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1

Leakage flow-induced vibration of an eccentric tube-in-tube slip joint  

SciTech Connect

Eccentricity of a specific slip-joint design separating two cantilevered, telescoping tubes did not create any self-excited lateral vibrations that had not been observed previously for a concentric slip joint. In fact, the eccentricity made instabilities less likely to occur, but only marginally. Most important, design rules previously established to avoid instabilities for the concentric slip joint remain valid for the eccentric slip joint. 6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Mulcahy, T.M.

1985-08-01

2

Leakage-flow-induced vibration of a tube-in-tube slip joint. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility of a cantilevered tube conveying water to self-excitation by leakage flow through a slip joint is assessed experimentally. The slip joint is formed by inserting a smaller, rigid tube into the free end of the cantilevered tube. Variations of the slip joint annular gaps and engagement lengths are tested, and several mechanisms for self-excitation are described.

Mulcahy, T.M.

1983-06-01

3

Avoiding leakage flow-induced vibration by a tube-in-tube slip joint  

SciTech Connect

Parameters and operating conditions (a stability map) were determined for which a specific slip-joint design did not cause self-excited lateral vibration of the two cantilevered, telescoping tubes forming the joint. The joint design featured a localized annular constriction. Flowrate, modal damping, tube engagement length, and eccentric positioning were among the parameters tested. Interestingly, all self-excited vibrations could be avoided by following a simple design rule: place constrictions only at the downstream end of the annular region between the tubes. Also, overall modal damping decreased with increased flowrate, at least initially, for upstream constrictions while the damping increased for downstream constrictions.

Mulcahy, T.M.

1985-01-01

4

Joint slip in steel electric transmission towers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint slip is the relative displacement of a bolted joint under shear. It is greater in transmission towers as bolt diameters are small, members joined are thin, bearing type joints with a lower clamping force are used, and coefficient of friction of galvanized faying surfaces is low. This study on behaviour of such joints, incorporated 36 joint tests, generated joint

N Ungkurapinan; S. R. De S Chandrakeerthy; R. K. N. D Rajapakse; S. B Yue

2003-01-01

5

Tubular spring slip joint and jar  

SciTech Connect

The present invention comprises a pressure balanced tubular spring slip-joint and jar including a generally tubular outer housing having longitudinal slot means in the wall thereof, and a hammer area of increased wall thickness at one end thereof, within which housing slidably extends a jar mandrel means having first and second longitudinally spaced enlarged diameter anvil areas, at least one fastener tapped into one of those anvil areas, the heads of said fastener protruding into said slot means. Both said housing and said mandrel means possesses axial bores therethrough, which are placed in communication via the bore of a tubular spring within the housing, whereby during extension and contraction of the slip-joint and jar means of the present invention the area within said axial bores and said spring bore is of a constant volume. The invention may be employed to provide force impulses in either longitudinal direction, said tubular spring aiding the application of those impulses when said housing and said mandrel means move relatively toward each other. By proper selection of spring length and use of a coiled spring having spaced coils, the present invention may also be employed as a bi-directional shock absorber.

Heemstra, T. R.

1985-04-23

6

Joint coseismic and postseismic kinematic slip inversions in a Bayesian framework (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classic linear, kinematic, static slip inversion of geodetic data requires specification of a smoothing norm of slip parameters, a residual norm of the data, and a choice about the relative weight between the two norms and the relative weights of multiple data sets. Inversions for unknown fault geometry are nonlinear and therefore the fault geometry is often assumed to be known for the slip inversion problem. We present Bayesian, probabilistic inversion methods to invert simultaneously for fault slip and fault geometry and relative data weighting assuming a uniform stress drop over the slipping area of the fault. The method produces the posterior probability distribution of stress drop, fault geometry parameters, fault slip, and data weights. We apply the method to 2003 Cheng Kung, Taiwan earthquake, the 2010 Jiashian, Taiwan earthquake, and the 2004 Parkfield, California earthquake and compare with conventional slip slip inversion results. In each case, the conventional slip inversions and the uniform stress drop inversions produce overly smooth slip distributions because of the inherently poor resolution of slip at depth in static, kinematic inversions. We show that the resolution of coseismic slip can be improved by jointly inverting coseismic and postseismic displacements. We do this joint inversion assuming a uniform stress drop for the coseismic rupture and a full release of coseismic shear stress increase on the fault to compute the cumulative postseismic displacements. The joint inversion is conducted in the same probabilistic framework as the coseismic uniform stress drop inversion. In the case of the 2004 Parkfield and 2003 Cheng Kung earthquakes, the joint inversion results in more compact slip distributions and higher coseismic stress drops than the coseismic-only slip inversion.

Johnson, K. M.; Fukuda, J.; Sun, J.

2010-12-01

7

Lower extremity preventive measures for slipsjoint moments and myoelectric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the lower extremity preventive measures for slips on simulated slippery surfaces in construction worksites. A total of 15 harnessed Chinese males walked without slips on a 5-m walkway in 16 simulated conditions 10 times at their natural cadence. Joint moments were calculated from kinetics, kinematics and anthropometric data recorded from a force plate, a Novel Pedar system

Daniel Tik-Pui Fong; Youlian Hong; Jing-Xian Li

2008-01-01

8

EPOXIDATION OF SMALL ORGANIC MOLECULES USING A SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The commodity-scale epoxidation of several organic molecules has been carried out using a Spinning Tube-in-Tube (STTr) reactor (manufactured by Kreido Laboratories). This reactor, which embodies and facilitates the use of Green Chemistry principles and Process Intensification, a...

9

PROGRESS IN PROCESS INTENSIFICATION: SYNTHESIS OF IMINES USING A SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The high purity, high throughput synthesis of a number of imines (Schiff bases) using a spinning tube-in-tube reactor (STT, Kreido Laboratories, Camarillo, CA) has been carried out. The STT reactor allows the high throughput production of high purity imines from a wide variety of...

10

HIGH-SPEED DATA TRANSMISSION AND ROTARY PLATFORMS: SLIP RINGS, FIBER OPTIC ROTARY JOINTS, AND MULTIPLEXERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will review recent developments in slip ring and fiber optic rotary joint (FORJ) technology for the transmission of high -speed data on military vehicles. Computer systems that control military vehicles are incorporating Local Area Network (LAN) based architectures. In addition there is an increased sophistication in systems such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition (RSTA) and vehicle navigation

Glenn Dorsey

11

Role of individual lower limb joints in reactive stability control following a novel slip in gait  

PubMed Central

Instability after slip onset is a key precursor leading to subsequent falls during gait. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of reactive muscular response from individual lower limb joints on regaining stability control and impeding a novel, unannounced slip during the ensuing single-stance phase. Ten young adults’ resultant moments at three lower limb joints of both limbs, initially derived by an inverse-dynamics approach from empirical data, were optimized to accurately reproduce the original motion before being applied as input to the control variables of their individualized forward-dynamics model. Systematic alteration of the moments of each joint caused corresponding changes in the displacement and velocity of the center of mass (COM) and base of support (BOS) (i.e., their state variables, xCOM, ?COM, xBOS, ?BOS), and in the COM stability. The model simulation revealed that these joints had little influence on ?COM, but had substantial impact on ?BOS reduction, leading to improving the COM stability, mostly from knee flexors, followed by hip extensors, of the slipping limb. Per unit reactive increase in normalized knee flexor or hip extensor moments and per unit reactive reduction in commonly observed plantar-flexor moments could lead to as much as 57.72 ± 10.46 or 22.33 ± 5.55 and 13.09 ± 2.27 units of reduction in normalized ?BOS, respectively. In contrast, such influence was negligible from the swing limb during this period, irrespective of individual variability.

Yang, Feng; Pai, Yi-Chung

2010-01-01

12

Joint inversion of InSAR and teleseismic data for the slip history of the 1999 Izmit (Turkey) earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slip history of the Izmit earthquake is investigated by jointly inverting SAR and teleseismic data with a multi-segment, variable-slip, finite fault model. Surface offsets are used as an added constraint. The highest slip values (5 to 7 m of right-lateral displacement) are associated with a strong central asperity surrounding the hypocenter. The bilateral breaking of this main asperity, which

B. Delouis; P. Lundgren; J. Salichon; D. Giardini

2000-01-01

13

A Smooth Robust Nonlinear Controller for Robot Manipulators with Joint Stick-Slip Friction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a smooth robust nonlinear controller for the regulation of an n-degree-of-freedom rigid robot with internal joint stick-slip friction is presented. It is shown that not only positioning accuracy, but also smoothness of motion is improved through nonlinear feedback. The Lyapunov direct method is employed to prove the global stability of the closed-loop system. The desired accuracy can

L. Cai; G. Song

1993-01-01

14

Liquid antisolvent preparation of amorphous cefuroxime axetil nanoparticles in a tube-in-tube microchannel reactor.  

PubMed

This article presents the preparation of nanoparticles of amorphous cefuroxime axetil (CFA) in a microporous tube-in-tube microchannel reactor (MTMCR). The experimental results indicated that CFA particle with a tunable size of 400-1400 nm could be achieved under a high throughput in the range of 1.5-6L/min. The average particle size decreased with increasing overall volumetric flow rate and decreasing CFA concentration, micropore size, and annular channel width. The produced CFA nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XRD, FT-IR, DSC and a dissolution test, which indicated that the nanosized CFA was amorphous and exhibited higher dissolution rate compared to the raw CFA. The MTMCR might offer a general and facile pathway for mass production of the nanoparticles of hydrophobic pharmaceuticals thanks to its high throughput capacity and excellent micromixing performance. PMID:20493936

Zhu, Wen-Zhen; Wang, Jie-Xin; Shao, Lei; Zhang, Hai-xia; Zhang, Qian-xia; Chen, Jian-Feng

2010-05-21

15

COMMODITY SCALE SYNTHESIS OF 1-METHYLIMIDAZOLE BASED IONIC LIQUIDS USING A SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The continuous large-scale preparation of several 1-methylimidazole based ionic liquids was carried out using a Spinning Tube-in-Tube (STT) reactor (manufactured by Kreido Laboratories). This reactor, which embodies and facilitates the use of Green Chemistry principles and Proce...

16

Transformation-induced jointing as a gauge for interfacial slip and rock strength  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various theoretical and numerical models have been proposed in order to explain joint formation and spacing in layered rock series. However, most of these models assume that the interfaces between the rock layers are perfectly welded, i.e. no slip occurs, and that all the layers are subjected to the same remote strain due to various processes (e.g. tectonic processes). Other factors may also induce extensional strain in rocks, e.g. phase transformations. However, such processes may induce different amounts of strain on the layers in a rock series leading to a strain mismatch between these layers. In this paper, we present a 1-D finite difference linear elastic model which allows joint formation within the middle layer in a three-layer rock series and is induced by a strain mismatch between the fractured, central layer and the surrounding matrix. Furthermore, the central layer in our model is not necessarily welded to the matrix layers and is allowed to slip along the interfaces between these layers if the shear strength of the material at the interface is reached. We find that the final fracture spacing to layer thickness ratio ( S/Tf) in such layered systems is directly proportional to the ratio of the tensile and shear strength of the material. Changes in the material properties such as the shear modulus or Young's modulus do not affect these results. A natural analog of joint formation driven by phase transformations is found in the orthopyroxenite dykes of the Leka Ophiolite Complex (LOC), Norway. Joint formation in orthopyroxenite dykes results from serpentinization-driven expansion of the surrounding dunite matrix. Detailed field studies and measurements (583 sample points) yield S/Tf ratios between 0.1 and 1.0 with a mean value of 0.45 ± 0.20. We demonstrate that the strain mismatch-driven joint formation associated with interfacial slip explains the low S/Tf ratios obtained from field measurements and may also help us constrain rock strength.

Iyer, Karthik; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.

2009-04-01

17

Large-scale preparation of barium sulphate nanoparticles in a high-throughput tube-in-tube microchannel reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

One method for increasing productivity of a microreactor is presented without demanding numbering-up processes by using a newly proposed microporous tube-in-tube microchannel reactor (MTMCR) with a high throughput of 9L\\/min. Barium sulphate nanoparticles with an average size of 37nm and a narrow size distribution were successfully produced in MTMCR. The size of barium sulphate particles was strongly dependent on the

Qi-An Wang; Jie-Xin Wang; Min Li; Lei Shao; Jian-Feng Chen; Lin Gu; Yong-Tao An

2009-01-01

18

SnO? tube-in-tube nanostructures: Cu@C nanocable templated synthesis and their mutual interferences between heavy metal ions revealed by stripping voltammetry.  

PubMed

SnO2 tube-in-tube nanostructures are synthesized using Cu@C nanocables as effective sacrificial templates. It is revealed by stripping voltammetry that SnO2 tube-in-tube nanostructures show excellent performances in the determination of heavy metal ions, which might be related to the extraordinary adsorbing capacities of the hollow structure to metal ions, i.e., metal ions could diffuse into the interior of tubular structure. PMID:23364917

Chen, Xing; Liu, Zhong-Gang; Zhao, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

2013-01-31

19

In situ modifying of carbon tube-in-tube nanostructures with highly active Fe2O3 nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel in situ method based on a liquid membrane templated self-assembly process is employed to modify carbon tube-in-tube nanostructures (TTCNTs) with Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The as-obtained Fe2O3 modified TTCNTs (Fe2O3/TTCNTs) nanocomposites are well constructed and the Fe2O3 nanoparticles are well dispersed and decorated on the outer, inner and intramolecular surfaces of TTCNTs. In addition, the Fe2O3/TTCNTs nanocomposites are employed as catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 and show high SCR catalytic activity, indicating that the novel multiple intramolecular channels and unique surface chemistry of the TTCNTs should play an important role in improving the properties of TTCNTs.

Bai, Shuli; Zhao, Jianghong; Du, Guixiang; Zheng, Jianfeng; Zhu, Zhenping

2008-05-01

20

IN-SITU MONITORING OF PRODUCT STREAMS FROM A SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE REACTOR USING A METTLER-TOLEDO REACT-IR  

EPA Science Inventory

A Mettler-Toledo ReactIR system has been used for in-line, real-time monitoring of the product stream from a spinning tube-in-tube reactor (STT®, Kreido Laboratories, Camarillo California). This combination of a process intensified continuous-flow reactor and an in-situ analytic...

21

A performance evaluation method of preformed joint sealant: Slip-down failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various preformed joint sealants (PJS) can be used for joint concrete pavement (JCP) to prevent the JCP from distresses such as pumping and faulting. Even though PJS have an important role in concrete pavement structures, most of the test methods that assess PJS focus on evaluating their basic mechanical and chemical properties rather than performance-related properties. In this study, a

Taeyoung Yun; Oleg Lee; Seung Woo Lee; In Tai Kim; Yoon-Ho Cho

2011-01-01

22

Ozonation of azo dye Acid Red 14 in a microporous tube-in-tube microchannel reactor: decolorization and mechanism.  

PubMed

The ozonation of synthetic wastewater containing azo dye Acid Red 14 (AR 14) was investigated in a high-throughput microporous tube-in-tube microchannel reactor. The effects of design and operating parameters such as micropore size, annular channel width, liquid volumetric flow rate, ozone-containing gas volumetric flow rate, initial pH of the solution and initial AR 14 concentration on decolorization efficiency and ozone utilization efficiency were studied with the aim to optimize the operation conditions. An increase of the ozone-containing gas or liquid flow rate could greatly intensify the gas-liquid mass transfer. Reducing the micropore size and the annular channel width led to a higher mass transfer rate and was beneficial to decolorization. Decolorization efficiency increased with an increasing ozone-containing gas volumetric flow rate, as well as a decreasing liquid volumetric flow rate and initial AR 14 concentration. The optimum initial pH for AR 14 ozonation was determined as 9.0. The degradation kinetics was observed to be a pseudo-first-order reaction with respect to AR 14 concentration. The difference between the decolorization and COD removal efficiency indicated that many intermediates existed in AR 14 ozonation. The formation of six organic intermediates during ozonation was detected by GC/MS, while the concentration of nitrate and sulfate ions was determined by ion chromatography. The possible degradation mechanism of AR 14 in aqueous solution was proposed. PMID:22704973

Gao, Meiping; Zeng, Zequan; Sun, Baochang; Zou, Haikui; Chen, Jianfeng; Shao, Lei

2012-06-15

23

Controllable fabrication of TiO(2) 1D-nano/micro structures: solid, hollow, and tube-in-tube fibers by electrospinning and the photocatalytic performance.  

PubMed

The solid, hollow, and tube-in-tube porous nanofiber structures of TiO(2) are synthesized successfully by a simple non-coaxial electrospinning method without using a complicated coaxial jet head, combined with adjusting the concentration of the TiO(2) precursor and the pinhole diameter of the jet head and by final calcination. The formation mechanisms of different structured TiO(2) fibers are discussed in detail. This method is facile and effective, and easy to scale up. Furthermore, it is a versatile method for constructing tube-in-tube fibers of other metal oxides such as ZrO(2) , SiO(2) , SnO(2) , and In(2) O(3) . The photocatalytic activity of tubular TiO(2) nanofibers for the degradation of 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol under UV or visible-light irradiation is better than the one of commercial available TiO(2) powder, rutile, and anatase TiO(2) fibers. PMID:22806770

Lang, Leiming; Wu, Di; Xu, Zheng

2012-07-16

24

Coseismic Fault Slip Rupture from the Joint Inversion of Teleseismic, Local Strong-Motion and CGPS Related to the 2010 Jia-Shian Earthquake in Southwestern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jia-Shian earthquake (Mw=6.3) occurred on 04th March 2010 in the southwestern Taiwan. We used the waveforms of teleseismics to identify the strike, dip and rake of focal mechanism are 311/33/37. Furthermore, we explored the strike, dip and rake are 316/40/44 on the first pulse of the teleseismic P wave. We also took account of the Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) data for the coseismic offset. The maximum horizontal and vertical (uplift) of coseismic offsets at the surface are 29.8mm± 1.0mm and 30.6mm± 5.1mm, respectively at station GS51. Moreover, the space and time distribution of slip during the coseismic rupture was modeled by the joint inversion, which includes the CGPS coseismic offset, the teleseismic, and near field seismic records. We identified the faults geometry and reconstructed the rupture process of coseismic faults slip. The initial rupture was generated on the northwest - southeast trending fault and propagated to the northeast - southwest trending structure after 5 s of main shock. Their strike, dip and rake are 311/33/37 and 020/25/108, respectively. The average slip of rupture was 20.1 cm, with the maximum slip of 50.4 cm. The rupture of the seismic moment was 4.0 × 10 ^ 25 dyne-cm in 30 s of duration time.The slip rupture constrained the synthetic data quite well, especially for the CGPS coseismic offset. We inferred the Jia-Shian earthquake took place on blind fault and the northeast - southwest trending structure was activated following the rupture on main northwest - southeast trending fault.

Lin, Kuan-Chuan; Delouis, Bertrand; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Mozziconacci, Laetitia; Bethoux, Nicole

2013-04-01

25

Stress- and aftershock-constrained joint inversions for coseismic and postseismic slip applied to the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both aftershocks and geodetically measured postseismic displacements are important markers of the stress relaxation process following large earthquakes. Postseismic displacements can be related to creep-like relaxation in the vicinity of the coseismic rupture by means of inversion methods. However, the results of slip inversions are typically non-unique and subject to large uncertainties. Therefore, we explore the possibility to improve inversions by mechanical constraints. In particular, we take into account the physical understanding that postseismic deformation is stress-driven, and occurs in the coseismically stressed zone. We do joint inversions for coseismic and postseismic slip in a Bayesian framework in the case of the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake. We perform a number of inversions with different constraints, and calculate their statistical significance. According to information criteria, the best result is preferably related to a physically reasonable model constrained by the stress-condition (namely postseismic creep is driven by coseismic stress) and the condition that coseismic slip and large aftershocks are disjunct. This model explains 97% of the coseismic displacements and 91% of the postseismic displacements during day 1-5 following the Parkfield event, respectively. It indicates that the major postseismic deformation can be generally explained by a stress relaxation process for the Parkfield case. This result also indicates that the data to constrain the coseismic slip model could be enriched postseismically. For the 2004 Parkfield event, we additionally observe asymmetric relaxation process at the two sides of the fault, which can be explained by material contrast ratio across the fault of ˜1.15 in seismic velocity.

Wang, Lifeng; Hainzl, Sebastian; ZöLler, Gert; Holschneider, Matthias

2012-07-01

26

Slip Distributions Of The 2004 Off Kii-peninsula Earthquakes (Mw 7.3, 7.5) Estimated By Joint Inversion Using Tsunami Waveforms And Crustal Deformation Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 5 September 2004, two earthquakes (Mw 7.3, 7.5) occurred at off the Kii-peninsula. Both earthquakes generated a large tsunami recorded at tide gauges along the Pacific coast of Honshu, ocean bottom pressure gauges and a GPS tsunami gauge. The crustal deformation on land had been observed by the continuous GPS observation system(GEONET) operated by Geographical Survey Institute(GSI), and the ocean bottom crustal deformation near the epicenters had been observed by the Observation System for Ocean Bottom Crustal Deformation operated by Nagoya University (http://www.seis.nagoya-u.ac.jp/~tadokoro/obcd.gaiyou.html). In this study, we estimated the slip distribution of two events by joint inversion of tsunami waveforms and horizontal crustal deformation data. We used tsunami waveforms observed at 6 tide gauge stations, 7 ocean bottom pressure gauges, a GPS tsunami gauge. We also used horizontal crustal deformation data observed at 151 GPS sites and one Observation System for Ocean Bottom Crustal Deformation. For this earthquake, two different fault models, fault model1 by Yamanaka (http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/sanchu/Seismo_Note/2004/EIC153.html) and fault model2 by Yagi (http://iisee.kenken.go.jp/staff/yagi/eq/Japan20 040905/Japan20040905_1-j.html), are suggested using seismic waveform analysis. The fault models we used in this study are referred to these two fault models. The slip distribution of two earthquakes were estimated by using tsunami waveforms from two earthquakes and the coseismic horizontal displacement data which include the displacements of both earthquakes. The observed tsunami waveforms were equally explained by the synthetic waveforms calculated from fault model1 and fault model2. However, the observed crustal deformation data are well explained by the computed data from the fault model2, but not by those from the fault model1. The slip distribution using the fault model2 estimated by joint inversion shows that the maximum slip amount of the first event is 1.3m, that of the second event is 3.2m. The seismic moments of the first and second events are 5.0x1019[Nm](Mw=7.1), 1.7x1020[Nm](Mw=7.4) respectively.

Kusunose, T.; Tanioka, Y.; Satake, K.; Baba, T.; Hirata, K.; Iwasaki, S.; Kato, T.; Koshimura, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Imakiire, T.

2005-12-01

27

Fault Slip Rates in the Western U.S. From a Joint Fit to Geologic Offsets, GPS Velocities, and Stress Directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I merge the SCEC, WGCEP, PBO, & WSM community datasets in neotectonic deformation models for the western US. In California I use: (1) fault traces, dips, and slip senses from WGCEP Fault Models 2.1 or 2.2; (2) fault offset rates and uncertainties obtained by Bird [2007, Geosphere, 3(6)] from offsets in the USGS Paleosites Database; (3) a 2006 California joint GPS solution for interseismic benchmark velocities by Shen, King, Wang, and Agnew; and (4) stress-direction indicators from World Stress Map. In other western United States I use: (5) my collection of fault traces and offset rates as documented in Bird [2007]; and (6) selected GPS velocities from PBO. All are fit by weighted least-squares in kinematic F-E program NeoKinema. As described previously, this program (a) interpolates stress directions to determine their uncertainties, (b) attempts to minimize off-fault strain-rates and align them with stress, and (c) iteratively corrects geodetic velocities from short-term to long-term using local dislocation-in-halfspace corrections. All datasets can be fit at a common level of 1.8 standard errors (RMS or N2 norm). If "acceptable" fit is defined as N2 < 2 for all datasets, there is a range of acceptable models, defining a range of long-term fault slip rates and (anelastic) continuum strain-rates. In preferred model GCN2008060, the mean long-term slip rates for trains of the San Andreas fault are (SE to NW): Coachella 15 mm/a, San Gorgonio Pass-Garnet Hill 6, San Bernardino South 12, San Bernardino North 19, Mojave South 16, Mojave North 17, Big Bend 15, Carrizo 25, Cholame 26, Parkfield 31, Creeping 29, Santa Cruz Mt. 23, Peninsula 18, North Coast 16, and Offshore 9 mm/a. Up to Cajon Pass, these all agree with 2007 WGCEP [2008], but my Mojave N and S and Big Bend rates are much slower, my Carrizo and Cholame rates are marginally slower, and my North Coast and Offshore rates are much slower. These differences are due to greater amounts of permanent (anelastic) straining off the mapped fault traces in NeoKinema, relative to the elastic-microplate models of 2007 WGCEP [2008]. I have not been able to lower the RMS continuum strain rate in these models below 5×10-16 /s (=1.6%/Ma). Such distributed straining results from gaps and geometric incompatibilities in the fault network and from geologic/geodetic discrepancies. This straining probably also occurs on faults (which are not part of WGCEP Fault Models), and it probably also produces earthquakes.

Bird, P.

2008-12-01

28

Joints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hinge joints move only in one direction, ball-and-socket joints are free to rotate in all directions, and gliding joints are able to move forward, backward, and side to side, but do not rotate freely.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

29

Partitioning Slip  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity consists of four exercises that deal with the partitioning of slip within scenarios involving two or more faults. The first three are hypothetical situations; the last activity focuses on the plate boundary in southern California.

30

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: ultrasonographic findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is an uncommon skeletal disorder of adolescence often overlooked because of its nonspecific clinical presentation. Anteroposterior radiography may fail to demonstrate a minimal slip even when clinical examination raises suspicion of the disease. On the other hand, prompt diagnosis is essential to obtain better therapeutic results. In our patient population joint effusion, which often accompanies

A. Castriota-Scanderbeg; E. Orsi

1993-01-01

31

The role of pressure solution seam and joint assemblages in the formation of strike-slip and thrust faults in a compressive tectonic setting; The Variscan of south-western Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ross Sandstone in County Clare, Ireland, was deformed by an approximately north-south compression during the end-Carboniferous Variscan orogeny. The initial assemblage consists of mutually abutting orthogonal arrays of 170° oriented set 1 joints/veins (JVs) and approximately 75° oriented set 1 pressure solution seams (PSSs) formed under the same stress conditions. Orientations of splay JVs and PSSs (set 2) suggest a clockwise remote stress rotation of about 35° responsible for the contemporaneous shearing of the set 1 arrays. Among these nearly orthogonal strike-slip faults, the prominent set is sub-parallel to set 1 JVs. These faults are formed by the linkage of en-echelon segments with broad damage zones responsible for right-lateral offsets of hundreds of meters. Thrust faults with up to 30 m of offset initiate within shale horizons and follow either the PSSs in the sandstones or high-angle shales within tilted sequences. Within the large thrust fault zones, compartmentalised blocks of rocks are bounded by thrust faults segments with various dip angles. Strike-slip and thrust faults are contemporaneous and owe their existence to initial weaknesses in the form of JVs and PSSs rather than by switching relative stress magnitudes and orientations associated with Andersonian models of faults and related stress orientations.

Nenna, Filippo; Aydin, Atilla

2011-11-01

32

Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator  

DOEpatents

A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell. 8 figs.

Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; DePoy, D.

1998-06-30

33

Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator  

DOEpatents

A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

Ashcroft, John (Scotia, NY); Campbell, Brian (Scotia, NY); DePoy, David (Clifton Park, NY)

1998-01-01

34

A tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator  

DOEpatents

A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; Depoy, D.

1996-12-31

35

Earthquake Slip Classroom Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore the 'stick-slip' mechanism of earthquake generation. They will learn about the concepts of stick-slip sliding, static friction, energy conversion, and the elastic properties of materials. Students work together to develop and test a hypothesis, make measurements, graph and write a short report on the results.

36

Slip: How it Happens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquids do not always obey the no-slip condition: the liquid and the adjacent boundary can be in relative motion. The amount of slip is often presented as a slip length, which is an average over all molecules adjacent to the boundary. Hence, the molecular-level detail of how the liquid molecules traverse over the solid surface is lost. For example, the same slip length can arise due to the fast motion of a few molecules as well as from the slow drift of many molecules. We present data from molecular dynamics simulations which shows how liquids slip. At low shear rates, only a small percentage of the molecules at the liquid-solid interface participate in slip: the creation of a vacancy at the liquid-solid interface precipitates a sequence of molecular hops which can be described in terms of the propagation of a local nonlinear mode along the interface. At high shear rates, there is a global motion in which all molecules at the interface contribute. There is a well-defined bifurcation from defect slip to global slip. This transition can be controlled through choice of channel geometry, lattice orientation and liquid properties.

Martini, Ashlie; Lichter, Seth; Snurr, Randall; Wang, Jane

2007-11-01

37

Well slip assemblies  

SciTech Connect

There is disclosed an hydraulically set well packer wherein sleeves carried about a tubular member which is connected as part of a tubing string are adapted to be moved from axially extended to axially retracted position in order to expand packing and slip elements carried about one of the sleeves into engagement with the well bore in which the string is disposed. The packer also includes means which forms an atmospheric chamber including a piston on one of the sleeves, and a means for locking the sleeves in retracted position is disposed within such chamber. The slip assembly carried by the packer includes upper and lower bowls and upper and lower sets of interconnected slips which are carried by the bowls for sliding thereover between radially contracted and expanded positions in response to movement of the slip bowls toward and away from one another as the sleeves move between extended and retracted positions.

Akkerman, N.H.

1984-04-03

38

SlipKnot Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SlipKnot (w/o SLIP) MicroMind, New York, NY, US SlipKnot is a graphical World Wide Web browser specifically designed for Microsoft Windows users who have UNIX shell accounts with their service providers. Its primary feature is that it does not require SLIP or PPP or TCP/IP services. SlipKnot is distributed as restricted shareware, with a registration fee.

39

Slip casting under pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of a pressure during slip casting increases the rate of material deposition and enables larger pieces to be fabricated. In this study, this process has been further developed using monolithic Al2O3 and Al2O3-SiC composites. Slip casting formulations based on both dispersed and coagulated slurries have been analyzed. Excellent results are achieved using coagulated slurries, with no cracking present after drying. The effect of pressure is to increase the green density with a consequent increase in the fired density. In addition, homogeneous microstructures are achieved in the composite system, despite the large difference in particle size used.

Grazzini, H. H.; Wilkinson, D. S.

1992-08-01

40

Well slip assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is disclosed an hydraulically set well packer wherein sleeves carried about a tubular member which is connected as part of a tubing string are adapted to be moved from axially extended to axially retracted position in order to expand packing and slip elements carried about one of the sleeves into engagement with the well bore in which the string

Akkerman

1984-01-01

41

Limited slip differential  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a limited slip differential for a vehicle comprising a casing adapted to be driven; a pair of side gears; a pinion gear retained within the casing and engaging the side gears to form a differential gear mechanism; a pinion mate shaft supporting pinion gear and having a cam portion; a pair of pressure rings retained within the

K. Ozaki; S. Torii; T. Jindo; T. Imaseki

1987-01-01

42

Slip on Superhydrophobic Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the use of the combination of surface roughness and hy- drophobicity for engineering large slip at the fluid-solid interface. These su- perhydrophobic surfaces were initially inspired by the unique water-repellent properties of the lotus leaf and can be employed to produce drag reduction in both laminar and turbulent flows, enhance mixing in laminar flows, and amplify diffusion-osmotic

Jonathan P. Rothstein

2010-01-01

43

Effects of slip and separation on seismic SSI response of nuclear reactor building  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seismic soil–structure interaction response of a nuclear reactor building requires modeling of the soil–structure interface. It allows slip and separation at the interface that affects the behavior and response of the reactor. The joint elements used to model the soil–structure interface, require incorporation of appropriate joint stiffness so that slip and separation phenomena take place under the warranted conditions.

Navjeev Saxena; D. K. Paul; Ram Kumar

2011-01-01

44

Rotary power slips  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes rotary power slips, for use in the rotary table of an earth drilling rig, comprising: a body; slip means carried on the body for gripping and releasing pipe in a pipe opening in a rotary table; a stationary air transfer ring supported by the body, and having a primary fluid conduit for connection to a stationary fluid source on the drilling rig, and having a transverse upper surface with at least two concentric grooves; an annular seal ring secured to the body and having a transverse lower surface and an air passageway; expansive means including an expansive ring having inner and outer edges mounted in the grooves on the upper surface of the air transfer ring and cooperative with the lower surface of the seal ring for forming an annular expansive fluid duct to conduct fluid between the primary fluid conduit and the air passageway; a fluid cylinder mounted on the body and fluidly connected to a secondary fluid conduit through the body to the air passageway for raising and lowering the slip means in response to fluid flow through the primary fluid conduit, the air passageway, and the secondary fluid conduit; and a retainer ring in each of the grooves on the upper surface of the air transfer ring, compressed against one of the edges of the expansive ring for locking the expansive ring in place.

Crowe, W.E.

1987-07-21

45

The frictional properties of joints in rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The conditions for sliding over artificial joint surfaces have been studied experimentally by cutting rock cylinders at various angles to their axes and studying slip over these surfaces in a triaxial testing apparatus. The types of joint used were: (i) filled with plaster to simulate a soft joint filling, (ii) bare surfaces ground approximately flat, and (iii) natural surfaces

J. C. Jaeger

1959-01-01

46

Caught in the slips.  

PubMed

We report a case where a patient slipped from the operating table during positioning for a laparoscopic colectomy. This occurred due to failure of the Velcro holding the mattress to the operating table. On further inspection, although the amount of Velcro was satisfactory to hold the patient, it had failed due to a combination of its poor positioning, table design and the build up of 'fluff' on the Velcro from the use of incorrect cleaning products. The episode was reported as a critical incident and review lead to the implementation of changes across theatres to prevent such an episode happening again. PMID:22753299

Griffin, James David; Donovan, Andrew; Hollister, Nigel

2010-05-13

47

[Slipped capital femoral epiphysis].  

PubMed

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is characterized by displacement of the capital femoral epiphysis from the metaphysis through the physis. The term is confusing, because the metaphysis moves upward and outward while the epiphysis remains in the acetabulum. The SCFE is considered stable when the child is able to walk with or without crutches, and it is considered unstable when the child cannot walk with or without crutches. Patients with SCFE present with pain in the groin, knee and limp. The current treatment of stable SCFE is in situ stabilization with a single screw. PMID:23594949

Martínez-Álvarez, S; Martínez-González, C; Miranda Gorozarri, C; Abril, J C; Epeldegui, T

2012-09-24

48

Stabilizing Stick-Slip Friction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even the most regular stick-slip frictional sliding is always stochastic, with irregularity in both the intervals between slip events and the sizes of the associated stress drops. Applying small-amplitude oscillations to the shear force, we show, experimentally and theoretically, that the stick-slip periods synchronize. We further show that this phase locking is related to the inhibition of slow rupture modes

Rosario Capozza; Shmuel M. Rubinstein; Itay Barel; Michael Urbakh; Jay Fineberg

2011-01-01

49

Continuous spatio-temporal inversion of Cascadia ETS transient slip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The moment magnitudes of nearly 50 previous GPS-observable ETS events from 1992 through 2011 range from 5.9 (smallest resolvable with GPS) to 6.8, with typically 5 mm of resolvable deformation accompanied by 70-250 hours of tremor registered by regional seismic arrays. However, smaller tremor bursts are routinely observed that are not accompanied by visible GPS signals, but may constitute up to half of the total tremor identified. It has been previously noted that moment release appears to be linear with respect to tremor duration; this implies that slip also accompanies smaller tremor bursts but at levels too small to produce resolvable surface deformation. A complete estimation of tremor-related slip therefore requires that we include slip estimates of the smaller bursts alongside the larger, GPS-resolvable events. We have implemented a Kalman filter to continuously invert all available GPS time series since 1992 for time-dependent, transient slip along the plate interface. In previous static inversions, ETS-related transient deformation is estimated as the amplitude of a time-determined Heaviside function joint with other signal parameters (steady-state strain accumulation, seasonal signals, earthquakes, hardware changes, etc); the Heaviside amplitudes are then inverted for slip subsequently in a static inversion. In the Kalman filter, by contrast, the straight time series are input into the filter, whose observation and transition equations contain the elastic Greens functions as well as statistical constraints on the variance of the various state elements (slip, seasonal trends, etc). We assume no functional form for the slip evolution (meaning slip state variance is loosely constrained), and all available GPS stations are used to constrain slip at any given time. The filter is run only as a forward filter at the given time. As with previous static inversions, we find little slip inferred up-dip of the 25 km depth contour, nor down-dip of the 40 km depth contour. We find somewhat (15%) more slip than one would compute by summing slip distributions from discrete, GPS-resolvable events, which is to be expected. The lack of moment release up-dip of 25 km continues to support the inference that future coseismic rupture in the OR-WA region may extend to 25 km depth.

Melbourne, T. I.; Szeliga, W.; Scrivner, C. W.; Santillan, V. M.

2011-12-01

50

Small sized slip-ring capsule endurance testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slip-ring capsules are mechanical units used to carry electrical signals or power currents through a rotating joint. They are used either in solar array drive mechanisms (SADM) or in scientific instruments like radiometers. Analyses of the latest missions show that the slip-rings requirements are more and more demanding. For example, the number of in-orbit mechanical cycles keeps increasing. As a result, a signal slip-ring technology, which had been successfully tested for a given need, now has to improve its performances. It was therefore interesting to try to reach the slip-rings technical limits by testing them beyond the required performance of already known space missions. Slip-rings units are currently used in mechanisms such as SADM for the CNES Proteus and Myriade satellite family. They can be also found in the payload instruments of the Megha-Tropiques satellite project, namely Madras and Scarab. A selected hardware was tested at the mechanism endurance laboratory of the CNES, in Toulouse. The typical in-orbit rotation speed was increased in order to limit the test duration to 2 years. The main interest of this work was to provide a continuous slip-ring performance status and a large set of engineering data. The main test results are presented and discussed. The following lines also report a part of the hardware detailed inspection and the lessons learned.

Mondier, Jean-Bernard

2005-07-01

51

{110} Slip with {112} slip traces in bcc Tungsten.  

PubMed

While propagation of dislocations in body centered cubic metals at low temperature is understood in terms of elementary steps on {110} planes, slip traces correspond often with other crystallographic or non-crystallographic planes. In the past, characterization of slip was limited to post-mortem electron microscopy and slip trace analysis on the sample surface. Here with in-situ Laue diffraction experiments during micro-compression we demonstrate that when two {110} planes containing the same slip direction experience the same resolved shear stress, sharp slip traces are observed on a {112} plane. When however the {110} planes are slightly differently stressed, macroscopic strain is measured on the individual planes and collective cross-slip is used to fulfill mechanical boundary conditions, resulting in a zig-zag or broad slip trace on the sample surface. We anticipate that such dynamics can occur in polycrystalline metals due to local inhomogeneous stress distributions and can cause unusual slip transfer among grains. PMID:23989456

Marichal, Cecile; Van Swygenhoven, Helena; Van Petegem, Steven; Borca, Camelia

2013-08-30

52

Are non-slip socks really 'non-slip'? An analysis of slip resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Non-slip socks have been suggested as a means of preventing accidental falls due to slips. This study compared the relative slip resistance of commercially available non-slip socks with other foot conditions, namely bare feet, compression stockings and conventional socks, in order to determine any traction benefit. Methods Phase one involved slip resistance testing of two commercially available non-slip socks and one compression-stocking sample through an independent blinded materials testing laboratory using a Wet Pendulum Test. Phase two of the study involved in-situ testing among healthy adult subjects (n = 3). Subjects stood unsupported on a variable angle, inclined platform topped with hospital grade vinyl, in a range of foot conditions (bare feet, non-slip socks, conventional socks and compression stockings). Inclination was increased incrementally for each condition until slippage of any magnitude was detected. The platform angle was monitored using a spatial orientation tracking sensor and slippage point was recorded on video. Results Phase one results generated through Wet Pendulum Test suggested that non-slip socks did not offer better traction than compression stockings. However, in phase two, slippage in compression stockings was detected at the lowest angles across all participants. Amongst the foot conditions tested, barefoot conditions produced the highest slip angles for all participants indicating that this foot condition provided the highest slip resistance. Conclusion It is evident that bare feet provide better slip resistance than non-slip socks and therefore might represent a safer foot condition. This study did not explore whether traction provided by bare feet was comparable to 'optimal' footwear such as shoes. However, previous studies have associated barefoot mobilisation with increased falls. Therefore, it is suggested that all patients continue to be encouraged to mobilise in appropriate, well-fitting shoes whilst in hospital. Limitations of this study in relation to the testing method, participant group and sample size are discussed.

Chari, Satyan; Haines, Terrence; Varghese, Paul; Economidis, Alyssia

2009-01-01

53

Slip flow on a microcylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with uniform axial flow of a gas along a semi-infinite microcylinder in the slip regime. Following Glauert and Lighthill (Proc R Soc 230A:188-203, 1955), the effect of slip on the skin friction is investigated by employing an asymptotic series approach for large axial distances along the cylinder.

Crane, L. J.; McVeigh, A. G.

2010-06-01

54

Wall slip of molten polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable experimental evidence that the classical no-slip boundary condition of fluid mechanics is not always a valid assumption for the flow of high molecular weight molten polymers. In fact, molten polymers slip macroscopically at solid surfaces when the wall shear stress exceeds a critical value. Moreover, for linear polymers there exists a second critical wall shear stress value

Savvas G. Hatzikiriakos

55

Advances in hip preservation after slipped capital femoral epiphysis.  

PubMed

The metaphyseal deformity, in even a mild slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), results in acetabular labral and cartilage injury. SCFE is the most extreme form of femoroacetabular impingement, and the mechanism of cartilage and labral injuries is similar. Recent surgical advances for treating femoroacetabular impingement have made it possible to consider applying these techniques to the surgical treatment of SCFE deformities to lessen the risk of secondary osteoarthritis. The goals of treatment are to arrest slip progression and restore normal proximal femoral anatomy, thereby decreasing damage to the hip joint secondary to impingement. In situ pinning is the most effective treatment to halt short-term slip progression; outcomes are favorable in many hips. In medical centers with substantial experience with hip preservation techniques, open or arthroscopic osteochondroplasty can be used to treat mild SCFE, and a modified Dunn epiphyseal reorientation can be used for more severe deformities to decrease the potential for secondary osteoarthritis. PMID:23395046

Morakis, Emmanouil; Sink, Ernest L

2013-01-01

56

A Reduced Order, One Dimensional Model of Joint Response  

SciTech Connect

As a joint is loaded, the tangent stiffness of the joint reduces due to slip at interfaces. This stiffness reduction continues until the direction of the applied load is reversed or the total interface slips. Total interface slippage in joints is called macro-slip. For joints not undergoing macro-slip, when load reversal occurs the tangent stiffness immediately rebounds to its maximum value. This occurs due to stiction effects at the interface. Thus, for periodic loads, a softening and rebound hardening cycle is produced which defines a hysteretic, energy absorbing trajectory. For many jointed sub-structures, this hysteretic trajectory can be approximated using simple polynomial representations. This allows for complex joint substructures to be represented using simple non-linear models. In this paper a simple one dimensional model is discussed.

DOHNER,JEFFREY L.

2000-11-06

57

46 CFR 56.30-40 - Flexible pipe couplings of the compression or slip-on type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Flexible pipe couplings of the compression or slip-on type...Joints § 56.30-40 Flexible pipe couplings of the compression or slip-on type. (a) Flexible pipe couplings of the compression or...

2009-10-01

58

46 CFR 56.30-40 - Flexible pipe couplings of the compression or slip-on type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Flexible pipe couplings of the compression or slip-on type...Joints § 56.30-40 Flexible pipe couplings of the compression or slip-on type. (a) Flexible pipe couplings of the compression or...

2010-10-01

59

Secular Variation in Slip (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faults show temporal variations in slip rate at time scales ranging from the hours following a major rupture to the millions of years over which plate boundaries reorganize. One such behavior is secular variation in slip (SVS), which we define as a pulse of accelerated strain release along a single fault that occurs at a frequency that is > 1 order of magnitude longer than the recurrence interval of earthquakes within the pulse. Although numerous mechanical models have been proposed to explain SVS, it has proven much harder to measure long (5-500 kyr) records of fault displacement as a function of time. Such fault-slip histories may be obtained from morphochronologic data, which are measurements of offset and age obtained from faulted landforms. Here we describe slip-history modeling of morphochronologic data and show how this method holds promise for obtaining long records of fault slip. In detail we place SVS in the context of other types of time-varying fault-slip phenomena, explain the importance of measuring fault-slip histories, summarize models proposed to explain SVS, review current approaches for measuring SVS in the geologic record, and illustrate the slip-history modeling approach we advocate here using data from the active, left-slip Altyn Tagh fault in NW Tibet. In addition to SVS, other types of temporal variation in fault slip include post-seismic transients, discrepancies between geologic slip rates and those derived from geodetic and/or paleoseismic data, and single changes in slip rate resulting from plate reorganization. Investigating secular variation in slip is important for advancing understanding of long-term continental deformation, fault mechanics, and seismic risk. Mechanical models producing such behavior include self-driven mode switching, changes in pore-fluid pressure, viscoelasticity, postseismic reloading, and changes in local surface loads (e.g., ice sheets, large lakes, etc.) among others. However, a key problem in testing these models is the paucity of long records of fault slip. Paleoseismic data are unlikely to yield such histories because measurements of the slip associated with each event are generally unavailable and long records require large accumulated offsets, which can result in structural duplication or omission of the stratigraphic records of events. In contrast, morphochronologic data capture both the age and offset of individual piercing points, although this approach generally does not resolve individual earthquake events. Because the uncertainties in both age and offset are generally large (5-15%) for individual markers, SVS is best resolved by obtaining suites of such measurements, in which case the errors can be used to reduce the range of slip histories common to all such data points. A suite of such data from the central Altyn Tagh fault reveals a pulse of accelerated strain release in the mid Holocene, with ~20 m of slip being released from ~6.7 to ~5.9 ka at a short-term rate (~28 mm/yr) that is 3 times greater than the average rate (~9 mm/yr). We interpret this pulse to represent a cluster of two to six, Mw > 7.2 earthquakes. To our knowledge, this is the first possible earthquake cluster detected using morphochronologic techniques.

Cowgill, E.; Gold, R. D.

2010-12-01

60

Limited slip differential  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a limited slip differential for a vehicle comprising a casing adapted to be driven; a pair of side gears; a pinion gear retained within the casing and engaging the side gears to form a differential gear mechanism; a pinion mate shaft supporting pinion gear and having a cam portion; a pair of pressure rings retained within the casing having grooves engaged with the cam portion; a pair of friction clutches interposed between the pressure rings and the casing; and means for selectively applying a preload to the friction clutches through control of fluid pressure; a housing within which the casing is retained; a pair of roller bearings rotatably supporting the casing on the housing; and a pair of reaction plates having annular body portions mounted on the casing for movement axially of the casing but against rotation relative to same; each has a portion disposed outside of the casing and a portion projecting inside to engage corresponding one of the friction clutches; and one of the reaction plated rotatably supported on the housing and the other operatively connected to the means to receive a fluid pressure.

Ozaki, K.; Torii, S.; Jindo, T.; Imaseki, T.

1987-07-14

61

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis caused by neurogenic heterotopic ossification.  

PubMed

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is rare in nonambulatory patients, as mechanical factors play important roles in the development of the disease. We report a case of SCFE, which occurred in a 12-year-old girl with a nonambulatory status after cerebral infarction. SCFE occurred after she received passive range of motion exercise and extracorporeal shock wave treatment for neurogenic heterotopic ossification around the hip joint. The patient was successfully managed by a stepwise approach, with radiological and clinical improvements. PMID:23969564

Chang, Sam Yeol; Yoo, Won Joon; Park, Moon Seok; Chung, Chin Youb; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon

2013-11-01

62

Micro/macro-slip damping in beams with frictional contact interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Friction in contact interfaces of assembled structures is the prime source of nonlinearity and energy dissipation. Determination of the dissipated energy in an assembled structure requires accurate modeling of joint interfaces in stick, micro-slip and macro-slip states. The present paper proposes an analytical model to evaluate frictional energy loss in surface-to-surface contacts. The goal is to develop a continuous contact model capable of predicting the dynamics of friction interface and dissipation energy due to partial slips. To achieve this goal, the governing equations of a frictional contact interface are derived for two distinct contact states of stick and partial slip. A solution procedure to determine stick-slip transition under single-harmonic excitations is derived. The analytical model is verified using experimental vibration test responses performed on a free-frictionally supported beam under lateral loading. The theoretical and experimental responses are compared and the results show good agreements between the two sets of responses.

Asadi, K.; Ahmadian, H.; Jalali, H.

2012-10-01

63

Blood Flow, Slip, and Viscometry  

PubMed Central

The viscosity of blood, measured by the usual viscometers in which slip is not considered, is found to be flow dependent, varying markedly with shear rate, pressure gradient, and vessel diameter in the lower ranges of these factors. The study postulates, on grounds thought reasonable, that slip may be present in blood flow, as a function of the nature of the wall surfaces, shear stress at the wall, and relative cell volume (RCV) adjacent to the wall. It presumes that blood possesses a specific, flow-independent viscosity, and determines theoretically the viscosity indications of viscometers if blood slipped in the instruments. The study shows that if the slip function is of a certain plausible form, these viscosity indications would exhibit a flow dependence of much the same pattern as the actual indications supplied by the usual viscometers. The slip postulate permits, therefore, an interpretation of the “anomalous” flow behavior of blood, dispensing with the prevailing assumption of an ad hoc variability of its viscosity with flow factors. To the extent that viscometric data for blood may be representative of other non-newtonian fluids, the slip postulate may be applicable to these fluids.

Nubar, Yves

1971-01-01

64

Realization of quick turn of biped humanoid robot by using slipping motion with both feet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a fast turning method for a humanoid robot by using slipping motion with both feet. The humanoid robot, WABIAN-2R, has achieved human-like walking with heel contact and toe off motions by using a human-like foot mechanism with a passive toe joint. The human-like foot enables a robot to turn by using slipping motion between the feet and

Kenji Hashimoto; Yuki Yoshimura; Hideki Kondo; Hun-ok Lim; Atsuo Takanishi

2011-01-01

65

Improved Modeling of Structural Joint Damping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to develop a better model of damping that occurs in structural joints due to coulomb friction when rotational slip occurs in the joints. A one-dimensional, indirect formulation, of the Boundary Element Method(BEM) is develope...

G. L. Leiker

1986-01-01

66

Interfacial Slip in Soap Films with Hydrosoluble Polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thickness of a Newtonian soap film entrained at small capillary number should scale as Ca^2/3 provided the bounding surfaces are rigid. Previous studies show that soap films containing associating, low concentration, high molecular weight (M_w) polymer exhibit strong deviations from this scaling. We report results by laser interferometry of the entrained film thickness for the associating pair SDS/PEO over a large range in polymer molecular weight. Direct comparison to predictions of hydrodynamic models based on viscoelastic behavior shows poor agreement.Modification of the Frankel analysis to account for mobile films through a Navier slip condition yields good agreement. In addition, the slip length Ls increases as M_w^3/5, consistent with a correlation based on a polymer chain size for freely jointed chains with excluded volume effects. Although developed to explain slip at liquid-solid interfaces, the Tolstoi-Larson prediction that Ls scales as the polymer size agrees favorably with our results. Whether the slip behavior is due to Marangoni effects cannot be ruled out.

Adelizzi, E. A.; Berg, S.; Troian, S. M.

2003-11-01

67

An analysis of a joint shear model for jointed media with orthogonal joint sets; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a joint shear model used in conjunction with a computational model for jointed media with orthogonal joint sets. The joint shear model allows nonlinear behavior for both joint sets. Because nonlinear behavior is allowed for both joint sets, a great many cases must be considered to fully describe the joint shear behavior of the jointed medium. An extensive set of equations is required to describe the joint shear stress and slip displacements that can occur for all the various cases. This report examines possible methods for simplifying this set of equations so that the model can be implemented efficiently form a computational standpoint. The shear model must be examined carefully to obtain a computationally efficient implementation that does not lead to numerical problems. The application to fractures in rock is discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Koteras, J.R.

1991-10-01

68

Computational analysis of slip in PETN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of slip over two entire planes in crystalline PETN was performed. It showed that slip on 100 must always result in contacts of 1.2 (Angstrom) or less. In contrast, slip on 110 can occur without such close approaches. Molecular modeling of slip supposed to be stimulated by shocks was also performed. It was found that slip was more difficult (that is costly in energy) and led to greater molecular distortions in the sensitive direction than the insensitive direction. Extensive molecular deformation occurred during slip along either of the directions examined. This information has contributed to our knowledge of the molecular distortions occurring during slip, and may be useful in trying to unravel reactivity patterns. Additional investigations are being performed to examine slip along other directions. Also, dynamical calculations simulating the shock and the motions it induces are in progress.

Ritchie, J. P.

69

Slip instability and state variable friction laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependence of the friction on slip history is described by an experimentally motivated constitutive law where the friction is dependent on slip rate and state variables. The state variables are defined macroscopically by evolution equations for their rates of change in terms of their present values and slip rate. Experiments may strongly suggest that one state variables is adequate

Andy Ruina

1983-01-01

70

Kinking of shallow dip-slip zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional crack model is used to investigate the effect of the free surface on the propagation of kink cracks that develop at the tip of dip-slip shear zones. The slip zones undergo frictional sliding under tectonic loading with the presence of the gravitational force. Because the numerical scheme incorporates the exact asymptotic form of slip near the end of

Murugesu Jeyakumaran

1995-01-01

71

Liquid slip on a nanostructured surface.  

PubMed

We explored a liquid slip, referred to as the Navier slip, at liquid-solid interface. Such a slip is provoked by the physicochemical features of the liquid-solid system. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of a nanoengineered surface structure on liquid slip by fabricating the self-assembly structure of nano Zinc oxide (n-ZnO). We have also examined how the liquid-solid surface interaction controlled by hydrophobic chemical treatment affects the liquid slip. The findings showed that liquid slip increases with decreasing the characteristic length scales (e.g., channel height and depth), resulting in drag reduction. It was also found that dewetted (Cassie) state due to the generation of air gap developed by n-ZnO was more critical for the liquid slip than the minimization of interface interaction. The linear and nonlinear Navier slip models showed that liquid slip behavior is more obvious when increasing the nonlinearity. This study will contribute to understanding of the underlying physics behind fluid slip phenomena, such as the Navier slip for Newtonian liquids and Maxwell's slip for Newtonian gases. PMID:22717057

Lee, Doo Jin; Cho, Ki Yeon; Jang, Soohwan; Song, Young Seok; Youn, Jae Ryoun

2012-07-05

72

Static stress drop associated with brittle slip events on exhumed faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate the static stress drop on small exhumed strike-slip faults in the Lake Edison granodiorite of the central Sierra Nevada (California). The subvertical strike-slip faults were exhumed from 4 to 15 km depth and were chosen because they are exposed in outcrop along their entire tip-to-tip lengths of 8-12 m. Slip nucleated on joints and accumulated by crystal-plastic shearing (forming quartz mylonites from early quartz vein filling in joints) and successive brittle faulting (forming epidote-bearing cataclasites). The occurrence of thin, ?300 ?m wide, pseudotachylytes along some small faults throughout the study area suggests that some, if not all, of the brittle slip on the study area faults may have been seismic. We suggest that the contribution of brittle, cataclastic slip to the total slip along the studied cataclasite-bearing small faults may be estimated by the length of epidote-filled, rhombohedral dilatational jogs (rhombochasms) distributed quasi-periodically along the length of the faults. The interpretation that slip recorded by rhombochasms occurred in single events is based on evidence that (1) epidote crystals are randomly oriented and undeformed within the rhombochasm; (2) cataclasite in principal slip zones does not include clasts of previous cataclasite, and (3) rhombochasm lengths vary systematically along the length of the faults with slip maximum occurring near the fault center, tapering to the fault tips. We thereby constrain both the rupture length and slip. On the basis of these measurements, we calculate stress drops ranging over 90-250 MPa, i.e., one to two orders of magnitude larger than typical seismological estimates for earthquakes, but similar in magnitude to seismological estimates of small (slip events described in the present study occurred along small, deep-seated faults, and, given the calculated stress drops and observations that brittle faults exploited joints sealed by quartz-bearing mylonite, we conclude that these were "strong" faults.

Griffith, W. A.; di Toro, G.; Pennacchioni, G.; Pollard, D. D.; Nielsen, S.

2009-02-01

73

Coseismic and postseismic slip of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake from space-geodetic data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We invert interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data jointly with campaign and continuous global positioning system (GPS) data for slip in the coseismic and postseismic periods of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. The InSAR dataset consists of eight interferograms from data collected by the Envisat and Radarsat satellites spanning the time of the earthquake and variable amounts of the postseismic period. The two datasets complement each other, with the InSAR providing dense sampling of motion in the range direction of the satellite and the GPS providing more sparse, but three-dimensional measurements of ground motion. The model assumes exponential decay of the postseismic slip with a decay time constant of 0.087 years, determined from time series modeling of continuous GPS and creepmeter data. We find a geodetic moment magnitude of M 6.2 for a 1-day coseismic model and Mw 6.1 for the entire postseismic period. The coseismic rupture occurred mainly in two slip asperities; one near the hypocenter and the other 15-20 km north. Postseismic slip occurred on the shallow portions of the fault and near the rupture areas of two M 5.0 aftershocks. A comparison of the geodetic slip models with seismic moment estimates suggests that the coseismic moment release of the Parkfield earthquake is as little as 25% of the total. This underlines the importance of aseismic slip in the slip budget for the Parkfield segment.

Johanson, I. A.; Fielding, E. J.; Rolandone, F.; Burgmann, R.

2006-01-01

74

Peristaltic transport in a slip flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuum-mechanic derivation of the entrainment of rarefied gases induced by a surface wave along walls (or peristaltic transport) in a confined parallel-plane microchannel is conducted by the perturbation method. Both no-slip and slip flow cases are investigated with the former ones matched with the previous approach by Fung and Yih. Critical reflux values due to first order slip-flow effects become trivial for the free pumping case, and decrease due to second order slip-flow effects after we compared them with no-slip cases.

Kwang-Hua Chu, W.; Fang, J.

2000-08-01

75

Geodetic, teleseismic, and strong motion constraints on slip from recent southern Peru subduction zone earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use seismic and geodetic data both jointly and separately to constrain coseismic slip from the 12 November 1996 Mw 7.7 and 23 June 2001 Mw 8.5 southern Peru subduction zone earthquakes, as well as two large aftershocks following the 2001 earthquake on 26 June and 7 July 2001. We use all available data in our inversions: GPS, interferometric synthetic

M. E. Pritchard; E. O. Norabuena; C. Ji; R. Boroschek; D. Comte; M. Simons; T. H. Dixon; P. A. Rosen

2007-01-01

76

Fault roughness evolution with slip (Gole Larghe Fault Zone, Italian Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault surface roughness is a principal factor influencing fault and earthquake mechanics. However, little is known on roughness of fault surfaces at seismogenic depths, and particularly on how it evolves with accumulating slip. We have studied seismogenic fault surfaces of the Gole Larghe Fault Zone, which exploit precursor cooling joints of the Adamello tonalitic pluton (Italian Alps). These faults developed at 9-11 km and 250-300°C. Seismic slip along these surfaces, which individually accommodated from 1 to 20 m of net slip, resulted in the production of cm-thick cataclasites and pseudotachylytes (solidified melts produced during seismic slip). The roughness of fault surfaces was determined with a multi-resolution aerial and terrestrial LIDAR and photogrammetric dataset (Bistacchi et al., 2011, Pageoph, doi: 10.1007/s00024-011-0301-7). Fault surface roughness is self-affine, with Hurst exponent H < 1, indicating that faults are comparatively smoother at larger wavelengths. Fault surface roughness is inferred to have been inherited from the precursor cooling joints, which show H ? 0.8. Slip on faults progressively modified the roughness distribution, lowering the Hurst exponent in the along-slip direction up to H ? 0.6. This behaviour has been observed for wavelengths up to the scale of the accumulated slip along each individual fault surface, whilst at larger wavelengths the original roughness seems not to be affected by slip. Processes that contribute to modify fault roughness with slip include brittle failure of the interacting asperities (production of cataclasites) and frictional melting (production of pseudotachylytes). To quantify the "wear" due to these processes, we measured, together with the roughness of fault traces and their net slip, the thickness and distribution of cataclasites and pseudotachylytes. As proposed also in the tribological literature, we observe that wearing is scale dependent, as smaller wavelength asperities have a shorter interaction distance and are consumed faster with slip than larger ones. However, in faults, production of cataclasites and pseudotachylytes changes the contact area of sliding surfaces by interposing a layer of wear products. This layer may preserve from wearing asperities that are smaller in amplitude than the layer thickness, thus providing a mechanism that is likely to preserve small amplitude/wavelength roughness. These processes have been considered in a new spectral model of wear, which allows to model wear for self-affine surfaces and includes the accumulation of wear products within the fault zone. This model can be used to generalize our results and contribute to reconstruct a realistic model of a seismogenic fault zone (http://roma1.rm.ingv.it/laboratori/laboratorio-hp-ht/usems-project).

Bistacchi, A.; Spagnuolo, E.; Di Toro, G.; Nielsen, S. B.; Griffith, W. A.

2011-12-01

77

Stick-Slip Vibrations and Chaos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stick-slip vibrations are self-sustained oscillations induced by dry friction. They occur in engineering systems as well as in our everyday life, e.g. the sound of bowed instruments results from stick-slip vibrations of the strings. Two discrete and two continuous models of stick-slip systems have been investigated in this paper, which exhibit rich bifurcational and chaotic behaviour. Results from numerical simulations

K. Popp; P. Stelter

1990-01-01

78

Fault slip distribution and fault roughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present analysis of the spatial correlations of seismological slip maps and fault topography roughness, illuminating their identical self-affine exponent. Though the complexity of the coseismic spatial slip distribution can be intuitively associated with geometrical or stress heterogeneities along the fault surface, this has never been demonstrated. Based on new measurements of fault surface topography and on statistical analyses of kinematic inversions of slip maps, we propose a model, which quantitatively characterizes the link between slip distribution and fault surface roughness. Our approach can be divided into two complementary steps: (i) Using a numerical computation, we estimate the influence of fault roughness on the frictional strength (pre-stress). We model a fault as a rough interface where elastic asperities are squeezed. The Hurst exponent ?, characterizing the self-affinity of the frictional strength field, approaches ?, where ? is the roughness exponent of the fault surface in the direction of slip. (ii) Using a quasi-static model of fault propagation, which includes the effect of long-range elastic interactions and spatial correlations in the frictional strength, the spatial slip correlation is observed to scale as ?, where ? represents the Hurst exponent of the slip distribution. Under the assumption that the origin of the spatial fluctuations in frictional strength along faults is the elastic squeeze of fault asperities, we show that self-affine geometrical properties of fault surface roughness control slip correlations and that ?. Given that ? for a wide range of faults (various accumulated displacement, host rock and slip movement), we predict that ?. Even if our quasi-static fault model is more relevant for creeping faults, the spatial slip correlations observed are consistent with those of seismological slip maps. A consequence is that the self-affinity property of slip roughness may be explained by fault geometry without considering dynamical effects produced during an earthquake.

Candela, Thibault; Renard, François; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Bouchon, Michel; Brodsky, Emily E.

2011-11-01

79

Naive model for stick-slip processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a tutorial description of stick-slip in soft materials (rubber beads, gels) where inertial effects are negligible. A typical example is a rubber sphere, pressed against a glass surface (JKR contact). The sphere is driven from the top at a prescribed velocity U (˜ 100 ?m/s). At moderate U (and with suitable surface treatment) a periodic stick-slip regime is often observed. We present a simple picture of the stick-slip cycle, describing the growth of a slip zone from the rear end of the sample, and the resulting plot of force vs. time. All our estimates are restricted to scaling laws.

Brochard-Wyart, F.; de Gennes, P.-G.

2007-08-01

80

Slip Development and Instability on a Heterogeneously Loaded Fault with Power-Law Slip-Weakening  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider slip initiation and rupture instability on planar faults that follow a non-linear slip-weakening relation and are subjected to a locally peaked loading stress, the level of which changes quasi-statically in time. For the case in which strength weakens linearly with slip, Uenishi and Rice [2002] (http:\\/\\/esag.harvard.edu\\/uenishi\\/research\\/nl\\/nl.html) have shown there exists a universal length of the slipping region at

J. R. Rice; K. Uenishi

2002-01-01

81

Stick and slip actuators (SSA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stick and Skip Actuators (SSA) are particularly well adapted to micro- robotics. A simple design, a very high intrinsic resolution (a few nanometers) and a high rigidity make them especially interesting in high precision micro-manipulations. Moreover, a smart design allows to combine the guiding and actuating function. The mechanical interface between the piezo-elements and the guiding mechanisms in an important point of the stick and slip actuators. The design of this interface and the choice of the material are very important. Both aspects have an impact on the rigidity, which has an influence on the behavior of the actuator. They have also an incidence onf the reliability (lifetime) because the design gives the contact condition and the material the wear resistance. In addition, a loading system allowing to keep the mechanical contact at this interface has a direct effect on the contact pressure. In order to confirm the performance of SSA, prototypes have been developed at the ISR. Their designs have bene made for application in optical microscopy, for manipulators in industrial assembly of micro- engineering products, for micro-factory, chemical and bio-engineering equipment for research or routine tasks, such as testing, screening etc. This paper presents a short description of several SSA made by the IRS and describes the parameters characterizing the stick and slip motion and the mechanical interface.

Schmitt, Carl; Breguet, Jean-Marc; Bergander, Arvid; Clavel, Reymond

2000-10-01

82

Episodic Tremor and Slip on the Cascadia Subduction Zone: The Chatter of Silent Slip  

Microsoft Academic Search

We found that repeated slow slip events observed on the deeper interface of the northern Cascadia subduction zone, which were at first thought to be silent, have unique nonearthquake seismic signatures. Tremorlike seismic signals were found to correlate temporally and spatially with slip events identified from crustal motion data spanning the past 6 years. During the period between slips, tremor

Garry Rogers; Herb Dragert

2003-01-01

83

Preseismic fault slip and earthquake prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that preseismic fault creep may be the underlying process that is responsible for observations of earthquake precursors. The assertion that fault creep precedes earthquakes is supported by evidence from at least some earthquakes and by analogy with detailed laboratory observations. Laboratory observations of stick slip reveal that at least two stages of preseismic slip are an intrinsic

J. H. Dieterich

1978-01-01

84

Slip compensation for a Mars rover  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system that enables continuous slip compensation for a Mars rover has been designed, implemented, and field-tested. This system is composed of several components that allow the rover to accurately and continuously follow a designated path, compensate for slippage, and reach intended goals in high-slip environments. These components include: visual odometry, vehicle kinematics, a Kalman filter pose estimator, and a

Daniel M. Helmick; Yang Cheng; Daniel S. Clouse; Max Bajracharya; Larry H. Matthies; Stergios I. Roumeliotis

2005-01-01

85

PC program speeds slip-velocity calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Basic program is presented here to calculate drill cutting slip velocity and transport ratio using Moore's and Chien's correlations. A computer program has been developed for calculating slip velocity from both Chien's and Moore's equations. Because the flow behavior is so complex, observation and experience are often used to determine the lifting ability of the drilling fluid. This usually

M. S. Bizanti; S. Robinson

1988-01-01

86

Nearly parallel Blasius flow with slip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

?Boundary layer due to a horizontal moving plate with wall slip in a uniform free steam. Limiting case of slightly different speeds of the plate and the free stream. Perturbation solution of order two. Under high slip, flow becomes almost parallel.

Kumaran, V.; Pop, I.

2011-12-01

87

SLIP PREVENTION IN WALKING - LOWER EXTREMITY BIOMECHANICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the human slip prevention strategies when walking on slippery surfaces. Fifteen male subjects performed, level walking without slips under sixteen simulated construction site environments. Kinematics, kinetics and electromyography parameters were collected. The slipperiness of the walkway conditions were quantified by the dynamic coefficient of friction (DCOF). Gait changes in slippery condition included prolonged force and pressure exertion

Daniel Tik-Pui Fongl; Youlian Hong; Jing-Xian U; Kai-Ming Chan

88

Episodic tremor and slip on the Cascadia subduction zone: the chatter of silent slip.  

PubMed

We found that repeated slow slip events observed on the deeper interface of the northern Cascadia subduction zone, which were at first thought to be silent, have unique nonearthquake seismic signatures. Tremorlike seismic signals were found to correlate temporally and spatially with slip events identified from crustal motion data spanning the past 6 years. During the period between slips, tremor activity is minor or nonexistent. We call this associated tremor and slip phenomenon episodic tremor and slip (ETS) and propose that ETS activity can be used as a real-time indicator of stress loading of the Cascadia megathrust earthquake zone. PMID:12738870

Rogers, Garry; Dragert, Herb

2003-05-08

89

Structured surfaces for a giant liquid slip.  

PubMed

We study experimentally how two key geometric parameters (pitch and gas fraction) of textured hydrophobic surfaces affect liquid slip. The two are independently controlled on precisely fabricated microstructures of posts and grates, and the slip length of water on each sample is measured using a rheometer system. The slip length increases linearly with the pitch but dramatically with the gas fraction above 90%, the latter trend being more pronounced on posts than on grates. Once the surfaces are designed for very large slips (>20 microm), however, further increase is not obtained in regular practice because the meniscus loses its stability. By developing near-perfect samples that delay the transition from a dewetted (Cassie) to a wetted (Wenzel) state until near the theoretical limit, we achieve giant slip lengths, as large as 185 microm. PMID:18764458

Lee, Choongyeop; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Chang-Jin Cj

2008-08-05

90

Structured Surfaces for a Giant Liquid Slip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study experimentally how two key geometric parameters (pitch and gas fraction) of textured hydrophobic surfaces affect liquid slip. The two are independently controlled on precisely fabricated microstructures of posts and grates, and the slip length of water on each sample is measured using a rheometer system. The slip length increases linearly with the pitch but dramatically with the gas fraction above 90%, the latter trend being more pronounced on posts than on grates. Once the surfaces are designed for very large slips (>20?m), however, further increase is not obtained in regular practice because the meniscus loses its stability. By developing near-perfect samples that delay the transition from a dewetted (Cassie) to a wetted (Wenzel) state until near the theoretical limit, we achieve giant slip lengths, as large as 185?m.

Lee, Choongyeop; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Chang-Jin “Cj”

2008-08-01

91

The Effect of Galvanizing and of Other Surface Treatments on High Tensile Bolts and Bolted Joints.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study deals with the effect of galvanizing and other surface treatments on bolted joints. It is thought that galvanizing structural joints will affect the tightening of the bolts and also change the slip characteristics of the joint. These two problem...

G. C. Brookhart I. H. Siddigi D. D. Vasarhelyi

1966-01-01

92

Small World Property of a Rock Joint(Complexity of Frictional Interfaces: A Complex Network Perspective)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shear strength and stick-slip behavior of a rough rock joint are analyzed using the complex network approach. We develop a network approach on correlation patterns of void spaces of an evolvable rough fracture (crack type II). Correlation among networks properties with the hydro -mechanical attributes (obtained from experimental tests) of fracture before and after slip is the direct result

Hamed O. Ghaffari; M. Sharifzadeh; E. Evgin

2010-01-01

93

Influence of wall slip in dilute suspensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Navier's (1823) slip condition, where the tangential velocity is proportional to the shear stress, may apply at micro-scales for a viscous liquid on walls with modified surfaces, e.g. hydrophobic ones in water. Experiments by Lumma et al (2003) show the difficulties involved in measuring such a slip. At small scales, particle-wall hydrodynamic interactions are important. They are modeled here for a dilute suspension of spherical solid particles near a slip wall. Consider a translating and rotating sphere (on which the no-slip condition applies) in an ambient parabolic flow. Analytical solutions of Stokes equations for the various elementary flow fields were obtained (Feuillebois et al 2009, 2011) as series in bispherical coordinates. The coefficients in the series are solutions of an infinite linear system, which is solved by an extension of Thomas' algorithm, allowing to calculate a large number of terms. Accurate results are available for the force, torque and stresslet on a sphere, velocity of a freely moving sphere and diffusion tensor. The Aris-Taylor dispersion of Brownian particles in a shear flow near a slip wall gives a large bias in the measurement of slip (Vinogradova et al, 2009). It is calculated here from the advection-diffusion equation, using the expressions for the particle velocity and diffusion tensor near a slip wall.

Feuillebois, François; Ghalya, Néjiba; Sellier, Antoine; Elasmi, Lassaad

2012-12-01

94

Effective slip-length tensor for a flow over weakly slipping stripes.  

PubMed

We discuss the flow past a flat heterogeneous solid surface decorated by slipping stripes. The spatially varying slip length, b(y), is assumed to be small compared to the scale of the heterogeneities, L, but finite. For such weakly slipping surfaces, earlier analyses have predicted that the effective slip length is simply given by the surface-averaged slip length, which implies that the effective slip-length tensor becomes isotropic. Here we show that a different scenario is expected if the local slip length has steplike jumps at the edges of slipping heterogeneities. In this case, the next-to-leading term in an expansion of the effective slip-length tensor in powers of max[b(y)/L] becomes comparable to the leading-order term, but anisotropic, even at very small b(y)/L. This leads to an anisotropy of the effective slip and to its significant reduction compared to the surface-averaged value. The asymptotic formulas are tested by numerical solutions and are in agreement with results of dissipative particle dynamics simulations. PMID:24032921

Asmolov, Evgeny S; Zhou, Jiajia; Schmid, Friederike; Vinogradova, Olga I

2013-08-08

95

Effective slip-length tensor for a flow over weakly slipping stripes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the flow past a flat heterogeneous solid surface decorated by slipping stripes. The spatially varying slip length, b(y), is assumed to be small compared to the scale of the heterogeneities, L, but finite. For such weakly slipping surfaces, earlier analyses have predicted that the effective slip length is simply given by the surface-averaged slip length, which implies that the effective slip-length tensor becomes isotropic. Here we show that a different scenario is expected if the local slip length has steplike jumps at the edges of slipping heterogeneities. In this case, the next-to-leading term in an expansion of the effective slip-length tensor in powers of max[b(y)/L] becomes comparable to the leading-order term, but anisotropic, even at very small b(y)/L. This leads to an anisotropy of the effective slip and to its significant reduction compared to the surface-averaged value. The asymptotic formulas are tested by numerical solutions and are in agreement with results of dissipative particle dynamics simulations.

Asmolov, Evgeny S.; Zhou, Jiajia; Schmid, Friederike; Vinogradova, Olga I.

2013-08-01

96

Maximum slip in earthquake fault zones, apparent stress, and stick-slip friction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The maximum slip, observed or inferred, for a small patch within the larger fault zone of an earthquake is a remarkably well-constrained function of the seismic moment. A large set of maximum slips, mostly derived from slip models of major earthquakes, indicate that this parameter increases according to the cube root of the seismic moment. Consistent with this finding, neither the average slip rate for the patches of maximum slip nor the apparent stresses of earthquakes show any systematic dependence on seismic moment. Maximum average slip rates are several meters per second independent of moment and, for earthquakes in continental crustal settings, the apparent stress is limited to about 10 MPa. Results from stick-slip friction experiments in the laboratory, combined with information about the state of stress in the crust, can be used to predict, quite closely, the maximum slips and maximum average slip rates within the fault zones of major earthquakes as well as their apparent stresses. These findings suggest that stick-slip friction events observed in the laboratory and earthquakes in continental settings, even with large magnitudes, have similar rupture mechanisms.

McGarr, A.; Fletcher, J. B.

2003-01-01

97

Stopping stick-slip seismic events?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an abstract. This study models underground frictional resistance in stick-slip seismic events in order to determine the amount of energy needed to weaken a fault plane enough to initiate ground motion and simulate the speed of the recovery after the pressure subsides. The exact moment the slip began the maximum speed of the ground motion were detected. Results indicate that stick-slip events stop spontaneously when frictional melting begins, suggesting a potential way to stop the seismic events.

Al., Koizumi E.; Agu

98

Electrostatic precursors to granular slip events  

PubMed Central

It has been known for over a century that electrical signals are produced by material failure, for example during crack formation of crystals and glasses, or stick-slip motion of liquid mercury on glass. We describe here new experiments revealing that slip events in cohesive powders also produce electrical signals, and remarkably these signals can appear significantly in advance of slip events. We have confirmed this effect in two different experimental systems and using two common powdered materials, and in a third experiment we have demonstrated that similar voltage signals are produced by crack-like defects in several powdered materials.

Shinbrot, Troy; Kim, Nam H.; Thyagu, N. Nirmal

2012-01-01

99

PREDICTED THRESHOLD AGAINST BACKWARD BALANCE LOSS FOLLOWING A SLIP IN GAIT  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to use a 7-link, moment-actuated human model to predict, at liftoff of the trailing foot in gait, the threshold of the center of mass (COM) velocity relative to the base of support (BOS) required to prevent backward balance loss during single stance recovery from a slip. Five dynamic optimization problems were solved to find the minimum COM velocities that would allow the simulation to terminate with the COM above the BOS when the COM started 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 foot lengths behind the heel of the stance foot (i.e., behind the BOS). The initial joint angles of the model were based on averaged data from experimental trials. Foot-ground contact was modeled using 16 visco-elastic springs distributed under the stance foot. Slipping was modeled by setting the sliding coefficient of friction of these springs to 0.02. The forward velocity of the COM necessary to avoid a backward balance loss is nearly two times larger under slip conditions than under non-slip conditions. The predicted threshold for backward balance loss following a slip agreed well with experimental data collected from 99 young adults in response to 927 slips during walking. In all trials in which a subject’s COM had a velocity below the predicted threshold, the subject’s recovery foot landed posterior to the slipping foot as predicted. Finally, combining experimental data with optimization, we verified that the 7-link model could more accurately predict gait stability than a 2-link model.

Yang, Feng; Anderson, Frank C.; Pai, Yi-Chung

2008-01-01

100

Effects of joint on dynamics of space deployable structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joints are necessary components in large space deployable truss structures which have significant effects on dynamic behavior of these joint dominated structures. Previous researches usually analyzed effects of one or fewer joint characters on dynamics of jointed structures. Effects of joint stiffness, damping, location, number, clearance and contact stiffness on dynamics of jointed structures are systematically analyzed. Cantilever beam model containing linear joints is developed based on finite element method, influence of joint on natural frequencies and mode shapes of the jointed system are analyzed. Analytical results show that frequencies of jointed system decrease dramatically when peak mode shapes occur at joint locations, and there are cusp shapes present in mode shapes. System frequencies increase with joint damping increasing, there are different joint damping to achieve maximum system damping for different joint stiffness. Joint nonlinear force-displacement is described by describing function method, one-DOF model containing nonlinear joints is established to analyze joints freeplay and hysteresis nonlinearities. Analysis results show that nonlinear effects of freeplay and hysteresis make dynamic responses switch from one resonance frequency to another frequency when amplitude exceed demarcation values. Joint contact stiffness determine degree of system nonlinearity, while exciting force level, clearance and slipping force affect amplitude of dynamic response. Dynamic responses of joint dominated deployable truss structure under different sinusoidal exciting force levels are tested. The test results show obvious nonlinear behaviors contributed by joints, dynamic response shifts to lower frequency and higher amplitude as exciting force increasing. The test results are further compared with analytical results, and joint nonlinearity tested is coincident with hysteresis nonlinearity. Analysis method of joint effects on dynamic characteristics of jointed system is proposed, which can be used in optimal design of joint parameters to achieve optimum dynamic performance of jointed system.

Guo, Hongwei; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Rongqiang; Deng, Zongquan

2013-09-01

101

Multiparameter investigation of gravitational slip  

SciTech Connect

A detailed analysis of gravitational slip, a new post-general relativity cosmological parameter characterizing the degree of departure of the laws of gravitation from general relativity on cosmological scales, is presented. This phenomenological approach assumes that cosmic acceleration is due to new gravitational effects; the amount of spacetime curvature produced per unit mass is changed in such a way that a universe containing only matter and radiation begins to accelerate as if under the influence of a cosmological constant. Changes in the law of gravitation are further manifest in the behavior of the inhomogeneous gravitational field, as reflected in the cosmic microwave background, weak lensing, and evolution of large-scale structure. The new parameter {pi}{sub 0} is naively expected to be of order unity. However, a multiparameter analysis, allowing for variation of all of the standard cosmological parameters, finds that {pi}{sub 0}=0.09{sub -0.59}{sup +0.74}(2{sigma}), where {pi}{sub 0}=0 corresponds to a cosmological constant plus cold dark matter universe under general relativity. Future probes of the cosmic microwave background (Planck) and large-scale structure (Euclid) may improve the limits by a factor of 4.

Daniel, Scott F.; Caldwell, Robert R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Cooray, Asantha; Serra, Paolo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Melchiorri, Alessandro [Physics Department and Sezione INFN, University of Rome, 'La Sapienza', Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy)

2009-07-15

102

Slipped epiphyses in renal osteodystrophy.  

PubMed Central

Clinical, biochemical, roentgenological, and histological features of slipped epiphyses (epiphysiolysis) in 11 out of 112 children with renal osteodystrophy have been analysed. Characteristic age-related patterns of involvement of different epiphyses are described. Quantitative measurements of iliac bone histology, serum parathyroid hormone levels, and clinical history show the presence of more advanced osteitis fibrosa in children with epiphysiolysis than in those without. A good correlation was found between serum parathormone levels and osteoclastic resorption, endosteal fibrosis as well as osteoid. Histological studies show that the radiolucent zone between the epiphyseal ossification centre and the metaphysis in x-rays is not caused by accumulation of cartilage and chondro-osteoid (as usually found in vitamin D deficiency rickets) but by the accumulation of woven bone and/or fibrous tissue. The response to vitamin D therapy in most cases was good. Parathyroidectomy was required in only one case. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. p549-b FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIG. 6. FIG. 7.

Mehls, O; Ritz, E; Krempien, B; Gilli, G; Link, K; Willich, E; Scharer, K

1975-01-01

103

The Mechanics, Geometry and Distribution of Strike Slip Faults in a Fold and Thrust Belt, County Clare, Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental structures such as opening mode joints and veins, and closing mode pressure solution seams (PSSs) can form dense orthogonal arrays in collisional deformation belts and play important roles in the initiation and development of larger scale faults. We describe the deformation processes and the evolution of fault architecture using systematic documentation of field observations from arrays of strike-slip faults

F. A. Nenna; A. Aydin

2010-01-01

104

Mechanisms of Slip Weakening and Healing in Glass at CoSeismic Slip Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The determination of co-seismic slip resistance in earth faults is critical for understanding the magnitude of shear stress\\u000a reduction and hence the near-fault acceleration that can occur duringearthquakes. Knowledge of shear resistance dependency\\u000a on slip velocity, slip distance, normal stress, and surface roughness is fundamental information for understanding earthquake\\u000a physics and the energy released during such events. In the present

Vikas Prakash; Fuping Yuan; Nirav Parikh

105

Frictional constitutive law at intermediate slip rates accounting for flash heating and thermally activated slip process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A constitutive law in a rate- and state-dependent framework accounting for flash heating at microscopic contacts is proposed on the basis of a simple asperity model and a thermally activated slip process thought to cause logarithmic dependency of the friction coefficient on slip rate. This law is probably applicable in an intermediate slip rate regime (about 0.001–0.1 m\\/s), where contact

Hiroyuki Noda

2008-01-01

106

Slip casting alumina with Na-CMC  

SciTech Connect

Many forming methods are in common use for engineering ceramics. Of these, slip casting is an ideal forming method because of its low cost, simplicity and flexibility, potential for uniform particle packing and suitability to the production of articles of intricate shape. Slip casting nonclay materials, such as alumina, requires the use of both a deflocculant and a binder. There are many commercially available deflocculants and binders that can be tested in alumina casting slips. However, determination of a suitable deflocculant/binder combination and quantification of the optimal additions of the deflocculant/binder pair can be time consuming. Certain deflocculants are capable of acting as binders. One such additive is sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-cmc), a cellulose ether. Na-cmc is a powerful binder. It is a member of the carbohydrate binder group--the binder group with the strongest binding power. It is capable of acting as a deflocculant in glazes and nonclay casting slips.

Ruys, A.J.; Sorrell, C.C. [Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

1996-11-01

107

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis following radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Two children with rhabdomyosarcoma who developed slipped capital femoral epiphyses following pelvic irradiation are described. Previous case reports are summarized, and the relevant orthopedic implications of the disorder discussed.

Barrett, I.R.

1985-05-01

108

The Mechanics, Geometry and Distribution of Strike Slip Faults in a Fold and Thrust Belt, County Clare, Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental structures such as opening mode joints and veins, and closing mode pressure solution seams (PSSs) can form dense orthogonal arrays in collisional deformation belts and play important roles in the initiation and development of larger scale faults. We describe the deformation processes and the evolution of fault architecture using systematic documentation of field observations from arrays of strike-slip faults in the Carboniferous Ross Sandstone. This unit is exposed on the Loop Head Peninsula, County Clare, Ireland and was subject to compressive stresses associated with the Variscan orogeny at the end of the Carboniferous producing broad regional east-west trending folds and also tight low-amplitude folds cored by thrust faults. Near these faults, orthogonal sets of PSSs and joints/veins form contemporaneous arrays with pressure solution seams that are sub-parallel to the thrust fault traces and fold axes. A stress or material rotation during the Variscan Orogeny (or perhaps a major second stage of deformation either in late phase of the orogeny or post-orogeny) has lead to left-lateral shear of the PSSs evidenced by pressure solution splays and pull-aparts between their sheared segments, and right-lateral shear on the joints/veins evidenced by splay fractures. The splays of the sheared joints are in the same orientation of the joints in the pull-aparts of the sheared PSSs with which they merge. This indicates that the shearing of the joints/veins and the PSSs was likely to have occurred simultaneously under the same remote loading conditions. With increased shear, extensive splay fractures and pull-apart networks form weak damage zones through which strike-slip faults systems develop with slip of up to 2km. As a higher proportion of the shear is resolved on the joint system than that of the PSS system, the more prominent strike-slip faults are sub-parallel to or slightly inclined to the pre-existing joint/vein set and have a right-lateral sense of slip. This study will aid understanding of the occurrence of coeval pressure solution and joint formation in naturally deformed sandstone/siltstone turbidites and their simultaneous shearing leading to the initiation and development of strike-slip faults and their damage zones.

Nenna, F. A.; Aydin, A.

2010-12-01

109

Earthquake slip between dissimilar poroelastic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mismatch of elastic properties across a fault induces normal stress changes during spatially nonuniform in-plane slip. Recently, Rudnicki and Rice (2006) showed that similar effects follow from a mismatch of poroelastic properties (e.g., permeability) within fluid-saturated fringes of damaged material along the fault walls; in this case, it is pore pressure on the slip plane and hence effective normal

Eric M. Dunham; James R. Rice

2008-01-01

110

Twinning and Slip in Zinc by Indentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of twinning and slip deformation caused by indentation of zinc reveal that extensive slip on the basal and second-order pyramidal systems takes place at loads up to 5 kg. Prismatic punching through 1-cm crystals is observed at indentation loads in excess of about 2.5 kg. It is concluded that the stress at the tip of the twins cannot be

R. C. Blish II; T. Vreeland Jr.

1968-01-01

111

Slip at Polymer-Polymer Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of studies have shown that blends of immiscible polymers have anomalously low viscosity at high shear rates (Utracki, 1983). In some blends the viscosity is even lower than either of the components. Slip at the interface between the two polymers has been proposed to explain these results. Interfacial slip has also been identified as the mechanism behind the ability of fluoroelastomer process aids to reduce melt fracture (Migler, 2001). We have found that the apparent shear viscosity of multilayer samples decreases with increasing number of layers. From this viscosity decrease we have calculated slip velocities (Zhao, 2002). The theory of Furukawa (1989) and de Gennes (1992) predicts fewer chain entanglements near the interface of an immiscible polymer pair. Goveas and Fredrickson (1998) have extended the theory to calculate slip velocities. These are greater than we measure and independent of shear stress. We find that slip velocity increases with shear stress. The adhesion between coextruded layers also depends on interfacial entanglements (Cole, 2003) and thus should be related to slip. We find that adhesion decreases with increasing shear stress, but is quickly recovered with annealing for times longer than the reptation time. Reactive coupling between chains in the interface can greatly reduce interfacial slip and increase adhesion. Surprisingly, reaction rates are also accelerated greatly by flow. The addition of premade block copolymer was only effective at reducing slip after static annealing. P.J. Cole, R.F. Cook, and C.W. Macosko, Macromolecules 2003, 36, 2808-2815. R. Zhao and C.W. Macosko, J. Rheol. 2002, 46, 145-167.

Macosko, Chris

2005-03-01

112

Temporal Changes in Velocity and Recurrence due to Slip and Triggered Slip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

: Temporal elastic change within and adjacent to a fault zone can be (are always?) induced by slip. The temporal change is manifest as a velocity change followed by a long recovery process to the original equilibrium, or a new equilibrium, velocity. These changes are observed for both stick-slip and slow-slip, as well as triggered stick-slip and slow-slip. Based on laboratory and field observations, there is also a change in earthquake recurrence at slip and triggered slip time, that recovers together with the velocity to the original, or a new, equilibrium. The change in recurrence is the well known empirical Omori's law; however, we understand this behavior in the context of frictional physics. Laboratory studies suggest that both static stress change and/or nonlinear dynamical shaking of the volume in and around the slip event are responsible for the observed effects. The recovery process is due to material creep and/or slow dynamics, depending on the nature of the forcing [creep is induced from static stress change and slow dynamics is induced by dynamic shaking] (Guyer and Johnson, 2009). The change in velocity and/or recurrence may be proxies for a slip event. [We gratefully acknowledge the support of the U. S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program for this work]. Nonlinear Mesoscopic Elasticity: The Complex Behaviour of Rocks and Soil, R. A. Guyer and P.A. Johnson, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH Berlin, 410 p. August 2009.

Johnson, P. A.

2011-12-01

113

Surgical management of healed slipped capital femoral epiphysis.  

PubMed

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) results in posterior and inferior displacement of the epiphysis on the femoral neck. In most centers, the recommended initial management of stable SCFE is in situ pinning. Minimal reduction with in situ pinning is recommended for unstable SCFE. This approach does not restore the normal anatomy of the hip joint, and the resulting proximal femoral deformity may cause femoroacetabular impingement. Patients with femoroacetabular impingement experience reduced hip range of motion as well as hip pain, and they are at risk of early-onset hip osteoarthritis. Techniques for managing this deformity include arthroscopic femoral neck osteochondroplasty, a limited anterior hip approach or surgical hip dislocation, and flexion intertrochanteric osteotomy. These surgical techniques should be considered for patients with healed SCFE deformity who present with hip pain at an early age. PMID:22052643

Kuzyk, Paul R T; Kim, Young-Jo; Millis, Michael B

2011-11-01

114

Measuring Fault Slip - Why and How?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve our understanding of earthquake physics, we must make observations of parameters that determine friction on the fault surface during rupture. Observables may include, for example, 3D point trajectories to fully record near-field dynamic phenomena such as slip pulses, as well as details of slip variation along strike. We have devised and tested new methods for observing these quantities in nature. First, we observed the details of topography along the 1999 Hector Mine surface rupture using Airborne Laser Swath Mapping. This allowed us to estimate slip variation along-strike of the fault, in some places, with higher spatial resolution than has ever before been possible. The results are, however, complex due to ground surface irregularity and pre-existing topographic features. Evidently, slip variations along strike are greater than previously recognized, implying extreme slip heterogeneity. We provide a simple explanation for how such rapid slip variations could provide the source for high-frequency seismically radiated energy, at least in the near field. Second, we have developed the concept for, and built a working prototype of, a GPS Fault Slip Sensor spanning the San Andreas fault. In addition to augmenting seismic early warning systems, such instrumentation could also provide unique records of near-field ground motions. Inertial sensors such as seismic instruments are not able to differ between a tilt and an acceleration, whereas GPS measurements can differentiate these, and can be made with respect to an absolute frame of reference. Other practical limitations exist, however, in both kinds of instrumentation and we will describe how they may best be integrated into a system that will achieve both the scientific observational objectives and support earthquake early warning.

Hudnut, K. W.; Aagaard, B.; Anderson, G.; Aspiotes, A.; Bevis, M.; Borsa, A.; Heaton, T.; King, N.; Minster, J.; Stark, K.

2003-12-01

115

Comparison of slip distribution of large slow slip events in Guerrero subduction zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aseismic slow slip events (SSEs) have been reported in most of the well geodetically instrumented subduction zones worldwide (Japan, Cascadia, Mexico, New Zealand, Costa Rica, Alaska). For most of the observed SSEs, the slip distribution on the subduction interface was inferred from the surface GPS displacements to be located at the downdip extension of the seismogenic zone, in the conditionally

F. Cotton; M. Vergnolle; O. Thollon; M. Campillo; I. Manighetti; N. Cotte; A. Walpersdorf; V. Kostoglodov

2008-01-01

116

Dynamic slip control topologies and novel control strategy for grid connected opti-slip induction generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, various dynamic slip control topologies are proposed for the control of grid connected opti-slip induction generator (OSIG). An elegant technique based on rotor voltage measurement has also been presented for mitigating output power fluctuations from OSIG, due to sudden wind gusts, tower shadow effect, etc. The control of OSIG is achieved using the basic principle of chopper

K Vinoth Kumar; M. P. Selvan

2009-01-01

117

The Elastoplastic Contact Analysis of Drilling Pipe - Slip Dog and Optimal Design of Slip Dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the elastic plasticity contact analysis theory and the plastic damage yield criterion, a mechanical model of the slip-drilling pipe is established. After studying their plastic deformation and drilling pipe's sliding, optimization of the slip dog's structure has been proposed. In the light of the systems of different specifications of drilling pipe, after analyzing the coupling effect among Slot

Xiaohua Zhu; Yu Wang; Qiushi Chen; Fucheng Deng; Liping Tang

2010-01-01

118

Formation of slip steps and growth of extrusions within persistent slip bands in cyclically deformed polycrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of slip steps and extrusions on well-polished specimen surfaces was investigated for nickel polycrystals. The specimen was cyclically pre-deformed up to 60% of its lifetime. Further deformation was carried out in situ in a scanning electron microscope. Two main aspects were investigated. First, the formation of slip steps during one loading cycle was studied. Second, the development of

A. Weidner; C. Blochwitz; W. Skrotzki; W. Tirschler

2008-01-01

119

Slip casting of partially stabilized zirconia  

SciTech Connect

The toughness of partially-stabilized zirconia has been studied for some time. The tetragonal phase in partially stabilized ZrO2 transforms to the monoclinic phase under the influence of stress. Partially-stabilized ZrO2 has enhanced tensile strength, good wear resistance and low friction coefficient, and has found industrial applications. This article describes the use of partially-stabilized zirconia in slip casting. Lab techniques of slip casting have been reported for nonplastic materials such as Al2O3, CaF2, CaO-stabilized ZrO2 and MgO. The article discusses the variation of slip density and firing temperature and also reports the preparation of specimens of CaOstabilized ZrO2 by slip casting from ethanol-based suspensions. The preparation of Y2O3-ZrO2 compositions by slip casting from aqueous suspension is also reported. A Y2O3 partially stabilized ZrO2 powder was used as a starting material. The densities of the cast specimens were measured from the volume and weight, and those of the sintered specimens were measured by a liquid displacement technique using distilled water. The concentation of the suspension strongly affects the relative density of the cast specimen and the firing shrinkage of the sintered specimen, while the relative density of the sintered specimen is independent of the concentration of the suspension.

Taguchi, H.; Miyamoto, H.; Takahashi, Y.

1985-02-01

120

Asymmetrical slip propensity: required coefficient of friction  

PubMed Central

Background Most studies in performing slips and falls research reported their results after the ipsilateral leg of subjects (either right foot or left foot) was guided to contact the contaminated floor surface although many studies indicated concerns for asymmetries of legs in kinematic or kinetic variables. Thus, the present study evaluated if dominant leg’s slip tendency would be different from non-dominant leg’s slip tendency by comparing the Required Coefficient of Friction (RCOF) of the two lower limbs. Findings Forty seven health adults participated in the present study. RCOF was measured when left or right foot of subjects contacted the force platforms respectively. Paired t-test was performed to test if RCOF and heel velocity (HCV) of dominant legs was different from that of non-dominant legs. It was suggested that the asymmetry in RCOFs and HCV between the two lower limbs existed. The RCOFs of non-dominant legs were higher than that of dominant legs. Conclusions The results indicated that asymmetry in slip propensity, RCOF, was existed in lower extremity. The results from the study suggested that it would be benefit to include a variable, such as asymmetry, in slips and falls research.

2013-01-01

121

Accelerated slip flow past a cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study deals with boundary layer flow along the entire length of a stationary semi-infinite cylinder under a steady, accelerated free-stream. Considering flow at reduced dimensions, the no-slip boundary condition is replaced with a Navier boundary condition. Asymptotic series solutions are obtained for the shear stress coefficient in terms of the Bingham number that corresponds to prescribed values of both the slip coefficient and the index of acceleration. By investigating motion at small and large axial distances, the series solutions are presented. For flow in the intermediate distances, exact and interpolated numerical solutions are obtained. Using these results, the shear stress along the entire cylinder wall is evaluated in terms of the parameters of acceleration and slip.

Crane, L. J.; McVeigh, A. G.

2011-04-01

122

Digital PCR on a SlipChip.  

PubMed

This paper describes a SlipChip to perform digital PCR in a very simple and inexpensive format. The fluidic path for introducing the sample combined with the PCR mixture was formed using elongated wells in the two plates of the SlipChip designed to overlap during sample loading. This fluidic path was broken up by simple slipping of the two plates that removed the overlap among wells and brought each well in contact with a reservoir preloaded with oil to generate 1280 reaction compartments (2.6 nL each) simultaneously. After thermal cycling, end-point fluorescence intensity was used to detect the presence of nucleic acid. Digital PCR on the SlipChip was tested quantitatively by using Staphylococcus aureus genomic DNA. As the concentration of the template DNA in the reaction mixture was diluted, the fraction of positive wells decreased as expected from the statistical analysis. No cross-contamination was observed during the experiments. At the extremes of the dynamic range of digital PCR the standard confidence interval determined using a normal approximation of the binomial distribution is not satisfactory. Therefore, statistical analysis based on the score method was used to establish these confidence intervals. The SlipChip provides a simple strategy to count nucleic acids by using PCR. It may find applications in research applications such as single cell analysis, prenatal diagnostics, and point-of-care diagnostics. SlipChip would become valuable for diagnostics, including applications in resource-limited areas after integration with isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies and visual readout. PMID:20596567

Shen, Feng; Du, Wenbin; Kreutz, Jason E; Fok, Alice; Ismagilov, Rustem F

2010-07-01

123

Update on slip and wear in multi-layer azimuth track systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many antennas, such as the 100-m Green Bank Telescope, use a wheel-on-track systems in which the track segments consist of wear plates mounted on base plates. The wear plates are typically 2 to 3 inches thick and are case hardened or through hardened. The base plates are usually 3 to 4 times thicker than the wear plates and are not hardened. The wear plates are typically connected to the base plates using bolts. The base plates are supported on grout and anchored to the underlying concrete foundation. For some antennas, slip has been observed between the wear plate and base plate, and between the base plate and the grout, with the migration in the wheel rolling direction. In addition, there has been wear at the wear plate/base plate interface. This paper is an update on the evaluation of GBT track retrofit. The paper describes the use of three-dimensional non-linear finite element analyses to understand and evaluate the behavior of (1) the existing GBT wheel-on-track system with mitered joints, and (2) the various proposed modifications. The modifications include welding of the base plate joints, staggering of the wear plate joints from the base plate joints, changing thickness of the wear plate, and increasing bolt diameter and length. Parameters included in the evaluation were contact pressure, relative slip, wear at the wear plate/base plate interface, and bolt shears and moments.

Juneja, Gunjeet; Kan, Frank W.; Antebi, Joseph

2006-07-01

124

The mechanics of stick-slip  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Physical mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the occurrence of stick-slip motion during frictional sliding have been examined in the light of results obtained from experiments with rocks and brittle minerals. An instability caused by sudden brittle fracture of locked regions on surfaces in contact is the most likely explanation for stick-slip during dry frictional sliding of brittle rocks at room temperature. Areas requiring further study and the uncertainties in applying the results of laboratory experiments to earthquake studies are emphasized. ?? 1970.

Byerlee, J. D.

1970-01-01

125

Slipping Magnetic Reconnection in Coronal Loops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic reconnection of solar coronal loops is the main process that causes solar flares and possibly coronal heating. In the standard model, magnetic field lines break and reconnect instantaneously at places where the field mapping is discontinuous. However, another mode may operate where the magnetic field mapping is continuous but shows steep gradients: The field lines may slip across each other. Soft x-ray observations of fast bidirectional motions of coronal loops, observed by the Hinode spacecraft, support the existence of this slipping magnetic reconnection regime in the Sun’s corona. This basic process should be considered when interpreting reconnection, both on the Sun and in laboratory-based plasma experiments.

Aulanier, Guillaume; Golub, Leon; DeLuca, Edward E.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Kano, Ryouhei; Lundquist, Loraine L.; Narukage, Noriyuki; Sakao, Taro; Weber, Mark A.

2007-12-01

126

Slipping processes in residual badlands reliefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define slips as structures developed by more or less saturated colloidal suspension that slide down the walls of residual reliefs found in badlands. These suspensions seem to originate in the soils crowning gully reliefs and also from rainwater dripping onto the walls of poorly cemented sediments such as siltstone. We call this process slipping and the resulting morphologies represent a group of minor badlands forms, often linked to piping and fluting. Slipping occurs according to the following sequence of forms: 1. Mud droplets. These are irregular linear structures caused by mud droplets sliding down sub-vertical walls. The droplet is usually found at the end of a small channel. These morphologies represent the course of the sliding droplets that become fossilized and not the impact of the droplets on the sediment. 2. Slips sensu stricto. These are uninterrupted surface structures covering sub-vertical walls to a greater or lesser extent. The thickness of this type of covering varies from a few millimetres to 5cm. The inner structure of the slips consists of small laminas (» 100mm) and on the exterior they often present drip channels. A special case of these forms is butterfly structures, which appear in isolation, with repetitive patterns and the appearance of a winged insect stuck to the wall. 3. Pseudo-stalactites. These are free-standing conical regrowths with some similarity to stalactites in a karst cave. They occur when slips grow to over 5cm thick. The growth of these forms is similar to that of slips, with external superposition of fine, concentric layers with no central pore. A variety of these pseudo-stalactites are nodulous stalactites whose genesis is unknown. In this context, we should mention the existence of occasional stalagmites. In other cases, curtains of pseudo-stalactites can be found where these patterns are repeated finely. A more evolved stage of this form is the coalescence of pseudo-stalactites, representing a massive advance of this process. Pseudo-stalactites are normally found as vertical, but occasionally they lean, indicating movement of unstable blocks. The process can present recycling when some of the forms described become detached and fall. This is more likely on poorly sheltered surfaces, exposed to wind and the direct impact of rain and frost. All forms of slips suggests that these morphologies depend on the varying characteristics of the colloidal suspensions causing them, and constitute intermediate stages in the retention of sediments from erosion, which are very different to the alluvial sediments stored in the drainage network.

Díaz-Hernández, Jose Luis; Yepes, Jorge

2010-05-01

127

Ceramic joints  

DOEpatents

Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

Miller, Bradley J. (Worcester, MA); Patten, Jr., Donald O. (Sterling, MA)

1991-01-01

128

Inertial aided cycle slip detection and identification for integrated PPP GPS and INS.  

PubMed

The recently developed integrated Precise Point Positioning (PPP) GPS/INS system can be useful to many applications, such as UAV navigation systems, land vehicle/machine automation and mobile mapping systems. Since carrier phase measurements are the primary observables in PPP GPS, cycle slips, which often occur due to high dynamics, signal obstructions and low satellite elevation, must be detected and repaired in order to ensure the navigation performance. In this research, a new algorithm of cycle slip detection and identification has been developed. With the aiding from INS, the proposed method jointly uses WL and EWL phase combinations to uniquely determine cycle slips in the L1 and L2 frequencies. To verify the efficiency of the algorithm, both tactical-grade and consumer-grade IMUs are tested by using a real dataset collected from two field tests. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can efficiently detect and identify the cycle slips and subsequently improve the navigation performance of the integrated system. PMID:23202164

Du, Shuang; Gao, Yang

2012-10-25

129

Geodetic, teleseismic, and strong motion constraints on slip from recent southern Peru subduction zone earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use seismic and geodetic data both jointly and separately to constrain coseismic slip from the 12 November 1996 Mw 7.7 and 23 June 2001 Mw 8.5 southern Peru subduction zone earthquakes, as well as two large aftershocks following the 2001 earthquake on 26 June and 7 July 2001. We use all available data in our inversions: GPS, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) from the ERS-1, ERS-2, JERS, and RADARSAT-1 satellites, and seismic data from teleseismic and strong motion stations. Our two-dimensional slip models derived from only teleseismic body waves from South American subduction zone earthquakes with Mw > 7.5 do not reliably predict available geodetic data. In particular, we find significant differences in the distribution of slip for the 2001 earthquake from models that use only seismic (teleseismic and two strong motion stations) or geodetic (InSAR and GPS) data. The differences might be related to postseismic deformation or, more likely, the different sensitivities of the teleseismic and geodetic data to coseismic rupture properties. The earthquakes studied here follow the pattern of earthquake directivity along the coast of western South America, north of 5°S, earthquakes rupture to the north; south of about 12°S, directivity is southerly; and in between, earthquakes are bilateral. The predicted deformation at the Arequipa GPS station from the seismic-only slip model for the 7 July 2001 aftershock is not consistent with significant preseismic motion.

Pritchard, M. E.; Norabuena, E. O.; Ji, C.; Boroschek, R.; Comte, D.; Simons, M.; Dixon, T. H.; Rosen, P. A.

2007-03-01

130

Inertial Aided Cycle Slip Detection and Identification for Integrated PPP GPS and INS  

PubMed Central

The recently developed integrated Precise Point Positioning (PPP) GPS/INS system can be useful to many applications, such as UAV navigation systems, land vehicle/machine automation and mobile mapping systems. Since carrier phase measurements are the primary observables in PPP GPS, cycle slips, which often occur due to high dynamics, signal obstructions and low satellite elevation, must be detected and repaired in order to ensure the navigation performance. In this research, a new algorithm of cycle slip detection and identification has been developed. With the aiding from INS, the proposed method jointly uses WL and EWL phase combinations to uniquely determine cycle slips in the L1 and L2 frequencies. To verify the efficiency of the algorithm, both tactical-grade and consumer-grade IMUs are tested by using a real dataset collected from two field tests. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can efficiently detect and identify the cycle slips and subsequently improve the navigation performance of the integrated system.

Du, Shuang; Gao, Yang

2012-01-01

131

Geodetically derived fault slip distribution model for the May, 11th 2011 Lorca earthquake (SE, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alhama de Murcia Fault (AMF) is a compound multisegmented right-lateral to reverse fault system. The AMF is one the longest faults in the Eastern Betics Shear zone (Southeastern Spain). In the last decades its seismogenic potential has been evaluated and earthquake maximum magnitudes were forecast based on paleoseismic and dating data. On May 11th, 2011 a moderate (Mw 5.1) earthquake shook the region, causing 9 casualties and severe damages in Lorca city (Murcia region). The reported location of the aftershocks sequence did not follow any particular trend; furthermore in-situ geology surveys did not identify any fault slip related ground deformation. To contribute to a better seismic hazard assessment, we need to locate and, if possible, characterize the fault-slip distribution that generated the earthquake. In this work, we detected small but significant ground deformation in the epicentral area by using geodetic (GPS and satellite radar interferometry) data. Geodetic data was processed by using a stack of differential radar interferometry (corrected for a known subsidence contribution and estimating their error budget), daily GPS estimated coordinates and high-rate 1-Hz GPS data. We jointly inverted the detected static coseismic displacements (a GPS station and two ENVISAT interferograms from different tracks) for the fault plane geometry parameters by using a rectangular dislocation model embedded in a homogeneous elastic half-space. The best-fitting fault plane follows closely the geologically derived AMF geometry (NE-SW strike trend and dipping ~60-70o to NW). Later, the obtained model geometry was extended and divided into patches to allow for a detailed analysis of the fault slip distribution pattern. Slip distribution indicates that slip occurred in a single patch with reverse and right-lateral motion (with peak fault slip magnitude of ~9 cm). However, the modelling results also indicate that the fault slip was shallower along the centre and southwest of the city of Lorca. The shallower character of the slip probably caused the relative intense ground acceleration recorded at the Lorca city (0.4g) and increased the building damages. We show that the Lorca earthquake was generated by a simple segment (6-8 km long) slightly dipping to the NW of the AMF system. This study also represents the first modern geodetically observed ground deformation signature due to seismic activity in the Iberian Peninsula.

Gonzalez, P. J.; Tiampo, K. F.; Palano, M.; Cannavò, F.; Fernandez, J.

2011-12-01

132

Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

Seiko, Y.

1985-03-01

133

Slip complexity in earthquake fault models.  

PubMed Central

We summarize studies of earthquake fault models that give rise to slip complexities like those in natural earthquakes. For models of smooth faults between elastically deformable continua, it is critical that the friction laws involve a characteristic distance for slip weakening or evolution of surface state. That results in a finite nucleation size, or coherent slip patch size, h*. Models of smooth faults, using numerical cell size properly small compared to h*, show periodic response or complex and apparently chaotic histories of large events but have not been found to show small event complexity like the self-similar (power law) Gutenberg-Richter frequency-size statistics. This conclusion is supported in the present paper by fully inertial elastodynamic modeling of earthquake sequences. In contrast, some models of locally heterogeneous faults with quasi-independent fault segments, represented approximately by simulations with cell size larger than h* so that the model becomes "inherently discrete," do show small event complexity of the Gutenberg-Richter type. Models based on classical friction laws without a weakening length scale or for which the numerical procedure imposes an abrupt strength drop at the onset of slip have h* = 0 and hence always fall into the inherently discrete class. We suggest that the small-event complexity that some such models show will not survive regularization of the constitutive description, by inclusion of an appropriate length scale leading to a finite h*, and a corresponding reduction of numerical grid size. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Rice, J R; Ben-Zion, Y

1996-01-01

134

Avoiding stick-slip through PD control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addresses the question of how to achieve steady motion at very low velocities using proportional-derivative (PD) control. Most prior work in control has used friction models which depend only on the current value of velocity. This type of analysis indicates that stick-slip can be avoided only through velocity feedback. The tribology literature, however, indicates that friction also depends on the

Pierre E. Dupont

1994-01-01

135

Large Diameter Optical Slip-Rings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two different types of optical slip-rings developed for use with a rotating platform which has a column diameter of 123 mm are described. The preferred type is then combined with an on-axis coupling for use on an experimental track-while-scan secondary ra...

P. J. Buttery

1983-01-01

136

Slip-Cast Coating of Alumina Crucibles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a process for coating alumina crucibles with MgO protective coat in a two-step slip casting operation is described. The best milling conditions for the alumina used were set ball milling for 24 hr. MgO had to be calcined at 1200 exp 0 C...

N. A. Haroun M. A. A. El-Masry

1980-01-01

137

Periclase ceramics obtained by water slip casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions Studies were made of the colloidal-rheological rules for forming concentrated water suspensions of periclase in relation to the method of obtaining them, the degree of hydration of MgO, and the amount of rare-earth oxides added. This work resulted in the production of dense ceramics using the slip casting method and water suspensions.

L. A. Skomorovskaya; V. B. Zlatkovskii; I. I. Nemets

1991-01-01

138

Seattle Lumbar Imaging Project (SLIP). Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Seattle Lumbar Imaging Project (SLIP was a multi-center randomized trial that evaluated the consequences of substituting a rapid MRI for radiographs as the initial imaging for primary care patients with low back pain. Our primary outcome was the 12- m...

J. G. Jaryik

2002-01-01

139

Postradiation slipped capital femoral epiphyses (SCFE)  

SciTech Connect

This study details the case reports of two children who developed slipped capital femoral epiphyses (SCFE) after receiving external irradiation. The clinical and diagnostic features of postradiation SCFE are reviewed and discussed. Guidelines for the management of children who receive pelvic irradiation are presented.

Sabio, H.; Sussman, M.; Levien, M.

1987-09-01

140

Postradiation slipped capital femoral epiphyses (SCFE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study details the case reports of two children who developed slipped capital femoral epiphyses (SCFE) after receiving external irradiation. The clinical and diagnostic features of postradiation SCFE are reviewed and discussed. Guidelines for the management of children who receive pelvic irradiation are presented.

Hernan Sabio; Michael Sussman; Michael Levien

1987-01-01

141

Slip partitioning along major convergent plate boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along plate boundaries characterized by oblique convergence, earthquake slip vectors are commonly rotated toward the normal of the trench with respect to predicted plate motion vectors. Consequently, relative plate motion along such convergent margins must be partitioned between displacements along the thrust plate interface and deformation within the forearc and back-arc regions. The deformation behind the trench may take the

Guang Yu; Steven G. Wesnousky; Göran Ekström

1993-01-01

142

High lateral strain ratio in jointed rock masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rock masses encountered in the field are jointed and highly anisotropic. An important manifestation of this characteristic of rock masses is that the blocks, when slipping, separate and create voids in the mass resulting in high lateral strain even under low axial stress. It has been shown in this study that the ratio of lateral to axial strain may be

Mahendra Singh; Bhawani Singh

2008-01-01

143

Influence of fault slip rate on shear-induced permeability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured permeability in sandstone and granite sheared at slip rates from 0.1 to 1300 m/s under low normal stress at confining pressures up to 120 MPa. As slip rate increased, the permeability of Berea sandstone (5*10-14 m2 of permeability at 10 MPa effective pressure) decreased by an order of magnitude, whereas that of Indian sandstone (10-16 m2) and Aji granite (10-19 m2) increased by three orders of magnitude at high slip rates. A fine-grained gouge layer of thickness proportional to slip rate developed during slip. Microcracks and mesoscale fractures formed at slip rates above 0.13 m/s. Numerical modeling showed that the slip surface temperature increased by several hundred degrees for slip velocities above 0.13 m/s and exceeded the ?-? phase transition temperature of quartz at 1.3 m/s. Both temperature rise and the temperature gradient at the slip surface were high at fast slip rates. We attributed reduced permeability after slip in porous sandstone to the low permeability gouge layer. An abrupt permeability increase in low permeability rocks at high slip rates was caused by heat-induced cracks. An increase in the rate of wear of gouge with increasing slip velocity was caused by frictional heating that reduced rock strength. The host-rock permeability that separated reductions and increases of permeability was around 10-16 m2 at 10 MPa effective pressure. Our results suggest that abrupt increases of shear stress during slip in a low permeability fault zone cause thermal cracks, which decrease slip displacement. The abrupt permeability increase at high slip rates in low permeability rocks agrees with hydrogeochemical phenomena observed after earthquakes.

Tanikawa, Wataru; Hirose, Takehiro; Sakaguchi, Masumi; Tadai, Osamu

2010-05-01

144

Influence of fault slip rate on shear-induced permeability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured permeability in sandstone and granite sheared at slip rates from 10-4 to 1.3 m/s under low-normal stress at confining pressures up to 120 MPa. As the slip rate increased, the permeability of Berea sandstone decreased by an order of magnitude, whereas that of Indian sandstone and Aji granite increased by 3 orders of magnitude at high slip rates. A fine-grained gouge layer of thickness developed during slip, and the wear rate was increased abruptly at high slip rates. Microcracks and mesoscale fractures formed at slip rates above 0.13 m/s. Numerical modeling showed that the slip surface temperature increased by several hundred degrees for slip velocities above 0.13 m/s and exceeded the ?-? phase transition temperature of quartz at 1.3 m/s. Both the temperature rise and the temperature gradient at the slip surface were high at fast slip rates. We attributed reduced permeability after slip in porous sandstone to the low-permeability gouge layer. An abrupt permeability increase in low-permeability rocks at high slip rates was caused by heat-induced cracks. An increase in the rate of wear of gouge with increasing slip velocity was caused by frictional heating that reduced the rock strength. The host-rock permeability that separated reductions and increases in permeability was about 10-16 m2 at 10 MPa effective pressure. Our results suggest that abrupt increases in shear stress during slip in a low-permeability fault zone caused by thermal cracking, which may decrease the total slip displacement. The abrupt permeability increase at high slip rates in low-permeability rocks agrees with hydrogeochemical phenomena observed after earthquakes.

Tanikawa, Wataru; Sakaguchi, Masumi; Tadai, Osamu; Hirose, Takehiro

2010-07-01

145

Velocity slip and temperature jump coefficients for gaseous mixtures. II. Thermal slip coefficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal slip coefficient was calculated for a binary gaseous mixture on the basis of the McCormack kinetic model of the Boltzmann equation, which was solved by the discrete velocity method. The calculations were carried out for the three mixtures of noble gases: neon-argon, helium-argon, and helium-xenon. A strong influence of the potential of intermolecular interaction upon the thermal slip

Felix Sharipov; Denize Kalempa

2004-01-01

146

Joint Replacement (Finger and Wrist Joints)  

MedlinePLUS

... mean to have a “joint replacement” or an “artificial joint”? The abnormal bone and lining structures of ... When should joint replacement surgery NOT be done? Artificial joints should not be done when: There is ...

147

Local Bond-Slip Relationship for FRP Reinforcement in Concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to define a rigorous numerical method to calibrate parameters of a given local bond-slip relationship using experimental results of pullout tests, taking into account the distribution of the slip and bond shear stress throughout the bar. The proposed method involves finding parameters of a given bond-slip relationship, such that results of pullout tests can

Francesco Focacci; Antonio Nanni; Charles E. Bakis

2000-01-01

148

Slow slip events at the Alaska Subduction Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large slow slip event (SSE) occurred at the Alaska subduction zone during 1998-2001 [Ohta et al., 2006, EPSL]. The SSE occurs downdip of the Prince William Sound asperity, on a section that accumulated some slip deficit before and after the SSE. During the SSE, >20,000 sq. km of the plate interface slipped >10 cm, for a cumulative moment magnitude

J. T. Freymueller; Y. Ohta

2007-01-01

149

Dilatant strengthening as a mechanism for slow slip events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanics of slow slip events (SSE) in subduction zones remain unresolved. We suggest that SSE nucleate in areas of unstable friction under drained conditions, but as slip accelerates dilatancy reduces pore pressure p quenching instability. Competition between dilatant strengthening and thermal pressurization may control whether slip is slow or fast. We model SSE with 2-D elasticity, rate-state friction, and

Paul Segall; Allan M. Rubin; Andrew M. Bradley; James R. Rice

2010-01-01

150

Flash Melting of Crustal Rocks at Almost Seismic Slip Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frictional heat is generated at microscopic contacts between rough surfaces in sliding contact. At high slip velocities over small displacements, as occurs during small earthquakes and at the onset of slip during larger earthquakes, heat generated at highly stressed, microscopic asperities on the fault surface can induce flash melting of the asperities. With continued slip, heat generated at contacts can

T. E. Tullis; D. L. Goldsby

2003-01-01

151

Slip of a Driven Wheel on a Plastic Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rolling of powered transport wheels on a plastic media is accompanied by slipping. The magnitude of the slip is found to depend on the depth of rut, diameter of wheel, the initial soil compaction and the coefficient of friction of the soil. Slip may i...

S. S. Saakyan

1967-01-01

152

Quantifying effective slip length over micropatterned hydrophobic surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ microparticle image velocimetry to investigate laminar microflows in hydrophobic microstructured channels, in particular the slip length. These microchannels consist of longitudinal microgrooves, which can trap air and prompt a shear-free boundary condition and thus slippage enhancement. Our measurements reveal an increase in the slip length when the width of the microgrooves is enlarged. The result of the slip

Peichun Tsai; Alisia M. Peters; Christophe Pirat; Matthias Wessling; Rob G. H. Lammertink; Detlef Lohse

2009-01-01

153

Parallel Simulation of Fluid Slip in a Microchannel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid flow in channels has traditionally been as- sumed to satisfy a no-slip condition along the chan- nel walls. However, it has recently been found ex- perimentally that the flow in microchannels can slip along hydrophobic (repelling water) walls. The slip can have important physical consequences for such flows. The physical mechanism underlying this phe- nomena is not well understood.

Jingyu Zhou; Luoding Zhu; Linda R. Petzold; Tao Yang

2004-01-01

154

Fluctuation in entanglement positions via elastic slip-links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the spatiotemporal fluctuation of slip-link positions via the implementation of elastic slip-links. The level of description is similar to our previously proposed slip-link model, wherein we use the entanglement position in space as dynamic variables, and the number of Kuhn steps between entanglements. However, since it is a mean-field, single-chain description it has some relevance to the slip-spring simulations of Likhtman, and the phantom chain model for cross-linked networks. It might also provide a connection between slip-links and tubes. Two implementations are possible, depending on whether or not the slip-links are allowed to pass through one another. If a boundary condition on the dynamics preventing such passage is imposed, then the plateau modulus is unchanged from perfectly rigid slip-links. Only the dynamics is changed. On the other hand, for phantom slip-links the distribution of the number of entanglements changes from Poisson. Furthermore, requiring normalization of the distribution function sets a constraint on how loose the virtual springs for the elastic slip-link are. These restrictions appear to be in agreement with parameter values used for the slip-spring simulations, although nonphantom slip-links were used there. The results are completely analogous to what was found by James and Guth for ideal elastic networks, whose derivation is repeated here. Our earlier rigid slip-link model is recovered as a limiting case.

Schieber, Jay D.; Horio, Kazushi

2010-02-01

155

What do formal inversions of space geodetic data tell us about fault slip rates? Examples from Southern California. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use secular velocities from the continuous GPS data provided by the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Scripps Orbit Permanent Array Center (SOPAC), campaign GPS data (SCEC Crustal Motion Model) and InSAR data from the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT satellites spanning nearly 20 years (1992-2010) to estimate the contemporaneous slip rates and locking depths on the Southern San Andreas fault (SAF), the San Jacinto fault (SJF) and the Elsinore fault. The model parameter space was interrogated using a Gibbs sampler, a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm which naturally approximates the joint probability distribution for the model parameters and allows for a formal evaluation of model uncertainties and trade-offs. We performed joint inversions of all available space geodetic data using the Savage and Burford (1973) dislocation model. Previous geodetic estimates of slip rates in this region based on dislocation models have generally inferred a higher slip velocity on the SAF (21-26 mm/yr), and a lower velocity on the SJF (12-19 mm/yr) (Becker et al. 2005, Fay and Humphreys 2005, Meade and Hager 2005, Fialko 2006). These "geodetic" slip rates are generally higher than geologic estimates representing average slip rates on time scales of 10^4-10^6 years. We investigate implications of fault geometry such as a non-vertical SAF and a "blind" segment of the SJF (Fialko 2006; Lin et al. 2007). Using the fault geometry motivated by these recent studies, we estimate a slip rate of 16(+/-2) mm/yr for the southern SAF, and a combined slip rate of 21(+/-3) mm/yr for the two closely spaced branches of the southern San Jacinto fault (the Coyote Creek fault and the blind southern continuation of the Clark fault). The locking depths are estimated at 7(+/-3) km and 14(+/-6) km for the SAF and SJF, respectively. For the SJF, we note a significant trade-off between fault velocity and locking depth, with the best-fitting values occurring at the lower end of the formally estimated parameter ranges: 19 mm/yr and 11 km, respectively. We also investigate the effect of elastic heterogeneities on the preferred fault slip rate and locking depth. We use the elastic structure inferred from seismic body wave tomography. The forward model incorporating the effects of elastic heterogeneities is based on the fictitious body force technique of Barbot et al. (2009). As the steady-state interseismic velocity field is computed using a superposition of "seismic" slip in the upper crust and the rigid block motion, these calculations are also relevant for coseismic deformation in heterogeneous elastic media.

Lindsey, E. O.; Fialko, Y.

2010-12-01

156

Effects of slip, slip rate, and shear heating on the friction of granite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The stability of fault slip is sensitive to the way in which frictional strength responds to changes in slip rate and in particular to the effective velocity dependence of steady state friction ????ss/?? ln V. This quantity can vary substantially with displacement, temperature and slip rate. To investigate the physical basis for this behavior and the possible influence of shear heating, we slid initially bare granite surfaces in unconfined rotary shear to displacements of hundreds of millimeters at normal stresses, ??n, of 10 and 25 MPa and at room temperature. We imposed step changes in slip rate within the range 10-2 to 103.5 ??m/s and also monitored frictional heating with thermistors embedded in the granite. The transient response of ?? to slip rate steps was fit to a rate- and state-dependent friction law using two state variables to estimate the values of several parameters in the constitutive law. The first 20 mm of slip shows rising friction and falling ????ss/?? ln V; further slip shows roughly constant friction, ????ss/?? ln V and parameter values, suggesting that a steady state condition is reached on the fault surface. At V ??? 10 ??m/s, ????ss/?? ln V = -0.004 ?? 0.001. At higher rates the response is sensitive to normal stress: At ??n = 25 MPa granite shows a transition to effective velocity strengthening (????ss/?? ln V = 0.008 ?? 0.004) at the highest slip rates tested. At 10 MPa granite shows a less dramatic change to ????ss/?? ln V ??? 0 at the highest rates. The maximum temperature measured in the granite is ???60??C at 25 MPa and 103.5 ??m/s. Temperatures are in general agreement with a numerical model of heat conduction which assumes spatially homogeneous frictional heating over the sliding surface. The simplest interpretation of our measurements of ????ss/?? ln V is that the granite is inherently veocity weakening (?????ss/??? In V 0 mimics velocity strengthening. These results have implications for the frictional behavior of faults during earthquakes. High slip rates may cause a switch to effective velocity strengthening which could limit peak coseismic slip rate and stress drop. For fluid-saturated faults, strengthening by this mechanism may be partly or fully offset by weakening due to thermal pressurization of a poorly drained pore fluid.

Blanpied, M. L.; Tullis, T. E.; Weeks, J. D.

1998-01-01

157

Source parameters and time-dependent slip distributions of slow slip events on the Cascadia subduction zone from 1998 to 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

We invert for the time-dependent slip history of slow slip events on the Cascadia subduction zone using GPS data from 1998 to 2008. The 16 slip transients have sufficient station coverage to solve for the slip distribution on the plate interface. GPS time series are inverted for fault slip using the Extended Network Inversion Filter. Limited station coverage south of

D. A. Schmidt; H. Gao

2010-01-01

158

Seismic Moment and Slip Distribution of the 1960 and 2010 Chilean Earthquakes as Inferred from Tsunami Waveforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 27 February 2010 Chilean earthquake generated tsunami and caused significant damage on the Chilean coast. The tsunami was recorded at many tide gauge stations around the Pacific Ocean, as well as bottom ocean bottom pressure gauges of DART system. We inverted tsunami waveform data, recorded at 11 tide gauges in Chile and Peru and 4 nearby DART stations, to estimate the slip distribution on the fault. When we assume 36 subfaults (12 along strike by 3 downdip, size of each subfault is 50 km × 50 km), very large slip is located at the most downdip subfaults beneath coast and land. Tsunami waveforms recorded other DART stations also require such deep slips. However, other geodetic and seismic data do not show such deep slips, and tsunami data have limited resolution for such a deep onshore slip. We therefore used coastal uplift and subsidence data at 36 locations reported by Farias et al. (2010). The joint inversion indicates two asperities, one to the north around Constitucion and the other to the south around Arauco peninsula. While the largest slip is still located beneath the coast, the offshore slips generally become larger than the tsunami inversion. The total seismic moment is about 1.8 × 1022 Nm (Mw 8.8), similar to the value estimated from tsunami waveforms only, and the fault length is 450 km. For the 22 May 1960 Chilean earthquake, we first made an inversion of tsunami data, recorded at 12 tide gauge stations mostly in South America. When we assume 27 subfaults (9 along strike by 3 downdip, size of each subfault is 100 km × 50 km), the total seismic moment is 4.6 × 1022 Nm (Mw 9.0). Again, the largest slip is estimated at the deepest subfault beneath land near the epicenter, which would produce large coastal uplift where the coastal subsidence was reported by Plafker and Savage (1970). Poor station coverage of tide gauges may limit the resolution of slip distribution particularly at the southern part of the source area. We therefore made a joint inversion of tsunami and geodetic data, including coastal uplift and subsidence measured at 155 points and leveling data along the highway of 580 km. The total seismic moment is estimated as 8.1 × 1022 Nm (Mw 9.2), with the fault length of 800 km. Large slips of about 35 m are estimated at about 200 km south of the epicenter, which are consistent with the slip distributions modeled from geodetic data only (Barrientos and Ward, 1990; Moreno et al., 2009). The large slips are estimated at the southern end of the source region near Isla Guamblin and Isla Guafo, where large uplift is reported. The seismic moment from the joint inversion is similar to that estimated from geodetic data, and smaller than the results from seismic data analysis.

Satake, K.; Fujii, Y.

2010-12-01

159

Seismic and aseismic slips controlled by interplate coupling variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key characteristics of mega-earthquakes and seismic cycles can be interpreted in terms of an asperity model, in which strong patches of an unstable slip are surrounded by weaker, stable sliding areas. Structural and material heterogeneities, such as subducted seamounts, ridges and sediments, are thought to be responsible for interplate coupling variations. The model with slip dependent friction enables us to reproduce irregular earthquake sequences, complex rupture patterns, interplays between seismic and aseismic slips, and earthquake scalings. Distributions of strengths and critical slips displacements along the plate interface control the model behaviour. Specifically, the strength to critical slip ratio decides about more brittle failure or more stable sliding; larger critical slips make slips smoother at shallow depths.

Senatorski, Piotr

2013-04-01

160

A STUDY ON HIGH STRENGTH BOLTED JOINT WITH METAL-SPRAYED CONTACT SURFACES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slip coefficient of high-strength bolt friction joints is well known to depend on the condition of contact surfaces. The coefficient is determined as 0.4 in the Specifications for Highway Bridges and the Design Standards for Railway Structures and Commentary (Steel Structures) in Japan, in the condition of roughened contact surfaces with mill scale removed or painted contact surfaces with inorganic zinc rich paint. However, the slip coefficient with metal-sprayed surfaces is not clear. For the joints with metalsprayed surfaces, hot-dip galvanized bolts are applied and such bolts are tightened by turn-of-nut method. However, it is unclear how much axial force is induced into the bolts in the joints with metal-sprayed surfaces. In order to examine slip coefficient of the bolted joints with metal-sprayed contact surfaces slip tests of high strength bolted joints were carried out. On the basis of above examinations, the slip coefficient with metal-sprayed surfaces is proposed in this paper. To clarify the induced axial force of the bolts, bolt-tightening tests were carried out. Considering bolt diameter, bolt length, induced axial forces and their relaxation, nut rotation angles are proposed in relation to different bolt size.

Minami, Kuniaki; Saito, Masamichi; Yokoyama, Hideki; Sugimoto, Ichiro; Nojima, Takao; Masunaga, Toshihiko; Nagasaki, Eiji

161

Slip casting of advanced ceramics and composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle packing arrangements in slip cast (colloidal filtration) articles uniquely affect the evolution of grain size and porosity defect distributions during sintering. These particle packing arrangements are influenced by the physical properties of colloidal structures in suspension and the resulting processes of agglomerate restructuring and pore closure during consolidation. Key parameters affecting cast layer packing structures are the particle size distribution, interparticle potential, hydrodynamic stresses in suspensions, and the combined effect of hydrodynamic and compaction stresses in cast layers. Experiments with electrostatically stabilized aqueous alumina systems illustrate specific effects of interparticle potential on slip casting rates and microstructure evolution during sintering. In addition, experiments were conducted that illustrate microstructure variations caused by differential sedimentation velocities and agglomerate growth kinetic effects.

Schilling, C. H.; Aksay, I. A.

1987-03-01

162

Heat transfer on a microcylinder with slip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to determine the heat transfer from a semi-infinite microcylinder under uniform axial flow in the slip regime. Following the treatments of Glauert and Lighthill (Proc Royal Soc 230A:188-203, 1955), and Crane (Ingenieur-Archiv 43:203-214, 1974), an asymptotic series solution is developed to account for the heat flux in terms of the Nusselt number for large axial distances along a cylinder maintained at constant temperature.

Crane, L. J.; McVeigh, A. G.

2010-12-01

163

Slip casting of partially stabilized zirconia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toughness of partially-stabilized zirconia has been studied for some time. The tetragonal phase in partially stabilized ZrO2 transforms to the monoclinic phase under the influence of stress. Partially-stabilized ZrO2 has enhanced tensile strength, good wear resistance and low friction coefficient, and has found industrial applications. This article describes the use of partially-stabilized zirconia in slip casting. Lab techniques of

H. Taguchi; H. Miyamoto; Y. Takahashi

1985-01-01

164

Wall slip of mayonnaises in viscometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shear flow of mayonnaise is generally characterized by an apparent yield stress, shear thinning in steady flow, stress\\u000a overshoots upon inception of flow and other time-dependent effects. These observations are usually understood to be the result\\u000a of structural rearrangement within the material. Additionally and separately, the possibility that emulsions may exhibit apparent\\u000a wall slip on a microscopic scale at

Janusz Plucinski; R. K. Gupta; S. Chakrabarti

1998-01-01

165

Gaseous slip flow in long microchannels  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytic and experimental investigation into gaseous flow with slight rarefaction through long microchannels is undertaken. A two-dimensional (2-D) analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations with a first-order slip-velocity boundary condition demonstrates that both compressibility and rarefied effects are present in long microchannels. By undertaking a perturbation expansion in ?, the height-to-length ratio of the channel, and using the ideal gas

Errol B. Arkilic; Martin A. Schmidt; Kenneth S. Breuer

1997-01-01

166

Treatment of Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a comparatively rare disorder with various new treatment modalities. Twenty-nine\\u000a hips (27 patients) in this study were treated (1971–2004). Mean age was 12.5 years, and mean follow-up period was 54.7 months.\\u000a Among unilateral SCFE patients, there were 7 acute, 6 acute on chronic, and 16 chronic SCFE. Average posterior tilting angle\\u000a (PTA) on admission

Motoaki Katano; Naonobu Takahira; Sumitaka Takasaki; Katsufumi Uchiyama; Moritoshi Itoman

167

Modeling of rock friction 2. Simulation of preseismic slip  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The constitutive relations developed in the companion paper are used to model detailed observations of preseismic slip and the onset of unstable slip in biaxial laboratory experiments. The simulations employ a deterministic plane strain finite element model to represent the interactions both within the sliding blocks and between the blocks and the loading apparatus. Both experiments and simulations show that preseismic slip is controlled by initial inhomogeneity of shear stress along the sliding surface relative to the frictional strength. As a consequence of the inhomogeneity, stable slip begins at a point on the surface and the area of slip slowly expands as the external loading increases. A previously proposed correlation between accelerating rates of stable slip and growth of the area of slip is supported by the simulations. In the simulations and in the experiments, unstable slip occurs shortly after a propagating slip event traverses the sliding surface and breaks out at the ends of the sample. In the model the breakout of stable slip causes a sudden acceleration of slip rates. Because of velocity dependency of the constitutive relationship for friction, the rapid acceleration of slip causes a decrease in frictional strength. Instability occurs when the frictional strength decreases with displacement at a rate that exceeds the intrinsic unloading characteristics of the sample and test machine. A simple slider-spring model that does not consider preseismic slip appears to approximate the transition adequately from stable sliding to unstable slip as a function of normal stress, machine stiffness, and surface roughness for small samples. However, for large samples and for natural faults the simulations suggest that the simple model may be inaccurate because it does not take into account potentially large preseismic displacements that will alter the friction parameters prior to instability. Copyright ?? 1979 by the American Geophysical Union.

Dieterich, J. H.

1979-01-01

168

Quantum phase slips in superconducting nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis we present the results of an experimental study of the superconducting transitions of ultrathin nanowires. In order to reliably fabricate homogeneous nanowires, a novel technique was developed. By depositing 4--5 nm of amorphous Mo79Ge21 on carbon nanotubes or ropes, which act as mechanical substrates, we are able to routinely fabricate wires about 10 nm in diameter. More than 20 nanowires have been fabricated and measured, with lengths ranging from 150 nm to 1mum, and nominal widths ranging from 10 to 22 nm. Our resistance-temperature measurements of these nanowires display superconducting transitions which broaden with decreasing cross-sectional areas; the thinnest wires' resistance stayed almost constant down to 1.5K. Since resistance arises from phase slippage in the superconducting order parameter Psi, such resistive transitions can be explained by a combination of the activation of phase slips through a free energy barrier via thermal excitation close to TC, and via macroscopic quantum tunneling at lower temperatures. Because the phase slip rates increase exponentially with decreasing cross-sectional areas of the wires, superconductivity in a thin wire is suppressed at low temperatures by the proliferation of quantum phase slips. This conclusion is based on the quantitative agreement between the data and the predictions made by a microscopic theory developed by Golubev and Zaikin.

Lau, Chun Ning

169

Episodic Tremor and Slip: an Experimental Approach.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have devised a laboratory experiment to investigate the frictional and acoustic patterns of a salt slider over a large number of deformation cycles. We observe a continuous change of the frictional behavior of the slider under constant experimental conditions of stiffness, temperature and loading velocity. The stick-slip regime is progressively vanishing, eventually reaching the stable sliding regime. Concomitantly, the contact interface, observed under the microscope, develops a striated morphology with contact asperities increase in length and width, arguing for an increase in the critical slip distance dc. Complementary experiments including velocity jumps show that the frictional parameters of the rate and state friction law, a and b, progressively vanish with accumulated slip. The ultimate stage of friction is therefore rate and state independent under our experimental conditions. The Acoustic Emission evolves with cumulative displacement and interface ageing, following a trend from strong impulsive events to a collection of smaller amplitude and longer duration signals. We tentatively extend these results to natural subduction zones: shallow loud earthquakes, medium depth slow, deeper silent quakes and deepest steady-state creep are reproduced by the ageing of contact interface with cumulative displacement. In the meantime, the seismic energy release is evolving from seismic-like signals to NVT-like signals. NVT would emerge as the local recollection of the unstable behavior of the contact interface globally evolving towards the stable sliding regime.

Voisin, C.; Renard, F.; Larose, E.; Grasso, J.

2008-12-01

170

The 1964 Prince William Sound earthquake: Joint inversion of tsunami and geodetic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1964 Prince William Sound (Alaska) earthquake, Mw = 9.2, ruptured a large area beneath the continental margin of Alaska from Prince William Sound to Kodiak Island. A joint inversion of tsunami waveforms and geodetic data, consisting of vertical displacements and horizontal vectors, gives a detailed slip distribution. Two areas of high slip correspond to seismologically determined areas of high moment release: the Prince William Sound asperity with average slip of 18 m and the Kodiak asperity with average slip of 10 m. The average slip on the fault is 8.6 m and the seismic moment is estimated as 6.3 × 1022 N m, or over 75% of the seismic moment determined from long-period surface waves.

Johnson, Jean M.; Satake, Kenji; Holdahl, Sanford R.; Sauber, Jeanne

1996-01-01

171

Some properties of unstable slip on rough surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report results obtained from various friction experiments under direct and oblique shear loading conditions. We used four rock types of varying brittleness (quartzite, anhydrite, limestone, pyrophyllite) with different surface roughness. The observations concentrate on the time span several milliseconds before dynamic failure occurs. During this period a premonitory, unstable phase of slip (slip 2) occurs. This differs importantly from a premonitory, stable process (slip 1) with durations of hundreds of seconds. On smooth surfaces slip 2 is usually observed with ductile rocks and less reliably with brittle rocks. Slip 2 is mostly accompanied by acoustic emissions, which increase in rate of occurrence and in magnitude until the stick-slip event. Foreshocks are observed during approximately 50% of the slip 2 events on rough surfaces. Foreshocks far exceed the “acoustic noise level”, which is also prevalent before stick-slip events on rough surfaces. In the direct shear experiment, where two faults are being loaded simultaneously, in about 20% of the cases precursory slip 2 was observed on the opposite side on which the final stick-slip event occurred.

Spetzler, Hartmut; Sobolev, Guennadi; Koltsov, Anatoli; Zang, Arno; Getting, Ivan C.

1991-03-01

172

Tsunami Modeling to Validate Slip Models of the 2007 M w 8.0 Pisco Earthquake, Central Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the 2007, August 15th, M w 8.0, Pisco earthquake in central Peru, Sladen et al. (J Geophys Res 115: B02405, 2010) have derived several slip models of this event. They inverted teleseismic data together with geodetic (InSAR) measurements to look for the co-seismic slip distribution on the fault plane, considering those data sets separately or jointly. But how close to the real slip distribution are those inverted slip models? To answer this crucial question, the authors generated some tsunami records based on their slip models and compared them to DART buoys, tsunami records, and available runup data. Such an approach requires a robust and accurate tsunami model (non-linear, dispersive, accurate bathymetry and topography, etc.) otherwise the differences between the data and the model may be attributed to the slip models themselves, though they arise from an incomplete tsunami simulation. The accuracy of a numerical tsunami simulation strongly depends, among others, on two important constraints: (i) A fine computational grid (and thus the bathymetry and topography data sets used) which is not always available, unfortunately, and (ii) a realistic tsunami propagation model including dispersion. Here, we extend Sladen's work using newly available data, namely a tide gauge record at Callao (Lima harbor) and the Chilean DART buoy record, while considering a complete set of runup data along with a more realistic tsunami numerical that accounts for dispersion, and also considering a fine-resolution computational grid, which is essential. Through these accurate numerical simulations we infer that the InSAR-based model is in better agreement with the tsunami data, studying the case of the Pisco earthquake indicating that geodetic data seems essential to recover the final co-seismic slip distribution on the rupture plane. Slip models based on teleseismic data are unable to describe the observed tsunami, suggesting that a significant amount of co-seismic slip may have been aseismic. Finally, we compute the runup distribution along the central part of the Peruvian coast to better understand the wave amplification/attenuation processes of the tsunami generated by the Pisco earthquake.

Ioualalen, M.; Perfettini, H.; Condo, S. Yauri; Jimenez, C.; Tavera, H.

2013-03-01

173

Slip-enhanced electrokinetic energy conversion in nanofluidic channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate theoretically the influence of hydrodynamic slip at the surface of a nanofluidic channel on the efficiency with which electrokinetic phenomena can be used to convert hydrostatic energy to electrical power. Slip is introduced by applying the Navier boundary condition to the pressure-driven and the electro-osmotic components of the fluid velocity. A strong enhancement in the efficiency is predicted for increasing slip length due to the resulting decrease in the fluidic impedance and increase in the streaming conductance. These effects are moderated by a decrease in the electrical impedance, which promotes dissipation. The maximum efficiency approaches 100% as the slip length diverges, and a potentially practical 40% efficiency is expected for a moderate 30 nm slip length in a 10 nm high channel. Recently reported slip lengths for carbon nanotube filters suggest that efficiencies above 70% and high power densities might be achieved in a graphitic system.

Ren, Yongqiang; Stein, Derek

2008-05-01

174

Slip stacking experiments at Fermilab main injector  

SciTech Connect

In order to achieve an increase in proton intensity, Fermilab Main Injector will use a stacking process called ''slip stacking''. The intensity will be doubled by injecting one train of bunches at a slightly lower energy, another at a slightly higher energy, then bringing them together for the final capture. Beam studies have started for this process and we have already verified that, at least for a low beam intensity, the stacking procedure works as expected. For high intensity operation, development work of the feedback and feedforward systems is under way.

Kiyomi Koba et al.

2003-06-02

175

Episodic Tremor and Slip: Cycles Within Cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events, each with geodetically determined moment magnitudes in the mid-6 range, repeat about every 15 months under the Olympic Peninsula/southern Vancouver Island region. We have automatically searched for non-volcanic tremor in all 5-minute time windows both during the past five ETS events and during the two inter-ETS periods from February, 2007 through April, 2008 and June 2008 through April 2009. Inter-ETS tremor was detected in 5000 windows, which overlap by 50%, so tremor was seen 2% of the time. The catalog of 5-minute tremor locations cluster in time and space into groups we call tremor swarms, revealing 50 inter-ETS tremor swarms. The number of hours of tremor per swarm ranged from about 1 to 68, totaling 374 hours. The inter-ETS tremor swarms generally locate along the downdip side of the major ETS events, and account for approximately 45% of the time that tremor has been detected during the last two entire ETS cycles. Many of the inter-ETS events are near-carbon copies in duration, spatial extent and propagation direction, as is seen for the larger 15-month-interval events. These 50 inter-ETS swarms plus two major ETS episodes follow a power law relationship such that the number of swarms, N, exceeding duration ? is given by N ˜ ?-0.7. If we assume that seismic moment is proportional to ? as proposed by Ide et al. [Nature, 2007], we find that the tremor swarms follow a standard Gutenberg-Richter logarithmic frequency-magnitude relation, N ˜ 10-bMw, with b = 1.0, which lies in the range for normal earthquake catalogs. Furthermore, the major ETS events fall on the curve defined by the inter-ETS swarms, suggesting that the inter-ETS swarms are just smaller versions of the major 15-month ETS events. Only the largest events coincide with geodetically observed slip, suggesting that current geodetic observations may be missing nearly half of the total slip. Finally, crude estimates of the spatial dimensions of tremor swarms L suggest that L ˜ ?1/n where n is between 2 and 3. A value of 2 is consistent with slip propagation rates being controlled by a diffusional process. In contrast, n is observed to be about 1 for normal earthquakes because rupture generally propagates at a velocity close to the shear-wave speed.

Creager, K. C.; Wech, A.; Vidale, J. E.

2009-12-01

176

Wireless slips and falls prediction system.  

PubMed

Accidental slips and falls due to decreased strength and stability are a concern for the elderly. A method to detect and ideally predict these falls can reduce their occurrence and allow these individuals to regain a degree of independence. This paper presents the design and assessment of a wireless, wearable device that continuously samples accelerometer and gyroscope data with a goal to detect and predict falls. Lyapunov-based analyses of these time series data indicate that wearer instability can be detected and predicted in real time, implying the ability to predict impending incidents. PMID:23366815

Krenzel, Devon; Warren, Steve; Li, Kejia; Natarajan, Bala; Singh, Gurdip

2012-01-01

177

Kinematics of strike-slip faults: the geological perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variability of co-seismic ruptures or slip-rates estimates along strike-slip faults is not well explained. The repetition of coeval ruptures as well as similar slip-rates at all time and spatial scales is probably indicative of a replicable strain pattern in a stable stress regime. Similar geological and geodetic rates are usually interpreted as a constant behavior throughout the seismic cycle and throughout the lifetime of the fault. However, due to the short time of geodetic measurements and the sparse geologic rate determinations, slip-rate variations are rarely observed. Thus many questions remain: Do rate changes imply seismic behavior modifications ? Or do changing rupture patterns affect the slip-rate ? Do faults interact, both in term of rupture pattern and slip-rate modifications, at the scale of fault junctions, at the scale of block boundaries ? Here we review both short-term geodetic and long-term geological rates obtained along some of the major strike-slip faults in and around Tibet. Although geodesy is now widely used access difficulties and field conditions in some cases do not allow to calculate a significant geodetic rate. Along some faults there is a rather good agreement between geodetic and geological rates, while others show large discrepancies. The accuracy of geologic rate determinations is still poor that slip-rate variations at the millennial scale are difficult to establish. For longer time scales, that evidently involve significant geometric changes in boundary conditions for some faults, variations in slip-rates can be documented. From examples along the Altyn Tagh and Kunlun fault we will show the difficulties in reconstructing past slip histories over several seismic cycle or possible slip-rate changes at the millennial scale from reconstruction of displaced geomorphic markers such as alluvial fans and terraces. We emphasize the need for both geodetic and geologic rates to reduce measurements uncertainties to be able to discuss slip-rate variations at various time scales.

van der Woerd, J.

2012-04-01

178

Slip casting of silicon nitride for pressureless sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of aqueous slips of silicon nitride\\/spinel mixtures were studied. Vanisperse CB was used as deflocculant. It was shown that mixtures previously milled in water form stable slips, while those milled in isopropanol form jelly-like aqueous suspensions unsuitable for casting. A single-stage slip may be prepared by milling and mixing Si3 N4 powder with spinel and water without a deflocculant.

E. M. Rabinovich; Sh. Leitner; A. Golden Berg

1982-01-01

179

Slip control strategy for an automatic transmission vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern automatic transmissions equip torque converters with lock-up clutches to reduce the energy loss of hydraulic systems.\\u000a Instead of simply engaging the clutch disks, the new technology of clutch slip has been developed to improve the overall efficiency\\u000a of power transmission. There are two major problems with the clutch slip system. The first is how to keep the slip between

Chinwon Lee; Kukhyun Ahn; Jang Moo Lee; Won Sik Lim

2003-01-01

180

The effect of sliding velocity on the mechanical response of an artificial joint in Topopah Spring Member tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

A smooth artificial joint in Topopah Spring Member tuff was sheared at constant normal stress at velocities from 0 to 100 {mu}m/s to determine the velocity-dependence of shear strength. Two different initial conditions were used: (1) unprimed -- the joint had been shear stress-free since last application of normal stress, and before renewed shear loading; and (2) primed -- the joint had undergone a slip history after application of normal stress, but before the current shear loading. Observed steady-state rate effects were found to be about 3 times lager than for some other silicate rocks. These different initial conditions affected the character of the stress-slip curve immediately after the onset of slip. Priming the joint causes a peak in the stress-slip response followed by a transient decay to the steady-state stress, i.e., slip weakening. Slide-hold-slide tests exhibit time-dependent strengthening. When the joint was subjected to constant shear stress, no slip was observed; that is, joint creep did not occur. One set of rate data was collected from a surface submerged in tap water, the friction was higher for this surface, but the rate sensitivity was the same as that for surfaces tested in the air-dry condition.

Olsson, W.A.

1994-04-01

181

The effect of slip variability on earthquake slip-length scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been debate on whether average slip in long ruptures should scale with rupture length L, or with rupture width W. This scaling discussion is equivalent to asking whether average stress drop Deltasigma, which is sometimes considered an intrinsic frictional property of a fault, is approximately constant over a wide range of earthquake sizes. In this paper, we examine

Jing Liu-Zeng; Thomas Heaton; Christopher DiCaprio

2005-01-01

182

Geologic evidence for multiple slip weakening mechanisms during seismic slip in crystalline rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine exhumed seismogenic faults to investigate the mechanisms that may have achieved dynamic fault weakening during ancient ruptures. Field and microscope observations imply more than one weakening mechanism must have been active during slip events on the faults. Pseudotachylytes that are continuous over the scale of field exposures are indicative of melt lubrication. A fault breccia crosscutting earlier formed

J. D. Kirkpatrick; Z. K. Shipton

2009-01-01

183

Role of surface charge on boundary slip in fluid flow.  

PubMed

For a smooth hydrophobic surface, slip occurs during fluid flow close to the boundary, known as boundary slip which can reduce fluid drag. The surface charge present at the interface is believed to affect the boundary slip. In this paper, the effect of surface charge on the fluid flow on a hydrophobic surface is studied in both deionized (DI) water and saline. Positive and negative voltages are applied to the substrate to vary the surface charge density. The electrostatic force and slip lengths are measured with different applied electric field. Results are the subject of the paper. PMID:23164192

Pan, Yunlu; Bhushan, Bharat

2012-11-07

184

Inverting measurements of surface slip on the Superstition Hills fault  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We derive and test a set of inversions of surface-slip measurements based on the empirical relation u(t)=uf/(1 + T/t)c proposed by Sharp and Saxton (1989) to estimate the final slip uf, the power-law exponent c, and the power-law duration T. At short times, Sharp's relation behaves like the simple power law, u(t)~u1tc, where u1 is the initial slip, that is, the slip at 1 day after the earthquake. At long times, the slip approaches the final slip asymptotically. The inversions are designed in part to exploit the accuracy of measurements of differential slip; that is, measurements of surface slip which are made relative to a set of nails or stakes emplaced after the earthquake. We apply the inversions to slip measurements made at 53 sites along the Superstition Hills fault for the 11 months following the M=6.2 and 6.6 earthqakes of 24 November 1987. -from Authors

Boatwright, J.; Budding, K. E.; Sharp, R. V.

1989-01-01

185

Slip and flow of hard-sphere colloidal glasses.  

PubMed

We study the flow of concentrated hard-sphere colloidal suspensions along smooth, nonstick walls using cone-plate rheometry and simultaneous confocal microscopy. In the glass regime, the global flow shows a transition from Herschel-Bulkley behavior at large shear rate to a characteristic Bingham slip response at small rates, absent for ergodic colloidal fluids. Imaging reveals both the "solid" microstructure during full slip and the local nature of the "slip to shear" transition. Both the local and global flow are described by a phenomenological model, and the associated Bingham slip parameters exhibit characteristic scaling with size and concentration of the hard spheres. PMID:19113756

Ballesta, P; Besseling, R; Isa, L; Petekidis, G; Poon, W C K

2008-12-15

186

Frictional slip of granite at hydrothermal conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To measure the strength, sliding behavior, and friction constitutive properties of faults at hydrothermal conditions, laboratory granite faults containing a layer of granite powder (simulated gouge) were slid. The mechanical results define two regimes. The first regime includes dry granite up to at least 845?? and wet granite below 250??C. In this regime the coefficient of friction is high (?? = 0.7 to 0.8) and depends only modestly on temperature, slip rate, and PH2O. The second regime includes wet granite above ~350??C. In this regime friction decreases considerably with increasing temperature (temperature weakening) and with decreasing slip rate (velocity strengthening). These regimes correspond well to those identified in sliding tests on ultrafine quartz. The results highlight the importance of fluid-assisted deformation processes active in faults at depth and the need for laboratory studies on the roles of additional factors such as fluid chemistry, large displacements, higher concentrations of phyllosilicates, and time-dependent fault healing. -from Authors

Blanpied, M. L.; Lockner, D. A.; Byerlee, J. D.

1995-01-01

187

Organic Synthesis in a Spinning Tube-in-Tube (STT¢) Reactor  

EPA Science Inventory

Continuous-flow reactors have been designed to minimize and potentially overcome the limitations of heat and mass transfer that are encountered in chemical reactors and further experienced upon scale up of a reaction. With process intensification, optimization of the reaction i...

188

GREEN REACTION CHEMISTRIES PERFORMED IN THE SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE (STT) REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Kreido Laboratories have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) collaboration, to develop and commercialize green and sustainable chemistries in the area of industrial chemical synthesis. Utilizi...

189

SYNTHESIS OF ORGANIC EPOXIDES USING A SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protectiion Agency (USEPA) and Kreido Laboratories have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) collaboration, to develop and commercialize green and sustainable chemistries in the area of industrial chemcial synthesis. The STT...

190

Stick-Slip as a Mechanism for Earthquakes Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

38 years ago Brace and Byerlee (Science, 1966) proposed that shallow earthquakes represent stick-slip sliding along old or newly formed faults in the earth and that observed stress drops represent release of a small fraction of the stress supported by the rock at the earthquake focus. We have investigated the generality of this proposal by relating the results of stick-slip friction experiments on large granite samples to counterpart observations for earthquakes. The stick-slip experiments, entailing the measurements of fault slip, frictional stress, and loading stress as functions of time, can be analyzed to determine the maximum slip rate, the apparent stress, the dynamic stress drop and the static stress drop, which, in turn, can be related to the corresponding earthquake parameters using a stress adjustment factor. That is, the laboratory loading stresses must be multiplied so as to approximate stresses measured in the seismogenic crust. For example, a stick-slip experiment run at a normal stress of 2.76 MPa was adjusted for the state of stress measured at a depth of 6.8 km at the KTB site, Germany, the deepest available in situ measurement. Applying the resulting stress adjustment factor of 41 to laboratory measurements of static stress drop, dynamic stress drop, apparent stress, and peak slip rate yielded estimates of 12.7 MPa (compared to a total shear stress of 65 MPa), 10.2 MPa, 3.3 MPa, and 3.1 m/s, respectively. These stress-adjusted parameters, independent of earthquake size, are all typical of those observed or inferred for major earthquakes. In particular, maximum slip rates within the fault zones of earthquakes appear to be several m/s independent of magnitude or moment. To relate the laboratory slip to the maximum slip within the fault zone of an earthquake, differences in stiffness as well as the loading stresses must be taken into account; the stiffness adjustment results in maximum slip scaling according to the cube root of seismic moment. Applying both the stress and stiffness adjustments to a laboratory slip of 93 microns yielded a maximum slip of 11 m for the M7.9 Denali, Alaska earthquake, in good agreement with peak values of about 12 m from slip models developed for this event. Thus, the physics of stick-slip friction as observed in biaxial laboratory tests at modest loading stresses appears to govern the rupture processes of crustal earthquakes in general, even those with large magnitudes. If so, then there is no need to invoke rupture processes unique to large earthquakes, such as thermal pressurization.

McGarr, A.; Fletcher, J. B.

2004-12-01

191

The role of fluid pressure on slip instability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faults were first thought to relieve stress either through continuous aseismic sliding, or as earthquakes resulting from sudden rupture of locked faults. Recent data from geodetic and global seismic networks revealed a remarkable array of new slip instabilities. This discovery creates new challenges to our understanding of the mechanics of earthquakes and faulting. Slow slip phenomena, including non-volcanic tremor, low to very low frequency earthquakes, episodic tremor and slip, share a common underlying mechanism: shear slip (e.g., Ide et al., 2007). Seismic tomographic imaging of elastic properties (e.g., Audet et al. 2010) suggests that high fluid pore pressure may be responsible for these events. The working hypothesis is that high pore pressure reduces the effective normal stress and thus enhances slip instability. However, to date, experimental evidence on how different slip instabilities results from high pore pressure is still missing. In this study, we conducted triaxial deformation experiments to investigate how the reduction of effective normal stress affects slip instability and fracture propagation. Water saturated porous sedimentary rocks were deformed at constant strain rates and under fully drained conditions. We designed loading configurations so that brittle failure and frictional instability in samples deformed under decreasing effective stress ('high pore pressure' tests) can be compared to those under increasing effective stress (conventional tests). Under the conventional loading, failure modes in deformed samples change from brittle faulting to cataclastic flow with increasing confinements. At the transitional regime, slip along the fault becomes more stable. Our data show that high pore pressure facilitates fault slip thus enhances slip instability. At a low confinement, unstable faulting is observed in samples deformed under either the conventional or 'high pore pressure' loading configuration. Interestingly, the fracture energy release at 'high pore pressure' conditions is associated with a more gradual fault slip than that under the conventional loading. At confinements high enough to inhibit instability under the conventional loading (i.e., in the transitional regime), samples under 'high pore pressure' (at otherwise identical stress conditions) show enhanced slip instability. Compared to the brittle faulting process at low confinements, fault slip at "high pore pressure" is accompanied by smaller stress drop and the fracture energy release rate is slower. Microstructural observations on deformed samples show that at 'high pore pressure' conditions, the microcracks form a well-connected network, which may explain the slip enhancement. The mechanical and microstructural data provide laboratory constraints on mechanisms responsible for slow slip events.

Ougier-Simonin, A.; Zhu, W.

2012-04-01

192

Seismic and aseismic slip on the central Peru megathrust.  

PubMed

Slip on a subduction megathrust can be seismic or aseismic, with the two modes of slip complementing each other in time and space to accommodate the long-term plate motions. Although slip is almost purely aseismic at depths greater than about 40 km, heterogeneous surface strain suggests that both modes of slip occur at shallower depths, with aseismic slip resulting from steady or transient creep in the interseismic and postseismic periods. Thus, active faults seem to comprise areas that slip mostly during earthquakes, and areas that mostly slip aseismically. The size, location and frequency of earthquakes that a megathrust can generate thus depend on where and when aseismic creep is taking place, and what fraction of the long-term slip rate it accounts for. Here we address this issue by focusing on the central Peru megathrust. We show that the Pisco earthquake, with moment magnitude M(w) = 8.0, ruptured two asperities within a patch that had remained locked in the interseismic period, and triggered aseismic frictional afterslip on two adjacent patches. The most prominent patch of afterslip coincides with the subducting Nazca ridge, an area also characterized by low interseismic coupling, which seems to have repeatedly acted as a barrier to seismic rupture propagation in the past. The seismogenic portion of the megathrust thus appears to be composed of interfingering rate-weakening and rate-strengthening patches. The rate-strengthening patches contribute to a high proportion of aseismic slip, and determine the extent and frequency of large interplate earthquakes. Aseismic slip accounts for as much as 50-70% of the slip budget on the seismogenic portion of the megathrust in central Peru, and the return period of earthquakes with M(w) = 8.0 in the Pisco area is estimated to be 250 years. PMID:20445628

Perfettini, Hugo; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Tavera, Hernando; Kositsky, Andrew; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Bondoux, Francis; Chlieh, Mohamed; Sladen, Anthony; Audin, Laurence; Farber, Daniel L; Soler, Pierre

2010-05-01

193

Generic element formulation for modelling bolted lap joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joints have significant effects on the dynamic response of the assembled structures due to existence of two non-linear mechanisms in their interface, namely slipping and slapping. These mechanisms affect the structural response by adding considerable damping into the structure and lowering the natural frequencies due to the stiffness softening. Neglecting these effects in modelling of joints produces errors in predictions of the structure responses. In this paper, a non-linear generic element formulation is developed for modelling bolted lap joints. The generic element is formed by satisfying all conditions that are known for a joint interface and hence providing a non-linear parametric formulation for the families of allowable joint models. Dynamic response of the developed model for the assembled structure including the generic joint interface element is obtained using the incremental harmonic balance (IHB) method. The generic parameters of the joint are identified by minimising the difference between the model response obtained from IHB method and the observed behaviour of the structure. The procedure is demonstrated by modelling an actual structure containing a single lap bolted joint in the middle. The frequency responses of the structure around the first two resonance frequencies are measured by exciting the structure using a sinusoidal force at each individual frequency. The measured responses are compared with the predictions of the model containing a parametric generic joint element. The parameters of the joint interface model are successfully identified by minimising the difference between the measured responses and the model predictions.

Ahmadian, Hamid; Jalali, Hassan

2007-07-01

194

Slip velocity dependence on shear-induced permeability evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolution of fluid transport properties of a fault zone during seismic slip can influence on the dynamic fault process in a subducing plate boundary, though permeability change caused by dynamic slip motion is less well documented. In this study, we measured water permeability and seismic velocity for high porosity sandstone (Berea sandstone, porosity = 20%), low porosity sandstone (Indian sandstone, 11~14 %) and granite (Aji granite, 0.5 %) after shear deformation at various slip rates from 0.1 to 1300 mm/s in laboratory experiments. Friction tests were performed at low normal stress from 1 to 2MPa and below 10 m of slip displacement. Permeability of Berea sandstone decreases by one order of magnitude with increase in slip rate and slip displacement. Permeability of Indian sandstone and Aji granite increases dramatically by three orders of magnitude at high slip rate above 300 mm/s. Fine grained gouges are developed along simulated slip surface in all rock specimens, and the width of gouge layers are proportional to slip rate and slip displacement. Microcracks and mesoscale fractures are nucleated in specimens at 1300 mm/s of slip velocity. Temperature distribution of specimen in friction experiments estimated by finite element method using laboratory data shows temperature on a slip surface rises several hundred degrees above 130 mm/s of slip velocity, and temperature would have exceeded ?-? phase transition temperature of quartz at 1300 mm/s of slip velocity. The thermal gradient along the axis normal to slip surface is very sweep at high slip rate. Permeability reduction in porous sandstone after friction test is explained by the growth of the finer grained gouge layer, which is less permeable than that of host rocks. A sudden permeability increase for low porosity sandstone and granite is explained by the thermal cracking result from thermal stress induced by rapid and large heat generation at high slip rate. Increase in wear rate of gouge with slip velocity is explained by the reduction of rock strength and enhancement of thermal cracking by temperature rise. The transition from a reduction to increase of permeability by high velocity friction is observed around 10-16 m2 of permeability for intact rocks at 10 MPa of effective pressure. All elastic properties (S and P wave velocities, Poisson’s ratio) for all rocks are not changed by friction at low slip rate below 130 mm/s. S and P wave velocities for Aji granite and Indian sandstone are decreased and Poisson’s ratio is increased by high velocity friction. We observed the decrease in S and P wave velocities and the increase in Poisson’s ratio at 390 mm/s of slip velocity in Berea sandstone, though the changes in these properties were not observed at 1300 mm/s. Our results suggest that the temporal increase in shear strength caused by the dissipation of pore pressure is expected due to the generation of thermal cracking along fault zone, and thus the dynamic permeability change can act as a break of slip. The sudden increase in permeability for impermeable rocks can explain the hydro-geochemical phenomena after earthquake reported by Claesson et al. (2004). Claesson, L. et al., 2004. Hydrogeochemical changes before and after a major earthquake, Geology, 32, 641-644.

Sakaguchi, M.; Tanikawa, W.; Hirose, T.; Tadai, O.; Lin, W.

2009-12-01

195

Slip Distribution and Seismic Moment of the 2010 and 1960 Chilean Earthquakes Inferred from Tsunami Waveforms and Coastal Geodetic Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The slip distribution and seismic moment of the 2010 and 1960 Chilean earthquakes were estimated from tsunami and coastal geodetic data. These two earthquakes generated transoceanic tsunamis, and the waveforms were recorded around the Pacific Ocean. In addition, coseismic coastal uplift and subsidence were measured around the source areas. For the 27 February 2010 Maule earthquake, inversion of the tsunami waveforms recorded at nearby coastal tide gauge and Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) stations combined with coastal geodetic data suggest two asperities: a northern one beneath the coast of Constitucion and a southern one around the Arauco Peninsula. The total fault length is approximately 400 km with seismic moment of 1.7 × 1022 Nm (Mw 8.8). The offshore DART tsunami waveforms require fault slips beneath the coasts, but the exact locations are better estimated by coastal geodetic data. The 22 May 1960 earthquake produced very large, ~30 m, slip off Valdivia. Joint inversion of tsunami waveforms, at tide gauge stations in South America, with coastal geodetic and leveling data shows total fault length of ~800 km and seismic moment of 7.2 × 1022 Nm (Mw 9.2). The seismic moment estimated from tsunami or joint inversion is similar to previous estimates from geodetic data, but much smaller than the results from seismic data analysis.

Fujii, Yushiro; Satake, Kenji

2013-09-01

196

Quantum Phase Slips: A Superconductor -- Metal Transition in One Dimension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low dimensional superconductors close to the critical temperature TC exhibit large fluctuation effects. Just below T_C, thermally activated phase slips provide a finite resistivity in one dimensional superconducting wires. Experiments in the last few years indicate that at lower temperatures also quantum phase slips contribute to the resistivity. We present a microscopic study of the quantum fluctuations of the superconducting

Anne van Otterlo

1997-01-01

197

Reconciling slip measurements in symmetric and asymmetric systems.  

PubMed

In the past decade, the slip of simple liquids on solid surfaces has been demonstrated by many groups. However, the slip of liquids on wettable surfaces is heavily debated. Using colloid probe atomic force microscopy (AFM), we found the slip length of di-n-octylphthalate in a symmetric wettable system (silica) to be around 11 nm, which raises the question of what the measured slip length in an asymmetric hydrophilic-hydrophobic system would be. To answer this question, we investigated liquid slip in one symmetric nonwettable system (hydrophobic DCDMS or OTS) and in one asymmetric hydrophilic (silica)-hydrophobic (DCDMS) system by the same method at driving velocities of between 10 and 80 ?m/s. The slip results obtained from the three systems are in agreement with each other, and this comparison provides a means to self-assess the accuracy and reproducibility of the measured force curves and the fitted slip length in our systems. Furthermore, this method provides access to reliable values of the actual slip length on any investigated flat surface in an asymmetric system, avoiding the difficulty of preparing a symmetric probe/flat surface system in a colloid probe AFM force measurement. PMID:22537223

Zhu, Liwen; Attard, Phil; Neto, Chiara

2012-05-11

198

Slip, trip, and fall injuries among nursing care facility workers.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to describe the slip, trip, and fall injury experience and trends in a population of nursing home workers, identify risk factors for slip, trip, and fall injuries, and develop prevention strategies for slip, trip, and fall hazards. Workers' compensation injury claims data and payroll data from 1996 through 2003 were obtained from six nursing homes and used to calculate injury incidence rates. Narrative information was used to describe details of slip, trip, and fall events. A total of 86 slip, trip, and fall-related workers' compensation claims were filed during the 8-year period. Slip, trip, and fall claim rates showed a nonsignificant increase during the 8-year period. Most slips, trips, and falls were attributed to hazards that can be mitigated (e.g., water on the floor or loose cords in a walkway). Nursing home workers experience more slip, trip, and fall-related injury claims than workers in other industries. Preventive programs should be implemented and evaluated in this industry. PMID:23521142

Bell, Jennifer L; Collins, James W; Tiesman, Hope M; Ridenour, Marilyn; Konda, Srinivas; Wolf, Laurie; Evanoff, Bradley

2013-03-25

199

Stick-Slip as a Mechanism for Earthquakes Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

38 years ago Brace and Byerlee (Science, 1966) proposed that shallow earthquakes represent stick-slip sliding along old or newly formed faults in the earth and that observed stress drops represent release of a small fraction of the stress supported by the rock at the earthquake focus. We have investigated the generality of this proposal by relating the results of stick-slip

A. McGarr; J. B. Fletcher

2004-01-01

200

Continuum mathematical modeling of slip weakening in geological systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a framework for mathematical modeling of slip weakening in an initially intact rock mass due to shear strain localization along any arbitrary slip plane. The modeling technique considered is based on continuum mechanics and may be cast directly into a standard nonlinear finite element algorithm for the analysis of prefailure and postfailure responses of geological systems in a

Ronaldo I. Borja; Craig D. Foster

2007-01-01

201

Stacking fault energies and slip in nanocrystalline metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for deformation mechanisms in nanocrystalline metals has profited from the use of molecular dynamics calculations. These simulations have revealed two possible mechanisms; grain boundary accommodation, and intragranular slip involving dislocation emission and absorption at grain boundaries. But the precise nature of the slip mechanism is the subject of considerable debate, and the limitations of the simulation technique need

P. M. Derlet; A. G. Frøseth; H. Van Swygenhoven

2004-01-01

202

Stokes slip flow through a grid of circular cylinders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stokes flow through a row of equally spaced circular cylinders with partial slip on the boundaries is studied by domain decomposition and matching. The pressure drop or resistance across the grid is found for various slip and normalized cylinder radii. Asymptotic formulas are found for sparcely and closely spaced cylinders.

Wang, C. Y.

2002-09-01

203

Nonuniform seismic slip rates along the Middle America Trench  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revised estimates of seismic slip rates along the Middle America Trench are lower on the average than plate convergence rates but match them locally (for example, Oaxaca). Along the Cocos-North American plate boundary this can be explained by nonuniformities in slip at points of aseismic ridge or fracture zone subduction. For at least 81 yr (and possibly several hundred years),

Karen C. McNally; J. Bernard Minster

1981-01-01

204

Analytic description of the phase slip effect in racetrack microtrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementation of low energy injection schemes in the race-track microtron (RTM) design requires a better understanding of the longitudinal beam dynamics. Differently to the high energy case a low-energy beam will slip in phase relative to the accelerating structure phase. This phase slip is due to various features of the beam dynamics, in particular it is caused by the fact

Yu. A. Kubyshin; J. P. Rigla; A. V. Poseryaev; V. I. Shvedunov

2007-01-01

205

Modelling mechanical interfaces experiencing micro-slip\\/slap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface-to-surface contact interfaces significantly affect structural behaviour. Therefore, accurate modelling of the stiffness and damping characteristics of such interfaces is crucial for dynamic response analysis of assembled structures. Due to the development of nonlinear interactions, such as slip and slap mechanisms, modelling and analysis of the contact interfaces is a challenging task. The nonlinear effects of the slip and slap

H. Jalali; A. Hedayati; H. Ahmadian

2011-01-01

206

Partial slip in mesoscale contacts: Dependence on contact size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using acoustic resonators, we have studied the occurrence and the magnitude of partial slip between glass spheres and polymer surfaces. The measurement relies on the shifts of resonance frequency and bandwidth, ?f and ??, induced by the contact as well as the dependence of ?f and ?? on the amplitude of oscillation. One often finds a decrease of ?f at elevated amplitudes, which goes back to partial slip (also “microslip”). Building on two different models of partial slip, we derive the frequency-amplitude relation from the force-displacement relation. In accordance with both models, the bandwidth is found to increase with amplitude in the partial slip regime. For the highest amplitudes and largest spheres investigated, one observes a decrease of bandwidth with amplitude, which is interpreted as a transition to gross slip. Deviating from both models of partial slip, ?f is sometimes found to be independent of amplitude in the low-amplitude range. Constant ?f implies linear force-displacement relations. The critical amplitude for the onset of partial slip depends on the contact radius, where partial slip is more pronounced for larger contacts. This finding can be explained by a smooth stress profile at the edge of the contact with no singularity. The stress at the edge might be lowered by nanoscale roughness, by capillary forces, or by the inability of the two surfaces to reestablish a sticking contact at the turning point of the oscillation.

Hanke, Sylvia; Petri, Judith; Johannsmann, Diethelm

2013-09-01

207

Enhanced slip control performance using nonlinear passive suspension system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antilock Brake System (ABS) controller maintains or controls the slip between tyre and road to maximize the braking torque to achieve a shorter braking distance and control of the steering wheel. This paper presents a PID slip controller performance that incorporates nonlinear passive suspension dynamics. Three scenarios were compared The first scenario is the performance of the controller in a

Samuel John; Jimoh O. Pedro; Claudiu R. Pozna

2011-01-01

208

Missed slipped capital femoral epiphysis: Illustrative cases and a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a fairly common condition affecting older children and adolescents, and has the potential for long-term, crippling sequelae. Early recognition is the single most important controllable factor, but the diagnosis is often missed or delayed, resulting in progression of the slip. A SCFE should be suspected and promptly evaluated in any older child or adolescent

Alan L. Causey; E. Ross Smith; J. J. Donaldson; Ronald J. Kendig; Luther C. Fisher

1995-01-01

209

Delay in Diagnosis of Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. Delay in diagnosis of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) has important implica- tions in terms of slip severity and long-term hip outcome. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of delay in the diagnosis of SCFE. Methods. A review of 196 patients with SCFE was performed. The primary outcome measure was delay from onset of symptoms

Jo Kim; James R. Kasser; Mininder S. Kocher; Julius A. Bishop; Bryce Weed; M. Timothy Hresko

2010-01-01

210

Oil-related deflocculants for tape casting slips  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of a stable, well-dispersed slip is a critical step in tape casting technology. The most widely used dispersants in non-aqueous slips behave as semisteric dispersants; they anchor to the particle surface but they have a relatively short chain. On the basis of chemical structure, other dispersants are proposed. Vegetable oils, such as linseed oil and castor oil, and

R. Moreno; G. Córdoba

1997-01-01

211

The investigation of slipping resistance about steel tube scaffold coupler  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper three-dimensional model of the scaffold coupler is established. According to properties of coupler's welding position and structure of locking wedge, the model has been simplified. In the process of simulation coupler's slipping has been analyzed using finite element method. The contact between steel tube and coupler, loading manner have been investigated. At last the slipping between steel

Wang Kai; Ma Tao

2011-01-01

212

Phase slips and phase synchronization of coupled oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviors of coupled oscillators, each of which has periodic motion with random natural frequency in the absence of coupling, are investigated. Some novel collective phenomena are revealed. At the onset of instability of the phase-locking state, simultaneous phase slips of all oscillators and quantized phase shifts in these phase slips are observed. By incresing the coupling, a bifurcation tree

Zhigang Zheng; Gang Hu; Bambi Hu

1998-01-01

213

The critical slip distance for fault zones of finite width  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconciliation of laboratory measurements of the critical friction distance with theoretical- and field-based estimates of the effective dynamic slip weakening distance is a fundamental problem. Here we present a conceptual model for the effective critical friction distance for fault zones of finite width. A numerical model with 1D elasticity is used to investigate implications of the model for shear traction evolution during dynamic and quasi-static slip. The model includes elastofrictional interaction of multiple, parallel slip surfaces, which obey rate and state friction laws with either Ruina (slip) or Dieterich (time) state evolution. A range of slip acceleration histories are investigated by imposing perturbations in slip velocity at the fault zone boundary and using radiation damping to solve the equations of motion. The model extends concepts developed for friction of bare surfaces, including the critical friction distance L, to fault zones of finite width containing wear and gouge materials. We distinguish between parameters that apply to a single frictional surface, including L and the dynamic slip weakening distance do, and those that represent slip for the entire fault zone, which include the effective critical friction distance, Dcb, and the effective dynamic slip weakening distance Do. A scaling law for Dcb is proposed in terms of L and the fault zone width. Earthquake source parameters depend on net slip across a fault zone and thus scale with Dcb, Do, and the slip at yield strength Da. We find that Da decreases with increasing velocity jump size for friction evolution via the Ruina law, whereas it is independent of slip acceleration rate for the Dieterich law. For both laws, Da scales with fault zone width and shear traction exhibits prolonged hardening prior to reaching a yield strength. The parameters Dcb and Do increase roughly linearly with fault zone thickness. A key outcome from this work is recognition that while the parameter L is the intrinsic length scale for rate- and state-dependent friction, seismically-determined earthquake source parameters will depend on net slip across the fault zone and thus the effective fault zone critical friction distance Dcb and the effective dynamic slip weakening distance.

Marone, C.; Cocco, M.; Richardson, E.; Tinti, E.

2008-12-01

214

Slip stick and the rapid dynamics of static friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the dynamics of frictional sliding is important for various fields,ranging from engineering to geophysics. We focus on the local dynamics of slip events that arrest before traversing an entire frictional interface. Our experiments measure slip and contact area evolution, at timescales spanning µsec to hundreds of seconds. We recognize three distinct phases of local slip dynamics. The first phase consists of a rapid drop in the contact area, accompanied by the onset of local slip at velocities of ~10-25cm/sec that occurs immediately upon passage of a rapid detachment front. The second phase consists of steady-sliding at constant lower velocities (0.3-1cm/sec). The final phase comprises logarithmic aging of the contact area, which starts immediately upon slip arrest, within 400µsec of the front arrival.

Ben-David, O.; Fineberg, J.

2012-04-01

215

Lattice Boltzmann simulations of apparent slip in hydrophobic microchannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various experiments have found a boundary slip in hydrophobic microchannel flows, but a consistent understanding of the results is still lacking. While Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations cannot reach the low shear rates and large system sizes of the experiments, it is often impossible to resolve the needed details with macroscopic approaches. We model the interaction between hydrophobic channel walls and a fluid by means of a multi-phase lattice Boltzmann model. Our mesoscopic approach overcomes the limitations of MD simulations and can reach the small flow velocities of known experiments. We reproduce results from experiments at small Knudsen numbers and other simulations, namely an increase of slip with increasing liquid-solid interactions, the slip being independent of the flow velocity, and a decreasing slip with increasing bulk pressure. Within our model we develop a semi-analytic approximation of the dependence of the slip on the pressure.

Harting, J.; Kunert, C.; Herrmann, H. J.

2006-07-01

216

Numerical Investigations of Slip Phenomena in Centrifugal Compressor Impellers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study systematically investigates the slip phenomena in the centrifugal air compressor impellers by CFD. Eight impeller blades for different specific speeds, wrap angles and exit blade angles are designed by compressor design software to analyze their flow fields. Except for the above three variables, flow rate and number of blades are the other two. Results show that the deviation angle decreases as the flow rate increases. The specific speed is not an important parameter regarding deviation angle or slip factor for general centrifugal compressor impellers. The slip onset position is closely related to the position of the peak value in the blade loading factor distribution. When no recirculation flow is present at the shroud, the variations of slip factor under various flow rates are mainly determined by difference between maximum blade angle and exit blade angle, ??max-2. The solidity should be of little importance to slip factor correlations in centrifugal compressor impellers.

Huang, Jeng-Min; Luo, Kai-Wei; Chen, Ching-Fu; Chiang, Chung-Ping; Wu, Teng-Yuan; Chen, Chun-Han

2013-03-01

217

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis in children.  

PubMed

Two new classification schemes have been described for slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE); both involve the question of stability and are probably more prognostic than the traditional acute or chronic classification. The prevalence of bilaterality is approximately 33%, and two recent series regarding bilateral SCFE recommend frequent follow-up after a child presents with a unilateral SCFE, but they do not recommend prophylactic pinning of the normal hip. In the case of a child with an underlying endocrine disorder who presents with a unilateral SCFE, however, strong consideration should be given to prophylactic pinning of the opposite hip. The most commonly accepted method of fixation at this time is in situ pin fixation with a single central screw. The screw head should be no more than 1.5 cm from the cortex of the femur to prevent windshield-wiper loosening. Chondrolysis, a complication of both untreated and treated SCFE, has a more favorable prognosis than idiopathic chondrolysis. PMID:7728212

Loder, R T

1995-02-01

218

Slip effects in compressible turbulent channel flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct numerical simulation of compressible fully developed turbulent Couette flow between two parallel plates with temperature Tw moving with velocities +/-Uw was performed. The algorithm was tested on well known numerical solution for incompressible Poiseuille channel flow and found to provide its well description. The slip effects in studied flow are found to be negligibly small at the values of accommodation coefficients ?u and ?T of the order of unity. The considerable increase of mean temperature with decreasing the accommodation coefficient ?T for fixed value of ?u = 1 was discovered. The effect may be important in the problems of heat exchange in compressible turbulent boundary layer for some combinations of flowing gas, surface and adsorbing gas.

Skovorodko, P. A.

2012-11-01

219

Comparison of Joint Modeling Approaches Including Eulerian Sliding Interfaces  

SciTech Connect

Accurate representation of discontinuities such as joints and faults is a key ingredient for high fidelity modeling of shock propagation in geologic media. The following study was done to improve treatment of discontinuities (joints) in the Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN (Lomov and Liu 2005). Lagrangian methods with conforming meshes and explicit inclusion of joints in the geologic model are well suited for such an analysis. Unfortunately, current meshing tools are unable to automatically generate adequate hexahedral meshes for large numbers of irregular polyhedra. Another concern is that joint stiffness in such explicit computations requires significantly reduced time steps, with negative implications for both the efficiency and quality of the numerical solution. An alternative approach is to use non-conforming meshes and embed joint information into regular computational elements. However, once slip displacement on the joints become comparable to the zone size, Lagrangian (even non-conforming) meshes could suffer from tangling and decreased time step problems. The use of non-conforming meshes in an Eulerian solver may alleviate these difficulties and provide a viable numerical approach for modeling the effects of faults on the dynamic response of geologic materials. We studied shock propagation in jointed/faulted media using a Lagrangian and two Eulerian approaches. To investigate the accuracy of this joint treatment the GEODYN calculations have been compared with results from the Lagrangian code GEODYN-L which uses an explicit treatment of joints via common plane contact. We explore two approaches to joint treatment in the code, one for joints with finite thickness and the other for tight joints. In all cases the sliding interfaces are tracked explicitly without homogenization or blending the joint and block response into an average response. In general, rock joints will introduce an increase in normal compliance in addition to a reduction in shear strength. In the present work we consider the limiting case of stiff discontinuities that only affect the shear strength of the material.

Lomov, I; Antoun, T; Vorobiev, O

2009-12-16

220

Velocity slip and temperature jump coefficients for gaseous mixtures. III. Diffusion slip coefficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion slip coefficient is calculated for binary gaseous mixtures on the basis of the McCormack kinetic model of the Boltzmann equation, which is solved by the discrete velocity method. The calculations are carried out for the three mixtures of noble gases: neon-argon, helium-argon, and helium-xenon. Two models of the intermolecular interaction potential were considered. It was shown that this

Felix Sharipov; Denize Kalempa

2004-01-01

221

Velocity slip and temperature jump coefficients for gaseous mixtures. I. Viscous slip coefficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viscous slip coefficient was calculated for binary gaseous mixtures on the basis of the McCormack kinetic model of the Boltzmann equation, which was solved by the discrete velocity method. The calculations were carried out for the three mixtures of noble gases: neon-argon, helium-argon, and helium-xenon. It was showed that for the mixture of helium and xenon, which has a

Felix Sharipov; Denize Kalempa

2003-01-01

222

Deriving fault-slip histories to test for secular variation in slip, with examples from the Kunlun and Awatere faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although offset and age data from displaced landforms are essential for identifying earthquake clusters and thus testing whether faults slip at uniform or secularly varying rates, it is not clear how the uncertainties in such measurements should be propagated so as to yield a robust fault-slip history (i.e., record of fault displacement over time). Here we develop a Monte Carlo

Ryan D. Gold; Eric Cowgill

2011-01-01

223

Geodetic data inversion using ABIC to estimate slip history during one earthquake cycle with viscoelastic slip-response functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a new method of geodetic data inversion to estimate slip history at a plate interface by using Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). In this method we considered the effects of viscoelastic stress relaxation in the asthenosphere, which cannot be neglected to estimate slip history at a plate interface during one earthquake cycle. We also introduced a proper formulation

Yukitoshi Fukahata; Akira Nishitani; Mitsuhiro Matsu'ura

2004-01-01

224

Does a single device prevent further slipping of the epiphysis in children with slipped capital femoral epiphysis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

All 170 patients (212 hips) treated between 1946 and 1992 for slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) with fixation in situ with a single device were reviewed to evaluate the incidence of further slipping of the epiphysis after primary treatment. In 154 hips, a smooth device without anchorage in the epiphysis was used and in 58, a device anchored in the

R. Jerre; J. Karlsson; B. Romanus; J. Wallin

1997-01-01

225

Shallow slip deficit due to large strike-slip earthquakes in dynamic rupture simulations with elasto-plastic off-fault response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slip inversions of geodetic data from several large (magnitude ˜7) strike-slip earthquakes point to coseismic slip deficit at shallow depths (<3-4 km), that is, coseismic slip appears to decrease towards the Earth surface. While the inferred slip distribution may be consistent with laboratory-derived rate and state friction laws suggesting that the uppermost brittle crust may be velocity strengthening, there remains

Y. Kaneko; Y. Fialko

2011-01-01

226

Seismic slip, aseismic slip, and the mechanics of repeating earthquakes on the Calaveras fault, california  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1969-1984 history of seismic slip on the Calaveras fault in central California can be used to examine how slip is distributed in time and is partitioned between different deformation processes. Nowhere is there evidence that brittle deformation is the predominant failure mode over the entire depth range for which small earthquakes can be located (between about 2 and 15 km). The closest approach to completely brittle strain release occurs only for a more limited range of depths in a part of the region that ruptured during the 1984 Morgan Hill earthquake. Elsewhere aseismic deformation appears to contribute substantially to the total deformation. Except for the Hollister Valley, it is not known whether creep occurs on the fault, or in the surrounding media. In the Hollister Valley, creepmeter data suggest that fault creep can entirely accommodate the slip. Previous work indicates that rupture on the Calaveras fault, in both the Coyote Lake and Morgan Hill earthquakes, initiated and terminated at bends or offsets. Mechanisms invoking purely brittle and elastic behavior have been offered to explain observations of this type. The results that we present suggest that creep, as well as elastic-brittle processes, must play an important role in the micro-mechanics of these regions.

Bakun, William H.; King, Geoffrey C. P.; Cockerham, Robert S.

227

Silent slipped capital femoral epiphysis in overweight and obese children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Abnormal loading of the hip in obese children may lead to anatomic alterations and an increased prevalence of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). The aims of this study were to examine the hip motion in obese children and adolescents and to estimate the prevalence of SCFE in a subgroup of patients characterized by pathological clinical examination and/or pain in the knee or hip joint. A total of 411 individuals (196 males), mean age 14.5?±?2.5 years (7.8-20.4), mean BMI of 32.9?±?5.6 kg/m(2) (20.3-51.5, z score +2.65) who were consecutively admitted for an inpatient weight loss program were included in the study. Twenty-six percent of the patients had load-dependent and 11.7 % had load-independent pain in the knee joint. A total of 9.3 % had load-dependent and 4.7 % had load-independent pain in the hip joint. Two patients (0.5 %) underwent surgical treatment of SCFE prior to entry. A total of 18.2 % of the patients showed a reduced range of motion for hip flexion (<90°) and 18.5 % a pathological decreased internal rotation (<10°). Radiological evaluation of the hips in the clinically conspicuous subgroup (n?=?54) revealed an abnormal head-neck ratio as a sign of prior silent slipped capital femoral epiphysis in 11 patients (20.4 % of the 54 patients, 2.7 % of total cohort). In conclusion, these data show a high prevalence of SCFE-like tilt deformities in a selected group of severely obese children. Mild deformation of the epiphysis at young age might be a major predisposing factor for the development of hip osteoarthritis in obese adults. PMID:22543567

Wabitsch, Martin; Horn, Michael; Esch, Ulrich; Mayer, Herrmann; Moss, Anja; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Nelitz, Manfred

2012-04-29

228

Pattern optimization of eccentrically loaded multi-fastener joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

For structural joints subject to dynamic loading, the fatigue strength is controlled by local stresses. For steel plate structures\\u000a joined with fasteners, fatigue is governed by local friction and slip near the fasteners. As a working hypothesis for this\\u000a study, a “weakest link” approach has been adopted. An optimum fastener pattern is attained by reducing the shear load in the

A. Oinonen; P. Tanskanen; T. Björk; G. Marquis

2010-01-01

229

Rupture dynamics with energy loss outside the slip zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Energy loss in a fault damage zone, outside the slip zone, contributes to the fracture energy that determines rupture velocity of an earthquake. A nonelastic two-dimensional dynamic calculation is done in which the slip zone is modeled as a fault plane and material off the fault is subject to a Coulomb yield condition. In a mode 2 crack-like solution in which an abrupt uniform drop of shear traction on the fault spreads from a point, Coulomb yielding occurs on the extensional side of the fault. Plastic strain is distributed with uniform magnitude along the fault, and it has a thickness normal to the fault proportional to propagation distance. Energy loss off the fault is also proportional to propagation distance, and it can become much larger than energy loss on the fault specified by the fault constitutive relation. The slip velocity function could be produced in an equivalent elastic problem by a slip-weakening friction law with breakdown slip Dc increasing with distance. Fracture energy G and equivalent Dc will be different in ruptures with different initiation points and stress drops, so they are not constitutive properties; they are determined by the dynamic solution that arrives at a particular point. Peak slip velocity is, however, a property of a fault location. Nonelastic response can be mimicked by imposing a limit on slip velocity on a fault in an elastic medium.

Andrews, D. J.

2005-01-01

230

Some correlations between slip band emergence and dislocation pattern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various forms of the plastic deformation in single crystals are studied on pure nickel and nickel alloys oriented for single slip [135] and multiple slip [001]. Particular attention is paid to the heterogeneity of deformation observed at two distinct scales: the slip bands and the dislocation organizations. The slip bands emerging at the surface can be studied using the atomic force microscopy (AFM). The height of extrusions and inter-band spacing depends on the orientation of tensile axis, the strain level and the nature of the alloy. At another scale, dislocation organizations typical of fc.c. crystal have been observed, which depend on the orientation of tensile axis and on the stacking fault energy. A study by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) has enabled us to approach the dimensional characteristics of these structures. In the case of mono-crystal oriented for single slip strained in stage III (? approx 0.8) we observed a correlation between the inter-band spacing (d) and the inter-wall spacing (?) of the type I dislocation pattern. This result suggests that this kind of walls act as a screen to the mobility of dislocations unlike equiaxed cells that would be only an obstacle to the dislocation mobility. This internal length is lower for Ni16%Cr alloy than for nickel. Consequently, stacking fault energy is probably a parameter which affects the internal length in relation with cross-slip capability. On the other hand, results, obtained of the [001] direction in nickel, are more complex due to multiple slip. Indeed, only equiaxed cells are observed for this orientation with cell size magnitude (?) far lower than those observed for inter-band spacing (d). As in the case of samples oriented for single-slip, the equiaxed cells observed for samples oriented for multiple-slip seem to be only obstacles to the mobility of dislocations. However, there are probably walls associated with this kind of cells which act as barriers to the movement of dislocations.

Huvier, C.; Conforto, E.; El Alami, H.; Delafosse, D.; Feaugas, X.

2009-07-01

231

Geometry and lateral slip distribution along large thrust fault systems  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative relationships between fold and fault shapes allow detailed analyses of thrust fault geometries and slip histories. Fold limbs (kink bands) that grow by axial surface migration above bends in thrust faults record dip-slip motion. Folds imaged in high-resolution seismic reflection profiles record this total fault dip-slip and reflect causative thrust fault geometry. Growth (syntectonic) strata deposited during the active history of underlying thrusts develop limb widths equal to the amount of fault dip-slip since their deposition. Therefore, narrowing upward kink bands (growth triangles) form as sediments deposited earlier in the slip history record wider limb widths than do sediments deposited later. Ages of selected syntectonic strata (determined independently) in growth triangles allow estimates of long term fault-slip rates. Maps of axial surfaces that bound kink bands highlight changes in thrust fault geometry along strike and record lateral fault-slip distribution. In addition, end and offsets of kink bands in map view highlight fault terminations and lateral changes in thrust fault geometry. Detailed analyses of fold and fault geometries constrain balanced, three-dimensional structural models that show how large thrust faults develop and slip through time. These models and cross sections integrate G.P.S. measurements and seismicity from active thrust fault systems. Lateral variations in fold shape caused by changes in thrust fault geometry may form lateral closure along fold trends that trap hydrocarbons. Combined, fault slip rates and fault geometry yield estimates of the size and recurrence of potentially damaging earthquakes on blind thrust fault systems.

Shaw, J.H.; Genovese, P.W.; Suppe, J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Geological and Geophysical Sciences)

1992-01-01

232

Interfacial debonding of pipe joints under torsion loads: a model for arbitrary nonlinear cohesive laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesively bonded pipe joints are extensively used in pipelines. In the present work, Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) based analytical\\u000a solutions are obtained for the bonded pipe joints under torsion. An integral form based general expression is derived which\\u000a is suitable for arbitrary type of nonlinear cohesive laws. The concept of the minimum interfacial cohesive shear slip ?\\u000a \\u000a m\\u000a is introduced

Zhenyu Ouyang; Guoqiang Li

2009-01-01

233

Jointness: A Selected Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

JDEIS is the Joint Doctrine, Education and Training Community Electronic Information System. It encompasses a searchable Joint Doctrine Database, a Joint Education section that includes the JPME Prospective Research Topics Database, as well as award-winni...

L. Garder

2010-01-01

234

Frictional Slip Resistance at Glacier Beds due to Rock Debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slip at the bases of wet-based ice masses may share more in common with slip along crustal faults than previously suspected. The ice plain of Whillans ice stream moves by persistent slick-slip motion with associated basal seismicity (Wiens, et al., 2007, Nature) Additional evidence for stick-slip over shorter time and length scales comes from seismic studies elsewhere in Antarctica (Danesi et al., 2006, EPSL) and from Trapridge Glacier, where brief but large water pressure pulses in closed boreholes are interpreted to reflect stress transients associated with minute, episodic slip events (Kavanaugh, in press, JGR-ES). These observations indicate that slip resistance over some portions of glacier beds can be dominantly frictional, rather than viscous or viscoplastic as is commonly assumed for both hard and soft beds. Rock debris, either within basal ice or in a soft bed, is a source of such friction. Measurements at Engabreen, Norway, indicate that friction between debris in ice and a hard bed can locally be comparable to the bed shear stress, indicating that over some parts of the bed rock friction can exceed viscous drag on bedrock bumps. Laboratory studies of till deformation relevant to soft beds indicate that Coulomb models best approximate steady-state deformation but with subtle rate dependencies at small strains. Glacier slip across a till bed, triggered by high water pressure with associated shear relaxation of till, has been measured beneath several glaciers. Moreover, laboratory experiments indicate that resistance to this slip can decrease with increasing slip velocity, the converse of viscous rate strengthening. This velocity weakening is measured commonly in friction experiments with fault gouge and is a fundamental requirement for stick-slip motion and consequent seismicity. These subglacial and laboratory data, therefore, are broadly consistent with larger-scale observations of stick-slip and basal seismicity on some glaciers. The implication, in agreement with some models of glacier flow, is that sections of glacier beds with slip resistance dominated by debris friction may have little or no capacity for viscous rate strengthening. In such zones stable flow can be achieved only through interaction with adjacent ice.

Iverson, N. R.; Cohen, D.; Hooyer, T. S.; Thomason, J. F.; Moore, P. L.; Jackson, M.

2008-12-01

235

Rate-Dependent Slip of Newtonian Liquid at Smooth Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newtonian fluids were placed between molecularly smooth surfaces whose spacing was vibrated at spacings where the fluid responded as a continuum. Hydrodynamic forces agreed with predictions from the no-slip boundary condition only provided that flow rate (peak velocity normalized by spacing) was low, but implied partial slip when it exceeded a critical level, different in different systems, correlated with contact angle (surface wettability). With increasing flow rate and partially wetted surfaces, hydrodynamic forces became up to 2-4 orders of magnitude less than expected by assuming the no-slip boundary condition that is commonly stated in textbooks.

Zhu, Yingxi; Granick, Steve

2001-08-01

236

Rate-dependent slip of Newtonian liquid at smooth surfaces.  

PubMed

Newtonian fluids were placed between molecularly smooth surfaces whose spacing was vibrated at spacings where the fluid responded as a continuum. Hydrodynamic forces agreed with predictions from the no-slip boundary condition only provided that flow rate (peak velocity normalized by spacing) was low, but implied partial slip when it exceeded a critical level, different in different systems, correlated with contact angle (surface wettability). With increasing flow rate and partially wetted surfaces, hydrodynamic forces became up to 2-4 orders of magnitude less than expected by assuming the no-slip boundary condition that is commonly stated in textbooks. PMID:11531582

Zhu, Y; Granick, S

2001-08-10

237

Local void and slip model used in BODYFIT-2PE  

SciTech Connect

A local void and slip model has been proposed for a two-phase flow without the need of fitting any empirical parameters. This model is based on the assumption that all bubbles have reached their terminal rise velocities in the two-phase region. This simple model seems to provide reasonable calculational results when compared with the experimental data and other void and slip models. It provides a means to account for the void and slip of a two-phase flow on a local basis. This is particularly suitable for a fine mesh thermal-hydraulic computer program such as BODYFIT-2PE.

Chen, B.C.J.; Chien, T.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lellouche, G.S.

1983-01-01

238

Microslips as precursors of large slip events in the stick-slip dynamics of sheared granular layers: A discrete element model analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the stick-slip behavior of a granular system confined and sheared by deformable solid blocks using three-dimensional discrete element method simulations. Our modeling results show that large slip events are preceded by a sequence of small slip events—microslips—whose occurrence accelerates exponentially before the large slip event onset. Microslips exhibit energy release several orders of magnitude smaller than the large slip events. The microslip event rate is proposed as a measure of slip activity in the granular gouge layer. A statistical analysis shows that microslip event rate correlates well with large slip event onset and that variations in it can be used to predict large slip events. The emergence of microslips and their duration are found to be controlled by the value of the slipping contact ratio and are therefore related to the jamming/unjamming transition of frictional granular packings.

Ferdowsi, B.; Griffa, M.; Guyer, R. A.; Johnson, P. A.; Marone, C.; Carmeliet, J.

2013-08-01

239

Experimental investigation of earthquake precursory slip pulses and accelerating creep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake nucleation on pre-existing surfaces is governed by frictional instabilities which can be described by state parameters. These parameters may evolve with cumulative slip and progressive acceleration eventually driving the system to catastrophic failure under a given far-field stress. Studying the transition towards catastrophic failure requires stress-controlled experiments, where the dependent variable is the strain accommodated by the slipping zone, and the experimental setting is sensitive enough to allow and detect strain changes. A majority of previous experiments carried out to investigate stick-slip and stable sliding were conducted under strain-rate controlled conditions with biaxial or triaxial apparatus that have limited total slips (usually <1 cm) and limited maximum slip rates (usually <1cm/s). Here, we use a newly-installed rotary shear apparatus at INGV, Rome, to perform experiments on pre-cut ring-shaped samples (50/30 mm ext./int. diameter) in which the shear stress (torque) is gradually increased on the sliding surface until spontaneous slip occurs, at which point the shear stress is maintained and the strain and strain rate are left to evolve whilst being continuously monitored. Experiments were performed at room temperature under room-humidity and vacuum (10E-3 mbar) conditions on micro-gabbro, granite, and calcite marble imposing a constant normal load of 20 MPa. In micro-gabbro, increasing the torque equivalent to a friction coefficient, ?, of 0.2 resulted in spontaneous slip pulses of 4-12 cm with velocity peaks of 6-60 cm/s. Slip pulses coincided with sample dilation. Once a critical torque threshold (?~0.7) was overcome, slip rates increased to the imposed limiting speed (3m/s), and melt lubrication occurred with friction decaying exponentially to a lower steady-state value (?~0.1). In granite, prior to the onset of the main slip weakening event the spontaneous slip pulses intensified in a regular manner (velocity peaks up to 0.3 mm/s and slips up to 0.1 mm). They accommodated a total slip of 1.8 mm without significant sample dilation. In calcite marble, spontaneous accelerating creep without sample dilation started at ?~0.65. A first creep episode proceeded at 0.3 mm/s and a second slower event at 0.02 mm/s. The second event eventually led to the main slip weakening, when slip rate increased progressively, fault lubrication occurred and friction decayed exponentially to ?~0.03. These results show firstly that slip weakening results in catastrophic failure, and secondly that precursory slip episodes may contain a detectable pattern that is specific to rock composition.

Spagnuolo, E.; Nielsen, S. B.; Smith, S.; Violay, M. E.; Niemeijer, A. R.; Di Toro, G.; Di Felice, F.

2011-12-01

240

Laboratory observations of transient frictional slip in rock-analog materials at co-seismic slip rates and rapid changes in normal stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of frictional (shear) resistance and its dependency on slip distance, slip velocity, normal stress, and surface roughness is fundamental information for understanding earthquake physics and the energy released during such events. In view of this, in the present study, plate-impact pressure-shear friction experiments are conducted to investigate the frictional resistance in a rock analog material, i.e. soda-lime glass, under interfacial conditions of relevance to fault rupture. The results of the experiments indicate that a wide range of frictional slip conditions exist at the slip interface ranging from initial no-slip and followed by slip weakening, slip strengthening (healing), and seizure all during a single slip event. The slip-weakening phase is understood to be most likely due to thermal-induced flash heating and incipient melting at asperity junctions, while the slip strengthening (slip-healing) phase is understood to be a result of coalescence and solidification of local melt patches on the slip interface. In addition, plate impact pressure-shear normal-stress change (drop) experiments are employed to probe the response of the slip interface due to sudden alterations in normal stress. In particular, the location (timing) of the stress drop is varied so as to investigate the behavior of the slip interface in its slip-weakening, slip-strengthening (healing) phase, or the seized phase, in response to sudden drop in normal stress. These experimental results provide a rich set of data to better understand the range of possible friction slip states that can be achieved and/or critically examine existing dynamic friction models for fault slip behavior.

Yuan, Fuping; Prakash, Vikas

2012-08-01

241

Quantum phase slips in Josephson junction rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study quantum phase-slip (QPS) processes in a superconducting ring containing N Josephson junctions and threaded by an external static magnetic flux ?B. In such a system, a QPS consists of a quantum tunneling event connecting two distinct classical states of the phases with different persistent currents [Matveev , Phys. Rev. Lett.10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.096802 89, 096802 (2002)]. When the Josephson coupling energy EJ of the junctions is larger than the charging energy EC=e2/2C, where C is the junction capacitance, the quantum amplitude for the QPS process is exponentially small in the ratio EJ/EC. At given magnetic flux, each QPS can be described as the tunneling of the phase difference of a single junction of almost 2?, accompanied by a small harmonic displacement of the phase difference of the other N?1 junctions. As a consequence, the total QPS amplitude ?ring is a global property of the ring. Here, we study the dependence of ?ring on the ring size N, taking into account the effect of a finite capacitance C0 to ground, which leads to the appearance of low-frequency dispersive modes. Josephson and charging effects compete and lead to a nonmonotonic dependence of the ring's critical current on N. For N??, the system converges either towards a superconducting or an insulating state, depending on the ratio between the charging energy E0=e2/2C0 and the Josephson coupling energy EJ.

Rastelli, G.; Pop, I. M.; Hekking, F. W. J.

2013-05-01

242

Laboratory analysis updates fault slip formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate at which one rock slab slides past another, such as along a fault or fracture, depends on the strengths of the applied forces and the friction between the blocks. Though simple in concept, accurately modeling the interactions—especially the extreme cases of prolonged stress accumulation or the sudden rupture of an earthquake—is difficult. Researchers rely on the rate- and state-dependent friction law (RSF) to estimate the slip velocity in a fracture from the imposed stresses. The empirical RSF is itself broken down into two component parts: the constitutive law, which describes how the rock reacts to external forces and pressures, and the evolution law, which attempts to explain how the friction at the fracture interface changes under varying amounts of stress. Embedded within the constitutive law are two empirical parameterizations: the direct effect coefficient, which accounts for stresses perpendicular to the direction of motion, and the state variable, which is derived from the evolution law and describes changes in the physical state of the rock at the friction interface.

Schultz, Colin

2012-05-01

243

The Slip History and Source Statistics of Major Slow Slip Events along the Cascadia Subduction Zone from 1998 to 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate the time dependent slip distribution of 16 prominent slow slip events along the northern half of the Cascadia subduction zone from 1998 to 2008. We process continuous GPS data from the PBO, PANGA and WCDA networks from the past decade using GAMIT/GLOBK processing package. Transient surface displacements are interpreted as slip on the plate interface using the Extended Network Inversion Filter. Of these 16 events, 10 events are centered north of Puget Sound, 4 events are resolved around the Columbia River and 1 event is located near Cape Blanco. The February 2003 event is complex, extending from Portland to southern Vancouver Island. Other smaller events beneath Northern Vancouver Island, Oregon and Northern California are not well resolved because of the limited station coverage. We identify two characteristic segments based on the along-strike extent of individual transient slip events in northern Washington. One segment is centered around Port Angeles. Another segment is between the Columbia River and the southern end of Puget Sound. The propagation direction of slow slip events is variable from one event to the next. The maximum cumulative slip for these 16 events is ~ 27 cm, which is centered beneath Port Angeles. This indicates that the strain release by transient slip is not uniform along-strike. In northwestern Washington where cumulative slip is a maximum, the subduction zone bends along-strike and dip of the plate is lower compared to the north and south. We hypothesize that the geometry of the slab plays an important role for focusing transient strain release at this location along the subduction zone. We explore the relationship of source parameters of slow slip using our catalogue of 16 events. The estimated moment magnitude ranges between 6.1 and 6.7. The average stress drop of 0.06-0.1 MPa is nearly two orders of magnitude smaller than that found for normal earthquakes (1-10 MPa). Standard earthquakes follow a scaling relationship where rupture length is proportional to slip amplitude resulting in a nearly constant stress drop. Slow slip events display the similar scaling law up to a possible limit in slip amplitude. We also explore the relationship of event duration to other source parameters.

Gao, H.; Schmidt, D. A.

2008-12-01

244

Significance of clinical and radiographic findings in young adults after slipped capital femoral epiphysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical and radiographic presentation of young adults in the mid-term follow-up after pinning in situ for mild to moderate slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). We postulated that there was a correlation between the degree of head-neck-offset decrease and clinical and radiographic signs of hip joint degeneration. Thirty-eight young adults (average age 23.4?±?3.6 years old) with various grades of femoral head-neck-offset pathologies were assessed clinically via Harris hip score (HHS), Tegner-Lysholm score (TLS) and Short Form 36 (SF-36), and radiographic signs of OA were measured on plain X-ray films after a follow-up of 11.1?±?3.8 years. We conclude that clinical and radiographic signs of joint degeneration appear early in the follow-up after SCFE, but there is no linear correlation between offset-pathology and joint degeneration. PMID:20694725

Zilkens, Christoph; Bittersohl, Bernd; Jäger, Marcus; Miese, Falk; Schultz, Johannes; Kircher, Jörn; Westhoff, Bettina; Krauspe, Rüdiger

2010-08-08

245

Slip and Air-Entrainment at Water-Solid Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of recent studies performed with water flow past hydrophobic microchannels have reported the existence of `slip' at wall and suggested the existence of the interfacial gas layer as the underlying mechanism for the slip motion, yet the details are much disputed. We combine microscopy and advanced laser spectroscopy to directly and non-invasively detect the interfacial gas layer in flowing water past micro/nano-channels whose surface chemistry and gap spacing are varied. We observe that the dimension of the gas layer strongly depends on surface hydrophobicity and flow rates. Surprisingly, we have also observed the slip motion of water over hydrophilic surfaces with a strong dependence on liquid-loading conditions. We propose a mechanistic theory about air-entrainment that can account for our observations to elucidate the origin of the gas formation at water-solid interface and its consequence on slip motion.

Zhu, Yingxi Elaine; Sarangapani, Prasad; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

2006-03-01

246

Scaling Laws for the Slip Velocity in Dense Granular Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter, the two-dimensional dense flow of polygonal particles on an incline with a flat frictional inferior boundary is analyzed by means of contact dynamics discrete element simulations, in order to develop boundary conditions for continuum models of dense granular flows. We show the evidence that the global slip phenomenon deviates significantly from simple sliding: a finite slip velocity is generally found for shear forces lower than the sliding threshold for particle-wall contacts. We determined simple scaling laws for the dependence of the slip velocity on shear rate, normal and shear stresses, and material parameters. The importance of a correct determination of the slip at the base of the incline, which is crucial for the calculation of flow rates, is discussed in relation to natural flows.

Artoni, Riccardo; Santomaso, Andrea C.; Go', Massimiliano; Canu, Paolo

2012-06-01

247

Scaling laws for the slip velocity in dense granular flows.  

PubMed

In this Letter, the two-dimensional dense flow of polygonal particles on an incline with a flat frictional inferior boundary is analyzed by means of contact dynamics discrete element simulations, in order to develop boundary conditions for continuum models of dense granular flows. We show the evidence that the global slip phenomenon deviates significantly from simple sliding: a finite slip velocity is generally found for shear forces lower than the sliding threshold for particle-wall contacts. We determined simple scaling laws for the dependence of the slip velocity on shear rate, normal and shear stresses, and material parameters. The importance of a correct determination of the slip at the base of the incline, which is crucial for the calculation of flow rates, is discussed in relation to natural flows. PMID:23003991

Artoni, Riccardo; Santomaso, Andrea C; Go', Massimiliano; Canu, Paolo

2012-06-05

248

Well packers and slip assemblies for use therewith  

SciTech Connect

There is disclosed an hydraulically set well packer wherein sleeves carried about a tubular member which is connected as part of a tubing string are adapted to be moved from axially extended to axially retracted position in order to expand packing and slip elements carried about one of the sleeves into engagement with the well bore in which the string is disposed. The packer also includes means which forms an atmospheric chamber including a piston on one of the sleeves, and a means for locking the sleeves in retracted position is disposed within such chamber. The slip assembly carried by the packer includes upper and lower bowls and upper and lower sets of interconnected slips which are carried by the bowls for sliding thereover between radially contracted and expanded positions in response to movement of the slip bowls toward and away from one another as the sleeves move between extended and retracted positions.

Akkerman, N.H.

1983-07-19

249

Evolutionary Genetics: Directed mutations slip-sliding away?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive frameshift mutations in the lacZ gene of Escherichia coli are, unusually, nearly all short deletions, perhaps caused by slipped-strand mispairings in mononucleotide runs. But are they directed?

R. E. Lenski; P. D. Sniegowski

1995-01-01

250

Evolutionary genetics. Directed mutations slip-sliding away?  

PubMed

Adaptive frameshift mutations in the lacZ gene of Escherichia coli are, unusually, nearly all short deletions, perhaps caused by slipped-strand mispairings in mononucleotide runs. But are they directed? PMID:7743184

Lenski, R E; Sniegowski, P D

1995-02-01

251

Frictional melting and stick-slip behavior in volcanic conduits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dome-building eruptions have catastrophic potential, with dome collapse leading to devastating pyroclastic flows with almost no precursory warning. During dome growth, the driving forces of the buoyant magma may be superseded by controls along conduit margins; where brittle fracture and sliding can lead to formation of lubricating cataclasite and gouge. Under extreme friction, pseudotachylyte may form at the conduit margin. Understanding the conduit margin processes is vital to understanding the continuation of an eruption and we postulate that pseudotachylyte generation could be the underlying cause of stick-slip motion and associated seismic "drumbeats", which are so commonly observed at dome-building volcanoes. This view is supported by field evidence in the form of pseudotachylytes identified in lava dome products at Soufrière Hills (Montserrat) and Mount St. Helens (USA). Both eruptions were characterised by repetitive, periodic seismicity and lava spine extrusion of highly viscous magma. High velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments demonstrate the propensity for melting of the andesitic and dacitic material (from Soufrière Hills and Mount St. Helens respectively) at upper conduit stress conditions (<10 MPa). Starting from room temperature, frictional melting of the magmas occurs in under 1 s (<< 1 m) at 1.5 m/s (a speed that is achievable during stick-slip motion). At lower velocities melting occurs comparatively later due to dissipation of heat from the slip zone (e.g. 8-15 m at 0.1 m/s). Hence, given the ease with which melting is achieved in volcanic rocks, and considering the high ambient temperatures in volcanic conduits, frictional melting may thus be an inevitable consequence of viscous magma ascent. The shear resistance of the slip zone during the experiment is also monitored. Frictional melting induces a higher resistance to sliding than rock on rock, and viscous processes control the slip zone properties. Variable-rate HVR experiments which mimic rapid velocity fluctuations in stick-slip behavior demonstrate velocity-weakening behavior of melt, with a tendency for unstable slip. During ascent, magma may slip and undergo melting along the conduit margin. In the process the shear resistance of the slip zone is increased, acting as a viscous brake halting slip (the "stick" of stick-slip motion). Sufficient buoyancy-driven pressures from ascending magma below eventually overcome resistance to produce a rapid slip event (the "slip") along the melt-bearing slip zone, which is temporarily lubricated due to velocity-weakening. New magma below experiences the same slip event more slowly (as the magma decompresses) to produce a viscous brake and the process is repeated. This allows a fixed spatial locus that explains the repetitive drumbeat seismicity and the occurrence of "families" of similar seismic events. We conclude that stick-slip motion in volcanic conduits is a self-driving, frictional-melt-regulated force common to many dome building volcanoes.

Kendrick, Jackie Evan; Lavallee, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; di Toro, Giulio; Hornby, Adrian Jakob; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

2013-04-01

252

Experimental Characterization of a Flexible Thermal Slip Sensor  

PubMed Central

Tactile sensors are needed for effectively controlling the interaction between a robotic hand and the environment, e.g., during manipulation of objects, or for the tactile exploration of unstructured environments, especially when other sensing modalities, such as vision or audition, become ineffective. In the case of hand prostheses, mainly intended for dexterous manipulation of daily living objects, the possibility of quickly detecting slip occurrence, thus avoiding inadvertent falling of the objects, is prodromal to any manipulation task. In this paper we report on a slip sensor with no-moving parts, based on thermo-electrical phenomena, fabricated on a flexible substrate and suitable for integration on curved surfaces, such as robotic finger pads. Experiments performed using a custom made test bench, which is capable of generating controlled slip velocities, show that the sensor detects slip events in less than 50 ms. This response time is short enough for enabling future applications in the field of hand prosthetics.

Francomano, Maria Teresa; Accoto, Dino; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

2012-01-01

253

Resistance induced by quantum phase-slips in superconducting nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the resistive transitions of /~20 nanowires of superconducting amorphous MoGe with diameters ~10nm and lengths from 100 to 1000nm. The transition width increases with decreasing cross-sectional area (i.e. increasing normal resistance per unit length) as described by the phenomenology including quantum phase-slips used by Giordano to explain his earlier data and also by the rather similar results of a microscopic theory of Golubev and Zaikin. The resistance well below Tc is much greater than can be explained by thermally activated phase-slips alone. We consider this to strongly support the reality of quantum phase-slips, and the basic correctness of these theories. The exact role of dissipation, whether from metal in the wire, from the carbon nanotube substrate, or from the electromagnetic environment, in reducing quantum phase-slips needs further clarification.

Tinkham, M.; Lau, C. N.; Markovic, N.

2003-05-01

254

Should all unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis be treated open?  

PubMed

Historically, in situ fixation has been considered the gold standard for the treatment of unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). Open treatments can be considered in an attempt to improve outcome, primarily in an effort to decompress the hip or decrease residual deformity. For moderate and severe unstable slips, surgical hip dislocation followed by subcapital realignment has been proposed to address the metaphyseal prominence and prevent impingement. More recently, the natural history of mild slips after in situ pinning has also been questioned and new recommendations involving management with arthroscopic or mini open procedures have been proposed. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current treatment options and to address the need for open treatments in unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis. PMID:23764801

Lykissas, Marios G; McCarthy, James J

255

Bone remodeling of a femoral head after transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy for osteonecrosis associated with slipped capital femoral epiphysis: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rare case of a 12-year-old boy on whom a joint-preserving operation for osteonecrosis after slipped capital femoral epiphysis\\u000a (SCFE) was performed, is described. Firstly, in situ pinning was performed for acute-on-chronic SCFE. However, osteonecrosis\\u000a and collapse of the femoral head occurred at 7 months after surgery. Secondly, transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy (TRO)\\u000a was performed against progression of the collapse of the

Takuma Yamasaki; Yuji Yasunaga; Takashi Hisatome; Ryuji Tanaka; Mitsuo Ochi

2005-01-01

256

Geometry, kinematics and slip rate along the Mosha active fault, Central Alborz, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mosha fault is one of the major active fault in Central Alborz as shown by its strong historical seismicity and its clear morphological signature. Situated at the vicinity of Tehran city, this ~150 km long ~N100°E trending fault represents an important potential seismic source that threatens the Iranian metropolis. In the framework of an Iranian-French joint research program (PICS) devoted to seismic hazard assessment in the Tehran region, we undertook a morphotectonic (determination of the cumulative displacements and the ages of offset morphologic markers) and paleoseismic (determination of the ages and magnitudes of ancient events) study along the Mosha fault. Our objectives are the estimation of the long-term slip rate (Upper Pleistocene-Holocene) and the mean recurrence interval of earthquakes along the different segments of the fault. Our investigations within the Tar Lake valley, along the eastern part of the fault potentially the site of the 1665 (VII, 6.5) historical earthquake - allows us to calculate a preliminary 2 ± 0.1 mm/yr minimum left lateral slip rate. If we assume a characteristic coseismic average displacement comprised between 0.35 m (Mw 6.5) and 1.2 m (Mw 7.1) calculated from Wells &Coppersmith’s functions (1994) and taking the moment magnitudes attributed to the 1665 and 1830 earthquakes (e.g. Berberian &Yeats, 2001) the mean maximum recurrence intervals along this segment of the Mosha fault are comprised between 160 and 620 yrs.

Ritz, J.-F.; Pics Geological Team

2003-04-01

257

Slow slip events at the Alaska Subduction Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large slow slip event (SSE) occurred at the Alaska subduction zone during 1998-2001 [Ohta et al., 2006, EPSL]. The SSE occurs downdip of the Prince William Sound asperity, on a section that accumulated some slip deficit before and after the SSE. During the SSE, >20,000 sq. km of the plate interface slipped >10 cm, for a cumulative moment magnitude of Mw=7.2. Slip during this event was accompanied by significant non-volcanic tremor, which located in the same area as the slip. The area of the SSE did not have significant slip in the 1964 earthquake, compared to the slip of the main asperity. Our previous work did not attempt to determine the time history of slip in the SSE, because of a lack of continuous GPS data, but a reanalysis of the data that includes a few new sites allows us to estimate the approximate time history. Based on a preliminary solution, it appears that the initiation time probably varied over the area of the SSE, implying some spatial propagation, but our ability to resolve this is very limited. The continuous GPS record suggests that that may have been at least one and possibly several smaller SSEs in the same area. These smaller events appear to last for several weeks, but because most appear at a similar time of year, it is possible that they represent an unmodeled seasonal signal instead. We will compare the displacement pattern and time history of the large SSE to the displacements to evaluate whether these smaller events actually represent SSEs on the same part of the plate interface.

Freymueller, J. T.; Ohta, Y.

2007-05-01

258

Distribution of strike-slip faults on Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of four different regions on Europa imaged by the Galileo spacecraft during its first 15 orbits has revealed 117 strike-slip faults. Europa appears to form preferentially right-lateral faults in the southern hemisphere and left-lateral faults in the northern hemisphere. This observation is consistent with a model where diurnal tides due to orbital eccentricity drive strike-slip motion through a process

Gregory Hoppa; Richard Greenberg; B. Randall Tufts; Paul Geissler; Cynthia Phillips; Moses Milazzo

2000-01-01

259

Temperature dependence of atomic-scale stick-slip friction.  

PubMed

We report experiments of atomic stick-slip friction on graphite as an explicit function of surface temperature between 100 and 300 K under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. A statistical analysis of the individual stick-slip events as a function of the velocity reveals an agreement with the thermally activated Prandtl-Tomlinson model at all temperatures. Taking into account an explicit temperature-dependence of the attempt frequency all data points collapse onto one single master curve. PMID:20867399

Jansen, Lars; Hölscher, Hendrik; Fuchs, Harald; Schirmeisen, André

2010-06-25

260

Nucleation and arrest of dynamic slip on a pressurized fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated pore pressure can lead to reactivation of slip on pre-existing fractures and faults when the static Coulomb failure is reached locally. As the pressurized region spreads diffusively, slip can accumulate quasi-statically (paced by the pore fluid diffusion) or dynamically. In this work, we consider a prestressed fault with a locally peaked, diffusively spreading pore pressure field to study (1) conditions leading to the escalation of slip and nucleation of dynamic rupture and (2) rupture run-out distance before it is arrested. Nucleation appears in this model when the fault friction decreases from its peak value with slip, while arrest of dynamic propagation is imminent on aseismic faults (i.e., such that prestress?b is less than the residual fault strength ?rat ambient conditions). When fluid overpressure is a small-to-moderate fraction of the ambient value of normal effective stress (and prestress is large enough for fault slip to be activated by overpressure), dynamic rupture always nucleates, and the nucleation length increases with decreasing prestress practically independently of the overpressure value. Transition from the ultimately unstable (?b > ?r) to the ultimately stable (?b < ?r) fault loading is marked by a strong increase of the nucleation length (?1/(?b - ?r)2) as ?b approaches ?r from above. For aseismic faults (?b < ?r), no dynamic rupture is nucleated at large fluid overpressures for all but the smallest values of prestress. The largest run-out distances of dynamic slip on aseismic faults correspond to overpressure/prestress just sufficient for slip activation. In such cases, the dynamically accumulated slip can lead to enhanced, dynamic fault weakening, resulting in a sustained dynamic rupture and generating a large earthquake. This is consistent with field observations when the largest injection-induced seismicity occurred after fluid injection ended.

Garagash, Dmitry I.; Germanovich, Leonid N.

2012-10-01

261

Earliest Gait Deviations During Slips: Implications For Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identified that deviations in vertical force and knee angle\\/angular velocity of the slipping leg occur earlier in stance and with greater magnitude than other lower-body motions when a person experiences an unexpected slip. Deviations in the ankle angle\\/angular velocity and hip angular velocity occurred soon after the knee angle and with smaller magnitudes. These results suggest that foot

Kurt E. Beschorner; Mark S. Redfern; Rakié Cham

2012-01-01

262

Temperature Dependence of Atomic-Scale Stick-Slip Friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report experiments of atomic stick-slip friction on graphite as an explicit function of surface temperature between 100 and 300 K under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. A statistical analysis of the individual stick-slip events as a function of the velocity reveals an agreement with the thermally activated Prandtl-Tomlinson model at all temperatures. Taking into account an explicit temperature-dependence of the attempt frequency all data points collapse onto one single master curve.

Jansen, Lars; Hölscher, Hendrik; Fuchs, Harald; Schirmeisen, André

2010-06-01

263

Role of surface shape on boundary slip and velocity defect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many gas-phase microfluidic devices contain curved surfaces, relatively little research has been conducted on the degree of slip over nonplanar surfaces. The present study demonstrates the influence of the surface shape (i.e., convex/concave) on the velocity slip and formation of the Knudsen layer. In addition, the study reveals that there is a simple relationship between the shear stress exerted on the surface and the velocity defect in the Knudsen layer.

Dinler, Ali; Barber, Robert W.; Emerson, David R.; Stefanov, Stefan K.; Orucoglu, Kamil

2012-07-01

264

Cycle Slips in Phase-Locked Loops: A Tutorial Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cycle slips in phase-locked loops are statistical, nonlinear phenomena. This makes a mathematical analysis extremely difficult. As a consequence, the results of such an analysis are not easily accessible to the practicing engineer. It is the purpose of this survey paper to present a self-contained discussion of cycle slips in phase-locked loop avoiding advanced mathematical tools. Based on the results

G. Ascheid; H. Meyr

1982-01-01

265

Thermal Behaviour of a Slipping Wet Clutch Contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet clutches are used in automatic transmissions to enable gear changes and also to reduce energy loss in the torque converter.\\u000a These friction devices are susceptible to stick–slip effects, which result in the vehicle giving an unsteady ride. Stick–slip\\u000a effects can be avoided by ensuring the wet clutch and lubricant combination produces a friction coefficient that increases\\u000a with sliding speed.

M. Ingram; T. Reddyhoff; H. A. Spikes

2011-01-01

266

The Intrinsic Variables affecting the Stick-Slip Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stick-slip oscillations are normally analysed in terms of the kinetic friction-velocity and the static friction-time of stick characteristics of the rubbing surfaces. It is shown that, in addition, a critical distance, of the order of 10-3 cm, enters into the calculations, being the minimum resolving power of the friction process. Stick-slip oscillations must normally have an amplitude greater than the

E. Rabinowicz

1958-01-01

267

Strike-slip duplexing on Jupiter's icy moon Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agenor Linea is a ~1500 km long, ~20-30 km wide geologically young zone of deformation on Jupiter's icy moon, Europa. On the basis of recent Galileo high-resolution images, we interpret Agenor Linea as a strike-slip zone formed in three stages by a combination of lithospheric separation, extension, and dextral horizontal shear. Agenor Linea exhibits excellent examples of strike-slip duplexes in

Louise M. Prockter; Robert T. Pappalardo; James W. Head

2000-01-01

268

Gain-scheduled wheel slip control in automotive brake systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wheel slip controller is developed and experimentally tested in a car equipped with electromechanical brake actuators and a brake-by-wire system. A gain scheduling approach is taken, where the vehicle speed is viewed as a slowly time-varying parameter and the model is linearized about the nominal wheel slip. Gain matrices for the different operating conditions are designed using an LQR

Tor A. Johansen; Idar Petersen; Jens Kalkkuhl; Jens Ludemann

2003-01-01

269

Hybrid Slip Model for Predicting Near-field Strong Ground Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid slip model combined an Asperity model and k-2 model for predicting near-field strong ground motion is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the asperity model charactering lower wave number of slip distribution is estimated based on works of Wang (2004), Wang and Tao (2004a, b). Secondly, k square slip model charactering higher wave number of slip distribution was determined

Haiyun Wang; Xiaxin Tao

270

Valgus slipped capital femoral epiphysis: subcapital growth plate orientation analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the risk factors of unusual, lateral direction of epiphyseal displacement in primarily unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) patients with a special focus on radiological parameters of an unaffected hip. A total of 115 patients (75 boys, 40 girls), mean age 13.2 years (8.4-18.6), were analyzed. The mean follow-up time was 11 years (2-29). The proportion of valgus slip among SCFE patients was 11 of 115 cases (9.6%). The patients with valgus slip compared with the classic ones were predominantly females (55 vs. 33%), were younger (11.1 vs. 13.4 years), had a greater epiphyseal-shaft angle (67.4 vs. 59.1°), smaller displacement in the frontal plane (absolute value 6.7 vs. 15°), and a lower risk of contralateral slip (27 vs. 65%). There was no difference in the neck-shaft angle and epiphyseal-neck angle value. A more horizontal orientation of the subcapital growth plate, assessed by epiphyseal-shaft angle, can be considered a conducive factor in the valgus direction of epiphyseal slip in SCFE. In valgus SCFE cases, there is a smaller degree of epiphyseal displacement in both the sagittal and the coronal plane and a lower risk of consecutive contralateral slip. PMID:23820481

Koczewski, Pawe?

2013-11-01

271

Fault slip during a glacial cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Areas affected by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) generally show uplift after deglaciation. These regions are also characterized by a moderate past and present-day seismicity, at seismic moment release rates that exceed those expected under stable tectonic conditions. Several faults have been found in North America and Europe, which have been activated during or after the last deglaciation. Large-magnitude earthquakes have generated fault offsets of up to 120 m. Due to the recent melting of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, an understanding of the occurrence of these earthquakes is important. With a new finite-element model, we are able to estimate, for the first time, fault slip during a glacial cycle for continental ice sheets. A two-dimensional earth model based on former GIA studies is developed, which is loaded with a hyperbolic ice sheet. The fault is able to move in a stress field consisting of rebound stress, tectonic background stress, and lithostatic stress. The sensitivity of this fault is tested regarding lithospheric and crustal thickness, viscosity structure of upper and lower mantle, ice-sheet thickness and width, and fault parameters including coefficient of friction, depth, angle and location. Fault throws of up to 30 m are obtained using a fault of 45° dipping below the ice sheet centre. The thickness of the crust is one of the major parameters affecting the total fault throw, e.g. higher values for a thinner crust. Most faults start to move close to the end of deglaciation, and movement stops after one thrusting/reverse earthquake. However, certain conditions may also lead to several fault movements after the end of glaciations.

Steffen, Rebekka; Wu, Patrick; Steffen, Holger; Eaton, Dave

2013-04-01

272

Premonitory Acoustic Emissions and Slip Nucleation during Stick Slip Experiments in Naturally and Smooth (Saw-cut) Faulted Westerly Granite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare premonitory microcracking and stick slip events for two Westerly granite samples containing a natural and a saw-cut (smooth) fault. The samples were 190.5 mm in length, and 76.2 mm in diameter. Stick slip events were induced by triaxial loading at 150 MPa confining stress, at a constant strain rate of 5 x10-6 s-1. One sample contained a polished

R. P. Young; B. D. Thompson; D. A. Lockner

2005-01-01

273

Observations of premonitory acoustic emission and slip nucleation during a stick slip experiment in smooth faulted Westerly granite  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate laboratory earthquakes, stick-slip events were induced on a saw-cut Westerly granite sample by triaxial loading at 150 MPa confining pressure. Acoustic emissions (AE) were monitored using an innovative continuous waveform recorder. The first motion of each stick slip was recorded as a large-amplitude AE signal. These events source locate onto the saw-cut fault plane, implying that they represent

Ben D. Thompson; R. Paul Young; David A. Lockner

2005-01-01

274

Brownian motion near a partial-slip boundary: A local probe of the no-slip condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by experimental evidence of violations of the no-slip boundary condition for liquid flow in micrometer-scale geometries, we propose a simple, complementary experimental technique that has certain advantages over previous studies. Instead of relying on externally induced flow or probe motion, we suggest that colloidal diffusivity near solid surfaces contains signatures of the degree of fluid slip exhibited on those surfaces. To investigate, we calculate the image system for point forces (Stokeslets) oriented perpendicular and parallel to a surface with a finite slip length, analogous to Blake's solution for a Stokeslet near a no-slip wall. Notably, the image system for the point source and perpendicular Stokeslet contain the same singularities as Blake's solution; however, each is distributed along a line with a magnitude that decays exponentially over the slip length. The image system for the parallel Stokeslet involves a larger set of fundamental singularities, whose magnitude does not decay exponentially from the surface. Using these image systems, we determine the wall-induced correction to the diffusivity of a small spherical particle located ``far'' from the wall. We also calculate the coupled diffusivities between multiple particles near a partially slipping wall. Because, in general, the diffusivity depends on ``local'' wall conditions, patterned surfaces would allow differential measurements to be obtained within a single experimental cell, eliminating potential cell-to-cell variability encountered in previous experiments. In addition to motivating the proposed experiments, our solutions for point forces and sources near a partial-slip wall will be useful for boundary integral calculations in slip systems.

Lauga, Eric; Squires, Todd M.

2005-10-01

275

Measurement of no-slip and slip boundary conditions in confined Newtonian fluids using atomic force microscopy.  

PubMed

We report measurements of slip length at smooth and rough hydrophilic silica surfaces, using the hydrodynamic force measurement atomic force microscope (AFM). There has been some debate in the literature as to whether the boundary condition between a solid and a wetting fluid is one of no-slip or partial-slip; in particular the results of Neto et al. (C. Neto, V. S. J. Craig and D. R. M. Williams, Eur. Phys. J. E, 2003, 12, S71-S74) and of Honig and Ducker (C. D. F. Honig and W. A. Ducker, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2007, 98, 028305) are inconsistent. Unexpectedly, the AFM cantilever geometry leads to a different measurement of hydrodynamic drainage force. Rectangular cantilevers give results consistent with a no-slip boundary condition on smooth and rough surfaces, while v-shaped cantilever measurements show variability and can produce a finding of apparent partial-slip, consistent with earlier results in the literature. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed. Equilibrium force measurements show no cantilever shape dependence. We conclude that the appropriate boundary condition for aqueous solutions on smooth and nanoscale-rough hydrophilic surfaces is one of no-slip. PMID:19830336

Henry, C L; Craig, V S J

2009-08-21

276

Permeability upscaling of fault zones in the Aztec Sandstone, Valley of Fire State Park, Nevada, with a focus on slip surfaces and slip bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of open and filled slip surfaces on the upscaled permeability of two fault zones with 6 and 14 m strike-slip in\\u000a an eolian Aztec Sandstone, Nevada, USA is evaluated. Each fault zone is composed of several fault components: a fault core,\\u000a bounded by filled through-going slip surfaces referred to as slip bands, and a surrounding damage zone that contains

Ramil Ahmadov; Atilla Aydin; Mohammad Karimi-Fard; Louis J. Durlofsky

2007-01-01

277

[Growth and deformity after in situ fixation of slipped capital femoral epiphysis].  

PubMed

Background: For mild to moderate slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) in situ fixation is the current treatment standard. However, concerning the implant selection (screw versus k-wires) as well as the prophylactic stabilisation of the non-affected hip, controversies still exist. The aim of this study was to analyse femoral residual growth and femoral deformities after in situ fixation of SCFE either with k-wires or screws. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the radiographs of adolescents treated for SCFE in our department between 01/2003 and 02/2011. To evaluate femoral growth the articulo-trochanteric distance, centro-trochanteric distance, caput-collum-diaphyseal angle, pin-joint ratio and pin-physis ratio were determined. The femoral deformity was assessed by measuring the sphericity of the femoral head. Degenerative changes were evaluated in the final radiographs. Statistical analysis was performed concerning differences between therapeutically and prophylactically treated hips as well as stabilisations with k-wires and screws. Results: A total of 22 patients (female : male = 14 : 8, mean age girls: 11 ± 1 years, boys: 13 ± 2 years) with 26 slipped capital femoral epiphyses was analysed. K-wires were used for fixation in 4 hips each therapeutically and prophylactically, 22 hips with SCFE and 14 non-affected hips were stabilised with screws. Treatment with screws did not lead to significantly earlier physeal closure than k-wire pinning. Regarding the femoral growth parameters a significant decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance and CCD angle was detectable in all groups. The pin-joint ratio revealed an adequate residual growth in 58 % of the therapeutically and in 72 % of the prophylactically treated hips without significant difference between k-wires and screws. The pin-physis ratio demonstrated similar values. Regarding the femoral deformity the SCFE hips resulted in a significantly reduced sphericity, which remained unchanged during follow-up. The prophylactic stabilisation did not result in any deterioration of sphericity. Conclusion: The results of this study imply that further growth of the proximal femur after insertion of a sliding screw for in situ stabilisation of mild to moderate slipped capital femoral epiphysis does occur. Furthermore, an increase of deformity during follow-up through screw fixation as compared to pinning was not noticed. Hence, the assumption that screw fixation leads to permanent physeal impairment cannot be confirmed. The consideration of these results may be helpful for implant selection as well as indicating prophylactic surgery for non-affected hips. PMID:23963984

Druschel, C; Placzek, R; Funk, J F

2013-08-20

278

Quantum Tunneling of Phase Slips in Al Nanowires.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconductivity is a unique phenomenon which manifests itself, most strikingly, as the absence of electrical resistance at very low temperatures. While the resistance in 3-D Superconductors is exactly zero below the Normal-Superconducting transition temperature (Tc), in 1-Dimensional ones the proliferation of phase slips-- small regions which become normal allowing the phase of the order parameter to rapidly change by 2?-- can produce a residual resistance or destroy the superconductivity altogether. In the classical Langer, Ambegaokar, McCumber and Halperin theory, phase slips are caused by thermal excitation over free energy barrier that separates metastable states but Giordano suggested that Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling of phase slips through the barrier (Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2137 (1988)) could be significant at very low temperatures where thermally activated phase slips would be exponentially suppressed. However, despite intense experimental effort over the past 20 years, quantum tunneling of phase slips has remained controversial in 1-D superconductors. This talk will discuss the limiting case of 1-D superconductivity in an extremely long (100 ?m) and narrow (5 nm--25 atoms) aluminum wire. In applied magnetic field, and at temperatures well below the superconducting transition, we find evidence ofm macroscopic quantum tunneling at temperatures where the classical theory of thermally activated phase slips would not be able to reproduce the experimental results (Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017001 (2006)). Not only are these results valid in linear regime, where most of the experimental data so far has been obtained, but they are consistent and supported by a newly proposed analysis in non-linear regime. These results help ruling out other scenario and establishing that, at temperatures much below Tc, the transport properties of superconducting 1-D nanowires are primarily determined by macroscopic quantum tunneling of phase slips.

Altomare, Fabio

2007-03-01

279

[Closed reduction and pinning for acute slipped capital femoral epiphysis].  

PubMed

Acute slipped capital femoral epiphysis is a rare adolescent hip disorder, which may be a problem for orthopedic surgeon. No series to date has demonstrated the superiority of any treatment method. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the outcome of treatment and to assess the risk factors of avascular necrosis associated with this condition. Fourteen cases of acute slipped capital femoral epiphysis were treated with closed reduction and pinning. There were 9 boys and 5 girls. The average age at presentation was 11.8 years (range 9.1-15.3). Eight children were treated 4-10 days and six within 48 hours of the onset of their acute symptoms. The severity of the slip was classified according to the system of Southwick. Presence of chondrolysis and avascular necrosis was estimated. The clinical results were graded with the use of the criteria of Aadelen et al. Four slips were classified as mild, seven as moderate and three as severe. Average follow up was 5.2 years (range from 2.4 to 14.3). In two hips with severe slip AVN developed. One of these cases was treated within 48 hours and one after 7 days. Chondrolysis developed in one hip and was associated with presence of intra-articular fixation. Twelve of the fourteen hips had good and vary good results and remaining 2 with AVN had poor. Closed reduction and pinning in acute slipped capital femoral epiphysis is an effective and giving satisfactory outcome method of treatment. Early reduction is not associated with a high rate of AVN and should be performed as soon as possible. More severe slips were noted to have an increased risk of AVN. PMID:14564795

Sibi?ski, Marcin; Synder, Marek; Niedzielski, Kryspin; Borowski, Andrzej

2003-01-01

280

Slow slip and tremor search at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractKilauea Volcano, Hawaii, has hosted a long series of slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events observed since the installation of the continuous GPS network in 1996. Kilauea's slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events are inferred to occur on the decollement fault at 8 km depth beneath its south flank, with a location updip of the epicenters of large, regular earthquakes. Fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> typically lasts about two days, and the events have magnitudes equivalent to Mw 5.3-6.0. While slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events in subduction zones are commonly accompanied by tectonic tremor (also called nonvolcanic tremor), no tremor has yet been reported in association with Kilauea's slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events. Instead, there are swarms of small triggered earthquakes, which is a characteristic only seen at select subduction zones (e.g., Boso and Hikurangi). A temporary array of seismometers was installed at Kilauea in 2007 in anticipation of a slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> event. Here we use several established methods to perform a systematic search for tectonic tremor during geodetically defined slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events, as well as searching for tremor triggered by teleseismic surface waves. We do not detect tectonic tremor using any of these methods, although we are able to detect episodes of previously identified deep offshore volcanic tremor at 15-20 km depth and volcanic tremor from Kilauea. Although Kilauea's seismic network may not be adequate to observe tectonic tremor because Hawaii is seismically noisy and its crust is highly attenuating, it is also possible that the specific fault conditions on Kilauea's decollement are not conducive to such tremor generation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Thurber, C. H.; Wolfe, C. J.; Okubo, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014702"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nucleation and triggering of earthquake <span class="hlt">slip</span>: effect of periodic stresses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results of stability analyses for spring and slider systems, with state variable constitutive properties, are applied to <span class="hlt">slip</span> on embedded fault patches. Unstable <span class="hlt">slip</span> may nucleate only if the <span class="hlt">slipping</span> patch exceeds some minimum size. Subsequent to the onset of instability the earthquake <span class="hlt">slip</span> may propagate well beyond the patch. It is proposed that the seismicity of a volume of the earth's crust is determined by the distribution of initial conditions on the population of fault patches that nucleate earthquake <span class="hlt">slip</span>, and the loading history acting upon the volume. Patches with constitutive properties inferred from laboratory experiments are characterized by an interval of self-driven accelerating <span class="hlt">slip</span> prior to instability, if initial stress exceeds a minimum threshold. This delayed instability of the patches provides an explanation for the occurrence of aftershocks and foreshocks including decay of earthquake rates by time-1. A population of patches subjected to loading with a periodic component results in periodic variation of the rate of occurrence of instabilities. The change of the rate of seismicity for a sinusoidal load is proportional to the amplitude of the periodic stress component and inversely proportional to both the normal stress acting on the fault patches and the constitutive parameter, A1, that controls the direct velocity dependence of fault <span class="hlt">slip</span>. Values of A1 representative of laboratory experiments indicate that in a homogeneous crust, correlation of earthquake rates with earth tides should not be detectable at normal stresses in excess of about 8 MPa. Correlation of earthquakes with tides at higher normal stresses can be explained if there exist inhomogeneities that locally amplify the magnitude of the tidal stresses. Such amplification might occur near magma chambers or other soft inclusions in the crust and possibly near the ends of creeping fault segments if the creep or afterslip rates vary in response to tides. Observations of seismicity rate variations associated with seasonal fluctuations of reservoir levels appear to be consistent with the model. ?? 1987.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dieterich, J. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRB..115.0A18S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Source parameters and time-dependent <span class="hlt">slip</span> distributions of slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events on the Cascadia subduction zone from 1998 to 2008</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We invert for the time-dependent <span class="hlt">slip</span> history of slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events on the Cascadia subduction zone using GPS data from 1998 to 2008. The 16 <span class="hlt">slip</span> transients have sufficient station coverage to solve for the <span class="hlt">slip</span> distribution on the plate interface. GPS time series are inverted for fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> using the Extended Network Inversion Filter. Limited station coverage south of Portland (45.5°N latitude) restricts our analysis to events on the northern half of the subduction zone. <span class="hlt">Slip</span> is resolved at the base of the seismogenic zone and the <span class="hlt">slip</span> distributions suggest a potential segment boundary near Seattle (47.6°N) that correlates roughly with geologic and tectonic boundaries. Events that initiate to the north and south tend to overlap at about this latitude. We compile statistics on source parameters, such as propagation rate, recurrence interval, and stress drop, which can be used to constrain proposed models of the source mechanics. Over a 10 year period, total strain release from slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events is nonuniform along strike with the greatest cumulative <span class="hlt">slip</span> (27 cm) centered beneath Port Angeles (48.1°N). This <span class="hlt">slip</span> patch also exhibits the most regular recurrence of Mw ˜6 events relative to other locations along strike. The spatial extent of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> patch beneath Port Angeles correlates with the along-strike bend of the Cascadia subduction zone in northwestern Washington, suggesting that plate geometry plays an important role in controlling the along-strike characteristics of slow <span class="hlt">slip</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmidt, D. A.; Gao, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9545C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interaction between <span class="hlt">slip</span> events, erosion and sedimentation along an active strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault: Insights from analog models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recovering information on past (i.e., last 102-104 yrs) large earthquakes on faults is a challenge. The classical approach -especially used on strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults- consists in searching morphological markers such as river channels, streams, alluvial fans, ridges or terrace risers, etc, that would be offset by the fault, and measure these offsets by reconstructing the original position and shape of the markers. Combined with the dating of the offset markers, this morphotectonic paleoseismological approach may provide information on the <span class="hlt">slips</span> and ages of the most recent earthquakes on the fault under study. Yet, the approach is complex as it depends on the recognition of unambiguous paired markers on either side of the fault. And our capability to recognize similar markers on either side of a fault in turn greatly depends on the 'evolution' that these markers may have sustained subsequently to their very first <span class="hlt">slip</span> disruption. Did the repeating earthquake <span class="hlt">slip</span> events modify their surface appearance? Did their morphology and position (ex: burying, destruction, modification, etc) evolve with the sedimentation and erosion that might have occurred during the fault history? Etc. These questions have rarely been approached for they are difficult to address in natural settings. And as we are unable to answer them in the natural cases that we study, the <span class="hlt">slip</span> reconstructions that we provide are generally uncertain as they are likely based on an incomplete or biased record of the past fault <span class="hlt">slips</span>. Therefore, the objective of our work is to contribute to better understand and document the nature and 'evolution' of the morphological markers that are commonly used in morphotectonic and paleoseismological analyses, especially along strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults. We approach these questions experimentally. We have developed an original experimental set-up made to simulate repeated <span class="hlt">slip</span> events on a strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault placed in a wet environment sustaining sedimentation and erosion. The fault device is indeed coupled with a rainfall system, while an optical measurement apparatus that includes digital cameras and a laser interferometer, allows observing and measuring continuously at very high resolution the evolution of the model surface morphology. The analog material is a mix of granular materials -glass microbeads, silica powder and plastic powder saturated in water, whose mass composition and, consequently, mechanical properties lead to a geometric scaling of about 1:10 000 and to a temporal scaling on the order of one second equivalent to a few dozens of years. The protocol allows monitoring together the evolution of the fault and that of the morphological markers that the fault progressively offsets as <span class="hlt">slip</span> events are imposed. We have conducted several experiences in different settings and we will present the preliminary results that we have obtained. We basically could survey the formation and evolution of a strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault from its immature stages up to one hundred repeated <span class="hlt">slip</span> events. Under the combined effects of accumulating <span class="hlt">slip</span>, erosion and sedimentation, the model surface exhibits tectonic and morphological structures similar to natural features (Riedel's shears, pressure and shutter ridges, pull-apart basins, alluvial fans, terrace risers, braided rivers, etc), whose space and time evolution can be precisely analyzed. Deformation partitioning, sequential formation of alluvial terraces, stream captures, development of 'traps' filling with sediments, etc, are especially observed. The control on the imposed amplitude and frequency of the rainfall cycles allows us to examine the impact of these rainfalls on the fault morphology and the evolution of the associated morphological markers. Finally, we can compare the imposed <span class="hlt">slip</span> events (number, amplitudes, repeat times) with the cumulative offsets eventually visible and measurable at the model surface. Marked discrepancies are found between imposed and final apparent offsets that shed light on the uncertainties that may affect the morphological and paleoseismological analyses performed on nat</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chatton, M.; Malavieille, J.; Dominguez, S.; Manighetti, I.; Romano, C.; Beauprêtre, S.; Garembois, S.; Larroque, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.T21B0483Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Premonitory Acoustic Emissions and <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Nucleation during Stick <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Experiments in Naturally and Smooth (Saw-cut) Faulted Westerly Granite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compare premonitory microcracking and stick <span class="hlt">slip</span> events for two Westerly granite samples containing a natural and a saw-cut (smooth) fault. The samples were 190.5 mm in length, and 76.2 mm in diameter. Stick <span class="hlt">slip</span> events were induced by triaxial loading at 150 MPa confining stress, at a constant strain rate of 5 x10-6 s-1. One sample contained a polished saw-cut fracture (roughened using 220 grit), at 30 degrees to the sample axis. The second contained a natural fracture that had been previously (quasi-statically) induced by triaxial loading. The experiments were monitored using a novel continuous Acoustic Emission (AE) recorder. Three stick <span class="hlt">slip</span> events were induced on the saw-cut sample, accompanied by fewer than 100 located AEs. Frictional coefficients were 0.48, 0.51, and 0.59 respectively. The first motion of each stick <span class="hlt">slip</span> was recorded as a large-amplitude AE signal. These located on the saw-cut fault plane, and represent nucleation sites of the stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> events. Nucleation location varied between events, probably being controlled by stress heterogeneities or surface conditions on the fault. Prior to the first <span class="hlt">slip</span>, AE located at the fault tips, with a small amount of premonitory creep. (Approximately 1 cm of each fault tip was removed when the fault was cut and these areas were packed with sand.) AE Source mechanisms were calculated using Moment Tensor inversion, and correspond to compressive sources, consistent with crushing of infill material about the fault tips. Prior to the second and third <span class="hlt">slips</span>, no premonitory creep was observed. AE locations concentrate on a small patch within the fault plane. Source mechanisms are consistent with double couple events, orientated in agreement with the macro-scale fault plane geometry. For the natural fault, one stick <span class="hlt">slip</span> event was induced, with a frictional coefficient of 0.72. Over 3000 AE were located. Again, the stick <span class="hlt">slip</span> event can be located on the fault plane, in an area that had previously been acoustically quiet, presumably locked due to fault topography. Premonitory AE located mainly on the lower portion of the fault plane, and we did not observe an increase in AE rate immediately prior to rupture. Significant post-<span class="hlt">slip</span> activity was located. b-values are constant at approximately 1.2 in the 100 seconds before <span class="hlt">slip</span>. For the post-<span class="hlt">slip</span> sequence there is an instant decrease (0.6) and subsequent recovery (1.0) in b-value. The surface topography generated considerable differences in premonitory, and post <span class="hlt">slip</span> AE activity. However the ultrasonic signature of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> events appears similar for both the saw-cut and natural fault. From an analysis of AE location error residuals, the initial nucleation size is estimated to be less than 3 mm in both experiments. However it is unclear whether we are resolving the size of the AE, or just its first particle motion; this depends on whether these AE can be modeled as dynamic or kinematic cracks (the latter refers to instantaneous motion of the whole source).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Young, R. P.; Thompson, B. D.; Lockner, D. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G13A0662S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span> distribution of the Aril 14, 2010 Mw 6.9 Yushu (Qinghai, China) earthquake constrained using InSAR observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Mw6.9 devastating earthquake struck the Yushu area in the interior of eastern Tibetan Plateau on Aril 14, 2010 and claimed more than 2500 human lives. The European Space Agency and the Japanese Space Exploration Agency started emergency response soon after the earthquake and acquired high quality post-hazard Synthetic Aperture Radar images in their earliest available satellite orbit cycles. We use InSAR method to produce the co-seismic interferograms and locate 3 fringe-concentrated areas. The easternmost one with the highest fringe rate is around the Yushu-Jiegu town where most casualties and damages occurred. By kinematic inversion of the co-seismic data and <span class="hlt">joint</span> analysis with field investigations, we develop a fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> model composed of three fault segments. The eastern segment has shallow <span class="hlt">slip</span> close to the surface with the maximum left-lateral <span class="hlt">slip</span> reaches ~1.57 m. The middle segment has <span class="hlt">slip</span> at shallow depth but it does not reach to the surface. The western segment shifts to the south on a parallel fault across a pull-apart basin, and has only small amount of <span class="hlt">slip</span> reaching to the surface. Most of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> is within 15 km depth, and predominantly left-lateral. The total seismic moment release is estimated as 1.94e+19 Nm, consistent with the seismic estimate of 2.50e+19 Nm. This earthquake attests active tectonic deformation process of the Xianshuihe-Ganzi-Yushu fault which transfers the southeast Tibetan plateau crust moving southeastward to accommodate the eastward extrusion of the plateau interior.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sun, J.; Shen, Z.; Wang, M.; Burgmann, R.; Xu, X.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PEPI..200..105R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Activities of olivine <span class="hlt">slip</span> systems in the upper mantle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the effect of pressure (P) on olivine [1 0 0](0 0 1) and [0 0 1](1 0 0) dislocation <span class="hlt">slip</span> systems by carrying out deformation experiments in the Deformation-DIA apparatus (D-DIA) on single crystals of Mg2SiO4 forsterite (Fo100) and San Carlos (SC) olivine (Fo89), at P ranging from 5.7 to 9.7 GPa, temperature T = 1473 and 1673 K, differential stress ? in the range 140-1500 MPa, and in water-poor conditions. Specimens were deformed in axisymmetry compression along the so-called [1 0 1]c crystallographic direction, which promotes the dual <span class="hlt">slip</span> of [1 0 0] dislocations in (0 0 1) plane and [0 0 1] dislocations in (1 0 0) plane. Constant ? and specimen strain rates (??) were monitored in situ by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and radiography, respectively. Comparison of the obtained high-P rheological data with room-P data, previously reported by Darot and Gueguen (1981) for Fo100 and Bai et al. (1991) for SC olivine, allowed quantifying the activation volume V* in classical creep power laws. We obtain V* = 9.1 ± 1.6 cm3/mol for Fo100. For SC olivine, we obtain V* = 10.7 ± 5.0 cm3/mol taking into account the oxygen-fugacity uncertainty during the high-P runs. These results, combined with previous reports, provide complete sets of parameters for quantifying the activities of olivine dislocation <span class="hlt">slip</span> systems. Extrapolation of the rheological laws obtained for SC olivine crystals to conditions representative of natural deformations show that [1 0 0](0 1 0) <span class="hlt">slip</span> largely dominates deformation in the shallow upper mantle. At depths greater than ˜65 km along a 20-Ma oceanic geotherm or ˜155 km along a continental geotherm, the dual activity of [1 0 0](0 0 1) and [0 0 1](1 0 0) <span class="hlt">slips</span> becomes comparable to that of [1 0 0](0 1 0) <span class="hlt">slip</span>. At depths greater than ˜240 km, [0 0 1](0 1 0) <span class="hlt">slip</span> becomes dominant over all other investigated <span class="hlt">slip</span> systems. Such changes in olivine dislocation-<span class="hlt">slips</span> relative activity provide a straightforward explanation for the seismic anisotropy contrast and attenuation with depth observed in the Earth's upper mantle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raterron, Paul; Girard, Jennifer; Chen, Jiuhua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3056824"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonoperative treatment of <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis: a scientific study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Treatment of the <span class="hlt">Slipped</span> Capital Femoral Epiphysis remains a cause of concern due to the fact that the true knowledge of the etiopathogeny is unknown, as well as one of its major complications: chondrolysis. The conservative treatment remains controversial; it has been overlooked in the studies and subjected to intense criticism. The purpose of this study is to investigate the results of treatment on the hip of patients displaying <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis, using the plaster cast immobilization method and its link to chondrolysis. Methods The research was performed based on the study of the following variables: symptomatology, and the degree of <span class="hlt">slipping</span>. A hip spica cast and bilateral short/long leg casts in abduction, internal rotation with anti-rotational bars were used for immobilizing the patient's hip for twelve weeks. Statistical analysis was accomplished by Wilcoxon's marked position test and by the Fisher accuracy test at a 5% level. Results A satisfactory result was obtained in the acute group, 70.5%; 94%; in the chronic group (chronic + acute on chronic). Regarding the degree of the <span class="hlt">slipping</span>, a satisfactory result was obtained in 90.5% of hips tested with a mild <span class="hlt">slip</span>; in 76% with moderate <span class="hlt">slip</span> and 73% in the severe <span class="hlt">slip</span>. The statistical result revealed that a significant improvement was found for flexion (p = 0.0001), abduction (p = 0.0001), internal rotation (p = 0.0001) and external rotation (p = 0.02). Chondrolysis was present in 11.3% of the hips tested. One case of pseudoarthrosis with aseptic capital necrosis was presented. There was no significant variation between age and chondrolysis (p = 1.00).Significant variation between gender/non-white patients versus chondrolysis (p = 0.031) and (p = 0.037), respectively was verified. No causal association between plaster cast and chondrolysis was observed (p = 0.60). In regard to the symptomatology group and the <span class="hlt">slip</span> degree versus chondrolysis, the p value was not statistically significant in both analyses, p = 0.61 and p = 0.085 respectively. Conclusions After analyzing the nonoperative treatment of <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis and chondrolysis, we conclude that employment of the treatment revealed that the method was functional, efficient, valid, and reproducible; it also can be used as an alternative therapeutic procedure regarding to this specific disease.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4918R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seismic velocity change and <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate during the 2006 Guerrero (Mexico) slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> event</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We measure temporal change of the seismic velocity in the crust below the Guerrero region during the 2006 slow sleep event (SSE). We use repeated cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise recorded at 26 broad-band stations of the MesoAmerica Seismic Experiment (MASE). The cross-correlations are computed over 90 days with a moving window of 10 days from January 2005 to July 2007. To insure measurements independent of noise source variations, we only take into account the travel time change within the coda. For period of 8 to 20s, we observe a decrease in velocity starting in April 2006 with a maximum change of -0.3% of the initial velocity in June 2006. At these periods, the Rayleigh waves are sensitive to velocity changes down to the lower crust. In the other hand, we compute the deformation rate below the MASE array from a <span class="hlt">slip</span> propagation model of the SSE observed by means of the displacement time-series of 15 continuous GPS stations. <span class="hlt">Slip</span> initiates in the western part of the Guerrero Gap and propagates southeastward. The propagation velocity is of the order of 1 km/day. We then compare the seismic velocity change measured from continuous seismological data with the deformation rate inferred from geodetic measurements below the MASE array. We obtain a good agreement between the time of maximal seismic velocity change (July 2006) and the time of maximum deformation associated with the SSE (July to August 2006). This result shows that the long-term velocity change associated with the SSE can be detected using continuous seismic recordings. Since the SSE does not emit seismic waves, which interact with the superficial layers, the result indicates that the velocity change is due to deformation at depth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rivet, Diane; Radiguet, Mathilde; Campillo, Michel; Cotton, Fabrice; Shapiro, Nikolai; Krishna Singh, Shri; Kostoglodov, Vladimir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6031911"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanics of <span class="hlt">slip</span> and fracture along small faults and simple strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault zones in granitic rock</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We exploit quasi-static fracture mechanics models for <span class="hlt">slip</span> along pre-existing faults to account for the fracture structure observed along small exhumed faults and small segmented fault zones in the Mount Abbot quadrangle of Calfornia and to estimate stress drop and shear fracture energy from geological field measurements. Along small strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults, cracks that splay from the faults are common only near fault ends. In contrast, many cracks splay from the boundary faults at the edges of a simple fault zone. Except near segment ends, the cracks preferentially splay into a zone. We infer that shear displacement discontinuities (<span class="hlt">slip</span> patches) along a small fault propagated to near the fault ends and caused fraturing there. Based on elastic stress analyses, we suggest that <span class="hlt">slip</span> on one boundary fault ends and caused fracturing there. Based on elastic stress analyses, we suggest that <span class="hlt">slip</span> patches preferentially led to the generation of fractures that splayed into the zones away from segment ends and out of the zones near segment ends. We estimate the average stress drops for <span class="hlt">slip</span> events along the fault zones as /similar to/1 MPa and the shear fracture energy release rate during <span class="hlt">slip</span> as 5/times/10/sup 2//minus/2/times/10/sup 4/ J/m/sup 2/. This estimate is similar to those obtained from shear fracture of laboratory samples, but orders of magnitude less than those for large fault zones. These results suggest that the shear fracture energy release rate increases as the structural complexity of fault zones increases. /copyright/ American Geophysical Union 1989</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martel, S. J.; Pollard, D. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-07-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15751721"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Remodeling after in situ pinning for <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We reviewed 61 hips in 50 children (33 boys and 17 girls) with <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), all treated by in situ pinning. Average age of our patients was 11.8 years (range, from 8 to 15 years). The average clinical and radiographic follow-up was 7.4 years. By studying the changes in physeal-shalt angle on radiographs in Lauenstein (frog) position, we found evidence of physeal remodeling in three (8%) of 38 mild and seven (30%) of 23 moderate <span class="hlt">slips</span>. Remodeling of the proximal femoral metaphysis occurred in 92% of hips with a head-shaft angle less than 30 degrees and in 52% of hips between 30 degrees and 60 degrees. A process of local resorption and apposition of bone seems to be essential to final remodeling. The probability of remodeling was significantly less the greater the degree of <span class="hlt">slip</span>, but was significantly increased among children 11 years old or younger and if the triradiate cartilage was open at the time of presentation. The range of internal rotation was significantly greater in those hips that remodeled. Pinning in situ of a <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis represents a simple, quick and effective method of treatment, allowing remodeling in mild and moderate <span class="hlt">slips</span>. PMID:15751721</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sibi?ski, Marcin; Synder, Marek; Borowski, Andrzej; Grzegorzewski, Andrzej</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..DFD.MB004B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Motion of a Deformed Sphere with <span class="hlt">Slip</span> in Creeping Flows</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analytical solution for the motion of a slightly deformed sphere in creeping flows with the assumption of <span class="hlt">slip</span> on the particle surface is presented. Explicit expressions are obtained for the hydrodynamic force and torque exerted by the fluid on the deformed sphere. A perturbation method, based on previous work done by Brenner [1964] and Lamb[1945], is used to solve for the motion of a fluid influenced by the presence of a deformed sphere. <span class="hlt">Slip</span> is assumed at the surface of the particle. Hydrodynamic force and torque exerted by the fluid on the deformed sphere are expressed explicitly for a translational and rotational deformed sphere. The equation governing the motion and orientation of a spheroid induced by homogenous flows is also presented. This evolution equation for the orientation of the spheroid is similar to the equation derived by Jeffery [1922]. Solutions of this equation show that the period of rotation of the particle with <span class="hlt">slip</span> is longer than for the same particle without <span class="hlt">slip</span>. Furthermore, when the <span class="hlt">slip</span> coefficient is sufficiently low, the particle rotates to a fixed angle that corresponds to a quasi-steady state in the flow. REFERENCES Brenner, H. 1964 The Stokes resistance of a slightly deformed sphere. Chemical Engineering Science 19, 519-539 Jeffery, G.B.1922 The motion of ellipsoidal particles immersed in a viscous fluid. Proc. Soc. Lond. Math., 102, 161-179 Lamb, H. 1945 Hydrodynamics, sixth version, Dover, New York, U.S.A</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benard, Andre; Jia, Liping; Petty, Charles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2595308"> <span id="translatedtitle">Endocrine Dysfunction and <span class="hlt">Slipped</span> Capital Femoral Epiphysis 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Five patients with concomitant endocrinopathy and <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis were studied in detail. One had diabetes and hypothyroidism, one had hypothyroidism, one had hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and two had a craniopharyngioma (one of whom had severe panhypopituitarism post-operatively). An additional seven patients with cranio-pharyngioma revealed marked delay in closure of epiphyses and an additional undiagnosed case of <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis. Of the six patients with <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis, three had bilateral and three unilateral involvement. Of the five patients undergoing surgical stabilization, there was significant delay of epiphyseodesis, prompting us to recommend concomitant bone grafting. Histological examination of the femoral head from a three year old child with panhypopituitarism showed marked irregularity of the growth plate and loss of columnar integrity, which may be a predisposing factor to <span class="hlt">slipping</span> in older children with endocrinopathies. The effects of various hormones on the physis are specifically discussed, especially as they relate to the possible etiology of <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis. ImagesFIG. 1A and 1BFIG. 2FIG. 3A and 3BFIG. 4A and 4BFIG. 5</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ogden, John A.; Southwick, Wayne O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.G41A..04S"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the comparisons of seismic moment rates determined from historic earthquakes, GPS and Quaternary fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> rates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The long-term horizontal strain rate field in the India-Eurasia plate boundary zone is determined from Quaternary fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> rates and recent GPS data. Strain rates estimated from recent GPS data in Southeastern and Northeastern China are less than 1x10-9 /yr, insignificantly different from zero, which is consistent with the rigid block or plate assumptions in recent tectonic models. We estimate the tectonic moment rates in various seismic zones in China and surrounding regions using the horizontal strain rates from the <span class="hlt">joint</span>-inversion of geological and GPS data. The total earthquake moment rate inferred from historic earthquakes over different time periods is about 70-80 % of the total tectonic moment rate within the seismogenic volume. They are consistent with each other within one sigma confidence level. However the moment rates inferred from historic seismicity in the seismic zones containing the Kunlun fault, the Altyn Tagh fault, and Yushu-Mani fault zone in northern Tibet, the eastern Tian Shan, and Shanxi Graben system are significantly smaller than the tectonic moment rates. Our preliminary results also indicate that the extension rates across the Shanxi graben, the Weihe Basin, and Hetao basin are no more than 2 mm/yr. Nor do the left-lateral or right-lateral <span class="hlt">slip</span> rates across these active graben systems exceed 2 mm/yr. The total horizontal <span class="hlt">slip</span> rates across these graben structures seem to be lower than the <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate estimates from previous studies. The discrepancies between the long-term moment rates and moment rates inferred from seismicity or geological information could have significant implications in seismic hazard calculations in China. Although the uncertainties in the current GPS data are still too large to confidently reject or modify any previous results, the addition of GPS data will no doubt help to improve uncertainties or reduce biases in seismic hazard models that are based either on historic seismicity alone or seismicity data combined with geological data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shen-Tu, B.; Mahdyiar, M.; Rong, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18425408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tunable-<span class="hlt">slip</span> boundaries for coarse-grained simulations of fluid flow.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On the micro- and nanoscale, classical hydrodynamic boundary conditions such as the no-<span class="hlt">slip</span> condition no longer apply. Instead, the flow profiles exhibit "<span class="hlt">slip</span>" at the surface, which is characterized by a finite <span class="hlt">slip</span> length (partial <span class="hlt">slip</span>). We present a new, systematic way of implementing partial-<span class="hlt">slip</span> boundary conditions with arbitrary <span class="hlt">slip</span> length in coarse-grained computer simulations. The main idea is to represent the complex microscopic interface structure by a spatially varying effective viscous force. An analytical equation for the resulting <span class="hlt">slip</span> length can be derived for planar and for curved surfaces. The comparison with computer simulations of a DPD (dissipative particle dynamics) fluid shows that this expression is valid from full <span class="hlt">slip</span> to no <span class="hlt">slip</span>. PMID:18425408</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smiatek, J; Allen, M P; Schmid, F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EPJE...26..115S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tunable-<span class="hlt">slip</span> boundaries for coarse-grained simulations of fluid flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On the micro- and nanoscale, classical hydrodynamic boundary conditions such as the no-<span class="hlt">slip</span> condition no longer apply. Instead, the flow profiles exhibit “<span class="hlt">slip</span>“ at the surface, which is characterized by a finite <span class="hlt">slip</span> length (partial <span class="hlt">slip</span>). We present a new, systematic way of implementing partial-<span class="hlt">slip</span> boundary conditions with arbitrary <span class="hlt">slip</span> length in coarse-grained computer simulations. The main idea is to represent the complex microscopic interface structure by a spatially varying effective viscous force. An analytical equation for the resulting <span class="hlt">slip</span> length can be derived for planar and for curved surfaces. The comparison with computer simulations of a DPD (dissipative particle dynamics) fluid shows that this expression is valid from full <span class="hlt">slip</span> to no <span class="hlt">slip</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smiatek, J.; Allen, M. P.; Schmid, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S33C..07A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probabilistic estimates of surface <span class="hlt">slip</span> including the effects of creep and afterslip</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We develop a methodology for probabilistic estimates of coseismic and postseismic surface <span class="hlt">slip</span> for scenario earthquakes that explicitly includes the effects of creep and afterslip. We apply Monte Carlo simulations to include uncertainty from the Hanks and Bakun (2008) magnitude-area relation, distribution of <span class="hlt">slip</span>, and the effect of creep on coseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span>. We extract coseismic surface <span class="hlt">slip</span> from a suite of kinematic <span class="hlt">slip</span> models that are constructed following the same approach we used in kinematic rupture models for ground motion modeling of scenario events on the Hayward Fault (Aagaard, et al., 2008), with additional calibration for coseismic surface <span class="hlt">slip</span> using empirical regressions and observations provided by Wells and Coppersmith (1994). The kinematic <span class="hlt">slip</span> models include variation in earthquake magnitude, rupture length, <span class="hlt">slip</span> distribution, and reduce the coseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> in creeping patches delineated by Funning et al. (2007). Postseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> in our analysis is based upon empirical regressions developed from afterslip measurements from the 1987 magnitude 6.6 Superstition Hills earthquake in southern California. We apply this methodology to a location on the Hayward fault in the San Francisco Bay area to characterize the coseismic and postseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> expected for magnitude 6.5-7.1 earthquakes. We find that creep decreases the expected coseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> and substantial afterslip may occur in the first few days following an earthquake. This analysis provides a significantly different temporal estimate of surface <span class="hlt">slip</span> compared with conventional probabilistic estimates that ignore the effects of creep and postseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aagaard, B.; Lienkaemper, J. J.; Schwartz, D. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T13A1929G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring the evolution of <span class="hlt">slip</span> surface roughness with LiDAR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Roughness of faults plays an important role in controlling the resistance of faults to <span class="hlt">slip</span>, yet all faults do not have the same roughness. A previous study used ground-based LIDAR to analyze 12 fault surfaces from 8 localities in the Western United States, and inferred that small <span class="hlt">slip</span> faults (<span class="hlt">slip</span> <1 m) are rougher in the <span class="hlt">slip</span> parallel direction than large <span class="hlt">slip</span> faults (<span class="hlt">slip</span> 10 m - 300 m) [Sagy et al., 2006]. Here we more than double the dataset and expand the types of faults studied in order to test this hypothesis. We have applied the same methods to 13 Italian faults. The new faults are primarily normal faults with intermediate <span class="hlt">slip</span> distances (<span class="hlt">slip</span> 1 m - 150 m). The data includes strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults exhumed from depth, a fault type not included in the previous study. The new data set also controls for lithology by focusing on carbonate rocks. We measure roughness using mean power spectra of the topography in both the <span class="hlt">slip</span> perpendicular and <span class="hlt">slip</span> parallel directions. The roughness in the <span class="hlt">slip</span> perpendicular direction is identical to the Western US faults. <span class="hlt">Slip</span> perpendicular roughness is insensitive to <span class="hlt">slip</span> and rock type. The <span class="hlt">slip</span> parallel direction is smoother for all faults than the <span class="hlt">slip</span> perpendicular direction. Preliminary results suggest that roughness is intermediate between the small <span class="hlt">slip</span> (<1 m) and large <span class="hlt">slip</span> (>10 m) faults studied previously. Roughness is also sensitive to time of exposure as revealed by a fault surface that has been progressively exposed during roadwork. The large-scale data analysis is being enabled by Slugview, a program written by the UC Santa Cruz Seismology Group. Slugview is a 3D point cloud visualizer used to manipulate raw data. The beta version of SlugView 2.0 is available to anyone interested, and can be downloaded at www.pmc.ucsc.edu/~msteffec/SlugView/.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gilchrist, J. J.; Brodsky, E. E.; Steffeck, M.; Sagy, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54715055"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Rheological Boundaries and Weaker Patches on Supershear Rupture in 3D Simulations of Earthquake Sequences and Aseismic <span class="hlt">Slip</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study supershear transition and propagation of dynamic rupture through simulations of earthquake sequences and aseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> in a 3D fault model. Our simulations reproduce all stages of spontaneous fault <span class="hlt">slip</span>, from accelerating <span class="hlt">slip</span> before dynamic instability, to rapid dynamic propagation of earthquake rupture, to post-seismic <span class="hlt">slip</span>, and to slow interseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> between dynamic events. In the model, a planar</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Liu; N. Lapusta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985STIN...8614530G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span>-boundary equations for multicomponent nonequilibrium airflow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Equations are presented for the surface-<span class="hlt">slip</span> (or jump) values of species concentration, pressure, velocity, and temperature in the low Reynolds number, high-altitude flight regime of a space vehicle. These are obtained from closed-form solutions of the mass, momentum, and energy flux equations by using the Chapman-Enskog velocity distribution function. This function represents a solution of the Boltzmann equation in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The analysis, obtained for nonequilibrium multicomponent airflow, includes the finite-rare surface catalytic recombination and changes in the internal energy during reflection from the surface. Expressions for the various <span class="hlt">slip</span> quantities have been obtained in a form which can readily be employed in flow-field computations. A consistent set of equations is provided for multicomponent and binary mixtures and single-species gas. An expression is also provided for the finite-rate species-concentration boundary condition for a multicomponent mixture in the absence of <span class="hlt">slip</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gupta, R. N.; Scott, C. D.; Moss, J. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15156199"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stacking fault energies and <span class="hlt">slip</span> in nanocrystalline metals.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The search for deformation mechanisms in nanocrystalline metals has profited from the use of molecular dynamics calculations. These simulations have revealed two possible mechanisms; grain boundary accommodation, and intragranular <span class="hlt">slip</span> involving dislocation emission and absorption at grain boundaries. But the precise nature of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> mechanism is the subject of considerable debate, and the limitations of the simulation technique need to be taken into consideration. Here we show, using molecular dynamics simulations, that the nature of <span class="hlt">slip</span> in nanocrystalline metals cannot be described in terms of the absolute value of the stacking fault energy-a correct interpretation requires the generalized stacking fault energy curve, involving both stable and unstable stacking fault energies. The molecular dynamics technique does not at present allow for the determination of rate-limiting processes, so the use of our calculations in the interpretation of experiments has to be undertaken with care. PMID:15156199</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Van Swygenhoven, H; Derlet, P M; Frøseth, A G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-05-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JMiMi...7...55M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flow and load characteristics of microbearings with <span class="hlt">slip</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fluid mechanics and operating characteristics of bearings that support rotating surfaces in micromachines are different from their larger cousins. The present study analyzes microbearings represented as an eccentric cylinder rotating in a stationary housing. The flow Reynolds number is assumed small, the clearance between shaft and housing is not small relative to the overall bearing dimensions, and there is <span class="hlt">slip</span> at the walls due to non-continuum effects. The two-dimensional governing equations are written in terms of the streamfunction in bipolar coordinates and an infinite-series solution is obtained. For high values of the eccentricity and low <span class="hlt">slip</span> factors the flow may develop a recirculation region. The force and torque on the load-bearing inner cylinder increase with increasing eccentricity and decrease with increasing <span class="hlt">slip</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maureau, Jérôme; Sharatchandra, M. C.; Sen, Mihir; Gad-el-Hak, Mohamed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.rheumatology.org/Practice/Clinical/Patients/Diseases_And_Conditions/Joint_Injection/Aspiration/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Joint</span> Injection/Aspiration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... osteoarthritis. What usually is injected into the <span class="hlt">joint</span> space? Corticosteroids (such as methylprednisolone and triamcinolone formulated to ... for producing inflammation and pain within the <span class="hlt">joint</span> space. Although corticosteroids may also be successfully used in ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.assh.org/Public/HandConditions/Pages/ArthritisMPJoint.aspx"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arthritis: Metacarpophalangeal (MP) <span class="hlt">Joint</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... activities. Arthritis is the wearing away of the cartilage at a <span class="hlt">joint</span>. Cartilage is the coating layer of tissue on the ... that acts as a shock-absorber. Loss of cartilage can lead to <span class="hlt">joint</span> destruction and a shift ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=874536"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large displacement spherical <span class="hlt">joint</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new class of spherical <span class="hlt">joints</span> has a very large accessible full cone angle, a property which is beneficial for a wide range of applications. Despite the large cone angles, these <span class="hlt">joints</span> move freely without singularities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JMPSo..53..437D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comprehensive bounded asymptotic solutions for incomplete contacts in partial <span class="hlt">slip</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solutions for the traction distributions and corresponding sub-surface state of stress adjacent to the edge of an incomplete contact suffering partial <span class="hlt">slip</span> are found. The effects of frictional shakedown and a synchronously varying in-plane tension on the solution are found in closed form. The value of the asymptote, and its characterisation by just three independent parameters is illustrated by applying it to the finite problem of a rigid, tilted punch pressed onto a half-plane, and suffering partial <span class="hlt">slip</span> induced by the application of in-plane tension.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dini, D.; Sackfield, A.; Hills, D. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeoJI.165..622L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic model of heterogeneity in earthquake <span class="hlt">slip</span> spatial distributions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Finite-fault source inversions reveal the spatial complexity of earthquake <span class="hlt">slip</span> or pre-stress distribution over the fault surface. The basic assumption of this study is that a stochastic model can reproduce the variability in amplitude and the long-range correlation of the spatial <span class="hlt">slip</span> distribution. In this paper, we compute the stochastic model for the source models of four earthquakes: the 1979 Imperial Valley, the 1989 Loma Prieta, the 1994 Northridge and 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe). For each earthquake (except Imperial Valley), we consider both the dip and strike <span class="hlt">slip</span> distributions. In each case, we use a 1-D stochastic model. For the four earthquakes, we show that the average power spectra of the raw, that is, non-interpolated, data follow a power-law behaviour with scaling exponents that range from 0.78 to 1.71. For the four earthquakes, we have found that a non-Gaussian probability law, that is, the Lévy law, is better suited to reproduce the main features of the spatial variability embedded in the <span class="hlt">slip</span> amplitude distribution, including the presence and frequency of large fluctuations. Since asperities are usually defined as regions with large <span class="hlt">slip</span> values on the fault, the stochastic model will allow predicting and modelling the spatial distribution of the asperities over the fault surface. The values of the Lévy parameters differ from one earthquake to the other. Assuming an isotropic spatial distribution of heterogeneity for the dip and the strike <span class="hlt">slip</span> of he Northridge earthquake, we also compute a 2-D stochastic model. The main conclusions reached in the 1-D analysis remain appropriate for the 2-D model. The results obtained for the four earthquakes suggest that some features of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> spatial complexity are universal and can be modelled accordingly. If this is proven correct, this will imply that the spatial variability and the long-range correlation of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> or pre-stress spatial distribution can be described with the help of five parameters: a scaling exponent controlling the spatial correlation and the four parameters of the Lévy distribution constraining the spatial variability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lavallée, Daniel; Liu, Pengcheng; Archuleta, Ralph J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011FlDyR..43a5502A"> <span id="translatedtitle">An MHD stagnation <span class="hlt">slip</span> flow on a moving plate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, the problem of a steady laminar boundary layer flow of a an electrically conducting fluid in the presence of a magnetic field near the stagnation point with <span class="hlt">slip</span> on a moving plate is studied. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically using the shooting method. Numerical results are obtained for various values of the magnetic parameter M and the <span class="hlt">slip</span> factor ?. The skin friction coefficients and the velocity profiles f'(?), g(?) and h(?) for various values of M and ? are obtained and discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ali, F. M.; Nazar, R.; Arifin, N. M.; Pop, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2488163"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computerized Navigation for Treatment of <span class="hlt">Slipped</span> Femoral Capital Epiphysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In situ pinning with a single screw is the treatment of choice for symptomatic <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). Some technical features are critical and include proper screw entry point, screw direction in relation to the epiphysis, and the length of screw. These are complicated by the deformity created as a result of the posterior <span class="hlt">slip</span> of the epiphysis. Fluoroscopic based computerized navigation system can increase precision in screw placement while performing the surgical task, and markedly reduce radiation. By using real fluoroscopy-based navigation, the screw can be placed with only two fluoroscopic images. Entry point, length, and precise direction can all be easily determined through this technique.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pearle, Andrew; Liebergall, Meir; Simanovsky, Naum; Porat, Shlomo; Moshieff, Rami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993PhRvL..70..287M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span> transition of a polymer melt under shear stress</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the first direct measurements of the local velocity of a sheared polymer melt within the first 100 nm from the solid-liquid interface. For high enough shear rates we observe a sharp transition between weak and strong <span class="hlt">slip</span> (i.e., a nonzero boundary fluid velocity) in the case of weak polymer-surface interactions [polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on silanated silica surfaces]. For strong polymer surface interactions the <span class="hlt">slip</span> is strongly reduced. These results are compared to a theoretical model recently proposed by Brochard and de Gennes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Migler, K. B.; Hervet, H.; Leger, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993pata.reptT....R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Collapsible mechanical <span class="hlt">joint</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A mechanical <span class="hlt">joint</span> that can be configured to be either flexible or rigid is presented. The mechanical <span class="hlt">joint</span> comprises three members which are flexibly attached to each other with a cable. When the cable is tightened, the three members come together to form a rigid <span class="hlt">joint</span> capable of withstanding structural loads.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robertson, Glen A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB173966"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bolted Hybrid <span class="hlt">Joints</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The report presents the results of an analytical study of hybrid steel butt <span class="hlt">joints</span> of A36, A440 and A514 steel. The <span class="hlt">joints</span> were fastened by either A325 or A490 bolts. The studies were designed to determine the effect of various variables on the <span class="hlt">joint</span> stre...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Kormanik J. W. Fisher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16915286"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resonant slow fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> in subduction zones forced by climatic load stress.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements at subduction plate boundaries often record fault movements similar to earthquakes but much slower, occurring over timescales of approximately 1 week to approximately 1 year. These 'slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events' have been observed in Japan, Cascadia, Mexico, Alaska and New Zealand. The phenomenon is poorly understood, but several observations hint at the processes underlying slow <span class="hlt">slip</span>. Although <span class="hlt">slip</span> itself is silent, seismic instruments often record coincident low-amplitude tremor in a narrow (1-5 cycles per second) frequency range. Also, modelling of GPS data and estimates of tremor location indicate that <span class="hlt">slip</span> focuses near the transition from unstable ('stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span>') to stable friction at the deep limit of the earthquake-producing seismogenic zone. Perhaps most intriguingly, slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> is periodic at several locations, with recurrence varying from 6 to 18 months depending on which subduction zone (or even segment) is examined. Here I show that such periodic slow fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> may be a resonant response to climate-driven stress perturbations. Fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> resonance helps to explain why <span class="hlt">slip</span> events are periodic, why periods differ from place to place, and why <span class="hlt">slip</span> focuses near the base of the seismogenic zone. Resonant <span class="hlt">slip</span> should initiate within the rupture zone of future great earthquakes, suggesting that slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> may illuminate fault properties that control earthquake <span class="hlt">slip</span>. PMID:16915286</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lowry, Anthony R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-08-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T52C..05O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span> Partitioning Offshore Southeast Taiwan and Southward Propagation of the Longitudinal Valley Fault: Evidence from Preferred Nodal Plane <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Vectors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Slip</span> vectors of preferred nodal planes derived using a Gaussian model for inverting focal mechanisms for strain provide constraints on probable fault geometries and fault block kinematics. We use preferred nodal plane <span class="hlt">slip</span> vectors for shallow earthquakes in the Luzon forearc basin of southeast Taiwan to understand the relative orientations of block movement in an area responding to the initial collision between the Luzon arc and the Eurasian passive margin. South of the forearc basin, where the accretionary prism and Luzon arc are bathymetrically separated, <span class="hlt">slip</span> vectors suggest that relative plate motion is spatially partitioned into two domains with backthrusting within the accretionary prism and sinistral shearing centered within the volcanic arc. North of this region is the Taitung Trough, a bathymetric low just west of the Luzon arc. <span class="hlt">Slip</span> vectors within the southern part of the trough have orientations both ~E - W and ~N - S, suggesting the basin has mostly closed and that the accretionary prism and Luzon arc have been juxtaposed. Likewise, the partitioning of relative plate motion appears to be accommodated by a single structure in map view. Going north from the Taitung Trough, <span class="hlt">slip</span> vectors rotate toward parallelism with the Philippine convergence vector, which we interpret as the transition from partitioned deformation to full collisional deformation. <span class="hlt">Slip</span> vectors within the southern region of the Longitudinal Valley, near the Pinanshan Conglomerate, have orientations that are parallel to those of the blocks of the area bounded by two branches of the Longitudinal Valley fault. The southern part of the Longitudinal Valley fault's eastern branch continues southeast offshore, within the same region as the NW-trending Taitung Trough. This analysis suggests the eastern branch of the Longitudinal Valley fault propagates southward offshore, becoming the Taitung Trough.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'hara, D.; Lewis, J. C.; Rau, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRB..115.3408H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative description and analysis of earthquake-induced deformation zones along strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> and dip-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Deformation zones are belts of high strains that can occur at the ground surface centered or asymmetrical relative to the trace of an earthquake fault and can range in width from a meter or two up to hundreds of meters. In order to minimize damage to engineering structures within deformation zones one needs to be able to determine the characteristics of the deformation zones. We develop an elastic-plastic model of fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> propagation to explain formation of deformation zones and estimate certain parameters to characterize deformation zones. Our theory suggests the ratio of widths of deformation zones in hanging wall and footwall of dipping faults should be controlled by fault dip angle and the kind of fault; the relations are different for strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> and dip-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults. Also, the total width of the deformation zone normalized with fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> during the earthquake should be determined by the dip angle, the exponent of the yield condition, and the kind of fault. The theoretical parameters measured for deformation zones along the strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> Düzce-Bolu fault at Kayna?l?, Turkey, and two deformation zones along the Chi-Chi thrust fault, Taiwan, agree well with parameters determined from geophysical and geological sources. The theoretical model also indicates that the Winnetka strain belts related to the 1994 Northridge earthquake could have formed above a previously unknown blind fault at Winnetka; the analysis suggests that the Winnetka fault is a normal, dip-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault, dipping ˜54°S with a fault tip depth of ˜360 m.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Wen-Jeng; Johnson, Arvid M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T33B1904J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative description and analysis of earthquake-induced deformation zones along strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> and dip-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Deformation zones are belts of high strains that can occur at the ground surface centered or asymmetrical relative to the trace of an earthquake fault and can range in width from a meter or two up to hundreds of meters. In order to minimize damage to engineering structures within deformation zones one needs to be able to determine the characteristics of the deformation zone. We develop an elastic-plastic model of fault-<span class="hlt">slip</span> propagation to explain formation of deformation zones and estimate certain parameters to characterize deformation zones. Our theory suggests the ratio of widths of deformation zones in hanging wall and foot wall of dipping faults should be controlled by fault dip angle and the kind of fault—the relations are different for strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> and dip-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults. Also, the total width of the deformation zone normalized with fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> during the earthquake should be determined by the dip angle, the exponent of the yield condition, and the kind of fault. The theoretical parameters measured for deformation zones along the strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span>, Duzce-Bolu fault at Kaynasli, Turkey and two deformation zones along the Chi-Chi thrust fault, Taiwan agree well with parameters determined from geophysical and geological sources. The theoretical model also indicates that the Winnetka strain belts related to the 1994 Northridge earthquake could have formed above a previously unknown blind fault at Winnetka; the analysis suggests that the Winnetka fault is a normal, dip-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault, dipping ~54°S with a fault-tip depth of approximately 360 m.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, A. M.; Huang, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH21C1527G"> <span id="translatedtitle">PTHA <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Models in the Aftermath of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Inter-plate thrust <span class="hlt">slip</span> models used in Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) are re-evaluated in light of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. Whereas recurrence is typically linked to seismic moment in PTHA, the magnitude and distribution of <span class="hlt">slip</span> are the primary variables that affect tsunami generation. Because of the self-similar nature of rupture, the <span class="hlt">slip</span> model is dependent on other scaling relationships, such as magnitude-area and magnitude-mean <span class="hlt">slip</span>. In the past, various <span class="hlt">slip</span> models have been used to calculate tsunami generation, ranging from uniform <span class="hlt">slip</span> to stochastic models. Uniform <span class="hlt">slip</span> models systematically underestimate the amplitude and leading-wave steepness for the local, broadside tsunami. Stochastic <span class="hlt">slip</span> models, constrained by the seismic displacement spectrum, produce a range of possible <span class="hlt">slip</span> distributions for a given seismic moment and <span class="hlt">slip</span> spectrum and more accurately represent heterogeneous earthquake ruptures. Conventional stochastic <span class="hlt">slip</span> models based on a k-2 <span class="hlt">slip</span> spectrum and Gaussian random variables result in a coefficient of variation (c.v.) approximately equal to 0.5. However, <span class="hlt">slip</span> inversion results of recent tsunamigenic earthquakes indicate that the observed c.v. is significantly greater than 0.5. This is particularly evident for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, in which the c.v. for <span class="hlt">slip</span> is approximately 1.0. Recent updates to the stochastic <span class="hlt">slip</span> model can retain a k-2 <span class="hlt">slip</span> spectrum, but use non-Gaussian distributed random variables. The updated stochastic <span class="hlt">slip</span> model is more consistent with the observed fluctuations in <span class="hlt">slip</span>. We investigate how these models can be applied in a PTHA framework. In addition, dynamic effects such as amplification of <span class="hlt">slip</span> near the free surface, partitioning of <span class="hlt">slip</span> between different overlapping fault segments, and dynamic overshoot can strongly modify the <span class="hlt">slip</span> pattern in ways that may be correlated with geometrical and frictional properties on the fault; such effects potentially may be predictable prior to an earthquake in some cases. Because of these and other physical effects on the static <span class="hlt">slip</span> distribution, we also investigate how purely statistical <span class="hlt">slip</span> models can be informed by dynamic rupture modeling.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geist, E. L.; Parsons, T.; Oglesby, D. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T42C..01T"> <span id="translatedtitle">The influence of <span class="hlt">slip</span> velocity and temperature on permeability during and after high-velocity fault <span class="hlt">slip</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fluid transport properties in fault zones play an important role in dynamic processes during large earthquakes. If the permeability in a fault zone is low, high pore-fluid pressures caused by thermal pressurization (Sibson, 1973) or shear-induced compaction (Blanpied et al., 1992) can lead to an apparent reduction of fault strength. Changes in porosity and permeability of fault rocks within a fault zone during earthquakes and the subsequent progressive recovery of these properties may have a large influence on earthquake recurrence (Sleep and Blanpied, 1992). A rotary shear apparatus was used to investigate changes of fluid transport properties in a fault zone by real-time measurement of gas flow rates during and after shearing of hollow sandstone and granite cylinders at various <span class="hlt">slip</span> rates. Our apparatus measures permeability parallel to the <span class="hlt">slip</span> plane in both the <span class="hlt">slip</span> zone and wall rocks. In all cases, permeability decreased rapidly with an increase of friction, but recovered soon after <span class="hlt">slip</span>, reaching a steady state within several tens of minutes. The rate of reduction of permeability increased with increasing <span class="hlt">slip</span> velocity. Permeability did not recover to pre-<span class="hlt">slip</span> levels after low-velocity tests but recovered to exceed them after high-velocity tests. Frictional heating of gases at the <span class="hlt">slip</span> surface increased gas viscosity, which increased gas flow rate to produce an apparent permeability increase. The irreversible permeability changes of the low-velocity tests were caused by gouge formation due to wearing and smoothing of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> surface. The increase of permeability after high-velocity tests was caused by mesoscale fracturing in response to rapid temperature rise. Changes of pore fluid viscosity contributed more to changes of flow rate than did permeability changes caused by shear deformation, although test results from different rocks and pore fluids might be different. References Blanpied, M.L., Lockner, D.A., Byerlee, J.D., 1992. An earthquake mechanism based on rapid sealing of faults. Nature 358, 574-576 Sibson, R.H., 1973. Interactions between temperature and pore fluid pressure during earthquake faulting: A mechanism for partial or total stress relief. Nature 243, 66-68. Sleep, N.H., Blanpied, M.L., 1992. Creep, compaction and the weak rheology of major faults. Nature 359, 687-692.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tanikawa, W.; Mukoyoshi, H.; Tadai, O.; Hirose, T.; Lin, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=crack&pg=6&id=EJ773737"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fixing the Cracks in Education so No One <span class="hlt">Slips</span> through</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Education acts in this country have been created with the express purpose of preventing students from <span class="hlt">slipping</span> through the cracks. Unfortunately, legislation has not been successful. By disaggregating the student dropout rate in Texas and juxtaposing this information to the prison influx rate in 2001, a profile of the population entering Texas…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanchez, Heliodoro T., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61385544"> <span id="translatedtitle">Velocity dependence of serpentinite friction promotes aseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> on faults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Serpentinite is common on many crustal faults and it has been suggested that the presence of serpentine on these faults may promote aseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span>. Consequently, the authors have experimentally measured the frictional constitutive response of both antigorite and lizardite polymorphs of serpentine to step changes in velocity. This was done at room temperature in rotary direct shear; normal stress was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. A. Reinen; T. E. Tullis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JaJAP..44.5264E"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span>-Free Driving Method for Nonresonant Piezoelectric Actuator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is generally considered that in the ultrasonic motor the motion always <span class="hlt">slips</span> and scratches. The nonresonant ultrasonic motor (NRUSM) expected for future precision stage systems should, however, overcome the difficulties of the wear of friction materials, which has been encountered in the use of conventional ultrasonic motors. The wear occurs by <span class="hlt">slipping</span> and may be reduced by material selection. In this paper, we focus on the control method at actuation to prevent <span class="hlt">slipping</span>. The advantages of NRUSM in the ability to control the drive frequency as well as the drive amplitude are shown, and this is effective in reducing wear and obtaining long-term stability. The drive frequency condition for no slippage under sinusoidal waveforms was calculated. The experimental results correspond to the theoretical calculated drive frequency. Because the resultant values of the frequencies are low for practical applications, we present the <span class="hlt">slip</span>-free actuation method of using the new actuator’s driving waveform and time chart in order to drive the stage at constant accelerated motion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Endo, Taishi; Egashira, Yoshiya; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Kosaka, Kouji; Watanabe, Masayuki; Miyata, Noboru; Moriyama, Shirou; Sasaki, Syunichi; Nakada, Akira; Ohmi, Tadahiro; Kubota, Hiroshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/330089"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span>-based tire-road friction estimation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An approach to estimate the tire-road friction during normal drive using only the wheel <span class="hlt">slip</span>, that is, the relative difference in wheel velocities, is presented. The driver can be informed about the maximum friction force and be alarmed for sudden changes. Friction-related parameters are estimated using only signals from standard sensors in a modern car. An adaptive estimator is presented</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fredrik Gustafsson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6862971"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of stepovers in strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> tectonics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is shown that the key to understanding the tectonic complexity of large strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault systems is fault stepovers. Depending on the sense of stepover, discontinuities along the strike of faults result in pull-apart basins and push-up ranges, several examples of which are presented to illustrate the associated structures and their complexities. Discountinuities along the dip direction of strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults are poorly known because of the lack of field observations. Data from seismicity, however, can be used to fill this gap. One example of such en echelon fault geometry is found along the Calaveras fault, California. It is inferred that stepovers along the dip direction of strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults may produce secondary strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faulting on inclined planes connecting the en echelon segments of the major fault. As the amount of overlap increases, features similar to pull-apart basins or push-up ranges are expected to occur. Caused for the formation of discontinuities and control of the sense of stepover are not well known. Some possible factors are: spatial variability of the coefficient of friction, spatially variable elastic moduli, high pore pressure, and interaction between neighboring faults in an array of faults. The first two would give rise to both senses of stepover, whereas the last two lead only to one sense of stepover, which induces pull-apart basins.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aydin, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/476564"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) following pelvic irradiation for rhabdomyosarcoma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 7-year-old child developed <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) 3 years following pelvic irradiation for rhabdomyosarcoma. The reasons for this occurrence are discussed. This is the second report of radiation-induced SCFE and it is anticipated that more such cases are likely to occur. PMID:476564</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dickerman, J D; Newberg, A H; Moreland, M D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61363525"> <span id="translatedtitle">Well packers and <span class="hlt">slip</span> assemblies for use therewith</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is disclosed an hydraulically set well packer wherein sleeves carried about a tubular member which is connected as part of a tubing string are adapted to be moved from axially extended to axially retracted position in order to expand packing and <span class="hlt">slip</span> elements carried about one of the sleeves into engagement with the well bore in which the string</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akkerman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52089124"> <span id="translatedtitle">Couette flow with <span class="hlt">slip</span> and jump boundary conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The steady plane Couette flow is analyzed within the framework of the five field equations of mass, momentum and energy for a Newtonian viscous heat conducting ideal gas in which <span class="hlt">slip</span> and jump boundary conditions are considered. The results obtained are compared with those that follow from the direct simulation Monte Carlo method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. Marques Jr.; G. M. Kremer; F. M. Sharipov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/blpa1vbp2257c35h.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Couette flow with <span class="hlt">slip</span> and jump boundary conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">  The steady plane Couette flow is analyzed within the framework of the five field equations of mass, momentum and energy for\\u000a a Newtonian viscous heat conducting ideal gas in which <span class="hlt">slip</span> and jump boundary conditions are considered. The results obtained\\u000a are compared with those that follow from the direct simulation Monte Carlo method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. Marques Jr.; G. M. Kremer; F. M. Sharipov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47747263"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span> Systems and plastic anisotropy in CaF2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An examination was made of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> planes activated in high-purity CaF2 single crystals with various orientations deformed by compression between 20 °C and 600 °C. It was found that 110 was the most difficult and 100 the easiest to activate. These results are compared to results for UO2 and zirconia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Muñoz; A. Domínguez-Rodríguez; J. Castaing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7008028"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unified formulation for analysis of slopes with general <span class="hlt">slip</span> surface</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The general availability of computers has provided efficient means of assessing the stability of slopes using several analytical methods. However, the increased use of computers coupled with a lack of unified presentation of the various methods sometimes leads to conflicting results. It is shown that the current analytical methods can be grouped into three categories based on the hypotheses used to describe the internal forces, namely: (1) the direction of the internal forces; (2) the height of the line of thrust; and (3) the shape of the distribution function of the internal shear forces. An analytical framework incorporating this idea is presented to facilitate and unify slope stability analysis with general <span class="hlt">slip</span> surfaces. The study is a generalization of earlier work performed by Espinoza et al. for circular <span class="hlt">slip</span> surfaces. The framework incorporates most current methods of analysis. The analytical model is implemented in a computer program. The program was used to study several case examples. On this basis, key issues associated with the influence of the internal shear forces on the factor of safety, for both circular and general <span class="hlt">slip</span> failure surfaces, are discussed. It appears that for circular failure surfaces, even with heterogeneous soil stratigraphy the factor of safety is not affected by the choice of a particular hypothesis. On the contrary, for general <span class="hlt">slip</span> surfaces this choice may significantly affect the results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Espinoza, R.D.; Bourdeau, P.L. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Civil Engineering); Muhunthan, B. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13263347"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clutch <span class="hlt">slip</span> control of Automatic Transmission using nonlinear method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To improve the shift quality of vehicle with clutch-to-clutch gear shifts, a nonlinear controller is designed for the clutch <span class="hlt">slip</span> control during the shift inertia phase of an Automatic Transmission (AT). Backstepping technique is used to deduce the control algorithm. Model uncertainties including steady state errors and unmodelled dynamics are also considered as additive disturbance inputs and the controller is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bingzhao Gao; Hong Chen; Yan Ma; Kazushi Sanada</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2484563"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis: a report of two cases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two cases of <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis are presented. Both were eventually treated by pinning in situ, after going undiagnosed for some time. The clinical presentation, radiographic findings, and proposed pathogenesis of this disorder are reviewed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quon, JA; Burns, SH; O'Connor, SM; Mierau, DR; Cassidy, JD</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50082420"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span> modelling and aided inertial navigation of an LHD</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes the theoretical development and experimental evaluation of a guidance system for an autonomous load, haul and dump truck (LHD) for use in underground mining. The particular contributions of this paper are in designing the navigation system to be able to cope with vehicle <span class="hlt">slip</span> in rough uneven terrain using information from an inertial navigation system (INS) and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Scheding; G. Dissanayake; E. Nebot; H. Durrant-Whyte</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21370685"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phase-<span class="hlt">Slip</span> Interferometry for Precision Force Measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We demonstrate a novel atom interferometric force sensor based on phase <span class="hlt">slips</span> in the dynamic evolution of a squeezed-state array of degenerate {sup 87}Rb atoms confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice. The truncated Wigner approximation is used to model our observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tuchman, Ari K. [Entanglement Technologies, 3723 Haven Avenue, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Kasevich, Mark A. [Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19905495"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phase-<span class="hlt">slip</span> interferometry for precision force measurements.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We demonstrate a novel atom interferometric force sensor based on phase <span class="hlt">slips</span> in the dynamic evolution of a squeezed-state array of degenerate ;{87}Rb atoms confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice. The truncated Wigner approximation is used to model our observations. PMID:19905495</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tuchman, Ari K; Kasevich, Mark A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19216290"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span> Diffusion and Lévy Flights of an Adsorbed Gold Nanocluster</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anomalous diffusion of a gold nanocrystal Au140, adsorbed on the basal plane of graphite, exhibiting Lévy-type power-law flight-length and sticking-time distributions, is predicted through extensive molecular dynamics simulations. An atomistic collective <span class="hlt">slip</span>-diffusion mechanism is proposed and analyzed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. D. Luedtke; Uzi Landman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T42B..01C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Yushu Earthquake: rupture of a resistive strip-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On April 14, 2010, Yushu Ms7.1 earthquake occurred in Ganzi-Yushu fault which is the northwest extension of the famous Xianshuihe fault. The strike direction of the surface rupture of Yushu Earthquake is 310°, extending from the epicenter to the southeast as a left-lateral strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault. After the earthquake, data from a total of 77 sites along 6 MT profiles were acquired. The analysis and inversion results of the MT Data show that the Yushu earthquake generating fault is a strip-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault caught in two resistive zones. In the lower crust beneath the generating fault, there is a resistive abnormal body separating the conductive layers, suggesting that Yushu earthquake is a rupture of a resistive left-lateral strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault interacted with the both sides of resistive blocks. In addition, it also suggests that the Ganzi-Yushu-Xianshuihe fault may not be a main channel for the material flow of Tibet. Instead, it may be an isolation belt with high resistivity between Bayan Har active block and Chuandian active block. The two active blocks move to the southeast driven by the corresponding lower crust flows and interact with each other through the resistive belt, which results in forming a left-lateral strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> deformation and inducting a series of massive earthquarkes along the Ganzi-Yushu-Xianshuihe fault system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, X.; Tang, J.; Xiao, Q.; Dong, Z.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6217006"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span> velocity added to two-phase pipeline calculations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Predicting pressure drop in two-phase flow in petroleum and natural gas pipelines when the two phases can have different velocities is difficult and mathematically tedious. This article describes a technique by which this <span class="hlt">slip</span> velocity can be incorporated in pressure drop calculations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maddox, R.N.; Safti, M.V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-06-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1974007"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing the dexterity of a robot hand using controlled <span class="hlt">slip</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analysis was performed of controlled <span class="hlt">slipping</span> of an object within a robot hand. The possible ways an object can move within a grasp were enumerated. The set of permissible motions was found as a function of the constraint state, that is, the number, location, and types of contact on an object. The constraint state was found as a function</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David L. Brock</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56212452"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">Slip</span> on the Flow Past Superhydrophobic Circular Cylinders</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Superhydrophobic surfaces have been shown to produce significant drag reduction for both laminar and turbulent flows of water through large and small-scale channels. In this presentation a series of experiments will be presented which investigate the effect of superhydrophobic-induced <span class="hlt">slip</span> on the flow past a circular cylinder. In these experiments, circular cylinders are coated with a series of superhydrophobic surfaces</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jonathan Rothstein; Robert Daniello; Nangelie Ferrer; Pranesh Muralidhar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v079/i029/JB079i029p04407/JB079i029p04407.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Analysis of Strain Accumulation on a Strike <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Fault</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analysis of strain accumulation on a strike <span class="hlt">slip</span> fault is given. The fault between two lithospheric plates is assumed to be locked tb a finite depth; owing to plastic flow the fault is free to slide at greaier depths. The base of each plate is also a free boundary. The periodic stress accumulation andtress release associated with the elastic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. L. Turcotte; D. A. Spence</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3599319"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary <span class="hlt">slip</span> history of the 2002 Denali earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rapid <span class="hlt">slip</span> histories for the 2002 Denali earthquake were derived from the IRIS global data before geologists arrived in the field. We were able to predict many of the features they observed. Three models were produced indicating a step-wise improvement in matching the waveform data applying a formalism discussed in Ji et al. (2002). The first model referred to as</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Ji; D. V. Helmberger; D. J. Wald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50765050"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vehicle Pure Yaw Moment control using differential tire <span class="hlt">slip</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Direct yaw moment control generated by differential friction forces on an axle has been proved to be effective in improving vehicle lateral yaw stability and in enhancing handling performance. It consists of two levels of control tasks: calculating a yaw moment command at vehicle level and regulating the tire <span class="hlt">slip</span> to deliver the moment at wheel level. Advanced powertrain with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wei Liang; Hai Yu; Ryan McGee; Ming Kuang; Jure Medanic</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://trs-new.jpl.nasa.gov/dspace/bitstream/2014/41348/1/07-2157.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span> Validation and Prediction for Mars Exploration Rovers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a novel technique to validate and predict the rover <span class="hlt">slips</span> on Martian surface for NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers. Different from the traditional approach, the proposed method uses the actual velocity profile of the wheels and the digital elevation map (DEM) from the stereo images of the terrain to formulate simplified equations of motion of the rovers. A</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeng Yen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/u229070885qq8374.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of the frictional stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> instability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A lattice solid model capable of simulating rock friction, fracture and the associated seismic wave radiation is developed in order to study the origin of the stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> instability that is responsible for earthquakes. The model consists of a lattice of interacting particles. In order to study the effect of surface roughness on the frictional behavior of elastic blocks being rubbed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter Mora</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1575076"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stick <span class="hlt">slip</span> and control in low-speed motion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dimensional and perturbation analysis are applied to the problem of stick <span class="hlt">slip</span> encountered during the motion of machines. The friction model studied is motivated by current tribological results and is appropriate for lubricated metal contacts. The friction model incorporates Coulomb, viscous, and Stribeck friction with frictional memory and rising static friction. Through dimensional analysis an exact model of the nonlinear</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Armstrong-Helouvry; Stribeck Friction</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18337831"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the origin and bifurcations of stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> oscillations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A recently proposed model of macroscopic friction is investigated using methods of dynamical systems analysis. Particular emphasis is put on the bifurcations associated with the appearance of stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> oscillations. In the model it is found that the existence of these oscillations is a result of a periodic orbit straddling a discontinuity in the first derivative of the vector field. A</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harry Dankowicz; Arne B. Nordmark</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38433417"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slipped</span> Capital Femoral Epiphysis in Children Treated with Growth Hormone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined the association between <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) and growth hormone (GH) treatment in 16,514 children who had not been treated with GH prior to their enrollment in the National Cooperative Growth Study. Fifteen children had SCFE prior to receiving GH therapy, 26 developed SCFE during GH treatment, and one had SCFE on one side prior to GH</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sandra L. Blethen; Amy Chen Rundle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=340087"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physeal dysplasia with <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis in a cat</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 14-month-old, intact male cat presented with acute onset, severe right hind limb lameness. Pelvic radiographs, excision of the femoral head, and histopathologic examination resulted in a diagnosis of physeal dysplasia with <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis. The cat rapidly regained use of the affected limb.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burke, Julie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32572794"> <span id="translatedtitle">Orthopedic pitfalls in the ED: <span class="hlt">Slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), though a relatively common disorder, is frequently missed on initial presentation. Symptoms can be vague, the physical examination unrevealing, and radiographic abnormalities subtle. Prompt diagnosis of SCFE is important, however, to improve clinical outcome. The emergency physician needs to remain vigilant for this diagnosis to avoid this orthopedic pitfall. This article examines the clinical presentation,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrew D. Perron; Mark D. Miller; William J. Brady</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB93118065"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical Characteristics of Truck Tires during Combined <span class="hlt">Slip</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Combined <span class="hlt">slip</span> testing of three heavy-truck tires using the UMTRI mobile tire tester was accomplished. The testing constituted a pilot activity to investigate the influence of test induced wear and to try to establish an appropriate test matrix for combine...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. B. Winkler S. Bogard Z. Bareket</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48630"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span>-Based Estimation Of Tire---Road Friction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An approach to estimate the tire--road friction duringnormal drive using only the wheel <span class="hlt">slip</span>, that is, the relativedifference in wheel velocities, is presented. The drivercan be informed about the maximal friction force and bealarmed for sudden changes. Friction related parametersare estimated using only signals from standard sensorsin a modern car, and the physical relation between theseparameters and the maximal friction</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Gustafsson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981JGR....86.4949M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonuniform seismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> rates along the Middle America Trench</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Revised estimates of seismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> rates along the Middle America Trench are lower on the average than plate convergence rates but match them locally (for example, Oaxaca). Along the Cocos-North American plate boundary this can be explained by nonuniformities in <span class="hlt">slip</span> at points of aseismic ridge or fracture zone subduction. For at least 81 yr (and possibly several hundred years), no major (Ms ? 7.5) shallow earthquake is known to have occurred near the Orozco Fracture Zone and Tehuantepec Ridge areas. Compared with the average recurrence periods for large earthquakes (33 ± 8 yr since 1898 and 35 ± 24 yr between 1542 and 1979), this suggests that either a large (M ? 8.4) event may be anticipated at such locations, or that these are points of aseismic subduction. Large coastal terraces and evidence suggesting tectonic uplift are found onshore near the Orozco Fracture zone. The larger discrepancy between plate convergence and seismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> rates along the Cocos-Carribbean plate boundary is more likely due to decoupling and downbending of the subducted plate. We used the limited statistical evidence available to characterize both spatial and temporal deficiencies in recent seismic <span class="hlt">slip</span>. The observations appear consistent with a possible forthcoming episode of more intense seismic activity. Based on a series of comparisons with carefully delineated aftershock zones, we conclude that the zones of anomalous seismic activity can be identified by a systematic, automated analysis of the worldwide earthquake catalog (mb ? 4).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McNally, Karen C.; Minster, J. Bernard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N19990099116"> <span id="translatedtitle">Viscoelastic Postseismic Rebound to Strike-<span class="hlt">Slip</span> Earthquakes in Regions of Oblique Plate Convergence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">According to the <span class="hlt">slip</span> partitioning concept, the trench parallel component of relative plate motion in regions of oblique convergence is accommodated by strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faulting in the overriding continental lithosphere. The pattern of postseismic surface defo...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. C. Cohen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec165-751.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.751 - Security Zone: LNG mooring <span class="hlt">slip</span>, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Security Zone: LNG mooring <span class="hlt">slip</span>, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. 165...Security Zone: LNG mooring <span class="hlt">slip</span>, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. (a...the right descending bank of the Savannah River. All marine traffic is...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-751.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.751 - Security Zone: LNG mooring <span class="hlt">slip</span>, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Security Zone: LNG mooring <span class="hlt">slip</span>, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. 165...Security Zone: LNG mooring <span class="hlt">slip</span>, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. (a...the right descending bank of the Savannah River. All marine traffic is...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2009-title33-vol2-sec165-751.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.751 - Security Zone: LNG mooring <span class="hlt">slip</span>, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Security Zone: LNG mooring <span class="hlt">slip</span>, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. 165...Security Zone: LNG mooring <span class="hlt">slip</span>, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. (a...the right descending bank of the Savannah River. All marine traffic is...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DPS....4410102P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> Faulting On Ganymede, Now And Then</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> tectonism is important to the structural development of Ganymede’s surface, and in the transition from dark to grooved terrain. Three distinct signatures of strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faulting are recognized [1]: (1) en echelon structures, (2) strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> duplexes, and (3) laterally offset pre-existing features. As strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faulting progressed, en echelon fractures (in both dark and grooved terrains) merged to define en echelon swaths, which can become distinct tectonic domains. Three morphological categories of strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> “duplexes” (spindle-shaped lensoid regions bounded by strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults) occur, suggesting an evolutionary sequence from discontinuous fractures in dark terrain, to lensoid bounding structures, to lensoid regions with subparallel internal structure in grooved terrain. Ganymede’s 24 measured duplexes have an average length/width ratio of 2.4, on the low end of the terrestrial range [2]. Lateral offsets of pre-existing features betray the existence of some major strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults: Dardanus Sulcus (13°W, 18°S) is displaced 45 km by a prominent NE-SW trending fault. We model Coulomb shear failure on Ganymede, considering nonsynchronous rotation (NSR), and diurnal stresses both for present (0.0013) and possible past high ( 0.05) eccentricity [3]. We adopt NSR period 0.14 Ma; Love numbers h2 = 1.52 and l2 = 0.38; Young’s modulus 9.3 GPa; Poisson’s ratio 0.33; and fault depth 2 km. NSR shear stress resolved along the Dardanus fault is 0.3 MPa, sufficient to induce failure to 1.4 km for friction coefficient 0.3. For past high eccentricity, diurnal stress would have modulated NSR stress by 100 kPa through Ganymede’s tidal cycle. This could have induced shear heating [4] and tidal walking [5], as modeled for Europa. References: [1] DeRemer and Pappalardo (2003), LPSC, 34, #2033; [2] Aydin and Nur (1982), Tectonics, 1, 91; [3] Showman and Malhotra (1997), Icarus, 127, 93; [4] Nimmo and Gaidos (2002), JGR, 107, 10.1029/2000JE001476; [5] Rhoden et al. (2012), Icarus, 218, 297.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pappalardo, Robert T.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Cameron, M. E.; DeRemer-Keeney, L. C.; Nimmo, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1785/0120000935"> <span id="translatedtitle">Triggered surface <span class="hlt">slips</span> in the Salton Trough associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surface fracturing occurred along the southern San Andreas, Superstition Hills, and Imperial faults in association with the 16 October 1999 (Mw 7.1) Hector Mine earthquake, making this at least the eighth time in the past 31 years that a regional earthquake has triggered <span class="hlt">slip</span> along faults in the Salton Trough. Fractures associated with the event formed discontinuous breaks over a 39-km-long stretch of the San Andreas fault, from the Mecca Hills southeastward to Salt Creek and Durmid Hill, a distance from the epicenter of 107 to 139 km. Sense of <span class="hlt">slip</span> was right lateral; only locally was there a minor (~1 mm) vertical component of <span class="hlt">slip</span>. Dextral <span class="hlt">slip</span> ranged from 1 to 13 mm. Maximum <span class="hlt">slip</span> values in 1999 and earlier triggered <span class="hlt">slips</span> are most common in the central Mecca Hills. Field evidence indicates a transient opening as the Hector Mine seismic waves passed the southern San Andreas fault. Comparison of nearby strong-motion records indicates several periods of relative opening with passage of the Hector Mine seismic wave-a similar process may have contributed to the field evidence of a transient opening. <span class="hlt">Slip</span> on the Superstition Hills fault extended at least 9 km, at a distance from the Hector Mine epicenter of about 188 to 196 km. This length of <span class="hlt">slip</span> is a minimum value, because we saw fresh surface breakage extending farther northwest than our measurement sites. Sense of <span class="hlt">slip</span> was right lateral; locally there was a minor (~1 mm) vertical component of <span class="hlt">slip</span>. Dextral <span class="hlt">slip</span> ranged from 1 to 18 mm, with the largest amounts found distributed (or skewed) away from the Hector Mine earthquake source. <span class="hlt">Slip</span> triggered on the Superstition Hills fault commonly is skewed away from the earthquake source, most notably in 1968, 1979, and 1999. Surface <span class="hlt">slip</span> on the Imperial fault and within the Imperial Valley extended about 22 km, representing a distance from the Hector Mine epicenter of about 204 to 226 km. Sense of <span class="hlt">slip</span> dominantly was right lateral; the right-lateral component of <span class="hlt">slip</span> ranged from 1 to 19 mm. Locally there was a minor (~1-2 mm) vertical component of <span class="hlt">slip</span>; larger proportions of vertical <span class="hlt">slip</span> (up to 10 mm) occurred in Mesquite basin, where scarps indicate long-term oblique-<span class="hlt">slip</span> motion for this part of the Imperial fault. <span class="hlt">Slip</span> triggered on the Imperial fault appears randomly distributed relative to location along the fault and source direction. Multiple surface <span class="hlt">slips</span>, both primary and triggered <span class="hlt">slip</span>, indicate that <span class="hlt">slip</span> repeatedly is small at locations of structural complexity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rymer, M. J.; Boatwright, J.; Seekins, L. C.; Yule, J. D.; Liu, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53985314"> <span id="translatedtitle">Eastern Denali Fault <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Rate and Paleoseismic History, Kluane Lake Area, Yukon Territory, Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 2002, the central part of the dextral-<span class="hlt">slip</span> Denali fault (DF) system generated a M 7.9 earthquake in central Alaska. This rupture included the section of the Denali fault with the highest measured late Pleistocene <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate, of 12.1±1.7 mm\\/yr, and the Totschunda fault, with a <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate of 6.0±1.2 mm\\/yr. Immediately east of the Denali-Totschunda fault juncture, the <span class="hlt">slip</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. J. Seitz; P. J. Haeussler; A. J. Crone; P. Lipovsky; D. P. Schwartz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39650236"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span> and Time-dependent Fault Constitutive Law and its Significance in Earthquake Generation Cycles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">-- By integrating effects of microscopic interactions between statistically self-similar fault surfaces, we succeeded in deriving a <span class="hlt">slip</span>- and time-dependent fault constitutive law that rationally unifies the <span class="hlt">slip</span>-dependent law and the rate- and state-dependent law. In this constitutive law the <span class="hlt">slip</span>-weakening results from the abrasion of surface asperities that proceeds irreversibly with fault <span class="hlt">slip</span>. On the other hand, the restoration</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">HIDEO AOCHI; M. Matsu'ura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6205990"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aftershock <span class="hlt">slip</span> behavior of the 1989 Loma Prieta, California earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analysis of 745 aftershocks of the M7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October, 1989 reveals a wide variety of focal mechanisms. At the northwestern end of the aftershock zone earthquakes that apparently occurred off the main rupture plane exhibit mechanisms with predominantly reverse <span class="hlt">slip</span> on planes nearly parallel to the San Andreas fault. At the southeastern end the mechanisms exhibit right-lateral motion on near-vertical planes, suggesting that these aftershocks involve <span class="hlt">slip</span> on the San Andreas fault. Few of the aftershock mechanisms in the central zone resemble the main shock mechanism (strike N130{degree}E, dip 70{degree}SW, rake 104{degree}), but instead exhibit reverse, right-lateral, left-lateral, and normal motion on planes subparallel to the main shock rupture plane. The dip of the aftershock zone is parallel to the main shock <span class="hlt">slip</span> plane and includes the main shock hypocenter. However, the lack of agreement between the main shock and the aftershock mechanisms suggests that few of the aftershocks occurred on the main shock <span class="hlt">slip</span> plane. This behavior is consistent with observations of aftershock sequences for other dip-<span class="hlt">slip</span> events and also with studies indicating that main shock rupture zones are at all other times mostly aseismic. If the stress drop for the main shock relieved most of the tectonic stress, the mechanisms could reflect the heterogeneity of the near-field stress redistribution. Alternatively the variety of the aftershock mechanisms may reflect deformation by block motion within a narrow zone adjacent to the main shock rupture plane.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oppenheimer, D.H. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MAR.X1002G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of Quantum Phase-<span class="hlt">Slips</span> in Josephson Junction Chains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quantum phase-<span class="hlt">slip</span> dynamics in Josephson junction chains could provide the basis for the realization of a new type of topologically protected qubit [1] or for the implementation of a new current standard [2]. I will present measurements of the effect of quantum phase-<span class="hlt">slips</span> on the ground state of a Josephson junction chain. We can tune in situ the strength of the phase-<span class="hlt">slips</span>. These phase-<span class="hlt">slips</span> are the result of fluctuations induced by the finite charging energy of each junction in the chain. Our measurements demonstrate that a Josephson junction chain under phase bias constraint behaves in a collective way [3]. I will also show evidence of coherent phase-<span class="hlt">slip</span> interference, the so called Aharonov-Casher effect. This phenomenon is the dual of the well known Aharonov-Bohm interference.[4pt] In collaboration with I.M. Pop, Institut Neel, C.N.R.S. and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble, France; I. Protopopov, L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kosygin str. 2, Moscow 119334, Russia and Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; and F. Lecocq, Z. Peng, B. Pannetier, O. Buisson, Institut Neel, C.N.R.S. and Universite Joseph Fourier. [4pt] [1] I. M. Pop, O. Buisson, K. Hasselbach, I. Protopopov, W. Guichard and B. Pannetier, Phys. Rev. B, 78, 104504(2008) [0pt] [2] W. Guichard and F. Hekking, Phys. Rev. B 81, 064508 (2010) [0pt] [3] I. M. Pop, I. Protopopov, F. Lecocq, Z. Peng, B. Pannetier, O. Buisson and W. Guichard, Nature Physics, 6, 589 (2010).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guichard, Wiebke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3390211"> <span id="translatedtitle">LIMITS OF RECOVERY AGAINST <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>-INDUCED FALLS WHILE WALKING</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Slip</span>-induced falls in gait often have devastating consequences. The purposes of this study were 1) to select the determinants that can best discriminate the outcomes (recoveries or falls) of an unannounced <span class="hlt">slip</span> induced in gait (and to find their corresponding threshold, i.e., the limits of recovery, that can clearly separate these two outcomes), and 2) to verify these results in a subset of repeated <span class="hlt">slip</span> trials. Based on the data collected from 69 young subjects during a <span class="hlt">slip</span> induced in gait, nine different ways of combining the center of mass (COM) stability, the hip height, and its vertical velocity were investigated with the aid of logistic regression. The results revealed that the COM stability (s) and limb support (represented by the quotient of hip vertical velocity and hip height, Ship) recorded at the instant immediately prior to the recovery step touchdown were sufficiently sensitive to account for all (100%) variance in falls, and specific enough to account for nearly all (98.3%) variability in recoveries. This boundary (Ship = -0.22s -0.25), which quantifies the risk of falls in the stability-limb support quotient (s-Ship) domain, was fully verified using 76 second- and third-<span class="hlt">slip</span> trials with classification of falls at 100% and recoveries at 98.6%. The severity of an actual fall is likely to be greater further below the boundary, while the likelihood of a fall diminishes above it. Finally, the slope of the boundary also indicates the tradeoff between the stability and limb support, whereby high stability can compensate for the insufficiency in limb support, or vice versa.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Feng; Bhatt, Tanvi; Pai, Yi-Chung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoJI.186.1389K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shallow <span class="hlt">slip</span> deficit due to large strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> earthquakes in dynamic rupture simulations with elasto-plastic off-fault response</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Slip</span> inversions of geodetic data from several large (magnitude ˜7) strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> earthquakes point to coseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> deficit at shallow depths (<3-4 km), that is, coseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> appears to decrease towards the Earth surface. While the inferred <span class="hlt">slip</span> distribution may be consistent with laboratory-derived rate and state friction laws suggesting that the uppermost brittle crust may be velocity strengthening, there remains a question of how the coseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> deficit is accommodated throughout the earthquake cycle. The consequence of velocity-strengthening fault friction at shallow depths is that the deficit of coseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> is relieved by post-seismic afterslip and interseismic creep. However, many seismic events with inferred shallow <span class="hlt">slip</span> deficit were not associated with either resolvable shallow interseismic creep or robust shallow afterslip. Hence, the origin of shallow '<span class="hlt">slip</span> deficit' remains uncertain. In this study, we investigate whether inelastic failure in the shallow crust due to dynamic earthquake rupture can explain the inferred deficit of shallow <span class="hlt">slip</span>. Evidence for such failure is emerging from geologic, seismic and geodetic observations. We find that the amount of shallow <span class="hlt">slip</span> deficit is proportional to the amount of inelastic deformation near the Earth surface. Such deformation occurs under a wide range of parameters that characterize rock strength in the upper crust. However, the largest magnitude of <span class="hlt">slip</span> deficit in models accounting for off-fault yielding is 2-4 times smaller than that inferred from kinematic inversions of geodetic data. To explain this discrepancy, we further explore to what extent assumptions in the kinematic inversions may bias the inferred <span class="hlt">slip</span> distributions. Inelastic deformation in the shallow crust reduces coseismic strain near the fault, introducing an additional 'artificial' deficit of up to 10 per cent of the maximum <span class="hlt">slip</span> in inversions of geodetic data that are based on purely elastic models. The largest magnitude of <span class="hlt">slip</span> deficit in our models combined with the bias in inversions accounts for up to 25 per cent of shallow <span class="hlt">slip</span> deficit, which is comparable, but still smaller than 30-60 per cent deficit inferred from kinematic inversions. We discuss potential mechanisms that may account for the remaining discrepancy between <span class="hlt">slip</span> deficit predicted by elasto-plastic rupture models and that inferred from inversions of space geodetic data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kaneko, Y.; Fialko, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.terrapub.co.jp/journals/EPS/pdf/2004/5612/56121143.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geodetic and seismic signatures of episodic tremor and <span class="hlt">slip</span> in the northern Cascadia subduction zone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Slip</span> events with an average duration of about 10 days and effective total <span class="hlt">slip</span> displacements of severalc entimetres have been detected on the deeper (25 to 45 km) part of the northern Cascadia subduction zone interface by observing transient surface deformation on a network of continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) sites. The <span class="hlt">slip</span> events occur down-dip from the currently</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Dragert; K. Wang; G. Rogers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52554096"> <span id="translatedtitle">The time constant variations of slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events in the south Alaska subduction zone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Slow <span class="hlt">Slip</span> events (SSEs), episodic periods of <span class="hlt">slip</span> on the plate interface that are very slow in comparison to earthquakes, but much faster steady plate motions, have been identified at several subduction zones. One characteristic shared by all of these events is that they occur near or downdip of the base of the seismogenic zone as defined by the <span class="hlt">slip</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Ohta; J. T. Freymueller; S. Miura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27206838"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stress Analysis of a New Disk-Type Variable Torque <span class="hlt">Slipping</span> Clutch with Skewed Rollers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper a new disk type of the variable torque <span class="hlt">slipping</span> clutch with skewed rollers (VTSCSR) is presented and investigated both theoretically and experimentally. It is comprised of two flat disks, a number of skewed cylindrical rollers, and a cage. The <span class="hlt">slipping</span> torque is produced by the skewed rollers rolling and <span class="hlt">slipping</span> between the two disks. Based on the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ming Feng; Kyosuke Ono; Kenji Mimura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003FlDyR..32..233W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stokes <span class="hlt">slip</span> flow through square and triangular arrays of circular cylinders</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Slow viscous flow through square and equilateral triangular arrays of circular cylinders are solved by eigenfunction expansions and collocation. The boundary conditions on the cylinders, which admit partial <span class="hlt">slip</span>, are satisfied exactly. Permeability for various <span class="hlt">slip</span> and solid fractions, including the touching case, are determined. Partial <span class="hlt">slip</span>, which arises in diverse physical problems, has substantial effect on both flow and permeability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, C. Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50548941"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of Incipient <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Measurement System for Walking Analysis with High-speed Camera</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes a method of measuring the incipient <span class="hlt">slip</span> of the sole in order to clarify the relation between a plantar tactile sensibility and a stabilization mechanism for a <span class="hlt">slip</span>. The incipient <span class="hlt">slip</span> measuring device for walking analysis by using high-speed cameras and acceleration sensor is developed. The measurement device can be measured the plantar skin deformation during a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Uno; H. Takemura; H. Mizoguchi; T. Ogasawara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50989206"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span>-ratio-coordinated control of planetary exploration robots traversing over deformable rough terrain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wheeled exploration robots are prone to <span class="hlt">slip</span> during locomotion on deformable rough planetary terrain, which leads to loss of velocity and extra consumption of energy. Experimental results show that the power required for driving a wheel is an increasing function of its <span class="hlt">slip</span> ratio; further, the tractive efficiency decreases rapidly after it reaches a peak value when the <span class="hlt">slip</span> ratio</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liang Ding; Haibo Gao; Zongquan Deng; Zhen Liu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.science.cmu.ac.th/journal-science/351_04effectpiam.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Flocculation of Alumina <span class="hlt">Slip</span> on the Pore Size Distribution of Cast Alumina by Polyacrylamide</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tubular alumina filters were prepared by a <span class="hlt">slip</span> casting process. The flocculation of alumina <span class="hlt">slip</span> was studied as a function of pH and PAM concentrations. The particle size and viscosity of alumina <span class="hlt">slip</span> were determined by using laser diffraction technique and Brookfield DV III+ viscometer, respectively. Pore size and pore size distribution of the alumina filters were measured by using</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siriporn Larpkiattaworn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40585692"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shearing of ?? precipitates and formation of planar <span class="hlt">slip</span> bands in Inconel 718 during cyclic deformation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fatigue of Inconel 718 at RT and 650°C caused the formation of planar deformation bands and shearing of coherent and ordered ?? and ?? precipitates by paired dislocations. The paired dislocations could not cross-<span class="hlt">slip</span>, resulting in planar <span class="hlt">slip</span> and planar <span class="hlt">slip</span> bands, whose spacing and width were almost independent of the cyclic plastic strain amplitude.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Xiao; D. L. Chen; M. C. Chaturvedi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.375..303F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Repeated large Slow <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Events at the southcentral Alaska subduction zone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We identify and study an ongoing Slow <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Event (SSE) in the southcentral Alaska subduction zone using GPS measurements. This is the second large SSE in this region since modern geodetic measurements became available in 1993. We divide the ongoing SSE into two phases according to their transient displacement time evolution; their <span class="hlt">slip</span> distributions are similar to each other but <span class="hlt">slip</span> rates are slightly different. This ongoing SSE occurs downdip of the main asperity that ruptured in the 1964 Alaska earthquake, on the same part of the subduction interface as the earlier 1998–2001 SSE. The average <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate of this SSE is ˜4–5 cm/yr, with a cumulative moment magnitude of Mw 7.5 (Mw 7.3 and Mw 7.1 For Phases I and II, respectively) through the end of 2012. The time and space dependence of the GPS displacements suggest that the <span class="hlt">slip</span> area remained nearly the same during Phase I, while the <span class="hlt">slip</span> rate increased with time. The SSEs occur on a transitional section of the subduction plate interface between the fully locked updip part and the freely <span class="hlt">slipping</span> deeper part. During the 1964 earthquake, <span class="hlt">slip</span> on the region of the SSE was much lower than <span class="hlt">slip</span> in the updip region. Based on this observation and the repeated SSEs, we conclude that this part of the interface <span class="hlt">slips</span> repeatedly in SSEs throughout the interseismic period and does not build up a large <span class="hlt">slip</span> deficit to be released through large <span class="hlt">slip</span> in earthquakes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fu, Yuning; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26443415"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slip</span> and fall risk among firefighters in relation to balance, muscular capacities and age</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Influencing the safety of firefighters’ work environment is almost impossible. Therefore, good individual physical capacities and adequate protective equipment are important in preventing accidents due to <span class="hlt">slips</span> and falls. This study investigated <span class="hlt">slip</span> and fall risk in walking experiments with firefighters wearing fire-protective equipment and determined the associations of balance, muscular capacities and age with the risk of <span class="hlt">slipping</span>. Professional</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anne Punakallio; Mikko Hirvonen; Raoul Grönqvist</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50440720"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental demonstration of body <span class="hlt">slip</span> angle control based on a novel linear observer for electric vehicle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, a body <span class="hlt">slip</span> angle observer based on yaw rate ? and side acceleration ay, and a novel control method of body <span class="hlt">slip</span> angle ? are proposed. Body <span class="hlt">slip</span> angle observer is robust against parameter variation and change of road. Some experimental results by UOT MarchII (Fig.1) are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed observer. Next,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshifumi Aoki; Toshiyuki Uchida; Yoichi Hori</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..DFD.GW005K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of Surface Structures for Large Effective <span class="hlt">Slip</span>: How Much <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Is Possible in Ideal, Lab and Real Conditions?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An ideal condition to reduce the drag of a liquid flowing on a solid surface is maintaining a lubricating gas layer between the solid and the liquid. For water flowing on a 1 or 10 ?m-thick air layer, for example, the <span class="hlt">slip</span> length is calculated to be roughly 50 or 500 ?m, respectively - large enough to benefit a wide range of engineering applications. Unfortunately, however, the above ideal water-levitating condition is only imaginary, because such a liquid-gas meniscus cannot be sustained in nature. Instead, water-repelling structured surfaces bring us closer to the imaginary condition by minimizing the liquid-solid interface and keeping the water mostly on a layer of air. The underlying goal in developing a large-<span class="hlt">slip</span> surface is, therefore, to create a condition as close as possible to the uniform air lubrication, which is often overlooked. For example, while a large contact angle on a superhydrophobic surface helps keep the liquid fakir, note that once levitated, the contact angle has little effect on increasing the <span class="hlt">slip</span> length. Instead, the geometrical parameters of the surface structures, e.g., air fraction, pitch and depth of the structures, are the determining factors. A series of development efforts to create surfaces that bring us closer to the ideal air-lubricating condition will be presented, with the <span class="hlt">slip</span> length currently measured as large as 400 ?m. However, it will be also noted that they are valid only in laboratory conditions, where the sample is fabricated to near perfection and the pressure in the flowing liquid is under strict control. In real-life engineering conditions, which include high and fluctuating pressure, defective surfaces, and liquids full of impurities and particles, it remains to be seen if we will ever be able to create a <span class="hlt">slip</span> surface that can be field-deployed - a millennium-old dream.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Chang-Jin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JAP....88.7304M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of viscoelasticity and interfacial <span class="hlt">slip</span> on acoustic wave sensors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Acoustic wave devices with shear horizontal displacements, such as quartz crystal microbalances (QCM) and shear horizontally polarized surface acoustic wave devices, provide sensitive probes of changes at solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces. Increasingly the surfaces of acoustic wave devices are being chemically or physically modified to alter surface adhesion or coated with one or more layers to amplify their response to any change of mass or material properties. In this work, we describe a model that provides a unified view of the modification in the shear motion in acoustic wave systems by multiple finite thickness loadings of viscoelastic fluids. This model encompasses QCM and other classes of acoustic wave devices based on a shear motion of the substrate surface and is also valid whether the coating film has a liquid or solid character. As a specific example, the transition of a coating from liquid to solid is modeled using a single relaxation time Maxwell model. The correspondence between parameters from this physical model and parameters from alternative acoustic impedance models is explicitly given. The characteristic changes in QCM frequency and attenuation as a function of thickness are illustrated for a single layer device as the coating is varied from liquid like to that of an amorphous solid. Results for a double layer structure are explicitly given and the extension of the physical model to multiple layers is described. An advantage of this physical approach to modeling the response of acoustic wave devices to multilayer films is that it provides a basis for considering how interfacial <span class="hlt">slip</span> boundary conditions might be incorporated into the acoustic impedance used within circuit models of acoustic wave devices. Explicit results are derived for interfacial <span class="hlt">slip</span> occurring at the substrate-first layer interface using a single real <span class="hlt">slip</span> parameter, s, which has inverse dimensions of impedance. In terms of acoustic impedance, such interfacial <span class="hlt">slip</span> acts as a single-loop negative feedback. It is suggested that these results can also be viewed as arising from a double-layer model with an infinitesimally thin <span class="hlt">slip</span> layer which gives rise to a modified acoustic load of the second layer. Finally, the difficulties with defining appropriate <span class="hlt">slip</span> boundary conditions between any two successive layers in a multilayer device are outlined from a physical point of view.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McHale, G.; Lücklum, R.; Newton, M. I.; Cowen, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S23B2282W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of Slow <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Events at the Hikurangi Subduction Margin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events (SSEs) occur along nearly the entire Hikurangi subduction margin adjacent to the North Island, New Zealand. Long duration (1-2 years), deep (40- 60 km depth), large events (equivalent to Mw ~7.0) occur at the southern Hikurangi margin, while shallow (10-15 km depth), short (1-2 weeks), smaller events (equivalent to Mw ~6.5) occur at the northern and central Hikurangi margin. A recently-initiated shallow event (Castle Point) lies further to the south than previous shallow events and appears to be rupturing a portion of the plate interface that was previously thought to be locked. Since 2000, three major slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> events have been identified at the southern Hikurangi margin; the 2003 Kapiti SSE, the 2004/2005 Manawatu SSE, and the 2007/2008 Kapiti SSE (which ended in early 2009). A repeat of the 2004/2005 Manawatu event is presently underway. In some cases, these SSEs may have triggered moderate seismicity within the subducting Pacific plate (e.g., Reyners and Bannister, 2007). To date, all of the inferred <span class="hlt">slip</span> distributions for the SSEs have been obtained using elastic half-space dislocation models. Numerous recent studies of coseismic displacement fields have shown that variations in elastic properties and surface topography can influence the predicted deformation. In our initial work, we used a finite element model to evaluate the influence of material property variations on the predicted surface deformation field. Elastic properties were assigned based on a seismic velocity model, and <span class="hlt">slip</span> distributions inferred from an elastic half-space model were applied. When compared to the elastic half- space model, we found that the heterogeneous models generally predict larger amounts of surface deformation, indicating that the half-space models may be overestimating the amount of <span class="hlt">slip</span>. As the next phase in our study, we are using finite element models that include material property variations and topography to generate Green's functions for use in an inversion. In this study, we estimate the <span class="hlt">slip</span> distributions for the 2010 Gisborne event (northern part of the margin) and the ongoing Castle Point event (southern part of the margin). The inversion work is the first step in an attempt to understand the factors controlling SSE occurrence along the Hikurangi Margin. We have also begun initial modeling of fluid flow in the vicinity of a subducting seamount (as is inferred for the Gisborne SSE events) to evaluate the effects of variations in pore fluid pressure on fault frictional parameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Williams, C. A.; Wallace, L. M.; Beavan, R. J.; Lohman, R. B.; Ellis, S. M.; Marson-Pidgeon, K.; Eberhart-Phillips, D. M.; Reyners, M.; Henrys, S. A.; Bell, R. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S31G..04O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resolving <span class="hlt">slip</span> evolution of deep tremor in western Japan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies have shown that deep tectonic tremors in many subduction zones consist of numerous low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) that occur as shear <span class="hlt">slips</span> on the plate interface. LFE hypocenters are determined relatively accurately, and in western Japan, they are concentrated in a narrow zone around the anticipated plate interface [Ohta and Ide, 2011]. Therefore, the location of LFEs may constrain the instantaneous location of tremor sources and illustrate its migration behavior, as demonstrated by a matched filter analysis with template LFEs [Shelly et al., 2007]. Nevertheless, it is yet unclear whether tremor occurs at exactly the same location as LFEs. Since tremor behavior on the plate interface are various and spatially characteristic [Ide, 2010], there might be some tremor activity undetectable using template LFEs. Moreover, while the previous method using matched templates has achieved to draw the discrete picture of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> behavior of potential tremor, it is not sufficient to explain the entire rupture process. To understand the underlying physics of tremor and other slow earthquakes, it is essential to highly resolve the spatial and temporal behavior of the rupture of these events. This study determines spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">slip</span> distribution associated with deep tremor in western Japan, without the spatial limitation of template LFEs. We first estimate the location of the plate interface based on the precise hypocenter locations of LFEs in a target region and prepare "synthetic template waveforms" by stacking the seismograms of these LFEs at every grid point arranged on this interface. These synthetic template waveforms can be used in a matched filter analysis to continuous waveforms, to grasp a crude image of tremor source. Furthermore, we use the synthetic waveforms as substitute of Green's functions, and invert continuous tremor waveforms by a non-linear <span class="hlt">slip</span> inversion method. We apply the method to 3600 s continuous velocity seismograms recorded at Hi-net stations in the western Shikoku, on 16 March, 2008 from 23:00-24:00, to obtain the detailed <span class="hlt">slip</span> history of about 1200 s tremor sequence. The <span class="hlt">slip</span> episode migrates from south to north and consists of three stages: (1) the southern part for 80 s, (2) the central part for several hundred seconds, and (3) the northern part for 60 s. Average migration velocity is between 10-50 m/s, and the first and third stages correspond to unknown VLF events. For all stages the cumulative moment functions increase basically along a common growth line, M_0(t)=6.0×10^10t, but in the two short stages, t^2-proportionalities are also observed in the short time ranges. These differences may be associated with the heterogeneities of material properties on the plate interface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ohta, K.; Ide, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23712447"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> length in the <span class="hlt">slipping</span> friction between background electrolytes and peptides through the modeling of their capillary zone electrophoretic mobilities.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work analyzes and discusses several physicochemical peptide chain properties that may generate partial or total BGE <span class="hlt">slip</span> boundary conditions on the surface of peptides migrating as spherical and aspherical particles in CZE. A definition of the BGE <span class="hlt">slip</span> length is presented that is able to account the effect of particle curvature through the associated metrical coefficients. This definition allows the distinction between partial and total BGE <span class="hlt">slip</span> lengths. It is also shown that the BGE <span class="hlt">slip</span> length must be variable on orthotropic aspherical particles surfaces. PMID:23712447</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deiber, Julio A; Piaggio, Maria V; Peirotti, Marta B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/349866"> <span id="translatedtitle">``Cube <span class="hlt">slip</span>`` in near-[111] oriented specimens of a single-crystal nickel-base superalloy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the past few years, it has been discussed with increasing frequency, whether cube <span class="hlt">slip</span> does occur in {gamma}{prime} hardened nickel-base superalloys. There are two basic methods to detect cube <span class="hlt">slip</span>: macroscopic <span class="hlt">slip</span> trace analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of the dislocation structure. Few observations of cube <span class="hlt">slip</span> by macroscopic <span class="hlt">slip</span> traces are reported in the literature. This investigation is part of a project being concerned with the anisotropy and the tension-compression asymmetry of the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) of nickel-base superalloys. Different orientations were investigated in tensile and compression mode, including [111] orientation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bettge, D.; Oesterle, W. [Federal Inst. for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5991881"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic release from the Soviet <span class="hlt">joint</span> verification experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The regional broadband seismic recordings of the Soviet <span class="hlt">Joint</span> Verification Experiment underground nuclear explosion show evidence of tectonic release in the form of Love waves at long periods and high-frequency S{sub m}S phases on the transverse components. The authors present the results of some simple forward modeling of this data in order to quantify both the moment and mechanism of the tectonic release. Using 10-20 second Love wave amplitude and phase data, they estimate the tectonic release moments to be 3.5 {times} 10{sup 15} N-m for a north striking right-lateral strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault, and 7.0 {times} 10{sup 15} N-m for a northwest striking reverse fault. Using the results of these end member tectonic models, the Rayleigh waves can be satisfied with explosion moments of 1.7 {times} 10{sup 16} N-m (F=0.31) and 2.4 {times} 10{sup 16} N-m (F=0.44), respectively. To resolve the ambiguity in tectonic mechanism the authors used the reflectivity method to generate synthetics and compare the relative amplitudes of the SH and SV parts of the S{sub m}S phase. While the results favor the strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> mechanism of tectonic release, application of source inversion techniques to this data and other regional data will be needed to evaluate more realistic tectonic release models involving, for example, oblique fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> and dip.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walter, W.R. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (USA)); Patton, H.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.584..129Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rupture history of the 2010 Ms 7.1 Yushu earthquake by <span class="hlt">joint</span> inversion of teleseismic data and InSAR measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We applied a <span class="hlt">joint</span> inversion of teleseismic data and InSAR measurements, aiming at obtaining a robust rupture process and <span class="hlt">slip</span> distribution of the 2010 Yushu earthquake, through reducing the trade-off between <span class="hlt">slip</span> timing and location. With the condition of the final static deformation of InSAR measurements, the rupture history can be achieved with more confidence. Surface offset constraint is also applied to our inversion. Through synthetic data inversion we find that InSAR data can resolve better fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> at near surface depth range of 0-15 km than teleseismic data; yet it has much poorer resolution at near hypocenter area, where teleseismic data has a relatively better resolution. Our final <span class="hlt">joint</span> inversion results show that the 2010 Yushu earthquake has an essential rupture time around 20 s, during which 90% of the seismic moment has been released. Two peak energy releasing moments occur at 8 and 12 s after the earthquake initiation, respectively. The fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> breaks the surface at most segments of the total 76 km fault model and the maximum <span class="hlt">slip</span> reaches 2.2 m. We also find two peak-<span class="hlt">slip</span> asperities, one at near hypocentral area, mainly distributed at depth around 10-15 km; the other distributed in a large area at the eastern segments at near surface. Our most robust estimation of the seismic moment reaches 2.30 × 1019 N.m, equivalent to a moment magnitude of Mw 6.9.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Guohong; Shan, Xinjian; Delouis, Bertrand; Qu, Chunyan; Balestra, Julien; Li, Zhenhong; Liu, Yunhua; Zhang, Guifang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NatGe...4..624W"> <span id="translatedtitle">A continuum of stress, strength and <span class="hlt">slip</span> in the Cascadia subduction zone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As oceanic lithosphere subducts beneath continental lithosphere it experiences variable degrees of interaction with the overriding plate and movement is accommodated by a continuum of <span class="hlt">slip</span> modes. At shallow depths, the plates are locked and movement occurs intermittently as earthquakes. By contrast, at large depths the down-going plate <span class="hlt">slips</span> into the mantle continually. In the transition zone between locked and stable <span class="hlt">slip</span>, plate movement is accommodated by slow <span class="hlt">slip</span>, which generates tectonic tremor. Here we use tectonic tremor to infer the location and duration of slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> in the Cascadia subduction zone from 2006 to 2011. We find that individual slow-<span class="hlt">slip</span> events are initiated deep on the plate interface and migrate upwards. With decreasing depth, we observe a gradation from small, frequent <span class="hlt">slip</span>, to large, infrequent <span class="hlt">slip</span>. These observations fill in the transition zone with a continuum of <span class="hlt">slip</span> size and periodicity, and indicate that the fault weakens with depth, which we attribute to lower friction. We suggest that stable sliding loads the fault at depth and transfers stress to the base of the transition zone, causing the initiation of slow <span class="hlt">slip</span>. In a self-similar process, slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> migrates upwards and ratchets stress up the fault, towards the shallower seismogenic zone. Our conceptual model provides an intuitive understanding of subduction zone dynamics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wech, Aaron G.; Creager, Kenneth C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3912304F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Insights to <span class="hlt">slip</span> behavior on rough faults using discrete element modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We simulate a range of fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> behaviors using the discrete element method (DEM) to examine the controls on different <span class="hlt">slip</span> modes on rough faults. Shear strain is imposed upon a 2-D bonded particle assemblage that contains a predefined fault. <span class="hlt">Slip</span> modes on the fault vary from creep, to slow-<span class="hlt">slip</span>, to stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> behavior, both spatially and temporally. The mode of <span class="hlt">slip</span> is controlled largely by the local stress field along the fault, which depends on the local fault roughness. Portions of the fault that fail in relatively low normal stress regimes tend to slide continuously, whereas areas with high clamping stress produce stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> events. During stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> events, regions within the rupture zone that experience high <span class="hlt">slip</span> are associated with physical asperities on the fault; ruptures terminate at barriers and through dissipation of the stored elastic energy. The simulated events show stress drops between 0.2-50 MPa, a slightly larger range than is inferred for natural earthquakes. Simulated events also have higher <span class="hlt">slip</span> magnitudes than are observed during earthquakes for a given rupture length. The simulation produces many characteristics of fault behavior and is shown to be a successful avenue for future studies on the mechanics of fault <span class="hlt">slip</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fournier, Thomas; Morgan, Julia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994GeoJI.118..411S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crustal deformation due to non-uniform <span class="hlt">slip</span> along a long fault</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The problem of the static deformation of a homogeneous, isotropic, perfectly elastic half-space caused by non-uniform <span class="hlt">slip</span> along vertical strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> and dip-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faults of infinite length and finite depth is studied. Four <span class="hlt">slip</span> profiles are considered: elliptic b=b0(1 -h2/L2)1/2; parabolic b=b0(1 -h2/L2); linear b=b0(1 -h/L); and cubic b=b0(1 -h2/L2)3/2; where b is the <span class="hlt">slip</span> at depth h, b0 is the surface <span class="hlt">slip</span> and L is the fault depth. The deformation corresponding to the four non-uniform <span class="hlt">slip</span> profiles is compared with the deformation due to a uniform <span class="hlt">slip</span>, assuming the source potency ?L0b(h) dh to be the same. The parity in source potency is achieved by varying the fault-depth L, keeping the surface-<span class="hlt">slip</span> b0 constant. Contour maps showing the displacement and stress fields around a long, vertical, strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault are also obtained. It is found that the effect of the non-uniformity of <span class="hlt">slip</span> on the subsurface deformation is significant in the near field. The surface deformation is affected by the non-uniformity to a lower extent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singh, Sarva Jit; Punia, Mukesh; Rani, Sunita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11313500"> <span id="translatedtitle">A silent <span class="hlt">slip</span> event on the deeper Cascadia subduction interface.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Continuous Global Positioning System sites in southwestern British Columbia, Canada, and northwestern Washington state, USA, have been moving landward as a result of the locked state of the Cascadia subduction fault offshore. In the summer of 1999, a cluster of seven sites briefly reversed their direction of motion. No seismicity was associated with this event. The sudden displacements are best explained by approximately 2 centimeters of aseismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> over a 50-kilometer-by-300-kilometer area on the subduction interface downdip from the seismogenic zone, a rupture equivalent to an earthquake of moment magnitude 6.7. This provides evidence that <span class="hlt">slip</span> of the hotter, plastic part of the subduction interface, and hence stress loading of the megathrust earthquake zone, can occur in discrete pulses. PMID:11313500</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dragert, G; Wang, K; James, T S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-04-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21204972"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large scale structure as a probe of gravitational <span class="hlt">slip</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new time-dependent, scale-independent parameter, {omega}-bar, is employed in a phenomenological model of the deviation from general relativity in which the Newtonian and longitudinal gravitational potentials <span class="hlt">slip</span> apart on cosmological scales as dark energy, assumed to be arising from a new theory of gravitation, appears to dominate the Universe. A comparison is presented between {omega}-bar and other parametrized post-Friedmannian models in the literature. The effect of {omega}-bar on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy spectrum, the growth of large-scale structure, the galaxy weak-lensing correlation function, and cross correlations of cosmic microwave background anisotropy with galaxy clustering are illustrated. Cosmological models with conventional maximum likelihood parameters are shown to find agreement with a narrow range of gravitational <span class="hlt">slip</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel, Scott F.; Caldwell, Robert R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Melchiorri, Alessandro [Physics Department and Sezione INFN, University of Rome, 'La Sapienza', P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.S42C0183R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fault Zone Drainage, Heating and Melting During Earthquake <span class="hlt">Slip</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The expansion of pore water caused by frictional heating during large crustal events provides a powerful weakening mechanism (Sibson, 1973; Lachenbruch, 1980). It may explain the magnitude of seismically inferred fracture energy and aspects of its variation with increased <span class="hlt">slip</span> (Abercrombie and Rice, 2003; Rice et al., 2003; Rice, this section, 2003). The weakening is mediated by the effects of fluid transport, which are sensitive to the permeability structure of the fault zone and its modification by damage induced by the passing rupture front (Poliakov et al., 2002), as well as by the increase in pore pressure itself. Higher permeabilities allow partial drainage to occur, so that enough strength remains for the heat generated to cause partial melting of the fault gouge at large enough <span class="hlt">slip</span>. We use recent field and laboratory data for fluid transport through pressurized fault gouge (e.g. Lockner et al., 2000; Wibberley and Shimamoto, 2003) to motivate models for drainage and melting during earthquake <span class="hlt">slip</span>. A dramatic illustration of the role of drainage is provided by an idealized model in which we assume that a freshly damaged, highly permeable region extends right up to a localized shear zone of thickness ho=5 mm, with fixed porosity n and much lower permeability k. At 7 km depth, for n=0.02 and k=10-19 m2, the <span class="hlt">slip</span> distance required to reach the onset of melting at 750oC is approximately 0.4 m for a constant friction coefficient of f=0.6. At 14 km depth, for n=0.01 and k=10-20 m2, the same temperature is reached after only 0.1 m of <span class="hlt">slip</span>. Yet more efficient drainage might occur due to the permeability increases that accompany reductions in the effective stress, so that even more rapid temperature increases would be predicted. For example, with ten times higher k, melting begins after 0.1 m <span class="hlt">slip</span> at 7 km depth and just 0.05 m at 14 km. At onset of melting the high melt viscosity impedes further drainage and, with increasing melt fraction, inter-particle contact is soon eliminated (Jacques and Rice, 2002). Then all of the fault-normal stress is supported by pressure in a slurry fluid which, when the normal stress exceeds the least principal stress, can inject into the bordering damage zone. Remaining dissipation in fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> is dominated by fluid lubrication between the still-solid gouge particles rather than inter-particle friction. The slurry viscosity is thermally activated and reduces dramatically with increasing temperature and decreasing solids fraction. We quantify these effects approximately, and compare our predictions to records of <span class="hlt">slip</span> behavior as preserved in pseudotachylytes (e.g. Otsuki et al., 2003).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rempel, A. W.; Rice, J. R.; Jacques, L. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6147755"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seismic <span class="hlt">slip</span>, segmentation, and the Loma Prieta earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors have plotted the cumulative seismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> projected onto a vertical plane for earthquakes occurring during the last 20 years along 210 km of the San Andreas fault that includes the section that moved in the Loma Prieta earthquake. These plots illustrate the differences in depth and character of the seismicity between the locked and creeping portions of the fault or fault zone and define the segment upon which the Loma Prieta earthquake occurred. Working by analogy from the relation between pre-main shock microseismicity and presumed main shock <span class="hlt">slip</span> regions at Parkfield and Loma Prieta, they identify a segment on the San Francisco Peninsula where they believe the M 7 1838 earthquake occurred, and which they believe may have accumulated sufficient strain that rupture should be expected in the coming decades.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">King, G.C.P.; Lindh, A.G.; Oppenheimer, D.H. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3182716"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liquid water can <span class="hlt">slip</span> on a hydrophilic surface</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding and predicting the behavior of water, especially in contact with various surfaces, is a scientific challenge. Molecular-level understanding of hydrophobic effects and their macroscopic consequences, in particular, is critical to many applications. Macroscopically, a surface is classified as hydrophilic or hydrophobic depending on the contact angle formed by a water droplet. Because hydrophobic surfaces tend to cause water <span class="hlt">slip</span> whereas hydrophilic ones do not, the former surfaces can yield self-cleaning garments and ice-repellent materials whereas the latter cannot. The results presented herein suggest that this dichotomy might be purely coincidental. Our simulation results demonstrate that hydrophilic surfaces can show features typically associated with hydrophobicity, namely liquid water <span class="hlt">slip</span>. Further analysis provides details on the molecular mechanism responsible for this surprising result.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ho, Tuan Anh; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.; Lee, Lloyd L.; Striolo, Alberto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15010916"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stress fluctuations and macroscopic stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> in granular materials.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper deals with the quasi-static regime of deformation of granular matter. It investigates the size of the Representative Elementary Volume (REV), which is the minimum packing size above which the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of granular materials can be defined from averaging. The first part uses typical results from recent literature and finds that the minimum REV contains in general 10 grains; this result holds true either for most experiments or for Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulation. This appears to be quite small. However, the second part gives a counterexample, which has been found when investigating uniaxial compression of glass spheres which exhibit stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span>; we show in this case that the minimum REV becomes 10(7) grains. This makes the system not computable by DEM. Moreover, similarity between the Richter law of seism and the exponential statistics of stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> is stressed. PMID:15010916</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evesque, P; Adjémian, F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22337633"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells: the role of wall <span class="hlt">slip</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a computer simulation study, via lattice Boltzmann simulations, of a microscopic model for cytoplasmic streaming in algal cells such as those of Chara corallina. We modelled myosin motors tracking along actin lanes as spheres undergoing directed motion along fixed lines. The sphere dimension takes into account the fact that motors drag vesicles or other organelles, and, unlike previous work, we model the boundary close to which the motors move as walls with a finite <span class="hlt">slip</span> layer. By using realistic parameter values for actin lane and myosin density, as well as for endoplasmic and vacuole viscosity and the <span class="hlt">slip</span> layer close to the wall, we find that this simplified view, which does not rely on any coupling between motors, cytoplasm and vacuole other than that provided by viscous Stokes flow, is enough to account for the observed magnitude of streaming velocities in intracellular fluid in living plant cells. PMID:22337633</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wolff, K; Marenduzzo, D; Cates, M E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3350745"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells: the role of wall <span class="hlt">slip</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a computer simulation study, via lattice Boltzmann simulations, of a microscopic model for cytoplasmic streaming in algal cells such as those of Chara corallina. We modelled myosin motors tracking along actin lanes as spheres undergoing directed motion along fixed lines. The sphere dimension takes into account the fact that motors drag vesicles or other organelles, and, unlike previous work, we model the boundary close to which the motors move as walls with a finite <span class="hlt">slip</span> layer. By using realistic parameter values for actin lane and myosin density, as well as for endoplasmic and vacuole viscosity and the <span class="hlt">slip</span> layer close to the wall, we find that this simplified view, which does not rely on any coupling between motors, cytoplasm and vacuole other than that provided by viscous Stokes flow, is enough to account for the observed magnitude of streaming velocities in intracellular fluid in living plant cells.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wolff, K.; Marenduzzo, D.; Cates, M. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EL.....8848003B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kinetics of stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> friction in boundary lubrication</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We show that new important features are brought to the kinetics and dynamics of frictional stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> motion in an earthquakelike model of boundary lubrication by introducing a distribution of static breaking thresholds of individual contacts. In particular the condition for elastic instability and details of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> motion are heavily affected. Among the novel emerging properties is the role of other parameters such as the delay time of contact reforming, the strength of elastic interaction between the contacts, and the elasticity of the contacts and of the slider. We simulate the model dynamics, choosing parameters appropriate to describe a recent surface force apparatus experiment (Klein J., Phys. Rev. Lett., 98 (2007) 056101) whose results are now explained with a totally normal boundary lubricant film viscosity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Braun, O. M.; Tosatti, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17606076"> <span id="translatedtitle">The dorsal approach to silicone implant arthroplasty of the proximal interphalangeal <span class="hlt">joint</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Silicone implant arthroplasty (SIA) has been an effective alternative in the treatment of arthritic conditions of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) <span class="hlt">joints</span> since its introduction into surgical practice in the early 1960s. Patients with post-traumatic, degenerative, and rheumatoid arthritis all may be candidates for PIP <span class="hlt">joint</span> SIA. The indications for SIA of the PIP <span class="hlt">joint</span> include pain, limited <span class="hlt">joint</span> mobility, and angular deformity of the <span class="hlt">joint</span> with underlying articular destruction. Contraindications include ankylosis of the <span class="hlt">joint</span> due to bony or soft-tissue restrictions, infection, inadequate soft-tissue support for coverage, absence of flexor and/or extensor tendon function, and considerable periarticular bone loss in the proximal and middle phalanges. Proximal interphalangeal <span class="hlt">joint</span> SIA can be accomplished by dorsal, volar, or midaxial approaches. The dorsal approach has the advantages of relative technical ease, excellent visibility of the articular surfaces for preparation of the implant canals, access to the extensor mechanism for correction of central <span class="hlt">slip</span> abnormalities, and preservation of the collateral ligaments. The surgical technique is outlined and includes handling of the extensor mechanism and central <span class="hlt">slip</span> attachment, mobilization of the collateral ligaments, <span class="hlt">joint</span> surface resection, preparation of the bony canals, implant sizing, implant insertion, and repair of the soft tissues. Pearls and pitfalls of the technique are outlined. Early postoperative mobilization with hand therapy is essential but must include protection of the repaired extensor apparatus. Complications include bony changes, implant failure, recurrent angular deviation or swan-neck deformity, particulate synovitis, and rarely, infection. Complications related to implant failure are most often managed with implant replacement or arthrodesis; those related to poor mobility, angular deformity and tendon imbalance, pain, or infection are managed by arthrodesis. Although SIA of the PIP <span class="hlt">joint</span> has a relatively high degree of success when measured both subjectively and objectively, careful patient selection is important for achieving desirable results. PMID:17606076</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bickel, Kyle D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54112727"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional finite element analyses of the local mechanical behavior of riveted lap <span class="hlt">joints</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element models of single and double rivet-row lap <span class="hlt">joints</span> have been developed to evaluate local distortions and the mechanics of airframe-type 7075-T6 aluminum alloy riveted assemblies. Loading induced distortion features such as the excess assembly compliance, rivet tilt, local in- and out-of-plane <span class="hlt">slips</span> and stress concentration factors are evaluated as functions of rivet countersinking, rivet material and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kaushik Arjunan Iyer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JEMat..42..201D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crystal Plasticity Finite-Element Analysis of Deformation Behavior in Multiple-Grained Lead-Free Solder <span class="hlt">Joints</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The elastic and plastic anisotropy of the tin phase in a Pb-free tin-based solder <span class="hlt">joint</span> has a very important effect on the reliability of solder <span class="hlt">joints</span>. The crystal plasticity finite-element (CPFE) method takes into account the effect of anisotropy, and it can be used to solve crystal mechanical deformation problems under complicated external and internal boundary conditions imposed by inter- and intragrain micromechanical interactions. In this study, experimental lap-shear test results from the literature are used to calibrate the CPFE model. The spatial neighbor orientation relationships of the crystals were assessed by studying four different sets of orientations using a very simple model to establish a basis for further development of the model. Average shear strain and Schmid factor analyses were applied to study the activity of <span class="hlt">slip</span> systems. Further optimization of model parameters using comparisons with experiments will be needed to identify more suitable rules for stress evolution among the 10 <span class="hlt">slip</span> systems in Sn. By suppression of some of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> systems the CPFE model is able to simulate heterogeneous deformation phenomena that are similar to those observed in experiments. This work establishes a basis for an incremental model development strategy based upon experiments, modeling, and comparative analysis to establish model parameters that could predict the <span class="hlt">slip</span> processes that lead to damage evolution in lead-free solder <span class="hlt">joints</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Darbandi, P.; Bieler, T. R.; Pourboghrat, F.; Lee, Tae-kyu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://digitalunion.osu.edu/r2rsummer05/fisher.533/research_docs/Greece_fib_2003.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">BOND-<span class="hlt">SLIP</span> BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">th St., Richmond, CA 94804-4698 USA ABSTRACT Experimental research indicates that elongation and <span class="hlt">slip</span> of the tensile reinforcement at the beam- column interface could result in significant fixed-end rotations that are not included in the flexural analysis. These additional rotations at beam-column fixed ends can increase the total member lateral displacement significantly. This paper presents examples of experimental cyclic end</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Halil SEZEN; Jack P. MOEHLE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6559893"> <span id="translatedtitle">Harmonic analysis of <span class="hlt">slip</span> energy recovery induction motor drives</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact of drives on the power system in terms of harmonic generation is becoming increasingly important. <span class="hlt">Slip</span> energy recover induction motor drives (SERIMDs) have the rectifier and inverter connected to the rotor instead of the stator (the case in most conventional drives). The harmonic content of the SERIMD is thus quite different and arguably, less onerous than conventional drives. This paper examines the harmonic content of key waveforms of SERIMDs. Predicted results are supported by extensive experimental results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Refoufi, L. (Inst. National D'Electricite, Boumerdes (Algeria)); Pillay, P. (Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JChPh.136x4704K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interfacial <span class="hlt">slip</span> friction at a fluid-solid cylindrical boundary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently we proposed a method to calculate the interfacial friction coefficient between fluid and solid at a planar interface. In this work we extend the method to cylindrical systems where the friction coefficient is curvature dependent. We apply the method to methane flow in carbon nanotubes, and find good agreement with non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The proposed method is robust, general, and can be used to predict the <span class="hlt">slip</span> for cylindrical nanofluidic systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kannam, Sridhar Kumar; Todd, B. D.; Hansen, J. S.; Daivis, Peter J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/jb1103/2010JB007833/2010JB007833.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flash weakening of serpentinite at near-seismic <span class="hlt">slip</span> rates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To investigate the processes responsible for dynamic frictional weakening in antigorite serpentinite, we conducted single-velocity and velocity-stepping friction experiments at <span class="hlt">slip</span> rates (V) from 0.01 to 0.4 m s?1, sliding displacements up to 40 mm, and a normal stress of 5 MPa. Single-velocity experiments demonstrate an approximately 1\\/V dependence of friction on velocity above a characteristic weakening velocity Vw ?</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arjun H. Kohli; David L. Goldsby; Greg Hirth; Terry Tullis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5606555"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis following radiation and chemotherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patients who received radiation to the proximal femoral epiphysis and chemotherapy in childhood appear to have an increased risk of subsequently developing epiphyseolysis. Every effort should be made to exclude the proximal femoral epiphysis from the radiation port whenever possible. If the epiphyseal plate is widened and irregular and the adjacent bone is sclerotic, prophylactic pinning may be indicated even in the absence of a grossly visible <span class="hlt">slip</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walker, S.J.; Whiteside, L.A.; McAlister, W.H.; Silverman, C.L.; Thomas, P.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6911C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep versus Earthquake <span class="hlt">Slip</span>: New insights from rock magnetic data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pseudotachylyte is generally believed as the best evidence of high-friction heating during earthquake. However, in clay-rich derived gouge, the temperature elevation is limited to large-scale endothermic dehydration reaction (Brantut et al., 2011). In such a context where melting is likely, it has been suggested that the characterization of neoformed mineral may be a diagnostic clue to distinguish between creep process and earthquake <span class="hlt">slip</span> zone. Here we show evidence of neoformed magnetic mineral in the active Chelungpu fault gouge that hosts the Chi-Chi <span class="hlt">slip</span> zone (Taiwan, Mw 7.6, 1999). Thanks to boreholes of Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Program and the recovery of fresh gouge, we get new evidence of neoformed magnetic minerals. Both rock magnetic investigation and transmission X-ray microscope image show the occurrence of neoformed 5 µm goethite (?-FeOOH) within the Chi-Chi 16 cm thick gouge. Goethite forms post-seismically from the cooling of >350°C fluids. In addition to goethite, we detect occurrence of neoformed pyrrhotite (Fe7S8). The pyrrhotite forms at the expense of pyrite, in response to elevation of temperature >500°C. Within the mm-thick Chi-Chi principal <span class="hlt">slip</span> zone, we do not detect evidence of goethite, nor pyrrhotite. Instead, we detect magnetite (Fe3O4). We suggest that a part of magnetite formed during friction-induced temperature elevation. We propose a simple model of evolution between goethite and magnetite within the entire gouge. If confirmed elsewhere, the recognition of the assemblage of iron oxide (magnetite), iron hydroxide (goethite) and iron sulfide (pyrrhotite) is possibly a diagnostic evidence of earthquake <span class="hlt">slip</span> rather than creep process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chou, Y.-M.; Aubourg, C.; Song, S.-R.; Lee, T.-Q.; Song, Y.-F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/g2vj8mqd5nmya3vh.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A common HLA phenotype in <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies from three different countries have linked the HLA B12 and DR4 antigens with <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE).\\u000a We questioned whether our patients shared in common either of these antigens. HLA phenotype was determined in 7 patients with\\u000a SCFE, two of whom were brothers with almost identical haplotypes. The B12 antigen was found in none of our patients and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Wong-Chung; Y. Al-Aali; I. Farid; A. Al-Aradi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28591842"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis following contralateral infantile Blount's disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">.  ?<span class="hlt">Slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) and Blount's disease are reported to have a common etiology, but there is only one\\u000a report describing two cases in which adolescent Blount's disease coexisted with SCFE. In this article, we describe a case\\u000a of SCFE following contralateral infantile Blount's disease in an 11-year-old boy. This report is the first known case of SCFE\\u000a associated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kazuharu Takikawa; Nobuhiko Haga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24732290"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a disorder which afflicts children between the ages of 8 and 16 years of age.\\u000a The underlying cause of SCFE is thought to be related to the relative weakness of the physis and strenuous physical activity\\u000a in adolescence. If undetected SCFE can progress and cause significant complications such as AVN, avascular necrosis, leg length</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Propeck; C. A. Ridpath</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26915725"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis of a Model-Based Tire <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Controller</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Anti-lock Braking System is an important component of the steering system in a modern car. In the latest generation of brake-by-wire systems, the performance requirements on the ABS are much higher. The controllers have to be able to maintain a specified tire <span class="hlt">slip</span> for each wheel during braking. The authors propose a design model and based on that a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stefan Solyom; Anders Rantzer; Jens LÜdemann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40988700"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tape casting of non-aqueous silicon nitride <span class="hlt">slips</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tape casting is a powerful method for the manufacturing of flat, large area ceramic components. Silicon nitride is a reference material for high temperature structural applications. Between them, thick film\\/coating technologies and ceramic–ceramic joining are receiving an increased attention. In this work, the rheological behavior on non-aqueous silicon nitride <span class="hlt">slips</span> for tape casting was investigated considering different solvent and binding</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. A Gutiérrez; R Moreno</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRB..117.4310J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> on simulated earthquake faults with implications to Earth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology are the phenomena of dynamically triggered fault <span class="hlt">slip</span>, including earthquakes, tremor, slow and silent <span class="hlt">slip</span>—during which little seismic energy is radiated—and low frequency earthquakes. Dynamic triggering refers to the initiation of fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> by a transient deformation perturbation, most often in the form of passing seismic waves. Determining the frictional constitutive laws and the physical mechanism(s) governing triggered faulting is extremely challenging because <span class="hlt">slip</span> nucleation depths for tectonic faults cannot be probed directly. Of the spectrum of <span class="hlt">slip</span> behaviors, triggered slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> is particularly difficult to characterize due to the absence of significant seismic radiation, implying mechanical conditions different from triggered earthquakes. Slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> is often accompanied by nonvolcanic tremor in close spatial and temporal proximity. The causal relationship between them has implications for the properties and physics governing the fault <span class="hlt">slip</span> behavior. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> via laboratory experiments using sheared granular media to simulate fault gouge. Granular rock and glass beads are sheared under constant normal stress, while subjected to transient stress perturbation by acoustic waves. Here we describe experiments with glass beads, showing that slow and silent <span class="hlt">slip</span> can be dynamically triggered on laboratory faults by ultrasonic waves. The laboratory triggering may take place during stable sliding (constant friction and <span class="hlt">slip</span> velocity) and/or early in the <span class="hlt">slip</span> cycle, during unstable sliding (stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span>). Experimental evidence indicates that the nonlinear-dynamical response of the gouge material is responsible for the triggered slow <span class="hlt">slip</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, P. A.; Carpenter, B.; Knuth, M.; Kaproth, B. M.; Le Bas, P.-Y.; Daub, E. G.; Marone, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15323492"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interfacial <span class="hlt">slip</span> in entrained soap films containing associating hydrosoluble polymer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Frankel's law predicts that the thickness of a Newtonian soap film entrained at small capillary number scales as Ca2/3 provided the bounding surfaces are rigid. Previous studies have shown that soap films containing low concentrations of high molecular weight (Mw) polymer can exhibit strong deviations from this scaling at low Ca, especially for associating surfactant-polymer solutions. We report results of extensive measurements by laser interferometry of the entrained film thickness versus Ca for the associating pair SDS/PEO over a large range in polymer molecular weight. Comparison of our experimental results to predictions of hydrodynamic models based on viscoelastic behavior shows poor agreement. Modification of the Frankel derivation by an interfacial <span class="hlt">slip</span> condition yields much improved agreement. These experiments also show that the <span class="hlt">slip</span> length increases as where zeta = 0.58 +/- 0.07. This correlation is suggestive of the Tolstoi-Larsen prediction that the <span class="hlt">slip</span> length increases in proportion to the characteristic size of the fluid constituent despite its original derivation for liquid-solid interfaces. PMID:15323492</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adelizzi, Eric A; Troian, Sandra M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-08-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23112161"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ideal, catch, and <span class="hlt">slip</span> bonds in cadherin adhesion.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Classical cadherin cell-cell adhesion proteins play key morphogenetic roles during development and are essential for maintaining tissue integrity in multicellular organisms. Classical cadherins bind in two distinct conformations, X-dimer and strand-swap dimer; during cellular rearrangements, these adhesive states are exposed to mechanical stress. However, the molecular mechanisms by which cadherins resist tensile force and the pathway by which they convert between different conformations are unclear. Here, we use single molecule force measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM) to show that E-cadherin, a prototypical classical cadherin, forms three types of adhesive bonds: catch bonds, which become longer lived in the presence of tensile force; <span class="hlt">slip</span> bonds, which become shorter lived when pulled; and ideal bonds that are insensitive to mechanical stress. We show that X-dimers form catch bonds, whereas strand-swap dimers form <span class="hlt">slip</span> bonds. Our data suggests that ideal bonds are formed as X-dimers convert to strand-swap binding. Catch, <span class="hlt">slip</span>, and ideal bonds allow cadherins to withstand tensile force and tune the mechanical properties of adhesive junctions. PMID:23112161</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rakshit, Sabyasachi; Zhang, Yunxiang; Manibog, Kristine; Shafraz, Omer; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3503169"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ideal, catch, and <span class="hlt">slip</span> bonds in cadherin adhesion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Classical cadherin cell-cell adhesion proteins play key morphogenetic roles during development and are essential for maintaining tissue integrity in multicellular organisms. Classical cadherins bind in two distinct conformations, X-dimer and strand-swap dimer; during cellular rearrangements, these adhesive states are exposed to mechanical stress. However, the molecular mechanisms by which cadherins resist tensile force and the pathway by which they convert between different conformations are unclear. Here, we use single molecule force measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM) to show that E-cadherin, a prototypical classical cadherin, forms three types of adhesive bonds: catch bonds, which become longer lived in the presence of tensile force; <span class="hlt">slip</span> bonds, which become shorter lived when pulled; and ideal bonds that are insensitive to mechanical stress. We show that X-dimers form catch bonds, whereas strand-swap dimers form <span class="hlt">slip</span> bonds. Our data suggests that ideal bonds are formed as X-dimers convert to strand-swap binding. Catch, <span class="hlt">slip</span>, and ideal bonds allow cadherins to withstand tensile force and tune the mechanical properties of adhesive junctions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rakshit, Sabyasachi; Zhang, Yunxiang; Manibog, Kristine; Shafraz, Omer; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993MolPh..80.1443T"> <span id="translatedtitle">A critique of <span class="hlt">slip</span> and stick hydrodynamics for ellipsoidal bodies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Translational friction coefficients of hard prolate ellipsoids (having aspect ratios of 1-10) have been calculated by solving the linearized Navier-Stokes equations of hydrodynamics, using the method of Faxén's theorem. When the stick boundary condition was used, the present results reproduce the famous work of Lamb. The new information derived from this study arises from the analysis of the friction under the influence of the <span class="hlt">slip</span> hydrodynamic boundary condition. It was found that the <span class="hlt">slip</span> friction perpendicular to the long axis of the prolate ellipsoid increases monotonically with aspect ratio, whereas the parallel component of the friction decreases monotonically to an apparent limiting value. The ratio f?/f? of friction coefficients perpendicular and parallel to the long axis of the particle, calculated using <span class="hlt">slip</span> hydrodynamics, scales roughly as the aspect ratio of the ellipsoid, in accord with the findings from an Enskog (uncorrelated binary collision) kinetic theory of hard ellipsoids and from the estimate derived from molecular dynamics. In contrast, f?/f? derived by means of stick hydrodynamics shows a weak dependence on the aspect ratio and disagrees with kinetic theory and molecular dynamics findings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tang, Shuang; Evans, Glenn T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1150226"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slipping</span> Rib Syndrome in a Collegiate Swimmer: A Case Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: To present the unique case of a collegiate swimmer who experienced nearly 9 months of unresolved rib pain. Background: A 20-year-old collegiate swimmer was jumping up and down, warming up before a race, when she experienced pain in the area of her left lower rib cage. She completed the event and 2 additional events that day with moderate discomfort. The athlete was evaluated by a certified athletic trainer 3 days postinjury and followed up over the next 9 months with the team physician, a chiropractor, a nonsurgical sports medicine physician, and a thoracic surgeon. Differential Diagnosis: Intercostal strain, oblique strain, fractured rib, somatic dysfunction, hepatosplenic conditions, pleuritic chest pain, <span class="hlt">slipping</span> rib syndrome. Treatment: The athlete underwent 4 months of conservative treatment (eg, activity modification, ice, ultrasound, hot packs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) after the injury, independently sought chiropractic intervention (12 treatments) 4 to 6 months postinjury, was referred to physical therapy (10 visits) by a nonsurgical sports medicine physician 6 to 8 months postinjury, and finally underwent surgical intervention 9 months after the onset of the initial symptoms. Uniqueness: <span class="hlt">Slipping</span> rib syndrome was first described in 1919. However, many health care professionals who are involved with diagnosing and treating athletes and active individuals (eg, athletic trainers, physicians) are relatively unfamiliar with this musculoskeletal condition. Conclusions: It is important for clinicians and team physicians to familiarize themselves with and consider the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">slipping</span> rib syndrome when assessing and managing individuals with persistent abdominal and/or thoracic pain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Udermann, Brian E; Cavanaugh, Daniel G; Gibson, Mark H; Doberstein, Scott T; Mayer, John M; Murray, Steven R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EOSTr..91..118P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Slow <span class="hlt">Slip</span> Event at K?lauea Volcano</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Early in the morning of 1 February 2010 (UTC; early afternoon 31 January 2010 local time), continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) and tilt instruments detected a slow <span class="hlt">slip</span> event (SSE) on the south flank of K?lauea volcano, Hawaii. The SSE lasted at least 36 hours and resulted in a maximum of about 3 centimeters of seaward displacement. About 10 hours after the start of the <span class="hlt">slip</span>, a flurry of small earthquakes began (Figure 1) in an area of the south flank recognized as having been seismically active during past SSEs [Wolfe et al., 2007], suggesting that the February earthquakes were triggered by stress associated with <span class="hlt">slip</span> [Segall et al., 2006]. SSE deformation was superimposed on long-term seaward motion of the south flank of about 7 centimeters per year, which occurs along a décollement or related low-angle faults shallower than 10 kilometers. Earthquakes triggered by an SSE in 2007 coincided spatially with typical décollement earthquakes [Syracuse et al., 2009], suggesting that the SSEs also occurred on the décollement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Poland, Michael; Miklius, Asta; Wilson, David; Okubo, Paul; Montgomery-Brown, Emily; Segall, Paul; Brooks, Benjamin; Foster, James; Wolfe, Cecily; Syracuse, Ellen; Thurber, Clifford</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MARA28002L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stick-<span class="hlt">Slip</span> Motion of DNA in a Solid Nanopore</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nanopore technology is a potential solution for the low-cost and high-throughput DNA sequencing. Till now, in a typical experiment DNA driven by an electric field translocates through a nanopore too fast to be detected at a single-base resolution. The recently proposed DNA transistor (Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 153103 (2007)) holds the promise to trap DNA inside a nanopore and translocate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) at a single-base resolution. Using extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we modeled the process of ssDNA's translocation through the DNA transistor when ssDNA is pulled by an optical tweezer. We found a stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> type of motions of DNA when both the stiffness of an optical tweezer and the pulling velocity are below critical values. This irregular motion of DNA is quantitatively characterized using the Tomlinson model. In a typical <span class="hlt">slip</span> event, ssDNA advances one nucleotide spacing, while in a stick state the base of DNA can be conveniently measured. The duration of a stick state depends on the strength of a trapping field in the DNA transistor, the stiffness of an optical tweezer and the pulling velocity. Therefore, the controlled stick-<span class="hlt">slip</span> motion of DNA is ideal for DNA sequencing methods using a solid nanopore.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luan, Binquan; Martyna, Glenn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50321932"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Joint</span> warfare system (JWARS)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Joint</span> Warfare System (JWARS) is a campaign-level model of military operations that is currently being developed under contract by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) for use by OSD, the <span class="hlt">Joint</span> Staff, the Services, and the War fighting Commands. The behavior of military forces can be simulated from ports of embarkation through to their activities in combat.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Simlote</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB179392"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Joint</span> Seal Materials.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three major experimental field installations of approximately 7 types of <span class="hlt">joint</span> sealing materials were used to compare and evaluate the products of numerous sealant manufacturers. The sealants were placed in contraction <span class="hlt">joints</span> (3/8 in. x 2 in.) which were ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. G. F. Hiss J. R. Lambert W. M. McCarty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1968-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18865077"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Joint</span> remote state preparation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Alice, Bob and Charlie are three remote parties. Alice and Bob share the classical knowledge of a secret qubit state. We consider the following question: 'how can Alice and Bob <span class="hlt">jointly</span> prepare the qubit state for Charlie?' Two different protocols are proposed for such a <span class="hlt">joint</span> remote state preparation. The first protocol uses a single GHZ state while the second</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ba An Nguyen; Jaewan Kim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51100029"> <span id="translatedtitle">Highly sensitive sensor for detection of initial <span class="hlt">slip</span> and its application in a multi-fingered robot hand</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tactile sensors for <span class="hlt">slip</span> detection are essential for implementing human-like gripping in a robot hand. In previous studies, we proposed flexible, thin and lightweight <span class="hlt">slip</span> detection sensors utilizing the characteristics of pressure- sensitive conductive rubber. This was achieved by using the high-frequency vibration component generated in the process of <span class="hlt">slipping</span> of the gripped object in order to distinguish between <span class="hlt">slipping</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seiichi Teshigawara; Takahiro Tsutsumi; Satoru Shimizu; Yosuke Suzuki; Aiguo Ming; Masatoshi Ishikawa; Makoto Shimojo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27206482"> <span id="translatedtitle">Studies on Contact Geometry and Limiting Resistant Torque Characteristics of the Variable Torque <span class="hlt">Slipping</span> Clutch with Skewed Rollers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">slipping</span> clutch capable of delivering a constant resistant torque is described in this paper. Its principle is based on the resistance to <span class="hlt">slipping</span> offered by the askew disposed cylindrical rollers rolling and <span class="hlt">slipping</span> between the two specially shaped races. There are three types of this <span class="hlt">slipping</span> clutch, namely the Right, Left and Cross Skewing respectively, which are distinguished by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ming Feng; Kyosuke Ono; Kenji Mimura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48909454"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> kinematics in Central and Eastern Iran: Estimating fault <span class="hlt">slip</span>-rates averaged over the Holocene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">According to GPS measurements, the right-lateral shear between Central Iran and Afghan blocks amounts to 16 mm\\/yr. A model based on very long-term estimates of fault-rates suggests the current shear originated about 5 Ma ago and has been accommodated by strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faulting limited to the western (?2 mm\\/yr, Gowk-Nayband fault) and eastern (?14 mm\\/yr, Sistan system fault) edges of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bertrand Meyer; Kristell Le Dortz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23804756"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural and biochemical studies of <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1-SLBP identify DBP5 and eIF3g as <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1-binding proteins.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In metazoans, replication-dependent histone mRNAs end in a stem-loop structure instead of the poly(A) tail characteristic of all other mature mRNAs. This specialized 3' end is bound by stem-loop binding protein (SLBP), a protein that participates in the nuclear export and translation of histone mRNAs. The translational activity of SLBP is mediated by interaction with <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1, a middle domain of initiation factor 4G (MIF4G)-like protein that connects to translation initiation. We determined the 2.5 Å resolution crystal structure of zebrafish <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1 bound to the translation-activation domain of SLBP and identified the determinants of the recognition. We discovered a <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1-binding motif (SBM) in two additional proteins: the translation initiation factor eIF3g and the mRNA-export factor DBP5. We confirmed the binding of <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1 to DBP5 and eIF3g by pull-down assays and determined the 3.25 Å resolution structure of <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1 bound to the DBP5 SBM. The SBM-binding and homodimerization residues of <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1 are conserved in the MIF4G domain of CBP80/20-dependent translation initiation factor (CTIF). The results suggest how the <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1 homodimer or a <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1-CTIF heterodimer can function as platforms to bridge SLBP with SBM-containing proteins involved in different steps of mRNA metabolism. PMID:23804756</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">von Moeller, Holger; Lerner, Rachel; Ricciardi, Adele; Basquin, Claire; Marzluff, William F; Conti, Elena</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3763545"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural and biochemical studies of <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1-SLBP identify DBP5 and eIF3g as <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1-binding proteins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In metazoans, replication-dependent histone mRNAs end in a stem-loop structure instead of the poly(A) tail characteristic of all other mature mRNAs. This specialized 3? end is bound by stem-loop binding protein (SLBP), a protein that participates in the nuclear export and translation of histone mRNAs. The translational activity of SLBP is mediated by interaction with <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1, a middle domain of initiation factor 4G (MIF4G)-like protein that connects to translation initiation. We determined the 2.5 Å resolution crystal structure of zebrafish <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1 bound to the translation–activation domain of SLBP and identified the determinants of the recognition. We discovered a <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1-binding motif (SBM) in two additional proteins: the translation initiation factor eIF3g and the mRNA-export factor DBP5. We confirmed the binding of <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1 to DBP5 and eIF3g by pull-down assays and determined the 3.25 Å resolution structure of <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1 bound to the DBP5 SBM. The SBM-binding and homodimerization residues of <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1 are conserved in the MIF4G domain of CBP80/20-dependent translation initiation factor (CTIF). The results suggest how the <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1 homodimer or a <span class="hlt">SLIP</span>1–CTIF heterodimer can function as platforms to bridge SLBP with SBM-containing proteins involved in different steps of mRNA metabolism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">von Moeller, Holger; Lerner, Rachel; Ricciardi, Adele; Basquin, Claire; Marzluff, William F.; Conti, Elena</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995088"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chronic <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis: a radiographic evaluation of the Southwick osteotomy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiographic correction and the complications in Southwick osteotomy for <span class="hlt">slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) on the basis of radiographic evaluation. We retrospectively analyzed the charts of 37 patients with chronic, unilateral, moderate, or severe SCFE, who underwent the procedure, verifying Southwick angles, articulotrochanteric distance, and the articular narrowing on preoperative, postoperative periods, and in the last follow-up evaluation, using the contralateral, healthy hip, for comparison. Southwick's angle changed from 117.8 to 147.3° on average (front) and from 56.9 to 19.1° (Lauenstein view). Articulotrochanteric distance changed from 11.3 to 24.1 mm (normal distance 22.1 mm). <span class="hlt">Joint</span> space changed from 4.3 mm preoperatively to 3.84 mm. Chondrolysis was diagnosed in five cases before and eight cases after surgery. There was no case of avascular necrosis. Southwick osteotomy effectively corrected SCFE deformity. There was a tendency toward excessive valgism. PMID:23995088</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lino, Wilson; Akkari, Miguel; Waisberg, Gilberto; Braga, Susana R; Santili, Cláudio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20552500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Workers' experience of <span class="hlt">slipping</span> in U.S. limited-service restaurants.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The leading cause of injuries among restaurant workers is same-level falls, a significant proportion of which result from <span class="hlt">slipping</span>. This study examines the experience of limited-service restaurant workers with <span class="hlt">slipping</span>, their use of <span class="hlt">slip</span>-resistant shoes, and their floor-cleaning practices. A total of 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants in six U.S. states participated in a 12-week prospective cohort study on <span class="hlt">slipping</span> in the workplace. At baseline, participants completed a survey that gathered information about their demographics, perceptions of floor slipperiness, use of <span class="hlt">slip</span>-resistant shoes, floor cleaning practices, and number of <span class="hlt">slips</span> experienced in the previous 4 weeks. During the subsequent 12 weeks, participants reported their <span class="hlt">slip</span> experience weekly. Restaurant managers reported kitchen floor cleaning protocols and shoe policies. The overall rate of <span class="hlt">slipping</span> during the 12 weeks of the prospective study was 0.44 <span class="hlt">slips</span> per 40 work hours. The mean of the individual rate of <span class="hlt">slipping</span> varied among the restaurants from 0.02 to 2.49 <span class="hlt">slips</span> per 40 work hours, a rate ratio of more than 100 among the restaurants with the highest and the lowest rate of <span class="hlt">slipping</span>. Such a large variation, which is unlikely due to chance alone (p < 0.05), suggests that some restaurants are better able to control <span class="hlt">slipping</span> than others. The highest numbers of <span class="hlt">slips</span> were reported in the sink and fryer areas, which were also identified by restaurant workers as being the most slippery. Liquid and grease were reported as floor contaminants in over 70% of the <span class="hlt">slips</span>. In restaurants where <span class="hlt">slip</span>-resistant shoes were provided by the employer, 91% of participants wore them; whereas if they were neither provided nor encouraged, only 53.5% wore them (p < 0.01). Use of enzyme-based floor cleaners was widespread (25/36). In these restaurants, however, 62% of the participants who were responsible for cleaning floors reported using hot/warm water, thus violating the manufacturer's cold water floor cleaning protocol. These findings suggest that focused prevention efforts based on practices from restaurants with low rates of <span class="hlt">slipping</span> could decrease <span class="hlt">slipping</span> hazards. PMID:20552500</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verma, Santosh K; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Courtney, Theodore K; Lombardi, David A; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Brennan, Melanye J; Mittleman, Murray A; Perry, Melissa J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA448696"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transforming Logistics: <span class="hlt">Joint</span> Theater Logistics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Effective and efficient management of <span class="hlt">joint</span> theater logistics is a challenge for theater commanders. Current doctrine for <span class="hlt">joint</span> theater logistics management provides broad non-directive guidance for developing a <span class="hlt">joint</span> theater logistics system that can opt...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. W. Pate</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3211780"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis: an analysis of treatment outcome according to physeal stability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction <span class="hlt">Slipped</span> capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a common hip disorder in adolescents. Treatment can be associated with serious complications, mainly avascular necrosis (AVN). The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment outcomes and complications based on physeal stability at presentation. Methods We reviewed retrospectively all children treated for SCFE from 1990 through 2000 at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa. Results Of a total of 87 patients (56 male) identified, 73 had <span class="hlt">slips</span> classed as stable and 14, unstable; 42 involved the left side, 34 the right, and 19 were bilateral. Avascular necrosis (AVN) developed in 1 patient with a stable <span class="hlt">slip</span> (morbidity 1.4%) and in 3 with unstable <span class="hlt">slips</span> (21.4%; p = 0.001). Manipulative anatomical reduction was done in 11 cases (78.5%), all unstable <span class="hlt">slips</span>. All <span class="hlt">slips</span> complicated by AVN had been classified according to the traditional system as acute-on-chronic. Complication rates differed significantly between unstable <span class="hlt">slips</span> (36%) and stable (20%). No statistically significant association was found between AVN and <span class="hlt">slip</span> severity, time to fixation or use of reduction. Conclusions The treatment of stable <span class="hlt">slips</span> exhibits a lower incidence of AVN. These results nevertheless suggest that gentle reduction of unstable <span class="hlt">slips</span> is safe and unaccompanied by an increase in complications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fallath, Salah; Letts, Merv</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=238592"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sustainable Chemistry, the Spinning <span class="hlt">Tube-in-Tube</span> (STT(R)) Reactor and GREENSCOPE: Innovation and Industrial Partnerships</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The chemical industry faces environmental, social and health challenges that are common across all economic sectors. From worker exposure to toxic substances, to product design and use, to the cost and handling of waste disposal, the industry must overcome numerous complex hurdle...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.H31A1262B"> <span id="translatedtitle">River Captures and Erosional Disequilibrium Along Strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> Faults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">River captures are internal instabilities of erosion systems and are inherently promoted by strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> faulting. A capture event can generate a wave of incision that propagates from the capture site upstream and/or downstream, resulting in an increased bulk erosion rate around the capture site. Thus, under steady boundary conditions, drainage diversions trigger pulses of erosion, sediment production, rock exhumation and isostatic rebound. Therefore, a significant part of the erosion in oblique tectonics can be achieved in a state of significant departure from short-term dynamic equilibrium. The frequency, intensity, and duration of these events set the timescale over which their integrated effects can be regarded as the expression of a long-term dynamic equilibrium. We are investigating the effects of a large river capture on the oblique collision between the North American and Caribbean plates in Guatemala. Several thousands of kilometers of strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> displacement have been accommodated along this boundary during the Tertiary. The deformation is now concentrated mostly along the E-W Motagua strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault. Oblique tectonics is discernable within a 50 km wide topographic belt, north of this fault (Sierra de las Minas - Sierra de Chuacus range). On the northern flank of this range, deformation includes 130 km offset across the Polochic strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault, documented by both geological structures and drainage patterns. Numerous elbows and dry valleys show the progressive transformation of the initial transverse (S-N) drainage crossing the fault into a transverse-parallel (E-W) system that developed during increasing displacement along the fault. The drainage reorganization operates by river lengthening, captures, and avulsions. One of the latest capture sites is surrounded by a large (110x30 km) zone of deeply (1500 m) dissected landscape that coincides with the captured catchment. This zone sharply contrasts with the surrounding areas where large fragments of a very subdued topography are preserved on the highlands. The capture has been interpreted as the diversion of the former headwaters of a westward flowing river located south of the fault (Rio Selegua) into a northward flowing river located north of the fault (Rio Chixoy), based on drainage pattern and preserved conglomerates. The capture event, the dissection of the landscape, and the uplift of the summit paleosurface are closely related, and likely Miocene in age. Newly discovered conglomerates confirm that the captured basin was drained by the Selegua River before being drained into the Chixoy River. Other newly discovered paleovalleys and conglomerates further document the expansion of the dissected captured watershed at the expense of surrounding catchments. Since the capture event, both the captured stream paleovalley and the subdued topography have been displaced by large normal faults, many of them striking parallel to the Polochic strike-<span class="hlt">slip</span> fault. Recent faulted sediments on the Polochic Fault trace also display a significant vertical component of <span class="hlt">slip</span>. The inception of this tectonic activity after the abandonment of the paleovalleys suggests that the faults may have accommodated the isostatic uplift that followed unloading of the captured drainage basin by erosion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brocard, G. Y.; Fayon, A. K.; Perg, L. A.; Paola, C.; Teyssier, C.; Whitney, D. L.; Mota, M.; Moran-Ical, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/developmentresources/cancerdrugs/ucm094746.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ASCO/FDA <span class="hlt">JOINT</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://google2.fda.gov/search?client=FDAgov&site=FDAgov&lr=&proxystylesheet=FDAgov&output=xml_no_dtd&&proxycustom=%3CADVANCED/%3E">Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Text VersionPage 1. ASCO/FDA <span class="hlt">JOINT</span> LUNG CANCER PANEL 2002-2003 Paul Bunn, MD (NCE-Chair) University of Colorado Cancer Center Denver, CO ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA137167"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Joint</span> Agency Turbulence Experiment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Doppler radar data acquired during the 1981 <span class="hlt">Joint</span> Agency Turbulence Experiment are presented. Pulse-pair processed reflectivity factor and Doppler spectrum mean data collected during volume scan periods are displayed over constant height surfaces at aircr...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. R. Bohne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003743.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Joint</span> fluid Gram stain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... and shape of the cells help identify the bacteria. ... Abnormal results mean bacteria were seen on the Gram stain. This may be a sign of a <span class="hlt">joint</span> infection, for example, gonococcal arthritis or arthritis due to Staphylococcus aureus.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15939363"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Joint</span> aspiration and injection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Joint</span> aspiration/injection is an invaluable procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of <span class="hlt">joint</span> disease. The knee is the commonest site to require aspiration although any non-axial <span class="hlt">joint</span> is accessible for obtaining synovial fluid. Septic arthritis and crystal arthritis can be readily diagnosed by aspirating synovial fluid. Intra-articular injection of long-acting insoluble corticosteroids produces rapid resolution of inflammation in most injected <span class="hlt">joints</span> and is a well established procedure in rheumatological practice. The technique involves only a knowledge of basic anatomy and should not be unduly painful for the patient. Provided sterile equipment and a sensible, aseptic approach are used it is a safe procedure. This chapter addresses the indications, technical principals, expected benefits and risks of intra-articular corticosteroid injection. The use of other intra-articular injections including osmic acid, radioisotopes and hyaluronic acid, which are less universally utilised than intra-articular corticosteroid, will also be addressed. PMID:15939363</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Courtney, Philip; Doherty, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB90161233"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Joint</span> Healthcare Manpower Standards.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p clas