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1

Molecular Characterization of Citrus tristeza virus Isolates from Panama  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twelve isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were collected from the main citrus growing regions in Panama and characterized at the molecular level. The CTV coat protein gene (CPG) was amplified by RT-PCR, and the amplified PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The sequences analyses showed the ...

2

Unusual Sequence Relationships Between Two Isolates of Citrus Tristeza Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete, 19226 nt sequence of the RNA genome from VT, a seedling yellows strain of citrus tristeza virus (CTV), was determined and found to have a genome organization identical with that of the previously determined CTV-T36 isolate, except that ORF 1 of CTV-VT was 70 nt shorter due to two widely separated 18 nt deletions. Sequence com- parison of

Munir Mawassi; Elzbieta Mietkiewska; Rose Gofman; Guang Yang; Moshe Bar-Joseph

1996-01-01

3

VARIABILITY IN TRANSMISSION OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS ISOLATES FROM FLORIDA BY TOXOPTERA CITRICIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is an aphid transmitted plant infecting virus that continues to pose serious problems in the citriculture industries. Fifteen Florida isolates of CTV were tested for their transmissibility by the brown citrus aphid (Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy) (BrCA). The BrCA is the ma...

4

VARIABILITY IN TRANSMISSION OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS ISOLATES FROM FLORIDA BY TOXOPTERA CITRICIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fifteen florida isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were tested for transmissibility by the brown citrus aphid (Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy) (BrCA). A CTV isolate with the T68 genotype, propagated by successive graft inoculation for 25 years was readily transmitted by BrCA, with 45-80% of recep...

5

Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a New Genotype of Citrus Tristeza Virus from an Isolate Having a Mixed Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An isolate of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) that causes severe stem pitting in grapefruits (# 3800) was used for sequencing. Analysis of the isolate revealed the presence of at least three different populations, one belonging to T30 genotype and the other two belonging to new genotypes, designated T2K...

6

Molecular analyses revealed genetic complexity in Citrus tristeza virus Dekopon isolate and its aphid-transmitted progeny  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An assessment was made of the disease potential of a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolate designated Dekopon found in a hybrid mandarin variety topworked in a citrus planting in Fresno County, CA. After aphid transmissions (AT), parental and AT isolates were analyzed by SSCP, genotyping with multipl...

7

Genetic diversity and evolution of two capsid protein genes of citrus tristeza virus isolates from China.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity and population structure of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates from China were investigated based on partial sequences spanning the C-terminal end of p61 and the complete sequences of the CPm and CP genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed five known groups (RB, T30, T36, HA and VT) and one new group (VI) consisting of only Chinese CTV isolates. Incongruent phylogenetic trees coupled with recombination analysis suggested several recombination events in the CPm gene. Positive selection was detected at codon 9 of CPm and codons 31, 41 and 68 of CP. The widespread CTV subpopulation AT-1 found in China has a unique amino acid insertion at the C-terminus of p61, which could increase CTV population complexity with implications for the evolutionary history of the virus. Our results suggest relevant roles for gene flow, purifying selection and recombination in shaping the CTV population in China. PMID:25387862

Wu, Guan-Wei; Tang, Min; Wang, Guo-Ping; Jin, Feng-Yin; Yang, Zuo-Kun; Cheng, Li-Jing; Hong, Ni

2015-03-01

8

Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or s...

9

Molecular Marker Analysis of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates from the Dominican Republic  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Samples of citrus tissue infected with Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were collected from Persian lime, mandarin, Washington navel, Valencia or grapefruit trees from various locations in the Dominican Republic. Desiccated tissue samples were re-hydrated and virions extracted by grinding samples in buff...

10

HISTOLOGY OF SWEET ORANGE STEM PITTING CAUSED BY AN AUSTRALIAN ISOLATE OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some strains of the citrus tristeza virus (CTV) cause stem pitting in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). This abnormality causes tree decline and reduction in fruit size and yield of affected citrus trees. Stem-pitting symptoms can occur on trunks, on all sizes of limbs, and on the twigs ...

11

Real-time RT-PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Citrus Tristeza Virus Isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multiplex one step real time RT-PCR assays using TaqMan probes were developed for detection and strain differentiation of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). For broad spectrum CTV detection, a TaqMan primer and Cy5-labeled probe were designed using CP gene sequences. An internal control was developed us...

12

Real-time RT-PCR assay for detection and differentiation of Citrus tristeza virus isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For universal detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) strains by real time RT-PCR, a protocol was developed based on a set of primers and a Cy5-labeled TaqMan probe. This test included primers and a TET-labeled TaqMan probe selected on the mitochondrial nad5 gene for the simultaneous detection of ...

13

Characterization of a novel citrus tristeza virus genotype within three cross-protecting source GFMS12 sub-isolates in South Africa by means of Illumina sequencing.  

PubMed

Tristeza disease (caused by citrus tristeza virus, CTV) is currently controlled in South Africa by means of cross-protection. In this study, we characterized the CTV populations of three grapefruit mild strain 12 (GFMS12) single-aphid-transmission-derived sub-isolates at the whole-genome level using Illumina sequencing technology. A novel South African isolate (CT-ZA3, of the T68 genotype) was shown to be the dominant genotype in all GFMS12 sub-isolates tested, along with reads unique to various other genotypes occurring as minor components. Uncertainty remains as to the significance of these minor components. PMID:24623089

Zablocki, Olivier; Pietersen, Gerhard

2014-08-01

14

The First Identified Citrus tristeza virus Isolate of Turkey Contains a Mixture of Mild and Severe Strains  

PubMed Central

The presence of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has previously been reported in citrus growing regions of Turkey. All serologically and biologically characterized isolates including I?d?r, which was the first identified CTV isolates from Turkey, were considered mild isolates. In this study, molecular characteristics of the I?d?r isolate were determined by different methods. Analysis of the I?d?r isolate by western blot and BD-RT-PCR assays showed the presence of MCA13 epitope, predominantly found in severe isolates, in the I?d?r isolate revealing that it contains a severe component. For further characterization, the coat protein (CP) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes representing the 3? and 5? half of CTV genome, respectively, were amplified from dsRNA by RT-PCR. Both genes were cloned separately and two clones for each gene were sequenced. Comparisons of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences showed that while two CP gene sequences were identical, two RdRp clones showed only 90% and 91% sequence identity in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively, suggesting a mixed infection with different strains. Phylogenetic analyses of the CP and RdRp genes of I?d?r isolate with previously characterized CTV isolates from different citrus growing regions showed that the CP gene was clustered with NZRB-TH30, a resistance breaking isolate from New Zealand, clearly showing the presence of severe component. Furthermore, two different clones of the RdRp gene were clustered separately with different CTV isolates with a diverse biological activity. While the RdRp-1 was clustered with T30 and T385, two well-characterized mild isolates from Florida and Spain, respectively, the RdRp-2 was most closely related to NZRB-G90 and NZRB-TH30, two well-characterized resistance breaking and stem pitting (SP) isolates from New Zealand confirming the mixed infection. These results clearly demonstrated that the I?d?r isolate, which was previously described as biologically a mild isolate, actually contains a mixture of mild and severe strains. PMID:25288926

Çevik, Bayram; Yardimci, Nejla; Korkmaz, Sava?

2013-01-01

15

Citrus tristeza virus-aphid interactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A review chapter on aphid transmission of Citrus tristeza virus is provided for a book on “Vector-Mediated Transmission of Plant Pathogens”. Earliest uses of citrus goes back over two millennia as items of trade, gifts and medicinal compounds. Citrus propagation during this period was by seed and si...

16

Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting (SP) symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows (SY) symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in those mixtures interact with each other and cause diseases. PMID:23717303

Dawson, W. O.; Garnsey, S. M.; Tatineni, S.; Folimonova, S. Y.; Harper, S. J.; Gowda, S.

2013-01-01

17

Complete Sequence of the Citrus Tristeza Virus RNA Genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequence of the entire genome of citrus tristeza virus (CTV), Florida isolate T36, was completed. The 19,296-nt CTV genome encodes 12 open reading frames (ORFs) potentially coding for at least 17 protein products. The 5?-proximal ORF 1a starts at nucleotide 108 and encodes a large polyprotein with calculated MW of 349 kDa containing domains characteristic of (from 5? to

A. V. Karasev; V. P. Boyko; S. Gowda; O. V. Nikolaeva; M. E. Hilf; E. V. Koonin; C. L. Niblett; K. Cline; D. J. Gumpf; R. F. Lee; S. M. Garnsey; D. J. Lewandowski; W. O. Dawson

1995-01-01

18

Characterization of Citrus Tristeza Virus Subgenomic RNAs in Infected Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) specific RNAs extracted from infected citrus tissue were analyzed by Northern blot hybridization. RNAs were characterized by size and identified using cDNA probes specific to nine open reading frames (ORFs) identified by the analysis of sequence obtained from cDNA clones of the T36 isolate of CTV. Sequence specific cDNA probes identified the genomic RNA as well

Mark E. Hilf; Alexander V. Karasev; Hanumantha R. Pappu; David J. Gumpf; Charles L. Niblett; Stephen M. Garnsey

1995-01-01

19

Stem pitting Citrus tristeza virus predominantly transmitted by the brown citrus aphid from mixed infections containing non-stem pitting and stem pitting isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited closterovirus that produces a variety of symptoms in various Citrus spp. One of these symptoms is stem pitting (SP). SP does not occur in all Citrus spp. but when it does it may cause low tree vigor, decline and an economically-significant reduction ...

20

Novel mild strains of Citrus tristeza virus from California and Peru.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has caused great economic losses to citrus worldwide. CTV isolates from California were identified which reacted to MCA13 but were mild in biological indexing tests. Molecular markers were developed to differentiate these isolates from established CTV genotypes and the is...

21

AMINO ACID SEQUENCE VARIATIONS ASSOICATED WITH APHID TRANSMISSIBILITY OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus isolates were collected from the San Joaquin Valley of California. Different transmission phenotypes were identified among these isolates with Aphis gossypii and Toxoptera citricida, the brown citrus aphid (BrCA). To investigate the differential transmissibility at the genomic ...

22

Genetic differentiation and biology of Citrus tristeza virus populations spreading in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates were collected from more than 1500 trees in citrus groves in Tulare, Kern, Ventura, Riverside and San Diego Counties for laboratory tests to assess molecular and biological properties of CTV strains currently in California. Tests included serology with MCA13 mon...

23

Dramatic Change in Citrus tristeza virus populations in the Dominican Republic  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the most destructive viral pathogen of citrus and has been an important concern for the citrus industry in the Dominican Republic. Earlier studies documented widespread distribution of mild isolates of the T30 genotype, which caused no disease in the infected trees, an...

24

Production of Polyclonal Antibodies to the Recombinant Coat Protein of Citrus tristeza virus and Their Effectiveness for Virus Detection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The p25 coat protein gene of three Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates, two from Mexico and one from India, was amplified by RT-PCR and further cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant coat protein (rCP) of the three CTV isolates was injected into rabbits and goats for antibo...

25

Transgenic Resistance to Citrus tristeza virus in Grapefruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) transgenic plants transformed with a variety of constructs derived from the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome were tested for their resistance to the virus. Most transgenic lines were susceptible (27 lines), a few were partially resistant (6 lines) and only one line, tr...

26

Emergence and Phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events. PMID:23818960

Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F.; Rubio, Luis

2013-01-01

27

Transcriptional response of Citrus aurantifolia to infection by Citrus tristeza virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in gene expression of Mexican lime plants in response to infection with a severe (T305) or a mild (T385) isolate of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were analyzed using a cDNA microarray containing 12,672 probes to 6875 different citrus genes. Statistically significant (P<0.01) expression changes of 334 genes were detected in response to infection with isolate T305, whereas infection with

Mónica Gandía; Ana Conesa; Gema Ancillo; José Gadea; Javier Forment; Vicente Pallás; Ricardo Flores; Nuria Duran-Vila; Pedro Moreno; José Guerri

2007-01-01

28

Current status of Citrus tristeza virus in Central California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Lindcove Research and Extension Center (LREC), Exeter, CA has 51 ha of citrus and is the field site and screenhouses for the University of California Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP). LREC maintains a zero tolerance of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) infected trees to protect the CCPP and re...

29

Kinetics of Accumulation of Citrus Tristeza Virus RNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the closterovirus group, is one of the more complex single-stranded RNA viruses. The 5? portion of its 19,296-nt, single-stranded RNA genome is expressed as an ?400-kDa polyprotein that is proteolytically processed, while the 10 3? open reading frames are expressed from 3?-coterminal subgenomic RNAs (sg RNAs). As an initial examination of the gene

JESÚS NAVAS-CASTILLO; MARÍA R ALBIACH-MARTÍ; SIDDARAME GOWDA; MARK E HILF; STEPHEN M GARNSEY; WILLIAM O DAWSON

1997-01-01

30

Genetic differentiation and biology of Citrus tristeza virus populations spreading in eradicative and non-eradicative areas of California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies showed Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from the 1970’s in California were closely related to the mild T30 isolate; only a few severe strains such as SY568 (Riverside) and Dekopon (Orange Cove) were found and subsequently eradicated. CTV is now spreading rapidly in so...

31

Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Citrus Tristeza Virus and Their Use for Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) specific for citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were obtained from hybrid cells produced by fusion of a non-secreting myeloma cell line with spleen cells from BALB\\/c mice immunized with isolate T-308 of CTV. Three MAb were characterized for their immunoglobulin isotype and their titres in cell culture and ascites fluids. Each MAb was conjugated with alkaline phosphatase

C. Vela; M. Cambra; E. Cortes; P. Moreno; J. G. Miguet; C. P. De San Roman; A. Sanz

1986-01-01

32

Defective RNA Molecules Associated with Citrus Tristeza Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparations of single-stranded (ss) RNA extracted from particles of the Israeli VT strain of citrus tristeza virus (CTV-VT), and ss- and double-stranded (ds) RNA preparations extracted from infected Alemow (Citrus macrophylla) plants, contained a population of molecules with features that suggest that they are defective RNAs. The prototype of 2424 nt was cloned and sequenced and was found to be

Munir Mawass; Alexander V. Karasev; Elzbieta Mietkiewska; Ron Gafny; Richard F. Lee; William O. Dawson; Moshe Bar-Joseph

1995-01-01

33

Evaluación de Anticuerpos Desarrollados Contra la Proteína Recombinante de la Cápside del Virus Tristeza de los Cítricos  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polyclonal antibodies specific for the recombinant coat protein (rCP) p25 gene of (Citrus tristeza virus = CTV), were developed for isolates MX08 and MX14 from México and B227 from India. The reactivity of rCP antibodies was evaluated using healthy and CTV infected tissue. The combination of rCP ant...

34

Use of the Coat Protein (CP) and minor CP Intergene Sequence to Discriminate Severe Strains of Citrus tristeza virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A rapid assay is a needed to differentiate mild vs severe strains of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Multiple alignment performed on the coat protein (CP) and the minor coat protein (CPm) intergene sequences (~80-100 bp) from different CTV isolates revealed that severe strains generally associated wit...

35

Citrus tristeza virus: a pathogen that changed the course of the citrus industry.  

PubMed

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) (genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae) is the causal agent of devastating epidemics that changed the course of the citrus industry. Adapted to replicate in phloem cells of a few species within the family Rutaceae and to transmission by a few aphid species, CTV and citrus probably coevolved for centuries at the site of origin of citrus plants. CTV dispersal to other regions and its interaction with new scion varieties and rootstock combinations resulted in three distinct syndromes named tristeza, stem pitting and seedling yellows. The first, inciting decline of varieties propagated on sour orange, has forced the rebuilding of many citrus industries using tristeza-tolerant rootstocks. The second, inducing stunting, stem pitting and low bearing of some varieties, causes economic losses in an increasing number of countries. The third is usually observed by biological indexing, but rarely in the field. CTV polar virions are composed of two capsid proteins and a single-stranded, positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) of approximately 20 kb, containing 12 open reading frames (ORFs) and two untranslated regions (UTRs). ORFs 1a and 1b, encoding proteins of the replicase complex, are directly translated from the gRNA, and together with the 5' and 3'UTRs are the only regions required for RNA replication. The remaining ORFs, expressed via 3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs, encode proteins required for virion assembly and movement (p6, p65, p61, p27 and p25), asymmetrical accumulation of positive and negative strands during RNA replication (p23), or suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing (p25, p20 and p23), with the role of proteins p33, p18 and p13 as yet unknown. Analysis of genetic variation in CTV isolates revealed (1) conservation of genomes in distant geographical regions, with a limited repertoire of genotypes, (2) uneven distribution of variation along the gRNA, (3) frequent recombination events and (4) different selection pressures shaping CTV populations. Measures to control CTV damage include quarantine and budwood certification programmes, elimination of infected trees, use of tristeza-tolerant rootstocks, or cross protection with mild isolates, depending on CTV incidence and on the virus strains and host varieties predominant in each region. Incorporating resistance genes into commercial varieties by conventional breeding is presently unfeasible, whereas incorporation of pathogen-derived resistance by plant transformation has yielded variable results, indicating that the CTV-citrus interaction may be more specific and complex than initially thought. A deep understanding of the interactions between viral proteins and host and vector factors will be necessary to develop reliable and sound control measures. PMID:18705856

Moreno, Pedro; Ambrós, Silvia; Albiach-Martí, Maria R; Guerri, José; Peña, Leandro

2008-03-01

36

Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick decline could be effectively managed by the use of resistant and/or tolerant rootstocks, the only means to protect commercial citrus against endemic stem pitting isolates of CTV has been cross-protection with mild isolates of the virus. In some citrus areas cross-protection has been successful and allowed production of certain citrus cultivars despite the presence of severe stem pitting isolates in those regions. However, many other attempts to find isolates that would provide sustained protection against aggressive isolates of the virus had failed. In general, there has been no understanding why some mild isolates were effective and others failed to protect. We have been working on the mechanism of cross-protection by CTV. Recent considerable progress has significantly advanced our understanding of how cross-protection may work in the citrus/CTV pathosystem. As we demonstrated, only isolates that belong to the same strain of the virus cross protect against each other, while isolates from different strains do not. We believe that the results of our research could now make finding protecting isolates relatively straightforward. This review discusses some of the history of CTV cross-protection along with the recent findings and our “recipe” for selection of protecting isolates. PMID:23577008

Folimonova, Svetlana Y.

2013-01-01

37

PRESENCE OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS IN ANGOLA AND SÃO TOMÉ E PRÍNCIPE: CHARACTERIZATION OF ISOLATES BASED ON COAT PROTEIN GENE ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A first report is given of the presence of Citrus tris- teza virus (CTV) in Angola and São Tomé e Príncipe. Two out of twenty citrus samples from São Tomé e Príncipe and all of the seven samples from Angola were shown by ELISA to contain CTV. The capsid protein gene variants obtained by IC\\/RT-PCR were character- ized by

G. Silva; F. Fonseca; C. Santos; G. Nolasco

2007-01-01

38

DEVELOPEMENT OF STABLE, UNIFORM CONTROLS FOR USE IN ELISA ASSAYS FOR CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Enzym-linked immunosorbent assya (ELISA) are used almost universally for detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). The positive and negative controls used in ELISA vary greatly from laboratory to laboratory. Even in the same laboratory, there ofen is a lack of consisitency over a period of time. We ...

39

Past and future of a century old Citrus tristeza virus collection: a California citrus germplasm tale  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from citrus germplasm, dooryard and field trees in California from 1914 have been maintained in planta under quarantine in the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Riverside, California. This collection, therefore, represents populations of CTV isolates obtained over time and space in California. To determine CTV genetic diversity in this context, genotypes of CTV isolates from the CCPP collection were characterized using multiple molecular markers (MMM). Genotypes T30, VT, and T36 were found at high frequencies with T30 and T30+VT genotypes being the most abundant. The MMM analysis did not identify T3 and B165/T68 genotypes; however, biological and phylogenetic analysis suggested some relationships of CCPP CTV isolates with these two genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the CTV coat protein (CP) gene sequences classified the tested isolates into seven distinct clades. Five clades were in association with the standard CTV genotypes T30, T36, T3, VT, and B165/T68. The remaining two identified clades were not related to any standard CTV genotypes. Spatiotemporal analysis indicated a trend of reduced genotype and phylogenetic diversity as well as virulence from southern California (SC) at early (1907–1957) in comparison to that of central California (CC) isolates collected from later (1957–2009) time periods. CTV biological characterization also indicated a reduced number and less virulent stem pitting (SP) CTV isolates compared to seedling yellows isolates introduced to California. This data provides a historical insight of the introduction, movement, and genetic diversity of CTV in California and provides genetic and biological information useful for CTV quarantine, eradication, and disease management strategies such as CTV-SP cross protection. PMID:24339822

Wang, Jinbo; Bozan, Orhan; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Dang, Tyler; Rucker, Tavia; Yokomi, Raymond K.; Lee, Richard F.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Krueger, Robert R.; Bash, John; Greer, Greg; Diaz, James; Serna, Ramon; Vidalakis, Georgios

2013-01-01

40

Effects of Modification of the Transcription Initiation Site Context on Citrus Tristeza Virus Subgenomic RNA Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the Closteroviridae, has a positive-sense RNA genome of about 20 kb organized into 12 open reading frames (ORFs). The last 10 ORFs are expressed through 3-coterminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) regulated in both amounts and timing. Additionally, relatively large amounts of complementary sgRNAs are produced. We have been unable to determine whether these sgRNAs

María A. Ayllon; Siddarame Gowda; Tatineni Satyanarayana; Alexander V. Karasev; Scott Adkins; Munir Mawassi; J. Guerri; P. Moreno; W. O. Dawson

2003-01-01

41

Superinfection exclusion by Citrus tristeza virus does not correlate with the production of viral small RNAs.  

PubMed

Superinfection exclusion (SIE), a phenomenon in which a preexisting viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or closely related virus, has been described for different viruses, including important pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. Several mechanisms acting at various stages of the viral life cycle have been proposed to explain SIE. Most cases of SIE in plant virus systems were attributed to induction of RNA silencing, a host defense mechanism that is mediated by small RNAs. Here we show that SIE by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) does not correlate with the production of viral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). CTV variants, which differed in the SIE ability, had similar siRNAs profiles. Along with our previous observations that the exclusion phenomenon requires a specific viral protein, p33, the new data suggest that SIE by CTV is highly complex and appears to use different mechanisms than those proposed for other viruses. PMID:25248160

Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Harper, Scott J; Leonard, Michael T; Triplett, Eric W; Shilts, Turksen

2014-11-01

42

Citrus tristeza virus p23: a unique protein mediating key virus–host interactions  

PubMed Central

The large RNA genome of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV; ca. 20 kb) contains 12 open reading frames, with the 3?-terminal one corresponding to a protein of 209 amino acids (p23) that is expressed from an abundant subgenomic RNA. p23, an RNA-binding protein with a putative zinc-finger domain and some basic motifs, is unique to CTV because no homologs have been found in other closteroviruses, including the type species of the genus Beet yellows virus (despite both viruses having many homologous genes). Consequently, p23 might have evolved for the specific interaction of CTV with its citrus hosts. From a functional perspective p23 has been involved in many roles: (i) regulation of the asymmetrical accumulation of CTV RNA strands, (ii) induction of the seedling yellows syndrome in sour orange and grapefruit, (iii) intracellular suppression of RNA silencing, (iv) elicitation of CTV-like symptoms when expressed ectopically as a transgene in several Citrus spp., and (v) enhancement of systemic infection (and virus accumulation) in sour orange and CTV release from the phloem in p23-expressing transgenic sweet and sour orange. Moreover, transformation of Mexican lime with intron-hairpin constructs designed for the co-inactivation of p23 and the two other CTV silencing suppressors results in complete resistance against the homologous virus. From a cellular point of view, recent data indicate that p23 accumulates preferentially in the nucleolus, being the first closterovirus protein with such a subcellular localization, as well as in plasmodesmata. These major accumulation sites most likely determine some of the functional roles of p23. PMID:23653624

Flores, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Soler, Nuria; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús; Fagoaga, Carmen; López, Carmelo; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

2013-01-01

43

Transgenic expression in citrus of single-chain antibody fragments specific to Citrus tristeza virus confers virus resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes one of the most destructive viral diseases of citrus worldwide. Generation of resistant citrus genotypes through\\u000a genetic engineering could be a good alternative to control CTV. To study whether production of single-chain variable fragment\\u000a (scFv) antibodies in citrus could interfere and immunomodulate CTV infection, transgenic Mexican lime plants expressing two\\u000a different scFv constructs, separately and

Magdalena Cervera; Olga Esteban; Maite Gil; M. Teresa Gorris; M. Carmen Martínez; Leandro Peña; Mariano Cambra

2010-01-01

44

Molecular diversity of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) strains collected over the past 50 years and maintained in CTV collections in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tristeza, caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), is a serious citrus disease worldwide. Because severe strains of CTV reduce fruit production and quality, CTV has been eliminated from citrus germplasm sources by a certification program. CTV is also a regulated pathogen in quarantine zones and infec...

45

Elevated Background in double antibody sandwich-indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Citrus tristeza virus in mandarin cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Healthy tissue extracts from mandarin cultivars induced non-specific reaction in double antibody sandwich-indirect (DASI-) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) by the Central California Tristeza Eradication Agency (CCTEA), Tulare, CA. This probl...

46

High codon adaptation in citrus tristeza virus to its citrus host  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the genus Closterovirus within the family Closteroviridae, is the causal agent of citrus tristeza disease. Previous studies revealed that the negative selection, RNA recombination and gene flow were the most important forces that drove CTV evolution. However, the CTV codon usage was not studied and thus its role in CTV evolution remains unknown. Results A detailed comparative analysis of CTV codon usage pattern was done in this study. Results of the study show that although in general CTV does not have a high degree of codon usage bias, the codon usage of CTV has a high level of resemblance to its host codon usage. In addition, our data indicate that the codon usage resemblance is only observed for the woody plant-infecting closteroviruses but not the closteroviruses infecting the herbaceous host plants, suggesting the existence of different virus-host interactions between the herbaceous plant-infecting and woody plant-infecting closteroviruses. Conclusion Based on the results, we suggest that in addition to RNA recombination, negative selection and gene flow, host plant codon usage selection can also affect CTV evolution. PMID:22698086

2012-01-01

47

LATENCY OF SYSTEMIC INFECTION IN YOUNG FIELD-GROWN SWEET ORANGE TREES FOLLOWING GRAFT-INOCULATION WITH CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Experiments were conducted to determine the time required for Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) to begin migration from the site of inoculation, and the subsequent incubation period required for systemic infection to occur. Young CTV-free sweet orange trees propagated on Citrus macrophylla rootstocks wer...

48

Elevated Background in DAS-I ELISA for the Detection of Citrus Tristeza Virus in Mandarin Varieties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Healthy tissue extracts from mandarin orange varieties occasionally resulted in elevated absorbance which can exceed twice that of healthy sweet orange tissue extracts in DAS-I-ELISA detection with an expressed coat protein polyclonal antiserum of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). This problem occurs se...

49

Virus-viroid interactions: Citrus Tristeza Virus enhances the accumulation of Citrus Dwarfing Viroid in Mexican lime via virus-encoded silencing suppressors.  

PubMed

An assay to identify interactions between Citrus Dwarfing Viroid (CDVd) and Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) showed that viroid titer was enhanced by the coinfecting CTV in Mexican lime but not in etrog citron. Since CTV encodes three RNA silencing suppressors (RSSs), p23, p20 and p25, an assay using transgenic Mexican limes expressing each RSS revealed that p23 and, to a lesser extent, p25 recapitulated the effect observed with coinfections of CTV and CDVd. PMID:24227850

Serra, Pedro; Bani Hashemian, Seyed M; Fagoaga, Carmen; Romero, Juan; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Gorris, Maria T; Bertolini, Edson; Duran-Vila, Núria

2014-01-01

50

Calculation of diagnostic parameters of advanced serological and molecular tissue-print methods for detection of Citrus tristeza virus. A model for other plant pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most important virus diseases which affect citrus. Control of CTV in Spain and central California is achieved by planting virus-free citrus on CTV-tolerant or -resistant rootstocks. Quarantine and certification programs remain essential to avoid importation ...

51

Rapid Differentiation and Identification of Potential Severe Strains of Citrus tristeza Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A multiplex Taqman®-based real-time reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect all strains of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and to identify potentially severe strains of the virus. A CTV TaqMan probe (CTV-CY5) based on the coat protein (CP) gene sequences...

52

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grapefruit with the wild-type and mutant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of Citrus tristeza virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus paradisi Macf. cv. Duncan was transformed with constructs coding for the wild-type and mutant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) for exploring replicase-mediated pathogen-derived resistance (RM-PDR). The RdRp gene was amplified from CTV genome and used to gener...

53

Heterologous Minor Coat Proteins of Citrus Tristeza Virus Strains Affect Encapsidation, but the Coexpression of HSP70h and p61 Restores Encapsidation to Wild-Type Levels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The long flexuous bipolar virions of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a Closterovirus, are encapsidated with two capsid proteins at opposite ends: the minor coat protein (CPm) encapsidates the 5’ 630 nts of the genomic RNA and the major coat protein encapsidates the remainder of the genome. In this stud...

54

Profiling of the small RNA populations derived from sour orange seedlings cross-protected against seedling yellows strains of Citrus tristeza virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Control of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in central California changed in 2009 from removal of all CTV-infected trees to only those which react positive in tests with selective probes for potentially severe CTV strains. Therefore, new strategies for CTV control are needed. Greenhouse tests have show...

55

Construction of a 1.2Mb contig including the citrus tristeza virus resistance gene locus using a bacterial artificial chromosome library of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus tristeza virus resistance gene ( Ctv) is a single dominant gene in Poncirus trifoliata, a sexually compatible relative of citrus. To clone this gene, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library has been constructed from an individual plant that was homozygous for Ctv. This library contains 45 696 clones with an average insert size of 80 kb, corresponding to

Zhong-Nan Yang; Xin-Rong Ye; Sandong Choi; Joe Molina; Francis Moonan; Rod A. Wing; Mikeal L. Roose; T. Erik Mirkov

2001-01-01

56

Quantitative Detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in Citrus and Aphids by Real-time Reverse Transcription-PCR (TaqMan®)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Routine detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and direct tissue blot immunoassays. Reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has also been developed for CTV detection which is more sensitive than serology. We developed a quantitative an...

57

A high-resolution linkage map of the citrus tristeza virus resistance gene region in Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.  

PubMed Central

Resistance to citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was evaluated in 554 progeny of 10 populations derived from Poncirus trifoliata. A dominant gene (Ctv) controlled CTV resistance in P. trifoliata. Twenty-one dominant PCR-based DNA markers were identified as linked to Ctv by bulked segregant analysis. Of the 11 closest markers to Ctv, only 2 segregated in all populations. Ten of these markers were cloned and sequenced, and codominant RFLP markers were developed. Seven RFLP markers were then evaluated in 10 populations. Marker orders were consistent in all linkage maps based on data of single populations or on combined data of populations with similar segregation patterns. In a consensus map, the six closest marker loci spanned 5.3 cM of the Ctv region. Z16 cosegregated with Ctv. C19 and AD08 flanked Ctv at distances of 0.5 and 0.8 cM, respectively. These 3 markers were present as single copies in the Poncirus genome, and could be used directly for bacterial artificial chromosome library screening to initiate a walk toward Ctv. BLAST searches of the GenBank database revealed high sequence similarities between 2 markers and known plant disease resistance genes, indicating that a resistance gene cluster exists in the Ctv region in P. trifoliata. PMID:9755216

Fang, D Q; Federici, C T; Roose, M L

1998-01-01

58

A genetic system for Citrus Tristeza Virus using the non-natural host Nicotiana benthamiana: an update  

PubMed Central

In nature Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), genus Closterovirus, infects only the phloem cells of species of Citrus and related genera. Finding that the CTV T36 strain replicated in Nicotiana benthamiana (NB) protoplasts and produced normal virions allowed development of the first genetic system based on protoplast transfection with RNA transcribed from a full-genome cDNA clone, a laborious and uncertain system requiring several months for each experiment. We developed a more efficient system based on agroinfiltration of NB leaves with CTV-T36-based binary plasmids, which caused systemic infection in this non-natural host within a few weeks yielding in the upper leaves enough CTV virions to readily infect citrus by slash inoculation. Stem agroinoculation of citrus and NB plants with oncogenic strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying a CTV-T36 binary vector with a GUS marker, induced GUS positive galls in both species. However, while most NB tumors were CTV positive and many plants became systemically infected, no coat protein or viral RNA was detected in citrus tumors, even though CTV cDNA was readily detected by PCR in the same galls. This finding suggests (1) strong silencing or CTV RNA processing in transformed cells impairing infection progress, and (2) the need for using NB as an intermediate host in the genetic system. To maintain CTV-T36 in NB or assay other CTV genotypes in this host, we also tried to graft-transmit the virus from infected to healthy NB, or to mechanically inoculate NB leaves with virion extracts. While these trials were mostly unsuccessful on non-treated NB plants, agroinfiltration with silencing suppressors enabled for the first time infecting NB plants by side-grafting and by mechanical inoculation with virions, indicating that previous failure to infect NB was likely due to virus silencing in early infection steps. Using NB as a CTV host provides new possibilities to study virus-host interactions with a simple and reliable system. PMID:23847598

Ambrós, Silvia; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Peña, Leandro; Moreno, Pedro

2013-01-01

59

Symptoms induced by transgenic expression of p23 from Citrus tristeza virus in phloem-associated cells of Mexican lime mimic virus infection without the aberrations accompanying constitutive expression.  

PubMed

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is phloem restricted in natural citrus hosts. The 23-kDa protein (p23) encoded by the virus is an RNA silencing suppressor and a pathogenicity determinant. The expression of p23, or its N-terminal 157-amino-acid fragment comprising the zinc finger and flanking basic motifs, driven by the constitutive 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus, induces CTV-like symptoms and other aberrations in transgenic citrus. To better define the role of p23 in CTV pathogenesis, we compared the phenotypes of Mexican lime transformed with p23-derived transgenes from the severe T36 and mild T317 CTV isolates under the control of the phloem-specific promoter from Commelina yellow mottle virus (CoYMV) or the 35S promoter. Expression of the constructs restricted to the phloem induced a phenotype resembling CTV-specific symptoms (vein clearing and necrosis, and stem pitting), but not the non-specific aberrations (such as mature leaf epinasty and yellow pinpoints, growth cessation and apical necrosis) observed when p23 was ectopically expressed. Furthermore, vein necrosis and stem pitting in Mexican lime appeared to be specifically associated with p23 from T36. Phloem-specific accumulation of the p23?158-209(T36) fragment was sufficient to induce the same anomalies, indicating that the region comprising the N-terminal 157 amino acids of p23 is responsible (at least in part) for the vein clearing, stem pitting and, possibly, vein corking in this host. PMID:25171669

Soler, Nuria; Fagoaga, Carmen; López, Carmelo; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Flores, Ricardo; Peña, Leandro

2015-05-01

60

Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2005-01-01

61

Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.  

PubMed

Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested. PMID:6316795

Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

1983-11-01

62

Chlorella viruses isolated in China  

SciTech Connect

Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

1988-09-01

63

Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).  

PubMed

A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372

Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

2014-04-20

64

Characterization of Recently Introduced HLB and CTV Isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Severe stem-pitting isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were found in Florida citrus 5 years ago, followed by the discovery 2 years later of the citrus greening disease (huanglongbing: HLB) caused by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. The new CTV isolates are members of the VT grou...

65

Comparison of Immunohistochemistry and Virus Isolation for Diagnosis of West Nile Virus  

PubMed Central

Immunohistochemistry and virus isolation were performed on 1,057 birds. Immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, or both found 325 birds to be West Nile virus positive. Of these, 271 were positive by both methods. These results indicate that virus isolation and immunohistochemistry are approximately equal in their ability to detect West Nile virus. PMID:15956415

Ellis, Angela E.; Mead, Daniel G.; Allison, Andrew B.; Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.

2005-01-01

66

Isolation of Usutu Virus in Germany  

PubMed Central

Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged 2001 in Austria and caused deaths in wild birds. In Germany, 70,378 female mosquitoes were captured in 2009 and 2010 and assayed for USUV. Virus was isolated in cell culture from one pool of Culex pipiens pipiens mosquitoes trapped exclusively in August 2010 in Weinheim, Germany. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the isolated USUV strain from Germany and a USUV strain from Austria, which was detected in a dead blackbird in 2004. PMID:21896821

Jöst, Hanna; Bialonski, Alexandra; Maus, Deborah; Sambri, Vittorio; Eiden, Martin; Groschup, Martin H.; Günther, Stephan; Becker, Norbert; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

2011-01-01

67

ISOLATION OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS FROM TEALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight of 30 teals (Anas crecca) died several days following capture and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) was isolated from all eight. Brains from the dead birds were homogenized and inoculated into chicken embryos. The allantoic fluid from the embryos was inoculated into 10 domestic chickens susceptible to NDV and 10 chickens immunized against NDV. Eight of 10 (80%) susceptible chickens

M. H. BOZORGMEHRI-FARD; H. KEYVANFAR

68

ISOLATION OF POLIOMYELITIS VIRUS FROM THE NASOPHARYNX  

PubMed Central

A single example of mild illness diagnosed as suspected abortive poliomyelitis is described in which the virus of poliomyelitis was recovered from the nasopharynx by three different methods. Failure to recover virus from a total of twenty-six cases diagnosed as suspected or abortive poliomyelitis and fourteen contacts is also reported. The original material from the nasopharynx of the positive case proved unusually infective for the monkey, apparently even more so than are the majority of suspensions of spinal cords from fatal human cases of poliomyelitis. An explanation of this fact is not clear. The method of isolating human virus from the throat, by means of preserving the sediment of washings from this site in glycerine, has been shown to be efficient in one case for a period of 101 days. PMID:19870412

Paul, John R.; Trask, James D.; Webster, Leslie T.

1935-01-01

69

African Swine Fever Virus Isolate, Georgia, 2007  

PubMed Central

African swine fever (ASF) is widespread in Africa but is rarely introduced to other continents. In June 2007, ASF was confirmed in the Caucasus region of Georgia, and it has since spread to neighboring countries. DNA fragments amplified from the genome of the isolates from domestic pigs in Georgia in 2007 were sequenced and compared with other ASF virus (ASFV) isolates to establish the genotype of the virus. Sequences were obtained from 4 genome regions, including part of the gene B646L that encodes the p72 capsid protein, the complete E183L and CP204L genes, which encode the p54 and p30 proteins and the variable region of the B602L gene. Analysis of these sequences indicated that the Georgia 2007 isolate is closely related to isolates belonging to genotype II, which is circulating in Mozambique, Madagascar, and Zambia. One possibility for the spread of disease to Georgia is that pigs were fed ASFV-contaminated pork brought in on ships and, subsequently, the disease was disseminated throughout the region. PMID:19046509

Rowlands, Rebecca J.; Michaud, Vincent; Heath, Livio; Hutchings, Geoff; Oura, Chris; Vosloo, Wilna; Dwarka, Rahana; Onashvili, Tinatin; Albina, Emmanuel

2008-01-01

70

Field isolates of fowlpox virus contaminated with reticuloendotheliosis virus.  

PubMed

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used to examine samples from field cases of fowlpox for the presence of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). The S-strain fowlpox vaccine, known to be contaminated with REV, served as a positive control. Fowlpox virus was grown from field samples and vaccines by inoculation of embryonated hen eggs by the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) route. DNA was extracted from the CAM lesions and examined for REV proviral sequences using primers specific for the long terminal repeats of REV. Amplicons of the expected length were detected in all the 45 field samples from poultry and in the S strain vaccine. Two other vaccines and two isolates from wild birds contained no detectable REV sequences. The PCR products from the vaccine and one field isolate were sequenced and were identical. These products showed 81 to 87.5% homology with the published sequences for the long terminal repeats of REV. It was not determined whether the REV proviral DNA was integrated with cellular DNA, fowlpox DNA or both. Inoculation of day-old chickens with the S-strain vaccine resulted not only in the production of fowlpox lesions but also feathering defects and proventriculitis. This suggests that the REV present in the vaccine is replication competent. Problems being encountered with protection from fowlpox following vaccination in Australia might be attributed to simultaneous challenge with fowlpox virus and REV. PMID:18483965

Diallo, I S; Mackenzie, M A; Spradbrow, P B; Robinson, W F

1998-01-01

71

Mild strain cross protection of tristeza: a review of research to protect against decline on sour orange in Florida  

PubMed Central

Tristeza, caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), has long been present in Florida but outbreaks of decline on sour orange rootstock were occasional events until the late 1970s. Sour orange rootstock was valued for the high quality of fruit produced and was widely used because of its tolerance of citrus blight, a disease of unknown etiology. Research was directed towards the selection and screening of mild strains of CTV which could protect against sour orange decline strains. Following the introduction of Toxoptera citricida (also known as the brown citrus aphid) in 1995 there was a greater concern for maintaining production of existing blocks of citrus on sour orange rootstock. Availability of the CTV genome sequence around the same time as well as molecular characterization of in planta CTV populations led to the selection of mild CTV isolates which when inoculated into existing field trees, extended the productive life of the groves and enabled a more graduate replanting of trees on CTV-tolerant rootstocks. The history of CTV in Florida and the methods developed to select mild isolates for use for mild strain cross protection will be reviewed. PMID:24046764

Lee, Richard F.; Keremane, Manjunath L.

2013-01-01

72

Genetic analysis of rabies virus isolates in the Philippines.  

PubMed

To determine the genetic characteristics of the rabies virus in the Philippines, 59 rabies virus isolates were obtained from domestic rabid dogs and their partial nucleotide sequences of nucleoprotein (N) gene were compared. Based on comparison with reported sequences, phylogenetic analysis revealed that all isolates from the Philippines had close genetic relations and formed two subgroups. The Philippines isolates belonged to a different lineage from other Asian isolates but were closer to them than to terrestrial isolates and laboratory strains. Several specific nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were observed among the Philippines isolates. Our results suggest that rabies viruses in the Philippines might have a characteristic evolution. PMID:12153119

Nishizono, Akira; Mannen, Kazuaki; Elio-Villa, Luningning P; Tanaka, Seiichi; Li, Kang-sheng; Mifune, Kumato; Arca, Benito F; Cabanban, Arturo; Martinez, Benjamin; Rodriguez, Arlito; Atienza, Victor C; Camba, Rolando; Resontoc, Nilo

2002-01-01

73

Analysis of Iranian Potato virus S isolates.  

PubMed

Two hundred forty potato samples with one or more symptoms of leaf mosaic, distortion, mottling and yellowing were collected between 2005 and 2008 from seven Iranian provinces. Forty-four of these samples tested positive with double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA) using a Potato virus S (PVS) polyclonal antibody. Of these 12 isolates of PVS were selected based on the geographical location for biological and molecular characterization. The full coat protein (CP) and 11K genes from 12 PVS isolates were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. All 12 PVS isolates showed mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana debneyii and N. tabacum cv. Whiteburly and local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and C. album. The Iranian isolates share between 93 and 100% pairwise nucleotide identity with other PVS(O) isolates. Based on maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis coupled with pairwise identity analysis, we propose 15 genotypes for the PVS(O) strain and 3 genotypes for the PVS(A) strain. PMID:21567245

Salari, Khadijeh; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Varsani, Arvind

2011-10-01

74

Citrus tristeza virus: characterization of Texas isolates, studies on aphid transmission and pathogen-derived control strategies  

E-print Network

CTV DECLINE SYMPTOMS 1. Decline on sour orange rootstock Within months the canopy of a mature tree suddenly wilts and dies Scion/rootstock interface if bark is peeled back, may have 'pinholes' in the stem with corresponding 'pins...

Herron, Caroline Mary

2004-11-15

75

Serological differences between red currant spoon leaf virus, virus isolates from Eckelrade-diseased cherry trees and the Scottish raspberry ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antisera were made to red currant spoon leaf virus (SLV), an isolate of the Scottish raspberry ringspot virus (RRV), and two virus isolates from Eckelrade-diseased cherry trees (EV). Different virus isolates, including one from Belgium, were tested against these antisera. The results indicate that we are dealing with a group of virus isolates with different antigenic properties. SLV is very

D. Z. Maat

1965-01-01

76

Isolation and characterization of orf viruses from Korean black goats  

PubMed Central

Five cases of orf virus infection in Korean black goats were diagnosed in our laboratory between 2010 and 2011. One orf virus (ORF/2011) was isolated from an ovine testis cell line (OA3.Ts) for use as a vaccine candidate. Sequences of the major envelope protein and orf virus interferon resistance genes were determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that orf viruses from Korean black goats were most closely related to an isolate (ORF/09/Korea) from dairy goats in Korea. This result indicates that the orf viruses might have been introduced from dairy goats into the Korean black goat population. PMID:23814477

Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kim, Yong-Joo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Jung, Byeong-Yeal

2013-01-01

77

Genetic variation among isolates of White spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), member of a new virus family called Nimaviridae, is a major scourge in worldwide shrimp cultivation. Geographical isolates of WSSV identified so far are very similar in morphology and proteome, and show little difference in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern. We have mapped the genomic differences between three completely sequenced WSSV isolates, originating

H. Marks; R. W. Goldbach; J. M. Vlak; M. C. W. van Hulten

2004-01-01

78

Isolation of a monoclonal antibody which blocks vaccinia virus infection.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated a monoclonal antibody, B2, that neutralizes vaccinia virus infection. B2 reacts with a trypsin-sensitive cell surface epitope. B2 does not neutralize infection of herpes simplex virus, suggesting that the B2-reactive epitope is specifically involved in vaccinia virus entry. A survey of 12 different cell lines reveals a correlation between B2 reactivity and susceptibility to vaccinia virus infection. In addition, B2 interferes with vaccinia virus adsorption to target cells. Taken together, the B2-reactive epitope is part of a receptor that appears important for vaccinia virus entry. PMID:7527087

Chang, W; Hsiao, J C; Chung, C S; Bair, C H

1995-01-01

79

Tanay virus, a new species of virus isolated from mosquitoes in the Philippines.  

PubMed

In 2005, we isolated a new species of virus from mosquitoes in the Philippines. The virion was elliptical in shape and had a short single projection. The virus was named Tanay virus (TANAV) after the locality in which it was found. TANAV genomic RNA was a 9562 nt+poly-A positive strand, and polycistronic. The longest ORF contained putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP); however, conserved short motifs in the RdRP were permuted. TANAV was phylogenetically close to Negevirus, a recently proposed taxon of viruses isolated from haemophagic insects, and to some plant viruses, such as citrus leprosis virus C, hibiscus green spot virus and blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus. In this paper, we describe TANAV and the permuted structure of its RdRP, and discuss its phylogeny together with those of plant viruses and negevirus. PMID:24646751

Nabeshima, Takeshi; Inoue, Shingo; Okamoto, Kenta; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Yu, Fuxun; Uchida, Leo; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Sakaguchi, Miako; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Buerano, Corazon C; Tadena, Florencio P; Orbita, Ildefonso B; Natividad, Filipinas F; Morita, Kouichi

2014-06-01

80

[Isolation of the virus of Syr-Darya Valley fever].  

PubMed

In the course of studies on the ecological structure of acute febrile diseases in the season of activity of blood-sucking arthropods strains of a virus antigenically related to Sikhote-Alyñ virus were isolated from the blood of a patient and from Ixodid ticks. This paper presents the results of the study on the causative agent and the clinical picture of the disease caused by this virus. The virus was found to be a new one for science; its appurtenance to the family Picornaviridae, genus Cardiovirus, the antigenic group of encephalomyocarditis has been determined. The virus has been designated "Syr-Darya Valley fever virus" by the area of its isolation. PMID:6097042

L'vov, D K; Karimov, S K; Kiriushchenko, T V; Chun-Siun, F; Skvortsova, T M

1984-01-01

81

Chikungunya virus was isolated in Thailand, 2010.  

PubMed

Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is an acute febrile illness caused by a mosquito-borne alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). This disease re-emerged in Kenya in 2004, and spread to the countries in and around the Indian Ocean. The re-emerging epidemics rapidly spread to regions like India and Southeast Asia, and it was subsequently identified in Europe in 2007, probably as a result of importation of chikungunya cases. On the one hand, chikungunya is one of the neglected diseases and has only attracted strong attention during large outbreaks. In 2008-2009, there was a major outbreak of chikungunya fever in Thailand, resulting in the highest number of infections in any country in the region. However, no update of CHIKV circulating in Thailand has been published since 2009. In this study, we examined the viral growth kinetics and sequences of the structural genes derived from CHIKV clinical isolates obtained from the serum specimens of CHIKF-suspected patients in Central Thailand in 2010. We identified the CHIKV harboring two mutations E1-A226V and E2-I211T, indicating that the East, Central, and South African lineage of CHIKV was continuously circulating as an indigenous population in Thailand. PMID:25113745

Sasayama, Mikiko; Benjathummarak, Surachet; Kawashita, Norihito; Rukmanee, Prasert; Sangmukdanun, Suntaree; Masrinoul, Promsin; Pitaksajjakul, Pannamthip; Puiprom, Orapim; Wuthisen, Pitak; Kurosu, Takeshi; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Maneekan, Pannamas; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Luplertlop, Natthanej

2014-12-01

82

Isolation and Phylogenetic Grouping of Equine Encephalosis Virus in Israel  

PubMed Central

During 2008–2009 in Israel, equine encephalosis virus (EEV) caused febrile outbreaks in horses. Phylogenetic analysis of segment 10 of the virus strains showed that they form a new cluster; analysis of segment 2 showed ?92% sequence identity to EEV-3, the reference isolate. Thus, the source of this emerging EEV remains uncertain. PMID:22000361

Aharonson-Raz, Karin; Steinman, Amir; Bumbarov, Velizar; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender Singh; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Batten, Carrie; Potgieter, Christiaan; Gottlieb, Yuval; Mertens, Peter

2011-01-01

83

Genetic characterization of bluetongue virus serotype 9 isolates from India.  

PubMed

Recent incursions of bluetongue virus (BTV) into previously naive geographical areas have emphasised the need to better understand virus movement and epidemiology. Several bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are known to exist in India, and some serotype viruses have been isolated. However, the complete genome of not a single isolate is available to date. We report the complete genome sequence of one, and partial sequences of three other Indian isolates of BTV-9. Evolutionary relationships with segment-2 and -6 sequences of BTV isolates around the world, deduced using four different phylogenetic analyses and a similarity programme, show that BTV-9 (Eastern), BTV-9 (Western), and BTV-5 form a triad of equidistant, genetically distinct groups of viruses. The Indian BTV-9 isolates were closely related to Mediterranean and European BTV-9 isolates (Eastern topotype) based on segment-2 and -6 sequences. By contrast, segment-5 analyses clustered the Indian BTV-9 isolates with South African BTV-3 reference strain (98% identity), which belongs to one of the Western types. These results have implications on BTV origin and movement, genotyping, serotyping, and vaccine design. PMID:22258368

Rao, Pavuluri Panduranga; Reddy, Y Vishnuvardhan; Meena, Keerti; Karunasree, N; Susmitha, B; Uma, Madala; Prasad, P U V S; Chaitanya, P; Reddy, Y Narsimaha; Hegde, Nagendra R

2012-04-01

84

Isolation of border disease virus from twin lambs in Alberta  

PubMed Central

We describe herein a field case of border disease (BD) in twin lambs. Both lambs were unthrifty, stunted, and one exhibited nervous signs characteristic of BD, with tremors of the head, neck, hind legs, and pelvis. Hairiness of the coat and excessive pigmentation, often seen in lambs with BD, were not observed. A noncytopathic virus, which showed cross-reactivity with bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus antiserum and BVD virus monoclonal antibodies, was isolated repeatedly from leukocytes from one lamb and from tissues of the other. Although the source of the virus is unknown, our results suggest that the dam of the affected twins had been infected during pregnancy. We used the BD virus isolated to inoculate pregnant ewes and experimentally reproduce the disease in a newborn lamb. Our findings indicate that leukocytes, rather than serum, should be utilized for BD virus isolation. Further, it is recommended that BD virus, rather than BVD virus, be used in serum neutralization tests when screening sheep for antibody titers. PMID:17423897

Lees, V. Wayne; Loewen, Ken G.; Deregt, Dirk; Knudsen, Robin

1991-01-01

85

Molecular characterization and heterogeneity of feline immunodeficiency virus isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We have molecularly cloned the complete genomic DNA of TM2 strain of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) isolated in Japan and compared its nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequence with those of previously described U.S. isolates, FIV Petaluma and FIV PPR. The infectious molecular clone of FIV TM2 is different from FIV Petaluma in host cell range; the clone

N. Maki; T. Miyazawa; M. Fukasawa; A. Hasegawa; M. Hayami; K. Miki; T. Mikami

1992-01-01

86

Genetic Transformation of Citrus Paradisi with Antisense and untranslatable RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Genes of Citrus Tristeza Closterovirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Expression of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied in vivo and in vitro using a polyclonal antiserum raised against the recombinant CTV-RdRp protein. Although 56 kDa CTV-RdRp is thought to be expressed by a +1 translational frameshift at the carboxyl te...

87

Triticum Mosaic Virus: A New Virus Isolated From Wheat in Kansas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2006 a mechanically-transmissible and previously uncharacterized virus was isolated in Kansas from wheat with mosaic symptoms. The physio-chemical properties of the virus were examined by purification on cesium chloride density gradients, electron microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylalmid...

88

Vaccine efficacy against challenge with HPAI H5N1 virus isolates from Vietnam  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multiple isolates of H5N1 were isolated from northern Vietnam in December of 2005. All the viruses characterized were clade 2 viruses, but phylogenetically they formed two separate sub-lineages. The isolation of clade 2 viruses was unexpected, since previous isolations from both northern and south...

89

Isolated acute dysphagia due to varicella-zoster virus.  

PubMed

We present a case of zoster sine herpete causing isolated acute dysphagia in an immunocompetent patient. The interest of this paper is the atypical presentation of varicella-zoster virus reactivation. A 77-year-old woman presented with a 3-day history of fever and worsening dysphagia for both liquid and solid foods. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis and PCR amplified varicella-zoster virus DNA with high antibody titers in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The panel was suggestive of a cranial neuritis due to varicella-zoster virus, involved cranial nerves, even in the absence of a cutaneous and mucosal rash. Varicella-zoster virus reactivation should be included in the differential diagnosis of isolated or multiple cranial nerve palsies, with or without zosteriform skin lesions. A prompt etiologic diagnosis can lead to early administration of antiviral therapy. PMID:24529416

Mantero, Vittorio; Rigamonti, Andrea; Valentini, Sergio; Fiumani, Anna; Piamarta, Francesca; Bonfanti, Paolo; Salmaggi, Andrea

2014-04-01

90

Herpes simplex virus: isolation, cytopathological characterization and antiviral sensitivity*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is an endemic disease and it is estimated that 6095% of the adult population are infected with symptoms that are usually self-limiting, though they can be serious, extensive and prolonged in immunocompromised individuals, highlighted by the emergence of drug-resistant strains. The study of the wild-type HSV strains based on the cytopathogenic features and its antiviral sensitivity are important in the establishment of an antivirogram for controlling the infection. OBJECTIVE This study sought to isolate and examine the cytopathological characteristics of circulating strains of the Herpes simplex virus, from clinical specimens and their sensitivity to commercially available antiherpesvirus drugs, acyclovir, phosphonophormic acid and trifluridine. METHODS Herpes simplex virus isolation, cytopathological features and antiviral sensitivity assays were performed in cell culture by tissue culture infectious dose or plaque forming unit assay. RESULTS From twenty-two clinical specimens, we isolated and adapted nine strains. Overall, the cytopathic effect was detected 24 h post-infection (p.i.) and the presence of syncytia was remarkable 48 h p.i., observed after cell staining. Out of eight isolates, four developed plaques of varying sizes. All the isolates were sensitive to acyclovir, phosphonophormic and trifluridine, with the percentage of virus inhibition (%VI) ranging from 49.7-100%. CONCLUSIONS The methodology for HSV isolation and characterization is a straightforward approach, but the drug sensitivity test, regarded as being of great practical importance, needs to be better understood. PMID:24937819

Nozawa, Carlos; Hattori, Lilian Yumi; Galhardi, Ligia Carla Faccin; Lopes, Nayara; Bomfim, Wesley Andrade; de Cândido, Ligyana Korki; de Azevedo, Elbens Marcos Minoreli; Gon, Airton dos Santos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

2014-01-01

91

New Human Papilloma Virus Isolated from Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis Lesions1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papilloma virus (HPV) was isolated from red plaques of a patient (N. F.) with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Elec tron microscopic examination showed characteristic particles of papilloma virus as ¡cosahedronsabout 45 nm in diameter. DNA was extracted from these particles, and closed-circular DNA (Form I) was purified by centrifugation in CsCI containing ethidium bromide. The molecular weight of the DNA was

M. Yutsudo; T. Tanigaki; T. Tsumori; S. Watanabe; A. Hakura

92

Identification and evaluation of an isolate of sugarcane mosaic virus  

E-print Network

-588 (Table 1). Plants remaining symptomless after inoculation were assayed serol- ogically for virus. The Ouchterlony gel diffusion test was performed using the method of Purcifull and Batchelor (43). Plants were rated for viurs infections...IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF AN ISOLATE OF SUGARCANE MOSAIC VIRUS A Thesis by LAURA MARIA GIORDA DE MESSINA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASt...

Giorda de Messina, Laura Maria

1983-01-01

93

Characterization of two strains of Tribe? virus isolated in Ukraine.  

PubMed

During arbovirus surveillance in Ixodes ricinus ticks in South Ukraine, two strains of Tribe? virus were isolated using an in vivo method and characterized using the complement fixation text (CFT), hemagglutination assay (HA), electron microscopy, and molecular methods. Both strains replicated well in the BHK-21, PEC, and Vero cell lines and demonstrated 95% nucleotide identity in their VP3 sequences compared with the reference VP3 sequence for Tribe? virus. These two strains of Tribe? virus were named Tr35 and Tr19. Also, segment reassortment involving Tr35, Tr19, TRBV, and LIPV strains was shown. PMID:25409272

Dedkov, Vladimir G; Dubina, Dmitriy A; Yurchenko, Oksana A; Bekova, Marina V; Valdokhina, Anna V; Shipulin, German A

2014-11-01

94

Genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates from Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic typing of 29 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) isolates from Argentina was carried out by sequencing 245 nucleotides of the RT-PCR products of the 5?-UTR region. Sequence analysis shows that these Argentinean BVDV include types 1 and 2. The majority (26\\/29) of the isolates are type 1, which comprises subtypes 1a and 1b, together with an additional subgroup within

Leandro R Jones; Rubén Zandomeni; E. Laura Weber

2001-01-01

95

Matrix Gene of Influenza A Viruses Isolated from Wild Aquatic Birds: Ecology and Emergence of Influenza A Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild aquatic birds are the primary reservoir of influenza A viruses, but little is known about the viruses' gene pool in wild birds. Therefore, we investigated the ecology and emergence of influenza viruses by conducting phylogenetic analysis of 70 matrix (M) genes of influenza viruses isolated from shorebirds and gulls in the Delaware Bay region and from ducks in Alberta,

Linda Widjaja; Scott L. Krauss; Richard J. Webby; Tao Xie; Robert G. Webster

2004-01-01

96

Isolation of Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Virus from Leukocytes of Rats and Virus Replication in Cultures of Rat and Human Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Newborn rats were inoculated intraperitoneally with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)-related virus (B-1 strain), and virus isolation from their various organs was attempted between 1 and 25 weeks after inoculation. Virus could be isolated repeatedly from lung, brain, spleen and kidney and also from peripheral blood. When virus isolation was carried out on fractionated peripheral blood cells, virus

T. Nagai; O. Tanishita; Y. Takahashi; T. Yamanouchi; K. Domae; K. Kondo; J. R. Dantas; M. Takahashi; K. Yamanishi

1985-01-01

97

Molecular Diagnosis of Human Rhinovirus Infections: Comparison with Virus Isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR with that of virus isolation in the detection of human rhinoviruses, we tested nasopharyngeal aspirates from 200 patients on the 1st and 7th days after the onset of the common cold. An assay utilizing a short amplicon in the conserved 5* noncoding region was found highly sensitive. Of 192 positive samples altogether,

TIMO HYYPIA; TUOMO PUHAKKA; OLLI RUUSKANEN; MIKA MAKELA; ANITA AROLA; PERTTI ARSTILA

1998-01-01

98

Molecular Epidemiology of Rabies Virus Isolates in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, rabies is enzootic and is a serious public health and economic problem. India has a large population of stray dogs which, together with a lack of effective control strategies, might have led to the persistence of rabies virus (RV) in the canine population. Our objective was to study the molecular epidemi- ology of RV isolates in India based

T. Nagarajan; B. Mohanasubramanian; E. V. Seshagiri; S. B. Nagendrakumar; M. R. Saseendranath; M. L. Satyanarayana; D. Thiagarajan; P. N. Rangarajan; V. A. Srinivasan

2006-01-01

99

Isolation and Characterization of an Avian Adenovirus-Associated Virus  

PubMed Central

An 18- to 20-nm virus particle was isolated from the Olson strain of quail bronchitis, an avian adenovirus. On density gradient separation the small virions were primarily found at densities of 1.39 and 1.42 g/cm3. The majority of the infectious particles were at the heavier density. The virus had a hexagonal outline and contained single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid. It was resistant to heating at 56 C for more than an hour and was not inactivated by treatment with chloroform or low pH. Purified virus did not agglutinate erythrocytes of various avian and mammalian species. Replication of the small particles occurred either in chicken embryos or in cultures of embryo kidney cells coinfected with an adenovirus helper. Antigenically the virus was distinct from the adeno-associated viruses types 1, 2, 3, and 4. The virus is the avian equivalent of the adeno-associated viruses of primates and lower animals. Images PMID:4351971

Yates, Vance J.; El Mishad, Abla M.; McCormick, Kenneth J.; Trentin, John J.

1973-01-01

100

Mayaro virus fever in French Guiana: isolation, identification, and seroprevalence.  

PubMed

This paper reports the first isolation of Mayaro (MAY) virus from a patient infected in French Guiana. The identification was initially performed using immunofluorescent antibody testing with specific mouse antibody, and confirmed by plaque-reduction neutralization testing and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. To determine if MAY virus infection is widespread in French Guiana, a serosurvey was performed to determine the prevalence of antibody to this virus in various ethnic groups and areas of French Guiana. Human sera (n = 1,962) were screened using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. To determine whether MAY virus circulates in the rain forest, a serosurvey in monkey populations was performed. Monkey sera (n = 150) were also screened for antibody to MAY virus using HI testing. Of the human sera tested, 6.3% were positive for anti-MAY virus antibodies. Significant differences in MAY virus seroprevalence between different age groups were observed. Seroprevalence rates increased with age, with a large increase in people 10-19 years of age in comparison with those less than 10 years of age. After adjustment for age, significant differences were also found between places of residence. The prevalence of anti-MAY virus antibody was higher in people living in contact with the forest, especially in the Haut Oyapock area (odds ratio [OR] = 97.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 48.2-197.9) and along the Maroni River (OR = 39.7, 95% CI = 20.6-76.6). The ethnic differences observed in this study were probably due to differences in residence. Among monkeys, higher seroprevalence rates were found in Alouatta seniculus (66.0%) than in Saguinus midas (18.2%). Among Alouatta, the seroprevalence increased significantly with weight (and therefore with age). This study indicates that MAY virus is present in French Guiana, and human infections occur in areas where people live near the tropical rain forest. PMID:9749643

Talarmin, A; Chandler, L J; Kazanji, M; de Thoisy, B; Debon, P; Lelarge, J; Labeau, B; Bourreau, E; Vié, J C; Shope, R E; Sarthou, J L

1998-09-01

101

Molecular characterization of isolates of anagyris vein yellowing virus, plantago mottle virus and scrophularia mottle virus – comparison of various approaches for tymovirus classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequences were determined for the genomic RNAs of three tymoviruses, i.e. isolates of anagyris vein yellowing virus (AVYV), plantago mottle virus (PlMoV) and scrophularia mottle virus (SrMV) which are all serologically closely related to ononis yellow mosaic virus (ibid) and to Nemesia ring necrosis virus (NeRNV), a recently described recombinant virus which is widely spread in commercially

R. Koenig; C. W. A. Pleij; D.-E. Lesemann; S. Loss; H. J. Vetten

2005-01-01

102

Routine virus isolation or detection in the diagnosis of diseases in birds.  

PubMed

Between August 1986 and July 1987, 373 submissions for laboratory diagnosis of suspected virus diseases of birds were received. In 116 cases (31%) viruses were isolated or detected, consisting of 25 reo-viruses, 17 rotaviruses, 14 adenoviruses plus demonstration of haemorrhagic enteritis virus antigen in the spleens of 15 birds, eight pox-viruses, 19 duck enteritis herpesviruses and six other avian herpes-viruses, four duck hepatitis viruses, six other enterovirus-like isolates, two duck astroviruses and two avian infectious bronchitis viruses. PMID:18766750

Gough, R E; Alexander, D J; Collins, M S; Lister, S A; Cox, W J

1988-01-01

103

[Rabies virus isolation in the salivary glands of insectivorous bats].  

PubMed

This study determined the presence of the rabies virus in salivary glands, as well as its titre and antigenic characterisation and the level of exposure to the virus from contact between domestic animals and humans. Twenty-six positive brain samples were selected, 80% of which were from the Brazilian free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis, corresponding to the period 1999-2005. Antigenic characterisation was conducted on a panel of 19 monoclonal antibodies targeting the rabies virus nucleoprotein supplied by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta in the United States of America. The results revealed a high percentage of isolations in salivary glands (76.9%). Their average titres were compared in a batch of positive samples of brain and salivary glands, giving values of 4.75 and 3.81 respectively (expressed as log LD50/0.03 ml). The isolated viruses corresponded principally to variant 4 associated with T brasiliensis and variant 6 associated with the hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus, and the red bat, L. borealis, and their respective subvariants. The level of exposure in domestic animals and humans was 50% during the period under study. PMID:20462155

Gury Dohmen, F; Beltrán, F

2009-12-01

104

Complete nucleotide sequence of a new potexvirus, "Phaius virus X", isolated from Phaius flavus Lindl.  

PubMed

A flexuous virus was isolated from cultivated Phaius flavus Lindl. plants in Japan with a latent infection. The virus was assigned to the genus Potexvirus based on morphology and analysis of its complete nucleotide sequence. The genome is 5,816 nucleotides in length, excluding the 3'-terminal poly (A) tail, and contains five open reading frames (ORFs), which is consistent with other members of the genus Potexvirus. The ORF nucleotide sequences differ from those of previously reported potexviruses, but the newly isolated virus is closely related to lily virus X and mint virus X. We propose that this virus should be designated as Phaius virus X (PhaVX). PMID:18183350

Kawakami, K; Fuji, S; Miyoshi, K

2008-01-01

105

Isolation of bluetongue virus serotype 1 from aborted goat fetuses.  

PubMed

Abortions and stillbirths were noticed in pregnant goats on a farm in the state of Gujarat, India. About 50% of the pregnant goats aborted or gave birth to dead kids. Bluetongue virus (BTV) antibody in the sera of affected goats was detected using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Viral antigen in the blood of these goats and in the aborted fetal spleens was detected using a sandwich ELISA. Two viruses (SKN-9, SKN-10) were isolated in cell culture from aborted fetal spleens and were confirmed as Orbivirus by demonstration of ten bands in RNA polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified as BTV-1 by sequencing of the VP2 gene. Sequence analyses revealed thatthese isolates were very closely related to a BTV-1 (strain SKN-8) isolated from Culicoides vectors captured on the same farm one month after the occurrence of abortion. Isolation of BTV-1 from fetuses is probably evidence of transplacental transmission of the wild-type strain, because attenuated or laboratory-adapted BTV-1 strains have never been used in this region. This may have important implications in the epidemiology of bluetongue, considering the presence of many BTV serotypes in India. PMID:25812205

Chauhan, H C; Biswas, S K; Chand, K; Rehman, W; Das, B; Dadawala, A I; Chandel, B S; Kher, H N; Mondal, B

2014-12-01

106

Performance characteristics of qualified cell lines for isolation and propagation of influenza viruses for vaccine manufacturing.  

PubMed

Cell culture is now available as a method for the production of influenza vaccines in addition to eggs. In accordance with currently accepted practice, viruses recommended as candidates for vaccine manufacture are isolated and propagated exclusively in hens' eggs prior to distribution to manufacturers. Candidate vaccine viruses isolated in cell culture are not available to support vaccine manufacturing in mammalian cell bioreactors so egg-derived viruses have to be used. Recently influenza A (H3N2) viruses have been difficult to isolate directly in eggs. As mitigation against this difficulty, and the possibility of no suitable egg-isolated candidate viruses being available, it is proposed to consider using mammalian cell lines for primary isolation of influenza viruses as candidates for vaccine production in egg and cell platforms. To investigate this possibility, we tested the antigenic stability of viruses isolated and propagated in cell lines qualified for influenza vaccine manufacture and subsequently investigated antigen yields of such viruses in these cell lines at pilot-scale. Twenty influenza A and B-positive, original clinical specimens were inoculated in three MDCK cell lines. The antigenicity of recovered viruses was tested by hemagglutination inhibition using ferret sera against contemporary vaccine viruses and the amino acid sequences of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase were determined. MDCK cell lines proved to be highly sensitive for virus isolation. Compared to the virus sequenced from the original specimen, viruses passaged three times in the MDCK lines showed up to 2 amino acid changes in the hemagglutinin. Antigenic stability was also established by hemagglutination inhibition titers comparable to those of the corresponding reference virus. Viruses isolated in any of the three MDCK lines grew reasonably well but variably in three MDCK cells and in VERO cells at pilot-scale. These results indicate that influenza viruses isolated in vaccine certified cell lines may well qualify for use in vaccine production. PMID:24975811

Donis, Ruben O; Davis, C Todd; Foust, Angie; Hossain, M Jaber; Johnson, Adam; Klimov, Alexander; Loughlin, Rosette; Xu, Xiyan; Tsai, Theodore; Blayer, Simone; Trusheim, Heidi; Colegate, Tony; Fox, John; Taylor, Beverly; Hussain, Althaf; Barr, Ian; Baas, Chantal; Louwerens, Jaap; Geuns, Ed; Lee, Min-Shi; Venhuizen, Odewijk; Neumeier, Elisabeth; Ziegler, Thedi

2014-11-12

107

Cedar Virus: A Novel Henipavirus Isolated from Australian Bats  

PubMed Central

The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV), which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt) and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin- B2) for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-? response than HeV. PMID:22879820

Barr, Jennifer A.; Tachedjian, Mary; Smith, Craig; Middleton, Deborah; Yu, Meng; Todd, Shawn; Foord, Adam J.; Haring, Volker; Payne, Jean; Robinson, Rachel; Broz, Ivano; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E.; Wang, Lin-Fa

2012-01-01

108

Recovery of H14 influenza A virus isolates from sea ducks in the Western Hemisphere  

PubMed Central

In 2010, H14 influenza A viruses were recovered from clinically normal sea ducks in the United States. These are the first H14 isolates recovered in the Western Hemisphere and represent the only documented H14 influenza A viruses isolated since the original isolates were recovered from near the Caspian Sea during 1982. PMID:22307173

Nolting, Jacqueline; Fries, Anthony C.; Slemons, Richard D; Courtney, Chad; Hines, Nichole; Pedersen, Janice

2012-01-01

109

Recovery of H14 influenza A virus isolates from sea ducks in the Western Hemisphere.  

PubMed

In 2010, H14 influenza A viruses were recovered from clinically normal sea ducks in the United States. These are the first H14 isolates recovered in the Western Hemisphere and represent the only documented H14 influenza A viruses isolated since the original isolates were recovered from near the Caspian Sea during 1982. PMID:22307173

Nolting, Jacqueline; Fries, Anthony C; Slemons, Richard D; Courtney, Chad; Hines, Nichole; Pedersen, Janice

2012-01-01

110

Application of the "best fit" pathotyping assay for evaluation of Russian isolates of Marek's disease virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to investigate the validity of the "best fit" pathotyping assay for testing of field isolates of Marek's disease (MD) virus. Twenty serotype 1 MD viruses were isolated from breeder and commercial flocks in 8 regions of the Russian Federation. These isolates were pat...

111

Comparative genetic analysis of genomic DNA sequences of two human isolates of Tanapox virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the genus Yatapoxvirus, which include Tanapox virus (TPV) and Yaba monkey tumor virus, infect primates including humans. Two strains of TPV isolated 50 years apart from patients infected from the equatorial region of Africa have been sequenced. The original isolate from a human case in the Tana River Valley, Kenya, in 1957 (TPV-Kenya) and an isolate from an

Steven H. Nazarian; John W. Barrett; A. Michael Frace; Melissa Olsen-Rasmussen; Marina Khristova; Mae Shaban; Sarah Neering; Yu Li; Inger K. Damon; Joseph J. Esposito; Karim Essani; Grant McFadden

2007-01-01

112

Characterization of a Siberian Virus Isolated from a Patient with Progressive Chronic Tick-Borne Encephalitis  

PubMed Central

A strain of Tick-borne encephalitis virus designated Zausaev (Za) was isolated in Siberia from a patient who died of a progressive (2-year) form of tick-borne encephalitis 10 years after being bitten by a tick. The complete genomic sequence of this virus was determined, and an attempt was made to correlate the sequence with the biological characteristics of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this virus belongs to the Siberian subtype of Tick-borne encephalitis virus. Comparison of Za virus with two related viruses, a Far Eastern isolate, Sofjin, and a Siberian isolate, Vasilchenko, revealed differences among the three viruses in pathogenicity for Syrian hamsters, cytopathogenicity for PS cells, plaque morphology, and the electrophoretic profiles of virus-specific nonstructural proteins. Comparative amino acid alignments revealed 10 individual amino acid substitutions in the Za virus polyprotein sequence that were different from those of other tick-borne flaviviruses. Notably, the dimeric form of the Za virus NS1 protein migrated in polyacrylamide gels as a heterogeneous group of molecules with a significantly higher electrophoretic mobility than those of the Sofjin and Vasilchenko viruses. Two amino acid substitutions, T277?V and E279?G, within the NS1 dimerization domain are probably responsible for the altered oligomerization of Za virus NS1. These studies suggest that the patient from whom Za virus was isolated died due to increased pathogenicity of the latent virus following spontaneous mutagenesis. PMID:12477807

Gritsun, T. S.; Frolova, T. V.; Zhankov, A. I.; Armesto, M.; Turner, S. L.; Frolova, M. P.; Pogodina, V. V.; Lashkevich, V. A.; Gould, E. A.

2003-01-01

113

Characterization of Whitney's Clethrionomy gapperi virus isolates from Massachusetts.  

PubMed

Six strains of virus were recovered from the blood and/or liver of five Clethrionomys gapperi ochraceus trapped in southeastern Massachusetts during 1969. Biological, antigenic and physiochemical properties of these isolates are reported. USA M-2268a was selected as the reference strain. This strain was identical by complement-fixation and neutralization tests to Whitneys C. gapperie virus (USA 64-7855) from New York State and was related to, but distinct from, an unpublished agent (Johnson's Microtus montanus enterovirus USA M-1146) isolated in June, 1962 from voles trapped in Klamath County, Oregon. USA M-2268a was resistant to lipid solvents and acid pH and was stable at temperatures of 4 C, 22 C, and 37 C. Virus was detected over a 10-day observation period in four species of mosquitoes inoculated with USA M-2268a, although there was no evidence of infection or replication, and transmission attempts by bite failed. Neutralizing antibody was detected in C.g. gapperi and C. g. ochraceus in various habitats throughout the state. PMID:6801

Main, A J; Shope, R E; Wallis, R C

1976-04-01

114

Fitness and virulence of an ancestral White Spot Syndrome Virus isolate from shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

White Spot Syndrome Virus, the type species of the virus family Nimaviridae, is a large dsDNA virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans. Genomic analysis of three completely sequenced WSSV isolates identified two major polymorphic loci, “variable region ORF14\\/15” and “variable region ORF23\\/24”. Here, we characterize a WSSV isolate originating from shrimp collected in Thailand in 1996 (TH-96-II). This isolate contains

Hendrik Marks; Josyanne J. A. van Duijse; Douwe Zuidema; Mariëlle C. W. van Hulten; Just M. Vlak

2005-01-01

115

Molecular characterization of Indian sugarcane streak mosaic virus isolate.  

PubMed

Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV), a member of the genus Poacevirus, family Potyviridae, is an important viral pathogen affecting sugarcane cultivation in India. The complete nucleotide sequence of a SCSMV isolate from India (SCSMV-IND) was determined. The linear, assembled, single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of SCSMV-IND was 9,786 nucleotides in length (excluding the poly (A) tail) and encoded a polyprotein of 3,131 amino acid residues. The genome of SCSMV-IND shared high degree of sequence identity with SCSMV-PAK (93 % at nucleotide and 97 % at amino acid), and shared only 81 % nucleotide and 94 % amino acid identities with all the four SCSMV isolates (SCSMV-JP1, -JP2, -ID, and -THA). Phylogenetic tree analysis of the complete genome sequences of SCSMV isolates revealed that they can be clustered into two groups. SCSMV-IND and -AP isolates showed 18 % (nucleotide) divergence within the highly conserved 3' partial genome, suggesting a high level of genetic diversity among the Indian SCSMV isolates. PMID:23011777

Parameswari, B; Bagyalakshmi, K; Viswanathan, R; Chinnaraja, C

2013-02-01

116

First Isolation of a Giant Virus from Wild Hirudo medicinalis Leech: Mimiviridae isolation in Hirudo medicinalis  

PubMed Central

Giant viruses and amoebae are common in freshwater, where they can coexist with other living multicellular organisms. We screened leeches from the species Hirudo medicinalis for giant viruses. We analyzed five H. medicinalis obtained from Tunisia (3) and France (2). The leeches were decontaminated and then dissected to remove internal parts for co-culture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga. The genomes of isolated viruses were sequenced on a 454 Roche instrument, and a comparative genomics analysis was performed. One Mimivirus was isolated and the strain was named Hirudovirus. The genome assembly generated two scaffolds, which were 1,155,382 and 25,660 base pairs in length. Functional annotations were identified for 47% of the genes, which corresponds to 466 proteins. The presence of Mimividae in the same ecological niche as wild Hirudo may explain the presence of the mimivirus in the digestive tract of the leech, and several studies have already shown that viruses can persist in the digestive tracts of leeches fed contaminated blood. As leeches can be used medically and Mimiviruses have the potential to be an infectious agent in humans, patients treated with leeches should be surveyed to investigate a possible connection. PMID:24287596

Boughalmi, Mondher; Pagnier, Isabelle; Aherfi, Sarah; Colson, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

2013-01-01

117

Selected isolates of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus propagated on bovine turbinate cells: Virus titer and soluble antigen production as factors in immunogenicity of killed BVD virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Soluble antigen production in a bovine turbinate cell line by 17 isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus was studied. We showed that the quantity of soluble antigen produced may vary considerably between isolates. Further, the isolate producing the greatest quantity of soluble antigen produced a higher antibody titer in calves than an isolate producing only half as much soluble

A. W. McClurkin; M. F. Coria

1978-01-01

118

Isolation of Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus from a Horse with Neurological Disease in Brazil  

PubMed Central

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a causative agent of encephalitis in humans in the Western hemisphere. SLEV is a positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Flavivirus genus, which includes West Nile encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Dengue virus and other medically important viruses. Recently, we isolated a SLEV strain from the brain of a horse with neurological signs in the countryside of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The SLEV isolation was confirmed by reverse-transcription RT-PCR and sequencing of the E protein gene. Virus identity was also confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence using commercial antibodies against SLEV. To characterize this newly isolated strain in vivo, serial passages in newborn mice were performed and led to hemorrhagic manifestations associated with recruitment of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system of newborns. In summary this is the first isolation of SLEV from a horse with neurological signs in Brazil. PMID:24278489

Rosa, Roberta; Costa, Erica Azevedo; Marques, Rafael Elias; Oliveira, Taismara Simas; Furtini, Ronaldo; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Renato Lima

2013-01-01

119

Isolation and partial characterisation of a new strain of Ebola We have isolated a new strain of Ebola virus from a non-  

E-print Network

1271 Isolation and partial characterisation of a new strain of Ebola virus Summary We have isolated a new strain of Ebola virus from a non- fatal human case infected during the autopsy of a wild about the natural reservoir of the Ebola virus. Lancet 1995; 345: 1271-74 Introduction Ebola virus

120

Clinical, pathological and antigenic aspects of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 2 isolates identified in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) field isolates identified four viruses belonging to the genotype 2. Comparison of 5? UTR sequences from these isolates to those of North American BVDV type 2 revealed genomic variations that correlated with the geographic origins of the isolates. Two of the Brazilian type 2 viruses were isolated from

E. F Flores; L. H. G. V Gil; S. A Botton; R Weiblen; J. F Ridpath; L. C Kreutz; C Pilati; D Driemeyer; V Moojen; A. C Wendelstein

2000-01-01

121

Characterization of reticuloendotheliosis virus isolates obtained from chickens, turkeys and prairie chickens in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twelve reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) isolates obtained from chickens, turkeys and prairie chickens in the United States were characterized using ploymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immunofluoresence (IFA) assays. This study included five REV isolates from Prairie chickens in Texas, two ...

122

Genotyping of Korean isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) based on the glycoprotein gene  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Glycoprotein (G) gene nucleotide sequences of four Korean isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) were analyzed to evaluate their genetic relatedness to worldwide isolates. All Korean isolates were closely related to Japanese isolates of genogroup JRt rather than to those of North American and European genogroups. It is believed that Korean IHNV has been most likely introduced from Japan to Korea by the movement of contaminated fish eggs. Among the Korean isolates, phylogenetically distinct virus types were obtained from sites north and south of a large mountain range, suggesting the possibility of more than one introduction of virus from Japan. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

Kim, W.-S.; Oh, M.-J.; Nishizawa, T.; Park, J.-W.; Kurath, G.; Yoshimizu, M.

2007-01-01

123

Isolation of influenza A viruses from wild ducks and feathers in Minnesota (2010-2011).  

PubMed

We investigated the feasibility of testing feathers as a complementary approach to detect low pathogenic influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild duck populations. Feathers on the ground were collected at four duck capture sites during 2010 and 2011, in Minnesota, U. S. A. IAVs were isolated from both feathers and cloacal swabs sampled from ducks at the time of capture. Although virus isolation rates from feather and cloacal swabs were inconsistent between collections, the overall rate of isolation was greatest from the feather samples. Viruses isolated from feathers also reflected the subtype diversity observed in cloacal swab isolates but resulted in many more isolates that contained more than one virus. Our study suggests that testing feathers may represent an alternative noninvasive approach to recover viruses and estimate subtype abundance and diversity. PMID:24283137

Lebarbenchon, Camille; Poulson, Rebecca; Shannon, Kelly; Slagter, Jeremiah; Slusher, Morgan J; Wilcox, Benjamin R; Berdeen, James; Knutsen, Gregory A; Cardona, Carol J; Stallknecht, David E

2013-09-01

124

Serotyping and strain identification of maize streak virus isolates.  

PubMed

Four strains of maize streak virus, namely the Panicum maximum, Digitaria setigera and sugarcane strains, have been identified from 19 isolates by ELISA using polyclonal antisera cross-absorbed with particles of the maize strain. The results suggest there is an epitope of the maize strain which is not dependent on the capsid being intact and which is common to all the members of the group; other strain-specific epitopes are probably conformation-dependent. A specific epitope (probably internal) occurs on the coat protein of a maize strain isolate, D(R)D, grown in D. velutina, that is also present on the coat protein of the D. setigera (previously reported as D. sanguinalis) strain. Specific internal epitopes also occur in the coat proteins of sugarcane and P. maximum strains. The use of indirect ELISA was necessary for accurate serotyping. The serological reactivities of particles of all the members of each type were identical irrespective of the host from which they were extracted. Sap extracts proved to be more reliable sources of antigen than virus preparations, which could vary in their serological reactivity. Nevertheless, serological differentiation index values determined in tests using either type of antigen proved reliable and consistent. PMID:1697327

Pinner, M S; Markham, P G

1990-08-01

125

First isolation of reticuloendotheliosis virus from mallards in China.  

PubMed

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) causes an oncogenic, immunosuppressive and runting syndrome in many avian hosts worldwide. REV infection has never been reported in mallard ducks, however. To identify REV infection in mallards, we collected 40 mallard duck samples from Jilin Province of China. In this study, the REV strain, DBYR1102, was first isolated from a mallard in China and identified by PCR, indirect immunofluorescence assay and electron microscopy. The gp90 gene and complete LTR of DBYR1102 were amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis based on gp90 genes of REV indicated that the REV strain DBYR1102 is closely related to strain HLJR0901 from northeastern China, the prairie chicken isolate APC-566, and REV subtype III, represented by chick syncytial virus. This new strain is distantly related to two other subtypes of REV, 170A and SNV. Phylogenetic analysis based on the LTR yielded information similar to that obtained with the gp90 genes. The results of this study not only expand our epidemiological understanding of REV in the wild birds of China but also demonstrate the potential role of wild waterfowl in REV transmission. PMID:24643331

Jiang, Lili; Deng, Xiaoyun; Gao, Yulong; Li, Kai; Chai, Hongliang; Fan, Zhaobin; Ren, Xiangang; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Lizhou; Yun, Bingling; Yin, Chunhong; Chen, Yuming; Qin, Liting; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Yongqiang; Hua, Yuping; Wang, Xiaomei

2014-08-01

126

Isolation of type A influenza viruses from Red-necked Grebes (Podiceps grisegena).  

PubMed

Six type-A low pathogenic influenza viruses from 14 Red-necked Grebes (Podiceps grisegena) from Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge were sequenced. The grebe viruses were closely related to North American duck viruses. The genetic and temporal subtype consistency between the duck and grebe isolates suggest spillover events, potentially enhanced by feather eating. PMID:25380358

Lebarbenchon, Camille; Wilcox, Benjamin R; Poulson, Rebecca L; Slusher, Morgan J; Fedorova, Nadia B; Katzel, Dan A; Cardona, Carol J; Knutsen, Greggory A; Wentworth, David E; Stallknecht, David E

2015-01-01

127

Size Heterogeneity in the 3' Noncoding Region of South American Isolates of Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3 noncoding region (3 NCR) of flaviviruses contains secondary and tertiary structures essential for virus replication. Previous studies of yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue virus have found that modifications to the 3 NCR are sometimes associated with attenuation in vertebrate and\\/or mosquito hosts. The 3 NCRs of 117 isolates of South American YFV have been examined, and major

Juliet E. Bryant; Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos; Rene C. A. Rijnbrand; J. P. Mutebi; Stephen Higgs; Alan D. T. Barrett

2005-01-01

128

New genome sequences of gamboa viruses (family bunyaviridae, genus orthobunyavirus) isolated in panama and Argentina.  

PubMed

We describe here the nearly complete open reading frame (ORF) of five Gamboa virus strains isolated in Panama and Argentina. The viruses with complete ORF showed the regular genome organization observed in other orthobunyaviruses with exception to the presence of NSs protein. All predicted proteins showed homology with viruses belonging to members of the family Bunyaviridae. PMID:25414487

Nunes, Marcio R T; Chiang, Jannifer O; de Lima, Clayton P S; Martins, Lívia C; Aragão Dias, Amarílis; Cardoso, Jedson F; Silva, Sandro P; Da Silva, Daisy E A; Oliveira, Layanna F; Vasconcelos, Janaina M; Ferreira, João Paulo C; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

2014-01-01

129

Complete Genome Sequence of a Street Rabies Virus Isolated from a Dog in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

A canine rabies virus (RABV) was isolated from a trade dog in Nigeria. Its entire genome was sequenced and found to be closely related to canine RABVs circulating in Africa. Sequence comparison indicates that the virus is closely related to the Africa 2 RABV lineage. The virus is now termed DRV-NG11. PMID:23469344

Zhou, Ming; Zhou, Zutao; Kia, Grace S. N.; Gnanadurai, Clement W.; Leyson, Christina M.; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Kwaga, Jacob P.; Kazeem, Haruna M.

2013-01-01

130

Complete genome sequence of a street rabies virus isolated from a dog in Nigeria.  

PubMed

A canine rabies virus (RABV) was isolated from a trade dog in Nigeria. Its entire genome was sequenced and found to be closely related to canine RABVs circulating in Africa. Sequence comparison indicates that the virus is closely related to the Africa 2 RABV lineage. The virus is now termed DRV-NG11. PMID:23469344

Zhou, Ming; Zhou, Zutao; Kia, Grace S N; Gnanadurai, Clement W; Leyson, Christina M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Kwaga, Jacob P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Fu, Zhen F

2013-01-01

131

Isolation and identification of citrus psorosis virus Egyptian isolate (CPsV-EG).  

PubMed

Citrus psorosis ophiovirus (CPsV), is considered to be of the most serious and deter mental virus pathogen's citrus species trees in Egypt. CPsV-EG was isolated from infected citrus grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.) at Agric. Res. Centre (ARC). The grapefruit which used for CPsV-EG isolate was found to be free from CTV, CEVd and Spiroplasma citri where as gave -ve results with DTBIA, tissue print hybridization and Diene's stain respectively. CPsV-EG was detected on the basis of biological indexing by graft inoculation which gave oak leaf pattern (OLP) on Dweet tangor and serological assay by DAS-ELISA using Mab specific CPsV. CPsV-EG was reacted with variable responses on 16 host plants belonging to 6 families. Only 8 host plants are susceptible and showed visible external symptoms which appeared as local, systemic and local followed by systemic infections. CPsV-EG isolate was transmitted from infected citrus to citrus by syringe and grafting and herbaceous plants by forefinger inoculation and syringe. The woody indicators and rootstocks were differed in response to CPsV-EG isolate which appeared as no-response, response, sensitivity and hypersensitivity. The serological characters represented as the antigenic determinants of CPsV-EG isolate related to monoclonal antibodies specific CPsV strain where as appeared precipitation reaction by DAS-ELISA and DTBIA. The partial fragment of RNA3 (coat protein gene) of CPsV-EG (-1140bp and -571bp) was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from grapefruit tissues using two sets primers specific CPsV (CPV3 and CPV4) and (PS66 and PS65) respectively. The virus under study was identified as CPsV-EG isolate according to biological, serological and molecular characters. PMID:19226765

Ghazal, S A; El-Dougdoug, Kh A; Mousa, A A; Fahmy, H; Sofy, A R

2008-01-01

132

Isolation and phylogenetic characterization of Ebola viruses causing different outbreaks in Gabon.  

PubMed Central

Three outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever have recently occurred in Gabon. Virus has been isolated from clinical materials from all three outbreaks, and nucleotide sequence analysis of the glycoprotein gene of the isolates and virus present in clinical samples has been carried out. These data indicate that each of the three outbreaks should be considered an independent emergence of a different Ebola virus of the Zaire subtype. As in earlier Ebola virus outbreaks, no genetic variability was detected between virus samples taken during an individual outbreak. PMID:9126445

Georges-Courbot, M. C.; Sanchez, A.; Lu, C. Y.; Baize, S.; Leroy, E.; Lansout-Soukate, J.; Tévi-Bénissan, C.; Georges, A. J.; Trappier, S. G.; Zaki, S. R.; Swanepoel, R.; Leman, P. A.; Rollin, P. E.; Peters, C. J.; Nichol, S. T.; Ksiazek, T. G.

1997-01-01

133

Isolation and characterisation of an H3N8 equine influenza virus in Australia, 2007.  

PubMed

Before 2007, equine influenza had never been diagnosed in Australia. On 22 August 2007, infection was confirmed in horses at Eastern Creek Animal Quarantine Station near Sydney. The virus subsequently isolated (A/equine/Sydney/2888-8/2007) was confirmed by sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene as an H3 virus of the variant American Florida lineage that is now referred to as Clade 1. The HA sequence of the virus was identical to that of a virus isolated from a contemporaneous outbreak in Japan and showed high homology to viruses circulating in North America. PMID:21711282

Watson, J; Halpin, K; Selleck, P; Axell, A; Bruce, K; Hansson, E; Hammond, J; Daniels, P; Jeggo, M

2011-07-01

134

Pathogenicity and Persistence of Pleural Effusion Disease Virus Isolates in Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Nine isolates of pleural effusion disease agent or virus (PEDV) from treponema- infected rabbits in various countries were examined for pathogenicity and persistence in rabbits. The isolates showed a wide range of pathogenicity and were categorized into three groups according to the severity of the acute infection. Group 1 comprised isolates causing more than 50% mortality, group 2 isolates

K. L. Fennestad; B. Mansa; N. Christensen; S. Larsen; SV-E. SVEHAG

1986-01-01

135

Virulence Markers in the 5? Untranslated Region of Genotype 2 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virulence markers to distinguish high from low virulence bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 2 isolates have not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to identify virulence markers by evaluating the primary and secondary structures of the 5?-untranslated region of low and high virulence bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 2 isolates. The nucleotide sequences of the entire 5?-untranslated

Christina L Topliff; Clayton L Kelling

1998-01-01

136

ISOLATION OF BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS FROM A FREE RANGING MULE DEER IN WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A noncytopathic type 1a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was isolated from a free- ranging yearling female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from northwestern Wyoming (USA). The mule deer was emaciated, weak, and salivating, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes was cultured from lung abscesses. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from lung, however, BVDV antigen was not detected by immunohistochemistry. The BVDV genotype

Hana Van Campen; Julia Ridpath; Elizabeth Williams; Jacqueline Cavender; Joan Edwards; Scott Smith; Hall Sawyer

137

Dispatches Isolation and Phylogenetic Characterization of Ebola Viruses Causing Different Outbreaks in Gabon  

E-print Network

Three outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever have recently occurred in Gabon. Virus has been isolated from clinical materials from all three outbreaks, and nucleotide sequence analysis of the glycoprotein gene of the isolates and virus present in clinical samples has been carried out. These data

unknown authors

138

Purification, Identity and Some Properties of An Isolate of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus from Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Methods were developed for preparing an Indiana isolate of barley yellow dwarf virus in amounts (1 to 2 mg\\/kg) and purity comparable to those recently achieved with other luteoviruses. Choice of host, and environmental conditions, period of infection and tissue used were critical factors for virus production. Aphid transmission, serological tests, and other properties defined the isolate as 'PAV-like'

J. Hammond; R. M. Lister; J. E. Foster

1983-01-01

139

Molecular-genetic analysis of field isolates of Avian Leucosis Viruses in the Russian Federation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commercial poultry farms in 14 regions of Russian Federation were monitored for avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection using virus isolation tests and serology. Results indicated the presence of two subgroups of ALV in farms located in 11 of 14 regions. Analysis of the genomes of 12 field isolates of...

140

Isolation and Phylogenetic Characterization of Ebola Viruses Causing Different Outbreaks in Gabon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever have recently occurred in Gabon. Virus has been isolated from clinical materials from all three outbreaks, and nucleotide sequence analysis of the glycoprotein gene of the isolates and virus present in clinical samples has been carried out. These data indicate that each of the three outbreaks should be considered an independent emergence of a

1997-01-01

141

Identification of a strain of infectious bursal disease virus isolated from mosquitoes.  

PubMed Central

The Becht strain of infectious bursal disease virus was compared with a virus isolated from Aedes vexans mosquitoes and designed 743 virus. The viruses were compared with respect to cell culture host range, cellular changes resulting from viral infections, growth curves, antigenic relationship, and physicochemical characteristics. The viruses are closely comparable in all these properties, and they are considered to be strains of the same virus. In cross comparisons by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 743 virus and infectious bursal disease virus were found to be antigenically identical, confirming the results of the neutralization test. The 743 virus differs from most strains of infectious bursal disease virus in that it is nonpathogenic for chickens. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:6280817

Howie, R I; Thorsen, J

1981-01-01

142

Matrix Gene of Influenza A Viruses Isolated from Wild Aquatic Birds: Ecology and Emergence of Influenza A Viruses  

PubMed Central

Wild aquatic birds are the primary reservoir of influenza A viruses, but little is known about the viruses' gene pool in wild birds. Therefore, we investigated the ecology and emergence of influenza viruses by conducting phylogenetic analysis of 70 matrix (M) genes of influenza viruses isolated from shorebirds and gulls in the Delaware Bay region and from ducks in Alberta, Canada, during >18 years of surveillance. In our analysis, we included 61 published M genes of isolates from various hosts. We showed that M genes of Canadian duck viruses and those of shorebird and gull viruses in the Delaware Bay shared ancestors with the M genes of North American poultry viruses. We found that North American and Eurasian avian-like lineages are divided into sublineages, indicating that multiple branches of virus evolution may be maintained in wild aquatic birds. The presence of non-H13 gull viruses in the gull-like lineage and of H13 gull viruses in other avian lineages suggested that gulls' M genes do not preferentially associate with the H13 subtype or segregate into a distinct lineage. Some North American avian influenza viruses contained M genes closely related to those of Eurasian avian viruses. Therefore, there may be interregional mixing of the two clades. Reassortment of shorebird M and HA genes was evident, but there was no correlation among the HA or NA subtype, M gene sequence, and isolation time. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that influenza viruses in wild waterfowl contain distinguishable lineages of M genes. PMID:15280485

Widjaja, Linda; Krauss, Scott L.; Webby, Richard J.; Xie, Tao; Webster, Robert G.

2004-01-01

143

Leakey Virus: a New Hantavirus Isolated from Mus musculus in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A hantavirus, designated Leakey virus, was isolated from a Mus musculus captured in Real County, Texas, U.S.A. in August 1986. Virus-specific fluorescence was first detected 13 days after inoculation of Vero-E6 cells with spleen tissue from the seropositive M. musculus. Ultrastructurally, the new isolate resembled other hantaviruses. Leakey virus induced a fatal meningoencephalitis in infant Fischer rats, with viral

L. J. Baek; R. Yanagihara; C. J. Gibbs; M. Miyazaki; D. C. Gajdusek

1988-01-01

144

Genetic characterisation of infectious bursal disease virus isolates in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

The objective of the investigation was to characterise infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDV) circulating in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia between 2009 and 2011. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence for VP2 hypervariable region of ten IBDVs were determined by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to well characterised IBDV isolates worldwide. IBDV genetic material was amplified directly from bursa or cell passaged material. Phylogenetically, Ethiopian IBDVs represented two genetic lineages: very virulent (vv) IBDVs or variants of the classical attenuated vaccine strain (D78). The nucleotide identity between Ethiopian vvIBDVs ranged between 0% and 2.6%. Ethiopian vvIBDVs are clustered phylogenetically with the African IBDV genetic lineage, independent of the Asian/European lineage. This report demonstrates the circulation of vvIBDV in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia. PMID:24145155

Jenberie, Shiferaw; Lynch, Stacey E.; Kebede, Fekadu; Christley, Robert M.; Gelaye, Esayas; Negussie, Haileleul; Asmare, Kassahun; Ayelet, Gelagay

2014-01-01

145

The use of chicken tracheal organ cultures for the isolation and assay of avian infectious bronchitis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A study has been made of the use of chicken tracheal organ cultures for the isolation and assay of avian infectious bronchitis (AIB) virus from both naturally and experimentally infected chickens. Six strains of AIB virus were investigated, 3 of which had been isolated from natural outbreaks of disease. Two of the virus isolations from the outbreaks of AIB

Jane K. A. Cook; J. H. Darbyshire; R. W. Peters

1976-01-01

146

[Khurdun virus, a presumably new RNA-containing virus associated with coots (Fulica atra), isolated in the Volga river delta].  

PubMed

The prototype strain LEIV-Ast 01-5 of the unclassified enveloped RNA-containing Khurdun virus, less than 220 nm in size, which is widely distributed among coots (Fulica atra) in the Volga River delta, was deposited on November 4, 2004, at the State Virus Collection (SVC # 992). The virus was isolated annually (2001-2004) with a frequency of 2.3-8.5% (mean 6.3%) when examining 348 coots caught in the lower and middle zones of the Volga River delta. Virological examinations used mixed pools of the brain and spleen to inoculate neonatal albino mice and the cellular line Vero-E6. One strain was isolated from a pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus). The virus could not be isolated from other species of 1080 birds, 20 hares, 140,000 mosquitoes of 5 predominant species, and 6,700 Hyalomma marginatum ticks. Any antigenic relationship of the virus with all the viruses early isolated in the Northern Caspian Sea region has not been found. ELISA has been developed to detect and identify Khurdun virus antigen. PMID:16104519

Galkina, I V; L'vov, L N; Gromashevski?, V L; Moskvina, T M

2005-01-01

147

Isolation and antigenic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Brazil.  

PubMed

A retrovirus infecting a Brazilian AIDS patient was isolated and characterized in terms of its reactivity with sera from individuals infected with human immunodeficiency viruses 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2). The Western blot analysis revealed that the Brazilian isolate is very similar to the well characterized HIV-1 strain. The serum of the patient from whom the virus was isolated did not react with the 140 kDa envelope glycoprotein specific for HIV-2. PMID:3507914

Galvão-Castro, B; Ivo-Dos-Santos, J; Couto-Fernandez, J C; Bongertz, V; Chequer-Bou-Habib, D; Sion, F S; Barth, O M; Pereira, H; Pereira, M S

1987-01-01

148

Isolation of a New Simian Foamy Virus from a Spider Monkey Brain Culture  

PubMed Central

A syncytium-forming (foamy) virus was isolated from a spider monkey brain cell culture. Cytopathic effect was observed both in the brain culture and in human embryonic kidney cells. Neutralizing antibody was present in the sera of the spider monkey from whom the isolation was made. The virus was inhibited by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (20 ?g/ml), contained a ribonucleic acid-dependent deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase, and had an infectivity peak at 1.15 g/cm3 in a sucrose density gradient. The virus passed through a 220-nm but not a 100-nm membrane filter, was chloroform sensitive, and was inactivated at 56 C in 30 min. Hemagglutinating and hemadsorption activity was not noted with a variety of erythrocytes. The virion was spherical, formed in the cytoplasm, and was 105 to 115 nm in diameter. Ring-shaped nucleoids, 45 to 50 nm in diameter, were associated with tubular profiles. The virus was not neutralized by sera prepared against known viruses, including simian foamy virus types 1 through 7, Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, and bovine syncytial and measles viruses. Sera from a rabbit hyperimmunized with the isolate and sera from 19 spider monkeys had neutralizing antibody to the isolate; however, these sera did not cross-react with simian foamy virus types 1 through 7. Neutralizing antibody to the isolate was not detected in sera from 16 humans, 9 rhesus monkeys, and 10 chimpanzees. Images PMID:4201323

Hooks, John J.; Gibbs, C. J.; Chou, S.; Howk, R.; Lewis, M.; Gajdusek, D. C.

1973-01-01

149

Characterization of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H6N1) Isolated from Turkeys  

PubMed Central

An avian influenza virus (AIV), A/turkey/Israel/09 subtype H6N1, was isolated from turkey poults exhibiting typical pathology associated with AIV infection. The virus was characterized by RT-PCR using AIV subtype-specific primers and by the haemagglutination inhibition test using AIV subtype-specific antisera. The virus has an intravenous pathogenicity index of 0 and possessed a nucleotide sequence at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin gene, PQIETR*GLF, associated with avian influenza viruses of low pathogenicity. Unlike the two previous H6N2 isolates originating from domestic ducks and mallard, the A/turkey/Israel/09 (H6N1) was isolated from turkeys. The gene sequences of the A/turkey/Israel/09 (H6N1) virus show divergence from the former Israeli H6 isolates. PMID:23074655

Shkoda, I.; Lapin, E.; Rosenbluth, E.; Perk, S.; Geva, Z.; Inbar, A.; Davidson, I.

2011-01-01

150

Adaptive evolution of simian immunodeficiency viruses isolated from two conventional progressor macaques with neuroaids  

SciTech Connect

Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques may result in neuroAIDS, a feature more commonly observed in macaques with rapid progressive disease than in those with conventional disease. This is the first report of two conventional progressors (H631 and H636) with encephalitis in rhesus macaques inoculated with a derivative of SIVsmES43-3. Phylogenetic analyses of viruses isolated from the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from both animals demonstrated tissue compartmentalization. Additionally, virus from the central nervous system (CNS) was able to infect primary macaque monocyte-derived macrophages more efficiently than virus from plasma. Conversely, virus isolated from plasma was able to replicate better in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than virus from CNS. We speculate that these viruses were under different selective pressures in their separate compartments. Furthermore, these viruses appear to have undergone adaptive evolution to preferentially replicate in their respective cell targets. Analysis of the number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) in gp160 showed that there was a statistically significant loss of PNGS in viruses isolated from CNS in both macaques compared to SIVsmE543-3. Moreover, virus isolated from the brain in H631, had statistically significant loss of PNGS compared to virus isolated from CSF and plasma of the same animal. It is possible that the brain isolate may have adapted to decrease the number of PNGS given that humoral immune selection pressure is less likely to be encountered in the brain. These viruses provide a relevant model to study the adaptations required for SIV to induce encephalitis.

Foley, Brian T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

151

Detection, isolation, and persistence of viruses within bivalve mollusks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Norovirus (NV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and other virus transmission by molluscan shellfish is a significant issue. Research at the ARS-Dover DE laboratory has led to the development of improved methods for detecting these viruses. To identify pathogenic viruses within mollusks, a rapid highly-se...

152

Cedar Virus: A Novel Henipavirus Isolated from Australian Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the

Glenn A. Marsh; Carol de Jong; Jennifer A. Barr; Mary Tachedjian; Craig Smith; Deborah Middleton; Meng Yu; Shawn Todd; Adam J. Foord; Volker Haring; Jean Payne; Rachel Robinson; Ivano Broz; Gary Crameri; Hume E. Field; Lin-Fa Wang

2012-01-01

153

Pseudorecombinants between Cloned DNAs of Two Isolates of Cassava Latent Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Infective clones of the Nigerian isolate of cassava latent virus (CLV) have been obtained. The apparent molecular weight of the capsid protein of this isolate is slightly higher than that produced in plants infected with cloned DNAs of the Kenyan isolate of CLV. Pseudorecombinant experiments using heterologous combinations of cloned DNAs have confirmed that the physical properties of the

R. Townsend; S. J. Curson

1985-01-01

154

Genetic and antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the genetic and antigenic variability of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains isolated in Belgium. Part of the 5? untranslated region and the 5? end of the gp53 (E2) coding sequence were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most field isolates segregated into genotypes Ib or II. Only one out of 28 field isolates belonged

B. Couvreur; C. Letellier; A. Collard; P. Quenon; P. Dehan; C. Hamers; P.-P. Pastoret; P. Kerkhofs

2002-01-01

155

Isolation of West Nile Virus from Urine Samples of Patients with Acute Infection  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrated that West Nile virus (WNV) excreted in the urine of patients with acute infection can be isolated in cell cultures. In addition, the protocols for WNV isolation from urine samples were standardized, and factors that may affect the efficiency of WNV isolation were identified. PMID:24951801

Pacenti, Monia; Franchin, Elisa; Squarzon, Laura; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Ulbert, Sebastian; Cusinato, Riccardo; Palù, Giorgio

2014-01-01

156

PATHOGENESIS OF CHICKEN-PASSAGED NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUSES ISOLATED FROM CHICKENS, WILD, AND EXOTIC BIRDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pathogenesis of six Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from chickens and wild (anhinga) and exotic (yellow nape parrot, pheasant, and dove isolate) birds was examined after four passages of the isolates in domestic chickens. Groups of four-week-old specific-pathogen-free White Legh...

157

Avian influenza virus isolation, propagation and titration in embryonated chicken eggs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Avian influenza (AI) virus is usually isolated, propagated, and titrated in embryonated chickens eggs (ECE). Most any sample type can be accommodated for culture with appropriate processing. Isolation may also be accomplished in cell culture particularly if mammalian lineage isolates are suspected, ...

158

Recombinant virus assay: a rapid, phenotypic assay for assessment of drug susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates.  

PubMed Central

Antiviral drug susceptibility assays for clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates are required to monitor the development of drug resistance during clinical trials and antiretroviral drug therapy. First-generation phenotypic assays possess a number of drawbacks, not least the selection of unrepresentative virus populations during cocultivation. Here we describe a rapid phenotypic assay for the assessment of the susceptibility of clinical isolates to reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors. This procedure, called the recombinant virus assay, allows the generation of viable virus by homologous recombination of a PCR-derived pool of RT coding sequences into an RT-deleted, noninfectious proviral clone, pHIV delta BstEII. A nested PCR procedure has been optimized to allow the amplification of an RT pool from both uncultured and cocultured infected patient peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) DNA for subsequent use in the creation of recombinant viruses. Analysis of two patients during the course of zidovudine therapy showed that this approach produced viruses which accurately exhibited the same genotype and phenotype as that of the original infected PBL DNA. The recombinant virus assay can be performed in approximately 3 weeks without the use of donor PBLs and therefore represents a rapid, nonselective procedure for the assay of clinical isolates. Images PMID:8141575

Kellam, P; Larder, B A

1994-01-01

159

[Subtypes of dengue virus serotypes 2, 3 and 4 isolated in Santander District, Colombia].  

PubMed

Virus serotypes 2, 3 and 4 that had circulated in Santander District, Colombia in the period 1998-2004 were analyzed. Identifying the subtype of a dengue virus serotype is a useful tool for surveillance of severe risk factors because the strain potential to cause hemorrhagic dengue makes the difference among them. Simultaneous sequence amplification technique known as restriction site specific-polymerase chain reaction (RSS-PCR) was used to determine the subtype by comparing the electrophoretic pattern of the local isolate to the reference virus. Virus serotype 2 corresponded to subtype A similar to the one isolated in Thailand (1996) and to the other isolated in Porto Rico (1986); virus serotypes 3 were of subtype C like the virus found in Sri Lanka (1990), Honduras (1995) and Porto Rico (2000); virus serotypes 4 were a variant of subtype B similar to a virus from Porto Rico (1987) and to another virus from Tahiti (1985). The study confirmed the presence in Colombia of dengue virus subtypes circulating now in the Americas. PMID:23427455

Cortés, Fabián M; Gómez, Sergio Y; Ocazionez, Raquel E

2007-01-01

160

Isolation of Tacaribe Virus, a Caribbean Arenavirus, from Host-Seeking Amblyomma americanum Ticks in Florida  

PubMed Central

Arenaviridae are a family of single stranded RNA viruses of mammals and boid snakes. Twenty-nine distinct mammalian arenaviruses have been identified, many of which cause severe hemorrhagic disease in humans, particularly in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and in Central and South America. Humans typically become infected with an arenavirus through contact with excreta from infected rodents. Tacaribe virus (TCRV) is an arenavirus that was first isolated from bats and mosquitoes during a rabies surveillance survey conducted in Trinidad from 1956 to 1958. Tacaribe virus is unusual because it has never been associated with a rodent host and since that one time isolation, the virus has not been isolated from any vertebrate or invertebrate hosts. We report the re-isolation of the virus from a pool of 100 host-seeking Amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks) collected in a Florida state park in 2012. TCRV was isolated in two cell lines and its complete genome was sequenced. The tick-derived isolate is nearly identical to the only remaining isolate from Trinidad (TRVL-11573), with 99.6% nucleotide identity across the genome. A quantitative RT-PCR assay was developed to test for viral RNA in host-seeking ticks collected from 3 Florida state parks. Virus RNA was detected in 56/500 (11.2%) of surveyed ticks. As this virus was isolated from ticks that parasitize humans, the ability of the tick to transmit the virus to people should be evaluated. Furthermore, reservoir hosts for the virus need to be identified in order to develop risk assessment models of human infection. PMID:25536075

Sayler, Katherine A.; Barbet, Anthony F.; Chamberlain, Casey; Clapp, William L.; Alleman, Rick; Loeb, Julia C.; Lednicky, John A.

2014-01-01

161

[Phylogenetic analysis of rabies viruses isolated from animals in Tokyo in the 1950s].  

PubMed

Molecular epidemiological analysis of 96 rabies viruses isolated from animals in Tokyo in the 1950s involves Japanese fixed virus, Komatsugawa, Takamen, and Nishigahara strains. Strains isolated in Tokyo were divided into Tokyo 1 and Tokyo 2, and grouped into a worldwide distribution cluster differing from Takamen and Nishigahara. Tokyo 1 was grouped into the same cluster as viruses isolated from United States west coast dogs in the 1930s and 1940s. Tokyo 2 was grouped into the same cluster as the Komatsugawa strain, also known as a cluster of viruses from the Khabarovsk raccoon dog, and the Lake Baikal stepped fox in Russia. These findings suggest that 1950s Tokyo rabies viruses were related to those in Russia and the USA. PMID:21706842

Hatakeyama, Kaoru; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

2011-05-01

162

Isolation and characterization of two new herpes-like viruses from capuchin monkeys.  

PubMed Central

Two herpes-like viruses were isolated from capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) brain and (Cebus albifrons) spleen cell cultures, respectively. Both isolates induced similar cytopathic effects consisting of rounded and ballooned cells in the original monkey cell cultures and in a wide range of permissive cell types. Neutralizing antibody to each virus was present in serum from the capuchin monkey from which it was isolated, but the two viruses did not cross-react by neutralization. Fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugates of hyperimmune rabbit serum to one of the isolates showed an antigenic cross relationship between the two isolates. By electron microscopy, herpes-like virus particles were observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected human diploid fibroblast cell cultures. Virus-infected cell cultures stained with acridine orange revealed small deoxyribonucleic acid-containing intranuclear inclusion bodies. Both viruses were inhibited by 5-fluorodeoxyuridine and inactivated by chloroform or exposure to 56 degrees C for 30 min. Antisera prepared against 16 prototype herpesviruses and cytomegaloviruses did not neutralize approximately 100 50% tissue culture infective doses of either capuchin isolate. Neutralizing antibody to the capuchin isolates was detected in sera from 8 of 17 capuchin monkeys but not in sera from 16 humans, 15 chimpanzees, and 10 spider, 6 rhesus, and 5 squirrel monkeys. Images PMID:823119

Lewis, M A; Frye, L D; Gibbs, C J; Chou, S M; Cutchins, E C; Gajdusek, D C; Ward, G

1976-01-01

163

Turkey rhinotracheitis virus isolated from broiler chicken with swollen head syndrome in Japan.  

PubMed

Turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) virus was first isolated from a commercial broiler chicken with swollen head syndrome (SHS) in Japan. At the same time, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian reovirus (ARV), Escherichia coli (E.coli), Morganella morganii, and Proteus mirabilis were also isolated from the same broiler chicken. The presence of antibodies to TRT virus was confirmed in the sera of 34-day-old chickens of the flock with SHS, however the antibodies to TRT virus were undetectable in the sera of 17-day-old chickens. In this investigation, we confirmed avian pneumovirus infection in chickens in Japan, and the virus and other agents may be considered as a cause of SHS. PMID:8593307

Tanaka, M; Takuma, H; Kokumai, N; Oishi, E; Obi, T; Hiramatsu, K; Shimizu, Y

1995-10-01

164

[Comparative study of MDCK and CaCo-2 cell lines for influenza virus isolation].  

PubMed

Study of effectiveness of CaCo-2 cell line for influenza virus isolation was carried out. It was shown that the properties of this cell line strongly depended on the source of its origin and cultivation conditions. The infectious activity of the influenza viruses on CaCo-2 cell line was virtually the same as in the MDCK cell line. The rate of the viral isolation was virtually identical for both cell lines tested, but viruses from post-mortem materials were isolated only in CaCo-2 cell line. In general, the CaCo-2 line is believed to be a valuable cell line for virological research, particularly for influenza virus isolation. PMID:25069285

Danilenko, D M; Smirnova, T D; Gudkova, T M; Prokopets, A V; Bil'danova, E R; Kadyrova, R A; Slita, A V; Eropkin, M Iu

2014-01-01

165

Neurological lesions in chickens experimentally infected with virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neuropil reaction was evaluated in chickens inoculated with four different Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates, including Texas GB, Turkey North Dakota, Nevada Cormorant (velogenic neurotropic) and Anhinga (mesogenic). Tissues for this study included archived formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded br...

166

Isolation of West Nile virus from mosquitoes, crows, and a Cooper's hawk in Connecticut.  

PubMed

West Nile (WN) virus, a mosquito-transmitted virus native to Africa, Asia, and Europe, was isolated from two species of mosquitoes, Culex pipiens and Aedes vexans, and from brain tissues of 28 American crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos, and one Cooper's hawk, Accipiter cooperii, in Connecticut. A portion of the genome of virus isolates from four different hosts was sequenced and analyzed by comparative phylogenetic analysis. Our isolates from Connecticut were similar to one another and most closely related to two WN isolates from Romania (2.8 and 3.6 percent difference). If established in North America, WN virus will likely have severe effects on human health and on the health of populations of birds. PMID:10600741

Anderson, J F; Andreadis, T G; Vossbrinck, C R; Tirrell, S; Wakem, E M; French, R A; Garmendia, A E; Van Kruiningen, H J

1999-12-17

167

Characterization of a Siberian Virus Isolated from a Patient with Progressive Chronic Tick-Borne Encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain of Tick-borne encephalitis virus designated Zausaev (Za) was isolated in Siberia from a patient who died of a progressive (2-year) form of tick-borne encephalitis 10 years after being bitten by a tick. The complete genomic sequence of this virus was determined, and an attempt was made to correlate the sequence with the biological characteristics of the virus. Phylogenetic

T. S. Gritsun; T. V. Frolova; A. I. Zhankov; M. Armesto; S. L. Turner; M. P. Frolova; V. V. Pogodina; V. A. Lashkevich; E. A. Gould

2003-01-01

168

Identification of Structural Proteins of Bombyx mori Parvo-Like Virus (China Zhenjiang Isolate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Bombyx mori parvo-like virus is a type of virus containing two single-stranded linear DNA molecules (VD1, VD2). In the present work, the structural proteins of B. mori parvo-like virus (China Zhenjiang isolate) (BmDNV-Z) were identified. Methods: The virions were purified by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation from the feces of B. mori larvae infected with BmDNV-Z and analyzed by SDS-PAGE,

Meng Lv; Qin Yao; Yong Wang; Xiaoyong Liu; Haijun Liu; Guoping Huang; Keping Chen; Junhong Zhang; Xiaogang Li

2011-01-01

169

Complete Genome Sequence of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Isolated from an Olive Flounder in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a seriously problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture farms in South Korea. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of VHSV which was isolated from spleen and kidney tissues of dead fish at an aquaculture farm in 2005. This genome sequence will be useful for virus diagnostics and in comparative analyses with other virus genotypes. PMID:24009117

Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Nishizawa, Toyohiko

2013-01-01

170

Virus excretion and antibody dynamics in goats inoculated with a field isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus.  

PubMed

A field isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) from an outbreak in Tibet, China, was inoculated into goats to investigate the dynamics of virus excretion and antibody production. Further, animals received PPRV vaccine strain Nigeria 75/1. Ocular, nasal and oral samples were tested for the presence of virus antigen by one-step real-time qualitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR); competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) was used for the measurement of specific antibodies against PPRV. Virus particles could be detected as early as day 3 post-inoculation (pi) and virus excretion lasted for up to day 26 pi. All four goats inoculated with the PPRV field isolate were seropositive as early as day 10 pi. In animals inoculated with the vaccine strain, antibody was detected at day 14 pi, and levels of neutralizing antibodies remained above the protection threshold level (1 : 8) for 8 months. Both virus particles and neutralizing antibodies were detected earlier in goats challenged with the field isolate than in those receiving the vaccine strain. PMID:24589103

Liu, W; Wu, X; Wang, Z; Bao, J; Li, L; Zhao, Y; Li, J

2013-11-01

171

Monoclonal antibodies with neutralizing activity segregate isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus into groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Isolates of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus were differentiated by monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) reactive with the 56kD viral polypeptide. Patterns of neutralizing activity of the MoAbs indicate that multiple epitopes are involved in virus neutralization.

S. Bolin; V. Moennig; N. E. Kelso Gourley; J. Ridpath

1988-01-01

172

New mite-borne virus isolates from rakkyo, shallot and wild leek species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flexuous viruses were transmitted from rakkyo (Allium chinense) and wild leek species (especiallyA. commutatum) to plants of crow garlic (A. vineale), by transfer of dry bulb mites. By electron microscope decoration tests using three antisera and by inoculations onto test plants, it was concluded that from each of the two natural host species at least two viruses were isolated. The

Paul van Dijk; René A. A. van der Vlugt

1994-01-01

173

Squash vein yellowing virus, a novel ipomovirus, isolated from squash and watermelon in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel whitefly-transmitted member of the family Potyviridae was isolated from a squash plant (Cucurbita pepo) with vein yellowing symptoms in Florida. The virus, for which the name Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is proposed, has flexuous rod-shaped particles of ~840 nm in length. SqVYV was ...

174

Complete Genome Sequence of a Tomato Mottle Mosaic Virus Isolate from the United States  

PubMed Central

Tomato mottle mosaic virus was recently reported from the United States following its original description from Mexico as a novel Tobamovirus species. We present the first complete genome sequence of a tomato mottle mosaic virus isolate from the United States. PMID:25838476

Fillmer, Kornelia; Adkins, Scott; Pongam, Patchara

2015-01-01

175

VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES, SURVEILLANCE, PREVENTION Isolations of Cache Valley Virus From Aedes albopictus (Diptera  

E-print Network

transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. Three virus isolates were obtained from 34,567 Þeld-collected Ae virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and all were negative. These results in the Northeast only WNV has been de- tected in Ae. albopictus using polymerase chain reac- tion (PCR) based

176

Characterization of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in Mongolia 2005 through 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During 2005, 2006 and 2007 2,139 specimens representing 4,077 individual birds of 45 species were tested for avian influenza virus (AIV) as part of a wild bird AIV monitoring program conducted in Mongolia. Samples collected in 2005 were tested by virus isolation directly, samples from 2006 and 2007...

177

Characterization of tomato spotted wilt virus isolates infecting peanut in Southwestern states of USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is among the greatest yield-reducing viruses affecting peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in all peanut-producing states in U.S. Due to the lack of molecular information on TSWV-isolates associated with peanut in southwestern states, the aim of this study was directed at ...

178

Antigenic and genetic characterisation of border disease viruses isolated from UK cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available empirical data on the natural occurrence of ruminant pestiviruses has shown that in cattle, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is nearly exclusively found, whereas both border disease virus (BDV) and BVDV can be isolated from sheep. During routine genetic typing of pestivirus RNA from UK cattle diagnosed as BVDV positive between 2006 and 2008, five samples that were classified

R. Strong; S. A. La Rocca; G. Ibata; T. Sandvik

2010-01-01

179

Characterization of the Taura syndrome virus isolate originating from the 2004 Texas Epizootic in cultured shrimp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major viral pathogen of penaeid shrimp worldwide. A comprehensive investigation of the Texas isolate of TSV that caused epizootics in shrimp farms in Texas in 2004 (Us04Pv1) revealed that the virus was highly virulent in laboratory bioassays causing severe symptom dev...

180

Feline immunodeficiency virus: quantification in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and isolation from plasma of infected cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The titer of feline immunodeficiency virus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the presence of infectious virus in plasma was investigated over 20 week period in 8 experimentally infected cats, 3 uninfected cats and 2 naturally infected cats by end point dilution cultures using a feline T-lymphoblastoid cell line (MYA-1). FIV was isolated from PBMC of all infected

Joanne Meers; W. F. Robinson; G. M. del Fierro; M. A. Scoones; M. A. Lawson

1992-01-01

181

Complete Genome Sequences of Three Ebola Virus Isolates from the 2014 Outbreak in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the complete genome sequences, including the genome termini, of three Ebola virus isolates (species Zaire ebolavirus) originating from Guinea that are now being widely used in laboratories in North America for research regarding West African Ebola viruses. PMID:25523781

Groseth, A.; Feldmann, F.; Marzi, A.; Ebihara, H.; Kobinger, G.; Günther, S.

2014-01-01

182

Molecular Epidemiologic Studies on North American H9 Avian Influenza Virus Isolates from Waterfowl and Shorebirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

sequence data on H9 avian influenza virus (AIV) from wild birds are currently limited, we set out to determine the sequence of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H9 viruses circulating in North American waterfowl and shorebirds. In this study, we examined the HA gene from H9 AIV isolated from mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) sampled during 1998 and 1999 in Minnesota and

Mark W. Jackwood; David E. Stallknecht

2006-01-01

183

Complete Genome Sequences of Two Waterfowl-Origin Tembusu Virus Strains Isolated in Shandong Province, China  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two tembusu virus strains, ZC-1 and LQ-1, isolated from ducks and geese, respectively, in 2012. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the two strains are closely related to those of the TMUV isolates around Shandong province. The full-length genome sequences of two waterfowl-origin TMUVs provided herein will help to understand the molecular epidemiology of tembusu virus in China, which deserves further investigation. PMID:24356821

Chen, Hao; Liu, Xin; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Ti, Jinfeng; Gao, Xuhui

2013-01-01

184

Susceptibility of different plant species and tomato cultivars to two isolates of Pepino mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Pepino mosaic virus has become a pathogen of major importance in worldwide tomato production, information is needed on possible differences between\\u000a the sensitivity of cultivars towards infection. Furthermore, it is important what hosts other than Solanaceae may be virus reservoirs and are, therefore, threats for tomato cultivation. Two PepMV isolates (PepMV-Sav, E397, a European\\u000a tomato isolate and PV-0554, a

Ahmad Fakhro; Susanne von Bargen; Martina Bandte; Carmen Büttner; Philipp Franken; Dietmar Schwarz

2011-01-01

185

Comparative Study of Influenza Virus H2 (Asian) Hemagglutinins Isolated from Human and Avian Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The hemagglutinin of an influenza virus isolated from a wild duck (Pintail, Anas acutd) in the USSR in 1976 had been found to be antigenically indistinguishable from the hemagglutinin of H2N2 viruses of human origin isolated in 1957. The hemagglutinins from viral preparations of the A\\/Anas acuta\\/Primorie\\/695\\/76 (H2Nav2) and A\\/Singapore\\/1\\/57 (H2N2) strains were purified by SDS gel chromatography as

Doris J. Bucher; Igor G. Kharitonenkov; Dema K. Lvov; Tamara V. Pysina; How-Ming Lee

1980-01-01

186

Extreme Genetic Diversity among Pirital Virus ( Arenaviridae) Isolates from Western Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pirital-like virus isolates from rodents collected in a variety of habitats within a six-state area of central Venezuela were analyzed genetically by amplifying a portion of the nucleocapsid protein gene using RT-PCR. Comparisons of the sequences from 30 selected Pirital-like virus isolates demonstrated up to 26% divergence in nucleotide sequences and up to 16% divergence in deduced amino acid sequences.

Scott C. Weaver; Rosa Alba Salas; Nuris de Manzione; Charles F. Fulhorst; Amelia P. A. Travasos da Rosa; Gloria Duno; Antonio Utrera; James N. Mills; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Duilia Tovar; Hilda Guzman; Wenli Kang; Robert B. Tesh

2001-01-01

187

Comparison of biological characteristics of H9N2 avian influenza viruses isolated from different hosts.  

PubMed

The pathogenicity and transmissibility of H9N2 influenza viruses has been widely investigated; however, few studies comparing the biological characteristics of H9N2 viruses isolated from different hosts have been performed. In this study, eight H9N2 viruses, isolated from chickens (Ck/F98, Ck/AH and Ck/TX), pigeons (Pg/XZ), quail/(Ql/A39), ducks (Dk/Y33) and swine (Sw/YZ and Sw/TZ) were selected, and their biological characteristics were determined. The results showed that all H9N2 viruses maintained a preference for both the avian- and human-type receptors, except for Sw/TZ, which had exclusive preference for the human-type receptor. The viruses replicated well in DF-1 and MDCK cells, whereas only three isolates, Ck/F98, Ck/TX and Sw/TZ, could replicate in A549 cells and also replicated in mouse lungs, resulting in body weight loss in mice. All H9N2 viruses were nonpathogenic to chickens and were detected in the trachea and lung tissues. The viruses were shed primarily by the oropharynx and were transmitted efficiently to naïve contact chickens. Our findings suggest that all H9N2 viruses from different hosts exhibit efficient replication and contact-transmission among chickens, and chickens serve as a good reservoir for the persistence and interspecies transmission of H9N2 influenza viruses. PMID:25616845

Zhu, Yinbiao; Yang, Yang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Xin; Yang, Da; Sun, Zhihao; Ju, Yong; Chen, Sujuan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Xiufan

2015-04-01

188

Genetic and antigenic relatedness of H3 subtype influenza A viruses isolated from avian and mammalian species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Turkeys are susceptible to some swine influenza viruses based on natural and experimental transmissions of H1 and H3 subtype viruses from swine to turkeys. In 2004, we isolated triple reassortant H3N2 viruses from turkey breeder hens in Ohio and Illinois. These H3N2 viruses are currently the domin...

189

Influenza A (H15N4) Virus Isolation in Western Siberia, Russia  

PubMed Central

The rarely identified influenza A viruses of the H15 hemagglutinin subtype have been isolated exclusively in Australia. Here we report the isolation of an H15N4 influenza A virus (A/teal/Chany/7119/2008) in Western Siberia, Russia. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the internal genes of the A/teal/Chany/7119/2008 strain belong to the Eurasian clade and that the H15 and N4 genes were introduced into the gene pool of circulating endemic avian influenza viruses through reassortment events. PMID:23283950

Sivay, Mariya V.; Baranovich, Tatiana; Marchenko, Vasiliy Y.; Sharshov, Kirill A.; Govorkova, Elena A.; Shestopalov, Aleksander M.

2013-01-01

190

Characterisation of an isolate of Narcissus degeneration virus from Chinese narcissus (Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis).  

PubMed

A potyvirus from Chinese narcissus was transmitted mechanically to three species of Narcissus and to Lycoris radiata but not to 22 other test species. In western blot, the coat protein reacted strongly with Narcissus degeneration virus (UK isolate) antiserum. Antiserum raised to the Chinese virus did not react with eighteen other potyviruses. The complete nucleotide sequence (9816 nt) had the typical genome organisation for a member of the genus Potyvirus. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis showed that the Chinese virus was different from all previously sequenced potyviruses but distantly related to onion yellow dwarf and shallot yellow stripe viruses. PMID:16932980

Chen, J; Shi, Y-H; Adams, M J; Zheng, H-Y; Qin, B-X; Chen, J-P

2007-02-01

191

Erve virus, a probable member of Bunyaviridae family isolated from shrews (Crocidura russula) in France.  

PubMed

An apparently new agent, provisionally named Erve virus, was isolated in 1982 from tissues of three white toothed shrews, Crocidura russula, trapped near Saulges village in Western France. Results of virological and ultrastructural studies suggest that this virus belongs to the Bunyaviridae family and is a Bunyavirus-like agent. Serosurveys indicate that Erve virus had apparently a large geographical distribution in France and infects rodents, insectivores, wild boars (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus), sheep, herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and humans. Blood donors living in the vicinity of the Saulges area exhibit the highest incidence of antibody against Erve virus. PMID:2570514

Chastel, C; Main, A J; Richard, P; Le Lay, G; Legrand-Quillien, M C; Beaucournu, J C

1989-05-01

192

Biological and Genomic Sequence Characterization of Maize streak virus Isolates from Wheat.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Maize streak virus (MSV) is best known as the causal agent of maize streak disease. However, only a genetically uniform subset of the viruses within this diverse species is actually capable of producing severe symptoms in maize. Whereas these "maize-type" viruses all share greater than 95% sequence identity, MSV strains isolated from grasses may share as little as 79% sequence identity with the maize-type viruses. Here, we present the complete genome sequences and biological characterization of two MSV isolates from wheat that share approximately 89% sequence identity with the maize-type viruses. Clonal populations of these two isolates, named MSV-Tas and MSV-VW, were leafhopper-transmitted to Digitaria sanguinalis and a range of maize, wheat, and barley genotypes. Whereas the two viruses showed some differences in their pathogenicity in maize, they were both equally pathogenic in D. sanguinalis and the various wheat and barley genotypes tested. Phylogenetic analyses involving the genome sequences of MSV-Tas and MSV-VW, a new maize-type virus also fully sequenced in this study (MSV-VM), and all other available African streak virus sequences, indicated that MSV-Tas and MSV-VW are close relatives that together represent a distinct MSV strain. Sequence analyses revealed that MSV-VM has a recombinant genome containing MSV-Tas/VW-like sequences within its movement protein gene. PMID:18944143

Willment, J A; Martin, D P; Van der Walt, E; Rybicki, E P

2002-01-01

193

Modoc-like virus isolated from wild deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) in Alberta.  

PubMed

Small mammals were trapped in northeastern Alberta, Canada during 1976. Blood samples from these animals were tested for virus by inoculation of suckling mice. Blood clots from two deer mice yielded isolates of the same virus. The virus was related antigenically to a number of flaviviruses which have been isolated from mammals in Central America and North America and was related most closely to Modoc virus. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of the virus were similar also to those of Modoc virus. It did not produce illness or death in deer mice inoculated in the laboratory. Neutralization tests indicated that 1/38 (3%) red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), 3/35 (9%) least chipmunks (Eutamius minimus), 13/109 (12%) deer mice, and 3/50 (6%) humans were infected naturally. This is the first reported evidence of infection of red squirrels and chipmunks with a Modoc-like virus. These data extend the range of Modoc-like viruses northward by 1,500 km and comprise the first isolate from mammals in the boreal forest of Canada. PMID:2987550

Zarnke, R L; Yuill, T M

1985-04-01

194

Genetic diversity of fusion gene (ORF 117), an analogue of vaccinia virus A27L gene of capripox virus isolates.  

PubMed

The fusion gene (ORF 117) sequences of twelve (n = 12) capripox virus isolates namely sheeppox (SPPV) and goatpox (GTPV) viruses from India were demonstrated for their genetic and phylogenetic relationship among them. All the isolates were confirmed for their identity by routine PCR before targeting ORF 117 gene for sequence analysis. The designed primers specifically amplified ORF 117 gene as 447 bp fragment from total genomic DNA extracted from all the isolates. Sequence analysis revealed a significant percentage of identity among GTPV, SPPV and between them at both nucleotide and amino acid levels. The topology of the phylogenetic tree revealed that three distinct clusters corresponding to SPPV, GTPV and lumpy skin disease virus was formed. However, SPPV Pune/08 and SPPV Roumanian Fanar isolates were clustered into GTPV group as these two isolates showed a 100 and 99.3 % identity with GTPV isolates of India at nt and aa levels, respectively. Protein secondary structure and 3D view was predicted and found that it has high antigenic index and surface probability with low hydrophobicity, and it can be targeted for expression and its evaluation to explore its diagnostic potential in epidemiological investigation in future. PMID:25663144

Dashprakash, M; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Ramakrishnan, Muthannan Andavar; Muthuchelvan, Dhanavelu; Sankar, Muthu; Pandey, Awadh Bihari; Mondal, Bimelendu

2015-04-01

195

Genetic characterization of a noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 2b isolated from cattle in China.  

PubMed

In January 2013, several clinical signs of cattle with diarrhea, cough, nasal discharge, and fever were reported in Jilin province, China. One virus named SD1301 was isolated and identified. Complete genome of the virus is 12258nt in length and contains a 5'UTR, one open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3,897 amino acids and a 3'UTR. Phylogenetic analysis of 5'UTR, N(pro), E1 and E2 gene demonstrated the virus belonged to BVDV 2b, and genetically related to the BVDV strain Hokudai-Lab/09 from Japan in 2010. This bovine viral diarrhea virus displays a unique genetic signature with 27-nucleotide deletion in the 5'UTR, which is similar to the bovine viral diarrhea virus C413 (AF002227). This was the first confirmed isolation of ncp BVDV2b circulating in bovine herd of China. PMID:24811746

Wang, Wei; Shi, Xinchuan; Chen, Chaoyang; Wu, Hua

2014-10-01

196

Characterization of the epidemic influenza B viruses isolated during 2004-2005 season in Taiwan.  

PubMed

To characterize the antigenic and genetic relationships of influenza B viruses isolated during the 2004-2005 season, a total of 11,707 clinical respiratory samples were tested of which 1572 (13.5%) were positive for influenza (463 type A and 1109 type B influenza). Of the type B viruses, 348 isolates collected in different parts of Taiwan were further analyzed. Viruses belonging to both influenza B lineages, B/Yamagata/16/88 (B/Yam) and B/Victoris/2/87 (B/Vic) were detected, although an increasing number of B/Vic lineage isolates was obtained as the season progressed. Recent B/Vic-lineage isolates were found to have additional amino acid substitutions compared to isolates from previous seasons, indicating that viruses of this lineage continue to evolve significantly and may have the capacity to become the dominant influenza B viruses worldwide. Results presented in this report demonstrate that antigenically and genetically distinct viruses within both B/Vic and B/Yam lineages co-circulate and that reassortment among these two lineages occurs frequently contributing to the genetic diversity of the circulating strains. PMID:17196288

Lin, Jih-Hui; Chiu, Shu-Chun; Shaw, Michael W; Lin, Yung-Cheng; Lee, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Hour-Yung; Klimov, Alexander

2007-03-01

197

Characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A viruses isolated from South Korea.  

PubMed

An unprecedented outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been reported for poultry in eight different Asian countries, including South Korea, since December 2003. A phylogenetic analysis of the eight viral genes showed that the H5N1 poultry isolates from South Korea were of avian origin and contained the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (Gs/Gd) lineage. The current H5N1 strains in Asia, including the Korean isolates, share a gene constellation similar to that of the Penfold Park, Hong Kong, isolates from late 2002 and contain some molecular markers that seem to have been fixed in the Gs/Gd lineage virus since 2001. However, despite genetic similarities among recent H5N1 isolates, the topology of the phylogenetic tree clearly differentiates the Korean isolates from the Vietnamese and Thai isolates which have been reported to infect humans. A representative Korean isolate was inoculated into mice, with no mortality and no virus being isolated from the brain, although high titers of virus were observed in the lungs. The same isolate, however, caused systemic infections in chickens and quail and killed all of the birds within 2 and 4 days of intranasal inoculation, respectively. This isolate also replicated in multiple organs and tissues of ducks and caused some mortality. However, lower virus titers were observed in all corresponding tissues of ducks than in chicken and quail tissues, and the histological lesions were restricted to the respiratory tract. This study characterizes the molecular and biological properties of the H5N1 HPAI viruses from South Korea and emphasizes the need for comparative analyses of the H5N1 isolates from different countries to help elucidate the risk of a human pandemic from the strains of H5N1 HPAI currently circulating in Asia. PMID:15731263

Lee, Chang-Won; Suarez, David L; Tumpey, Terrence M; Sung, Haan-Woo; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Choi, Jun-Gu; Joh, Seong-Joon; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Park, Jong-Myung; Lu, Xiuhua; Katz, Jacqueline M; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E; Kim, Jae-Hong

2005-03-01

198

Molecular characterization of a rotaviruslike virus isolated from striped bass (Morone saxatilis).  

PubMed Central

The characteristics of a rotaviruslike (SBR) virus isolated from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) were examined following purification of viruses from infected cell cultures. Virions had a double-layered capsid of icosahedral symmetry and a diameter of 75 nm. Purified viruses contained five polypeptides ranging in molecular mass from 130 to 35 kDa. None of the structural proteins were glycosylated. Treatment with EDTA did not remove the outer capsid. By using enzymes and a chaotropic agent, it was shown that VP5 was the most external polypeptide. The genome of SBR virus was composed of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The electrophoretic pattern of the dsRNA of SBR virus was different from that of reovirus type 1 (Lang) and rotavirus (SA11) dsRNA. The SBR virus was compared with reovirus type 1 and SA11 virus by RNA-RNA blot hybridization. There was no cross-hybridization between any of the genome segments of the SBR, reovirus type 1, or SA11 viruses. Antigenic comparison of SBR virus and SA11 virus by cross-immunoprecipitation and cross-immunofluorescence tests did not show any relationship. These results suggest that SBR virus could represent a new genus within the family Reoviridae. Images PMID:2170670

Samal, S K; Dopazo, C P; McPhillips, T H; Baya, A; Mohanty, S B; Hetrick, F M

1990-01-01

199

Characterisation of the welsh onion isolate of Shallot yellow stripe virus from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The host range and nucleotide sequence of shallot yellow stripe virus (SYSV) from welsh onion in Shandong province, China is described. Of the plants tested, only shallot and welsh onion became infected but most shallot plants were symptomless. The complete sequence of one isolate (10429?nt) and the 3?-terminal 3540?nts of a second isolate were determined. They had c. 90%

J. Chen; C.-B. Wei; H.-Y. Zheng; Y.-H. Shi; M. J. Adams; L. Lin; Q.-Y. Zhang; S.-J. Wang; J.-P. Chen

2005-01-01

200

Molecular Epidemiology of Rabies Virus Isolates from Israel and Other Middle and Near-Eastern Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 226 isolates of rabies virus from different areas of Israel, including three human isolates and one sample from South Lebanon were identified between 1993 and 1998 by direct immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies to the viral nucleoprotein (N). An epidemiological survey based on nucleotide sequence analysis of 328 bp from the C terminus of the N coding region

D. DAVID; B. YAKOBSON; J. S. SMITH; Y. STRAM

201

Genetic variation in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates in the midwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequence of a 3266 bp region encom- passing open reading frames (ORFs) 2 through 7 of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was determined for 10 isolates recovered from the midwestern United States. Pairwise comparisons showed that genetic distances between isolates ranged from 2.5 % to 7.9 % (mean 5.8 % + 0.2 %) whereas the

V. Kapur; M. R. Elam; T. M. Pawlovich; M. P. Murtaugh

1996-01-01

202

Antigenic and molecular characterization of isolates of the Italy 02 infectious bronchitis virus genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an epidemiological surveillance of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in Spain, four Spanish field isolates showed high S1 spike sequence similarities with an IBV sequence from the GenBank database named Italy 02. Given that little was known about this new emergent IBV strain we have characterized the four isolates by sequencing the entire S1 part of the spike

Roser Dolz; Joan Pujols; German Ordóñez; Ramon Porta; Natàlia Majó

2006-01-01

203

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Isolated from Whooper Swans, Japan  

PubMed Central

On April 21, 2008, four whooper swans were found dead at Lake Towada, Akita prefecture, Japan. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype was isolated from specimens of the affected birds. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2 in the HA phylogenetic tree. PMID:18760011

Uchida, Yuko; Mase, Masaji; Yoneda, Kumiko; Kimura, Atsumu; Obara, Tsuyoshi; Kumagai, Seikou; Yamamoto, Yu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Shigeo

2008-01-01

204

Heterogeneity in spike protein genes of porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses isolated in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has plagued the domestic swine industry in Korea causing significant economic impacts on pig production nationwide. In the present study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the spike (S) glycoprotein genes of seven Korean PEDV isolates. The entire S genes of all isolates were found to be nine nucleotides longer in length than other

Dong-Kyu Lee; Choi-Kyu Park; Seong-Hee Kim; Changhee Lee

2010-01-01

205

Generation of Velogenic Newcastle Disease Viruses from a Nonpathogenic Waterfowl Isolate by Passaging in Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A benign Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recently became highly virulent during replication in domestic chickens. It is still unclear whether NDVs circulating among wild waterfowl also have the potential to become highly pathogenic (velogenic) in chickens. To demonstrate experimentally the generation of velogenic NDV from a nonpathogenic waterfowl isolate, we passaged an avirulent goose isolate in chickens. After nine consecutive

Yu Shengqing; Noriko Kishida; Hiroshi Ito; Hiroshi Kida; Koichi Otsuki; Yoshihiro Kawaoka; Toshihiro Ito

2002-01-01

206

Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates obtained from Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) are thought to originate from India and they have colonized, throughout the centuries, the Middle East and, more recently, Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Spain. In the present paper we report of the isolation and characterization of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) obtained from Eurasian collared doves during 2000-2001, and compare them to isolates obtained

Calogero Terregino; Giovanni Cattoli; Barbara Grossele; Elena Bertoli; Ernesto Tisato; Ilaria Capua

2003-01-01

207

Biological and molecular characterization of a reticuloendotheliosis virus isolated from turkeys with lymphomas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) isolates termed AF-140-11 and AF-140-12 were obtained from turkeys with increased mortality, disseminated lymphoblastoid neoplasia, and decreased egg production. The REV isolates were propagated and titrated in chicken-embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) obtained from a s...

208

Candida nivariensis isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient suffering from oropharyngeal candidiasis.  

PubMed

Candida nivariensis was isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient who suffered from oropharyngeal candidiasis and was identified with molecular tools. Our isolate demonstrated low MICs to amphotericin B, flucytosine, posaconazole, caspofungin, and isavuconazole and was susceptible to fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. PMID:18003796

Wahyuningsih, Retno; SahBandar, Ivo N; Theelen, Bart; Hagen, Ferry; Poot, Gé; Meis, Jacques F; Rozalyani, Anna; Sjam, Ridhawati; Widodo, Djoko; Djauzi, Samsuridjal; Boekhout, Teun

2008-01-01

209

Complete nucleotide sequence of a maize chlorotic mottle virus isolate from Nebraska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The complete genome of a maize chlorotic mottle virus isolate from Nebraska (MCMV-NE) was cloned and sequenced. The MCMV-NE genome consists of 4,436 nucleotides and shares 99.5% nucleotide sequence identity with an MCMV isolate from Kansas (MCMV-KS). Of 22 polymorphic sites, most resulted from t...

210

Characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from chicken, gamefowl, pigeon and quail in Mexico.  

PubMed

Velogenic Newcastle disease has threatened the Mexican poultry industry since 1946. Seven strains of velogenic Newcastle disease virus were isolated from poultry and other avian species in central and northern Mexico from 1998 to 2006 and subjected to phylogenetic analysis and biological characterization using standard pathogenicity tests and challenge studies. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all velogenic strains belonged to genetic group V and are clearly divided in two lineages, since phylogenetic similarities between groups are of only 93-94%. Isolates from 1998 to 2001 are closely related to the strain responsible for the 2000 year outbreak raised in La Laguna region (Torreon strain), and are phylogenetically distinct from viruses isolated between 2004 and 2006 that are genetically related to the Chimalhuacan strain isolated in 1973. All the viruses of both, the Chimalhuacan and the Torreon groups, contained a virulent fusion protein cleavage site represented by the motif "GGRRQKRF", revealing that evolutionary changes occurred at a different site. Chicken embryo mean death time value was shorter for the Chimalhuacan-like viruses (43.9 hours), when compared with the 1998-2001 average (54.3 hours). ICPI average value was higher (1.92) for viruses isolated during 2004-2006 than that for viruses isolated before 2001 (1.74). Microscopic evaluation of bursa of Fabricius and thymus of 5w-o broiler chickens challenged with 10? LD??/0.2 ml showed that Chimalhuacan-like isolate caused more severe lesions at 48 hpi in bursa and 72 and 96 hpi in thymus than Torreon-like isolate. Along with the MDT, ICPI and microscopic results, our findings suggest that some distinct selective pressure on the very virulent Chimalhuacan strain isolated in early 1970's may have led to the appearance of the still velogenic but less virulent new group (Torreon-like) in the middle of 1990's. PMID:19784791

Merino, Ruben; Villegas, Hilda; Quintana, Jose A; Calderon, Norma

2009-12-01

211

Heterogeneity in Neutralization Sensitivities of Viruses Comprising the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVsmE660 Isolate and Vaccine Challenge Stock  

PubMed Central

The sooty mangabey-derived simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strain E660 (SIVsmE660) is a genetically heterogeneous, pathogenic isolate that is commonly used as a vaccine challenge strain in the nonhuman primate (NHP) model of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Though it is often employed to assess antibody-based vaccine strategies, its sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization has not been well characterized. Here, we utilize single-genome sequencing and infectivity assays to analyze the neutralization sensitivity of the uncloned SIVsmE660 isolate, individual viruses comprising the isolate, and transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses arising from low-dose mucosal inoculation of macaques with the isolate. We found that the SIVsmE660 isolate overall was highly sensitive to neutralization by SIV-infected macaque plasma samples (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] < 10?5) and monoclonal antibodies targeting V3 (IC50 < 0.01 ?g/ml), CD4-induced (IC50 < 0.1 ?g/ml), CD4 binding site (IC50 ? 1 ?g/ml), and V4 (IC50, ?5 ?g/ml) epitopes. In comparison, SIVmac251 and SIVmac239 were highly resistant to neutralization by these same antibodies. Differences in neutralization sensitivity between SIVsmE660 and SIVmac251/239 were not dependent on the cell type in which virus was produced or tested. These findings indicate that in comparison to SIVmac251/239 and primary HIV-1 viruses, SIVsmE660 generally exhibits substantially less masking of antigenically conserved Env epitopes. Interestingly, we identified a minor population of viruses (?10%) in both the SIVsmE660 isolate and T/F viruses arising from it that were substantially more resistant (>1,000-fold) to antibody neutralization and another fraction (?20%) that was intermediate in neutralization resistance. These findings may explain the variable natural history and variable protection afforded by heterologous Env-based vaccines in rhesus macaques challenged by high-dose versus low-dose SIVsmE660 inoculation regimens. PMID:23468494

Lopker, Michael; Easlick, Juliet; Sterrett, Sarah; Decker, Julie M.; Barbian, Hannah; Learn, Gerald; Keele, Brandon F.; Robinson, James E.; Li, Hui; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Shaw, George M.

2013-01-01

212

Heterogeneity in neutralization sensitivities of viruses comprising the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsmE660 isolate and vaccine challenge stock.  

PubMed

The sooty mangabey-derived simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strain E660 (SIVsmE660) is a genetically heterogeneous, pathogenic isolate that is commonly used as a vaccine challenge strain in the nonhuman primate (NHP) model of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Though it is often employed to assess antibody-based vaccine strategies, its sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization has not been well characterized. Here, we utilize single-genome sequencing and infectivity assays to analyze the neutralization sensitivity of the uncloned SIVsmE660 isolate, individual viruses comprising the isolate, and transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses arising from low-dose mucosal inoculation of macaques with the isolate. We found that the SIVsmE660 isolate overall was highly sensitive to neutralization by SIV-infected macaque plasma samples (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] < 10(-5)) and monoclonal antibodies targeting V3 (IC50 < 0.01 ?g/ml), CD4-induced (IC50 < 0.1 ?g/ml), CD4 binding site (IC50 ~ 1 ?g/ml), and V4 (IC50, ~5 ?g/ml) epitopes. In comparison, SIVmac251 and SIVmac239 were highly resistant to neutralization by these same antibodies. Differences in neutralization sensitivity between SIVsmE660 and SIVmac251/239 were not dependent on the cell type in which virus was produced or tested. These findings indicate that in comparison to SIVmac251/239 and primary HIV-1 viruses, SIVsmE660 generally exhibits substantially less masking of antigenically conserved Env epitopes. Interestingly, we identified a minor population of viruses (~10%) in both the SIVsmE660 isolate and T/F viruses arising from it that were substantially more resistant (>1,000-fold) to antibody neutralization and another fraction (~20%) that was intermediate in neutralization resistance. These findings may explain the variable natural history and variable protection afforded by heterologous Env-based vaccines in rhesus macaques challenged by high-dose versus low-dose SIVsmE660 inoculation regimens. PMID:23468494

Lopker, Michael; Easlick, Juliet; Sterrett, Sarah; Decker, Julie M; Barbian, Hannah; Learn, Gerald; Keele, Brandon F; Robinson, James E; Li, Hui; Hahn, Beatrice H; Shaw, George M; Bar, Katharine J

2013-05-01

213

Massilia Virus, A Novel Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) Isolated from Sandflies in the Mediterranean  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new virus was isolated from three independent pools of Phlebotomus perniciosus sandflies (Diptera; Psychodidae) trapped in two regions of southeastern France, located 90 miles apart. Microscopic, antigenic and genetic analyses indicate that this novel virus belongs to the genus Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. The new virus is designated Massilia virus since the first isolate was obtained from sandflies collected in the suburban area of Marseille. The complete genome sequence was determined and used to compare the genetic and phylogenetic relationships of Massilia virus with other phleboviruses. Genetic and antigenic properties were employed to address whether or not Massilia virus should be considered a new species within the genus, or a member of a previously recognized species. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens, collected from local patients with central nervous system infections during the previous four-year period were tested for the presence of Massilia virus RNA, but gave negative results. In conclusion, Massilia virus is proposed as a member of the Sand-fly fever Naples virus complex; its public health importance has yet to be determined. PMID:19055373

Moureau, Grégory; Temmam, Sarah; Izri, Arezki; Marty, Pierre; Parola, Philippe; da Rosa, Amelia Travassos; Tesh, Robert B.; de Lamballerie, Xavier

2009-01-01

214

Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ongoing human H7N9 influenza infections highlight the threat of emerging avian influenza viruses. In 2011, an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from moribund New England harbour seals was shown to have naturally acquired mutations known to increase the transmissibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. To elucidate the potential human health threat, here we evaluate a panel of avian H3N8 viruses and find that the harbour seal virus displays increased affinity for mammalian receptors, transmits via respiratory droplets in ferrets and replicates in human lung cells. Analysis of a panel of human sera for H3N8 neutralizing antibodies suggests that there is no population-wide immunity to these viruses. The prevalence of H3N8 viruses in birds and multiple mammalian species including recent isolations from pigs and evidence that it was a past human pandemic virus make the need for surveillance and risk analysis of these viruses of public health importance.

Karlsson, Erik A.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Sun W.; Johnson, Jordan; Beck, Melinda A.; Webby, Richard J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

2014-01-01

215

Isolation of cytopathic small round virus (Aichi virus) from Pakistani children and Japanese travelers from Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Aichi virus was isolated in Vero cells from 5 (2.3%) of 222 Pakistani children with gastroenteritis but none was found in 91 healthy children. Aichi virus was also isolated from 5 (0.7%) of 722 Japanese travelers returned from tours to Southeast Asian countries and complained of gastrointestinal symptoms at the quarantine station of Nagoya International Airport in Japan. Of 5 Japanese travelers, 3 were returning from Indonesia, and 2 from Thailand or Malaysia. These results indicate that Aichi virus or a similar agent is endemic in Southeast Asian countries and is a cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in children in these areas or in Japanese travelers who visit there. PMID:8551977

Yamashita, T; Sakae, K; Kobayashi, S; Ishihara, Y; Miyake, T; Mubina, A; Isomura, S

1995-01-01

216

Complete Genome and Clinicopathological Characterization of a Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Isolate from South America  

PubMed Central

Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry, negatively affecting poultry production worldwide. The disease is caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) or avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1), a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Avulavirus, family Paramyxoviridae. Although all NDV isolates characterized to date belong to a single serotype of APMV-1, significant genetic diversity has been described between different NDV isolates. Here we present the complete genome sequence and the clinicopathological characterization of a virulent Newcastle disease virus isolate (NDV-Peru/08) obtained from poultry during an outbreak of ND in Peru in 2008. Phylogenetic reconstruction and analysis of the evolutionary distances between NDV-Peru/08 and other isolates representing established NDV genotypes revealed the existence of large genomic and amino differences that clearly distinguish this isolate from viruses of typical NDV genotypes. Although NDV-Peru/08 is a genetically distinct virus, pathogenesis studies conducted with chickens revealed that NDV-Peru/08 infection results in clinical signs characteristic of velogenic viscerotropic NDV strains. Additionally, vaccination studies have shown that an inactivated NDV-LaSota/46 vaccine conferred full protection from NDV-Peru/08-induced clinical disease and mortality. This represents the first complete characterization of a virulent NDV isolate from South America. PMID:22135263

Diel, Diego G.; Susta, Leonardo; Cardenas Garcia, Stivalis; Killian, Mary L.; Brown, Corrie C.; Afonso, Claudio L.

2012-01-01

217

Genetic diversity and relationships among Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus field isolates from Colombia and Venezuela.  

PubMed

During field studies of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses associated with epizootic emergence, a large number of virus isolates were made in sylvatic foci of Venezuela and Colombia. To rapidly characterize these isolates, antigenic subtypes were determined by means of immunofluorescence and by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis by use of an 856-bp fragment from the P62 gene, which we used to distinguish genetic variants. Representative isolates were sequenced to assess the sensitivity of SSCP to detect genetic differences. The SSCP analysis distinguished isolates differing by as little as 1 nucleotide; overall, differences of > or = 1 nucleotide were recognized 89% of the time, and the sensitivity to distinguish strains that differed by only 1 or 4 nucleotides was 17 and 57%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of representative sequences showed that all recent isolates from the Catatumbo region of western Venezuela and the middle Magdalena Valley of Colombia were closely related to epizootic subtype IAB and IC strains; strains from Yaracuy and Miranda States were more distantly related. Cocirculation of the same virus genotype in both Colombian and Venezuelan foci indicated that these viruses are readily transported between enzootic regions separated by > 300 km. The SSCP analysis appears to be a simple, fast, and relatively efficient method of screening VEE virus isolates to identify meaningful genetic variants. PMID:11791968

Moncayo, A C; Medina, G M; Kalvatchev, Z; Brault, A C; Barrera, R; Boshell, J; Ferro, C; Freier, J E; Navarro, J C; Salas, R; De Siger, J; Vasquez, C; Walder, R; Weaver, S C

2001-12-01

218

Microtiter virus isolation and enzyme immunoassays for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus in cattle serum.  

PubMed Central

Cattle immunotolerant to and persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus (BVDV) constitute the mechanism by which BVDV persists in cattle herds. Two procedures for using serum to detect PI cattle were developed and evaluated. BVDV was found to remain viable for 7 days in serum samples stored at room temperature. The tests use cell culture virus isolation (VI) in 96-well microtiter plates, followed by immunostaining of cell monolayers with monoclonal antibodies. One technique, the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA), forms a red intracellular precipitate while the other, the monolayer enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (M-ELISA) produces a yellow color in solution. The optimal incubation period for microtiter VI was determined to be 4 days. Optimal IPMA staining was obtained by fixing cell monolayers with 20 to 30% acetone, whereas a simple dry-rehydrate-dry cycle provided optimal M-ELISA staining. The M-ELISA and IPMA had the same sensitivities and specificities, but the M-ELISA was a more rapid procedure and use of a spectrophotometer for reading samples allowed for greater objectivity. When compared to standard VI with routine samples submitted for the diagnosis of BVD, M-ELISA and IPMA had a relative sensitivity of 85% and a relatively specificity of 100%. When only samples from cattle suspected of being PI were considered, these two parameters were 100% for both IPMA and M-ELISA. The two procedures, especially the M-ELISA, are suitable for whole-herd testing to identify PI cattle. The appeal of these tests is derived from the convenience of using serum as a diagnostic sample and the ability to rapidly screen large numbers of samples at low cost. PMID:9157132

Saliki, J T; Fulton, R W; Hull, S R; Dubovi, E J

1997-01-01

219

Incidence of Phlebiopsis gigantea large virus-1 in a collection of Phlebiopsis gigantea isolates.  

PubMed

Eighty six Phlebiopsis gigantea isolates from at least 9 different tree species from various locations in 12 different European countries and North America were screened for the presence of large molecular weight dsRNA >10 kbp in size. In 7 isolates, which contained large dsRNAs, the presence of Phlebiopsis gigantea large virus-1 (PgLV-1) was suggested following the sequencing of the RT-PCR amplicons generated with PgLV-1 specific oligonucleotide primers which also revealed little genetic diversity between the virus isolates. PMID:21818645

Lim, Jia M; Jamal, Atif; Phoon, Xiyu; Korhonen, Kari; Coutts, Robert H A

2011-11-01

220

Molecular characterisation of Newcastle disease virus isolates from different geographical regions in Mozambique in 2005.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease (ND) is regarded as a highly contagious and economically important disease in poultry and has a worldwide distribution. Viral determinants for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) virulence are not completely understood and viruses of different pathotypes can be found at live-bird markets in different geographical areas. The prevalence of Newcastle disease in village poultry in Mozambique is not well documented and strains of NDV involved in yearly outbreaks are unknown. The fusion (F) protein is an important determinant of pathogenicity of the virus and is used commonly for phylogenetic analysis. Newcastle disease viruses from various geographical regions of Mozambique were sequenced and compared genetically to published sequences obtained from GenBank. Samples were collected in three different areas of Mozambique and NDV was isolated by infection of embryonated chicken eggs. Sequence analysis of the F-protein encoding gene was used to classify 28 isolates from Mozambique into genotypes and compare these genotypes phylogenetically with existing genotypes found in GenBank. The isolates obtained from Mozambique grouped mainly into two clades. In the first clade, 12 isolates grouped together with sequences of isolates representing genotypes from Mozambique that were previously described. In the second clade, 16 isolates group together with sequences obtained from GenBank originating from Australia, China, South Africa and the USA. Eleven of these isolates showed a high similarity with sequences from South Africa. The number of samples sequenced (n = 28), as well as the relatively small geographical collection area used in this study, are too small to be a representation of the circulating viruses in Mozambique in 2005. Viruses characterised in this study belonged to lineage 5b, a similar finding of a previous study 10 years ago. From this data, it merely can be concluded that no new introduction of the virus occurred from 1995 to 2005 in Mozambique. PMID:23327316

Fringe, Raul; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Ebersohn, Karen; Bisschop, Shahn; Abolnik, Celia; Venter, Estelle

2012-01-01

221

Characterization of West Nile viruses isolated form captive American flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice.

Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik

2012-01-01

222

Characterization of West Nile Viruses Isolated from Captive American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice. PMID:22802436

Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik

2012-01-01

223

Punique virus, a novel phlebovirus, related to sandfly fever Naples virus, isolated from sandflies collected in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Sandflies are widely distributed around the Mediterranean Basin. Therefore, human populations in this area are potentially exposed to sandfly-transmitted diseases, including those caused by phleboviruses. Whilst there are substantial data in countries located in the northern part of the Mediterranean basin, few data are available for North Africa. In this study, a total of 1489 sandflies were collected in 2008 in Tunisia from two sites, bioclimatically distinct, located 235 km apart, and identified morphologically. Sandfly species comprised Phlebotomus perniciosus (52.2 %), Phlebotomus longicuspis (30.1 %), Phlebotomus papatasi (12 .0%), Phlebotomus perfiliewi (4.6 %), Phlebotomus langeroni (0.4 %) and Sergentomyia minuta (0.5 %). PCR screening, using generic primers for the genus Phlebovirus, resulted in the detection of ten positive pools. Sequence analysis revealed that two pools contained viral RNA corresponding to a novel virus closely related to sandfly fever Naples virus. Virus isolation in Vero cells was achieved from one pool. Genetic and phylogenetic characterization based on sequences in the three genomic segments showed that it was a novel virus distinct from other recognized members of the species. This novel virus was provisionally named Punique virus. Viral sequences in the polymerase gene corresponding to another phlebovirus closely related to but distinct from sandfly fever Sicilian virus were obtained from the eight remaining positive pools. PMID:20089800

Zhioua, Elyes; Moureau, Grégory; Chelbi, Ifhem; Ninove, Laetitia; Bichaud, Laurence; Derbali, Mohamed; Champs, Mylène; Cherni, Saifeddine; Salez, Nicolas; Cook, Shelley; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Remi N.

2012-01-01

224

New isolates of the necrotic strain of potato virus Y (PVY N ) found recently in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In comparison to the previously known isolates of potato virus YN (PVYN), some isolates found in Poland since 1984 are more infectious to potato plants, reach faster a higher concentration and\\u000a induce milder disease symptoms.\\u000a \\u000a Potato cultivars resistant to the standard type of PVYN may be susceptible to the new isolates whereas those that are extremely resistant to PVY remain

M. Chrzanowska

1991-01-01

225

Molecular characterization of Belgian pseudorabies virus isolates from domestic swine and wild boar.  

PubMed

Aujeszky's disease is an economically important disease in domestic swine caused by suid herpesvirus 1, also called pseudorabies virus (PRV). In several European countries, including Belgium, the virus has successfully been eradicated from the domestic swine population. The presence of PRV in the wild boar population however poses a risk for possible reintroduction of the virus into the domestic pig population. It is therefore important to assess the genetic relatedness between circulating strains and possible epidemiological links. In this study, nine historical Belgian domestic swine isolates that circulated before 1990 and five recent wild boar isolates obtained since 2006 from Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were genetically characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and phylogenetic analysis. While all wild boar isolates were characterized as type I RFLP genotypes, the RFLP patterns of the domestic swine isolates suggest that a shift from genotype I to genotype II might have occurred in the 1980s in the domestic population. By phylogenetic analysis, Belgian wild boar isolates belonging to both clade A and B were observed, while all domestic swine isolates clustered within clade A. The joint phylogenetic analysis of both wild boar and domestic swine strains showed that some isolates with identical sequences were present within both populations, raising the question whether these strains represent an increased risk for reintroduction of the virus into the domestic population. PMID:24908275

Verpoest, Sara; Cay, Ann Brigitte; De Regge, Nick

2014-08-01

226

Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (serotype Ab) from diverse species of estuarine fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two significant fish kills occurred in the Pamlico River estuary (North Carolina, USA), one in December 1981 and January 1982, and the other in June 1982. The first involved only the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma). Histopathologic examination of morbid and moribund flounder revealed extensive sloughing and necrosis of the mucosa of the pyloric caeca and intestine, and inflammation of the submucosa of the pyloric caeca. Brain and internal organ homogenates from morbid and moribund flounder were assayed on CHSE-214 cells, and a virus was isolated. Virus titers ranged from?8.4 · 102 to 6.3 · 107 TCID50 per gram of tissue. Cross-plaque neutralization assays indicated that the southern flounder virus was infectious pancreatic necrosis virus serotype Ab. Immersion challenge showed the isolate is only slightly virulent for fry of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). The second fish kill involved the southern flounder and six other species: hogchoker (Trinectes maculatus), Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia), spot (Leiostomus xanthurus), Atlantic croaker (Micropogon undulatus), silver perch (Bairdiella chrysura), and striped mullet (Mugil cephalus). Virus was isolated from southern founder, hogchoker, Atlantic silverside, and spot. Neutralization assays indicated that the four isolates were nearly identical; however, the diversity of species affected suggests that the virus might not have been the specific cause of mortality.

McAllister, P. E.; Newman, M. W.; Sauber, J. H.; Owens, W. J.

1984-03-01

227

Molecular epidemiologic studies on North American H9 avian influenza virus isolates from waterfowl and shorebirds.  

PubMed

Because sequence data on H9 avian influenza virus (AIV) from wild birds are currently limited, we set out to determine the sequence of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H9 viruses circulating in North American waterfowl and shorebirds. In this study, we examined the HA gene from H9 AIV isolated from mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) sampled during 1998 and 1999 in Minnesota and ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) sampled during 2003 in Delaware and New Jersey. At these sites, the H9N2 subtype represented 12% and 4% of the avian influenza isolates from mallards in 1998 and 1999, respectively, and 8% of the AIVs isolated from shorebirds between 2000 and 2002. Sequences from these viruses were compared with sequences from H9 AIV isolated from commercial poultry and aquatic birds from North America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East: four previously reported and three new clades were observed. Sequence data from the HA gene of North American waterfowl and shorebird isolates generated in this study most closely group with the Eurasian H9 viruses in the Y439 clade. In addition, the HA cleavage site (AASNR/G) and receptor binding site was identical to the representative virus of that group (DK/Hong Kong/Y439/97). Viruses in that clade are commonly found in ducks and chickens in Hong Kong and Korea. Positive evolutionary selection (dNonsynonymous > dSynonymous) was observed for the HA gene among the North American waterfowl and shorebird H9N2 viruses, indicating that the H9N2-type viruses are changing in their natural hosts. PMID:17494604

Jackwood, Mark W; Stallknecht, David E

2007-03-01

228

Characterization of Influenza A (H7N9) Viruses Isolated from Human Cases Imported into Taiwan.  

PubMed

A novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus causes severe human infections and was first identified in March 2013 in China. The H7N9 virus has exhibited two epidemiological peaks of infection, occurring in week 15 of 2013 and week 5 of 2014. Taiwan, which is geographically adjacent to China, faces a large risk of being affected by this virus. Through extensive surveillance, launched in April 2013, four laboratory-confirmed H7N9 cases imported from China have been identified in Taiwan. The H7N9 virus isolated from imported case 1 in May 2013 (during the first wave) was found to be closest genetically to a virus from wild birds and differed from the prototype virus, A/Anhui/1/2013, in the MP gene. The other three imported cases were detected in December 2013 and April 2014 (during the second wave). The viruses isolated from cases 2 and 4 were similar in the compositions of their 6 internal genes and distinct from A/Anhui/1/2013 in the PB2 and MP genes, whereas the virus isolated from case 3 exhibited a novel reassortment that has not been identified previously and was different from A/Anhui/1/2013 in the PB2, PA and MP genes. The four imported H7N9 viruses share similar antigenicity with A/Anhui/1/2013, and their HA and NA genes grouped together in their respective phylogenies. In contrast with the HA and NA genes, which exhibited a smaller degree of diversity, the internal genes were heterogeneous and provided potential distinctions between transmission sources in terms of both geography and hosts. It is important to strengthen surveillance of influenza and to share viral genetic data in real-time for reducing the threat of rapid and continuing evolution of H7N9 viruses. PMID:25748033

Yang, Ji-Rong; Kuo, Chuan-Yi; Huang, Hsiang-Yi; Wu, Fu-Ting; Huang, Yi-Lung; Cheng, Chieh-Yu; Su, Yu-Ting; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Liu, Ming-Tsan

2015-01-01

229

Characterization of Influenza A (H7N9) Viruses Isolated from Human Cases Imported into Taiwan  

PubMed Central

A novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus causes severe human infections and was first identified in March 2013 in China. The H7N9 virus has exhibited two epidemiological peaks of infection, occurring in week 15 of 2013 and week 5 of 2014. Taiwan, which is geographically adjacent to China, faces a large risk of being affected by this virus. Through extensive surveillance, launched in April 2013, four laboratory-confirmed H7N9 cases imported from China have been identified in Taiwan. The H7N9 virus isolated from imported case 1 in May 2013 (during the first wave) was found to be closest genetically to a virus from wild birds and differed from the prototype virus, A/Anhui/1/2013, in the MP gene. The other three imported cases were detected in December 2013 and April 2014 (during the second wave). The viruses isolated from cases 2 and 4 were similar in the compositions of their 6 internal genes and distinct from A/Anhui/1/2013 in the PB2 and MP genes, whereas the virus isolated from case 3 exhibited a novel reassortment that has not been identified previously and was different from A/Anhui/1/2013 in the PB2, PA and MP genes. The four imported H7N9 viruses share similar antigenicity with A/Anhui/1/2013, and their HA and NA genes grouped together in their respective phylogenies. In contrast with the HA and NA genes, which exhibited a smaller degree of diversity, the internal genes were heterogeneous and provided potential distinctions between transmission sources in terms of both geography and hosts. It is important to strengthen surveillance of influenza and to share viral genetic data in real-time for reducing the threat of rapid and continuing evolution of H7N9 viruses. PMID:25748033

Yang, Ji-Rong; Kuo, Chuan-Yi; Huang, Hsiang-Yi; Wu, Fu-Ting; Huang, Yi-Lung; Cheng, Chieh-Yu; Su, Yu-Ting; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Liu, Ming-Tsan

2015-01-01

230

A new genetic variant of La Crosse virus (bunyaviridae) isolated from New England.  

PubMed

La Crosse virus (LACV) is found primarily in the Midwestern and Appalachian regions of the United States where it is a leading cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis in children. To determine whether the distribution of this virus extends further east into New England, we analyzed a bunyavirus that was isolated from a pool of eastern tree-hole mosquitoes, Ochlerotatus triseriatus (= Aedes triseriatus), collected from Fairfield, Connecticut (CT) in 2005. Nucleotide and encoded amino acid sequences from portions of the S, M, and L segments were more similar to the prototype strain of La Crosse virus than that of closely related snowshoe hare virus. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences from the M segment indicated that the CT isolate represents a distinct lineage of La Crosse virus, diverging earliest from other strains found in southeastern, central, and northeastern United States. Despite low sequence homology with other viral strains, the CT isolate was antigenically similar to the prototype strain of LACV by plaque-reduction neutralization tests with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. This represents the first isolation of LACV in New England to our knowledge and suggests long-term independent evolution of the CT isolate. PMID:16968927

Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G

2006-09-01

231

Sunguru virus: a novel virus in the family Rhabdoviridae isolated from a chicken in north-western Uganda.  

PubMed

Sunguru virus (SUNV), a novel virus belonging to the highly diverse Rhabdoviridae family, was isolated from a domestic chicken in the district of Arua, Uganda, in 2011. This is the first documented isolation of a rhabdovirus from a chicken. SUNV is related to, but distinct from, Boteke virus and other members of the unclassified Sandjimba group. The genome is 11056 nt in length and contains the five core rhabdovirus genes plus an additional C gene (within the ORF of a phosphoprotein gene) and a small hydrophobic protein (between the matrix and glycoprotein genes). Inoculation of vertebrate cells with SUNV resulted in significant viral growth, with a peak titre of 7.8 log10 p.f.u. ml(-1) observed in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Little to no growth was observed in invertebrate cells and in live mosquitoes, with Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes having a 47.4% infection rate in the body but no dissemination of the virus to the salivary glands; this suggests that this novel virus is not arthropod borne as some other members of the family Rhabdoviridae. PMID:24718834

Ledermann, Jeremy P; Zeidner, Nord; Borland, Erin M; Mutebi, John-Paul; Lanciotti, Robert S; Miller, Barry R; Lutwama, Julius J; Tendo, Joseph M; Andama, Vincent; Powers, Ann M

2014-07-01

232

[Complete genomic analysis of a novel infectious bronchitis virus isolate].  

PubMed

The genome of CK/CH/SD09/005, an isolate of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), was characterized to enable the further understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of IBV in China. Twenty-five pairs of primers were designed to amplify the full-length genome of CK/CH/SD09/005. The nucleotide sequence of CK/CH/SD09/005 was compared with reference IBV strains retrieved from GenBank. The phylogenic relationship between CK/CH/SD09/005 and the reference strains was analyzed based on S1 gene sequences. The complete genome of CK/CH/SD09/005 consisted of 27691 nucleotides (nt), excluding the 5' cap and 3' poly A tail. The whole-genome of CK/CH/SD09/005 shared 97 - 99% nucleotide sequence homology with the GX-NN09032 strain, which was the only complete genome that was closely related to CK/CH/SD09/005. When compared with all reference strains except GX-NN09032, CK/CH/SD09/005 showed the highest similarity to ck/CH/LDL/091022 and SDIB821/2012 (QX-like) in the replicase gene (Gene 1) and 3'UTR, with a sequence identity rate of 97% and 98%, respectively. However, CK/CH/SD09/005 exhibited lower levels of similarity with ck/CH/LDL/091022 and SDIB821/2012 in S-3a-3b-3c/ E-M-5a-5b-N with a sequence identity of 72% - 90%. CK/CH/SD09/005 showed the highest level of nucleotide identity with Korean strain 1011, and Chinese strains CK/CH/LXJ/02I, DK/CH/HN/ZZ2004 and YX10, in ORF 3c/E (97%), 5a (96%), 5b (99%) and N (96%), respectively. ORFs 3a, 3b and M of CK/CH/SD09/005 exhibited no more than 90% homology with the reference strains, excluding GX-NN09032. The phylogenic analysis based on the S1 gene revealed that CK/CH/SD09/005 and 39 published strains were classified into seven clades (genotypes). CK/CH/SD09/005 was distributed in clade IV with several isolates collected between 2007 and 2012. CK/CH/SD09/005 showed 66% - 69% and 72% - 81% nucleotide identities with the IBV strains of other six clades in the S1 and S2 subunits, respectively. More over, multiple substitutions were found throughout the entire S gene of CK/CH/SD09/005, while insertions and deletions were located within the S1 gene. These results indicated that CK/CH/SD09/005 is a novel variant that may be derived from the QX-like strains that are prevalent in China. Multiple genetic mechanisms, including recombinations, mutations, insertions and deletions, are likely to have contributed to the emergence of this IBV strain. PMID:25272584

Hu, Bei-Xia; Yang, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Wei; Cao, San-Jie; Xu, Chuan-Tian; Huang, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Yan-Yan; Wen, Xin-Tian

2014-07-01

233

Receptor specificity and erythrocyte binding preferences of avian influenza viruses isolated from India  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hemagglutination (HA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays are conventionally used for detection and identification of influenza viruses. HI assay is also used for detection of antibodies against influenza viruses. Primarily turkey or chicken erythrocytes [red blood cells (RBCs)] are used in these assays, as they are large, nucleated, and sediment fast, which makes it easy to determine the titer. Human influenza viruses agglutinate RBCs from chicken, human, and guinea pig, but not from horse. Human influenza viruses bind preferentially to sialic acid (SA) linked to galactose (Gal) by ? 2, 6 linkage (SA ? 2, 6-Gal), whereas avian influenza (AI) viruses bind preferentially to SA ? 2, 3-Gal linkages. With this background, the present study was undertaken to study erythrocyte binding preferences and receptor specificities of AI viruses isolated from India. Materials and methods A total of nine AI virus isolates (four subtypes) from India and three reference AI strains (three subtypes) were tested in HA and HI assays against mammalian and avian erythrocytes. The erythrocytes from turkey, chicken, goose, guinea pig and horse were used in the study. The receptor specificity determination assays were performed using goose and turkey RBCs. The amino acids present at 190 helix, 130 and 220 loops of the receptor-binding domain of the hemagglutinin protein were analyzed to correlate amino acid changes with the receptor specificity. Results All tested highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses reacted with all five types of RBCs in the HA assay; AI H9N2 and H5N2 viruses did not react with horse RBCs. For H5N1 viruses guinea pig and goose RBCs were best for both HA and HI assays. For H9N2 viruses, guinea pig, fowl and turkey RBCs were suitable. For other tested AI subtypes, avian and guinea pig RBCs were better. Eight isolates of H5N1, one H4N6 and one H7N1 virus showed preference to avian sialic acid receptors. Importantly, two isolates of HPAI H5N1, H9N2 and H11N1 viruses showed receptor specificity preference to both avian and mammalian sialic acid (?-2, 3 and ?-2, 6) receptors. Conclusions Use of different types of RBCs resulted in titer variations in HA and HI assays. This showed that RBCs giving optimum HA and HI titers would increase sensitivity of detection and would be more appropriate for identification and antigenic analysis of AI viruses. Analysis of 16 amino acids in the receptor-binding domain of the hemagglutinin of HPAI H5N1 viruses revealed that the only variation observed was in S221P amino acid position. Two H5N1 viruses showed S221P amino acid change, out of which only one H5N1 virus showed preference to ? 2, 6 sialic acid receptor. One H5N1 virus isolate with amino acid S at 221 position, showed preference to ? 2,3 as well as ? 2,6 sialic acid receptors. This indicated that factor(s) other than S221P mutation in the hemagglutinin are probably involved in determining receptor specificity of H5N1 viruses. This is the first report of receptor specificity and erythrocyte binding preferences of AI viruses from India. PMID:23110802

2012-01-01

234

Isolation of Multiple TT Virus Genotypes from Spleen Biopsy Tissue from a Hodgkin's Disease Patient: Genome Reorganization and Diversity in the Hypervariable Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the isolation of 24 novel genotypes of TT viruses from a surgically removed spleen of a patient with Hodgkin's disease. The sequence analysis of our 24 isolates revealed the remarkable heterogeneity of TT virus isolates not only from the same patient but also from the same biopsy material. These isolates belong to four phylogenetic groups of TT viruses.

Ilijas Jelcic; Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt; Andreas Hunziker; H. zur Hausen; E.-M. de Villiers

2004-01-01

235

Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus and West Nile virus from crows during increased arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut, 2000.  

PubMed

The emergence of the West Nile virus (WNV) in the northeastern United States has drawn emphasis to the need for expanded arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut. Although the state of Connecticut began a comprehensive mosquito-screening program in 1997, only since 1999 have there been efforts to determine the prevalence of arboviruses in bird populations in this state. Herein, we report on our results of an arbovirus survey of 1,704 bird brains. Included in this report are the first known isolations of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) from crows and data on the geographic and temporal distribution of 1,092 WNV isolations from crow species. Moreover, these nine isolations of EEEV identify regions of Connecticut where the virus is rarely found. With the exception of WNV and EEEV, no other arboviruses were isolated or detected. Taken together, these data illustrate the distribution of avian borne EEEV and WNV in 2000 and support the need for ongoing avian arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut. PMID:12164299

Beckwith, William H; Sirpenski, Stanley; French, Richard A; Nelson, Randall; Mayo, Donald

2002-04-01

236

Existence of variant strains Fowlpox virus integrated with Reticuloendotheliosis virus in its genome in field isolates in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Fowlpox virus (FPV) is one example of poultry viruses which undergoes recombination with Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). Trepidation had been raised, and it was well established on augmented pathogenicity of the FPV upon integration of the full intact REV. In this study, we therefore intended at assessing the integration of REV into FPV genome of the field isolates obtained in samples collected from different regions of Tanzania. DNA extraction of 85 samples (scabs) was performed, and FPV-specific PCR was done by the amplification of the highly conserved P4b gene. Evaluation of FPV-REV recombination was done to FPV-specific PCR positively identified samples by amplifying the env gene and REV long terminal repeats (5' LTR). A 578-bp PCR product was amplified from 43 samples. We are reporting for the first time in Tanzania the existence of variant stains of FPV integrated with REV in its genome as 65 % of FPV identified isolates were having full intact REV integration, 21 % had partial FPV-REV env gene integration and 5 % had partial 5' LTR integration. Despite of the fact that FPV-REV integrated stains prevailed, FPV-REV-free isolates (9 %) also existed. In view of the fact that full intact REV integration is connected with increased pathogenicity of FPV, its existence in the FPV genome of most field isolates could have played a role in increased endemic, sporadic and recurring outbreaks in selected areas in Tanzania. PMID:24557589

Mzula, Alexanda; Masola, Selemani N; Kasanga, Christopher J; Wambura, Philemon N

2014-06-01

237

Analysis of new aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV) isolates suggests evolution of two ALPV species.  

PubMed

Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV; family Dicistroviridae) was first isolated from the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi. ALPV-like virus sequences have been reported from many insects and insect predators. We identified a new isolate of ALPV (ALPV-AP) from the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and a new isolate (ALPV-DvV) from western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. ALPV-AP has an ssRNA genome of 9940 nt. Based on phylogenetic analysis, ALPV-AP was closely related to ALPV-AM, an ALPV isolate from honeybees, Apis mellifera, in Spain and Brookings, SD, USA. The distinct evolutionary branches suggested the existence of two lineages of the ALPV virus. One consisted of ALPV-AP and ALPV-AM, whilst all other isolates of ALPV grouped into the other lineage. The similarity of ALPV-AP and ALPV-AM was up to 88?% at the RNA level, compared with 78-79?% between ALPV-AP and other ALPV isolates. The sequence identity of proteins between ALPV-AP and ALPV-AM was 98-99?% for both ORF1 and ORF2, whilst only 85-87?% for ORF1 and 91-92?% for ORF2 between ALPV-AP and other ALPV isolates. Sequencing of RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) products and cDNA clones of the virus genome revealed sequence variation in the 5' UTRs and in ORF1, indicating that ALPV may be under strong selection pressure, which could have important biological implications for ALPV host range and infectivity. Our results indicated that ALPV-like viruses infect insects in the order Coleoptera, in addition to the orders Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, and we propose that ALPV isolates be classified as two separate viral species. PMID:25170050

Liu, Sijun; Vijayendran, Diveena; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C

2014-12-01

238

Coreceptor Usage of Sequential Isolates from Cynomolgus Monkeys Experimentally Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIVsm)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequential isolates from eight cynomolgus monkeys experimentally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsm, of sooty mangabey origin) were tested for coreceptor use in the human osteosarcoma indicator cell line, GHOST(3), expressing CD4 and one or another of the chemokine receptors CCR3, CCR5, CXCR4, BOB, or the orphan receptor Bonzo. The indicator cell line carries the human immunodeficiency virus type 2

Dalma Vödrös; Rigmor Thorstensson; Gunnel Biberfeld; Dominique Schols; Erik De Clercq; Eva Maria Fenyö

2001-01-01

239

Avian flu: Isolation of drug-resistant H5N1 virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The persistence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in many Asian countries and their ability to cause fatal infections in humans have raised serious concerns about a global flu pandemic. Here we report the isolation of an H5N1 virus from a Vietnamese girl that is resistant to the drug oseltamivir, which is an inhibitor of the viral enzyme neuraminidase and is

Q. Mai Le; Maki Kiso; Kazuhiko Someya; Yuko T. Sakai; T. Hien Nguyen; Khan H. L. Nguyen; N. Dinh Pham; Ha H. Ngyen; Shinya Yamada; Yukiko Muramoto; Taisuke Horimoto; Ayato Takada; Hideo Goto; Takashi Suzuki; Yasuo Suzuki; Yoshihiro Kawaoka

2005-01-01

240

Avian paramyxoviruses and influenza viruses isolated from mallard ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos ) in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?A comprehensive study using virological and serological approaches was carried out to determine the status of live healthy\\u000a mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in New Zealand for infections with avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) and influenza viruses (AIV). Thirty-three viruses isolated\\u000a from 321 tracheal and cloacal swabs were characterized as: 6 AIV (two H5N2 and four H4N6), 10 APMV-1 and 17 APMV-4. Of

W. L. Stanislawek; C. R. Wilks; J. Meers; G. W. Horner; D. J. Alexander; R. J. Manvell; J. A. Kattenbelt; A. R. Gould

2002-01-01

241

Evidence for RNA recombination between distinct isolates of Pepino mosaic virus.  

PubMed

Genetic recombination plays an important role in the evolution of virus genomes. In this study we analyzed publicly available genomic sequences of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) for recombination events using several bioinformatics tools. The genome-wide analyses not only confirm the presence of previously found recombination events in PepMV but also provide the first evidence for double recombinant origin of the US2 isolate. PMID:20725647

Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata; Kuzniar, Arnold; Peters, Sander A; Leunissen, Jack A M; Pospieszny, Henryk

2010-01-01

242

Resistance breaking tomato spotted wilt virus isolates on resistant pepper varieties in Italy.  

PubMed

In spring 2012, resistance breaking (RB) isolates of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that overcome the resistance conferred by the Tsw gene in different pepper hybrids have been recovered in different locations in southern Italy (Campania and Apulia regions) in protected cultivation, about one month after transplant. The percentage of symptomatic plants was 5-10% and, only in particular cases of advanced stage of cultivation, it reached 30-50% at the end of cycle. All TSWV isolates induced similar systemic symptoms in all resistant infected pepper hybrids: yellowing or browning of apical leaves, which later become necrotic, long necrotic streakson stems, extending to the terminal shoots, complete necrosis of younger fruits and large necrotic streaks and spots on fruits formed after infection. On ripe fruits, yellow spots with concentric rings or necrotic streaks could be observed. Leaf extracts of these samples were tested in ELISA for the detection of TSWV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and Pepper Mottle Virus (PepMoV). Only TSWV was detected in all the field samples tested. The correspondent virus isolates were inoculated mechanically and by Frankliniella occidentalis on to a set of different pepper and tomato hybrids, as well as on some herbaceous test plants, in order to investigate for their ability to overcome the resistance genes Tsw and Sw5, respectively. Tomato hybrids carrying the Sw5 gene were uninfected by all RB isolates, whereas all resistant pepper hybrids became systemically infected. RB isolates did not differ noticeably in transmission efficiency when they were tested with the thrips F. occidentalis. Obtained results demonstrate that evolved strains of TSWV have emerged, that they are able to overcome the Tsw resistance gene in pepper plants experimentally inoculated both by mechanical infection and by the vector F. accidentalis. Moreover, evolved strains, here indicated as TSWV-RB-PI (Pepper, Italy), are not able to infect tomato plants carrying the Sw5 gene, confirming that distinct viral gene products control the outcome of infection in plants carrying Sw5 and Tsw. The simultaneous presence of evolved TSWV strains, showing the same biological characteristics (such as host range and symptomatology on different hosts) in two geographic areas of southern Italy, very far each other, let us hypothesize a unique focus of infection. Only subsequently, infected plants, through trade of plant material, have been diffused in locations so far apart. Further molecular studies are underway to assess the possible correlation between the different isolates in different geographical areas. PMID:25151838

Crescenzi, A; Viggiano, A; Fanigliulo, A

2013-01-01

243

Thermostability of Subpopulations of H2N3 Influenza Virus Isolates from Mallard Ducks ?  

PubMed Central

Maintenance of avian influenza virus in waterfowl populations requires that virions remain infectious while in the environment. Temperature has been shown to negatively correlate with persistence time, which is the duration for which virions are infectious. However, thermostability can vary between isolates regardless of subtype, and it is not known whether this variation occurs when host and geographic location of isolation are controlled. In this study, we analyzed the thermostabilities of 7 H2N3 viruses isolated from mallard ducks in Alberta, Canada. Virus samples were incubated at 37°C and 55°C, and infectivity titers were calculated at different time points. Based on the rate of infectivity inactivation at 37°C, isolates could be grouped into either a thermosensitive or thermostable fraction for both egg- and MDCK-grown virus populations. Titers decreased more rapidly for isolates incubated at 55°C, and this loss of infectivity occurred in a nonlinear, 2-step process, which is in contrast with the consensus on thermostability. This suggests that stock samples contain a mixture of subpopulations with different thermostabilities. The rate of decrease for the sensitive fraction was approximately 14 times higher than that for the stable fraction. The presence of subpopulations is further supported by selection experiments and plaque purification, both of which result in homogenous populations that exhibit linear decreases of infectivity titer. Therefore, variation of thermostability of influenza virus isolates begins at the level of the population. The presence of subpopulations with high thermostability suggests that avian viruses can persist in water longer than previously estimated, thus increasing the probability of transmission to susceptible hosts. PMID:20610728

Negovetich, Nicholas J.; Webster, Robert G.

2010-01-01

244

Isolation of a protein kinase induced by herpes simplex virus type 1  

SciTech Connect

Researchers have isolated a new cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase activity induced in HeLa cells by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Induction of the enzyme does not occur in cells treated with cycloheximide at the time of infection, or in cells infected with UV-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1. The amount of enzyme induced in infected cells is dependent upon the multiplicity of infection. An enzyme with identical properties to the appearing in infected HeLa cells is also induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 in BHK cells.

Blue, W.T.; Stobbs, D.G.

1981-04-01

245

Genomic and phylogenetic characterization of Leanyer virus, a novel orthobunyavirus isolated in northern Australia  

PubMed Central

Leanyer virus (LEAV), currently classified as a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus, in the family Bunyaviridae, was originally isolated from a pool of Anopheles meraukensis mosquitoes, collected at Leanyer, Northern Territory, Australia in 1974. When it failed to react in serological tests with antisera from other known viruses, full-length genomic sequencing was pursued to determine the relationship of LEAV to other orthobunyavirus species. Genetic and serological characterization confirmed its antigenic distance from other orthobunyaviruses, including to its closest genetic neighbours, the Simbu group viruses, suggesting that it may represent a new antigenic complex. PMID:21402599

Savji, Nazir; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Hutchison, Stephen; Celone, Christopher; Hui, Jeffrey; Briese, Thomas; Calisher, Charles H.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2011-01-01

246

Isolation and characterization of influenza C viruses in the Philippines and Japan.  

PubMed

From November 2009 to December 2013 in the Philippines, 15 influenza C viruses were isolated, using MDCK cells, from specimens obtained from children with severe pneumonia and influenza-like illness (ILI). This is the first report of influenza C virus isolation in the Philippines. In addition, from January 2008 to December 2013, 7 influenza C viruses were isolated from specimens that were obtained from children with acute respiratory illness (ARI) in Sendai city, Japan. Antigenic analysis with monoclonal antibodies to the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) glycoprotein showed that 19 strains (12 from the Philippines and 7 from Japan) were similar to the influenza C virus reference strain C/Sao Paulo/378/82 (SP82). Phylogenetic analysis of the HE gene showed that the strains from the Philippines and Japan formed distinct clusters within an SP82-related lineage. The clusters that included the Philippine and Japanese strains were shown to have diverged from a common ancestor around 1993. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of the internal genes showed that all strains isolated in the Philippines and Japan had emerged through reassortment events. The composition of the internal genes of the Philippine strains was different from that of the Japanese strains, although all strains were classified into an SP82-related lineage by HE gene sequence analysis. These observations suggest that the influenza C viruses analyzed here had emerged through different reassortment events; however, the time and place at which the reassortment events occurred were not determined. PMID:25552361

Odagiri, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Yoko; Okamoto, Michiko; Suzuki, Akira; Saito, Mariko; Tamaki, Raita; Lupisan, Socorro P; Sombrero, Lydia T; Hongo, Seiji; Oshitani, Hitoshi

2015-03-01

247

Phylogenetic analysis of surface proteins of novel H1N1 virus isolated from 2009 pandemic.  

PubMed

Swine Influenza Virus (H1N1) is a known causative agent of swine flu. Transmission of Swine Influenza Virus form pig to human is not a common event and may not always cause human influenza. The 2009 outbreak by subtype H1N1 in humans is due to transfer of Swine Influenza Virus from pig to human. Thus to analyze the origin of this novel virus we compared two surface proteins (HA and NA) with influenza viruses of swine, avian and humans isolates recovered from 1918 to 2008 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of hemagglutinin gene from 2009 pandemic found to be clustered with swine influenza virus (H1N2) circulated in U.S.A during the 1999-2004 outbreaks. Whereas, neuraminidase gene was clustered with H1N1 strains isolated from Europe and Asia during 1992-2007 outbreaks. This study concludes that the new H1N1 strain appeared in 2009 outbreak with high pathogenicity to human was originated as result of re-assortment (exchange of gene). Moreover, our data also suggest that the virus will remain sensitive to the pre-existing therapeutic strategies. PMID:20198180

Danishuddin, Mohd; Khan, Shahper N; Khan, Asad U

2009-01-01

248

Characterisation of the welsh onion isolate of Shallot yellow stripe virus from China.  

PubMed

The host range and nucleotide sequence of shallot yellow stripe virus (SYSV) from welsh onion in Shandong province, China is described. Of the plants tested, only shallot and welsh onion became infected but most shallot plants were symptomless. The complete sequence of one isolate (10429 nt) and the 3'-terminal 3540 nts of a second isolate were determined. They had c. 90% nt identity to one another and to published (partial) sequences of SYSV. SYSV was most closely related to onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) and resembled it in having a much larger P3 protein than other species in the genus. PMID:15968472

Chen, J; Wei, C-B; Zheng, H-Y; Shi, Y-H; Adams, M J; Lin, L; Zhang, Q-Y; Wang, S-J; Chen, J-P

2005-10-01

249

Comparison of ELISA with virus isolation for the diagnosis of genital herpes.  

PubMed Central

An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system which detects and simultaneously types herpes simplex virus antigens in clinical specimens from patients with genital herpes has been compared with standard tissue culture isolation. Although more sensitive than a similar method previously described and also more sensitive than electron microscopy and immunofluorescence, ELISA did not detect all the viruses isolated in tissue culture. Costs were comparable. The speed of obtaining the result together with knowledge of the type causing infection are useful when antiviral chemotherapy is envisaged and when considering the likelihood of recurrences. PMID:2987313

Alexander, I; Ashley, C R; Smith, K J; Harbour, J; Roome, A P; Darville, J M

1985-01-01

250

Molecular differentiation of cytopathic and noncytopathic isolates of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus  

E-print Network

for the cytopathic strains Illinois CP, TGA CP and NADL are shown in Fig. 5. Oligonucleotide fingerprint maps for illinois NCP and TGA NCP, both noncytopathic strains, are shown in Fig. 6. In Tables 2-6 each virus isolate is compared to each of the other four... of oligonucleotides for each fingerprinting pattern was counted and compared in Table 7. IllinoisNCP had 25 spots; Illinois CP, 26, TGACP, 33, TGANCP, TABLE 7 COMPARISON OF THE LARGE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES CONSERVED Virus isolates Oli onucleotides conserved a. All...

Bissey, Lynda LeDawn

1989-01-01

251

Characterization of velogenic Newcastle disease viruses isolated from dead wild birds in Serbia during 2007.  

PubMed

Avian paramyxoviruses type 1 or Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are frequently recovered from wild birds and such isolates are most frequently of low virulence. Velogenic NDV are usually recovered from poultry and only occasionally from wild birds. Five NDV isolates were obtained from carcasses of four wild bird species during 2007 in Serbia: Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), feral Rock Pigeon (Columba livia), and Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto). All the isolates have a typical fusion protein cleavage site motif of velogenic viruses ((112)R-R-Q-K-R-F(117)). The highest homology (99%) for the nucleotide sequences spanning the M and F gene of the studied isolates was with the genotype VII NDV isolate Muscovy duck/China(Fujian)/FP1/02. Phylogenetic analysis based on a partial F gene sequence showed that the isolates from wild birds cluster together with concurrent isolates from poultry in Serbia within the subgenotype VIId, which is the predominant pathogen involved currently in Newcastle disease outbreaks in poultry worldwide. It is unlikely that the wild birds played an important role in primary introduction or consequent spread of the velogenic NDV to domestic poultry in Serbia, and they probably contracted the virus from locally infected poultry. PMID:21441197

Vidanovi?, Dejan; Sekler, Milanko; Asanin, Ruzica; Mili?, Nenad; Nisavi?, Jakov; Petrovi?, Tamas; Savi?, Vladimir

2011-04-01

252

Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from northern pintail (Anas acuta) in Japan.  

PubMed

A field isolate of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from northern pintail (Anas acuta) in Tohoku district, northeast Japan, was characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein indicated that the isolate belonged to genotype I and was closely related to isolates from the Far East corresponded to the migration route for this bird species. The isolate had the typical avirulent cleavage site of the fusion protein (112)GKQGR*L(117). In addition, pathogenicity tests indicated the isolate to have avirulent characteristics. However, the isolate has been shown to cause fusion cytopathic effects and form plaques on chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) in the absence of trypsin. The present results suggest that the CEF-adapted NDV, which is avirulent, is circulating among waterfowl populations. PMID:18176032

Sakai, Kouji; Sakabe, Genki; Tani, Orie; Watanabe, Yuko; Jahangir, Alam; Nakamura, Masayuki; Takehara, Kazuaki

2007-12-01

253

Genomic Analysis of Highly Virulent Georgia 2007/1 Isolate of African Swine Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

African swine fever is widespread in Africa but has occasionally been introduced into other continents. In June 2007, African swine fever was isolated in the Caucasus Region of the Republic of Georgia and subsequently in neighboring countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and 9 states of the Russian Federation). Previous data for sequencing of 3 genes indicated that the Georgia 2007/1 isolate is closely related to isolates of genotype II, which has been identified in Mozambique, Madagascar, and Zambia. We report the complete genomic coding sequence of the Georgia 2007/1 isolate and comparison with other isolates. A genome sequence of 189,344 bp encoding 166 open reading frames (ORFs) was obtained. Phylogeny based on concatenated sequences of 125 conserved ORFs showed that this isolate clustered most closely with the Mkuzi 1979 isolate. Some ORFs clustered differently, suggesting that recombination may have occurred. Results provide a baseline for monitoring genomic changes in this virus. PMID:21470447

Chapman, David A.G.; Darby, Alistair C.; Da Silva, Melissa; Upton, Chris; Radford, Alan D.

2011-01-01

254

Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of an Orf Virus Isolated from an Outbreak in Boer Goat in Shanxi Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify and analyze the Orf virus in Shanxi Province, China, an Orf virus strain was successfully isolated from crust materials of boer goat with clinical sore mouth symptom from a goat farm of Shanxi Province by passaging in lamb testis (LT). The Orf virus was identified by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, recurrent infection test, transmission electron microscopy,

Shao-peng GU; Xin-tao SHI; Zhong-yong SHI; Zhong-bing WANG; Ming-xue ZHENG

2011-01-01

255

Types of variation in DNA-A among isolates of East African cassava mosaic virus from Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete nucleotide sequences of the DNA-A-like molecules of three East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV) isolates from Kenya (-K, 2801 nt) and Malawi (-MH and -MK, both 2804 nt) were determined. These sequences were compared with that published for a Tanzanian isolate (-T, 2801 nt) and the partial sequence of a third Malawian isolate. Intergenic region sequences of all isolates,

Xueping Zhou; David J. Robinson; Bryan D. Harrison

256

Comparison of the coat protein genes of Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus isolates from Australia with those of isolates from other continents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete coat protein nucleotide encoding sequences of 13 Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus isolates from Australia were compared to those of 23 other isolates, including one from Australia. On phylogenetic analysis,\\u000a sub-clade A1 contained isolates from Australia (13), Europe and Japan, A2 contained isolates from Australia (1), Europe and\\u000a South America, and B1 and B2 contained only European isolates. In

Linda D. Maccarone; Martin J. Barbetti; Krishnapillai Sivasithamparam; Roger A. C. Jones

2010-01-01

257

Phylogenetic Analysis of Clinical Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Isolates Identified Three Genetic Groups and Recombinant Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen which establishes lifelong infections. In the present study, we determined the sequence diversity of the complete genes coding for glycoproteins G (gG), I (gI), and E (gE), comprising 2.3% of the HSV-1 genome and located within the unique short (US) region, for 28 clinical HSV-1 isolates inducing oral lesions,

Peter Norberg; Tomas Bergstrom; Elham Rekabdar; Magnus Lindh; J.-A. Liljeqvist

2004-01-01

258

Full genome sequence and some biological properties of reticuloendotheliosis virus strain APC566 isolated from endangered Attwater's prairie chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) causes runting, high mortality, immunosuppression, and chronic neoplasia associated with T and\\/or B cell lymphomas in a variety of domestic and wild birds, including Attwater's prairie chickens (APC) (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). The complete proviral sequence of a recent REV isolate from APC (REV APC-566) was determined. This virus was isolated from an APC maintained in captivity in

Taylor Barbosa; Guillermo Zavala; Sunny Cheng; Pedro Villegas

2007-01-01

259

Antigenic characterization of respiratory syncytial virus group A and B isolates in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed Central

The antigenic characteristics of 87 strains of respiratory syncytial virus isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1982 to 1988 were determined with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in an enzyme immunoassay. Four of these MAbs immunoprecipitated the fusion protein, and five immunoprecipitated the large glycoprotein. On the basis of the patterns of reaction of these MAbs to respiratory syncytial virus isolates in an enzyme immunoassay, we were able to separate isolates into the two major groups, A and B, and also to identify four variants within group A and three within group B. Strains from groups A and B were isolated each year, and the prevalence of the two groups varied over the seven study years. PMID:2037672

Siqueira, M M; Nascimento, J P; Anderson, L J

1991-01-01

260

Pathogenesis and Transmission of Feral Swine Pseudorabies Virus Isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction. Aujesky’s Disease or pseudorabies, is one of the oldest recognized swine diseases. It is caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV), an alpha-herpesvirus that can induce respiratory disease, reproductive failure, and affect the central nervous system. PRV vaccines, in conjunction with serologi...

261

[Isolation of rabies virus from the insectivorous bat Myotis nigricans].  

PubMed

The following is a case study of the natural infection by the rabies virus of an insectiverous bat belonging to the species Myotis nigricans in the municipality of Ribeirão Pires, Greater S. Paulo. Diagnosis was made by means of immunofluorescence and intracerebral innoculation of mice with nervous and intrascapular muscular tissues. PMID:8525324

Martorelli, L F; Aguiar, E A; Almeida, M F; Silva, M M; Novaes, E C

1995-04-01

262

“Zaliv Terpeniya” virus, a new Uukuniemi group arbovirus isolated from ixodes (Ceratixodes) putus Pick.-Camb. 1878 on tyuleniy island (Sakhalin region) and Commodore islands (Kamchatsk region)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three virus strains isolated fromIxodes putus ticks were shown to be related to, though not identical, with Uukuniemi virus by complement-fixation tests. No antigenic relations were detected in the cross-neutralization test performed with the virus isolated and Uukuniemi virus. Two virus strains were isolated in 1969 on Tyuleniy island, Zaliv Terpeniya (Patience Bay) of the Sea of Okhotsk (Sakhalin

D. K. Lvov; A. A. TIMOPI-IEEVA; V. L. GROMASttEVSKI; G. V. GOSTINSIICIIIKOVA; O. V. Veselovskaya; V. I. Chervonski; K. B. Fomina; A. I. Gromov; A. G. Pogrebenko; V. Yu. Zhezmer

1973-01-01

263

Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation\\u000a and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and\\u000a diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from\\u000a sika deer is seldom reported in literature.

Yugang Gao; Shijie Wang; Rui Du; Quankai Wang; Changjiang Sun; Nan Wang; Pengju Zhang; Lianxue Zhang

2011-01-01

264

Isolation of Newcastle disease virus from teals (Anas crecca) in Iran.  

PubMed

Eight of 30 teals (Anas crecca) died several days following capture and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) was isolated from all eight. Brains from the dead birds were homogenized and inoculated into chicken embryos. The allantoic fluid from the embryos were inoculated into 10 domestic chickens susceptible to NDV and 10 chickens immunized against NDV. Eight of 10 (80%) susceptible chickens died, while the immunized chickens remained healthy. Anti-NDV serum showed complete homology against NDV and the eight isolates. PMID:480525

Bozorgmehri-Fard, M H; Keyvanfar, H

1979-04-01

265

Molecular analysis of the complete genomic sequences of four isolates of Gooseberry vein banding associated virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of Gooseberry vein banding associated virus (GVBaV), a badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae, is strongly correlated with gooseberry vein banding disease in Ribes spp. In this study, full-length genomic sequences of four GVBaV isolates from different hosts and geographic regions were\\u000a determined to be 7649–7663 nucleotides. These isolates share identities of 96.4–97.3% for the complete genomic sequence, indicating

Donglin Xu; Ray Mock; Gary Kinard; Ruhui Li

2011-01-01

266

Molecular characterisation of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus isolates from Sweden and Belarus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete coding sequences were determined for RNA-1 and RNA-2 of five raspberry isolates of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) from Belarus (BY1, BY3, BY8, BY22) and Sweden (SE3). The analysed sequences for both RNA-1 and RNA-2 were highly conserved\\u000a among these isolates. Phylogenetic analyses including available sequences for the CP gene and the MP gene showed that all analysed

N. Valasevich; N. Kukharchyk; A. Kvarnheden

2011-01-01

267

Genetic variability and pathological properties of Grapevine Leafroll-associated Virus 2 isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic variability among Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2) isolates was investigated in several grapevine accessions from various geographic origins in three genomic fragments,\\u000a which encode the 70 kDa heat-shock protein homologue, the coat protein and the ?60 kDa protein. The majority of the isolates\\u000a were identical or only slightly different from one another and formed a monophyletic group. Several other variants

Nadia Bertazzon; Michele Borgo; Stefano Vanin; Elisa Angelini

2010-01-01

268

Coreceptor usage of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates varies according to biological phenotype.  

PubMed Central

The biological phenotype of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates varies according to the severity of the HIV infection. Here we show that the two previously described groups of rapid/high, syncytium-inducing (SI) and slow/low, non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) isolates are distinguished by their ability to utilize different chemokine receptors for entry into target cells. Recent studies have identified the C-X-C chemokine receptor CXCR4 (also named fusin or Lestr) and the C-C chemokine receptor CCR5 as the principal entry cofactors for T-cell-line-tropic and non-T-cell-line-tropic HIV-1, respectively. Using U87.CD4 glioma cell lines, stably expressing the chemokine receptor CCR1, CCR2b, CCR3, CCR5, or CXCR4, we have tested chemokine receptor specificity for a panel of genetically diverse envelope glycoprotein genes cloned from primary HIV-1 isolates and have found that receptor usage was closely associated with the biological phenotype of the virus isolate but not the genetic subtype. We have also analyzed a panel of 36 well-characterized primary HIV-1 isolates for syncytium induction and replication in the same series of cell lines. Infection by slow/low viruses was restricted to cells expressing CCR5, whereas rapid/high viruses could use a variety of chemokine receptors. In addition to the regular use of CXCR4, many rapid/high viruses used CCR5 and some also used CCR3 and CCR2b. Progressive HIV-1 infection is characterized by the emergence of viruses resistant to inhibition by beta-chemokines, which corresponded to changes in coreceptor usage. The broadening of the host range may even enable the use of uncharacterized coreceptors, in that two isolates from immunodeficient patients infected the parental U87.CD4 cell line lacking any engineered coreceptor. Two primary isolates with multiple coreceptor usage were shown to consist of mixed populations, one with a narrow host range using CCR5 only and the other with a broad host range using CCR3, CCR5, or CXCR4, similar to the original population. The results show that all 36 primary HIV-1 isolates induce syncytia, provided that target cells carry the particular coreceptor required by the virus. PMID:9311827

Björndal, A; Deng, H; Jansson, M; Fiore, J R; Colognesi, C; Karlsson, A; Albert, J; Scarlatti, G; Littman, D R; Fenyö, E M

1997-01-01

269

Size Heterogeneity in the 3? Noncoding Region of South American Isolates of Yellow Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

The 3? noncoding region (3? NCR) of flaviviruses contains secondary and tertiary structures essential for virus replication. Previous studies of yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue virus have found that modifications to the 3? NCR are sometimes associated with attenuation in vertebrate and/or mosquito hosts. The 3? NCRs of 117 isolates of South American YFV have been examined, and major deletions and/or duplications of conserved RNA structures have been identified in several wild-type isolates. Nineteen isolates (designated YF-XL isolates) from Brazil, Trinidad, and Venezuela, dating from 1973 to 2001, exhibited a 216-nucleotide (nt) duplication, yielding a tandem repeat of conserved hairpin, stem-loop, dumbbell, and pseudoknot structures. YF-XL isolates were found exclusively within one subclade of South American genotype I YFV. One Brazilian isolate exhibited, in addition to the 216-nt duplication, a deletion of a 40-nt repeated hairpin (RYF) motif (YF-XL-?RYF). To investigate the biological significance of these 3? NCR rearrangements, YF-XL-?RYF and YF-XL isolates, as well as other South American YFV isolates, were evaluated for three phenotypes: growth kinetics in cell culture, neuroinvasiveness in suckling mice, and ability to replicate and produce disseminated infections in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. YF-XL-?RYF and YF-XL isolates showed growth kinetics and neuroinvasive characteristics comparable to those of typical South American YFV isolates, and mosquito infectivity trials demonstrated that both types of 3? NCR variants were capable of replication and dissemination in a laboratory-adapted colony of A. aegypti. PMID:15731274

Bryant, Juliet E.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.; Rijnbrand, Rene C. A.; Mutebi, J. P.; Higgs, Stephen; Barrett, Alan D. T.

2005-01-01

270

Complete genome sequence of nine isolates of canna yellow streak virus reveals its relationship to the sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) subgroup of potyviruses.  

PubMed

Complete genome sequences were obtained from nine isolates of canna yellow streak virus (CaYSV). CaYSV belongs to the sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) subgroup of potyviruses with johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV) as its closest relative. Multiple sequence alignments showed a pattern of amino acid substitutions in the CP sequences, which enabled us to relate these isolates to South East Asian or European isolates. Biological characterization of CaYSV identified Nicotiana benthamiana, Chenopodium quinoa and Phaseolus vulgaris as experimental hosts. Given the popularity and global trade of cannas, a clear picture of the genetic diversity of CaYSV is critical to disease management. PMID:25567205

Chauhan, Ravendra P; Rajakaruna, Punsasi; Verchot, Jeanmarie

2015-03-01

271

The first isolation and molecular characterization of camelpox virus in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 in Chifra district of Afar and in Jigjiga Zone of Somali Regional States of Ethiopia with the aims of assessing the epidemiology of camelpox and isolate and molecularly characterize the virus. The study included a questionnaire, active disease search and virus isolation and sequencing. A total of 24 (4.50%) and 12 (3.0%) camels in Afar and Jigjiga respectively were found clinically sick of camelpox during the study period. The questionnaire survey indicated that camelpox is the most common disease in the areas in which 125 (96%) of the respondents reported the frequent occurrence of camelpox in their herds especially during rainy season. The PCR result revealed 12 out of 17 tested samples were positive, of which seven of them collected from Jigjiga zone showed the characteristic PCR positive bands of 881 bp size fragments while five of the Afar samples gave two faint bands. Ethiopian isolates, specially isolated from Somali have very high identity with comparable sequences of CMLV M-96 from Kazakhstan and CMLV CMS from Iran. Out of the total of 780 bp analogous sequences, Ethiopian isolates differ only in two positions, while CMLV-Teheran differed at four nucleotide positions. The successfull isolation and molecular characterization of camelpox virus in Ethiopia, which could help for early diagnosis and control of the disease in the country. PMID:23578726

Ayelet, Gelagay; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Belay, Alebachew; Mohammed, Awol; Mola, Bereket; Gizaw, Yonas; Muhie, Yibeltal; Gelaye, Esayas; Asmare, Kassahun; Skjerve, Eystein

2013-06-01

272

Characterization of an H3N2 canine influenza virus isolated from Tibetan mastiffs in China.  

PubMed

Ten 3-month-old Tibetan mastiffs became ill 2 days after they were bought from a Tibetan mastiff exhibition, and 4 of them died 2 weeks later. A canine influenza virus (ZJ0110) was isolated from the lung of a deceased Tibetan mastiff and was characterized in detail. Sequence analysis indicated that the 8 genes of the canine isolate were most similar to those of avian-origin canine influenza viruses (H3N2) isolated in South Korea in 2007, with which they shared >98% sequence identity. ZJ0110 could experimentally infect 6-month-old beagles by intranasal inoculation and by airborne transmission, causing severe respiratory syndrome. Moreover, ZJ0110 could replicate in the upper respiratory tracts of mice and guinea pigs, and the virus titer was comparable to that in the upper respiratory tracts of dogs. Although the virus was genetically of avian origin, ZJ0110 could not experimentally infect chicken or ducks by intranasal inoculation. These results suggest that dogs might be an intermediary host in which avian influenza viruses adapt to replicate in mammals. PMID:23107656

Teng, Qiaoyang; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Dawei; Zhou, Jiewen; Dai, Xiaoguang; Chen, Zhaoguo; Li, Zejun

2013-03-23

273

Isolation of mixed subtypes of influenza A virus from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)  

PubMed Central

From April 2007 to March 2008, cloacal swabs were obtained from 246 casualty raptors recovered by various wildlife rehabilitation centers in the United States. The swabs were placed in a virus transport medium and transported to the laboratory on ice packs. At the laboratory, the samples were pooled with each pool consisting of five samples. All pools (n = 50) were screened for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) using a real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR); one of the pools was found positive. All five samples in this pool were tested individually by rRT-PCR; one sample from a bald eagle was found positive. This sample was inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation and a hemagglutinating virus was isolated. Complete genome sequencing of the isolate revealed a mixed infection with H1N1 and H2N1 subtypes. Further analysis revealed that the PB1-F2 gene sequence of H1N1 virus had the N66S virulence-associated substitution. Further studies on ecology and epidemiology of AIV in raptors are needed to help understand their role in the maintenance and evolution of AIV. PMID:20667110

2010-01-01

274

Characterization of a Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza A Virus Isolated from Duck Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1997 H5N1 influenza virus outbreak in humans and poultry in Hong Kong, the emergence of closely related viruses in poultry has raised concerns that additional zoonotic transmissions of influenza viruses from poultry to humans may occur. In May 2001, an avian H5N1 influenza A virus was isolated from duck meat that had been imported to South Korea from

Terrence M. Tumpey; David L. Suarez; Laura E. L. Perkins; Dennis A. Senne; Jae-gil Lee; Youn-Jeong Lee; In-Pil Mo; Haan-Woo Sung; David E. Swayne

2002-01-01

275

TPV1, the first virus isolated from the hyperthermophilic genus Thermococcus.  

PubMed

We describe a novel virus, TPV1 (Thermococcus prieurii virus 1), which was discovered in a hyperthermophilic euryarchaeote isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal chimney sample collected at a depth of 2700?m at the East Pacific Rise. TPV1 is the first virus isolated and characterized from the hyperthermophilic euryarchaeal genus Thermococcus. TPV1 particles have a lemon-shaped morphology (140?nm?×?80?nm) similar to the structures previously reported for Fuselloviruses and for the unclassified virus-like particle PAV1 (Pyrococcus abyssi virus 1). The infection with TPV1 does not cause host lysis and viral replication can be induced by UV irradiation. TPV1 contains a double-stranded circular DNA of 21.5?kb, which is also present in high copy number in a free form in the host cell. The TPV1 genome encompasses 28 predicted genes; the protein sequences encoded in 16 of these genes show no significant similarity to proteins in public databases. Proteins predicted to be involved in genome replication were identified as well as transcriptional regulators. TPV1 encodes also a predicted integrase of the tyrosine recombinase family. The only two genes that are homologous between TPV1 and PAV1 are TPV1-22 and TPV1-23, which encode proteins containing a concanavalin A-like lectin/glucanase domain that might be involved in virus-host recognition. PMID:22151304

Gorlas, Aurore; Koonin, Eugene V; Bienvenu, Nadège; Prieur, Daniel; Geslin, Claire

2012-02-01

276

Genetic characterization of border disease virus (BDV) isolates from small ruminants in Italy.  

PubMed

Border disease virus (BDV) belongs to the Pestivirus genus in the family Flaviviridae. Genetic analyses of pestiviruses that have been isolated from sheep and goat have led to the proposal that BDV isolates can be phylogenetically segregated into at least seven clusters, subtypes BDV-1 to BDV-7. In order to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of small ruminant pestivirus isolates in Italy, a selection of 5'-UTR sequences from isolates that were collected from clinical specimens between 2002 and 2014 was analysed. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicated that the BDV-positive samples clustered within the BDV-1, BDV-3, BDV-5, and BDV-7 groups. These results suggested high genetic diversity within the Italian BDV field isolates. The phylogenetic analysis indicated the first evidence of BDV-1 and BDV-5 circulation in Italy. The marked diversity of the pestivirus isolates might reflect the sheep trade with foreign countries. PMID:25636968

Giammarioli, Monica; Rossi, Elisabetta; Casciari, Cristina; Bazzucchi, Moira; Claudia, Torresi; De Mia, Gian Mario

2015-04-01

277

Complete Genome Sequence of Two Middelburg Viruses Isolated from Arthropods in the Central African Republic  

PubMed Central

Arboviral diseases are a major threat to human and animal health today. Analysis of whole-genome sequences of decades-old arboviral strains may bring new insights into the viral evolution that might have facilitated outbreaks. Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of two Middelburg viruses isolated several decades ago in the Central African Republic. PMID:25342688

Berthet, Nicolas; Descorps-Declere, Stéphane; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

2014-01-01

278

Molecular Characterization of the Isolated Strains of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) occurs globally and is imposing large direct and indirect productivity losses on the beef and dairy industries. During 2005, bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) was added to the OIE list of the diseases and at that time, BVD was already notifiable in seven EU countries. The target of this study was to isolate a

Y. G. M. Abd; S. M. Abd El-Hafeiz; H. M. Hassan

279

Antigenic and genetic characterisation of border disease viruses isolated from UK cattle.  

PubMed

Available empirical data on the natural occurrence of ruminant pestiviruses has shown that in cattle, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is nearly exclusively found, whereas both border disease virus (BDV) and BVDV can be isolated from sheep. During routine genetic typing of pestivirus RNA from UK cattle diagnosed as BVDV positive between 2006 and 2008, five samples that were classified as BDV positive yielded positive virus isolates in cell cultures. The samples originated from animals that had shown signs typical for BVD. Phylogenetic analysis of the bovine BDVs showed that two belonged to the BDV-1a group and three to the BDV-1b group, thereby matching the genetic diversity seen for previously described UK ovine BDVs. Antigenic typing with a set of monoclonal antibodies (MABs) showed that all bovine BDVs lacked one or more epitopes conserved among ovine BDV-1 isolates, and that they had gained reactivity with at least one BVDV-1 specific MAB. Serial passaging of two of the virus isolates in ovine cell cultures did not change the epitope expression pattern. These findings suggest that the presumed natural resistance of cattle against infection with BDV no longer holds. A consequence of this is that BVD diagnostic assays should be checked for their ability to also detect BDV, and also highlights the need for monitoring of the BDV status in sheep that may be in contact with cattle in areas with organised BVD control programmes. PMID:19781869

Strong, R; La Rocca, S A; Ibata, G; Sandvik, T

2010-03-24

280

Complete Genome of Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus AYU Strain Isolated in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus strain AYU was isolated in Shanghai. The complete genome has a length of 28,582 bp and contains seven open reading frames. Sequence analysis suggested that Shanghai strain AYU and U.S. strain Purdue P115 are derived from a common ancestor, as they have 99.6% similarity at the nucleotide level. PMID:23043168

Hou, Yixuan; Yue, Xiuwei; Cai, Xuehui; Wang, Shujie; Liu, Yonggang; Yuan, Congli; Cui, Li; Hua, Xiuguo

2012-01-01

281

Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolate from an Outbreak in Central India  

PubMed Central

The complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDV/Chicken/Nagpur/01/12 was isolated from vaccinated chicken farms in India during outbreaks in 2012. The genome is 15,192 nucleotides in length and is classified as genotype VII in class II. PMID:25593257

Gogoi, Polakshee; Morla, Sudhir; Kaore, Megha; Kurkure, Nitin Vasantrao

2015-01-01

282

Molecular analysis of complete genomic sequences of four isolates of Gooseberry vein banding associated virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Presence of Gooseberry vein banding associated virus (GVBaV), a badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae, is strongly correlated with gooseberry vein banding disease in Ribes spp. In this study, full-length genomic sequences of four GVBaV isolates from different hosts and geographic regions were det...

283

First isolation of a rabies-related virus from a Daubenton's bat in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 30, 1996, a sick Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) was recovered from the cellar of a public house in Newhaven, East Sussex. Its condition deteriorated rapidly, and it was euthanased and examined. Positive results, establishing the presence of a rabies or rabies-related virus in its brain, were obtained from the fluorescent antibody test, the rabies tissue culture isolation test,

J. E. Whitby; P. R. Heaton; E. M. Black; M. Wooldridge; L. M. McElhinney; P. Johnstone

2000-01-01

284

Partial sequence of the spike glycoprotein gene of transmissible gastroenteritis viruses isolated in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spike (S) glycoprotein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is the predominant inducer of neutralizing antibodies and has been implicated in virulence and host cell tropism. In this study, the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the amino terminal half of the S glycoprotein gene of one Korean field TGEV strain (133) isolated in 1997 and three Korean field

Soo Joung Kim; Jeong Hee Han; Hyuk Moo Kwon

2003-01-01

285

Neurological lesions in chickens experimentally infected with virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distribution, character, and severity of lesions were evaluated in tissues from the central nervous system of chickens inoculated with 10 different Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates: CA 1083, Korea 97-147, Australia (all velogenic viscerotropic); Texas GB and Turkey North Dakota (both velogenic...

286

Complete genome sequence of an Argentinean isolate of Solenopsis invicta virus 3  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genome of an Argentinean isolate of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3ArgSF) obtained from the Santa Fe region of Argentina was sequenced in entirety. Assembly of 9 overlapping fragments yielded a consensus genome sequence 10,386 nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A) tail present on the 3' en...

287

Effect of Isolation Measures on the Incidence and Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nosocomial transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in hemodialysis (HD) units is well established. In units with a high prevalence of HCV infection, the implementation of universal precautionary measures may not suffice in order to decrease the incidence and prevalence of HCV. In this setting strict isolation practices can be useful in order to achieve this goal. Methods: The

Eduardo Gallego; Aurora López; Juan Pérez; Francisco Llamas; Inmaculada Lorenzo; Esperanza López; Maria Luisa Illescas; Elena Andrés; Emilio Olivas; Carmen Gómez-Roldan

2006-01-01

288

Method for Increasing the Regularity of Isolation of Infectious Ribonucleic Acid from Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

A more effective method of isolating infectious ribonucleic acid (RNA) from influenza virus was evaluated based on the enzymatic disintegration of the viral coat by Pronase, followed by phenol-detergent extraction of the RNA from susceptible and from resistant cells. PMID:5533704

Chetverikova, L. K.; Polyak, R. Y.; Yukhnova, L. G.; Smorodintsev, A. A.

1970-01-01

289

Avian Influenza Virus with Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Combination H8N8, Isolated in Russia  

PubMed Central

We report the genome sequence of an avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H8N8, isolated in Russia. The genome analysis shows that all genes belong to AIV Eurasian lineages. The PB2 gene was similar to a Mongolian low-pathogenic (LP) AIV H7N1 and a Chinese high-pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N2. PMID:24903874

Sharshov, Kirill A.; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Muzyka, Vladimir V.; Shestopalov, Alexander M.

2014-01-01

290

Avian influenza virus with Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase combination H8N8, isolated in Russia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study reports the genome sequence of an avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H8N8 isolated in Russia. The genome analysis shows that all genes belong to AIV Eurasian lineages. The PB2 gene was similar to a Mongolian low pathogenic (LP) AIV H7N1 and a Chinese high pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N2....

291

Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strain Isolated in Southern China  

PubMed Central

We report here the full-length RNA genomic sequence of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain GX4, isolated from a cow in southern China. Studies indicate that BVDV GX4 belongs to the BVDV-1b subtype. This report will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of BVDV in southern China cattle. PMID:24948756

Fan, Qing; Xie, Zhiqin; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Liji; Luo, Sisi

2014-01-01

292

Molecular characterization of three ferret badger (Melogale moschata) rabies virus isolates from Jiangxi province, China.  

PubMed

Ferret badger (FB) rabies viruses JX09-17(fb), JX09-18 and JX10-37 were isolated from three different regions in Jiangxi province, China, in 2009 and 2010. The complete nucleotide sequence identity between these three isolates was 87-93 %. Compared with the other Chinese rabies virus isolates and vaccine strains, 101 substitutions (53 in JX10-37, 23 in JX09-17(fb) and 25 in JX09-18) in the five structural proteins were observed, and 47 of these substitutions (27 in JX10-37, 14 in JX09-17(fb) and 6 in JX09-18) were unique among lyssaviruses. Amino acid substitutions of S231 and Q333 were noted respectively in the G protein antigenic site I of JX10-37 and site III in JX09-17(fb). Phylogenetic analysis showed that JX09-17(fb) is rooted within the China I lineage, JX09-18 is in China II, and JX10-37 is independent. Evolutionary analysis and comparative sequence data indicate that isolate JX10-37 is a variant virus that diverged from canine rabies viruses around 1933 (range 1886-1963). PMID:24643334

Zhao, Jinghui; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Ying; Mi, Lijuan; Wang, Shuchao; Hu, Rongliang

2014-08-01

293

Identification, phylogenetic evolutionary analysis of GDQY orf virus isolated from Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province, southern China.  

PubMed

Infection with the orf virus (ORFV) leads to contagious ecthyma, also called contagious pustular dermatitis, which usually affects sheep, goats and other small ruminants. It has a great distribution throughout the world and has also been reported to infect humans. Though many strains have been isolated from differing parts of mainland China, rarely has any strain been reported from the southern provinces of China. We studied a case of orf virus infection that occurred at Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province in southern China. An orf virus strain, GDQY, was successfully isolated and identified through cell culture techniques and transmission electron microscopy. Complete genes of ORFV011, ORFV059, ORFV106 and ORFV107 were amplified for the sequence analysis based on their nucleotide or amino acid level. In order to discuss the genetic variation, precise sequences were used to compare to other reference strains isolated from different districts or countries. Phylogenetic trees based on those strains were built up and evolutionary distances were calculated based on the alignment of their complete sequences. The typical structure of the orf virus was observed in cell-culture suspensions inoculated with GDQY, and the full-length of four genes was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GDQY is homologous to FJ-DS and CQ/WZ on ORFV011 nucleotides. ORFV059 may be more variable than ORFV011 based on the comparison between GDQY and other isolates. Genetic studies of ORFV106 and 107 are reported for the first time in the presented study. PMID:25447901

Duan, Chaohui; Liao, Meiying; Wang, Han; Luo, Xiaohong; Shao, Jing; Xu, Ying; Li, Wei; Hao, Wenbo; Luo, Shuhong

2015-01-25

294

Molecular Diversity of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-2 Isolates in Pacific Northwest Vineyards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One hundred and five isolates of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-2 (GLRaV-2) collected from vineyard blocks located in different geographical regions of Washington and Oregon states were characterized based on coat protein (CP) and heat-shock protein 70 homologue (HSP-70h) gene sequences. The re...

295

Complete genome sequences of new emerging Newcastle disease virus strains isolated from China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Five virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains were isolated from geese in China during 2010 to 2011. The complete sequences of two NDV strains and the sequences of the envelop glyprotein genes (F and HN) of three other strains were determined. Phylogenetic analysis classified then into a new g...

296

Molecular Characterization of Hepatitis A Virus Isolates from a Transcontinental Shellfish-Borne Outbreak  

PubMed Central

One hundred eighty-four serologically confirmed cases of hepatitis A were reported in eastern Spain in 1999. A matched case-control study implicated imported coquina clams complying with European Union shellfish standards as the source of infection; this implication was confirmed by the detection by reverse transcription-PCR of hepatitis A virus (HAV) RNA in shellfish samples. In spite of the recognized low variability of HAV, genetic characterization of the complete capsid region of virus isolates from patient serum samples revealed the existence of both synonymous and nonsynonymous variants. Two antigenic variants were detected, one in a discontinuous epitope defined by monoclonal antibody K3-4C8 and a second in a linear VP1 epitope of the virus. In spite of these antigenic variants, all isolates were assigned to genotype IB, providing further evidence that the outbreak originated from a common source, although multiple strains were likely to be involved. PMID:12409389

Sánchez, Glòria; Pintó, Rosa M.; Vanaclocha, Hermelinda; Bosch, Albert

2002-01-01

297

Ilheus Virus Isolation in the Pantanal, West-Central Brazil  

PubMed Central

The wetlands of the Brazilian Pantanal host large concentrations of diverse wildlife species and hematophagous arthropods, conditions that favor the circulation of zoonotic arboviruses. A recent study from the Nhecolândia sub-region of Pantanal reported serological evidence of various flaviviruses, including West Nile virus and Ilheus virus (ILHV). According to the age of seropositive horses, at least three flaviviruses, including ILHV, circulated in the Brazilian Pantanal between 2005 and 2009. To extend this study, we collected 3,234 adult mosquitoes of 16 species during 2009 and 2010 in the same sub-region. Mosquito pool homogenates were assayed for infectious virus on C6/36 and Vero cell monolayers and also tested for flaviviral RNA by a group-specific real-time RT-PCR. One pool containing 50 non-engorged female specimens of Aedes scapularis tested positive for ILHV by culture and for ILHV RNA by real-time RT-PCR, indicating a minimum infection rate of 2.5 per 1000. Full-length genomic sequence exhibited 95% identity to the only full genome sequence available for ILHV. The present data confirm the circulation of ILHV in the Brazilian Pantanal. PMID:23875051

Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Kenney, Joan L.; Couto-Lima, Dinair; Campos, Zilca M. S.; Nogueira, Rita M. R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

2013-01-01

298

Genetic diversity of Sugarcane bacilliform virus isolates infecting Saccharum spp. in India.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bacilliform virus (SCBV), which causes leaf freckle in sugarcane, is a member of the genus Badnavirus. Studies were conducted to characterize SCBV in Saccharum officinarum germplasm and cultivated varieties in India by sequencing the complete genomes of five isolates. Genome lengths ranged from 7,553 to 7,884 nucleotides. Duplications in ORF3 and insertions in the RNase H-domain in some of the isolates were found to contribute to the large size of their genomes. The Indian SCBV isolates share identities of 69-85 % for the complete genomic sequence, indicating wide genetic diversity among them, and share 70-82 % identity with Sugarcane bacilliform Ireng Maleng virus (SCBIMV) and Sugarcane bacilliform Morocco virus (SCBMV), as well as 43-46 % identity with Banana streak virus (BSV) and BSV-related SCBV species from Guadeloupe, indicating that the Indian SCBV isolates are distinct from SCBV isolates reported to date. Irrespective of the region compared, SCBV isolates from India, Australia, and Morocco clustered together. BSV and BSV-related SCBV isolates from Guadeloupe formed another cluster. A phylogenetic analysis based on the partial RT/RNase H-sequence separated SCBV and BSV-related SCBV sequences into 11 SCBV groups viz. SCBV-A to -K. Among the 11 groups, the SCBV sequences separated under H, I, J, and K are newly identified in this study, representing three new species and are tentatively named as SCBBBV, SCBBOV, and SCBBRV. Thus, the PASC and phylogenetic analyses evidenced that the symptoms associated with badnaviruses in sugarcane in India are caused by at least three new species, SCBBBV, SCBBOV, and SCBBRV, besides SCBIMV and SCBMV represented by SCBV-BT and SCBV-Iscam, respectively. PMID:23430710

Karuppaiah, R; Viswanathan, R; Kumar, V Ganesh

2013-06-01

299

Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza virus H4N6 from ducks in China.  

PubMed

An avian influenza virus (AIV) strain belonging to the H4 subtype and provisionally designated as A/duck/China/J1/2012(H4N6) was isolated from diseased ducks with respiratory disease at a commercial poultry farm in Shandong, China, in 2012. The genomic coding sequences of all eight segments of this J1 isolate were determined and used for subsequent analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of all eight segments showed that this duck H4N6 virus was of Eurasian lineage and not American lineage. The results show that the virus probably emerged because of a reassortment event involving other avian H4N6 and H6N1 viruses. Interestingly, this H4N6 virus had all the conserved features common to low-pathogenic AIVs, including the HA cleavage sequence, receptor-binding sequences for the 2,3-linked sialic acid receptor in avian species, and the PB2 627E motif. These results suggest that the duck H4N6 isolate could not cross the species barrier to infect and replicate in mammals, including humans. In addition, screening of the duck serum samples showed that only 0.57 % (2/352) of the individuals had weak but measurable hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers. The low antibody prevalence data were also supported by the failure to detect H4N6 virus (0/56) in clinical nasal swabs of the ducks. These data indicate an alternate reservoir for the H4N6 virus. PMID:25248626

Yuan, Xiao-Yuan; Wang, You-Ling; Yu, Ke-Xiang; Zhang, Yu-Xia; Xu, Huai-Ying; Yang, Jin-Xing; Li, Feng; Song, Min-Xun

2015-01-01

300

Isolation of black creek canal virus, a new hantavirus from Sigmodon hispidus in Florida.  

PubMed

Numerous rodents were trapped for serologic and virologic studies following the identification of a hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) case in Dade County, Florida. Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were the most frequently capture rodent and displayed the highest seroprevalence to a variety of hantavirus antigens. Hantavirus genome RNA was detected in all the seropositive cotton rats tested, using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. A virus was isolated from tissues of two seropositive cotton rats by cultivation of lung and spleen homogenates on Vero E6 cells. Nucleotide sequence information obtained by direct RT-PCR and the serologic relationships of this virus with the other hantaviruses indicate that this virus, Black Creek Canal virus, represents a new hantavirus distinct from the previously known serotypes. PMID:7623004

Rollin, P E; Ksiazek, T G; Elliott, L H; Ravkov, E V; Martin, M L; Morzunov, S; Livingstone, W; Monroe, M; Glass, G; Ruo, S

1995-05-01

301

Mite-borne virus isolates from cultivated Allium species, and their classification into two new rymoviruses in the family Potyviridae  

Microsoft Academic Search

While testing several samples of onion and of vegetatively propagated garlic, sand leek and shallot from a number of countries,\\u000a virus isolates with unusually flexuous particles were obtained by mite (Aceria tulipae) or sap transmissions. No aphid-borne poty-or carlavirus was transmitted by mites, and mite-borne virus isolates could not\\u000a be transmitted by aphids. The mite-borne isolates did not react with

P. van Dijk; M. Verbeek; I. Bos

1991-01-01

302

Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates from BVDV infected alpacas in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a three-year period, 2004–2007, greater than 12,000 alpacas in the United States were screened by real-time RT-PCR to identify alpacas persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). A total of 46 BVD viruses were isolated from PI alpacas or diagnostic samples from alpacas. Forty-three US alpaca BVDV isolates and 3 Canadian isolates were analyzed by comparison of

Sung G. Kim; Renee R. Anderson; Jin Z. Yu; Nancy C. Zylich; Hailu Kinde; Suzanne Carman; Daniela Bedenice; Edward J. Dubovi

2009-01-01

303

Chapare Virus, a Newly Discovered Arenavirus Isolated from a Fatal Hemorrhagic Fever Case in Bolivia  

PubMed Central

A small focus of hemorrhagic fever (HF) cases occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia, in December 2003 and January 2004. Specimens were available from only one fatal case, which had a clinical course that included fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and vomiting with subsequent deterioration and multiple hemorrhagic signs. A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá). RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses. The virus was shown to be most closely related to Sabiá virus, but with 26% and 30% nucleotide difference in the S and L segments, and 26%, 28%, 15% and 22% amino acid differences for the L, Z, N, and GP proteins, respectively, indicating the virus represents a newly discovered arenavirus, for which we propose the name Chapare virus. In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia. PMID:18421377

Delgado, Simon; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Agudo, Roberto; Blair, Patrick J.; Vallejo, Efrain; Albariño, César G.; Vargas, Jorge; Comer, James A.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Olson, James G.; Nichol, Stuart T.

2008-01-01

304

Antigenic typing of Brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000.  

PubMed

Animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. The panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the Americas. Samples were isolated in the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Pasteur Institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in Brazil. In addition to the fixed virus samples CVS-31/96-IP, preserved in mouse brain, and PV-BHK/97, preserved in cell culture, a total of 330 rabies virus samples were isolated from dogs, cats, cattle, horses, bats, sheep, goat, swine, foxes, marmosets, coati and humans. Six antigenic variants that were compatible with the pre-established monoclonal antibodies panel were defined: numbers 2 (dog), 3 (Desmodus rotundus), 4 (Tadarida brasiliensis), 5 (vampire bat from Venezuela), 6 (Lasiurus cinereus) and Lab (reacted to all used antibodies). Six unknown profiles, not compatible with the panel, were also found. Samples isolated from insectivore bats showed the greatest variability and the most commonly isolated variant was variant-3 (Desmodus rotundus). These findings may be related to the existence of multiple independent transmission cycles, involving different bat species. PMID:12048546

Favoretto, Silvana Regina; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Cunha, Elenice Maria S; Aguiar, Elizabeth A C; Silva, Luzia Helena Q; Sodre, Miriam M; Souza, Maria Conceição A M; Kotait, Ivanete

2002-01-01

305

First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea  

PubMed Central

A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

2014-01-01

306

First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.  

PubMed

A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. 'Sorok', 'Sodam' and 'Somyeong'. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1-100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

2014-06-01

307

Genetic variation in potato virus M isolates infecting pepino (Solanum muricatum) in China.  

PubMed

Potato virus M (PVM, genus Carlavirus, family Betaflexviridae) is considered to be one of most economically important pathogens of pepino in China. However, the details and the mechanisms underlying PVM evolution are unknown. In this study, we determined and analyzed 40 TGB 1 gene sequences, 67 TGB 2 and TGB 3 gene sequences, and 88 CP and NABP gene sequences from viruses isolated from 19 samples of pepino (Solanum muricatum) and one sample of tomato (S. lycopersicum) collected from different areas of China. Recombination analysis identified only one clear recombinant in the TGB2-TGB3-CP region, but no recombinants were detected for each of the five individual genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all PVM isolates could be divided into at least two lineages in trees derived from the TGB 2, CP, and NABP gene sequences, and the lineages seemed to reflect geographical origin. The five PVM genes in this study were found to be under strong negative selection pressure. The PVM isolates examined showed frequent gene flow between the Chinese and European populations, and also within the Chinese population. Clear star phylogenies and the neutral equilibrium model test showed that pepino isolates of PVM appear to be experiencing a new expansion after a recent introduction into China, and these isolates display low levels of genetic diversity. To our knowledge, this study is the first report describing genetic structure, recombination, and gene flow in PVM populations, and it provides strong evolutionary evidence for the virus populations from different geographic regions of China. PMID:25233939

Ge, Beibei; He, Zhen; Zhang, Zhixiang; Wang, Hongqing; Li, Shifang

2014-12-01

308

Cowpox virus isolate virulent in humans shows attenuated phenotype in mice.  

PubMed

We have cultured Cowpox virus (CPXV) from skin lesion material of a human patient from Austria. Phylogenetic comparison of the HA-gene revealed a rather homogeneous cluster with other local isolates from recent years, the A36R-gene was mostly related to elephant derived strains from Germany. Despite causing disease in human, the isolate AT/Carinthia/788/07 surprisingly even at high titers showed a highly reduced virulence in BALB/c mice upon intranasal inoculation as compared to vaccinia virus. This contrasts earlier reports on other CPXV isolates. Using shotgun DNA sequencing several insertions and deletions were found in genes presumably involved in host range, immune regulation as well as established virulence factors. These preliminary data could be an indication that CPXV strains with proven pathogenicity for humans may have reduced virulence in mice and vice versa. Additionally strains with a reduced virulence may have an advantage in persisting in less dense rodent populations. PMID:21463881

Huemer, Hartwig P; Lassnig, Caroline; Nowotny, Norbert

2012-04-01

309

Isolation of an Hswl Nav4 influenza virus from a tufted duck (Aythya fuligula) in Japan.  

PubMed

A hemagglutinating agent was isolated from a tufted duck captured in Lake Shinji, Shimane Prefecture, Japan, and identified as influenza A by double immunodiffusion tests with the antiserum to influenza A virus ribonucleoprotein. The hemagglutinin in the isolate was antigenically related to that of A/New Jersey/8/76 but was not identical with it. The neuraminidase antigen of this Hswl subtype was closely related to that of A/turkey/Ontario/6118/68 and was shown to be Nav4 subtype. After experimental infection of 5-week-old SPF-chickens with the isolate, virus was recovered from various organs including the brain, despite the absence of signs of disease. PMID:6270508

Tsubokura, M; Otsuki, K; Yamamoto, H; Kawaoka, Y; Nerome, K

1981-01-01

310

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus isolates from China.  

PubMed

Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae), the causal agent of sugarcane yellow leaf disease (YLD), was first detected in China in 2006. To assess the distribution of SCYLV in the major sugarcane-growing Chinese provinces, leaf samples from 22 sugarcane clones (Saccharum spp. hybrid) showing YLD symptoms were collected and analyzed for infection by the virus using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR, and immunological assays. A complete genomic sequence (5,879 nt) of the Chinese SCYLV isolate CHN-FJ1 and partial genomic sequences (2,915 nt) of 13 other Chinese SCYLV isolates from this study were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The genomic sequence of the CHN-FJ1 isolate was found to share a high identity (98.4-99.1 %) with those of the Brazilian (BRA) genotype isolates and a low identity (86.5-86.9 %) with those of the CHN1 and Cuban (CUB) genotype isolates. The genetic diversity of these 14 Chinese SCYLV isolates was assessed along with that of 29 SCYLV isolates of worldwide origin reported in the GenBank database, based on the full or partial genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all the 14 Chinese SCYLV isolates clustered into one large group with the BRA genotype and 12 other reported SCYLV isolates. In addition, five reported Chinese SCYLV isolates were grouped with the Peruvian (PER), CHN1 and CUB genotypes. We therefore speculated that at least four SCYLV genotypes, BRA, PER, CHN1, and CUB, are associated with YLD in China. Interestingly, a 39-nt deletion was detected in the sequence of the CHN-GD3 isolate, in the middle of the ORF1 region adjacent to the overlap between ORF1 and ORF2. This location is known to be one of the recombination breakpoints in the Luteoviridae family. PMID:22752564

Gao, San-Ji; Lin, Yi-Hua; Pan, Yong-Bao; Damaj, Mona B; Wang, Qin-Nan; Mirkov, T Erik; Chen, Ru-Kai

2012-10-01

311

Molecular and Biological Characterization of Chinese Sacbrood Virus LN Isolate  

PubMed Central

Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV) was purified from diseased insects, and its genome was cloned and sequenced. The genomic RNA of CSBV is 8863 nucleotides in length and contains a single large open reading frame encoding a 319.614?kDa polyprotein. The coding sequence is flanked by a 178-nucleotide 5? nontranslated leader sequence and a 142-nucleotide 3? nontranslated region, followed a poly(A) tail. Four major structural proteins, VP1,VP2, VP3 and VP4, were predicted in the N-teminal of the polyprotein. The C-terminal part of the polyprotein contains sequence motifs which is a typical and well-characterized picornavirus nonstructural proteins: an RNA helicase, a chymotrypsin-like 3C protease, and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Genetic analysis shows that the CSBV-LN had a 13-amino-acid deletion at amino acid positions 710–719 and 727–729 in comparison with CSBV-GZ and SBV-UK, and the SBV-UK had a 7-amino-acid deletion at amino acid positions 2124–2132 in comparison with CSBV-GZ and CSBV-LN, and the CSBV-GZ and CSBV-LN had a 6-amino-acid deletion at amino acid positions 2143–2150 in comparison with SBV-UK. Phylogenetic analysis using RdRp of selected picorna-like viruses shows that CSBV/SBV and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) tend to group together, which possesses an RNA of similar size and gene order. PMID:21527980

Mingxiao, Ma; Ming, Li; Jian, Cheng; Song, Yang; Shude, Wang; Pengfei, Li

2011-01-01

312

Development of FPV140 antigen-specific ELISA differentiating fowlpox virus isolates from all other viral pathogens of avian origin.  

PubMed

The FPV140 gene encodes an envelope protein of fowlpox virus (FPV). In this study, the FPV140 gene of FPV Chinese isolate HH2008 was cloned and the comparison of its sequence with other FPV isolates showed it to be highly conserved across all FPV isolates. A recombinant plasmid pET-FPV140 carrying FPV140 gene was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli. The optimal expression condition for the FPV140 gene was developed and purified FPV140 recombinant protein was used to produce rabbit polyclonal antibody. An indirect ELISA using this anti-FPV140 polyclonal antibody was capable of distinguishing avian FPV isolates from other common avian pathogens such as mycoplasma gallisepticum, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, avian influenza virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and avian infectious bronchitis virus. This ELISA will serve as a useful diagnostic tool for the detection of FPV in clinical samples. PMID:22991535

Li, G; Hong, Q; Ren, Y; Lillehoj, H S; He, C; Ren, X

2012-10-01

313

The identification of three new viruses isolated from Wisteria and Pisum in The Netherlands, and the problem of variation within the potato virus Y group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new legume diseases in The Netherlands are described:Wisteria vein mosaic, pea necrosis, and pea leafroll mosaic. In particle size and morphology and in host reaction the virus isolates resembled bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), but they were readily distinguishable in several test plants.

L. Bos

1970-01-01

314

Avian paramyxoviruses and influenza viruses isolated from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in New Zealand.  

PubMed

A comprehensive study using virological and serological approaches was carried out to determine the status of live healthy mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in New Zealand for infections with avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) and influenza viruses (AIV). Thirty-three viruses isolated from 321 tracheal and cloacal swabs were characterized as: 6 AIV (two H5N2 and four H4N6), 10 APMV-1 and 17 APMV-4. Of 335 sera samples tested for AIV antibodies, 109 (32.5%) sera were positive by nucleoprotein-blocking ELISA (NP-B-ELISA). Serum samples (315) were examined for antibody to APMV-1, -2, -3, -4, -6, -7, -8, -9 by the haemagglutination inhibition test. The largest number of reactions, with titres up to > or =1/64, was to APMV-1 (93.1%), followed by APMV-6 (85.1%), APMV-8 (56%), APMV-4 (51.7%), APMV-7 (47%), APMV-9 (15.9%), APMV-2 (13.3%) and APMV-3 (6.0%). All of the H5N2 isolates of AIV and the APMV-1 isolates from this and earlier New Zealand studies had low pathogenicity indices assessed by the Intravenous Pathogenicity Index (IVPI) with the result 0.00 and Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI) with results 0.00-0.16. Partial genomic and antigenic analyses were also consistent with the isolates being non-pathogenic. Phylogenetic analysis of the 10 APMV-1 isolates showed 9 to be most similar to the reference APMV-1 strain D26/76 originally isolated in Japan and also to the Que/66 strain, which was isolated in Australia. The other isolate was very similar to a virus (MC 110/77) obtained from a shelduck in France. PMID:12111409

Stanislawek, W L; Wilks, C R; Meers, J; Horner, G W; Alexander, D J; Manvell, R J; Kattenbelt, J A; Gould, A R

2002-07-01

315

A bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1a strain in China: isolation, identification, and experimental infection in calves  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important pathogens in cattle. Previously, BVDV sub-genotypes of 1b, 1c, 1d, and 1 m were detected in China. However, isolation of BVDV type 1a from cattle has not been reported in China. In 2010, twenty nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from the cattle suspected BVDV infection in Henan province, China. A BVDV isolate was isolated using cell culture, and the pathogenesis of the virus isolate was studied. Methods Virus isolation was performed on MDBK cells. The virus identification was conducted by RT-PCR, neutralization test and immunofluorescence assay. In order to determine the genotype of the newly isolated virus, the 5? un-translated region (5?UTR) of the virus isolate was cloned, sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. To evaluate the virulence of the virus isolate, four BVDV sero-negative calves were intranasally inoculated with the virus suspension. Rectal temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for changes in white blood cell counts, and tissue samples were taken for histopathology analysis. Results A new isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), named HN01, was isolated from the nasal swabs using MDBK cell culture. The HN01 strain caused cytopathic effect (CPE) in MDBK cell cultures after two passages. The virus specifically reacted to BVDV1-specific monoclonal antibody in an immunofluorescence assay. A fragment of 288 bp of genome from this isolate was amplified by the RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of 5?UTR indicated that the virus was BVDV 1a. In the pathogenesis study, four calves experimentally infected with the BVDV strain developed depression, cough and other clinical signs. Calves showed high temperature over 40°C, and white blood cell counts dropped more than 40%. Conclusions A new subgenotype 1a strain of BVDV was firstly isolated from dairy cattle in China. The experimental infection showed that the virus was moderate pathogenic to cattle and can be used as a BVDV challenge virus to evaluate the efficacy of BVDV vaccines in the target animals. PMID:24444389

2014-01-01

316

Potato virus Y CFH, a putative recombinant isolate from Capsicum chinense cv. Habanero.  

PubMed

Ornamental plants of Chili pepper, Capsicum chinense cv. Habanero, with symptoms of leaf mosaic, necrotic rings on fruits and necrotic stems were observed in June 2003 in a private garden in the province of Naples (Italy). Preliminary serological characterisation allowed the association of these symptoms with infections by Potato virus Y (PVY). The virus was isolated on Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi and characterised by mechanical inoculation on herbaceous hosts and molecular characterisation of the P1 and the coat protein (CP) genes. Symptoms produced on indicator plants were generally consistent with those described for PVY. The identity of PVY was further confirmed by reaction with PVYN, PVYC and PVYO specific monoclonal antibodies: the isolate reacted only with the PVYC specific Mab. Immuno capture reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) was performed on extracts of PVY-CFH infected N. tabacum cv. Xanthi plants, using two couples of primers specifically designed out of the P1 and the CP coding regions of the so far fully sequenced PVY isolates. PCR products were then cloned into pCRII-TOPO vector using TOPO-TA cloning kit (Invitrogen) and sequenced. Sequence analysis suggests that PVY-CFH originated from a recombination event involving a virus of the PVYO type and another parental virus, maybe resembling the PVYNP isolates, given the reasonably high similarity shared by PVY-CFH and, respectively, non potato PVY isolates in the CP coding region, PVYO isolates in the P1 coding region. Evidence for the existence of such a recombination comes, apart from similarity analysis, by the different locations of CFH within phylogenetic trees constructed from P1 and CP genomic regions. PMID:17390887

Comes, S; Fanigliulo, A; Pacella, R; Parrella, G; Crescenzi, A

2006-01-01

317

Viral Replication, Persistence in Water and Genetic Characterization of Two Influenza A Viruses Isolated from Surface Lake Water  

PubMed Central

Water-borne transmission has been suggested as an important transmission mechanism for Influenza A (IA) viruses in wild duck populations; however, relatively few studies have attempted to detect IA viruses from aquatic habitats. Water-isolated viruses have rarely been genetically characterized and evaluation for persistence in water and infectivity in natural hosts has never been documented. In this study, we focused on two IA viruses (H3N8 and H4N6 subtypes) isolated from surface lake water in Minnesota, USA. We investigated the relative prevalence of the two virus subtypes in wild duck populations at the sampling site and their genetic relatedness to IA viruses isolated in wild waterbirds in North America. Viral persistence under different laboratory conditions (temperature and pH) and replication in experimentally infected Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were also characterized. Both viruses were the most prevalent subtype one year following their isolation in lake water. The viruses persisted in water for an extended time period at constant temperature (several weeks) but infectivity rapidly reduced under multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Furthermore, the two isolates efficiently replicated in Mallards. The complete genome characterization supported that these isolates originated from genetic reassortments with other IA viruses circulating in wild duck populations during the year of sampling. Based on phylogenetic analyses, we couldn't identify genetically similar viruses in duck populations in the years following their isolation from lake water. Our study supports the role for water-borne transmission for IA viruses but also highlights that additional field and experimental studies are required to support inter-annual persistence in aquatic habitats. PMID:22028909

Lebarbenchon, Camille; Yang, My; Keeler, Shamus P.; Ramakrishnan, Muthannan A.; Brown, Justin D.; Stallknecht, David E.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

2011-01-01

318

Phylogenetic analysis of Chinese sheeppox and goatpox virus isolates  

PubMed Central

Background Sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV), members of the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family are causative agents of sheep pox and goat pox respectively, which are important contagious diseases and endemic in central and northern Africa, the Middle and Far East, and the Indian sub-continent. Both sheep pox and goat pox can cause wool and hide damage, and reduce the production of mutton and milk, which may result in significant economic losses and threaten the stockbreeding. In this study, three SPPVs and two GTPVs were collected from China in 2009 and 2011. We described the sequence features and phylogenetic analysis of the P32 gene, GPCR gene and RPO30 gene of the SPPVs and GTPVs to reveal their genetic relatedness. Results Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that there was a close relationship among SPPV/GanS/2/2011/China, SPPV/GanS/1/2011/China and SPPV/NingX/2009/China. They were clustered on the same SPPV clade. GTPV/HuB/2009/China and GS-V1 belonged to the GTPV lineage. GS-V1 was closely related to other GTPV vaccine strains. GTPV/HuB/2009/China and GS-V1 were clustered with GTPVs from China and some southern Asian countries. Conclusion This study may expand the datum for spread trend research of Chinese SPPVs and GTPVs, meanwhile provide theoretical references to improve the preventive and control strategy. PMID:22264255

2012-01-01

319

Isolation and identification of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in cell cultures.  

PubMed

Three strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were isolated in porcine lung macrophage (PLM) cultures from three swine herds. This has been the first successful isolation of PRRSV in the Czech Republic and the strains received the designations CAPM V-501, CAPM V-502 and CAPM V-503, respectively. All the three isolates in PLM were identified by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests and the strain CAPM V-502 also by electron microscopy using the ultrathin section technique. The strain CAPM V-502 has been adapted to the cell line MARC-145. Viral RNA in PLM cultures infected with any of the isolated PRRSV strains was demonstrated by RT-PCR targeted to the more conserved ORF 7 genomic region encoding the nucleocapsid protein. The assessment of PCR products in agarose gel revealed a uniform size of 394 bp in all the three isolates and the European prototype strain Lelystad used as positive control. PMID:9416008

Valícek, L; Psikal, I; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Kubalíková, R; Kosinová, E

1997-10-01

320

Infectious clones of Chikungunya virus (La Réunion isolate) for vector competence studies.  

PubMed

The recent outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) on several islands in the Indian Ocean and in India has focused attention on this reemerging virus and highlighted the need for development of new tools to study vector-virus-host interactions. We have constructed and characterized, in cell culture, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, infectious cDNA clones of CHIKV using a recent isolate from La Réunion Island. Comparison of the growth kinetics and infection rates of the viral isolate CHIKV strain LR2006 OPY1 (CHIKV-LR) and a full-length infectious clone (CHIKV-LR ic) indicate that the infectious clone has retained the viral phenotypes of the original isolate. Infectious clones that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) were also produced and characterized in cell culture and in Aedes mosquitoes. The CHIKV-LR 5'GFP infected Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes at a similar rate to the original virus and to the full length infectious clone. The CHIKV-LR 3'GFP only infected Ae. albopictus mosquitoes at similar rates. The development of these authentic infectious clones will enable targeted studies of the molecular determinants of infection, pathogenesis and transmission competence by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. PMID:17187566

Tsetsarkin, Konstantin; Higgs, Stephen; McGee, Charles E; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Remi N; Vanlandingham, Dana L

2006-01-01

321

Genomic Analysis and Pathogenic Characteristics of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Strains Isolated in Japan  

PubMed Central

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a zoonotic pathogen of which mice are the natural reservoir. Different strains and clones of LCMV show different pathogenicity in mice. Here we determined the complete genomic sequences of 3 LCMV strains (OQ28 and BRC which were isolated from mice in Japan and WE(ngs) which was derived from strain WE). Strains OQ28 and BRC showed high sequence homology with other LCMV strains. Although phylogenetic analyses placed these 2 Japanese strains in different subclusters, they belonged to same cluster of LCMV isolates. WE(ngs) and WE had many sequence substitutions between them but fell into same subcluster. The pathogenicity of the 3 new LCMV isolates was examined by inoculating ICR mice with 102 and 104 TCID50 of virus. ICR mice infected with OQ28 or WE(ngs) exhibited severe clinical signs, and some of the infected mice died. In contrast, all ICR mice infected with BRC showed no clinical signs and survived infection. Virus was detected in the blood, organs, or both of most of the surviving ICR mice inoculated with either OQ28 or WE(ngs). However, virus was below the level of detection in all ICR mice surviving infection with strain BRC. Therefore, LCMV strains OQ28 and BRC were genetically classified in the same cluster of LCMV strains but exhibited very different pathogenicity. PMID:22776051

Takagi, Toshikazu; Ohsawa, Makiko; Morita, Chiharu; Sato, Hiroshi; Ohsawa, Kazutaka

2012-01-01

322

SPF Rabbits Infected with Rabbit Hepatitis E Virus Isolate Experimentally Showing the Chronicity of Hepatitis  

PubMed Central

This study focused on investigating the pathogenesis seen in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits following infection with a homologous rabbit HEV isolate (CHN-BJ-rb14) and comparing it to that seen following infection with a heterologous swine genotype 4 HEV isolate (CHN-XJ-SW13). Three of the four animals inoculated with the homologous rabbit HEV became infected, exhibiting an intermittent viremia, obvious fluctuations of liver function biomarkers alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and persistent fecal virus shedding throughout the nine month study. In addition, liver histopathology showed both chronic inflammation and some degree of fibrosis. Both positive and negative-stranded HEV RNA and HEV antigen expression were detected in liver, brain, stomach, duodenum and kidney from the necropsied rabbits. Inflammation of extrahepatic tissue (duodenum and kidney) was also observed. Three of the four rabbits inoculated with the heterologous genotype 4 swine HEV also became infected, showing similar levels of anti-HEV antibody to that generated following infection with the homologous virus isolate. The duration of both viremia and fecal shedding of virus was however shorter following infection with the heterologous virus and there was no significant elevation of liver function biomarkers. These results suggest that rabbit HEV infection may cause more severe hepatitis and prolong the course of the disease, with a possible chronic trend of hepatitis in SPF rabbits. PMID:24937350

Han, Jian; Lei, Yaxin; Liu, Lin; Liu, Peng; Xia, Junke; Zhang, Yulin; Zeng, Hang; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

2014-01-01

323

Development, Characterization and Application of Monoclonal Antibodies against Brazilian Dengue Virus Isolates  

PubMed Central

Dengue is the most prevalent human arboviral disease. The morbidity related to dengue infection supports the need for an early, quick and effective diagnostic test. Brazil is a hotspot for dengue, but no serological diagnostic test has been produced using Brazilian dengue virus isolates. This study aims to improve the development of immunodiagnostic methods for dengue virus (DENV) detection through the production and characterization of 22 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Brazilian isolates of DENV-1, -2 and -3. The mAbs include IgG2b?, IgG2a? and IgG1? isotypes, and most were raised against the envelope or the pre-membrane proteins of DENV. When the antibodies were tested against the four DENV serotypes, different reactivity patterns were identified: group-specific, subcomplex specific (DENV-1, -3 and -4 and DENV-2 and -3) and dengue serotype-specific (DENV-2 or -3). Additionally, some mAbs cross-reacted with yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV) and Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). None of the mAbs recognized the alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Furthermore, mAbs D3 424/8G, D1 606/A12/B9 and D1 695/12C/2H were used to develop a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-dengue IgM detection in sera from patients with acute dengue. To our knowledge, these are the first monoclonal antibodies raised against Brazilian DENV isolates, and they may be of special interest in the development of diagnostic assays, as well as for basic research. PMID:25412181

Bordignon, Juliano; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia Nunes

2014-01-01

324

Isolation of avian influenza H5N1 virus from vaccinated commercial layer flock in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Background Uninterrupted transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 in Egypt since 2006 resulted in establishment of two main genetic clusters. The 2.2.1/C group where all recent human and majority of backyard origin viruses clustered together, meanwhile the majority of viruses derived from vaccinated poultry in commercial farms grouped in 2.2.1.1 clade. Findings In the present investigation, an HPAIV H5N1 was isolated from twenty weeks old layers chickens that were vaccinated with a homologous H5N1 vaccine at 1, 7 and 16 weeks old. At twenty weeks of age, birds showed cyanosis of comb and wattle, decrease in egg production and up to 27% mortality. Examined serum samples showed low antibody titer in HI test (Log2 3.2± 4.2). The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the isolated virus were closely related to viruses in 2.2.1/C group isolated from poultry in live bird market (LBM) and backyards or from infected people. Conspicuous mutations in the HA and NA genes including a deletion within the receptor binding domain in the HA globular head region were observed. Conclusions Despite repeated vaccination of layer chickens using a homologous H5N1 vaccine, infection with HPAIV H5N1 resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. In endemic countries like Egypt, rigorous control measures including enforcement of biosecurity, culling of infected birds and constant update of vaccine virus strains are highly required to prevent circulation of HPAIV H5N1 between backyard birds, commercial poultry, LBM and humans. PMID:23185975

2012-01-01

325

Isolation of avian pneumovirus from mallard ducks that is genetically similar to viruses isolated from neighboring commercial turkeys.  

PubMed

Our earlier studies demonstrating avian pneumovirus (APV) RNA in wild geese, sparrows, swallows, starlings and mallard ducks suggested that wild birds might be involved in the circulation of APV in the United States. To determine whether turkey virus can be transmitted to the free flying birds, we placed APV-negative mallard ducks next to a turkey farm experiencing a severe APV outbreak and in an area with a large population of waterfowls. The sentinel ducks did not develop clinical APV disease but infectious APV (APV/MN-12) was recovered from choanal swabs after 2 weeks, and anti-APV antibodies detected after 4 weeks. Four APV isolates recovered from the neighboring turkeys that were experiencing an APV outbreak at the same time shared 95-99% nucleotide identity and 97-99% predicted amino acid identity with the duck isolate. In addition experimental infection of turkey poults with APV/MN-12 resulted in detection of viral RNA in nasal turbinates and APV-specific IgG in serum. These results indicate that the APV isolates from turkeys and ducks shared a common source, and the viruses from different avian species can cross-infect. PMID:11864753

Shin, Hyun-Jin; Nagaraja, Kakambi V; McComb, Brian; Halvorson, David A; Jirjis, Faris F; Shaw, Daniel P; Seal, Bruce S; Njenga, M Kariuki

2002-02-26

326

Phospholipase A2 Isolated from the Venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus Inactivates Dengue virus and Other Enveloped Viruses by Disrupting the Viral Envelope  

PubMed Central

The Flaviviridae family includes several virus pathogens associated with human diseases worldwide. Within this family, Dengue virus is the most serious threat to public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Currently, there are no vaccines or specific antiviral drugs against Dengue virus or against most of the viruses of this family. Therefore, the development of vaccines and the discovery of therapeutic compounds against the medically most important flaviviruses remain a global public health priority. We previously showed that phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus was able to inhibit Dengue virus and Yellow fever virus infection in Vero cells. Here, we present evidence that phospholipase A2 has a direct effect on Dengue virus particles, inducing a partial exposure of genomic RNA, which strongly suggests inhibition via the cleavage of glycerophospholipids at the virus lipid bilayer envelope. This cleavage might induce a disruption of the lipid bilayer that causes a destabilization of the E proteins on the virus surface, resulting in inactivation. We show by computational analysis that phospholipase A2 might gain access to the Dengue virus lipid bilayer through the pores found on each of the twenty 3-fold vertices of the E protein shell on the virus surface. In addition, phospholipase A2 is able to inactivate other enveloped viruses, highlighting its potential as a natural product lead for developing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. PMID:25383618

Muller, Vanessa Danielle; Soares, Ricardo Oliveira; dos Santos-Junior, Nilton Nascimento; Trabuco, Amanda Cristina; Cintra, Adelia Cristina; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu; Caliri, Antonio; Sampaio, Suely Vilela; Aquino, Victor Hugo

2014-01-01

327

Phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus inactivates dengue virus and other enveloped viruses by disrupting the viral envelope.  

PubMed

The Flaviviridae family includes several virus pathogens associated with human diseases worldwide. Within this family, Dengue virus is the most serious threat to public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Currently, there are no vaccines or specific antiviral drugs against Dengue virus or against most of the viruses of this family. Therefore, the development of vaccines and the discovery of therapeutic compounds against the medically most important flaviviruses remain a global public health priority. We previously showed that phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus was able to inhibit Dengue virus and Yellow fever virus infection in Vero cells. Here, we present evidence that phospholipase A2 has a direct effect on Dengue virus particles, inducing a partial exposure of genomic RNA, which strongly suggests inhibition via the cleavage of glycerophospholipids at the virus lipid bilayer envelope. This cleavage might induce a disruption of the lipid bilayer that causes a destabilization of the E proteins on the virus surface, resulting in inactivation. We show by computational analysis that phospholipase A2 might gain access to the Dengue virus lipid bilayer through the pores found on each of the twenty 3-fold vertices of the E protein shell on the virus surface. In addition, phospholipase A2 is able to inactivate other enveloped viruses, highlighting its potential as a natural product lead for developing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. PMID:25383618

Muller, Vanessa Danielle; Soares, Ricardo Oliveira; dos Santos, Nilton Nascimento; Trabuco, Amanda Cristina; Cintra, Adelia Cristina; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu; Caliri, Antonio; Sampaio, Suely Vilela; Aquino, Victor Hugo

2014-01-01

328

Nonsuppurative Encephalomyelitis in a Calf in Japan and Isolation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype 1 from the Affected Calf  

PubMed Central

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was isolated from the cerebrum of a calf which showed severe neurological symptoms in late September 2009, and the JEV isolate was revealed to be of genotype 1. This is the first report describing the isolation of genotype 1 JEV from cattle. PMID:23885004

Katayama, Takashi; Saito, Sachie; Horiuchi, Sanae; Maruta, Tetsuya; Kato, Tomoko; Yanase, Tohru; Yamakawa, Makoto

2013-01-01

329

The complete genome sequence of a Brazilian isolate of yam mild mosaic virus.  

PubMed

In this study, the complete genome of an isolate of yam mild mosaic virus (YMMV) from Brazil was sequenced, and the predicted amino acid sequence was analyzed. The YMMV RNA genome consists of 9538 nt without the poly(A) tail, encoding a putative typical potyvirus polyprotein of 3084 amino acids. Furthermore, the small overlapping ORF (PIPO) in the P3 gene was also deduced, and the cleavage sites of the polyprotein were predicted. Multiple alignment with other potyviruses showed a maximum nucleotide sequence identity of 64 % to wild tomato mosaic virus. A phylogenetic tree showed that YMMV clustered with Asian potyviruses that mainly infect solanaceous plants. PMID:23081678

Filho, Francisco de Assis Câmara Rabelo; Nicolini, Cícero; Resende, Renato de Oliveira; Andrade, Genira Pereira de; Pio-Ribeiro, Gilvan; Nagata, Tatsuya

2013-02-01

330

Pathogenicity and transmission of reticuloendotheliosis virus isolated from endangered prairie chickens.  

PubMed

The pathogenicity and transmission of a field isolate of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) was studied using an experimental model in Japanese quail. Oncogenicity was also evaluated after inoculations in chickens and turkeys. The original REV (designated APC-566) was isolated from Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri), an endangered wild avian species of the southern United States. The transmissibility of the REV isolate was studied in young naive Japanese quail in contact with experimentally infected quail. Vertical transmission was not detected by virus isolation and indirect immunofluorescence. Seroconversion was detected in few contact quails, suggesting horizontal transmission. The APC-566 isolate induced tumors beginning at 6 wk of age in quails infected as embryos. Most of the tumors detected in Japanese quail were lymphosarcomas, and 81% of these neoplasias contained CD3+ cells by immunoperoxidase. REV APC-566 was also oncogenic in chickens and turkeys infected at 1 day of age, with tumors appearing as early as 58 days after infection in chickens and at 13 wk of age in turkeys. This study was conducted in part as an attempt to understand the potential for pathogenicity and transmission of REV isolated from endangered avian species. PMID:17461264

Barbosa, Taylor; Zavala, Guillermo; Cheng, Sunny; Villegas, Pedro

2007-03-01

331

Virion envelope glycoproteins as epidermiological markers of Venezuelan encephalitis virus isolates.  

PubMed Central

Virion polypeptide compositions of 26 isolates of Venezuelan encephalitis virus were analyzed by a reproducible and comparative technique of discontinuous sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. Although the molecular weight of the core polypeptide for each isolate was 36,000, numbers and molecular weights of envelope glycoproteins were heterogeneous. Isolates associated with human, but not equine, disease usually had two glycoproteins of 50,000 to 51,000 and 51,000 to 55,000 molecular weight, whereas isolates associated with both human and equine disease usually had an additional, third polypeptide band of either 45,000 to 46,000 or 56,000 to 58,000 molecular weight. The former isolates were in hemagglutination inhibition subtypes I-D, I-E, III, or IV, and the latter were in subtypes I-A, I-B, I-C, or II. Thus virion envelope glycoproteins should be useful markers of Venezuelan encephalitis virus isolates in epidemiological investigations. PMID:7372798

Wiebe, M E; Scherer, W F

1980-01-01

332

Isolation and genetic characterization of Japanese encephalitis virus from equines in India  

PubMed Central

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important vector-borne viral disease of humans and horses in Asia. JE outbreaks occur regularly amongst humans in certain parts of India and sporadic cases occur among horses. In this study, JE seroprevalence and evidence of JE virus (JEV) infection among horses in Haryana (India) is described. Antibodies against JEV were detected in 67 out of 637 (10.5%) horses screened between 2006 and 2010. Two foals exhibiting neurological signs were positive for JEV RNA by RT-PCR; JEV was isolated from the serum of one of the foals collected on the second day of illness. This is the first report of JEV isolation from a horse in India. Furthermore, a pool of mosquitoes collected from the premises housing these foals was positive for JEV RNA by RT-PCR. Three structural genes, capsid (C), premembrane (prM), and envelope (E) of the isolated virus (JE/eq/India/H225/2009) spanning 2,500 nucleotides (from 134 to 2,633) were cloned and sequenced. BLAST results showed that these genes had a greater than 97% nucleotide sequence identity with different human JEV isolates from India. Phylogenetic analysis based on E- and C/prM genes indicated that the equine JEV isolate belonged to genotype III and was closely related to the Vellore group of JEV isolates from India. PMID:22705732

Singha, Harisankar; Singh, Birendra K.; Virmani, Nitin; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Raj K.

2012-01-01

333

Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates obtained from Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) in Italy.  

PubMed

Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) are thought to originate from India and they have colonized, throughout the centuries, the Middle East and, more recently, Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Spain. In the present paper we report of the isolation and characterization of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) obtained from Eurasian collared doves during 2000-2001, and compare them to isolates obtained from feral pigeons (Columba livia) during the same period. All isolates could be classified as avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV1) and belonged to the pigeon variant group (PPMV1), as their haemagglutinating activity was inhibited by mAb 161/617 which is specific for PPMV1. The intracerebral pathogenicity indices ranged from 0.68 to 1.38 and all isolates contained multiple basic amino acids at the deduced cleavage site of the fusion protein, which is a typical feature of virulent viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates indicate that 18/20 of these form a separate cluster from the isolates obtained from pigeons in the same period. These findings suggest that different lineages are circulating in feral pigeon populations, and that a separate lineage affects Eurasian collared doves. PMID:12745382

Terregino, Calogero; Cattoli, Giovanni; Grossele, Barbara; Bertoli, Elena; Tisato, Ernesto; Capua, Ilaria

2003-02-01

334

Structure of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus assembly intermediate isolated from infected cells  

SciTech Connect

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a prototypical enveloped ssRNA virus of the family Togaviridae. To better understand alphavirus assembly, we analyzed newly formed nucleocapsid particles (termed pre-viral nucleocapsids) isolated from infected cells. These particles were intermediates along the virus assembly pathway, and ultimately bind membrane-associated viral glycoproteins to bud as mature infectious virus. Purified pre-viral nucleocapsids were spherical with a unimodal diameter distribution. The structure of one class of pre-viral nucleocapsids was determined with single particle reconstruction of cryo-electron microscopy images. These studies showed that pre-viral nucleocapsids assembled into an icosahedral structure with a capsid stoichiometry similar to the mature nucleocapsid. However, the individual capsomers were organized significantly differently within the pre-viral and mature nucleocapsids. The pre-viral nucleocapsid structure implies that nucleocapsids are highly plastic and undergo glycoprotein and/or lipid-driven rearrangements during virus self-assembly. This mechanism of self-assembly may be general for other enveloped viruses.

Lamb, Kristen; Lokesh, G.L. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0647 (United States); Sherman, Michael [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0647 (United States); W.M. Keck Center for Virus Imaging, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0647 (United States); Watowich, Stanley, E-mail: watowich@xray.utmb.ed [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0647 (United States); W.M. Keck Center for Virus Imaging, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0647 (United States)

2010-10-25

335

Endogenous New World primate type C viruses isolated from owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) kidney cell line.  

PubMed Central

A type C virus (OMC-1) detected in a culture of owl monkey kidney cells resembled typical type C viruses morphologically, but was slightly larger than previously characterized mammalian type C viruses. OMC-1 can be transmitted to bat lung cells and cat embryo fibroblasts. The virions band at a density of 1.16 g/ml in isopycnic sucrose density gradients and contain reverse transcriptase and a 60-65S RNA genome composed of approximately 32S subunits. The reverse transcriptase is immunologically and biochemically distinct from the polymerases of othe retroviruses. Radioimmunoassays directed to the interspecies antigenic determinants of the major structure proteins of other type C viruses do not detect a related antigen in OMC-1. Nucleic acid hybridization experiments using labeled viral genomic RNA or proviral cDNA transcripts to normal cellular DNA of different species show that OMC-1 is an endogenous virus with multiple virogene copies (20-50 per haploid genome) present in normal owl monkey cells and is distinct from previously isolated type C and D viruses. Sequences related to the OMC-1 genome can be detected in other New World monkeys. Thus, similar to the Old World primates (e.g., baboons as a prototype), the New World monkeys contain endogenous type C viral genes that appear to have been transmitted in the primate germ line. Images PMID:76312

Todaro, G J; Sherr, C J; Sen, A; King, N; Daniel, M D; Fleckenstein, B

1978-01-01

336

Complete genomic sequence of a border disease virus isolated from Pyrenean chamois.  

PubMed

This report describes the full-length genome sequence of the pestivirus strain H2121 which was recently isolated from Pyrenean chamois and typed as Border disease virus (BDV) genotype 4. Comparison with full-length genomic sequences of the approved pestivirus species Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2, BDV, and Classical swine fever virus, the tentative species represented by strain Giraffe-1, as well as the atypical pestivirus strain Th/04_KhonKaen confirmed that the chamois pestivirus strain is most similar to BDV. The viral genome of H2121 is 12,305 nucleotides long and contains one large open reading frame. The latter encodes a polyprotein consisting of 3899 amino acids and is flanked with 376 nucleotides long 5' untranslated region (UTR) and 229 nt long 3' UTR. The genome organization of the chamois virus is reminiscent to that of other pestiviruses. Compared to other BDV strains including BDV-1 strain X818 and BDV-2 strain Reindeer-1, the 5' UTR and ORF of the chamois virus are very similar in length, while the 3' UTR of H2121 is 31-44 nucleotides shorter. In contrast to other BDV strains, the genome of the chamois virus contains a unique four amino acid insertion at the N-terminus of NS2. PMID:20638945

Vilcek, Stefan; Willoughby, Kim; Nettleton, Peter; Becher, Paul

2010-09-01

337

Isolation and characterisation of equine influenza viruses (H3N8) from Europe and North America from 2008 to 2009.  

PubMed

Like other influenza A viruses, equine influenza virus undergoes antigenic drift. It is therefore essential that surveillance is carried out to ensure that recommended strains for inclusion in vaccines are kept up to date. Here we report antigenic and genetic characterisation carried out on equine influenza virus strains isolated in North America and Europe over a 2-year period from 2008 to 2009. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from equines showing acute clinical signs and submitted to diagnostic laboratories for testing and virus isolation in eggs. The sequence of the HA1 portion of the viral haemagglutinin was determined for each strain. Where possible, sequence was determined directly from swab material as well as from virus isolated in eggs. In Europe, 20 viruses were isolated from 15 sporadic outbreaks and 5 viruses were isolated from North America. All of the European and North American viruses were characterised as members of the Florida sublineage, with similarity to A/eq/Lincolnshire/1/07 (clade 1) or A/eq/Richmond/1/07 (clade 2). Antigenic characterisation by haemagglutination inhibition assay indicated that the two clades could be readily distinguished and there were also at least seven amino acid differences between them. The selection of vaccine strains for 2010 by the expert surveillance panel have taken these differences into account and it is now recommended that representatives of both Florida clade 1 and clade 2 are included in vaccines. PMID:20580170

Bryant, Neil A; Rash, Adam S; Woodward, Alana L; Medcalf, Elizabeth; Helwegen, Maud; Wohlfender, Franziska; Cruz, Fatima; Herrmann, Claudia; Borchers, Kerstin; Tiwari, Ashish; Chambers, Thomas M; Newton, J Richard; Mumford, Jennifer A; Elton, Debra M

2011-01-10

338

[Erve and Eyach: two viruses isolated in France, neuropathogenic for man and widely distributed in Western Europe].  

PubMed

Two arboviruses have been isolated from Mayenne, western France, in 1981-1982, during systematic field surveys: Eyach virus, a cultivirus from Ixodes ricinus and I. ventalloi ticks, and Erve virus, a nairovirus from the tissues of white-toothed shrews, Crocidura russula. For many years, these two viruses were considered as "orphan viruses" without pathogenic power for man, since it became evident that they circulate actively in Europe among populations of wild small and large mammals. Moreover, these viruses are able to infect human beings and were responsible for severe neurological disorders. The presently known geographical distribution of these agents includes France, Germany, Netherlands and Czech Republic. PMID:9673063

Chastel, C

1998-01-01

339

Molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from ruminants in Taiwan in 1999-2000.  

PubMed

In 1999, 10 sporadic outbreaks of cattle foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) occurred in Taiwan. By the time, infection was limited to the Chinese yellow cattle (a native species of beef cattle in Mainland China), which did not develop vesicular lesions under field conditions. Five viruses isolates obtained from individual farms were confirmed to be the serotype O FMD virus (O/Taiwan/1999). During January-February 2000, however, this virus has spread to dairy cattle and goat herds, causing severe mortality in goat kids and vesicular lesions in dairy cattle. Partial nucleotide sequence of the capsid coding gene 1D (VP1) was determined for the virus isolates obtained in this study. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 sequences indicated that the O/Taiwan/1999 viruses shared 95-97% similarities to the virus strains isolated from the Middle East and India. The species susceptibility of the O/Taiwan/1999 virus was experimentally studied in several species of susceptible animals, showing that the virus did cause generalized lesions in dairy cattle and pigs, however, it would not cause vesicular lesions on the Chinese yellow cattle and the adult goats. These studies suggested that the O/Taiwan/1999 virus was a novel FMD virus of Taiwan and it presented various levels of susceptibility in cattle species. PMID:11390103

Huang, C C; Lin, Y L; Huang, T S; Tu, W J; Lee, S H; Jong, M H; Lin, S Y

2001-08-01

340

Characterization In Vitro and In Vivo of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Viruses Isolated from Patients  

PubMed Central

The first influenza pandemic of the 21st century was caused by novel H1N1 viruses that emerged in early 2009. Molecular evolutionary analyses of the 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 [A(H1N1)pdm09] virus revealed two major clusters, cluster I and cluster II. Although the pathogenicity of viruses belonging to cluster I, which became extinct by the end of 2009, has been examined in a nonhuman primate model, the pathogenic potential of viruses belonging to cluster II, which has spread more widely in the world, has not been studied in this animal model. Here, we characterized two Norwegian isolates belonging to cluster II, namely, A/Norway/3568/2009 (Norway3568) and A/Norway/3487-2/2009 (Norway3487), which caused distinct clinical symptoms, despite their genetic similarity. We observed more efficient replication in cultured cells and delayed virus clearance from ferret respiratory organs for Norway3487 virus, which was isolated from a severe case, compared with the efficiency of replication and time of clearance of Norway3568 virus, which was isolated from a mild case. Moreover, Norway3487 virus to some extent caused more severe lung damage in nonhuman primates than did Norway3568 virus. Our data suggest that the distinct replicative and pathogenic potentials of these two viruses may result from differences in their biological properties (e.g., the receptor-binding specificity of hemagglutinin and viral polymerase activity). PMID:22718834

Imai, Masaki; Watanabe, Shinji; Shinya, Kyoko; Hatta, Masato; Li, Chengjun; Neumann, Gabriele; Ozawa, Makoto; Hanson, Anthony; Zhong, Gongxun; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Kawakami, Eiryo; Simmons, Heather A.; Schenkman, Daniel; Brunner, Kevin; Capuano, Saverio V.; Weinfurter, Jason T.; Kilander, Anette; Dudman, Susanne G.; Suresh, M.; Hungnes, Olav; Friedrich, Thomas C.

2012-01-01

341

VIRUSES THAT INTERACT SYNGERISTICALLY WITH SWEET POTATO CHLOROTIC STUNT VIRUS-NIGERIAN ISOLATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early studies of sweet potato virus disease (SPVD)in Nigeria showed that it was caused by co-infection of Ipomoea batatas with an aphid-transmitted and a whitefly-transmitted agent. The agents were later found to be Sweet potato feathery mottle (SPFMV, genus Potyvirus)and Sweet potato chlorotic stu...

342

Surveillance and characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from northern pintail (Anas acuta) in Japan during 2006-09.  

PubMed

A total of 38 Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates were obtained from 6060 fecal samples from northern pintail (Anas acuta) ducks collected in the Tohoku district in Japan during 2006-09. One isolate from each sampling location and date was selected for a total of 38 isolates, then 15 of these were characterized for their pathogenicity by mean death time of minimum lethal dose (MDT/MLD) using chicken embryos and by plaque formation on chicken embryo fibroblasts. Furthermore, nine isolates were randomly selected from these 15 isolates, and the fusion protein genes were sequenced to characterize amino acid sequences around the cleavage site. All 15 were confirmed to be nonvirulent by MDT/MLD test, and nine isolates were also confirmed as nonvirulent by the cleavage site of the fusion protein 112G/E-K/R-Q-G/E-R*L117 that was specific for nonvirulent NDVs. The characteristics of nine isolates identified by phylogenic analysis of the fusion protein gene indicated that the isolates belong to genotype I or II. In addition, we also isolated 68 avian influenza viruses and 28 other hemagglutinating viruses. Our data indicate that northern pintails are subclinically infected by, perpetuate, and distribute NDV along with different subtypes of avian influenza viruses and other hemagglutinating viruses during their migrations across vast areas over the Northern Hemisphere to Japan. PMID:21793438

Ruenphet, Sakchai; Jahangir, Alam; Shoham, Dany; Morikawa, Kae; Miyoshi, Yuki; Hanawa, Eiko; Okamura, Masashi; Nakamura, Masayuki; Takehara, Kazuaki

2011-06-01

343

Isolation and titration of dengue viruses by the mosquito inoculation technique.  

PubMed

Mosquito inoculation is a highly sensitive technique for isolation and titration of dengue virus (DENV) from sera, human tissues, wild animals, or mosquitoes. It has been under utilized since it was described 40 years ago because most dengue laboratories do not have access to an insectary to rear mosquitoes. This technique requires good eye-hand coordination while doing manipulation under a stereoscopic microscope, and extensive practice is needed to become proficient at inoculating mosquitoes. Following inoculation, mosquitoes are held for 10 days to allow dengue virus to replicate and disseminate to tissues throughout the mosquitoes. They are then harvested and examined for the presence of viral antigens in head tissue by either immunofluorescence assay (IFA) or PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The mosquito infectious dose 50 (MID50) is calculated using the method of Reed and Muench to quantitate the virus. This method can be used for other arboviruses as well as for dengue. PMID:24696328

Choy, Milly M; Gubler, Duane J

2014-01-01

344

Complete genome sequences of two biologically distinct isolates of Asparagus virus 1.  

PubMed

The complete genome sequences of two asparagus virus 1 (AV-1) isolates differing in their ability to cause systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana were determined. Their genomes had 9,741 nucleotides excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail, encoded a polyprotein of 3,112 amino acids, and shared 99.6 % nucleotide sequence identity. They differed at 37 nucleotide and 15 amino acid sequence positions (99.5 % identity) scattered over the polyprotein. The closest relatives of AV-1 in amino acid sequence identity were plum pox virus (54 %) and turnip mosaic virus (53 %), corroborating the classification of AV-1 as a member of a distinct species in the genus Potyvirus. PMID:25216774

Blockus, S; Lesker, T; Maiss, E

2015-02-01

345

Nucleocapsid gene sequence of a North American isolate of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, a fish rhabdovirus.  

PubMed

Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia is the most important viral disease of trout in Europe. The causative agent, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a member of the lyssavirus genus of the rhabdoviridae family, was formerly believed to be confined to portions of the European continent; however in 1988, VHSV was isolated from adult chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon returning to two hatcheries in the northwestern part of the State of Washington, U.S.A. Initial fears were that the virus had been imported into North America, perhaps by aquaculture activities. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid (N) gene of one of the North American (Makah) isolates of VHSV were determined and compared with published sequences of a European reference strain of VHSV (07-71) and the Round Butte strain of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), another salmonid fish rhabdovirus that is enzootic in western North America. The N gene of the Makah isolate of VHSV shared a similarity of 88.433% at the nucleotide level and 94.802% at the amino acid level with the N gene of the European strain of VHSV, and 62.121% amino acid similarity with the N protein of IHNV. Like the European reference isolate, the North American isolate of VHSV showed three domains in the N protein, the central one being the most conserved and the likely site of interaction with genomic RNA. This was also the region of highest similarity with the amino acid sequence of IHNV. The sequence data suggested that the Makah and 07-71 isolates were of independent origin. PMID:1634868

Bernard, J; Bremont, M; Winton, J

1992-04-01

346

Genetic analysis of H3 subtype influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks in northern China during 2004-2005.  

PubMed

The broad distribution and prevalence of H3 subtype influenza viruses in avian and mammalian hosts constitutes a global threat to both human and veterinary health. In this present study, six H3N8 influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks during 2004-2005 in northern China were genetically and phylogenetically characterized. Sequence analysis showed that HA, NA, and M genes of all the six H3N8 isolates had a close relationship with those of Equine/Jilin/1/89 (H3N8) virus, which once caused outbreak in equine populations in northern China. The PB2 and PA genes of the viruses possessed the highest similarities with highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses currently circulating in this region. These findings emphasize the importance of avian influenza virus surveillance in this region for understanding the genesis and emergency of novel reassortants with pandemic potential. PMID:19067150

Pu, Juan; Liu, Qin-Fang; Xia, Ying-Ju; Fan, Yu-Lei; Brown, Earl G; Tian, Fu-Lin; Liu, Jin-Hua

2009-02-01

347

Antigenic and genetic diversity of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses isolated in Egypt.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1) has diverged antigenically and genetically since its initial detection in Asia in 1997. Viruses belonging to clade 2.2 in particular have been reported in numerous countries with the majority occurring in Egypt. Previous reports identified antigenic similarities between viruses belonging to clade 2.2. However, poultry and human viruses isolated in northern Egypt during 2007 and 2008 were found to be antigenically distinct from other clade 2.2 viruses from this country. Genetic analysis of the hemagglutinin revealed a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid divergence. The antigenic changes in Egyptian viruses isolated during 2007-08 necessitated that two of these strains be considered as potential H5N1 pre-pandemic vaccine candidates. PMID:20521654

Balish, Amanda L; Davis, C Todd; Saad, Magdi D; El-Sayed, Nasr; Esmat, Hala; Tjaden, Jeffrey A; Earhart, Kenneth C; Ahmed, Lu'ay E; Abd El-Halem, Mohamed; Ali, Abdel Hakem M; Nassif, Samir A; El-Ebiary, Elham A; Taha, M; Aly, Mona M; Arafa, Abdelstattar; O'Neill, Eduardo; Xiyan, Xu; Cox, Nancy J; Donis, Ruben O; Klimov, Alexander I

2010-03-01

348

Genetic diversity of tomato-infecting Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) isolates in Korea.  

PubMed

Epidemic outbreaks of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) diseases occurred in greenhouse grown tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants of Busan (TYLCV-Bus), Boseong (TYLCV-Bos), Hwaseong (TYLCV-Hwas), Jeju Island (TYLCV-Jeju), and Nonsan (TYLCV-Nons) in Korea during 2008-2009. Tomato disease by TYLCV has never occurred in Korea before. We synthesized the full-length genomes of each TYLCV isolate from the tomato plants collected at each area and determined their nucleotides (nt) sequences and deduced the amino acids of six open reading frames in the genomes. TYLCV-Bus and -Bos genomes shared higher nt identities with four Japanese isolates -Ng, -Omu, -Mis, and -Miy. On the other hand, TYLCV-Hwas, -Jeju, and -Nons genomes shared higher nt identities with five Chinese isolates TYLCV-AH1, -ZJ3, -ZJHZ12, -SH2, -Sh10, and two Japanese isolates -Han and -Tosa. On the basis of a neighbor-joining tree, five Korean TYLCV isolates were separated into three clades. TYLCV-Bus and -Bos formed the first clade, clustering with four Japanese isolates TYLCV-Mis, -Omu, -Ng, and -Miy. TYLCV-Jeju and -Nons formed the second clade, clustering with two Chinese isolates -ZJHZ212 and -Sh10. TYLCV-Hwas was clustered with two Japanese isolates -Han and -Tosa and three Chinese isolates -AH1, -ZJ3, and -SH2. Two fragments that had a potentially recombinant origin were identified using the RDP, GENECONV, BootScan, MaxChi, Chimaera, SiScan, and 3Seq methods implemented in RDP3.41. On the basis of RDP analysis, all TYLCV isolates could originated from the interspecies recombination between TYLCV-Mld[PT] isolated from Portugal as a major parent and TYLCTHV-MM isolated from Myanmar as a minor parent. PMID:20963475

Kim, Sue Hoon; Oh, Sung; Oh, Tae-Kyun; Park, Jae Sung; Kim, Sei Chang; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Young Shik; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Sim, Sang-Yun; Park, Kwon Seo; Lee, Hwan Gu; Kim, Kyung Jae; Choi, Chang Won

2011-02-01

349

Genetic Diversity of the Coat Protein of Olive Mild Mosaic Virus (OMMV) and Tobacco Necrosis Virus D (TNV-D) Isolates and Its Structural Implications  

PubMed Central

The genetic variability among 13 isolates of Olive mild mosaic virus (OMMV) and of 11 isolates of Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D) recovered from Olea europaea L. samples from various sites in Portugal, was assessed through the analysis of the coat protein (CP) gene sequences. This gene was amplified through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned, and 5 clone sequences of each virus isolate, were analysed and compared, including sequences from OMMV and TNV-D isolates originally recovered from different hosts and countries and available in the GenBank, totalling 131 sequences. The encoded CP sequences consisted of 269 amino acids (aa) in OMMV and 268 in TNV-D. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the isolates showed a very low variability among OMMV isolates, 0.005 and 0.007, respectively, as well as among TNV-D isolates, 0.006 and 0.008. The maximum nucleotide distances of OMMV and TNV-D sequences within isolates were also low, 0.013 and 0.031, respectively, and close to that found between isolates, 0.018 and 0.034, respectively. In some cases, less variability was found in clone sequences between isolates than in clone sequences within isolates, as also shown through phylogenetic analysis. CP aa sequence identities among OMMV and TNV-D isolates ranged from 84.3% to 85.8%. Comparison between the CP genomic sequences of the two viruses, showed a relatively low variability, 0.199, and a maximum nucleotide distance between isolates of 0.411. Analysis of comparative models of OMMV and TNV-D CPs, showed that naturally occurring substitutions in their respective sequences do not seem to cause significant alterations in the virion structure. This is consistent with a high selective pressure to preserve the structure of viral capsid proteins. PMID:25350108

Varanda, Carla M. R.; Machado, Marco; Martel, Paulo; Nolasco, Gustavo; Clara, Maria I. E.; Félix, Maria R.

2014-01-01

350

Molecular characterization of KGH, the first human isolate of rabies virus in Korea.  

PubMed

The complete genome sequence of the KGH strain of the first human rabies virus, which was isolated from a skin biopsy of a patient with rabies, whose symptoms developed due to bites from a raccoon dog in 2001. The size of the KGH strain genome was determined to be 11,928 nucleotides (nt) with a leader sequence of 58 nt, nucleoprotein gene of 1,353 nt, phosphoprotein gene of 894 nt, matrix protein gene of 609 nt, glycoprotein gene of 1,575 nt, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of 6,384 nt, and trailer region of 69 nt. Sequence similarity was compared with 39 fully sequenced rabies virus genomes currently available, and the result showed 70.6-91.6 % at the nucleotide level, and 82.8-97.9 % at the amino acid level. The deduced amino acids in the viral protein were compared with those of other rabies viruses, and various functional regions were investigated. As a result, we found that the KGH strain only had a unique amino acid substitution that was identified to be associated either with host immune response and pathogenicity in the N protein, or with a related region regulating STAT1 in the P protein, and related to pathogenicity in G protein. Based on phylogenetic analyses using the complete genome of 39 rabies viruses, the KGH strain was determined to be closely related with the NNV-RAB-H strain and transplant rabies virus serotype 1, which are Indian isolates, and was confirmed to belong to the Arctic-like 2 clade. The KGH strain was most closely related to the SKRRD0204HC and SKRRD0205HC strain when compared with Korean animal isolates, which was separated around the same time and place, and belonged to the Gangwon III subgroup. PMID:23242520

Park, Jun-Sun; Kim, Chi-Kyeong; Kim, Su Yeon; Ju, Young Ran

2013-04-01

351

Neuraminidase sequence analysis and susceptibilities of influenza virus clinical isolates to zanamivir and oseltamivir.  

PubMed

The influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors zanamivir and oseltamivir were introduced into clinical practice in various parts of the world between 1999 and 2002. In order to monitor the potential development of resistance, the Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Network was established to coordinate testing of clinical isolates collected through the World Health Organization influenza surveillance network from different regions of the world (M. Zambon and F. G. Hayden, Antivir. Res. 49:147-156, 2001). The present study establishes the baseline susceptibilities prior to and shortly after the introduction of the NA inhibitors. Over 1000 clinical influenza isolates recovered from 1996 to 1999 were tested. Susceptibilities were determined by enzyme inhibition assays with chemiluminescent or fluorescent substrates with known NA inhibitor-resistant viruses as controls. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) depended upon the assay method, the drug tested, and the influenza virus subtype. By both assays, the mean zanamivir IC(50)s were 0.76, 1.82, and 2.28 nM for the subtype H1N1 (N1), H3N2 (N2), and B NAs, respectively, and the oseltamivir IC(50)s were 1.2, 0.5, and 8.8 nM for the N1, N2, and B NAs, respectively. The drug susceptibilities of known zanamivir- and oseltamivir-resistant viruses with the NA mutations E119V, R292K, H274Y, and R152K fell well outside the 95% confidence limits of the IC(50)s for all natural isolates. Sequence analysis of the NAs of viruses for which the IC(50)s were above the 95% confidence limits and several control isolates for which the IC(50)s were in the normal range revealed variations in some previously conserved residues, including D151, A203, T225, and E375 (N2 numbering). Known resistance mutations are both influenza virus subtype and drug specific, but there was no evidence of naturally occurring resistance to either drug in any of the isolates. PMID:12821478

McKimm-Breschkin, J; Trivedi, T; Hampson, A; Hay, A; Klimov, A; Tashiro, M; Hayden, F; Zambon, M

2003-07-01

352

Comparative study of influenza virus H2 (Asian) hemagglutinins isolated from human and avian sources.  

PubMed

The hemagglutinin of an influenza virus isolated from a wild duck (Pintail, Anas acuta) in the USSR in 1976 had been found to be antigenically indistinguishable from the hemagglutinin of H2N2 viruses of human origin isolated in 1957. The hemagglutinins from viral preparations of the A/Anas acuta/Primorie/695/76 (H2Nav2) and A/Singapore/1/57 (H2N2) strains were purified by SDS gel chromatography as the subunits HA1 and HA2. Comparison of amino acid compositions and peptide maps of tryptic peptides containing [14C]-carboxymethylcysteine showed a striking degree of similarity between the H2 hemagglutinins. PMID:7193663

Bucher, D J; Kharitonenkov, I G; Lvov, D K; Pysina, T V; Lee, H M

1980-01-01

353

Enhanced virus isolation by use of the transporter for a regional laboratory.  

PubMed Central

Transporter tubes with fibroblast monolayers were compared with sucrose-phosphate-glutamate buffer for transport of 385 specimens to a regional laboratory for virus culture. Ninety-two (91%) of 101 viral isolates were recovered in cell culture from the Transporter, as compared with 82 (81%) from sucrose-phosphate-glutamate buffer. Twenty-five (24.7%) of the viral isolates were detected by cytopathic effect from 1 to 11 days earlier from the Transporter than from the sucrose-phosphate-glutamate buffer. The Transporter also permitted the use of ambient temperature for transport. PMID:6325498

Warford, A L; Eveland, W G; Strong, C A; Levy, R A; Rekrut, K A

1984-01-01

354

Comparative sequence analyses of la crosse virus strain isolated from patient with fatal encephalitis, tennessee, USA.  

PubMed

We characterized a La Crosse virus (LACV) isolate from the brain of a child who died of encephalitis-associated complications in eastern Tennessee, USA, during summer 2012. We compared the isolate with LACV sequences from mosquitoes collected near the child's home just after his postmortem diagnosis. In addition, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of these and other sequences derived from LACV strains representing varied temporal, geographic, and ecologic origins. Consistent with historical findings, results of these analyses indicate that a limited range of LACV lineage I genotypes is associated with severe clinical outcomes. PMID:25898269

Lambert, Amy J; Fryxell, Rebecca Trout; Freyman, Kimberly; Ulloa, Armando; Velez, Jason O; Paulsen, Dave; Lanciotti, Robert S; Moncayo, Abelardo

2015-05-01

355

Detection and phylogenetic analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus isolated from outbreaks in Punjab, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is an important viral disease of small ruminants and is endemic in Pakistan. In the following study, samples from two outbreaks of PPR in goats have been subjected to laboratory investigations. The Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV) genome was detected using both conventional and real-time PCR. Genetic characterization of the local PPRV field isolates was conducted by sequencing 322?bp of the fusion (F) gene and 255 bp of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. The phylogenetic tree based on the F gene clustered samples from both outbreaks into lineage 4 along with other Asian isolates, specifically into subcluster 1 along with isolates from Middle East. Analysis of N gene revealed a different pattern. In this case, the Pakistani samples clustered with Chinese, Tajikistani and Iranian isolates, which probably represents the true geographical pattern of virus circulation. This is the first report presenting the phylogenetic tree based on N gene as well as performing a parallel comparison of the trees of F and N gene together from Pakistani isolates. The results of this study shed light on the PPRV population in Pakistan and emphasize the importance of using molecular methods to understand the epidemiology. Such understanding is essential in any efforts to control the number and impact of outbreaks that are occurring in endemic countries such as Pakistan, especially in the current scenario where OIE and FAO are eager to control and subsequently eradicate PPR from the globe, as has been achieved for Rinderpest. PMID:21777402

Munir, M; Zohari, S; Saeed, A; Khan, Q M; Abubakar, M; LeBlanc, N; Berg, M

2012-02-01

356

Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea  

PubMed Central

Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP) gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD) and single breakpoint recombination (SBP) analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS) below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea. PMID:25289003

Yoon, Ju Yeon; Joa, Jae Ho; Choi, Kyung San; Do, Ki Seck; Lim, Han Cheol; Chung, Bong Nam

2014-01-01

357

Genomic characterisation of two virulent Newcastle disease viruses isolated from crested ibis (Nipponia nippon) in China.  

PubMed

This paper describes the complete genomic sequences of two virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates, Shaanxi06 (prevalent genotype VIId) and Shaanxi10 (novel sub-genotype VIi), from sick crested ibises. The genomes of both isolates were 15,192 nt long and consisted of six genes in the order of 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. The genomes of the two isolates were highly similar to other reference NDV strains. However, some unique features were found in the HN protein of Shaanxi06 and the F gene end of Shaanxi10. Shaanxi06 and Shaanxi10 shared the same virulent motif (112-)R-R-Q-K-R-F(-117) at the F protein cleavage site, which coincided with previous pathogenicity test results. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both isolates were clustered within class II NDV, with Shaanxi06 in genotype VII and Shaanxi10 in genotype VI. Both isolates shared high homology with the prevalent genotype NDV strains that circulate in fowls and waterfowls. This study is the first to provide genomic information about a novel sub-genotype VIi NDV strain and another genotype VIId virus, which will be useful for subsequent investigations. PMID:25281014

Hao, Huafang; Chen, Shengli; Wu, Pengpeng; Wang, Jie; Duan, Xuji; Du, Enqi; Wang, Xinglong; Yang, Zengqi

2014-12-15

358

Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various terrestrial plants and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti–WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. The best anti–WSSV plant isolate, TP22C was isolated and further analyzed. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Seven plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug TP22C thus formulated showed 86% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of TP22C required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 86%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug TP22C derived from Momordica charantia is a potent anti-white spot syndrome virus drug. PMID:25183066

Ghosh, Upasana; Chakraborty, Somnath; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

2014-01-01

359

Receptor Specificity and Transmission of H2N2 Subtype Viruses Isolated from the Pandemic of 1957  

E-print Network

Influenza viruses of the H2N2 subtype have not circulated among humans in over 40 years. The occasional isolation of avian H2 strains from swine and avian species coupled with waning population immunity to H2 hemagglutinin ...

Pappas, Claudia

360

Sequence determination of a quadripartite dsRNA virus isolated from Aspergillus foetidus.  

PubMed

Virus infection of Aspergillus foetidus was documented over 40 years ago and was one of the first mycovirus infections described in a filamentous fungus. The virus, named Aspergillus foetidus virus (AfV), contains at least two types of icosahedral particles, called AfV-fast (-F) and AfV-slow (-S) virions, based on their relative electrophoretic mobilities. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the AfV-F genome isolated from virions purified from the prototype isolate of the fungus. The AfV-F double-stranded (ds) RNA genome is tetra-segmented, and the plus strands of each of the four segments, but not the minus strands, are polyadenylated. The organisation and sequences of the four AfV-F dsRNAs are similar to those described for Alternaria alternata virus 1, which we propose is a member of an emerging mycovirus genus ("Alternavirus") and family ("Alternaviridae"), which also includes AfV-F. PMID:22760661

Kozlakidis, Zisis; Herrero, Noemi; Ozkan, Selin; Kanhayuwa, Lakkhana; Jamal, Atif; Bhatti, Muhammad F; Coutts, Robert H A

2013-01-01

361

Phylogenetic study on the 5'-untranslated region of bovine viral diarrhoea virus isolates from Iran.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus is a pathogen of bovids associated with reproduction system, causing in infected animals a range of ailments, from abortion to congenital defects. In this article, the nucleotide structure of the 5'-untranslated region (5-UTR) from 7 Iranian bovine diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates was characterized and subjected to comparative analysis against a panel of BVDV isolates from different sources. To this end, a 288 bp-long stretch of the internal ribosome entry site was amplified by RT-PCR. The PCR products subsequently cloned into PTZ57T vector and sequenced using T7 promoter primers. This resulted in detection of 3 new point mutations G ? A and G ? T in 2 isolates. When these findings were phylogenetically assessed, all the examined Iranian isolates were deemed to belong to the type1 of BVDV. Besides, 2 subtypes were identified among these isolates. In group A, a high level of similarity (99.2%) between Iranian isolates with a cytopathic Australian strain of BVDV-1c was detected; while in group B, the 4 Iranian isolates proved to be very similar to NADL-like BVDV-1a strains. We believe that the surprisingly high level of similarity between group A Iranian isolates and their corresponding Australian strain is likely to be an indication of a shared common ancestor. If correct, the most likely explanation of this observation is the introduction of such strains from Australia to Iran, possibly through exportation of infected live animals or animal productions (e.g. semen and meat) at some points in the past. Nevertheless, this hypothesis remains to be proved as further epidemiological work at genomic level is required to understand population of BVDV in Iran. PMID:25273964

Esmaelizad, Majid; Kargar-Moakhar, Rohani

2014-01-01

362

Avian Influenza (H5N1) Viruses Isolated from Humans in Asia in 2004 Exhibit Increased Virulence in Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses across Asia in 2003 and 2004 devastated domestic poultry populations and resulted in the largest and most lethal H5N1 virus outbreak in humans to date. To better understand the potential of H5N1 viruses isolated during this epizootic event to cause disease in mammals, we used the mouse and ferret models to

Taronna R. Maines; Xui Hua Lu; Steven M. Erb; Lindsay Edwards; Jeannette Guarner; Patricia W. Greer; Doan C. Nguyen; Kristy J. Szretter; Li-Mei Chen; Pranee Thawatsupha; Malinee Chittaganpitch; Sunthareeya Waicharoen; Diep T. Nguyen; Tung Nguyen; Hanh H. T. Nguyen; Jae-Hong Kim; Long T. Hoang; Chun Kang; Lien S. Phuong; Wilina Lim; Sherif Zaki; Ruben O. Donis; Nancy J. Cox; Jacqueline M. Katz; Terrence M. Tumpey

2005-01-01

363

Complete Genome Sequence of Nervous Necrosis Virus Isolated from Sevenband Grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus) in South Korea  

PubMed Central

The draft genome sequence of the nervous necrosis virus (NNV) SGYeosu08, isolated from sevenband grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus) in Yeosu, South Korea, was cloned and analyzed. The full-length RNA1 was a 3,103-nucleotide-encoding region of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the RNA2 encoding a coat protein was 1,433 nucleotides in length. This genome sequence might be useful in the development of an accurate diagnostic tool. PMID:25502666

Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Cho, Jae-Kwon; Kim, Kyong-Min; Son, Maeng-Hyun

2014-01-01

364

Multiple Mitochondrial Viruses in an Isolate of the Dutch Elm Disease Fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequences of three mitochondrial virus double-stranded (ds) RNAs, RNA-4 (2599 nucleotides), RNA-5 (2474 nucleotides), and RNA-6 (2343 nucleotides), in a diseased isolate Log1\\/3–8d2(Ld) of the Dutch elm disease fungusOphiostoma novo-ulmihave been determined. All these RNAs are A-U-rich (71–73% A + U residues). Using the fungal mitochondrial genetic code in which UGA codes for tryptophan, the positive-strand of each

Yiguo Hong; Sharon L Dover; Thomas E Cole; Clive M Brasier; Kenneth W Buck

1999-01-01

365

Genetic Structure and Molecular Variability of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolates in the United States  

PubMed Central

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has a worldwide distribution and the widest host range of any known plant virus. From 2000 to 2012, epidemics of CMV severely affected the production of snap bean (Phaseulos vulgaris L.) in the Midwest and Northeastern United States. Virus diversity leading to emergence of new strains is often considered a significant factor in virus epidemics. In addition to epidemics, new disease phenotypes arising from genetic exchanges or mutation can compromise effectiveness of plant disease management strategies. Here, we captured a snapshot of genetic variation of 32 CMV isolates collected from different regions of the U.S including new field as well as historic isolates. Nucleotide diversity (?) was low for U.S. CMV isolates. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CMV subgroup I is predominant in the US and further showed that the CMV population is a mixture of subgroups IA and IB. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggests likely reassortment between subgroups IA and IB within five CMV isolates. Based on phylogenetic and computational analysis, recombination between subgroups I and II as well as IA and IB in RNA 3 was detected. This is the first report of recombination between CMV subgroups I and II. Neutrality tests illustrated that negative selection was the major force operating upon the CMV genome, although some positively selected sites were detected for all encoded proteins. Together, these data suggest that different regions of the CMV genome are under different evolutionary constraints. These results also delineate composition of the CMV population in the US, and further suggest that recombination and reassortment among strain subgroups does occur but at a low frequency, and point towards CMV genomic regions that differ in types of selection pressure. PMID:24801880

Nouri, Shahideh; Arevalo, Rafael; Falk, Bryce W.; Groves, Russell L.

2014-01-01

366

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) field isolates in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused enteric disease with devastating impact since the first identification of\\u000a PEDV in 1992 in Korea. In this study, we investigated molecular epidemiology, showed genetic diversity, and analyzed phylogenetic\\u000a relationships of Korean PEDV field isolates with other PEDV reference strains. Genetic analysis of the complete M and ORF3\\u000a genes showed that each PEDV group

Seong-Jun Park; Hye-Kwon Kim; Dae-Sub Song; Hyoung-Joon Moon; Bong-Kyun Park

2011-01-01

367

Sequence analysis of the partial spike glycoprotein gene of porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses isolated in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes a devastating enteric disease with acute diarrhea, dehydration and significant\\u000a mortality in swine, thereby incurring heavy economic losses in Korea. Spike (S) glycoprotein has been suggested as an important\\u000a determinant for PEDV biological properties. In this study, the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the partial\\u000a S glycoprotein genes of Korean PEDV isolates,

Seong-Jun Park; Hyoung-Joon Moon; Jeong-Sun Yang; Chul-Seung Lee; Dae-Sub Song; Bo-Kyu Kang; Bong-Kyun Park

2007-01-01

368

[Isolation of rabies virus in Molossus ater in (Chiroptera: Molossidae)in São Paulo State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This is a report of rabies infection in insectivorous bat Molossus ater in the city districts of Araçatuba, Penápolis and São José do Rio Preto, in São Paulo state, Brazil. Fluorescent antibody test detected the virus in the brain and isolation was obtained by intracerebral inoculation of mice with nervous tissue and organs suspension. There was no contact with humans or other animals. PMID:10689381

Silva, L H; Cunha, E M; Pedro, W A; Cardoso, T C; Souza, M d; Ferrari, C I

1999-12-01

369

Protein analysis of geographic isolates of shrimp white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Six geographic isolates of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of penaeid shrimp, from China, India, Thailand, South Carolina,\\u000a Texas, as well as from crayfish kept at the US National Zoo in Washington D. C, were compared by electron microscopy and sodium\\u000a sulfate polyacrylamine gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Amino acid compositions of four of the major structural polypeptides\\u000a of the South

Q. Wang; B. T. Poulos; D. V. Lightner

2000-01-01

370

Isolation of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several isolates of a human type-C retrovirus belonging to one group, known as human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), have previously been obtained from patients with adult T-cell leukemia or lymphoma. The T-cell tropism of HTLV and its prevalence in the Caribbean basin prompted a search for it in patients with the epidemic T-cell immune deficiency disorder known as AIDS. Peripheral

Robert C. Gallo; Prem S. Sarin; E. P. Gelmann; Marjorie Robert-Guroff; Ersell Richardson; V. S. Kalyanaraman; Dean Mann; Gurdip D. Sidhu; Rosalyn E. Stahl; Susan Zolla-Pazner; Jacque Leibowitch; Mikulas Popovic

1983-01-01

371

Isolation and partial characterisation of a new strain of Ebola virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a new strain of Ebola virus from a non-fatal human case infected during the autopsy of a wild chimpanzee in the Cote-d'Ivoire. The wild troop to which this animal belonged has been decimated by outbreaks of haemorrhagic syndromes. This is the first time that a human infection has been connected to naturally-infected monkeys in Africa. Data from

B. Le Guenno; P Formentry; M. Wyers; P. Gounon; F. Walker; C. Boesch

1995-01-01

372

Development of a plaque assay for a cytopathic, rapidly replicating isolate of hepatitis A virus.  

PubMed

Most hepatitis A virus (HAV) replication in cell culture has been reported to be nonlytic and relatively slow. A rapidly replicating isolate of strain HM-175 from persistently infected, serially passed cell cultures (pHM-175) was found to induce a cytopathic effect. This observation allowed the development of a classic plaque assay for pHM-175 in FRhK-4 cells. The plaques were neutralized by polyclonal and monoclonal antisera to HAV. PMID:3035079

Cromeans, T; Sobsey, M D; Fields, H A

1987-05-01

373

First Isolation of West Nile virus from a Patient with Encephalitis in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated from a patient who developed encephalitis while undergoing treatment with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydoxorubicin, vincristine (Oncovin), predisone) and rituximab for a non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. Both standard reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Taqman RT-PCR established the diagnosis of WNV infection from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Several whole blood samples and one serum sample underwent further testing.

Cinnia Huang; Brett Slater; Robert Rudd; Nandakishore Parchuri; Rene Hull; Michelle Dupuis; Alexander Hindenburg

2002-01-01

374

Complete Genome Sequence of Nervous Necrosis Virus Isolated from Sevenband Grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus) in South Korea.  

PubMed

The draft genome sequence of the nervous necrosis virus (NNV) SGYeosu08, isolated from sevenband grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus) in Yeosu, South Korea, was cloned and analyzed. The full-length RNA1 was a 3,103-nucleotide-encoding region of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the RNA2 encoding a coat protein was 1,433 nucleotides in length. This genome sequence might be useful in the development of an accurate diagnostic tool. PMID:25502666

Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Cho, Jae-Kwon; Kim, Kyong-Min; Son, Maeng-Hyun; Oh, Myung-Joo

2014-01-01

375

Isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus from mummichog, stickleback, striped bass and brown trout in eastern Canada.  

PubMed

Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from mortalities occurring in populations of mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus, brown trout, Salmo trutta, and striped bass, Morone saxatilis, in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada. The isolated viral strains produced a cytopathic effect on the epithelioma papillosum cyprini cell line. Serum neutralization indicated the virus was VHSV and sequencing identified the rhabdovirus isolates as the North American strain of VHSV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolates are closely related and form a distinguishable subgroup of North American type VHSV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of VHSV in mummichog and striped bass. PMID:17394523

Gagné, N; Mackinnon, A-M; Boston, L; Souter, B; Cook-Versloot, M; Griffiths, S; Olivier, G

2007-04-01

376

Full-Genome Sequence of a Reassortant H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus Isolated from Pigs in Italy.  

PubMed

In this study, the full-genome sequence of a novel reassortant H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV) is reported. The isolate has a hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, but it carries the seven genome segments of the avian-origin H1N1 SIV currently circulating in European pig farms. PMID:24092781

Chiapponi, Chiara; Baioni, Laura; Luppi, Andrea; Moreno, Ana; Castellan, Alberto; Foni, Emanuela

2013-01-01

377

Characaterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 2006-2008  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nine avian influenza viruses (AIV), H5N1 subtype, were isolated from dead poultry in the Karachi region of Pakistan from 2006-2008. The intravenous pathogenicity indices and HA protein cleavage sites of all nine viruses were consistent with highly pathogenic AIV. Based on phylogenetic analysis of ...

378

Evaluation and optimization of avian embryos and cell culture methods for efficient isolation and propagation of avian influenza viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surveillance of wild bird populations for avian influenza viruses (AIV) contributes to our understanding of AIV evolution and ecology. Both real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) and virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs (ECE) are standard methods for detecting A...

379

Phylogenetic and biological characterization of virulent Newcastle disease viruses isolated in wild birds during 2002-2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As part of a West Nile virus surveillance program in the Houston Metropolitan Area and in Rhode Island, extracts from brain from 5608 dead birds representing 21 avian orders, were cultured in Vero cells. Sixteen Newcastle disease virus isolates were recovered from birds of the order Columbiformes. ...

380

Isolation of exotic Newcastle disease virus (ENDV) from field collected flies and experimental ENDV infections of three arthropod species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the 2002 Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) outbreak in California arthropods were collected from two quarantined backyard poultry premises after removal of END virus infected birds. The END virus (ENDV) isolated from field collected pools of three fly species was found to have >98% homology by ...

381

Efficient isolation of Swine influenza viruses by age-targeted specimen collection.  

PubMed

The control of swine influenza virus (SIV) infection is paramount for increasing the productivity of pig farming and minimizing the threat of pandemic outbreaks. Thus, SIV surveillance should be conducted by region and on a regular basis. Here, we established a microneutralization assay specific for SIV seroprevalence surveillance by using reporter gene-expressing recombinant influenza viruses. Growth-based SIV seroprevalence revealed that most sows and piglets were positive for neutralizing antibodies against influenza viruses. In contrast, the 90-day-old growing pigs exhibited limited neutralizing activity in their sera, suggesting that this particular age of population is most susceptible to SIV infection and thus is an ideal age group for SIV isolation. From nasal swab specimens of healthy pigs in this age population, we were able to isolate SIVs at a higher incidence (5.3%) than those of previous reports. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) genes revealed that the isolated SIVs have circulated and evolved in pigs but not have been recently introduced from humans, implying that a large number of SIV lineages may remain "undiscovered" in the global porcine populations. We propose that the 90-day-old growing pig-targeted nasal swab collection presented in this study facilitates global SIV surveillance and contributes to the detection and control of SIV infection. PMID:25694523

Ozawa, Makoto; Matsuu, Aya; Yonezawa, Kouki; Igarashi, Manabu; Okuya, Kosuke; Kawabata, Toshiko; Ito, Kimihito; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Taneno, Akira; Deguchi, Eisaburo

2015-04-01

382

Isolation, preliminary characterization, and full-genome analyses of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Mongolia.  

PubMed

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes one of the most important inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, namely severe encephalitis in Europe and Asia. Since the 1980s tick-borne encephalitis is known in Mongolia with increasing numbers of human cases reported during the last years. So far, however, data on TBEV strains are still sparse. We herein report the isolation of a TBEV strain from Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected in Mongolia in 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of the E-gene classified this isolate as Siberian subtype of TBEV. The Mongolian TBEV strain showed differences in virus titers, plaque sizes, and growth properties in two human neuronal cell-lines. In addition, the 10,242 nucleotide long open-reading frame and the corresponding polyprotein sequence were revealed. The isolate grouped in the genetic subclade of the Siberian subtype. The strain Zausaev (AF527415) and Vasilchenko (AF069066) had 97 and 94 % identity on the nucleotide level. In summary, we herein describe first detailed data regarding TBEV from Mongolia. Further investigations of TBEV in Mongolia and adjacent areas are needed to understand the intricate dispersal of this virus. PMID:22847274

Frey, Stefan; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Altantuul, Damdin; Battsetseg, Jigjav; Davaadorj, Rendoo; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Buyanjargal, Tsoodol; Otgonbaatar, Dashdavaa; Zöller, Lothar; Speck, Stephanie; Wölfel, Roman; Dobler, Gerhard; Essbauer, Sandra

2012-12-01

383

Characterization of the Surface Proteins of Influenza A (H5N1) Viruses Isolated from Humans in 1997–1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza A (H5N1) viruses infected humans in Hong Kong between May and December, 1997. Sixteen viruses, including 6 from fatal cases, were isolated during this outbreak. Molecular analysis of the surface proteins genes encoding the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of these H5N1 isolates, of a subtype not previously known to infect humans, are presented. The 16 human H5 HA

Catherine Bender; Henrietta Hall; Jing Huang; Alexander Klimov; Nancy Cox; Alan Hay; Victoria Gregory; Keith Cameron; Wilina Lim; Kanta Subbarao

1999-01-01

384

CHARACTERIZATION OF H5N1 INFLUENZA VIRUSES ISOLATED FROM MIGRATORY BIRDS IN QINGHAI PROVINCE OF CHINA IN 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Avian influenza H5N1 viruses pose a significant threat to human health because of their ability to infect humans directly. In the paper, three highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses were isolated from three species of migratory birds in Qinghai Province of China in 2006. The analysis of the genome sequences indicated that the three isolates shared high homology with each

Fumin Lei; AF Shuang Tang; A Xiaowei Zhang; Zhong Zhang; A Shengliang Chen; D Dehai Zhang; D Baoping Yan; Zuohua Yin; Shengliang Chen; Sandan Li; Dehai Zhang; Baoping Yan; Tianxian Li

2007-01-01

385

Complete genome sequence of a tobacco isolate of the tobacco vein banding mosaic virus strain prevailing in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV) is a species of the largest plant virus genus Potyvirus. Its incidence has been increasing in Chinese tobacco-growing area. TVBMV isolates can be clustered into three genetic groups\\u000a that are corresponding with their geographical origin. We have reported the complete genomic sequence of TVBMV isolate YND\\u000a with unique NIb\\/CP cleavage site. Here, we determined

H.-Y. Wang; T.-S. Zhu; T.-T. Cui; S.-S. Hou; X. Yin; Xiang-Dong Li; L.-P. Lei; X.-P. Zhu

2010-01-01

386

Comparative Pathology in Ferrets Infected with H1N1 Influenza A Viruses Isolated from Different Hosts ?  

PubMed Central

Virus replication and pulmonary disease pathogenesis in ferrets following intranasal infection with a pandemic influenza virus strain (A/California/4/09 [CA09]), a human seasonal influenza H1N1 virus isolate (A/New Caledonia/20/99 [Ncal99]), a classical swine influenza H1N1 virus isolate (A/Swine/Iowa/15/30 [Sw30]), or an avian H1N1 virus isolate (A/Mallard/MN/A108-2355/08 [Mal08]) were compared. Nasal wash virus titers were similar for Ncal99 and Sw30, with peak virus titers of 105.1 50% tissue culture infectious doses (TCID50)/ml and 105.5 TCID50/ml occurring at day 3 postinfection (p.i.), respectively. The mean peak titer for CA09 also occurred at day 3 p.i. but was higher (107 TCID50/ml). In contrast, the peak virus titers (103.6 to 104.3 TCID50/ml) for Mal08 were delayed, occurring between days 5 and 7 p.i. Disease pathogenesis was characterized by microscopic lesions in the nasal turbinates and lungs of all ferrets; however, Sw30 infection was associated with severe bronchointerstitial pneumonia. The results demonstrate that although CA09 is highly transmissible in the human population and replicates well in the ferret model, it causes modest disease compared to other H1N1 viruses, particularly Sw30 infection. PMID:21593156

Smith, Jennifer Humberd; Nagy, Tamas; Driskell, Elizabeth; Brooks, Paula; Tompkins, S. Mark; Tripp, Ralph A.

2011-01-01

387

MDCK-SIAT1 Cells Show Improved Isolation Rates for Recent Human Influenza Viruses Compared to Conventional MDCK Cells? †  

PubMed Central

The ability to isolate and propagate influenza virus is an essential tool for the yearly surveillance of circulating virus strains and to ensure accurate clinical diagnosis for appropriate treatment. The suitability of MDCK-SIAT1 cells, engineered to express increased levels of ?-2,6-linked sialic acid receptors, as an alternative to conventional MDCK cells for isolation of circulating influenza virus was assessed. A greater number of influenza A (H1N1 and H3N2) and B viruses from stored human clinical specimens collected between 2005 and 2007 were isolated following inoculation in MDCK-SIAT1 cells than in MDCK cells. In addition, a higher titer of virus was recovered following culture in MDCK-SIAT1 cells. All A(H1N1) viruses recovered from MDCK-SIAT1 cells were able to agglutinate both turkey and guinea pig red blood cells (RBC), while half of the A(H3N2) viruses recovered after passage in MDCK-SIAT1 cells lost the ability to agglutinate turkey RBC. Importantly, the HA-1 domain of the hemagglutinin gene was genetically stable after passaging in MDCK-SIAT1 cells, a feature not always seen following MDCK cell or embryonated chicken egg passage of human influenza virus. These data indicate that the MDCK-SIAT1 cell line is superior to conventional MDCK cells for isolation of human influenza virus from clinical specimens and may be used routinely for the isolation and propagation of current human influenza viruses for surveillance, diagnostic, and research purposes. PMID:18480230

Oh, Ding Yuan; Barr, Ian G.; Mosse, Jenny A.; Laurie, Karen L.

2008-01-01

388

The isolation of salmonellae, Newcastle disease virus and other infectious agents from quarantined imported birds in Canada.  

PubMed Central

Necropsy and culture results are presented for 269 consignments of imported birds (mainly psittacine and passerine species) examined between January 1977 and August 1980. Consignments were submitted for diagnosis of clinical illness or deaths occurring among these birds while they were in quarantine before entry into Canada. Enteritis and injury were the most frequent diagnoses. Pathogens or potential pathogens were isolated from 77% of consignments. Newcastle disease virus was isolated nine times, and Chlamydia psittaci was isolated once. Escherichia coli (from 113 consignments) and salmonellae (from 49) were the most common bacteria isolated, and reoviruses (from 22) and paramyxoviruses other than Newcastle disease virus (from 22) were the most common viruses. Salmonella typhimurium was the most common Salmonella serovar. Salmonella hadar was isolated from turkey poults imported from Great Britain. The possible public health significance of the role of imported birds in the introduction of exotic Salmonella serovars, or of serovars resistant to several antimicrobials is discussed. PMID:7039785

Rigby, C E; Pettit, J R; Papp-Vid, G; Spencer, J L; Willis, N G

1981-01-01

389

Adaptation and growth kinetics study of an Indian isolate of virulent duck enteritis virus in Vero cells.  

PubMed

Duck virus enteritis, also known as duck plague, is a viral infection of ducks caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV). The control of the disease is mainly done by vaccination with chicken embryo adapted live virus that is known to be poorly immunogenic and elicits only partial protection. Further, the embryo propagated vaccine virus pose a threat of harboring other infectious agents. Seeing these limitations, the present study reports for the first time regarding propagation and adaptation of a virulent Indian isolate of duck enteritis virus in Vero cell line. In this study isolation of an outbreak virus from Kerala state was done in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEF). Then adapted the DEV isolate in the Vero cell line. The characteristic cytopathic effects (CPE) of clumping and fusion of Vero cells were observed starting from the 7th passage onwards. The presence of the virus and its multiplication in Vero cells was confirmed by detection of viral specific DNA and antigen by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immuno fluorescent assay (IIFA), respectively. PCR detection of DEV using self designed primers for US4 (gD) and UL30 (DNA Polymerase) gene has been reported for the in the present study. The kinetics of DEV in Vero cells revealed a maximum infectivity titer of 10(5.6) TCID 50/ml after 48hr of viral infection. Compared to chicken embryo adapted DVE vaccine virus, the Vero cell culture system is free from other infectious agents. So it will be a good candidate for cultivation and propagation of duck enteritis virus vaccine strain. Further research studies are suggested to explore the feasibility of utilizing this Vero cell culture adapted DEV isolate for developing an attenuated vaccine virus against duck virus enteritis. PMID:25450886

Aravind, S; Kamble, Nitin M; Gaikwad, Satish S; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan

2015-01-01

390

Genetic and antigenic characterization of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2 isolated from cattle in India.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) subtype b is predominantly circulating in Indian cattle. During testing for exotic pestiviruses between 2007 and 2010, BVDV-2 was identified by real time RT-PCR in two of 1446 cattle blood samples originating from thirteen states of India. The genetic analysis of the isolated virus in 5' UTR, N(pro), entire structural genes (C, E(rns), E1 and E2), nonstructural genes NS2-3 besides 3' UTR demonstrated that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed highest similarity with BVDV-2. The entire 5' and 3' UTR consisted of 387 and 204 nucleotides, respectively, and an eight nucleotide repeat motif was found twice within the variable part of 3' UTR that may be considered as a characteristic of BVDV-2. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cattle isolate and earlier reported goat BVDV-2 isolate fall into separate clades within BVDV-2a subtype. Antigenic typing with monoclonal antibodies verified the cattle isolate also as BVDV-2. In addition, cross-neutralization tests using antisera raised against Indian BVDV strains circulating in ruminants (cattle, sheep, goat and yak) displayed significant antigenic differences only between BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 strains. This is the first identification of BVDV-2 in Indian cattle that may have important implications for immunization strategies and molecular epidemiology of BVD. PMID:21112633

Behera, Sthita Pragnya; Mishra, Niranjan; Vilcek, Stefan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Nema, Ram Kumar; Prakash, Anil; Kalaiyarasu, S; Dubey, Shiv Chandra

2011-03-01

391

Isolation and characterization of a variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in China  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of diarrhea in pigs started in Guangdong, South China in January 2011. Cases were characterized by watery diarrhea, dehydration and vomiting, with 80–100% morbidity and 50–90% mortality in suckling piglets. The causative agent of the diarrhea was ultimately identified as porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). In this study, we isolated a PEDV strain designated CHGD-01 from piglet intestines using Vero cell cultures, and its specific cytopathic effects were confirmed in susceptible cells by direct immunofluorescence testing and electron microscopy. The complete genome of CHGD-01 was shown to be 28,035 nucleotides in length, with a similar structure to that of PEDV reference strains. Phylogenetic analyses based on the whole genome revealed that CHGD-01 shared nucleotide sequence identities of 98.2–98.4% with two other Chinese isolates reported in the same year, thus constituting a new cluster. Amino acid sequence analysis based on individual virus genes indicated a close relationship between the spike protein gene of CHGD-01 and the field strain KNU0802 in Korea. Its ORF3 and nucleoprotein genes, however, were divergent from all other sequenced PEDV isolate clusters and therefore formed a new group, suggesting a new variant PEDV isolate in China. Further studies will be required to determine the immunogenicity and pathogenicity of this new variant. PMID:22967434

2012-01-01

392

Ultrasensitive Genotypic Detection of Antiviral Resistance in Hepatitis B Virus Clinical Isolates? †  

PubMed Central

Amino acid substitutions that confer reduced susceptibility to antivirals arise spontaneously through error-prone viral polymerases and are selected as a result of antiviral therapy. Resistance substitutions first emerge in a fraction of the circulating virus population, below the limit of detection by nucleotide sequencing of either the population or limited sets of cloned isolates. These variants can expand under drug pressure to dominate the circulating virus population. To enhance detection of these viruses in clinical samples, we established a highly sensitive quantitative, real-time allele-specific PCR assay for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA. Sensitivity was accomplished using a high-fidelity DNA polymerase and oligonucleotide primers containing locked nucleic acid bases. Quantitative measurement of resistant and wild-type variants was accomplished using sequence-matched standards. Detection methodology that was not reliant on hybridization probes, and assay modifications, minimized the effect of patient-specific sequence polymorphisms. The method was validated using samples from patients chronically infected with HBV through parallel sequencing of large numbers of cloned isolates. Viruses with resistance to lamivudine and other l-nucleoside analogs and entecavir, involving 17 different nucleotide substitutions, were reliably detected at levels at or below 0.1% of the total population. The method worked across HBV genotypes. Longitudinal analysis of patient samples showed earlier emergence of resistance on therapy than was seen with sequencing methodologies, including some cases of resistance that existed prior to treatment. In summary, we established and validated an ultrasensitive method for measuring resistant HBV variants in clinical specimens, which enabled earlier, quantitative measurement of resistance to therapy. PMID:19433559

Fang, Jie; Wichroski, Michael J.; Levine, Steven M.; Baldick, Carl J.; Mazzucco, Charles E.; Walsh, Ann W.; Kienzle, Bernadette K.; Rose, Ronald E.; Pokornowski, Kevin A.; Colonno, Richard J.; Tenney, Daniel J.

2009-01-01

393

Influenza A viruses isolated from waterfowl in two wildlife management areas of Pennsylvania.  

PubMed

A survey was conducted at two wildlife management areas of Pennsylvania (USA) to evaluate an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) for the detection of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in cloacal swabs from waterfowl and to determine the influenza A virus subtypes and the distribution of these viruses among waterfowl. We collected 330 cloacal swabs from hunter-killed waterfowl in the fall of 1990 and from cage-captured waterfowl in the summer of 1991. Thirty-one hemagglutinating agents were isolated by chicken embryo inoculation (CEI) of which 27 were influenza A viruses and four Newcastle disease viruses (NDV). The prevalence of AIV infection was 8.2%. Compared to CEI, AC-ELISA was only 15% sensitive and 61% specific. Based on the distribution of AIV by species of waterfowl, mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and American wigeons (Anas americana) were at equal risk of AIV infection even though most of the AIV isolates came from mallards. Although significant crude effects of sampling site and season on AIV recovery could be established, juvenile age was identified as the primary risk factor of AIV recovery. Twelve AIV subtypes were identified by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) tests. The most prevalent subytpes were H4N8 and H6N8. We concluded that AC-ELISA was not useful for the detection of AIV in cloacal swabs from waterfowl and that CEI, HI, and NI tests remain as the method of choice for AIV screening in waterfowl. Based on the results AIV infected preferentially the young which represent the high risk group in waterfowl populations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8583635

Alfonso, C P; Cowen, B S; van Campen, H

1995-04-01

394

Molecular identification of Cucumber mosaic virus isolates of subgroup IB associated with mosaic disease of eggplant in India.  

PubMed

Association of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) with severe mosaic disease of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) collected from Lucknow and Kanpur, India was initially detected by host reaction and serological assay and confirmed by RT-PCR employing coat protein gene specific primers. Further, molecular identification of the virus isolates was done by cloning and sequence analysis of the complete RNA3 genome. Based on 97-99 % identities and phylogenetic relationships, the virus isolates infecting eggplant were identified as members of CMV subgroup IB. PMID:24426321

Kumar, Susheel; Gautam, Karmveer Kumar; Raj, Shri Krishna

2014-01-01

395

Demonstration of antigenic variation among rabies virus isolates by using monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid proteins.  

PubMed Central

Rabies virus isolates from terrestrial animals in six areas of the United States were examined with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid proteins. Characteristic differences in immunofluorescence reactions permitted the formation of four antigenically distinct reaction groups from the 231 isolates tested. The geographic distribution of these groups corresponded well with separate rabies enzootic areas recognized by surveillance of sylvatic rabies in the United States. Distinctive reaction patterns were also identified for viral proteins from four infected bat species, and identical patterns were found in eight isolated cases of rabies in terrestrial animals. These findings suggest that monoclonal antibodies can be used to study the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of rabies among wildlife species. PMID:2429983

Smith, J S; Reid-Sanden, F L; Roumillat, L F; Trimarchi, C; Clark, K; Baer, G M; Winkler, W G

1986-01-01

396

Mason-Pfizer virus RNA genome: relationship to the RNA of morphologically similar isolates and other oncornaviruses.  

PubMed Central

The 60-70S RNA of Mason-Pfizer virus (MPV) was iodinated in vitro and used in both direct and competitive molecular hybridization studies. MPV proviral sequences are present at a frequency of approximately one to two copies per haploid genome in the DNA of experimentally infected human cells. By nucleic acid competition hybridization, MPV RNA was found to be indistinguishable from the RNA of a virus (X381) isolated from a rhesus mammary gland and from RNA isolated from the cytoplasm of AO cells (Parks et al., 1973) and HeLa cells (Gelderblom et al., 1974), both previously reported to produce MPV-related particles. No homology was observed, however, between MPV RNA and the RNA, or the DNA, from two clones of HeLa cells obtained from the American Type Culture Collection. Hybridization of MPV 60-70S RNA to the DNA of normal tissues of humans and to the DNA of 11 other species revealed that MPV is not an endogenous virus of any of these species. Competition hybridization revealed no detectable sequence homology between the RNA of MPV and the RNAs of simian sarcoma virus, murine mammary tumor virus, murine leukemia virus, BUdR-induced guinea pig virus, or avian myeloblastosis virus. These nucleic acid studies substantiate previous ultrastructural and immunological findings that MPV and morphologically similar isolates constitute a distinct group of oncornavirus. PMID:943573

Colcher, D; Drohan, W; Schlom

1976-01-01

397

Molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus isolates from Zimbabwean blood donors.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic in Africa, being hyperendemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Genotypes A, D, and E circulate in Africa, showing a distinct geographical distribution. The aim of the present study was to determine the HBV genotype distribution in blood donors from different geographical locations in Zimbabwe. Using a restriction fragment polymorphism assay, sequencing of the basic core promoter/precore region and of the complete S open reading frame showed that 29 HBV isolates from geographically distinct regions belong to subgenotype A1. The complete genome of two of these Zimbabwean HBV isolates was sequenced. Forty-four percent of the Zimbabwean HBV isolates (11/23) were characterized by a G1862C missense mutation, which causes a Val to Leu amino acid substitution at position 17 of the precore region. The majority of Zimbabwean HBV isolates clustered with a number of South African HBV isolates, with which they shared characteristic amino acids in the preS1, preS2, and polymerase spacer regions. The wide distribution of subgenotype in Africa, as well as the high intragroup divergence and the geographical clustering of the African and Asian subgenotype A1 HBV isolates indicate that this subgenotype has a long period of endemicity in these regions. PMID:21181917

Gulube, Zandiswa; Chirara, Michael; Kew, Michael; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizokami, Masashi; Kramvis, Anna

2011-02-01

398

Mosquito Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Connecticut, 2000: Isolation from Culex pipiens, Cx. restuans, Cx. salinarius, and Culiseta melanura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen isolations of West Nile (WN) virus were obtained from four mosquito species (Culex pipiens (5), Cx. restuans (4), Cx. salinarius (2), and Culiseta melanura (3)) in statewide surveillance conducted from June through October 2000. Most isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected in densely populated residential locales in Fairfield and New Haven counties, where the highest rates of dead crow

Theodore Andreadis; John F. Anderson; Charles R. Vossbrinck

2001-01-01

399

Biochemical and Antigenic Properties of the First Isolates of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus from Salmonid Fish in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) recovered from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri) in France and Italy were compared to six representative strains from North America by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of virion polypeptides and neutralization by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). All three IHNV isolates from Europe had similar polypeptide profiles when compared by

K. D. Arkush; G. Bovo; P. De Kinkelin; J. R. Winton; W. H. Wingfield; R. P. Hedrick

1989-01-01

400

Wheat streak mosaic virus genotypes introduced to Argentina are closely related to isolates from the American Pacific Northwest and Australia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) was first detected in Argentina in 2002. Comparison of 78 WSMV coat protein sequences revealed that three Argentine isolates were closely related to isolates from the American Pacific Northwest (APNW) and Australia. Complete sequences were determined for one Argen...

401

Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from a Rock Dove (Columba livia) in the Russian Federation  

PubMed Central

We report here the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate, NDV/Altai/pigeon/770/2011, isolated from a rock dove in the Russian Federation. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, this strain was clustered into genotype VIb class II. PMID:25635008

Sivay, Mariya V.; Glushchenko, Alexandra V.; Alkhovsky, Sergey V.; Shchetinin, Alexey M.; Shchelkanov, Michail Y.; Shestopalov, Alexander M.

2015-01-01

402

Complete genome sequence of an american avian leukosis virus subgroup j isolate that causes hemangiomas and myeloid leukosis.  

PubMed

We report the complete genome sequence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) isolate PDRC-59831, which causes myeloid leukosis and hemangiomas in chickens. This is an American ALV-J isolate, which was found in a 38-week-old broiler breeder chicken on a farm in Georgia in 2007. PMID:25858851

Malhotra, Sanandan; Justice, James; Lee, Nathan; Li, Yingying; Zavala, Guillermo; Ruano, Miguel; Morgan, Robin; Beemon, Karen

2015-01-01

403

Complete Genome Sequence of an American Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J Isolate That Causes Hemangiomas and Myeloid Leukosis  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genome sequence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) isolate PDRC-59831, which causes myeloid leukosis and hemangiomas in chickens. This is an American ALV-J isolate, which was found in a 38-week-old broiler breeder chicken on a farm in Georgia in 2007. PMID:25858851

Malhotra, Sanandan; Justice, James; Lee, Nathan; Li, Yingying; Zavala, Guillermo; Ruano, Miguel; Morgan, Robin

2015-01-01

404

INFLUENCE OF COAT PROTEIN TRANSGENE COPY NUMBER ON RESISTANCE IN TRANSGENIC LINE 63-1 AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS ISOLATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Line 63-1 is a ‘Sunset’-derived transgenic papaya expressing the coat protein (CP) gene from a mild mutant of a Hawaiian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Previous work showed that line 63-1 R1 plants exhibited a range of resistance to severe PRSV isolates from Hawaii (HA), Jamaica (JA), Thai...

405

Isolation and characterization of ZH14 with antiviral activity against Tobacco mosaic virus.  

PubMed

A large number of bacteria were isolated from plant samples and screened for antiviral activity against the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The bacterium ZH14, which was isolated from Chinese Anxi oolong tea, secreted the antiviral substances, having 94.2% virus inhibition when the bacterial culture filtrate and TMV extract were mixed at a ratio of 1:1. The ZH14 strain is a gram-positive, spore-forming rod and has the ability to degrade ribonucleic acid. Based on its effectiveness on virus inhibition, ZH14 was selected for characterization and was identified as a strain of the Bacillus cereus group based on phenotypic tests and comparative analysis of its 16S rDNA sequence. At the same time, we determined the antiviral product of ZH14 as an extracellular protein with high molecular mass, having an optimum temperature of 15-60 degrees C and an optimum pH of 6-10. Hence, the ZH14 strain and its culture filtrate have potential application in controlling plant diseases caused by TMV. PMID:18535629

Zhou, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Li-Xiang; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Fei; Liang, Zhi-Hong; Niu, Tian-Gui

2008-06-01

406

Genomic characterization of a bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 isolate from swine.  

PubMed

The SD0803 strain of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was isolated from a piglet in China in 2008 and has been classified as a novel subgenotype of BVDV-1. To describe the molecular features of this novel subgenotype, we sequenced and characterized the complete genome of the SD0803 virus. The genome is 12,271 bp in length and contains 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) that flank an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 3,898-amino-acid polypeptide. The full-length genome of the SD0803 strain shares 78.8% to 83.3% identity with those of other BVDV-1 strains, 70.0% to 70.7% identity with those of BVDV-2 strains, and less than 67.6% identity with those of other pestiviruses. The highest level of shared identity was 83.3% between the complete SD0803 genome and that of the ZM-95 strain of BVDV-1. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5' UTR and the coding sequence for the N-terminal protease fragment of the SD0803 polyprotein indicated that the SD0803 virus is a member of the novel subgenotype BVDV-1q, isolates of which have been identified recently in dairy cattle and camels in China. PMID:24719194

Deng, Yu; Shan, Tong-Ling; Tong, Wu; Zheng, Xu-Chen; Guo, Yi-Yei; Zheng, Hao; Cao, San-Jie; Wen, Xin-Tian; Tong, Guang-Zhi

2014-09-01

407

Rapid screening tests for determining in vitro susceptibility of herpes simplex virus clinical isolates.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of human herpes simplex virus (HSV) to acyclovir (ACV) was determined with the use of a single dose of the drug (1 and 2 micrograms of ACV per ml for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively) in two rapid assays: a rapid cytopathic effect inhibitory assay (Rapid CIA) and a rapid dye uptake assay (Rapid DUA). These tests allow the simultaneous determination of virus titer and susceptibility to ACV at a determined viral concentration (100 50% tissue culture infective doses and 100 50% dye uptake units). These tests were compared with a conventional susceptibility assay (dye uptake assay) and showed similar results. Indeterminate results with the Rapid CIA appeared in 3 of 30 samples. With the use of both Rapid CIA and Rapid DUA, we were able to determine the susceptibility of 100% of the isolates. The rapid tests, unlike conventional assays, are able to provide susceptibility results within 3 days after the virus has been isolated from a clinical specimen and could thus play a direct role in therapeutic decisions. PMID:9666034

de la Iglesia, P; Melón, S; López, B; Rodriguez, M; Blanco, M I; Mellado, P; de Oña, M

1998-08-01

408

Molecular characteristics and pathogenicity of an avian leukosis virus isolated from avian neurofibrosarcoma.  

PubMed

Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are rare in chickens and their etiology remains to be elucidated. In this study, a naturally occurring PNST in a Japanese native fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) was pathologically examined and the strain of avian leukosis virus (ALV) isolated from the neoplasm was characterized by molecular biological analysis. The fowl presented with a firm subcutaneous mass in the neck. The mass, connected to the adjacent spinal cord (C9-14), was microscopically composed of highly cellular tissue of spindle cells arranged in interlacing bundles, streams, and palisading patterns with Verocay bodies and less cellular tissue with abundant collagen. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were divided into two types: perineurial cells positive for vimentin, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and claudin1; and Schwann cells positive for vimentin, occasionally positive for S-100 alpha/beta but negative for GLUT1. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of neurofibrosarcoma was made. The complete nucleotide sequence of an ALV strain, CTS_5371, isolated from the neoplasm was determined and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strain was a novel recombinant virus from avian leukosis/sarcoma viruses previously reported. Additionally, experimental infection revealed that CTS_5371 induced the proliferation of Schwann cells and perineurial cells. These results suggest that this ALV strain has the ability to induce PNSTs in chickens. PMID:22545526

Ochi, Akihiro; Ochiai, Kenji; Nakamura, Sayuri; Kobara, Akiko; Sunden, Yuji; Umemura, Takashi

2012-03-01

409

Isolation of Maedi/Visna Virus from a Sheep in Japan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Maedi/visna (MV) is a lentiviral disease of sheep caused by the maedi/visna virus (MVV). Although MV is prevalent in many countries, it had not been reported in Japan. In 2011, however, three sheep in northern Japan were reported to be seropositive against the MVV antigen, indicating a persistent MVV infection. In the present study, we isolated MVV from one sheep to confirm MVV infection and conducted genomic classification of the virus. The co-culture of leukocytes from a seropositive sheep with fetal goat lung cells resulted in the formation of syncytial cells and the amplification of a long terminal repeat sequence of MVV by polymerase chain reaction. The isolate was confirmed as being MVV, rather than the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus based on phylogenetic analysis of the gag gene sequence. Although the sheep was asymptomatic, nonpurulent meningitis and demyelination were found in the spinal cord. These were considered to be early lesions associated with pathogenic MVV infection. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that MVV is distributed in Japan. PMID:24141278

OGUMA, Keisuke; TANAKA, Chiaki; HARASAWA, Ryo; KIMURA, Atsushi; SASAKI, Jun; GORYO, Masanobu; SENTSUI, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

410

Pathogenesis of a Texas feline immunodeficiency virus isolate: an emerging subtype of clade B.  

PubMed

We have recently provided evidence that Texas feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV-TX) isolates are an emerging subtype sharing a common ancestry with clade B isolates. Specific, pathogen-free cats were infected, intravenously, with 500, 2000 or 8000TCID(50) of the FIV-TX53 virus to study the acute stage of infection. Infection of cats resulted in lymphadenopathy at 10 days post-infection (p.i.). By 7 weeks p.i., gag specific antibody could be detected from sera of all infected cats. Virus could be detected by culturing PBMC and by nested capsid PCR. A reduction in the absolute numbers of lymphocytes and neutrophils was observed in infected cats although there was no trend identified between this reduction and the viral dose administered. By 11 weeks p.i., the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell ratios from all infected cats had dropped from approximately 2 to below 1. While decrease in the ratio was dependent on the viral dose, the T cell ratios of cats receiving the highest dose had significantly dropped below 1 by 4-7 weeks p.i. This decrease in the ratio was accompanied by a sharp and temporal decline in the absolute CD4(+) T cells and a slight increase in the absolute CD8(+) T cell numbers with a dramatic expansion of cells with CD8beta(low) chain expression. PMID:16574348

Phadke, Anagha P; de la Concha-Bermejillo, Andres; Wolf, Alice M; Andersen, Philip R; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Collisson, Ellen W

2006-06-15

411

Agnogene deletion in a novel pathogenic JC virus isolate impairs VP1 expression and virion production.  

PubMed

Infection of glial cells by the human polyomavirus JC (JCV) causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCV Encephalopathy (JCVE) is a newly identified disease characterized by JCV infection of cortical pyramidal neurons. The virus JCVCPN associated with JCVE contains a unique 143 base pair deletion in the agnogene. Contrary to most JCV brain isolates, JCVCPN has an archetype-like regulatory region (RR) usually found in kidney strains. This provided us with the unique opportunity to determine for the first time how each of these regions contributed to the phenotype of JCVCPN. We characterized the replication of JCVCPN compared to the prototype virus JCVMad-1 in kidney, glial and neuronal cell lines. We found that JCVCPN is capable of replicating viral DNA in all cell lines tested, but is unable to establish persistent infection seen with JCVMad-1. JCVCPN does not have an increased ability to replicate in the neuronal cell line tested. To determine whether this phenotype results from the archetype-like RR or the agnogene deletion, we generated chimeric viruses between JCVCPN of JCVMad-1. We found that the deletion in the agnogene is the predominant cause of the inability of the virus to maintain a persistent infection, with the introduction of a full length agnogene, either with or without agnoprotein expression, rescues the replication of JCVCPN. Studying this naturally occurring pathogenic variant of JCV provides a valuable tool for understanding the functions of the agnogene and RR form in JCV replication. PMID:24265839

Ellis, Laura C; Norton, Elizabeth; Dang, Xin; Koralnik, Igor J

2013-01-01

412

[Taxonomy of the Sokuluk virus (SOKV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus, Entebbe bat virus group) isolated from bats (Vespertilio pipistrellus Schreber, 1774), ticks (Argasidae Koch, 1844), and birds in Kyrgyzstan].  

PubMed

Complete genome sequencing of the Sokuluk virus (SOKV) isolated in Kyrgyzstan from bats Vespertilio pipistrellus and their obligatory parasites--Argasidae Koch, 1844, ticks was carried out. SOKV was classified as attributed to the Flaviviridae family, Flavivirus genus. The maximum homology (71% for nucleotide and 79% for amino acid sequences) was detected with respect to the Entebbe bat virus (ENTV). ENTV and SOKV form a group joining to the yellow fever virus (YFV) within the limits of the mosquito flavivirus branch. Close relation of SOKV with bat covers and human housings permits to assume SOKV potentially patogenic to human health. PMID:25065143

L'vov, D K; Al'khovski?, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Samokhvalov, E I; Botikov, A G

2014-01-01

413

Molecular characterization of an influenza A virus (H4N2) isolated from waterfowl habitats in the State of Mexico  

PubMed Central

Wild waterfowl and their habitats are the main reservoirs of influenza A virus (IAV) mainly during the breeding season and prior to migration. This study describes the molecular characterization of an IAV isolated from 240 water samples of a small wetland during non-breeding season of migratory wild ducks in the State of Mexico, Mexico. The results showed that the virus belongs to the H4N2 subtype and each of its eight segments of the viral genome has similarity to IAV isolated from ducks in North America. This study suggests that IAV can be isolated from small wetland during non-breeding season of migrating waterfowl. PMID:25482497

ORNELAS-EUSEBIO, Erika; OBREGÓN-ASCENCIO, Alejandro; CHÁVEZ-MAYA, Fernando; GARCÍA-ESPINOSA, Gary

2014-01-01

414

Molecular characterization of an influenza A virus (H4N2) isolated from waterfowl habitats in the State of Mexico.  

PubMed

Wild waterfowl and their habitats are the main reservoirs of influenza A virus (IAV) mainly during the breeding season and prior to migration. This study describes the molecular characterization of an IAV isolated from 240 water samples of a small wetland during non-breeding season of migratory wild ducks in the State of Mexico, Mexico. The results showed that the virus belongs to the H4N2 subtype and each of its eight segments of the viral genome has similarity to IAV isolated from ducks in North America. This study suggests that IAV can be isolated from small wetland during non-breeding season of migrating waterfowl. PMID:25482497

Ornelas-Eusebio, Erika; Obregón-Ascencio, Alejandro; Chávez-Maya, Fernando; García-Espinosa, Gary

2015-04-01

415

Identification of Recombination in the Envelope Gene of Simian Foamy Virus Serotype 2 Isolated from Macaca cyclopis  

PubMed Central

The full-length sequence of simian foamy virus serotype 2 (SFVmcy-2), isolated from a Taiwanese macaque, was determined. SFVmcy-2 was highly related to SFV serotype 1 (SFVmcy-1), an isolate from the same species, except in the putative receptor binding domain (RBD) in env, which contained novel sequences related to SFV serotype 3 (SFVagm-3), isolated from an African green monkey. The results identify a potential region of neutralization in SFVs and demonstrate recombination between genetically divergent foamy viruses. PMID:23698303

Galvin, Teresa A.; Ahmed, Imran A.; Shahabuddin, Muhammad; Bryan, Theodore

2013-01-01

416

PPR virus infection on sheep in blacksea region of Turkey: epidemiology and diagnosis by RT-PCR and virus isolation.  

PubMed

In this study, a totally 164 materials (lung, spleen, lymph node, nasal and ocular swap, blood and samples from oral lesions) from sheep and lambs (n = 57) in the 34 flocks suspected the PPRV infection as clinically and macroscopic pathologic remarks, housed in the 4 different provinces in the Middle and Eastern Blacksea Region were used for RT-PCR and virus isolation. Additionally, serum samples randomly collected from 892 sheep were tested for the detection of PPRV seroprevalance in the same regions. The seroprevalance were estimated as 14,9% and 3,5-38,2% in the sampled animals and sampled province, respectively. While no virus isolated in Vero cell cultures, PPRV nucleic acid was detected in 26 of 164 materials by RT-PCR. According to the result of RT-PCR, the PPRV infection were diagnosed in 44,1% (15/34) and 31,5% (18/57) of the flocks and sampled animals, respectively. Diagnostic value of necropsy materials such as lymph node, spleen, lung and of clinical samples such as nasal swap and conjunctival swap were determined more valuable diagnostic materials in the diagnosis of PPRV infection by RT-PCR. Data showed that PPRV infection was widespread in the Middle and East Blacksea Region and that the prevalence of the infection in the region varies in accordance with the factors such as geographical conditions (climate, etc.) and the method of breeding. Additionally, it is determined that RT-PCR is sensitive and reliable method in the diagnosis of PPRV infection. PMID:18787968

Albayrak, H; Alkan, F

2009-03-01

417

A novel highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza virus isolated from a wild duck in China.  

PubMed

Migrating wild birds are considered natural reservoirs of influenza viruses and serve as a potential source of novel influenza strains in humans and livestock. During routine avian influenza surveillance conducted in eastern China, a novel H5N8 (SH-9) reassortant influenza virus was isolated from a mallard duck in China. blast analysis revealed that the HA, NA, PB1, PA, NP, and M segments of SH-9 were most closely related to the corresponding segments of A/duck/Jiangsu/k1203/2010 (H5N8). The SH-9 virus preferentially recognized avian-like influenza virus receptors and was highly pathogenic in mice. Our results suggest that wild birds could acquire the H5N8 virus from breeding ducks and spread the virus via migratory bird flyways. PMID:25363159

Fan, Shengtao; Zhou, Lichen; Wu, Di; Gao, Xiaolong; Pei, Enle; Wang, Tianhou; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

2014-11-01

418

Characterization of EV-2, a Virus Isolated from European Eels (Anguilla anguilla) with Stomatopapilloma  

PubMed Central

A virus designated EV-2 has been isolated from external tumor tissue and internal organs of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) with stomatopapilloma. It contains RNA and is ether, acid, and temperature labile above 4°C, and concentrated preparations agglutinate chicken and sheep erythrocytes. The addition of actinomycin D during the first 2.75 h of infection inhibits viral replication. As determined in sucrose gradients, the buoyant density of the virus is 1.19 g/cm3. EV-2 has a moderately pleomorphic spherical morphology; its diameter ranges from 80 to 140 nm. The virion has narrow, regularly spaced surface projections about 10 nm long. Replication in FHM cells at 15°C shows new infectivity appearing at 10 h postinfection and reaching a plateau at 20 h. Cytopathic effects consist of cell fusion, syncytia, and irregularly rounded cell masses. Viral antigen was detected in the cytoplasm of infected cells by specific immunofluorescence. Images PMID:16789177

Nagabayashi, Toshihiko; Wolf, Ken

1979-01-01

419

Comparison of virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants.  

PubMed

Oculonasal swabs and tissue samples collected from peste des petits ruminants (PPR) suspected sheep and goats were tested for presence of the virus of peste des petits ruminants (PPRV) or its RNA by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and virus isolation (VI). Of 44 samples 31.8% and 40.9% were positive by VI and RT-PCR, respectively. The RT-PCR-positive samples were subjected to the nested PCR. Three of six samples positive by RT-PCR but negative by VI were negative by the nested PCR. The specificity and accuracy of the nested PCR were higher than those of the RT-PCR although the sensitivity of both tests were similar. Nucleotide sequencing of one nested PCR product revealed a 92% homology with the sequence available in the GenBank (Acc. No. Z37017). PMID:11774895

Brindha, K; Raj, G D; Ganesan, P I; Thiagarajan, V; Nainar, A M; Nachimuthu, K

2001-06-01

420

Characterization of a reo-like virus and its isolation from and pathogenicity for parrots.  

PubMed

Necropsy of an African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) revealed subcutaneous hemorrhages, multiple foci and microfoci of necrosis in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and intestinal lamina propria, mild air sacculitis, and epicarditis. A virus, isolated from the liver, was non-enveloped, was polyhedral with a diameter of 84.9 +/- 3.4 nm, possessed a double-stranded RNA genome, and was stable at pH 3.0 for 30 minutes and at 56 C for up to 120 minutes. The virus was propagated in cell culture, purified by limiting dilution, and inoculated into two African Grey parrots. The experimental infections were fatal on the 8th and 9th days postinoculation in the orally and intramuscularly inoculated birds, respectively, and produced hemorrhages and necrotic lesions that recapitulated those of the index case. PMID:3039971

Graham, D L

1987-01-01

421

Infectivity and complete nucleotide sequence of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus isolate Cm cDNA.  

PubMed

Three isolates of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus (CFMMV) were collected from melon, cucumber, and pumpkin plants in Korea. A full-length cDNA clone of CFMMV-Cm (melon isolate) was produced and evaluated for infectivity after T7 transcription in vitro (pT7CF-Cmflc). The complete CFMMV genome sequence of the infectious clone pT7CF-Cmflc was determined. The genome of CFMMV-Cm consisted of 6,571 nucleotides and shared high nucleotide sequence identity (98.8 %) with the Israel isolate of CFMMV. Based on the infectious clone pT7CF-Cmflc, a CaMV 35S-promoter driven cDNA clone (p35SCF-Cmflc) was subsequently constructed and sequenced. Mechanical inoculation with RNA transcripts of pT7CF-Cmflc and agro-inoculation with p35SCF-Cmflc resulted in systemic infection of cucumber and melon, producing symptoms similar to those produced by CFMMV-Cm. Progeny virus in infected plants was detected by RT-PCR, western blot assay, and transmission electron microscopy. PMID:24473709

Rhee, Sun-Ju; Hong, Jin-Sung; Lee, Gung Pyo

2014-07-01

422

Phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from Germany in 2006 and 2007 suggest at least three separate introductions of H5N1 virus.  

PubMed

In spring 2006, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 was detected in Germany in 343 dead wild birds, as well as in a black swan (Cygnus atratus) kept in a zoo, three stray cats, one stone marten (Martes foina), and in a single turkey farm. In 2007 (June-July) the virus reoccurred in 96 wild birds at six geographically separate locations in the Southeast of Germany. In addition, a backyard mixed duck and goose holding was affected. Real-time RT-PCR [Hoffmann, B., Harder, T., Starick, E., Depner, K., Werner, O., Beer, M., 2007. Rapid and highly sensitive pathotyping of avian influenza A H5N1 virus by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45, 600-603] and nucleotide sequencing confirmed that these H5-viruses belonged to the Qinghai lineage of HPAIV H5N1 (clade 2.2). For a more detailed analysis, the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of 27 selected German H5N1 viruses isolated 2006 or 2007 and originating from different regions and animal species were sequenced and analysed phylogenetically. As a result, three closely related but distinguishable H5N1 subclades could be defined: In 2006 a 'Northern type' (subclade 2.2.2), representing virus isolates from the German federal states Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Schleswig-Holstein, Brandenburg, and Lower Saxony, and a 'Southern type' (subclade 2.2.1) from Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria were detected. Interestingly, representatives of both types were present in Central Germany and caused the outbreak in turkeys (subclade 2.2.2) and in a case in a tufted duck (Aythya fuligula) (subclade 2.2.1) in Saxony. Furthermore, one isolate from the South of Germany was identified as 2.2.2 and vice versa a 2.2.1-like isolate was found in Northern Germany. H5N1 viruses isolated in 2007 belonged to a third type (subclade 2.2.3) which was not detected in 2006. Our data suggest the introduction of three distinct H5N1 variants into the wild bird population of Germany. The source of these viruses and the exact time of introduction remain obscure. Based on the identification of closely related H5N1 viruses from Southern and Central Russia, a recent introduction via wild birds on winter escape from these regions, early in 2006 constitutes the most likely scenario for the 2006 outbreaks. The viruses detected in 2007 most likely represent another new incursion from an as yet unknown source. PMID:18031958

Starick, E; Beer, M; Hoffmann, B; Staubach, C; Werner, O; Globig, A; Strebelow, G; Grund, C; Durban, M; Conraths, F J; Mettenleiter, T; Harder, T

2008-04-30

423

Isolation and propagation of Dengue virus in Vero and BHK-21 cells expressing human DC-SIGN stably.  

PubMed

The "standard" methods of isolating dengue virus (DENV) utilize the mosquito cell line C6/36, monkey kidney LLC-MK2 cells, Vero cells, or baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells. However, these cells lines lack a particular DENV receptor, known as dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), which is expressed on immature dendritic cells and monocytes/macrophages. This may result in less efficient virus isolation and propagation. The present study used a lentivirus vector to establish Vero and BHK-21 cell lines (Vero-DC and BHK-DC) that express human DC-SIGN stably. Five DENV strains, each passaged several times in C6/36 cells, replicated more efficiently in Vero-DC and BHK-DC than in the parental Vero or BHK-21 cells. Vero/Vero-DC and BHK-21/BHK-DC were used to isolate virus from buffy coats and plasma samples derived from 13 patients infected with DENV. Most of the viruses showed increased production in cell lines expressing DC-SIGN. However, the isolation rate was lower (15.4-46.2%) than that from C6/36 cells (84.6%). Interestingly, when the viruses were isolated in C6/36 cells prior to infecting Vero/Vero-DC and BHK-21/BHK-DC, the rate of virus production increased markedly, reaching levels higher than those initially achieved in C6/36 cells. These data suggest that Vero-DC and BHK-DC could be useful tools for virus propagation, and that human specimens may contain a factor that interferes with virus growth in mammalian cells. PMID:25205264

Phanthanawiboon, Supranee; A-nuegoonpipat, Atchareeya; Panngarm, Narawan; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Anantapreecha, Surapee; Kurosu, Takeshi

2014-12-01

424

Analysis of the complete sequences of two biologically distinct Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates further evidences the involvement of a single amino acid in the virus pathogenicity.  

PubMed

The complete genome sequences of two Slovak Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates (ZYMV-H and ZYMV-SE04T) were determined. These isolates differ significantly in their pathogenicity, producing either severe or very mild symptoms on susceptible cucurbit hosts. The viral genome of both isolates consisted of 9593 nucleotides in size, and contained an open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein of 3080 amino acids. Despite their different biological properties, an extremely high nucleotide identity could be noted (99.8%), resulting in differences of only 5 aa, located in the HC-Pro, P3, and NIb, respectively. In silico analysis including 5 additional fully-sequenced and phylogenetically closely-related isolates known to induce different symptoms in cucurbits was performed. This suggested that the key single mutation responsible for virus pathogenicity is likely located in the N-terminal part of P3, adjacent to the PIPO. PMID:25518719

Nováková, S; Svoboda, J; Glasa, M

2014-12-01

425

Two distinct endogenous type C viruses isolated from the asian rodent Mus cervicolor: conservation of virogene sequences in related rodent species.  

PubMed Central

The cocultivation of a lung cell line from the Southeast Asian mouse Mus cervicolor with cells from heterologous species has resulted in the isolation of two new distinct type C viruses. Both viruses are endogenous to M. cervicolor and are present in multiple copies in the cellular DNA of these mice. One of the viruses, designated M. cervicolor type CI, replicates readily in the SIRC rabbit cell line and is antigenically related to the infectious primate type C viruses isolated from a woolly monkey (simian sarcoma-associated virus) and gibbon apes (gibbon ape leukemia virus). This virus is also closely related by both immunological and nucleic acid hybridization criteria to a type C virus previously isolated from a second Asian murine species, Mus caroli. The isolation of the M. cervicolor type C I virus thus provides further evidence that the infectious primate type C viruses originated by trans-species infection of primates by an endogenous virus of mice. The second virus, designated M. cervicolor type C II, replicates well in various cell lines derived from the laboratory mouse Mus musculus. While antigenically related to type C viruses derived from M. musculus, the M. cervicolor type C II virus isolate can be readily distinguished from standard murine leukemia viruses. Both new type C viruses from M. cervicolor are unrelated to the previously described retrovirus (M432) isolated from the same Mus species. The DNA of M. cervicolor therefore contains multiple copies of at least three distinct classes of endogenous viral genes. An examination of the cellular DNA of other rodent species for nucleic acid sequences related to the genomes of both M. cervicolor type C I and II reveals that both viruses have been highly conserved evolutionarily, and that other species of rodents, such as laboratory mice and rats, contain endogenous virogenes related to those in the DNA of M. cervicolor. PMID:66330

Benveniste, R E; Callahan, R; Sherr, C J; Chapman, V; Todaro, G J

1977-01-01

426

[The isolation of Dhori viruses (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) from the hare (Lepus europaeus) and its ticks Hyalomma marginatum in the middle zone of the Volga delta, Astrakhan region, 2001].  

PubMed

In August, 2001, in the middle zone of the delta of the Volga River, the Astrakhan region, during investigation of the natural foci of West Nile fever and Crimean--Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), the material from the hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas, 1778 (Lagomorpha, Leporidae) and collected from it the ticks Hyalomna marginatum Koch 1844, was obtained. 4 strains of Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) and 2 strains of CCHF virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) were isolated. This is the first isolation of Thogotovirus genus virus from the wild vertebrates. Considering the overlap of the Dhori virus and CCHF virus areas, similar ecology and the isolation both viruses from the same pool of the ticks, the necessity for the use of the test-system for indication of the viruses, differential diagnosis and accumulation of the data concerning the role of Dhori virus in the human and farm animals pathology is discussed. PMID:12271723

L'vov, D N; Dzharkenov, A F; Aristova, V A; Kovtunov, A I; Gromashevski?, V L; Vyshemirski?, O I; Galkina, I V; Larichev, V F; Butenko, A M; L'vov, D K

2002-01-01

427

The complete sequence of a Singapore isolate of odontoglossum ringspot virus and comparison with other tobamoviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete sequence of a Singapore isolate of odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV-S1) comprises 6609 nucleotides (nt) and four open reading frames (ORFs 1 to 4). The 126\\/183-kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), 33-kDa movement protein (MP) and 18-kDa coat protein (CP) cistrons are located at nt 63-3401\\/4901, 4807–5718, and 5721–6197 on the genome, respectively. The 5? UTR contains three copies of

Chee-Giok Chng; Sek-Man Wong; Parvesh Hariram Mahtani; Chiang-Shiong Loh; Chong-Jin Goh; Mandy Chai-Chen Kao; Maxey Ching-Ming Chung; Yuichiro Watanabe

1996-01-01

428

Tissue culture technique for routine isolation of street strain rabies virus.  

PubMed Central

A tissue culture test for the primary isolation of street strain rabies virus from the brains of suspect animals was evaluated. It was found to be reliable and comparable in sensitivity to the standard mouse inoculation technique. The test, which yields final results in 48 h, was performed in BHK-21 cells on tissue culture chamber slides. The addition of diethylaminoethyl dextran to the cell suspension before seeding the slide promoted the subsequent viral invasiveness of positive test specimens. The method described may be considered as a substitute for the mouse inoculation test which is currently used as a backup to the fluorescent antibody test in the diagnosis of rabies. Images PMID:6999024

Rudd, R J; Trimarchi, C V; Abelseth, M K

1980-01-01

429

Study of oseltamivir and zanamivir resistance-related mutations in influenza viruses isolated from wild mallards in Sweden.  

PubMed

Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) is a growing problem in battle against influenza A virus. However, little is known about the resistance of viruses isolated from dabbling ducks, the natural reservoir of the influenza virus. To our knowledge, no low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus resistant to NAIs has been detected. The aim of this study was to investigate mallard isolates of influenza A virus previously identified to carry oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) or zanamivir (ZA) resistance-related mutations. In this work, 21 viruses belonging to the N1, N3, N6 and N9 subtypes were analyzed using a colorimetric NA inhibition assay. The results of assay showed no NAIs-resistant phenotype for any of the viruses. The R118K mutation was the most recurrent, as it was observed in all subtypes except for N6. IC50 values confirmed the differences in sensitivity to OC or ZA observed in the N1 and N2 groups of NAs. Furthermore, both wild types (WTs) in the N6 and one WT in the N9 subtype were less sensitive to ZA than were genotypically related mutants with R152K and R118K change in the respective subtypes. This may indicate that these and probably even other NAIs resistance-related mutations found in our virus collection were not induced by NAIs residuals in the environment and that the impact of such mutations in an avian influenza could be dependent on subtype, strain and host species. PMID:24558492

Orozovic, Goran; Orozovic, Kanita; Järhult, Josef D; Olsen, Björn

2014-01-01

430

Hepatitis B Virus Subgenotype A1: Evolutionary Relationships between Brazilian, African and Asian Isolates  

PubMed Central

Brazil is a country of low hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity in which the genotype A of HBV (HBV/A) is the most prevalent. The complete nucleotide sequences of 26 HBV/A isolates, originating from eight Brazilian states, were determined. All were adw2. Twenty-three belonged to subgenotype A1 and three to A2. By phylogenetic analysis, it was shown that all the 23 HBV/A1 isolates clustered together with isolates from Bangladesh, India, Japan, Nepal, the Philippines and United Arab Emirates, but not with those of Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Four amino acid residues in the polymerase (His138 in the terminal protein domain, Pro18 and His90 in the spacer, and Ser109 in the reverse transcriptase), and one (Phe17) in the precore region, predominated in Latin American and Asian HBV/A1 isolates, but were rarely encountered in African isolates, with the exception of those from Somalia. Specific variations of two adjacent amino acids in the C-terminal domain of the HBx protein, namely Ala146 and Pro147, were found in all the Brazilian, but rarely in the other HBV/A1 isolates. By Bayesian analysis, the existence of an ‘Asian-American’ clade within subgenotype A1 was supported by a posterior probability value of 0.996. The close relatedness of the Brazilian, Asian and Somalian isolates suggests that the HBV/A1 strains predominant in Brazil did not originate from the five million slaves who were imported from Central and Western Africa from 1551 to 1840, but rather from the 300–400,000 captives forcibly removed from southeast Africa at the middle of the 19th century. PMID:25122004

Lago, Bárbara V.; Mello, Francisco C.; Kramvis, Anna; Niel, Christian; Gomes, Selma A.

2014-01-01

431

Hepatitis B virus subgenotype A1: evolutionary relationships between Brazilian, African and Asian isolates.  

PubMed

Brazil is a country of low hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity in which the genotype A of HBV (HBV/A) is the most prevalent. The complete nucleotide sequences of 26 HBV/A isolates, originating from eight Brazilian states, were determined. All were adw2. Twenty-three belonged to subgenotype A1 and three to A2. By phylogenetic analysis, it was shown that all the 23 HBV/A1 isolates clustered together with isolates from Bangladesh, India, Japan, Nepal, the Philippines and United Arab Emirates, but not with those of Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Four amino acid residues in the polymerase (His138 in the terminal protein domain, Pro18 and His90 in the spacer, and Ser109 in the reverse transcriptase), and one (Phe17) in the precore region, predominated in Latin American and Asian HBV/A1 isolates, but were rarely encountered in African isolates, with the exception of those from Somalia. Specific variations of two adjacent amino acids in the C-terminal domain of the HBx protein, namely Ala146 and Pro147, were found in all the Brazilian, but rarely in the other HBV/A1 isolates. By Bayesian analysis, the existence of an 'Asian-American' clade within subgenotype A1 was supported by a posterior probability value of 0.996. The close relatedness of the Brazilian, Asian and Somalian isolates suggests that the HBV/A1 strains predominant in Brazil did not originate from the five million slaves who were imported from Central and Western Africa from 1551 to 1840, but rather from the 300-400,000 captives forcibly removed from southeast Africa at the middle of the 19th century. PMID:25122004

Lago, Bárbara V; Mello, Francisco C; Kramvis, Anna; Niel, Christian; Gomes, Selma A

2014-01-01

432

Molecular characterization of an infectious bronchitis virus strain isolated from northern China in 2012.  

PubMed

This study reports the complete genome sequence of an infectious bronchitis virus (CK/CH/SD/121220, KJ128295) isolated in 2012 from Shandong Province in northern China. The genome is 27,666 nt long, comprising six genes and 5' and 3' untranslated regions. The full-length genome of the CK/CH/SD/121220 isolate had the highest nucleotide sequence identity (96.7 %) to the YX10 strain. Sites of recombination were identified in the genes 1ab, S, 5a, 5b and N, with their putative parental strains belonging to the QX- and YN-type subgroups, which are already circulating in China. Our findings suggest an important role played by recombination in IBV evolution. PMID:25168045

Zhao, Ye; Liu, Xiao-yu; Cheng, Jin-long; Wu, Yan-ping; Zhang, Guo-zhong

2014-12-01

433

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) field isolates in Korea.  

PubMed

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused enteric disease with devastating impact since the first identification of PEDV in 1992 in Korea. In this study, we investigated molecular epidemiology, showed genetic diversity, and analyzed phylogenetic relationships of Korean PEDV field isolates with other PEDV reference strains. Genetic analysis of the complete M and ORF3 genes showed that each PEDV group had several unique characteristics, and this indicated that specific groups of PEDVs may be differentiated from the other PEDVs by specific nucleotide differences. Especially, ORF3 gene analysis can be used for discrimination between vaccine and wild-type PEDVs. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that recent, prevalent Korean PEDV field isolates have close relationships to Chinese field strains and differ genetically from European strains and vaccine strains used in Korea. These results raise questions as to whether a new type of PEDV vaccine may be necessary for preventing PEDV infection more effectively in Korea. PMID:21210162

Park, Seong-Jun; Kim, Hye-Kwon; Song, Dae-Sub; Moon, Hyoung-Joon; Park, Bong-Kyun

2011-04-01

434

Genetic relatedness of hepatitis A virus isolates during a community-wide outbreak.  

PubMed

In 1993-94, a community-wide outbreak of hepatitis A occurred in Stanislaus County, California. Stool specimens collected from a sample of 33 case patients were used to evaluate the duration of hepatitis A virus (HAV) excretion and the genetic relatedness of HAV isolates. Twenty-four percent of the patients had a stool sample positive for HAV antigen by enzyme immunoassay, whereas 91% had at least one stool positive for HAV RNA by RT-PCR amplification. Children were found to excrete low levels of HAV RNA for up to 10 weeks after the onset of symptoms. Analysis of the HAV VP1 amino terminus and VP1/P2A regions showed that a limited number of HAV isolates circulated during the epidemic and the majority of the cases were infected with the same strain. PMID:11002242

Robertson, B H; Averhoff, F; Cromeans, T L; Han, X h; Khoprasert, B; Nainan, O V; Rosenberg, J; Paikoff, L; DeBess, E; Shapiro, C N; Margolis, H S

2000-10-01

435

Complete genome sequence of three tomato ringspot virus isolates: evidence for reassortment and recombination.  

PubMed

The genome sequence of tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV, a subgroup C nepovirus) is currently available for one raspberry isolate. In this study, we describe the complete genome sequence of three additional isolates from raspberry (Rasp1-2014), grapevine (GYV-2014) and prunus (13C280). The degree of nucleotide sequence identity shared between RNA1 and RNA2 in the 5'-terminal 900 nucleotides and 3' untranslated region varied from 98-99 % (13C280, GYV-2014) to 80 % (Rasp1-2014). Phylogenetic studies revealed distinct origins for Rasp1-2014 RNA1 and RNA2, suggesting reassortment. Two recombination events were also identified in the 3' UTR and 5'-terminal region of RNA1. PMID:25267178

Walker, Melanie; Chisholm, Joan; Wei, Ting; Ghoshal, Basudev; Saeed, Hanna; Rott, Michael; Sanfaçon, Hélène

2015-02-01

436

Mammalian pathogenesis of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus isolated in South Korea.  

PubMed

Oseltamivir, a neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor, has been widely used for the treatment of patients infected with the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus. With the increasing use of oseltamivir, drug-resistant mutants emerged rapidly and 11 cases of resistant viruses were detected during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in South Korea. To better understand the differences between oseltamivir-susceptible and oseltamivir-resistant virus, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of the NA H275Y mutant virus, A/Gyeongnam/1820/2009, in ferrets and mice with those of oseltamivir-susceptible A/Korea/01/2009 virus. Oseltamivir-resistant virus infected ferrets showed mild clinical signs and the virus replicated well in the upper respiratory tract and slightly in the lower respiratory tract. No virus was detected in the extrapulmonary organs. Severe bronchopneumonia and thickening of alveolar walls were detected in the lungs. Viral antigens were detected mainly in the bronchiolar epithelial cells, cells present in the interstitial septa, pneumocytes and peribronchial glands with severe peribronchitis. A/Gyeongnam/1820/2009 virus-infected mice showed weight loss and the virus replicated in lungs with high titer. Histopathologically, the mice showed mild to moderate alveolitis, interstitial pneumonia and perivascular lymphoid tissue hyperplasia. In lungs, bronchiolar epithelial cells, pneumocytes and interstitial inflammatory cells were infected by influenza virus and trachea epithelial cells were the sites of infection. When compared with the results of A/Korea/01/2009 oseltamivir-susceptible pandemic influenza virus, an oseltamivir-resistant virus isolated in South Korea showed fewer pathogenic properties in ferrets and similar fitness in mice. PMID:24657788

Kwon, Donghyok; Shin, Kyeongcheol; Kim, Su-Jin; Lee, Joo-Yeon; Kang, Chun

2014-06-24

437

Isolation and Characterization of a Single-Stranded DNA Virus Infecting the Marine Diatom Chaetoceros sp. Strain SS628-11 Isolated from Western JAPAN  

PubMed Central

Diatoms are significant organisms for primary production in the earth's aquatic environment. Hence, their dynamics are an important focus area in current studies. Viruses are a great concern as potential factors of diatom mortality, along with other physical, chemical, and biological factors. We isolated and characterized a new diatom virus (Csp07DNAV) that lyses the marine planktonic diatom Chaetoceros sp. strain SS628-11. This paper examines the physiological, morphological, and genomic characteristics of Csp07DNAV. The virus was isolated from a surface water sample that was collected at Hiroshima Bay, Japan. It was icosahedral, had a diameter of 34 nm, and accumulated in the nuclei of host cells. Rod-shaped virus particles also coexisted in the host nuclei. The latent period and burst size were estimated to be <12 h and 29 infectious units per host cell, respectively. Csp07DNAV had a closed circular single-stranded DNA genome (5,552 nucleotides), which included a double-stranded region and 3 open reading frames. The monophyly of Csp07DNAV and other Bacilladnavirus group single-stranded DNA viruses was supported by phylogenetic analysis that was based on the amino acid sequence of each virus protein. On the basis of these results, we considered Csp07DNAV to be a new member of the genus Bacilladnavirus. PMID:24358139

Kimura, Kei; Tomaru, Yuji

2013-01-01

438

The genome of orf virus: Restriction endonuclease analysis of viral DNA isolated from lesions of orf in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The purification of orf virus directly from scab material from clinical cases of orf in sheep and restriction endonuclease analysis of the viral DNA is described. Between 7×109 and 1.6×1011 virus particles, and 0.7 to 22.8 µg of viral DNA could be recovered from lg of scab material. Considerable heterogeneity was observed between different field isolates when restriction endonuclease

A. J. Robinson; G. Ellis; T. Balassu

1982-01-01

439

The Surface Glycoproteins of H5 Influenza Viruses Isolated from Humans, Chickens, and Wild Aquatic Birds Have Distinguishable Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, 18 confirmed cases of human influenza arising from multiple independent transmissions of H5N1 viruses from infected chickens were reported from Hong Kong. To identify possible phenotypic changes in the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of the H5 viruses during interspecies transfer, we compared the receptor-binding properties and NA activities of the human and chicken H5N1 isolates from Hong

MIKHAIL MATROSOVICH; NANNAN ZHOU; YOSHIHIRO KAWAOKA; ROBERT WEBSTER; M. P. Chumakov

1999-01-01

440

Characterization of H5N1 influenza A viruses isolated during the 2003–2004 influenza outbreaks in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, between the end of December 2003 and March 2004, four outbreaks of acute, highly transmissible and lethal disease occurred in birds in three prefectures separated by 150–450 km, involving three chicken farms and a group of chickens raised as pets. The cause of each outbreak was an H5N1 influenza A virus—the first highly pathogenic virus to be isolated

Masaji Mase; Kenji Tsukamoto; Tadao Imada; Kunitoshi Imai; Nobuhiko Tanimura; Kikuyasu Nakamura; Yasunori Yamamoto; Toru Hitomi; Takuhiro Kira; Tadayoshi Nakai; Maki Kiso; Taisuke Horimoto; Yoshihiro Kawaoka; Shigeo Yamaguchi

2005-01-01

441

Molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from ruminants in Taiwan in 1999–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, 10 sporadic outbreaks of cattle foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) occurred in Taiwan. By the time, infection was limited to the Chinese yellow cattle (a native species of beef cattle in Mainland China), which did not develop vesicular lesions under field conditions. Five viruses isolates obtained from individual farms were confirmed to be the serotype O FMD virus (O\\/Taiwan\\/1999). During

Chin-Cheng Huang; Yeou-Liang Lin; Ten-Shiang Huang; Wen-Jeng Tu; Shu-Hwae Lee; Ming-Hwa Jong; Shih-Yuh Lin

2001-01-01

442

Full-Genome Sequence of a Reassortant H1N2 Influenza A Virus Isolated from Pigs in Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, the full-genome sequence of a reassortant H1N2 swine influenza virus is reported. The isolate has the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from human lineage (H1-? cluster and N2), and the internal genes (polymerase basic 1 [PB1], polymerase basic 2 [PB2], polymerase acidic [PA], nucleoprotein [NP], matrix [M], and nonstructural [NS]) are derived from human 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) virus. PMID:25523775

Schmidt, Candice; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Muterle Varela, Ana Paula; Mengue Scheffer, Camila; Wendlant, Adrieli; Quoos Mayer, Fabiana; Lopes de Almeida, Laura; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Roehe, Paulo Michel

2014-01-01

443

Full-Genome Sequence of a Reassortant H1N2 Influenza A Virus Isolated from Pigs in Brazil  

PubMed Central

In this study, the full-genome sequence of a reassortant H1N2 swine influenza virus is reported. The isolate has the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from human lineage (H1-? cluster and N2), and the internal genes (polymerase basic 1 [PB1], polymerase basic 2 [PB2], polymerase acidic [PA], nucleoprotein [NP], matrix [M], and nonstructural [NS]) are derived from human 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) virus. PMID:25523775

Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Muterle Varela, Ana Paula; Mengue Scheffer, Camila; Wendlant, Adrieli; Quoos Mayer, Fabiana; Lopes de Almeida, Laura; Franco, Ana Cláudia

2014-01-01

444

Novel Mutations in Reverse Transcriptase of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reduce Susceptibility to Foscarnet in Laboratory and Clinical Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foscarnet (phosphonoformic acid) is a pyrophosphate analog that inhibits the replication of human immu- nodeficiencyvirustype1(HIV-1)invitroandinpatientswithAIDS.HIV-1resistancetofoscarnethasnotbeen reported despite long-term foscarnet therapy of AIDS patients with cytomegalovirus disease. We therefore attempted to select foscarnet-resistant HIV-1 in vitro by serial endpoint passage of virus in 400 mM foscarnet. After 13 cycles of passage in MT-2 cells, virus exhibiting $8.5-fold foscarnet resistance was isolated.

JOHN W. MELLORS; HENGAMEH Z. BAZMI; RAYMOND F. SCHINAZI; BIRGIT M. ROY; YU HSIOU; EDWARD ARNOLD; JERRY WEIR; ANDDOUGLAS L. MAYERS