and cause myocarditis and sudden death in many species, little is known about EMCV infection in tigers. A virus was isolated from organs of dead South China tigers with sudden death in southern China. The production of cytopathic effect on BHK cells, and the results of PCR, electron microscopy (EM), and whole genome sequencing indicated that the pathogen was EMCV, the strain was named FJ13. Other pathogenic agents were excluded as possible pathogenic agents. Phylogenetic analyses of the whole genome, ORF (open reading frame) and CCR (capsid coding region) using the neighbour-joining method revealed that EMCV isolates cluster into two groups (group 1 and 2) with two sub-clusters within group 1 (group 1a and 1b), and FJ13 belongs to group 1a. Animal experiment showed that the isolated strain FJ13 could cause clinical symptoms and pathological changes. The results of this study indicated that FJ13 caused myocarditis of tigers and provided new epidemiologic data on EMCV in China. PMID:23917023

Liu, Huimin; Yan, Qi; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Jing; Wang, Chengmin; Du, Yingchun; Yan, Jing; He, Hongxuan

2013-10-01

399

A comparison of virulence of influenza A virus isolates from mallards in experimentally inoculated turkeys.  

PubMed

Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) from wild waterfowl can and do cross species barriers, infecting and sometimes becoming established in domestic poultry. Turkeys are naturally highly susceptible to LPAIV infections, especially with viruses from ducks. In this study, we describe clinical signs and lesions in experimentally inoculated commercial turkeys produced by a LPAIV, A/mallard/MN/1714/09 (H7N1), isolated from a mallard duck. Our results demonstrate that this H7N1 isolate produced clinical signs, including severe edema of the head and face because of an early inflammatory response in both inoculated and contact turkeys. In comparison, an isolate, A/mallard/MN/2749/09 (H6N8) from the same mallard population, infected and was transmitted between naive turkeys but did not cause clinical disease or lesions. Our data indicate that proinflammatory (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6) and antiviral (IFN-gamma and IL-2) cytokines are expressed at different levels in H7N1- and H6N8-infected turkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These differences correlate inversely with clinical lesions, suggesting that differences in host responses result in variances in viral pathogenesis and in virulence of LPAIV in commercial turkeys. Based on these results, we can conclude that turkeys may exhibit variable immunologic responses to infection with different AIV strains. PMID:24597123

Mondal, Shankar; Xing, Zheng; Cardona, Carol

2013-12-01

400

Virulence differences between monkeypox virus isolates from West Africa and the Congo basin.  

PubMed

Studies indicate that West African and Congo basin isolates of monkeypox virus (MPXV) are genetically distinct. Here, we show Congo basin MPXV-ZAI-V79 is more virulent for cynomolgus monkeys as compared to presumed West African MPXV-COP-58. This finding may explain the lack of case-fatalities in the U.S. 2003 monkeypox outbreak, which was caused by a West African virus. Virulence differences between West African and Congo basin MPXV are further supported by epidemiological analyses that observed a similar prevalence of antibodies in non-vaccinated humans in both regions, while >90% of reported cases occurred in the Congo basin, and no fatal cases were observed outside of this region. To determine the basis for this difference in virulence, we sequenced the genomes of one human West African isolate, and two presumed West African isolates and compared the sequences to Congo basin MPXV-ZAI-96-I-16. The analysis identified D10L, D14L, B10R, B14R, and B19R as possible virulence genes, with D14L (ortholog of vaccinia complement protein) as a leading candidate. PMID:16023693

Chen, Nanhai; Li, Guiyun; Liszewski, M Kathryn; Atkinson, John P; Jahrling, Peter B; Feng, Zehua; Schriewer, Jill; Buck, Charles; Wang, Chunlin; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Esposito, Joseph J; Harms, Tiara; Damon, Inger K; Roper, Rachel L; Upton, Chris; Buller, R Mark L

2005-09-15

401

Infectivity and complete nucleotide sequence of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus isolate Cm cDNA.  

PubMed

Three isolates of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus (CFMMV) were collected from melon, cucumber, and pumpkin plants in Korea. A full-length cDNA clone of CFMMV-Cm (melon isolate) was produced and evaluated for infectivity after T7 transcription in vitro (pT7CF-Cmflc). The complete CFMMV genome sequence of the infectious clone pT7CF-Cmflc was determined. The genome of CFMMV-Cm consisted of 6,571 nucleotides and shared high nucleotide sequence identity (98.8 %) with the Israel isolate of CFMMV. Based on the infectious clone pT7CF-Cmflc, a CaMV 35S-promoter driven cDNA clone (p35SCF-Cmflc) was subsequently constructed and sequenced. Mechanical inoculation with RNA transcripts of pT7CF-Cmflc and agro-inoculation with p35SCF-Cmflc resulted in systemic infection of cucumber and melon, producing symptoms similar to those produced by CFMMV-Cm. Progeny virus in infected plants was detected by RT-PCR, western blot assay, and transmission electron microscopy. PMID:24473709

Rhee, Sun-Ju; Hong, Jin-Sung; Lee, Gung Pyo

2014-07-01

402

Phylogeny, genome evolution, and antigenic variability among endemic foot-and-mouth disease virus type A isolates from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The capsid-coding (P1) and 3A regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A field isolates including two vaccine strains collected during 1977–2000 were analyzed. In the phylogenies, the isolates were distributed into two previously identified genotypes VI and VII, with multiple sub-genotypes that are temporally clustered. Comparison of the antigenic relationships of field isolates with the two vaccine strains

M. Mittal; C. Tosh; D. Hemadri; A. Sanyal; S. K. Bandyopadhyay

2005-01-01

403

Complete Genomic Sequences of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus G1 Strains Isolated in the European Rabbit Original Range  

PubMed Central

The complete genomic sequences of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains isolated in 1995 (CB137) and 2006 (CB194) from wild European rabbits from Portugal are described. The strains were isolated in the original range of the European rabbit and assigned to genogroup 1 (G1), which is known to have persisted only in the Iberian Peninsula. ORF2 of isolate CB137 might encode a shorter minor structural protein, VP10.

Lopes, Ana M.; Esteves, Pedro J.

2012-01-01

404

Isolate-dependent use of claudins for cell entry by hepatitis C virus.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) entry involves at least four cellular factors, including CD81, the scavenger receptor class B type I (SCARB-1), occludin (OCLN), and claudin-1 (CLDN1). In addition, CLDN6 and CLDN9 have been shown to substitute for CLDN1 as HCV entry factors in human nonliver cells. We examined the role of different CLDN proteins during HCV entry by using cell lines expressing either predominantly CLDN1 (Huh-7.5) or CLDN6 (HuH6). Huh-7.5 cells were susceptible to all tested HCV isolates, whereas HuH6 cells were only permissive to some viral strains. Silencing of CLDN6 in HuH6 cells revealed that these cells are infected in a CLDN6-dependent fashion, and ectopic expression of CLDN1 or CLDN6 in 293T cells lacking endogenous CLDN expression confirmed that only some HCV strains efficiently use CLDN6 for infection. CLDN1-specific neutralizing antibodies (Abs) fully abrogated infection of Huh-7.5 cells by isolates that use CLDN1 only, whereas viruses with broad CLDN tropism were only partially inhibited by these Abs. Importantly, infection by these latter strains in the presence of anti-CLDN1 Ab was further reduced by silencing CLDN6, suggesting that viruses with broad CLDN usage escape CLDN1-specific Abs by utilization of CLDN6. Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of HCV entry factors in liver biopsies of HCV patients infected with different genotype and with variable degree of liver fibrosis were determined. Uniformly high levels of CD81, SCARB-1, OCLN, and CLDN1 mRNA were detected. In contrast, abundance of CLDN6 mRNA was highly variable between patients. Conclusion: These findings highlight differential CLDN usage by HCV isolates, which may evolve based on variable expression of CLDN proteins in human liver cells. Broad CLDN tropism may facilitate viral escape from CLDN1-specific therapeutic strategies. PMID:23775920

Haid, Sibylle; Grethe, Christina; Dill, Michael T; Heim, Markus; Kaderali, Lars; Pietschmann, Thomas

2014-01-01

405

Geographical distribution of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses of domestic poultry in Vietnam and their genetic relevance with Asian isolates.  

PubMed

From the avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreaks and market surveillances in Vietnam during November 2011 and March 2012, a total of 196 AIV were isolated. Although H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was the most prevalent subtype in Vietnam, 57 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses were identified from mainly domestic ducks and some chickens. Of note, various subtypes of LPAI viruses were isolated from domestic ducks in Vietnam: H3 (n = 16), H4 (n = 4), H6 (n = 24), H7 (n = 1), and H9 (n = 10). Geographically, the LPAI viruses were identified in different regions of Vietnam. Phylogenetic analysis of HA and NA genes in LPAIV in Vietnam showed that some H3 (group I) and H4 subtypes AIV clustered with the viruses of several Asian isolates from domestic poultry and wild birds. However, the H6, H9, and some H3 (group II and III) subtypes AIV were closely related to isolates from domestic poultry in Southern China. In addition, whereas the N2 and N6 subtypes AIV belonged to the Eurasian lineage, the N8 subtype AIV was classified to be both of Eurasian and American lineage. These findings revealed that the regional trade and wild birds play a key role transmission of LPAIV in domestic ducks in Vietnam. Further surveillance at the intercountry level is needed to understand the epidemiology of these viruses and to cope with emergence of novel AIV types. PMID:23873548

Kim, Kwang-Il; Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; To, Thanh Long; Nguyen, Tho Dang; Song, Byung-Min; Hong, Mi-Seon; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kye, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

2013-08-01

406

A single point mutation disrupts the capsid assembly in Sesbania Mosaic Virus resulting in a stable isolated dimer.  

PubMed

Protein-protein interactions play a crucial role in virus assembly and stability. With the view of disrupting capsid assembly and capturing smaller oligomers, interfacial residue mutations were carried out in the coat protein gene of Sesbania Mosaic Virus, a T=3 ss (+) RNA plant virus. A single point mutation of a Trp 170 present at the five-fold interface of the virus to a charged residue (Glu or Lys) arrested assembly of virus like particles and resulted in stable soluble dimers of the capsid protein. The X-ray crystal structure of one of the isolated dimer mutants - rCPDeltaN65W170K was determined to a resolution of 2.65 A. Detailed analysis of the dimeric mutant protein structure revealed that a number of structural changes take place, especially in the loop and interfacial regions during the course of assembly. The isolated dimer was "more relaxed" than the dimer found in the T=3 or T=1 capsids. The isolated dimer does not bind Ca(2+) ion and consequently four C-terminal residues are disordered. The FG loop, which interacts with RNA in the virus, has different conformations in the isolated dimer and the intact virus suggesting its flexible nature and the conformational changes that accompany assembly. The isolated dimer mutant was much less stable when compared to the assembled capsids, suggesting the importance of inter-subunit interactions and Ca(2+) mediated interactions in the stability of the capsids. With this study, SeMV becomes the first icosahedral virus for which X-ray crystal structures of T=3, T=1 capsids as well as a smaller oligomer of the capsid protein have been determined. PMID:19643453

Pappachan, Anju; Chinnathambi, Subashchandrabose; Satheshkumar, P S; Savithri, H S; Murthy, M R N

2009-09-30

407

Diversity among isolates of cowpea severe mosaic virus infecting cowpeas in northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Eleven isolates of cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), a member of the genus Comovirus, were selected from 50 samples collected of nine cowpea fields in Northeastern Brazil (Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, Bahia, and Distrito Federal) and partially sequenced. The RNA1 partial sequence, corresponding to the helicase, viral genome-linked protein, picornain 3C-like protease, and the RNA-directed RNA polymerase genes from CPSMV, had high identity among isolates, varying from 98 to 100%. No evidence was found for intermolecular or intramolecular recombination. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the Brazilian CPSMV isolates are substantially d